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6.0 Understanding Fans
AMC - The Business of Mining
How do they work? What are the different types? What is the difference between primary, booster, auxiliary, secondary, development, etc. fans? Where are fans best installed?
AMC - The Business of Mining
WHAT IS A FAN? “Any device that produces a current of air by the movement of broad surfaces can be called a fan ………Fans fall under the general classification of of “turbomachinery” and have a rotating impeller at least partially encased in a stationary housing. ………Fans are similar in many respects to pumps. Both are turbomachines that transfer energy to a flowing fluid. It is easy to distinguish between fans and pumps: pumps handle liquids; fans handle gasses. ………Broadly speaking, the function of a fan is to propel, displace,or move air or gas, .” (Howden Buffalo Inc.“Fan Engineering” (1999))
AMC - The Business of Mining
Impeller rotates and transfers energy to the air. (wheel, rotor, runner, propeller) Blade the working surface. (vane, paddle) Shroud supports the blades ( cover disc, inlet plate, backplate, rim, flange) Hub attaches to the fan/motor shaft but may support
the blades directly (axial) or indirectly through a shroud (centrifugal). (boss, disc) Housing encloses the impeller and guides the air to and from the impeller. (casing, scroll, panel, ring, volute) Centrifugal housing include side plate and scroll sheets. Axial housing includes the outer and inner cylinder, belt tube
Inlet the opening to the impeller. (eye, suction, suction
eye, inlet cone, inlet bell, inlet nozzle)
Outlet the opening leaving the fan. (discharge,
discharge cone, evase, diffuser) vanes. If they are adjustable they are called variable inlet vanes or simply VIV’s. When installed after the impeller they are termed straightening vanes or discharge guide vanes.
AMC - The Business of Mining
Guide Vanes when installed before the impeller are called pre-rotation vanes or inlet guide
Four distinctive fan types are classified according to the direction of flow through the impeller. Axial-flow. - Air flows through the impeller parallel to, and at, a constant distance from the axis. The pressure rise is provided by the direct action of the blades. Centrifugal or Radial-flow. - Air enters parallel to the axis of the fan turns through 90º and is discharged radially through the blades. The blade force is tangential causing the air to spin with the blades and the main pressure rise is attributed to this centrifugal force. Mixed flow. - Air enters parallel to the axis of the fan turns through an angle which may range from 30º to 90º The pressure rise is partially by direct blade action and partially by centrifugal action. Cross flow. - Air enters the impeller at one part of the outer periphery flows inward and exits at another part of the outer periphery. Mixed and cross flow fans have very limited application for underground mines and will not be discussed further in this course.
AMC - The Business of Mining
The Business of Mining .Impeller types Axial Centrifugal AMC .
Theoretical pressure – quantity (P-Q) characteristic Pressure Friction losses Useful P-Q curve Shock losses Quantity AMC .The Business of Mining .Performance characteristic (1) The theoretical pressure-quantity curve of an ideal fan (no losses) is a straight line between zero volume and zero pressure.
shaft power. (power. FLOW RATE .May be given as total pressure or static pressure and expressed in Pascals (Pa). Three parameters are desirable on a fan performance characteristic.although mass flow can be used PRESSURE . inlet volume. (air volume.The Business of Mining . absorbed power) AMC . it is most common to use volume expressed in cubic metres per second (m3/s).Performance characteristic (2) Normally referred to as the “fan curve”. Should mass flow rate be given the volume is calculated by dividing this rate by the air density. quantity. Q). [see next slide] INPUT POWER – The power (electrical or otherwise) required to drive the fan and expressed in kilowatts (kW).
Fan pressure Fan Total Pressure (FTP) The difference between the average total pressure at the fan inlet and the average total pressure at the fan outlet. Fan Velocity Pressure (FVP) The average velocity pressure at the fan outlet.The Business of Mining . FSP is therefore the difference between the average static pressure at the fan outlet and the average total pressure at the fan inlet. Fan Static Pressure (FSP) The difference between the fan total pressure (FTP) and the fan velocity pressure (FVP). AMC .
(e. Substituting PQ = N/m2 x m3/s = Nm/s Since 1Nm = 1 Joule and. P = pressure (Pa = N/m2) and Q = quantity (m3/s). belt drive. gear box). 1 Joule/second = 1 watt. then AP = watts. AMC . If the FTP is used then the efficiency is expressed as the fan total efficiency and if FSP is used the the efficiency is expressed as the fan static efficiency.Fan efficiency Efficiency Expressed in percent (%) and describes the ratio of the fan output power (kW) to fan input power (kW). air power) Where AP = air power (watts).The Business of Mining . Fan (motor) input power Is the power to the motor that is required to drive the fan and may include elements of any train considered to be part of the fan.g. Fan output power Is the product of the fan pressure and the fan volume (AP = PQ) (air horsepower.
belt drive.Summary of Fan Power Air power Is product of the inlet volume flow and the fan pressure. gear box). Fan manufacturers talk of efficiency in terms of the Fan shaft power Fan shaft input efficiency = Airpower Fan shaft power and users of fans generally think of efficiency in terms of motor input power.The Business of Mining . (e. Fan shaft power the mechanical power supplied to the fan shaft Motor input power Is the power to the motor that is required to drive the fan and may include elements of any train considered to be part of the fan. Motor input efficiency = Airpower Motor input power AMC .g.
comparable efficiencies can be achieved with constant thickness blades. with the advantages of efficiency spread over the characteristic and lower noise generation. Laminar (flat) blades AMC . constant thickness) or aerofoil shape and generally hollow.Centrifugal Fans Impeller blades are manufactured either laminar (flat. Aerofoil blades have generally been regarded as having greater efficiencies (up to 90%) that those achievable with constant thickness blades.The Business of Mining Aerofoil blades . Not withstanding this aerofoil blades are freely used particularly when blade stresses are high and extra stiffening is required. inlet eye detail and impeller shrouding. However with careful attention to design of blade curvature.
Centrifugal Fans AMC .The Business of Mining .
Basic description As the impeller rotates it draws air in through the eye and throws it out in a radial direction through the blades. backward straight or curved.The Business of Mining .Centrifugal fan . Can be direct drive (impeller attached to the motor shaft) or indirectly driven by belts. or adding blade extensions When rotated in the wrong direction air will continue to flow into the eye and out through the blades Can be either single or a double inlet AMC . adjusting VIV’s. gear box or friction clutch Blades can be either flat or aerofoil. forward or Performance control is achieved by altering the speed.
Efficiency limited to 60% to 70% at most. quietest with the most competitive first cost.Forward inclined blades Provide large quantities (Q) of air at low running speeds.The Business of Mining Quantity Shaft power Duty point . Steeply rising power characteristic Pressure re Pressu er Pow Straight blades Curved blades AMC . Pressure rise limited by blade stresses Generally considered to be the most compact.
e. power input does not peak at either free flow or no flow) Press ure Pressure Duty point r Powe Straight blades Curved blades AMC .Backward inclined blades Higher tip speeds than forward inclined blades High total efficiency Bulkier casing Fewer blades with greater depth Non overloading power characteristic.The Business of Mining Quantity . (i.
Radial blades Air performance sits between backward and forward inclined blades Steeply rising power characteristic Relatively low efficiency Good self cleaning properties make them exceptional for handling air with high concentrations of dusts or other larger airborne particles (backward and forward incline blades tend to clog up more quickly) er Pow Radial blades AMC .The Business of Mining Quantity Shaft power Pressu re Duty point Pressure .
Performance characteristics of centrifugal fans d Pressu re Duty point rw Fo d ar c ve ur ia l d Ra Backward curved Pow er Quantity AMC .The Business of Mining Shaft power d r cu d ve Pressure ar rw Fo Ba rd wa ck cu ed rv al di Ra .
The Business of Mining .6.0 (a) Centrifugal fans FAN SLIDE SHOW AMC .
The Business of Mining .Axial flow fans AMC .
increasing pressure and maintaining better efficiency over a wider range. tail fairings. Aerofoil sections can apply greater force to the air.25% of the impeller diameter. adjusting impeller blade pitch angle or adjusting VIV’s. gearbox) Tip clearance (distance between the tip of the impeller blades and the fan casing) is typically 0.Axial flow fan – Basic description Can be direct drive (impeller attached to the motor shaft) or indirect drive (belts. increases stiffness allowing operation at higher speeds. AMC . (A true reversible fan will have alternate blades rotated through 1800 and deliver 85% of the normal setting in either direction) Performance control is achieved by altering speed. When rotated in the backward direction they will reverse the direction of flow through the fan and deliver 60% to 70% of the forward quantity of air. Blades can be either flat (generally steel plate) or aerofoil (generally cast alloy). Performance is enhanced by installation of inlet cone. inlet or outlet guide vanes. and diffusers (evase). Increasing the thickness and curvature.The Business of Mining .
Drive arrangements for axial fans Typical arrangement for secondary fans in metal mines AMC .The Business of Mining .
Accessories Inlet cone (inlet bell) Reduces inlet shock losses Nose dome . However will increase peak pressure of the fan. Tail piece (fairing) – Reduce turbulence (shock losses) caused by the motor.Streamlines flow over the impeller hub Guide vanes – Downstream reduce swirl and enhance pressure.The Business of Mining . Particularly important if exhausting into a long high velocity duct as the swirl will exist for long distances significantly increasing pressure drop. Guide vanes – Upstream induce a swirl in the opposite direction to the rotation of the impeller. Diffuser – minimises outlet velocity pressure and maximises fan static pressure AMC . Not often used as they increase noise and are less efficient than downstream guide vanes.
The Business of Mining .Solidity AMC .
0 (b) Axial fans FAN SLIDE SHOW AMC .6.The Business of Mining .
The Business of Mining .Performance control Dampers Can be either inlet or outlet Change the resistance of the system AMC .
Performance control Variable inlet vanes Installed at the inlet close to the impeller Spin the air in direction of rotation of the impeller Provide a resistance as well as flow modification Alter the performance characteristic of the fan AMC .The Business of Mining .
The Business of Mining .Performance control Variable pitch blades Axial fans only Each setting has a different performance characteristic Can be altered while in motion but it is usual to withdraw the fan from service to make an adjustment AMC .
The Business of Mining . AMC . a new set of pitch plates will be needed for each duty change many axial flow fan installations are allowed to operate at less than optimal flow rates for long periods of time simply because it is so difficult to change the blade pitch. resulting in a considerable waste of expensive power.On-load pitch adjustment is possible but extremely expensive and high maintenance Off-load blade pitch adjustment requires the fan to be withdrawn from service for an extended period of time blade attachments are often extremely difficult to release after quite short periods of use an expensive and time consuming activity In some cases.
Blade pitch (angle) setting Adjustment using pitch markings Adjustment using pitch plates AMC .The Business of Mining .
Those who refurbish fans often incorrectly set these angles as the at the blade root rather than the tip of the blade. Some manufacturers specify the the blade pitch angle in terms of the “tip chord”. Underside or blade root angle Airflow Direction Impeller Hub Boss Tip chord angle Blade tip Rotation Direction Blade root AMC .Blade pitch (angle) setting (2) Adjustment using a protractor Impellers without markings require the use of a protractor to set the appropriate angle.The Business of Mining . Depending upon the twist of the blade this could be as much as 30 resulting with the fan performance less than expectations.
The Business of Mining .Performance control Variable speed Each change of speed develops a new fan performance characteristic (see fan laws) AMC .
Performance control Fans in series Increase pressure (P) Slight increase in quantity (Q) New curves can be drawn simply by adding the pressure (P) at a constant quantity (Q) AMC .The Business of Mining .
The Business of Mining . AMC .Performance control Fans in parallel Increase quantity (Q) New curves can be drawn simply by adding the quantity (Q) at a constant pressure (P) Note: the quantity is NOT doubled simply by adding an extra fan.
variable speed On start up a fan goes from standstill to full speed Will follow path 1.2. 4 if equilibrium is not established instantaneously (i.e. 2’. AMC . 2’.The Business of Mining .Start-up Single fan . if the system has a significant volume or it is necessary to blow the bag up) In any case all points are on the negative part of the curve and therefore stable.3.4 if equilibrium is reached instantaneously Will follow path 1’.
Start-up Single fan – Damper control Dampers set to open when a predetermined pressure is reached (i.e no flow until operating pressure is reached) Fan must follow the parabola over the hump and the fan may become unstable during this stage Miners have found by experience that jog starting fans with long lengths of lay-flat duct reduces excessive power draw and prevents the fan from shaking violently.The Business of Mining . AMC .
Start-up Single fan with dip in the curve In this case the curve has a dip as well as a hump In this case all intersections are on the negative (stable) part of the curve AMC .The Business of Mining .
The Business of Mining .Start-up Two fan is series If started simultaneously they will act in the same manner as a single fan If one fan is started the operating fan sees a higher resistance caused by the non-operating fan. At the start-up of the second fan the system resistance is lowered and the first fan comes down the curve whilst the second fan moves from a free flow (air from the first fan) situation until both fans are at the same speed and contributing to the combined fan curve AMC .
The Business of Mining . The second fan (no flow) will start and when acceleration is sufficient it will move to the right at the same time that the first fan is moves up its curve until both fans are at the same speed and contributing to the combined fan curve Note that the second fan must move over the hump and could cause serious instability if the curve has a dip as well as a hump AMC .Start-up Two fans in parallel If started simultaneously they will act in the same manner as a single fan When one fan is started it will run up and settle on on the system.
Parallel fans with a dip (1) Parallel Fans Static pressutre (Pa) Apparent operating points Quantity (m 3/s) 1 Fan 2 Fans 3 Fans System AMC .The Business of Mining .
VIV’s or adjustable pitch in motion blades. to the point that it would not recover. To start fans with this particular type of characteristic requires the use of variable speed drives.The Business of Mining . AMC .Parallel fans with a dip (2) Eck line Static pressutre (Pa) P a ra lle l F a n s Apparent operating points Q u a n tity (m 3 /s) 1 Fan 2 Fans 3 Fans Sy s tem In this case it is highly likely that the third fan would become unstable on start-up.
Theoretical pressure – quantity (P-Q) characteristic Pressure Friction losses Useful P-Q curve Shock losses Quantity AMC .The Business of Mining .Fan operating duty point The theoretical operating (duty) point of any fan is determined as the intersection of the Actual P-Q curve and the resistance curve of the system in which it will operate.
Fan and System Resistance curves 1000 P-Q c u rve Pressure (Pa) 500 m e t s Sy 0 0 5 ce n ta s i s re rv u c e Operating point 12.The Business of Mining .0 m3/s 700 Pa 10 15 20 Quantity (m3/s) AMC .
MULGA HILL FAN COMPANY QWER 1250-2300-12 990 rpm 1. number of blades. fan Speed & air density Manufacturers reference number 2000 Fan performance sets Fan operating point AP = P x Q 70 60 50 40 1500 1000 500 Pressure sometimes given as Fan Total Pressure 20 80 100 30 120 0 0 700 600 20 40 60 10 140 160 180 200 Fan Shaft Power (kW) 500 400 300 200 100 0 0 20 40 60 10 80 20 100 120 140 160 180 30 70 Impeller blade pitch setting 60 Fan Shaft power at the 50 operating point 40 200 AMC .2kg/m3 3500 Reference P'nW 2345 3000 Fan Static Pressure (Pa) 2500 Manufacturers Code for the fan type usually provides. impeller diameter. hub diameter.The Business of Mining Volume (m3/s) . fan type.
The Business of Mining .Airpower = 200 x 1500 = 3000 W = 300 kW Fan shaft efficiency = 300 / 325 = 92% 325 kW AMC .
The Business of Mining .Assume duty 100 m3/s 1000 Pa System Resistance Q (m3/s) P (Pa) 0 0 20 40 40 160 60 360 80 640 100 1000 120 1440 140 1960 160 2560 180 3240 200 4000 220 4840 240 5760 260 6760 Efficiency 77%?? 180 kW AMC .
0kPa Blades set at 400 350 kW motor What is the maximum flow possible with this fan? AMC .The Business of Mining .Example 80 m3/s 1.
Example Maximum blade angle 520 Due to wear on blades would be prudent to set at 500 80 1000 System Resistance Q (m3/s) P (Pa) 0 0 20 63 40 250 60 563 80 1000 100 1563 120 2250 140 3063 160 4000 180 5063 200 6250 AMC .The Business of Mining .
on a single performance curve.The Business of Mining .Relative merits of axial and centrifugal fans Axial fans offer better efficiency over a wider range of duties whereas the centrifugal fans can have a higher efficiency. Axial fans are generally considered to be more easily accessible for maintenance Axial fans generally run faster than centrifugal as a consequence are much noisier. The performance of a single speed axial fan can be altered simply by adjustment to the impeller blade pitch angle The performance of a single speed centrifugal fan requires the installation of variable inlet vanes. As a consequence the potential for erosion is greater. albeit over a smaller range. particularly if there is water in the shaft AMC . Axial fan impellers are generally manufactured from aluminium in an effort to keep weight to a minimum.
The Business of Mining .Relative merits of axial and centrifugal fans (2) The light material used in the blades along with the high rotational speed of axial fans make them prone to erosion. Centrifugal fans traditionally require the construction of large concrete foundations for the motor and ductwork. As a consequence when there is water in the shaft the nose of the blade is prone to pitting allowing water to enter the hollow section. The cost of these foundations significantly increases the capital cost of the fan AMC . and even in good (dry) conditions it is reasonably expected that this erosion will have significantly reduced the fan performance within five years. Centrifugal fan impellers are fabricated from plate and are generally hollow. and if allowed to continue it will result in high vibration and eventual failure of the impeller shaft. Sufficient water in this section will cause the impeller to become unbalanced.
The Business of Mining .Relative merits of single and multiple fan installations Single fan installations are generally less expensive than multiple fan installations. impeller. bearings. a percentage of airflow will always be available whilst a fan is off line for maintenance or component change out. Single fan options do not provide any capacity for redundancy airflow. Multiple fan installations have the advantage of airflow redundancy. blades etc) is good management and should be included as upfront capital expenditure. The purchase of spares (motor.e. AMC . i. shafts.
The Business of Mining .BASIC MINE VENTILATION 6.4 Fan Laws AMC .
5 Fan Performance Testing AMC .The Business of Mining .BASIC MINE VENTILATION 6.
6 Operating Multiple Fans AMC .BASIC MINE VENTILATION 6.The Business of Mining .
Acknowledgements DALY. pp317-326 (The Australian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy: Melbourne) AMC .S.) BURROWS..The Business of Mining . “Le Roux’s Notes on Mine Environmental Control” Fourth Edition. J. JORGENSEN. A. W. R. (The Mine Ventilation Society of South Africa). 1989 “Environmental Engineering in South African Mines” (The Mine Ventilation Society of South Africa) DERRINGTON. 1983 “Fan Engineering Eighth Edition” (Buffalo Forge Company.B. 2002 “Control of Water Discharge from Mine Ventilation Shafts” (Proceedings of Underground Operators Conference 2002. 1978 “Woods Practical Guide to Fan Engineering” (Published by Woods of Colchester 1978) Le ROUX... Buffalo.. New York. B.
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