3.

012 Fund of Mat Sci: Structure – Lecture 22

POLYMERS

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From day-to-day plastics to light-emitters to artificial muscles

3.012 Fundamentals of Materials Science: Bonding - Nicola Marzari (MIT, Fall 2005)

012 Fundamentals of Materials Science: Bonding .4.Nicola Marzari (MIT. Fall 2005) .3 3.Homework for Fri Dec 2 • Study: Chapter 2 of Allen-Thomas until 2.

Curie’s principle 2. Order parameters 3.Last time: 1.012 Fundamentals of Materials Science: Bonding . Amorphous systems: Te-Sb-Ge alloys in readable/writeable CD or DVD. silicon. ice 3. Fall 2005) .Nicola Marzari (MIT.

NY: J. Wiley & Sons. 1999.. liquid/gas. 3. Thomas. S. and E. New York.Nicola Marzari (MIT.5 in in Allen. Figure 2. and monatomic crystal removed for copyright reasons.Pair correlation functions Graphs of the pair-distribution functions for gas. M. The Structure of Materials.L.012 Fundamentals of Materials Science: Bonding . Fall 2005) . See page 41.

cas. Used with Permission.Pair correlation function: water Courtesy of Dr.icpf. See animation at http://www. J. 3.Nicola Marzari (MIT. Kolafa. Fall 2005) .012 Fundamentals of Materials Science: Bonding .cz/jiri/movies/water.htm.

Nicola Marzari (MIT.012 Fundamentals of Materials Science: Bonding . Fall 2005) .Pair correlation function: water 3.

Fall 2005) .Count thy neighbours Z r Thickness dr Y X Figure by MIT OCW. 3.Nicola Marzari (MIT.012 Fundamentals of Materials Science: Bonding .

Models of disorder: hard spheres • Bernal random close packed sphere model Photos of the Bernal random close-packing model removed for copyright reasons. See them at the Science & Society Picture Library: Image 1.Nicola Marzari (MIT. Fall 2005) . 3. Image 2.012 Fundamentals of Materials Science: Bonding .

Fall 2005) . 3.012 Fundamentals of Materials Science: Bonding .Models of disorder: hard spheres • Voronoi polyhedra (in a crystal: WignerSeitz cell) Normal Distance Facial Area Volume Solid Angle Quantitative Definitions of Voronoi Polyhedra Figure by MIT OCW.Nicola Marzari (MIT.

Nicola Marzari (MIT. Fall 2005) . None gained. none lost. 3.012 Fundamentals of Materials Science: Bonding .Polymers Styrene Polystyrene H C=C H H H H H [ C_C ] H H H n H C=C Free Radical Vinyl Polymerization H H [ C_C ] H H n Ethylene has two carbon atoms and four hydrogen atoms. Figure by MIT OCW. and the polyethylene repeat structure has two carbon atoms and four hydrogen atoms.

Nicola Marzari (MIT. branched 3.Polymers • Homopolymers • Copolymers – Random – Block • Graft.012 Fundamentals of Materials Science: Bonding . Fall 2005) .

Fall 2005) .Classification: Tacticity • Isotactic • Syndiotactic • Atactic 3.Nicola Marzari (MIT.012 Fundamentals of Materials Science: Bonding .

Fall 2005) .012 Fundamentals of Materials Science: Bonding . 3.Glass Transition Liquid 2 Specific Volume 1 Specific Volume Rubbery State Rubbery State Liquid 2 Glassy State Glassy State Crystalline State Temperature Tg Tf Temperature Tg1 Tg2 Figure by MIT OCW.Nicola Marzari (MIT.

Nicola Marzari (MIT. or at most contain branches). and a glass temperature.Classification: mechanical • Thermoplastics: (linear. Fall 2005) . Melting temperature. structural rigidity 3.012 Fundamentals of Materials Science: Bonding . • Elastomers: low degree of cross-linking (rubbers) • Thermosets: high-degree of cross-linking.

O O _ [ C_CH2_CH2_CH2_CH2_C_N_CH2_CH2_CH2_CH2_CH2_CH2_N ] + HCl n H Figure by MIT OCW. H 3.Nicola Marzari (MIT. They split off to form HCl gas.012 Fundamentals of Materials Science: Bonding .Addition vs. Condensation polymerization H C=C H H Figure by MIT OCW. Fall 2005) . H H H [ C_C ] H H n O O Cl_C_CH2_CH2_CH2_CH2_C_Cl H + H N_CH2_CH2_CH2_CH2_CH2_CH2_N H H This Chlorine atom and this hydrogen atom don't end up in the polymer.

. only styrene monomer can react with the growing polystyrene chain.Nicola Marzari (MIT. Fall 2005) Figure by MIT OCW. Two growing chains won't react with each other.Chain growth H A-: + CH2=C H A_CH2_C-: H H _ A_CH2_C_ CH2 C : H H A_CH2_C-: + CH2=C H H H A_CH2_C_CH2_C-: + CH2=C H H H A_CH2_C_CH2_C_ CH2_C-: A Chain Growth Polymerization: In the anionic polymerization of styrene.012 Fundamentals of Materials Science: Bonding . H H H H H H A_CH2_C_CH2_C_ CH2_C-: + A_CH2_C_CH2_C_ CH2_C-: 3.

Nicola Marzari (MIT. 3. Fall 2005) .Step growth Terephthoyl chloride O Cl_C O C_Cl + Ethylene glycol HO_CH2_CH2_OH O Cl_C Dimer O C_O_CH2_CH2_OH + HCL Terephthoyl chloride and ethylene glycol react to form an ester dimer. Figure by MIT OCW.012 Fundamentals of Materials Science: Bonding .