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SubsurfaceDrainage

SubsurfaceDrainage
Source:MakingEdgeDrainsWork,BetterRoads,January2007
(Untreated or
Asphalt Treated)
(Aggregate Filter,
Geotextile or ATPB)
FlowfromGroundwater
FlowfromGroundwater
Flownetslide
FlowfromGroundwater
Radiusofinfluenceslide
FlowfromGroundwater
Radiusofinfluenceslide
FlowfromGroundwater
Radiusofinfluenceslide
( )
=
0
3.8 L H H
FlowfromGroundwater
( )
2
0
1
2

=
i
k H H
q
L
permeability drawdown
radiusof
influence
Notethattheequationinthebookismissingthesquare!
FlowfromGroundwater
FlowfromGroundwater
Symmetricaldrawdownslide
FlowfromGroundwater
Example1
FlowfromGroundwater
FlowfromInfiltration
Source: WSDOT Pavement Guide Interactive CD-ROM
Subgrade (Existing Soil)
Base / Subbase (Optional)
Crack
FlowfromInfiltration
Source: FHWA Subdrainage Design Manual
FlowfromInfiltration
(
= + +
(

c c
i c p
s
I W
q N k
W C
lengthof
transverse
joints
spacingof
transverse
joints
numberof
longitudinal
joints
Example1(Continued)
SubsurfaceDrainage
Example2
ArtesianFlow
0
A
=
a
k H
q
H
Excess
hydraulic
head
ArtesianFlow
3
3
W
for double collector pipes
2
W for single collector pipe
| |
=
|
\ .
=
a
a
q q
q q
Example3
FlowduetoSpringThaw
FlowduetoSpringThaw
FlowduetoSpringThaw
Example1(Continued)
FlowduetoSpringThaw
FlowduetoSpringThaw
DesignFlow
( )
max , , = +
n i g a m
q q q q q
SubsurfaceDrainageStructures
SubsurfaceDrainageStructures
Source:MakingEdgeDrainsWork,BetterRoads,January2007
(Untreated or
Asphalt Treated)
(Aggregate Filter,
Geotextile or ATPB)
PermeabilityofCleanSands
k 10
2
Hazens
coefficient
(0.8 1.2)
permeability
(cm/s)
effective
grainsize
(mm)
PermeabilityofDrainageMaterials
5
10
1.478
6.654
200
0.597
percentpassing
No.200sieve
permeability
(ft/day)
effective
grainsize
(mm) porosity
Source:Moulton(1990)HighwaySubdrainage Design,FHWATS80224
EffectivePorosity
c
d c
w
d
s w
s w d
s w
L
c
WaterLossPercentage
DrainageBlanketDesign
Example1(Continued)
DrainageBlanketDesign
Example2(Continued)
DrainageBlanketDesign
DrainageCoefficients

1 1 2 2 2 3 3 3
= + +

asphalt
base subbase
SN a D a D m a D m
( )
2 3
, = m m drainage f
DrainageCoefficients
Quality < 1% 1-5% 5-25% > 25%
Excellent 1.40-1.35 1.35-1.30 1.30-1.20 1.20
Good 1.35-1.25 1.25-1.15 1.15-1.00 1.00
Fair 1.25-1.15 1.15-1.05 1.00-0.80 0.80
Poor 1.15-1.05 1.05-0.80 0.80-0.60 0.60
Very Poor 1.05-0.95 0.95-0.75 0.75-0.40 0.40
PercentageofTimeMaterialApproachesSaturation
DrainageQuality
Quality
Water Removed
Within
Excellent 2 hours
Good 1 day
Fair 1 week
Poor 1 month
Very Poor No drainage
Casagrande &Shannon
where: k=permeability of the drainage layer (ft/day)
n
e
=effective porosity
H=height of the granular layer (ft)
L
R
=length of the drainage path (ft)
S
R
=slope of the drainage path (ft/ft)
t =time to drain a given percentage of the moisture (days)
R R
l
2
e R
L S tkH
T , S
n L H
= =
Casagrande &Shannon
( )( )
2
l l l
l l l
3
l l
l
S 1 2S 2US 1 0.4
T 1.2 S S ln S ln
S 2 2U S 1
S
| |
(
| |
+ +
= +
|
( |
|
+
(
\ .

\ .
2
l
l l
3
l
l
S 2U 0.4
T 1.2 2US S ln
S
S
| |
(
| |
+
=
|
( |
|
\ .

\ .
ForU> 0.5
ForUs 0.5
Casagrande &Shannon
2
l
l l
2
3
l e R
l
S 1 0.4 tkH
T 1.2 S S ln
S n L
S
| |
(
| |
+
= =
|
( |
|
\ .

\ .
ForU= 0.5
R R
l
L S
S
H
=
Example1(Continued)
Source:Moulton(1990)HighwaySubdrainage Design,FHWATS80224
WaterLossPercentage
t
T
=
CAREFUL