INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY

MANAGEMENT/ ORGANIZATION By: Esti Nurhidayat, Drs, Msi

Kenapa Sistem Informasi diperlukan?
1

THE CHANGING BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT
♦GLOBALIZATION ♦INDUSTRIAL ECONOMIES ♦TRANSFORMATION OF

THE ENTERPRISE *

Untuk apa dan siapa yang memerlukan Sistem Informasi tersebut?
2

TYPES OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS
KIND OF SYSTEM
STRATEGIC LEVEL

GROUPS SERVED
SENIOR MANAGERS

MANAGEMENT LEVEL

MIDDLE MANAGERS

KNOWLEDGE LEVEL

KNOWLEDGE & DATA WORKERS

OPERATIONAL OPERATIONAL MANAGERS

LEVEL
MANUFACTURING FINANCE ACCOUNTING HUMAN RESOURCES

SALES & MARKETING

Hubungan Sistem informasi dan Organisasi?
3

ORGANIZATIONS & INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY

ORGANIZATIONS

MEDIATING FACTORS: Environment Culture Structure Standard Procedures Politics Management Decisions Chance

INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY

Apa saja yang berhubungan dengan sistem informasi?
4

SUPPLY-CHAIN MANAGEMENT
CUSTOMERS
ORDER PROCESSING PLANNING & FORECASTING

SUPPLIERS

PROCUREMENT ACCOUNTING

INTRANET
PRODUCTION

LOGISTICS SERVICES

SHIPPING

INVENTORY

DISTRIBUTORS

Hardware sebagai pendukung utama sistem informasi?
5

COMPUTER COMPONENTS
CPU
INPUT DEVICES
SECONDARY STORAGE

BUSES
OUTPUT DEVICES
COMMUNICATIONS DEVICES

PRIMARY STORAGE

Software sebagai pendukung utama sistem informasi?
6

SOFTWARE
APPLICATION SOFTWARE SYSTEM SOFTWARE

HARDWARE

OPERATING SYSTEM: • SCHEDULED COMPUTER EVENTS • ALLOCATES COMPUTER RESOURCES MONITORS EVENTS LANGUAGE TRANSLATORS: • INTERPRETERS • COMPILERS UTILITY PROGRAMS: • ROUTINE OPERATIONS MANAGE DATA

PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES:

ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE; FORTRAN; COBOL; PL / 1; QBASIC; PASCAL; C; C++; FOURTH GENERATION LANGUAGES

MULTIPROGRAMMING
TRADITIONAL SINGLEPROGRAM SYSTEM MULTIPROGRAMMING ENVIRONMENT

OPERATING SYSTEM

OPERATING SYSTEM

PROGRAM 1 PROGRAM 2 PROGRAM 3

PROGRAM 1

UNUSED MEMORY

UNUSED MEMORY

Database sumber informasi?
7

COMPONENTS OF DATA WAREHOUSE
OPERATIONAL, HISTORICAL DATA

DATA WAREHOUSE EXTRACT, TRANSFORM DATA ACCESS & ANALYSIS QUERIES & REPORTS OLAP DATA MINING

INTERNAL DATA SOURCES

INFORMATION DIRECTORY

EXTERNAL DATA SOURCES

Kenapa Informasi bisa dikomunikasikan?
8

ORBITING SATELLITES

MICROWAVE TRANSMISSION

UPLINK

DOWNLINK

Apa itu Internet?
9

INTERNET ADDRESS
http://www.prenhall.com/laudon
PROTOCOL FOR THE WEB HOST COMPUTER EXTENSION

DIRECTORY

DOMAIN NAME

EXTRANET
DATABASES CUSTOMER

SUPPLIER

INTERNET

FIREWALL

SERVER

BUSINESS PARTNER CLIENTS

Tahapan Perencanaan Sistem Informasi?
10

SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT
CORE ACTIVITY DESCRIPTION SYSTEMS ANALYSIS IDENTIFY PROBLEM(S) SPECIFY SOLUTIONS ESTABLISH INFORMATION REQUIREMENTS SYSTEMS DESIGN CREATE LOGICAL DESIGN SPECS CREATE PHYSICAL DESIGN SPECS MANAGE TECHNICAL REALIZATION OF SYSTEM TRANSLATE DESIGN SPECS INTO PROGRAM CODE

PROGRAMMING

SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT
CORE ACTIVITY TESTING DESCRIPTION UNIT TEST SYSTEMS TEST ACCEPTANCE TEST PLAN CONVERSION PREPARE DOCUMENTATION TRAIN USERS & TECHNICAL STAFF OPERATE SYSTEM EVALUATE SYSTEM MODIFY SYSTEM

CONVERSION

PRODUCTION & MAINTENANCE

Apa Cost dan Benefit dari Sistem Informasi?
11

COSTS & BENEFITS:
COSTS: ♦ HARDWARE ♦ SOFTWARE ♦ SERVICES ♦ PERSONNEL *

COSTS & BENEFITS:
TANGIBLE BENEFIT: ♦ INCREASED PRODUCTIVITY ♦ LOW OPERATING COSTS ♦ REDUCED WORK FORCE ♦ LOWER COMPUTER EXPENSES ♦ LOWER VENDOR COSTS ♦ LOWER CLERICAL/PROFESSIONAL COSTS ♦ REDUCED GROWTH OF EXPENSES ♦ REDUCED FACILITY COSTS *

COSTS & BENEFITS:
INTANGIBLE BENEFIT: ♦ IMPROVED ASSET USE; RESOURCE CONTROL; PLANNING ♦ INCREASED FLEXIBILITY ♦ MORE TIMELY INFORMATION ♦ INCREASED LEARNING ♦ ATTAIN LEGAL REQUIREMENTS ♦ ENHANCED EMPLOYEE GOODWILL, JOB SATISFACTION, DECISION MAKING, OPERATIONS ♦ HIGHER CLIENT SATISFACTION ♦ BETTER CORPORATE IMAGE *

Hubungan Pengetahuan dan Informasi?
12

KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT & INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY
NETWORKS
SHARE KNOWLEDGE DISTRIBUTE KNOWLEDGE

PROCESSORS

GROUP COLLABORATION SYSTEMS

OFFICE AUTOMATION SYSTEMS

DATABASES

ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE SYSTEMS

KNOWLEDGE WORK SYSTEMS

SOFTWARE

CAPTURE, CODIFY KNOWLEDGE

CREATE KNOWLEDGE

DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM?
13

DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM
TPS DSS DATA BASE EXTERNAL DATA
♦ ♦

USER INTERFACE

DSS SOFTWARE SYSTEM MODELS OLAP TOOLS DATAMINING TOOLS

♦ ♦

USER

TPS: Transaction processing system MODEL: Representation of a problem OLAP: On-line analytical processing USER INTERFACE: How user enters problem & receives answers DSS DATABASE: Current data from applications or groups *

Flowchart symbol?
14

SYSTEM FLOWCHART SYMBOLS:
INPUT/OUTPUT PROCESS MAGNETIC TAPE

PUNCHED CARD

MANUAL OPERATION

ON-LINE STORAGE

DOCUMENT DATABASE ON-LINE INPUT

ON-LINE DISPLAY

TELECOMMUNICATIONS LINK

SYSTEM FLOWCHART:
HUMAN RESOURCES DATA TIME CARDS PAYROLL MASTER

LOAD & VALIDATE

PAYROLL SYSTEM
VALID TRANSACTIONS PAYROLL MASTER

COMPARE &

UPDATE

PAYROLL REPORTS & CHECKS

DIRECT DEPOSITS

GENERAL LEDGER

UPDATED PAYROLL MASTER

ETHICAL, SOCIAL & POLITICAL ISSUES?
15

ETHICAL, SOCIAL & POLITICAL ISSUES
INFORMATION RIGHTS & OBLIGATIONS
POLITICAL ISSUES SOCIAL ISSUES ETHICAL ISSUES INFORMATION & TECHNOLOGY

PROPERTY RIGHTS & OBLIGATIONS

ACCOUNTABILITY & CONTROL

INDIVIDUAL SOCIETY POLITY

SYSTEM QUALITY

QUALITY OF LIFE

Mengelola Sistem Informasi Global?
16

INTERNATIONAL INFORMATION SYSTEMS INFRASTRUCTURE
GLOBAL ENVIRONMENT: BUSINESS DRIVERS & CHALLENGES CORPORATE GLOBAL STRATEGIES ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE MANAGEMENT & BUSINESS PROCEDURES TECHNOLOGICAL PLATFORM INTERNATIONAL INFORMATION SYSTEMS INFRASTRUCTURE

GLOBAL INFORMATION SYSTEMS CONFIGURATIONS

SYSTEM DOMESTIC CONFIGURATION EXPORTER CENTRALIZED X DUPLICATED DECENTRALIZED NETWORKED x

STRATEGY MULTINATIONAL

FRANCHISER

TRANSNATIONAL

X X x x X

X : DOMINANT PATTERN

x : EMERGING PATTERN

The end of the lesson of MIS