Arthur Wilson AMITY. Broken Alliance. Shovel them under and let me work— J am the grass." Pile the hoaxes high at Austerlitz and Waterloo. Washington sent envoys to negotiate the amicable cession of some of the Indians' lands. women and children. and the leader of the Indian troops was Bluejacket. many going to southeast Missouri to take advantage of Spanish land grants. George Wash- And pile them high at Gettysburg And pile them high at Ypres and Verdun. 4. o o CC LÜ m > O m o o o I— UJ ington and his Ohio Company were in the business of usurping Indian lands in the Appalachian basin long before the Revolution. for whom I was named. 1791. and his accouterments were bestowed on him by the British Empire. Shovel them under and let me work. The Shawnees began splitting by 1787. Blue Jacket moved his family to the Detroit River area. Even Blue Jacket and his half-brother were worlds apart. Lei me work. Even in Ohio. If you were a general. " Then Broken Alliances Your article "Fallen Timbers. and passatgers ask the conductor. What place is this? Where are we now? 1 am the grass. but the Miamis. Fleming characterizes Blue Jacket as having a penchant for fancy clothes and a hatred for white men. to be sure. is a tyiiical treatment given native Americans. where he was a successful farmer. a captive who fought in St. forcefully places Bluejacket." by Thomas Fleming [Aug/Sept 2009]. warring and peace changed Shawnee lives. John Sugden. Thomas Fleming responds: Hitishaw states his point of view plainly and candidly. St. rather than Little Turtle. Two years. in the van during this period. Your photographs certainly bear out the wisdom of Sandburg's words. ten years. Ï cover all. Wayne was fully aware of the vast dissension between and within Algonquin tribes and took advantage of it. Shawnees and other warlike tribes evaded or violated the agreements. were officers in the British Indian Service. trader and whiskey peddler. PA. MILITARY HISTORY . Clair on Nov. author of Blucjacket: Warrior ojthe Shawnees. My uncle. Clair's Defeat by authors (note Robert Y Van Trees' Banks of the Wabash). called the force leader "General Blue Jacket" and recalls the leader's magnificent speech the night the Indians were in camp waiting to advance on Maj. you would wear fancy clothes. Gen. neither side would have suffered fighting. George Blue Jacket. The American poet Carl Sandburg has captured the healing effect of nature on battle-scarred locations in his poem "Grass. Settlers in Kentucky screamed for vengeance and attacked even those tribes tiying to remain at peace." Had the Americans stayed on their side of the Appalachians and not made treaties that literally ripped Indian lands away from the natives. and when "Mad Anthony" died. The Algonquin tribes were only warlike in the eyes of the Americans. lost his life in such an area while serving in the British army in the Great War. Clair's Defeat. particularly by the photograph of the bucolic scene where the Battle of the Somtne had taken place. PA.500 American men. He was a killer. A single paragraph of Fleming's writing is a signal example: 'The result of Britain's periidy was a series of brutal frontier massacres in which Indian war parties slaughtered an estimated 1. giving those who took away his heritage something to remember him by The Battle of Fallen Timbers cleared the way for western movement of the new country The Indians were boxed in the Northwest Territory even before Fallen Timbers. Cariyle tiinshaw WiNDBER. Sugden paints Blue Jacket as a lifelong Indian diplomat. Wayne and Blue Jacket became close friends. As to being a white hater. nothing supports this. Fleming's "Battle of the Wabash" should properly be labeled St. He íhin/ís whites should have stayed on "their side of the Appalachians. He and his youngest child. G.Letters Sandburg on Battlescapes I was intrigued by the "Battlescapes" article in the Aug/Sept issue. George Ash.

My ancestors.that ended with General Anians"—the usual British term thony Wayne's victory at Fallen for native Americans—and vir.com Please ¡include name. I speak from the view. The Americans were ish were deeply involved in fightingfor land they believed arming and encouraging the ihe_y had won in the peace tribes to resist the American treaty that ended the Revolumovement west. ers were allies of America's was an officer in ihe British most determined and vicious Indian Service. What attracted me to the battle of Fallen Timbers was the performance of Genera] Wayne himself who lifercil/>' created a victorious army out of nothing after the idiots who presided over the lasi ^ears of the Continental Congress disbanded the Continental Army of the Revolution and lost the hard lessons PUBLISHING www. there would have been no coliision with native Ameiicans. the Brit. " We are dealing with a vast movement oj peoples from one continent to another. Bluejacket. The native Americans done out of any even faintly picked the wrong side in the sympathetic feelings of the Revolution.Timbers. and all the whites in Europe imitated his example.enemy. It's a free country. Leesburg.there would have been no Indian wars in the Northwest. History is full of such tually every other people they tragic choices. and (hey repeated sort that stir Hinshaw. Send letters to Editor. They chose the wrong 400 years of British slaughter side in the 1690 Battle of the Boyne and lost everything.the Flemings. and the clash oj two totally different ways of life.com . This was not tion.ospreypubiishing. but is there any point to such thinking? Bluejacket and his followHinshaw goes on to admit the Indian leader. and oppression in Ireland. In fact. Military History Weider History Group 19300 Promenade Dr. No one the performance in the war had a lower regard for "barbar. VA 20176 or via e-mail to militaryhistory@ weiderh(5torygroup. "IJChiistopher Columbus had stayed in Italy or Spain. exploited. Why not go back to the beginning and say. and anyone can wish it never happened. were once one point of an Irish-American who of the wetilíhiesí/amilies in has written extensively' of the Ireland. address and telephone number.

oj course. In his auiohiography. Captain Eddie states unequivocally: "Books on aviation and World War 1 persist to this day in identifying me as Blackjack's chauffeur The irulh is that I never did drive for the general. 9781591145059 M £íii(í)ís note: ¡n ¡861 Holmes. The true story of how the soldiers won the hattle and the generáis lost Iraq m 1991. U is a story about the realities of wmfare I think Americans should ponder. Naval Institute Presa ISBN# ." hy Stephen Tanner. Colonel Edward Baker was a U. Anderson TiGARD. Ed Paul ADA. He raised a volunteer regiment in California to fight for the Union. was seriously wounded there. This myih needs to be put to rest. by Dana Shoaf] you (ailed to mention that [future Supreme Court justice] Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr. The editors regret the error m o u 1 MILITARY HISTORY . MICH. Pershing's driver." The "Faííier of History" was. Jeffrey L. He served from 185Q (statehood) until his death at Ball's Bluff in 1861. suJ^/ivcda near fatal chest wound al Ball's Btujf. Greek. VA. Bluffing I was mildly surprised that in your Aug/Sept item about Ball's Bluff [What We Learned. then a 20-yeíu-o¡d ¡icutcnant with the 20th Massachusetts Volunteers. a photo caption refers to Herodotus as a "Roman histonan. Zabecki states that Captain Eddie Rickenhacker served briefly as General John J. ORE. Hilsabeck SPRINGHELD. Driving Black Jack In his article "America's Top WWI Ace" (Valor. Rickenbackcr." Walter G. David T. QC Ul o o m o z Correction On P. senator from Oregon.S. 29 of the Aug/Sept feature story "Indomitable Ajghanisian. Aug/Sept). not California.Letters Douglas Macgregor WARRIOR'S The Great Tank Battle of 73 Easting RiUiE Geneial Washington and his officers had learned.

At the time of his death. raised two Henry Allingham served as an airplane mechanic from 1915 through daughters. the supercentenarian died last July 18. *l have fought the good fight. where he doubled as a mechanic Frank Buckles. 1896. Allingham followed the RNAS seaman Claude Choules. 1898. I have finished the course' —2 Timothy 4:7 Enlisting in the Australian Imperial Foree in January 1918. Patch was coascdpted into the British army in 1916 and sent to France in June 1917. he was wounded hy a German shell hurst that killed three fellow soldiers. wounding Allingham in the arm during one such attack. but September 1915 and trained as an aircraft surviving him is a small army of six grandmechanic. the last American doughboy. Born June 17. as massive naval worldwide: 109-year-old Canadian soldier sbells skipped across the Nortb Sea. "1 also used to sit behind the pilot and drop bombs. and France later presented him with the Légion d'honneur.uk] in April 1918 and served through war's end as a mechanic at the Saint-Pol aerodrome near Dunkirk. at Passcheiidaclc. 14 greatas "no more tban motorized kites. 111. Married in 1918. Ross was born March II. Born June 6. Jolin Camphcll Jack" Ross. Patch was recuperating hack in England when ihc war ended. witnessing combat at Jutland and on the Western Front. AUingham enhsted in the Royal Naval Air Service (RNAS) in and backseat observer/gunner. 108-year-old Royal Navy following year. During World War 11. "Tbere was no art lo tbis— just plain luck. Kitchener's Last Volunteer.Henry Allingham. died on June 1. They prewar's end. Allingham and his wife. Three verified World War I vets survive be watcbed. Dorothy." AUingbam transferred to tbe newly created RAF Iwww." be wrote in his autobiograpby. . DISPATCHES Britain.great-grandchild." Posted great-grandchildren and one great-greaton a trawler witb a Sopwitb Schneider sea. Henr)' AUinghatn lived a life of superlatives. he was Australia^ oldest person. The Germans repeatedly shelled ihe aerodrome. plane during tbe 1916 Battle of Jutland. he was in training in Sydney when the war ended. Australia Lose WWI Veterans Harry Paicli. less than a month afler being recognized as the world's oldesl man. and 107-year-old lo France. 110. working on planes he described children. The Jack Babcock. transfixed. Oldest British War Veteran and World's Oldest Man Bom the century before last. He earned the British War Medal and Victory Medal for his World War 1 service. 12 great-grandchildren. 1899. Ross served with the domestic Volunteer Defence Corps.raf. the las[ surviving Australian veteran of World War I. died on July 25. Allingham worked as a civilian engineer during the interwar years and in 1939 helped develop countermeasures to German magnetic mines. A founding member of tbe Royal Air Force (RAF) and oldest ever Britisb veteran.mod. That September. 113. ceded him in death. the last British Tommy to have seen trench warfare.

Elizabeth Cross Honors British War Casualties Queen Elizabeth II has instituted the Elizabeth Cross. the U. Their success led 10 formation of the civilian WASP. • Oct. to free male pilots (or combat roles. Vt.ukl. (For more raids..nationaUraiI. (see P 48) —the last major land battle of the American Revolution — British Maj.unesco. the royal cipher ^ and the floral symbols of England (rose). In the 1890s.000 British casualties viill receive the medal. and transport troops and cargo. largely accessible via a National Trail lwww.nps." i Backed by a' laurel wreath. "We| accord this ulti. posing a challenge to the bestlaid plans.gov/indfl. 19. King George VI. fanners built stone walls to protect the halfmile section at Great Chesters Farm in Northumberland from roaming livestock and the elements.\ mate sacrifice r the highest hon. Ireland (shamrock) and Wales (daffodil).org.1781:Following the Franco-American victory at Yorktown. the weather shifts and days grow shorter.— the northernmost land action of the Civil War. exposing the Roman core. Award Congress has awarded surviving aviators of the 1. an address to troops.) • Oct.org] has abandoned controversial plans lo build a museum on a 78-aere parcel of land at Valley Forge National Historical Park Iwww. enabling most of the French army to escape. • Nov.¡ or and respect. Revolution Center Relocates to Philly The American Revolution Center Iwww. The victors bundle up and push past the barriers. In July ARC announced it would svk-ap its Valley Forge acreage to the The die is cast my choice is made / A soldier I will be' —Anonymous hymn. 1922 Roman Wall Preserved English Heritage Ivk^ww. Va.english-heritage.News WASPs Get Overdue Recognition.org]. has delisted a section of Hadrian's Wall from its at-risk register following a yearlong restoration project. • Nov. ver cross bears. 27-29. O o UJ m > o ce UJ CD O tO O National Park Service in exchange for the former visitor center site ai Philadelphia's Independence National Historical Park I www. Masons have now restored those protective walls.1989: Nearly 30 years after Soviet General Secretary Nikita Khrushchev ordered construction of the Berlin Wall (see E 56). In 1ÍÍ42. Next of kin of more than 8. Albans. the UK's historic advisory body. But General jean-Baptiste Éblc's engineers brave the frigid water to erect two pontoon bridges.co.1812: Russian forces close on Napoleon's retreating Grande Atmée.ov/valo I. WASPs were granted veteran status in 1977 and World War II Victory Medals in 1984. Germany formalizes reunification on October 3 the following year. WAR RECORD As autumn wanes. bul they had remained largely unheralded—until now. East Germans surge through its checkpoints.american revolutioncenter. Charles Comwallis surrenders his 8.uk] footpath. irain new pilots. "This seems to me a right and proper way of showitig our enduring debt lo those who are killed while actively protecting what is most dear \ to us all.1864: lieutenant Bennett Young leads a party of 21 Confederate cavalr)inen on a raid of St. Army Air Forces began using female flyers to deliver planes. which served through late 1944.S. Scotland (thistle).000-man army to Generals George Washington and Comte de Rochambeau." the queen said in. But the stone walls had since collapsed.l9. Gen. Surviving stretches are protected as a UNESCO World Heritage Site lwhc. Emperor Hadrian ordered construction of the 80-mile wall in the early 2nd century to thwart raiding Pictish tribes from the north. within sight of Independence Hall and other key landmarks. the raiders flee north to neutral Canada. instituted the George Cross in 1940 for civilian gallantry.nps i. see E 34. After robbing three banks and stealing villagers' horses. It is the first military honor granted by a monarch since her father.^ the sterling sil. MILITARY HISTORY .or^l the Congressional Gold Medal. seemingly trapping it on the bridgeless Berezina River (in modern-day Belarus).102-niember Women Airforce Service Pilots [www waspmuseum. 9. to recognize the families of British troops killed in action since World War II.

de] presents the multimedia exhibition "Moments in Time.cn 1.. On October 1-4. The UNESCO World Heritage Site Iwhc. the ship later tracked missile lests and spacecraft laimches for the Air Force from ihc 1960s through its retirement in 1983. triggering a fireworks display. and German troops razed much of what remained. F!a. Missiie-Tracking Ship Sunk as Reef Last spring demolition cxpt-nssunk ihf 523-iool USNS General Hoyi S.maucrfallO'i.ot}.de| relates the story ofthe "Peaceful Revolution. Xian Plans Subway to Terracotta Army the Cold War barrier and Germany's subsequent reunification (see P.del of the Nov.royalde-luxe.1989." painted by Berlin schoolchildren to echo the graffitied slabs of old.6 million pnijcct 13 years in the making. The subway line is scheduled to open in 2013.coni.mauerguide. Chinas 3rd century fíc capital. 14 at Alexanderplatz.bmy .com! will roll out its crane-manipulated giant marionettes to convey the emotional impact of the walls collapse. —Ronald Reagan coUa Wai riors and I ioi"SC5 ol Qin Shthuang Iwww. Vandenhcrg as an artificial reef about 7 miles off Key West. . Launched in as ¿ 1 Navy iranspori. tear down this wall" . The last domino will fall at the Brandenburg Gate. plan to extend an l8-milc subway line from the city center to the Museum of the Terra- r. open this gate." exploring the protests through photography and dociunentary footage of the period. home lo that emperor's famed amiy of funerary statues (see R 74).! serves more than 7 million annual visitors.une-sco. opening of checkpoints along the Berlin Wall—an action that augured the dismantling of French street theater troupe Royal de Luxe [www.News Events Mark 20tii Anniversary of Beriin Wali's Coid War Coilapse This fall Berliners will cap off a nearly yearlong celebration Iwww. 9. a multimedia exhibition |www. Gorbachev. sledgehammer-wielding souvenir hunters dubbed Mauerspechte ("wail woodpeckers'") cliipped away at the 103-mile concrete barrier. Olikiais m Xian. This fall Berliners will pull out the stops to celebrate the fall of the wall." Through November 9. Gorbachev. Fla. 56).coml to trace the wall's former path and learn its history. Today \'isitors can rent a GPSintegrated handheld device Iwww. Vandenberg becomes the second-largest purpose-sunk artificial reef afler the 888-foot aircraft carrier USS Oviskany. The three-day "Festival of Freedom" (November 7-9) will culminate with the toppling of more than a thousand 8-foot Styrofoam "dominos. with myriad activities and much better crowd control than in 1989. Mr. sunk offPensacola. Through November and television Iwwwdeutschekincinathek.revolution89.in200t). For weeks following its collapse.—an $8. hub of the 1989 East German protesLs. the Deutsche KinetTiathek museum of film Little of the original wall remains in Berlin.

Troop movements and unsanitary conditions helped spread the disease. But in 1909. Gen. But when Pericles ordered Athenians to hole up within the walled city.I certainty over î Pikes where. Who's Buried in Pike's Grave? The descendants of ZebuIon Pike.S. Ontario (present-day Toronto). Tracking English royal armies from 1369 to 1453. while spearheading an assault on the British garrison at York. Lake Michigan this summer. hastening the Armistice. the searchable database [www. A decision is pending. WAR FEVER By midsummer the number of confirmed cases of swine flu (HlNl) among U. 1944.ddaymuseum. But the group's real interest may hinge on a family dispute over genetic ties to the general.ai recovery. salaries.orgl has asked the town to exhume his body. His men returned the general's body to Sackets Harbor for burial. loosening the Spanish grip on the New World. Cannan. Our armed forces may be well prepared to handle history's latest pandemic. but disease has plagued warriors of the past. • 430 BC Plague of Athens: Athens was holding its own early in the Peloponnesian War. on the American Name* —Zebulon Pike Medieval Roll Call m o o rian Fergus Cannan in his new book Scottish Arms and Armor.000 of his 450. So says histo- 'We died like brave men.orgI. MILITARY HISTORY . Brig. smallpox killed up to half the Aztec warriors. On Nov..navalaviationniuseum .000 medieval soldiers. Navy Ensign Joe Lokites safely ditched the plane when it ran otu of fuel during carrier qualification.pike family.medievalsoldier . ages and ranks. • 1918-19 Spanish Flu: This bug killed sotne 50 million people worldwide—and WWI played a role. commanders. CD S O Z CO o o o British researchers have published online the service records of more than 250. while the toll on German forces thwarted a planned spring offensive. Highlands Expert: Scots Were Yellow With apologies to Mel Gibson.orgi lists combatants' names. But within weeks. best known for his 1806-07 Southwest expedition. killing a quarter of the populace. • 1520 Smallpox Epidemic: Aztec warriors drove Hemän Cortés and his men from Tenochtitlan. 24. Fla. enabling Cortés to retake the capital.000. the medieval "Braveheatts" of Stirling Bridge and Bannockburn wore bright yellow linen tunics into battle. including Welsh prince Owain Glyndwr and archers who served with Henry V at the 1415 Battle of Agincourt.com I raised a largely intact Douglas SBD Dauntless training plane from the bottom of Descendants Ask.5 abouts—and dangling the prospect of a PBS special and potential tourism revenue—the Pike Family Association ¡wvAv. § Citing un.| cry in town. are determined to let his body rest in peace—they just want to be certain it is his body in the military cemetery at Sackets Harbor. but typhoid killed more men than all battles combined. not the tartan kilts of popular myth. The National Naval Aviation Museum Iwww. who traces his own roots to Robert the Bruce. in New York's North Country During the War of 1812.News Dauntless Raised from Lake Michigan Chicago-based A&T Recovery I wwvv. and conferred honor. even in death. is restoring the plane for display at the National World War 11 Museum in New Orleans Iwww. says clansmen dyed their tunics with horse urine to achieve the rich color— which may also explain their success at repelling English invaders. Just 40. promotions and knighthoods. 1813. workers moved bodies | from the post ^ cemetery to a b military ceme. illtiesses. Pike was assigned to the then-rural outpost on the shore of Lake Ontario. including Pericles. active duty service members was nearing 2.org) in Pensacola. On April 27. service dates. typhoid fever accomplished what the Spartans could not. Pike was killed byflyingdebris when retreating Redcoats blew up the munitions depot. • 1812 Typhus Epidemic: The Russian winter ravaged Napoleon's Grande Armée.000 French soldais made it home.

Also like its grittily realistic and hugely successful predecessor.how we look. Warriors Inc. That led me to develop my own techniques of getting il right by training performers and carefully staging combat scenes to reflect the realities of what people remembered o MILITARY HISTORY . Like the cable channel's earlier Band of Brothers. We needed to know what the phalanx could and could not do. but that's usually the easy part. but no one had ever put a full phalanx together and experimented with it. but that can prove frustrating. Then 1 ran into director Oliver Stone.. talk andfightin the real world. generations of Americans—but few filmmakers—have had personal military experiences. We consult with academic historians. A classic example is Oliver Stone's film Alexander^ in which we had to train performers to fight in the Greek phalanx formation. Dye and a cadre of fellow veterans ensure that military-themed films and television programs have an authentic look and feel and that performers can realistically and convincingly portray soldiers from virtually any period of history. That's very gratifying. that the characters don't look or act like actors playing soldiers. So. but that's not always possible. a war movie. I wondered why filmmakers got these simple. Through his company. and all the other technical inaccuracies.Interview Dale Dye: On Point in Hollywood üWy next year HBO ¡wwwhh^. If filmmakers ignore that and ask audiences to pay to see make-believe soldiers with bad haircuts wearing uniforms the wrong way.." meaning that audiences sense that what they are seeing has the right tone and tenor. in 1985 I started Why is realism so important in a war movie? First. because every historian believes he's got the absolute correct take on events. from their own service or were seeing on the nightly news. has a huge military library thai covers all kinds of military historical periods and contains some really arcane references. When we eventually won four Academy Awards—including Best Picture—people became more receptive. What are the keys to establishing realism and accuracy on a set? You need to get the details right.. The Pacific will rely on retired Marine and Vietnam combat veteran Dale Dye to guarantee the highest level of military accuracy. so 1 usually wind up suggesting changes on the fly. rendering sloppy salutes. and I think we prompted the revision of a few historical works along the way. The big issue for a military adviser is trust. Warriors Inc. a 10part World War // miniseries that follows several Mannesfivm Guadakaiml to Okinawa. I wanted to work from the inside and find a way to make writers. directors and actors understand what it's like to soldier. People with so much riding on a film or TV project want sound advice and direction from a guy who knows both the military and how films are made. think. The real key is a thing called "feel. we live in a media-saturated society in which live feeds from distant battlefields show audiences what real militaries and real conflicts look like. The best way to do all this is to start with the writer and ehminate the inaccuracies in the script. He let me do it my way on Platoon. Second. easy-to-fix things wrong all the time. Dye often acts in the projects on which he advises and is soon to direct his first feature film—not unexpectedly. the new program is based on real people and real events. walk. E i People with so much riding on a film or TV project want sound advice and direction from a guy who knows both the military and how films are madef making calls and kicking down doors and sort of turning it into an all-out frontal assault.cotn] will premier The Pacific. hut I wasn't having much luck. We did that on the edge of the Sahara in Morocco and discovered that a phalanx could do a lot of things the historians said were impossible. no star or powerhouse director can make that film work. We also interview veterans if they're available. CO o o What led you from the Marines to Hollywood? I thought that someone who knew military life and the realities of combat needed to show the Hollywood folks what the real military was like. How do you establish accuracy in films that cover periods outside your own experience? The simple answer is research. who knew from his own time as a Vietnam combat soldier that you can't translate ihe experience helievahly without living the life in some sort of full-immersion training regimen. Ar^ably the best-known militaiy adviser in Hollywood.

is arguably Hollywood's top military adviser. That can be hard on actors full of ego and self-importance who grow up thinking. and then they tend to cut it down for scheduling or budgetary reasons. (^ Dye. about how on D-Day elements of the 82nd Airhorne Division had to take and hold open a vital bridge over the Merderet River in Normandy. And I'm very proud of The Pacific. Had those guys not held that bridge. though it has a much darker tone. In essence. we do for the actors what the real tnilitary does for soldiers. with director Steven Speilberg and actor Tom Hanks during the filming of Saving Private Ryan (1998). I'd single out ßanii oj Brolhera. and I think that first 25 minutes on Omaha Beach stand as a classic in the genre. we stayed in character as a World War 11 airborne infantry company the whole time. What's your next project? I've written and will be directing a World War II film titled No Better Place to Die. the breakout from the beaches and capture of the vital port at Cherbourg never would have happened. and it's one of the reasons we make our boot camps so physically and mentally demanding. and the optimum is three weeks. For some elements of our society. And I've got three other military pictures 1 want to do: a film on the Chosin Reservoir campaign in Korea. How do you go about training actors? We put them through a full-immersion fie Id-train ing regitiien that people have come to call "boot camp. And World War I! movies are especially popular because most Americans see it as the last of our nation's military conflicts in which the had guys and the good guys were clearly identifiable and unambiguous. 1 don't like to do less than five days. and hecause of the training we gave the guys. but it works. I'm also proud of the reality we brought to Saving Private Ryan. equipment and their bodies so they look convincing on the screen. It took us a year to get that done. /is ail about me. It's rugged. how to handle weapons. Which of your 35 projects stands oui for you? From the perspective of satisfaction derived as a military adviser. The length of the training depends on what the actors need to know. We tell the producers the time we think we need. I'm approaching all this in the same way I approached breaking into showbiz in the first place 25 years ago: Fix bayonets and charge! I'll get these pictures done through sheer force of wall if nothing else. that^ both refreshing and reassuring. which we finished late last year. But the hands-on training is only a part of the equation—I'm more interested in getting to performers' hearts and minds.close to my heart as a Marine because it follows my old outfit—the 1st Marine Division—through all of its major World War II battles in the Pacific. In general. which accurately reflects the nature of fighting on those Pacific islands. War movies are one genre where you can display the full gamut of human emotion. above right." It's so aUen from most peoples' normal life experience that it's intriguing. and war makes for good drama. If it didn't. It's ." We teach the aciors—both the "good guys" and the "enemy"—how to look and acl like field soldiers. "War is man's greatest adventure. a true-story Vietnam film and a story from Iraq that involves events in Mosul during the first free Iraqi elections. we wouldn't be allowed or encouraged to do it. I understand that. I think it will prove to be just as popular as Band of Brothers. Why do you ihink war movies remain so popular? Ernest Hemingway was onto something when he said. We tear them down and build them over again in the right mindset.

The Spartans wanted to withdraw the fleet to protect Corinth from a Persian attack. from the Battle of Salamis By Richard A. Gabñel I n the spring of 480 BC. Xerxes took the bait. I But the Greek ships drew Í back. The 332 Greek ships—each with a contingent of 14 hoplites and four bowmen—were under the command of Spartan admiral Eurybiades. and more than 9." Impressed. o o OJ oc ÜJ m m o fled to the islands of Aegina. He ordered the fleet to retum to the Hellespont to protect his bridge. bul the slaughter went on until nightfall. He didn't even need to fight the Greek fleet. Compelling the Persians to commit their ships one behind the other gave the Greeks the advantage at any point of contact. Persian command and control soon broke down. shot hy arrows or "spitted like tunny" Among the dead was Xerxes' brother Ariabignes. passing before the Persian ships arrayed three lines deep in the narrow channels. • Brains can trump brawn. sinking many and halting the rest.000 soldiers over a pontoon bridge across the Hellespont and invaded Greece. • Practice economy of force. not ends in themselves. • Choose your batde site. Sidnnus. Salamis and Troezen. (Sb MILITARY HISTORY . When the first line of Per^ sian vessels reached open water. The Persian ships in the rear collided with those in the front line. Themistocles negated Xerxes' numerical advantage by drawing his ships into Salamis' narrow channels. the fleet must remain at Salamis and defeat Xerxes. The battle lasted only a few hours. • Heed your experienced commanders. even rammed and sank one of her own ships while attempting to flee. they lost anyway. and my women men. saying. He sent his slave. The Persians. The Athenian flotilla under Themistocles comprised 180 triremes. Xerxes had the Athenian population bottled up and on the verge of starvation at Salamis. isolating him in Greece. even with fewer ships overall. the queen of Halicamassus and captain of a squadron. • Do not be ruled by fear. The Greeks sailed single file from Salamis into the sound. and there was no hope of a quick victory over the Greeks. Accompanied by 1. Watching from shore. Xences appointed Artemisia one of his closest advisers. The Greek ñeet sought safety in Salamis' harbor and waited for the Persians to attack. then wheeled about to ram. supplies were low. The Greek triremes closed on the Persians to break their oars. causing great confusion. Artemisia. Though the Persians outnumbered the Greeks. and the army to abandon Attica and go into winter quarters. and ordered his ships to block Salamis Sound. commander of the Athenianflotilla.What We Learned. who squeezed through the channels to engage their 5 seemingly trapped foe. had some 700 ships. then captured Athens and burned the Acropolis. Once in position. luring the Persians farther into the channels. Themistocles had succeeded in baiting the Persians into a fight. the Greeks struck hard. "My men have become women. He ignored her advice because she was a woman.knew that if Athens was to survive. The Persian defeat at Salamis would have had little strategic impact had Xerxes not feared the Greeks would attack his bridge across the Hellespont. His fears magnified a minor defeat into a major withdrawal. But ThemLstocles. • Battles are means to strategic ends. Xerxes thought she had sunk an Athenian ship and praised her. Persia's King Xerxes led 180. Persia never conquered Greece—and the bright lamp of Western civilization passed safely to future generations. In August the Persians defeated the Spartans at Thermopylae. the Greeks turned their ram-cquipped bows toward the Persians. The Athenians Themistocles drew Xerxes' larger fleet into the narrow channels at Salamis and then rammed it into submission. by then. to tell the Persians that due to dissetision among the Greeks. the fleet had decided to sail for Corinth the next day.. Lessons: • Beware Greeks hearing gifts—particularly unverified inlelligence.'iving. Xerxes lost confidence.207 warships and 3.000 Persian sailors drowned. It was a stunning defeat for Xerxes' fleet.000 transports. with only about half the Persian ships sun. Artemisia had distinguished herself as a commander in earlier naval battles and had warned Xerxes against engaging at Salamis. By daybreak the Persian ships were in position.. clubbed to death with oars. Xerxes intended to destroy Athens to avenge the defeat of the Persian army at Marathon a decade earlier.

1944. Army Medal of Honor. Two days later Britt's unit was down to only 55 effectives when about I tXl Germaas attacked his sector. From 1937 to 1941. and a Medal of Honor recommendation was working its way through the system for an action two months before. The Germans immediately launched fierce counterattacks. his unit landed then became a real hero. Still. he killed five Germans. enemy When his company commander was wounded and evacuated shortly after the landing. the British Military Cross and his second Purple Heart. Medically discharged in late December 1944. played helped capture Palermo. earning the Silver Star and his first Purple Heart.Five Months. fractured a leg and three toes and eventually lost his right lung. In the casuing fight. In the blast. one of America's greatest soldiers died of heart failure at the age of 76. That brought Britt his third Purple Heart of the war. He also completed the ROTC program and received an Army reserve commission along with his journalism degree. In the fight for control of the mountain approaches to Cassino. the 30th Infantry took Monte Rotundo on November 8 after two days of bitter fighting. 8. Britt was assigned as a platoon leader in Company L. The enemy counterattack had failed. Zahecki Captain Maurice Britt U. Mobilized in 1942.S. and helped secure Fort Blondin. On a season with the Lions. Britt tost his arm the following day and was evacuated. On Nov. 1942. His comhat wounds would plague him for the rest of his life. Britt lost his right arm from the elbow down. September 19. serving as lieutenant governor in the late 1960s and as district director of the Small Business Administration fiom 1971 to 1985. Britt refused to go to the aid station for treatment until directly ordered to do so by his battalion commander. Britt led his company in the assault of the town of Acerno.1944.S. Silver Star. The following morning Britt led liis company acrtiss the Mussolini Canal to secure a key road junction. Britt at one point purposely exposed himself to draw fire from and pinpoint a concealed German machine-gun position. Britt made his fourth amphibious landing of the war at Anzio on Jan. For his actions that day. During the 3rd ID's advance to the Volturno River. 30th Infantry Regiment. Britt Jr. he landed in North Africa. then called in artillery and mortar fire to knock it out. Britt directed fire on three more machine guns. on the Italian mainland at Salerno as part of a follow-on wave. two personnel carriers and several mortar positions. Bronze Star Medai Italy September 1943-January 1944 orld War 11 ended abruptly for Captain Maurice L. 26. 1995. During the daylong fight. 24. As the fighting wore on. Britt attended the University of Arkansas on an athletic scholarship for basketball and football and became an AllAmerican on the gridiron. The 3rd Infantry Division company commander was attempting to call in artillery fire on advancing German tanks when one Panzer fired a round into the stone farmhouse he was using as an observation post. Britt became the first GI to earn the four highest American decoratiotis for valor under fire. chest and hands. Britt assumed command of Company L. Even then he refused to be evacuated. When his W awards caught up with him. near Casablanca. Britt was ultimately awarded the Medal of Honor. at the Anzio beachhead on Jan. He already had earned a Silver Star and a Bronze Star Medal with V Device for valor. Expending all his carbine ammunition and throwing 32 hand grenades. wounded many more and captured four. His superiors recommended Britt for the Distinguished Service Cross for an action that had unfolded just the day before. 22. On Nov. Supreme Court Justice Byron "Whizzer" White. Britt and his com. In 1941 he played as a rookie end for the Detroit Lions..Britt made All-American pany landed on Sicily and as a Razorback. On July 10. Distinguished Service Cross. he returned to Arkansas. Four Awards By David T. ^ . In late October he earned the Bronze Star Medal for rescuing one of his wounded men under enemy fire during the assault of Monte San Nicola. 1943. whose star running back that year was future U. 3rd Battalion. Britl took a bullet in the side and multiple grenade wounds lo his face.

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1898. one of two main passages into the Phihppines' Manila Bay Distance and steel hulls attenuated the thumping of steam engines.S. Dewey played a key role in the U.S. Commodore Then. Navy Wade G. sweating in the tropical heat. MILITARY HISTORY . the American sailors were grateful for the darkness and the clouds that An 1858 graduate of the U. nine American warships sliced the weak chop of Boca Grande. and darkness swallowed the smoke from funnels as the ships' crews crouched at their loaded guns.OLYMPIAN Commodore George Dewey and the birth of the modern U. just as the ships passed El George Dewey was more than victor of Manila Bay. Mahan. Flanked by Spanish batteries on the islands of Caballo and El Fraile and tense with fear of mines thought to litter the channel.S. Dudley LU ::» o o o o n the early morning darkness of May 1. Navy's post-Civil War instead of the good Welsh anthracite evolution from a coastal force taken on by other vessels in British into a true hlue-water power. Naval Academy. As a Fraile. blocked moon and starlight. flames flared from the funnel the disciple of Captain Alfred Thayer of the revenue cutter Hugh McCulloch.

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as Mississippi joined then-Captain David Farragut's fleet in the assault on New Orleans. Other male figures also shaped Dewey.ssa. A year later.K. Gridley took command of Ofymfiifl just weeks before ibe attack on the Spanish fleet. Dewey found a measure of maturity Perhaps it was in the Bible classes he taught to local youths. Asiatic Squadron and leader of the column. Over the course of the Civil War. Then. he survived for a second year. George appeared to love neither the discipline nor the academics at Annapolis. enhanced as it usually was by fear and rumor. a 23-year-old executive officer untested in battle and assigned to blockade a rebellious Gulf coast.1837. Unfortunately for Dewey. Commodore George Dewey watched. Soot from the soft coal accumulated in the funnel and periodically burst into flame. but bis defeat at Manila Bay led to a court-martial and ultimate public disgrace in his beloved Spain. focus on the objective and decisive action. 26. Dewey took his examination for lieutenancy and was commissioned in the dark month of April 1861. Mere weeks later. eventually reaching the rank of lieutenant commander Despite his service in four campaigns (efficiently and even heroically at times). orn in MontpeUer. and shell splashes stirred the waters of Boca Grande. Only a quick command from Dewey to the helmsman turned a potentially deadly direct hit into a glancing blow. He died of natural causes soon after the capture of Manila. Four of the American warships opened fire and quickly smothered the enemy battery with shells as the column broke from the passage into the bay proper. stood fifth in his class. so his upstanding and hardworking father became the central figure in his life. George was the youngest of three boys. as he piled demerits atop poor grades in his first year. Dewey was executive officer on six ships. He. Alfred Tbayer Mahan Thotigb Mahan saw comhat during the Civil War. He also learned the import of decisive action when Man£i. it was at tbe Naval War College be bad the greatest effect on naval siraiegy and tactics. the heavy guns of two forts and other batteries.S. on Dec. three decades would elapse before he could employ MILITARY HISTORY . proudly.. the president resisted public calls for war witb Spain tmlil the sinking of USS forced his hand. Pangborn to his teachers at Norwich University and the professors and officers of the U. Dewey received his blooding. Orders already given. flagship of the U. Sailors cursed McCulloch as muzzle flashes marked a Spanish battery on El Fraile. o o Hong Kong. Despite ranking just two places from the bottom of his class. Perhaps Dewey filled a few of those minutes with memories of the past that had led him to penetrate the stronghold of his nation's latest enemy. twists and treacherous snags—New Orleans seemed impregnable. Julius and Mary Perrin Dewey. as Dewey later wrote about the man who became his role model. Following a two-year cruise on the steam frigate USS Wabash. influencing key thinkers. Mary died before George turned 6. to Dr. On the cruiser USS Olympia. Naval Academy. "Farragut always went ahead. Dewey wasn't given his own command. including Roosevelt. he spent long minutes waiting for gun flashes or dawn to reveal an enemy squadron. But he did leam well the skills of command: leadership. Whatever the reason. somehow.s tried to ram MLssi. flagship of the Mediterranean Squadron. war that haunted his nation. I heodorf Roosevelt As assistant secretary of the Navy under William McKinley. íarragut was also a mentor to. iind a genuine example lor. But. Pairieio Montojo Montojo was a career naval officer witb combat experience on land and sea in the Philippines. intelligence. and a small Confederate fleet that included the ironclad ram CSS Manassas—plus the Mississippi River currents. from public school teacher Z. in the letters he exchanged with his father or in the growing threat of civil B áFour of the American warships opened fire and quickly smothered the enemy battery with shellsV CO o Charles Gridley A veteran of Farragut's victory at Mobile Bay.ssippi. Vt. to which he received an appointment in 1854. Roosevelt was a leading advocate i>r the modernization ol Ameritas fleet—and of an inevitable cotillict witb Spain over Cuba.American sea power. William McKinley Wbile he was strongly influenced by Roosevelt's belief in tbe importance of . Dewey learned not to overrate an enemy's strength.S. the cutter's bunkers held bituminous coal from its last port of call in Australia.David Farragut Vittiir of the 1864 Baltic of Mobile Bay and arguably ibf premier naval leader of ibe Civil War. he paced the deck of the steam frigate Mississippi. Dewey and his entire generaiion of officers. logistics." From Farragul. in June 1858 George and 14 others (all that remained of the 59 appointees of 1854) graduated. Protected by a large garrison.

a former Confederate blockade-runner supplying guns . s the years of fratricide ground toward Appomattox. followed—some sold for scrap but most laid up to be reactivated if war threatened. Its ironclad monitors. Research into merce. Dewey persevered in his chosen career across those 30 years. By 1870 only 52 vessels (including auxiliaries) remained for sea and coastal duties. despite the best efforts of his nation to virtually eliminate its own Navy. The state of strategic thinking matched the deterioration of warships and tactical capability. and those were Gunners aboard the protected cruiser USS Olympia. converted merchantmen. Older warships (including USS Wampanoag. take a well-earned break following the battle. the vessel combined impressive armament with significant armor plating and far outclassed her opponents. designed only for coastal and riverine operations.these skills to prove himself an outstanding fleet commander.S. in 1883 the Navy protected foreign interests against Chinese rioters. These were invariably small affairs— or at least incidents that did not threaten to escalate into war with major powers. the United States returned to the outmoded doctrines of 1812. launched at war's end and recognized as the worlds fastest warship under steam) saw their engine plants reduced in size and their spread of canvas increased. Naval regulations permitted the use of coal only under extreme conditions. Such was not the case in 1873 when Spanish authorities seized Virginius. The Navy returned to its overseas stations in the late 1860s. From those stations (established in and dependent upon foreign ports). ihe 700ship U. patrolled rivers. More ships met their end as Congress focused on Reconstruction. and within days of the Confederacy's final collapse. lone ships cruised distant waters to show the flag and assist American merchantmen and civilians. Furthermore. supplied A far from the state-of-the-art warships then sliding down the ways in Europe. Commissioned in 1895. the penny-pinching Congress rele- armament. There was no American "fleet" and little in the way of squadron training. and Marines and sailors debarked at various times in South and Central America to protect those citizens and their property. relegating its ships to coastal defense and commerce raiding. In 1867 "gunboat diplomacy" opened two Japanese ports to American com- Union forces and combed ihe high seas for the remaining Confederate raiders. gated steam to secondary propulsion. In essence. Navy blockaded the Rebel coast. This does not mean the Navy was inactive after the Civil War. the Union began to divest itself of its old. hoping to force that country to open its ports to trade. the Western frontier and internal expansion. Fortunately for the United States. Dewey's Asiatic Squadron flagship. in 1871 a squadron attacked and destroyed several Korean forts. armor and ship design languished. But navies are expensive.

and in 1890 Captain Alfred Thayer Mahan. s the Navy evolved. A few years later. 62). the coastline and locations of the Spanish shore hatteries. while the eyes of statesmen glistened at the thought of colonies to be gained and raw materials to be exploited. notably Captain Joseph Fry. and the spark that ignited a coal bunker and the adjacent magazine on the USS Maine in Havana's harbor served nicely. Narragansett was assigned to survey the Pacific Coast of Mexico and Lower California. Consensus held that one modem cruiser could sink the entire American force. Boston and Chicago (each featuring an armored deck at the waterline to protect magazines and engines from plunging fire) and the dispatch boat Dolphin. However. of course. maneuvers incorporating reactivated vessels revealed a top fleet speed of less than five knots.S. a Naval Academy graduate and former Confederate officer. An immediate boost to industrial infrastructure set the first firm foundation for warship production in the nation's history Other warships. especially when a naval court of inquiry quickly blamed the resulting deaths of some 270 American sailors and officers on the explosion of a Spanish mine. Dewey's officers and men A o o MILITARY HISTORY . The close of the nation's "frontier period" prompted the rise of a New Manifest Destiny. But imperial ventures required a rethinking of naval strategy. 15. upon Hisloty. In preparing for war. it found many of the mothballed monitors decayed beyond use. the many ships required to carry that firepower). P. Still. increasing in size and potential. American sympathies lay with the rebels and gunrunners. All that was needed was a spark. likely the desire to make his mark on history in the names of his heroes. which included several Americans. But something drove Dewey. Building delays ensued when Congress mandated in 1886 that all naval vessels be built with domestic materials. these vessels captured the popular support needed for naval expansion.o o to Cuban rebels under a false American registry (see story. 1660-1785. Shipping magnates resented searches by Spain's Guardia Costa and navy alike. The Spanish executed its crew. ranging from gunboats to the small battleships Texas and Maine. The following year. as the Virginius Incident unfolded. Knovm as the "ABCD Squadron" for their names or the "White Squadron" for their gleaming hulls and white canvas. but cooler heads in Washington and Madrid avoided escalating tensions into war. Many lofficers abandoned the slow promotion schedule and other frustrations of service life. Last. it provided a naval theory and strategy that guided industrialized seafaring nations for several generations. Mahan developed a theory of sea power rooted in squadrons of capital ships aggressively attacking the enemy's navy or confining it to port. At the time. Dewey submitted a detailed sketch that showed the initial deployment and movements of each fleet. in 1870 Dewey was given his first command. American manufacturers could not provide the necessary guns. world events lifted American eyes from their own shores to blue waters. the sloop-of-war USS Narragansett. As the new ships entered service. followed the first 30. Civilians seldom garnered such fame. Industrialists desired sugar and markets. the American press wanted to sell newspapers—and greedy publishers did not hesitate to juggle facts to ensure those sales. 1898. His treatise not only supported trade-based imperialism. Naval War College. With the great wars of France and Britain as his canvas. Finally. Congress authorized 30 additional warships. armor or steel plating. turning (heir talents to the civilian world and its monetary rewards. George Dewey quietly perse\'ered. Cuba and the remaining Spanish possessions in the Caribbean attracted American interest for a variety of reasons. reaction from Congress proved slow and less than satisfactory In 1883 Congress finally authorized construction of four steel-hulled vessels: the protected cruisers Atlanta. particularly when those searches involved seizure of goods being smuggled to Cuban rebels. then-president of the U. Dr. provided a concise guide to that strategy in his seminal The Influence of Sea Power After the battle. From 1885 to 1889. imperialistic in nature. Naval officers worldwide welcomed this concept of firepower projection (and. Some pointed to Spanish cruelty and the brutalized people who desperately sought the caress of democracy and the guidance of Republican values. the Vjrginius Incident was a wakeup call for the naval establishment. Navalists sought an American base in the Caribbean from which to enforce the old Monroe Doctrine. Julius Dewey and Admiral David Farragut. fertile ground existed for war between the United States and Spain. By Feb.

handsome. aggressive hand at the helm.worried they would miss the brewing war. A full captain by 1884. Dewey purchased the freighter Zafiro and the . and his men loved him from D ering squadron—and well that he did. he knew that other deserving officers waited for fleet and squadron commands. Gathering every available scrap of information on the Philippines to supplement a file provided by the Navy. Dewey feh some degree of despair when he reached the permanent rank of commodore in 1896. only four years from forced retirement. to make it so. Dewey arrived in Yokohama in late 1897. As his warships arrived. Japan. Fate waited to present Commodore Dewey with his chance for greatness. But Assistant Secretary of the Navy Theodore Roosevelt had marked Dewey The decisive naval victory at Manila Bay captured the American public's attention like no other battle ot the war and prompted a virtual armada ot triumphal artwork. An alert from Roosevelt followed news of the sinking of Moine in February. efficiency. this outstanding leader had gained the full support of his gath- Recruiting in 1889. professionalism and skillful leadership amidst the often-confused rush to build modern warships did not go unnoticed. No war seemed in the offing. He left no stone unturned. needed a strong. Roosevelt expected war with Spain and felt that the Asiatic Squadron. even dressing an aide as a civilian to wander the docks and solicit information from incoming vessels.000 miles from homeports. he ordered ammunition rushed to his squadron in Yokohama. and should war break out. Within days of his arrival at Yokohama. and in October 1897 McKinley ordered the secretary of the Navy the beginning. Dewey ordered his squadron to make for Hong Kong. he plumbed the American consul in Manila for information. Yet. Dewey served in various capacities before becoming head of the Bureau of Equipment and as a man of action. His white walrus mustache and piercing hlue eyes seemed to dominate the decks of his flagship. Roosevelt pressured President William McKinley to appoint Dewey to the key command. and always neatly dressed. His energy. Extremelyfit. As soon as sufficient ammunition arrived in Yokohama. their commodore seemed as comfortable with the common Jack as with his officers. As Dewey waited for his remaining ships to concentrate in Hong Kong. for much hard work remained to ready his people and ships for war. ewey did not wait on fate. followed by stints as president of both the Lighthouse Board and the Board of Inspection and Survey. operating some 7. No one hearing his words could imagine their prophetic nature. hut Dewey smiled and predicted they would simply steam across the Pacific and capture Manila.

so they could enter tina. hid back to its anchorage. gunboats Petrel and Concord. The gunboat by American fire. c Culloch. Montojo knew that his neutral ports should war be declared. Dewey brooked no argument from his gathered captains. beached itself. on April 25. 8-inchers. some two miles away. while the other. seven old vessels did not rate half the (The closest American base lay 7. followed closely by Zafiro and Nanshan. Dewey turned to Olympia's Captain Charles Gridley and spoke the few words (hat doomed a Spanish squadron and opened the door to an American empire: "You may fire when you are ready. Like his hero Farragut. Dewey received tion across the harbor at Cavité rather a telegram confirming the declarathan subject the Manila waterfront to tion of war. Dewey dispatched two ships to search Subie Bay. but his other guns might also be low he sent his sailors to their guns to fight on ammunition. yards. Boston and Concord answered their inaccurate fire.000 support the small cruisers Isla de Cuba. Given the circumstances. Shortly afterward. Then.collier Nanshan from British sources ommanding from aboard the and registered them as American unarmored cruiser Reina Chrismerchant vessels.000 displacement of the modern Amerimiles away) He then dry-docked each can ships and that his largest 6. At 0505 batteries near Manila opened on the Americans. Dewey felt only an audacious night passage could succeed—and he planned to lead the column in Olympia. Off the Philippines on April 30. Its 5-inchcrs NEWS or.000 to 5. stripping flammable material from the ships. At 0515 both ship and shore batteries at Cavité opened on the Americans. Some of Dewey's men even managed to nap at their guns before the galley delivered hot coffee at 0400. Dewey first cruised the Manila waterfront in search of the Spanish squadron. its mrvi. They threw themselves into battle preparations. The hour. but would still attempt to position at ranges from 2. Two Spanish torpedo boats raced Isla de Ltizon. Olympia led the protected cruisers Baltimore and Raleigh. protected cruiser Boston and revenue cutter Hugh McCulloeh into the passage. the column broke into Manila Bay. tojo's defensive line.2-inch of his ships for last-minute scraping. but Montojo had ordered a minefield detonated to provide maneuver room for his flagship. Following the burst of inaccurate fire from the quickly silenced battery on El Fraile. and prevented by with honor in defense of Spain.THE CITY S FALL and the smaller rapid-fire guns of the starboard battery quickly added I '^ their din and smoke to the combat. studying signals and planning for datnage control. Fearing illusions about the coming battle. at a range of 5. Dewey's squadron exchanged fire with the Spanish ships for more than an "overs" from an American attack. Heavy shells slammed into Four additional gunboats. Dewey slowed to 4 knots to delay until dawn his engagement with the Spanish squadron of Rear Admiral Patricio Montojo y Pasaron. stripped it.NEW YORK':K)ÜRNAL officers and men understood the sortie would end in absolute victory or utter defeat. the admito close on the American fieet before ral anchored lighters alongside his concentrated fire saw it off.000 yards. but the Spanish fleet had abandoned it. Montojo had few down to 15 remaining rounds. As midnight approached. Don Antonio de Vlloa toward the squadron—one was sunk and Donjuán de Austria. describing almost three comold wooden cruiser Castilla could not plete circles in front of the enemy maneuver. heavy smoke from accurately assessSending his collier and freighter ing the damage he'd inflicted on the clear under the escort of Hugh McSpaniards. Olympia observed explosions near Cavitc. Dewey with no rounds to spare. Olympiads four 8-inch guns spoke. and the Spanish flagship limped of weapons to fortify the harbor. The Spanish admiral positioned his ships in a half-moon formaFinally. Marques del Duero completed Monwreathed in flames. dry firing guns. Dewey reluctantly signaled MILITARY HISTORY . As the Asiatic NIGHT •*""''"*-3 Squadron steamed from port. At 0730 Dewey received word that Warned by telegraph at 0200 of the each of Olympia's 5-inch guns was American approach. as it lacked supporting latid batteries. -: a scene repeated as each American j vessel spotted the enemy. Then larger vessels to absorb enemy fire. held his fire and maintained a converging course for the next 25 minutes. guns could not match the Americans' repair and a coat of dark gray paint. Gridley" ea 3 DO O One minute later. Dewey assumed panic on the part of the Spanish. Gun Montojo ordered Reina Christina into emplacements at Sangley Point supthe harbor in a valiant attempt to ram ported the west flank of the squadron. He knew the islands guarding Boca Grande held at least six guns that outranged his own. Within hours the British invited his squadron to leave neutral Hong Kong. He aLso knew the Spanish expected his fleet and had possibly mined the channel. in the shallow waters behind Cavité. Olympia. The commodore called together his captains before sailing on to Manila. In an effort to Donjuán de Austria also attempted offset Americati firepower.

only nine men had suffered wounds during the action (another. its captain and half its crew dead or wounded. he surveyed the wreckage of his squadron. Hugh McCulloch's chief engineer. Montojo ordered all able vessels to retreat to the bay behind Cavité and fight if possible. With no apparent resist- . (^ For further reading. Olympia. Dewey had been delighted to discover the message regarding his ammunition reversed: Each gun had expended only 15 rounds. by DavidJ. lists the ships of Dewey's fleet at Manila Bay. David Farragut. By mid-aftemoon of May 1. beaten to pieces and afire. To experience the Spanish-American War through the words of the participants (and to explore VSS Olympia). and the closure of its harbor by American warships. Dewey ordered a final pass at the Spanish squadron. died of a heart attack on the approach to Manila). the Spanish admiral listed all ships lost and 381 men dead or wounded. Even more astounding. Fire from Baltimore silenced the guns on Sangley Point and a battery near Cavité. Monlojo ordered the vessel scuttled and switched his flag to Isla de Cuba. Don Antonio de Ulloa had settled in the harbor. Old Castilla. 1898. visií the Spanisíi-Americíin War Centennial Web site at www. As the Americans paused to enjoy a belated breakfast. showed any sign of resistance. D A commemorative medal. the Battle of Manila Bay was over. With Reina Christina's steering destroyed and magazines flooded. led by Filipino Emilio Aguinaldo and supported by Dewey. sank at anchor. leaving some vessels in flames and others listing or settled in the shallow harbor. But on August 13. Pfirff's captain accepted the surrender of Cavite's garrison. After allowing his ance remaining. and that was quickly eliminated. As firing ceased. Both Isia de Luzon and Marques del Duero had lost men and guns. it became obvious he had severely punished the Spanish squadron. men to finish a well-earned breakfast. as Manila surrendered. Wade G. Don Antonio de Ulloa. the Spanish garrison at Manila managed to stave off starvation and defeat until the arrival of American troops later that summer Commodore (soon to be Admiral) George Dewey had at last emulated his hero. top. Silbey. Only one vessel. ahove. Now a floating museum in Philadelphia. scuttle if not.his ships to withdraw.spanamwar. By the end of the day. several gunboats and a transport. the cruiser bears a memorial plaque on its forward turret.com. 1899-1902. and laid the ghost of his father to rest by crushing the Spanish squadron. he became forevermore the man who first opened the door for an imperial America. Dudley recommends: A War of Frontier and Empire: The Philippine-American War. top right. and little fight remained in them. later served as a training and barracks ship and saw action in World War I. Aboard Oiympiu. espite open rebellion.

Navy.S.By Stephan Wilkinson W Americai cution. k deeds of dan ns . MILITARY HISTORY e. If succès Here ate seven o! lost audacious raids some the reach of what would become the U.

S.000 Filipino and U. sending up a Northrop P-61 Black Widow to buzz the camp and distract the guards.000 enemy soldiers The U. After all. in January 1945 planners The core of the Cabanatuan rescue force comprised 127 men from the 6th Ranger Battalion. the rescuers had difficulty persuading the prisoners they were American. The Filipinos were assigned to block a bridge that provided the only access for Japanese tanks. even though some of their gunners had been shown only hours earlier how to use bazookas. of a heart attack. could respond within minutes to an attack.S. Adjacent to the camp was a large Japanese troop depot. even the most committed Japanese officers realized they could soon be facing consequences at war crime trials and that perhaps the best course would be to get rid of the prosecution witnesses—the few U. the loss of which more than two years earlier had precipitated the Bataan Death March. The raiders suffered just two killed and 23 wounded. soldiers from Corregidor and the Bataan Peninsula to prison camps farther north.000. history.S. didn t even /mow what a Ranger was. The second unit of guerrillas quickly and quietly gathered from locals a fleet of water-buffalo carts with which to transport those freed prisoners unable to walk. The death toll may run as high as 20. one died It was the largest-ever surrender of a military force in U. Realizing such a slaughter was possible. 513 of whom were held in a camp near the town of Cabanatuan. the guards wiped out by ihe withering firepower of the Rangers. The camp stood amid sparsely vegetated flatland. When General Douglas MacArthur^ troops retook the Philippines. thousands died or were murdered by Japanese guards. and planners feared that as many as 9. here sharing laughs after the successful raid. and British survivors of the death march. another had hidden in a latrine but was rescued the next day. The Cabanatuan Raid was a singular success. most hadn't seen a friendly soldier since the days of Springfields. forcing the Rangers to crawl the final mile in darkness to the stockade. leaving ihe Japanese with three times as many POWs as they'd expected to acquire. Army returned to the Philippines. which took well over an hour. while Japanese killed and wounded totaled 523.S. It didn't take long to convince them otherwise. 1945 I put together an all-volunteer rescue force of 127 Army Rangers supported by two units of some 200 Filipino guerrillas. which they did splendidly. Army Air Forces also participated. E .Army Rangers' Cabanatuan Rescue n October 1944 the U. The night fighter even staged an engine failure replete with thick exhaust smoke and backfires to ensure the guards would look skyward.S. In some cases. Of the 513 prisoners in the camp. 511 were rescued. had no idea how the war was going and thought the eerie black P-61 was a Soviel or German airplane. During that 60-mile forced march of 75.

Without firing a shot or losing a man. a skilled intelligence gatherer. "5th New York Cavalry. an English born cavalr)' commander and the man who had called Mosby a horse thief. CO o Among Mosby's men that night was Sergeant James "Big Yankee" Ames. Mosby and his group of Rangers snatched from a lortified garrison town a Union brigatlier general. D. Gen. The Rebels would indeed take a captive. " N Colonel Sir Percy Wyndham. Lees nephew). "have you caught him?" '1 am Mosby. men rt--iormed at 2 a.Mosby's Fairfax Raid ever mock an adversar). "K I had been an orderly who brought him a morning report. a Union deserter fioin the 'îth New York Cavalry. "General. but it wouldn't be Wyndham. Whether he was disrespected because Stoughton and Lee had beeti friends at West Point or because Lee resented Mosby's notoriety." answered Stoughlon.. but Mosby nonetheless became the Souths newest hero.Lieutenant (later Colonel) John Singleton Mosby led an effective regiment of Virginia cavalry troopers and irregulars whom the Federals dismissed as "noihing more than horse thieves. nabbed lo his everlasiing embarrassmenl during a night raid of Fairfax. Stoughton was hcadt[uartercd nearby So Mosby." a status that granted each of them a share of whatever spoils they captured. and when the door opened. 1863. a welleducateti member ol the Virginia bar before the war. with a dispatch for General Stoughton.' Mosby later wrote. knocked on the tloor of Stoughton's quarters. Fitzhugh Lee (Robert E.m. prisoners and. Brig. The story—doubtless embellished by time—is J that Mosby found Stoughton I sound asleep. The diminutive Mosby. especially if he's more competent than you. the raiding party easily penetrated the Union lines annind Fairfax. Stoughton lurched awake. and the several terrified sentries surrendered. The\ found soft spots between well-defended checkpoints. and crept into Fairfaxs main square." he announced. he was visiting across the Potomac River in Washington. we'll never know. Confederate raider John S. Gen. and after some confusion. It was a rainy." he replied. With his help. in Confetlenite uniform. he could iiol ha\'e treated me with more indifference. Mosby. ConfedcriUi. Ames responded." in his Yankee accent. During the American Civil War. "Yes. on March 9. moonless night. 30 soldirr?. horses. "He has caught vou. he and three of his raiders pushetl in. Va. yes. did you ever hear of Mosby?" the raider asked. supply wagons. Mosby poses for a studio portrait with 17 of his men around the time of the Fairfax raid. interrogated them and found ttiat though Wyndham was gone. led 29 rangers on a strike intended to caplure Union Wearing a plumed hat. and when challenged. A surprising coda is that Mosby received a chilly reception when he presented the prize to his own commander. two captains. Stoughton of Vermont. on the night Confederate intelligence had placed him in Fairfax. They met no resistance. raised his iiightsliirl antl slapped him hard on his hutt. Mosby and his men were considered "partisan rangers. And capture spoils they did—trains. 'Fifih New York. o o Under the Souih's rules oí engagement. Word went out that he'd next snatch President Abraham Liiieolii. Edwin H. and 58 Imrses.. Bui their bestknown trophy was Union Brig.C."' The raid was a stunning success. artillery. Mosby's MILITARY HISTORY .

Skorzeny himself led the assault. In the Storch just after being freed. After the war. he led Englishspeaking German troops wearing U. In fact. hookers and anyone else he could chat up. Skorzeny was promoted and decorated for Mussolini's rescue. So Skorzeny flew to Rome and began to sniff out rumors of Mussolini's location from bartenders. while a second group would land in the meadow aboard a dozen 10-man gliders. they held gage area behind 11 Duce. practice or lengthy planning to implement one of the most daring —and successful—commando raids of World War 11. Then came the hard part: getting the notorious Italian dictator off the mountain and back to Germany Skorzeny called in a circling Lujtwajfe light aircraft. to whom "II Duce" would be handed over in exchange for favorable terms. tipsy Italian naval officers. advisers. during the 1944-45 Battle of the Bulge. Skorzeny found Mussolini in a second-floor room. Benito Mussolini seems stunned by his deliverance. As Skorzeny had boped. fruit vendors. but aerial reconnaissance revealed what looked hke a small meadow behind the hotel. When the two-seat Fieseler Fi I5ö Storch safely rolled to a stop. while raid commander Otto Skorzeny radiates composure. Italian dictator Benito Mussolini was ousted from power and arrested on the orders of Italy's King Victor Emmanuel III. Mussolini was imprisoned. but it was by no means the commando^ last mission. thoroughly overloading the tiny aircraft. assault the hotel and grab Mussolini. somewhat unwillingly. and the gliders as much crashed as landed. and Skorzeny crammed into the bag- O tto Skorzeny didn't need a stalf. but the Germans had no idea where. a mountain east of Rome. Skorzeny's commandos had cleared a rough 600-foot downhill runway. and the Storch only gained flying speed by diving into the valley at the strip's end. He died of cancer in 1975. Mussolini got into the rear seat. The "meadow" turned out to be a boulder-strewn patch. It soon became apparent Italy was about to negotiate a surrender to the Allies. Skorzeny was tried for war crimes but acquitted. by Italian General Ferdinando Soleti. E . sand-table mockups. He ultimately traced the former dictator to a remote hotel atop the Gran Sasso. Skorzeny quickly put together a combined ground and glider assault on the Gran Sasso— one group of his commandos would seize the railways base station and block Italian reinforcements from On July 25. it took little more than a direct order from Adolf Hitler for the young 6-foot-4 SS captain to plot a raid a Hollywood producer might reject as fantasy By land the hotel was accessible only by a steep funicular railway. Army uniforms behind American lines to sow terror and havoc. reaching the hotel. accompanied. 1943.Skorzeny's IL Duce Snatch 1943 their fire.S. He went on to become one of the most infamous SS officers of World War II when. when the Italian troops and police guarding the hotel recognized Soleti.

000 men of one Marine and two Army divisions would attack Hanoi in a combined air-sea operation to seize every knovrti POW camp in iluarea.S. 21. the nation cared. 1ILITARY HISTORY . out. the worst injury suffered by any U. The team would have to contend with the force of prison guards thought to be controlling the camp. rla. in which nearly 60. So its "landing" was an intentional crash touchdown. Bui the story of the Nov." The Son Tay strike was intended as a message to the American public and to all the POWs ihat. But they weren't. certainly dozens wore killed. a contingent of U. the notorious "Hanoi Hilton. operation resonates far beyond the fact that raiders found no Americans when they landed their helicopters in and around the compound. As it turned out.Special Forces' Son Tay Raid t may seem strange to include a raid that failed lo achieve its objective: the rescue of 60-odd American prisoners of war from a Norlh Vietnamese camp at Son Tay near Hanoi. Wiiy were U.S. had the Soviets and Chinese noi been loo embarrassed to admit their losses. several serious firefighls. 56 of the most-skilled Green Berets. on a moonlit night. during which a fire extinguisher broke loose from a bulkhead and fractured the Ilight engineers ankle (though ihat didiii stop him from jumping oui and joining the raiding force as assigned). and seriotis opposition never showed up. reloading and takcoffs—took jusl 29 tninutes. In 1972 planners within the U. Air Force C-130 motherships that participated in the raid. led by Colonel Arthur Simons (a pariicipani in ihe 1944 Cabanatuan raid) Led by one of two U. straight into a hornet's nest just 23 miles west of Hanoi. 1970. two complete sweeps of the camp cells and anywhere else was empty. seemed powerless to do anything about the hundreds of prisoners—most of them downed pilots—being held and tortured in I boarded three helicopters and flew." became the standartl excuse. Though ihe operation waîi never authorized. Ailer three months of mission rehearsals at a mockup of the pri. There. intelligence agencies unaware the POWs had left Son Tay? At least one agency did know the camp en O o CO o North Vietnamese camps.S. some of whom were killed in what could have been a major international incident. The helo tasked to land inside ihe litiy prisiin compound was too large to get back prisoners might be.000-man North Vietnamese Army regiment was within 20 minutes of Son Tay.s believed Son Tay had become a base for Russian and Chinese troops. including Hoa Lo.son compound at Eglin Air Force Base.S.. some raid parlicipant. While enemy body count estimates of 200 may have been exaggerated. and military planners hatched the mission because the U. and an entire 12. Joint Chiefs of Staff proposed a second POW rescue mission. CH-53S and a CH-3 head out for the would-be rescue at Son Tay. damn it. "Nobody asked us. Some feared the operation had been compromised and that the raiders could be heading into an ambush. il would have been the ultimate raid. The entire raid—landings. There certainly had been American POWs at Son Tay.S.S. but the government's numerous spook groups were too compartmentalized and competitive to consult one another. raider was a fractured ankle. And though there's no proof. Army Special Forces troops and Air Force volunteers flew to Thailand.

so their rehearsals. from both the elite Sayeret Matkal commando unit and the regular army. Thus the assault team was out of its cars and into the terminal in seconds.IDF's Entebbe Rescue 1976 a commando in a following Land Rover put them àovm with an AK-47. Col. radar-evading. the day before the executions were to begin. for they knew Amin had just replaced his black Mercedes with a white one. Kenya. The phony presidential motorcade was already on the runway and rolling toward the terminal before the first C-130 had even stopped. nearly eight-hour flight over the With the Entebbe hostages safely in Israel. the hijackers released non-Jewish passengers and corralled the remaining 85 Jewish and Israeli hostages (plus 20 others. or they would kill the hostages one by one. a pair of Palestinian terrorists and two German accomplices hijacked an Air France Airbus A300 carrying 248 passengers and forced ihe crew to fly it to Entebbe. The vastly more experienced Israelis killed 45 Ugandan soldiers. inciuding the 12-person French crew. shot by a Ugandan from the control tower: Lt. trundling across the tarmac in the APCs. a black Mercedes-Benz limousine and two Land Rovers. The hijackers issued a brutal ultimatum: Israel was to free 53 convicted terrorists that it and various other countries had jailed. Once in Uganda. wl-ule the IDF lost just one man. so the raiders had access to detailed plans and had even slapped together a jartial replica of the terminal for T he July 1976 Israeli raid on Uganda's Entebbe Airport remains one of the most audacious rescue missions of all time. destroyed all 11 Ugandan Air Force MiG-17s on the field. an ecstatic crowd lifts the lead C-130 pilot in triumph during a spontaneous victory celebration. taking the hijackers by near-total surprise. Though the assault rifle's characteristic bark had betrayed the Israelis' presence too soon. Aboard four C-130 Hercules transports were some 200 troops. Other teams. spent two days rehearsing it and jumped off for Uganda on the afternoon of July 3. they were well prepared. Yoni Netanyahu was commander of the assault team and the brother of Benjamin Netanyahu. the other a flying hospital that landed in Nairobi. the Israel Defense Forces put together the raid in three days. the Hercs landed at Entebbe at 11:01 pm with their cargo bays open and loading ramps deployed. But then two Ugandan sentries tried to stop the caravan. Two IDF troopers in the Mercedes fired at the guards with silenced pistols but missed. to prevent pursuit once the unarmed C-130s took off. Israel's current prime minister.1976. . An Israeli contractor had built the Entebbe terminal. Accompanying the C-130s were two Israeli Air Force Boeing 707s—one a commandand-control aircraft that would circle Entebbe during the operation. backed by pro-Palestinian dictator Amin's troops. The limo and SUVs were to impersonate a Ugandan VIP caravan. On June 27. After a circuitous. Four more Palestinian conspirators had joined the hijackers on the ground. And had it not been a match-up between some of the world's liest commandos and some of the world's worst soldiers—despot Idi Amin's amateur army—it probably would not have worked. which refused to abandon its passengers) inside the airport terminal. as Amin was due back from nearby Mauritania and traveled with his own vehicles. several small armored personnel carriers. to await the outcome of the mission. refueling in Libya en route. The entire raid took 53 minutes. Red Sea and East Africa. Incredibly. most spent loading the freed hostages and refueling the Hercs.

To avoid enemy radar. the firsl bomb hit ihe lip of the dam and exploded to no effect. flying hclow treeiop level. On the night of May 16-17. man- though at least 1. The third of three bombs breached the Mohne dam. MILITARY HISTORY . The Lanes hit ihe Eder dam three times before breaching it. The earthen Sorpe dam escaped damage. These huge. Its rapid rotation then "walked" the barrel down the submerged face of the dam. Some 1. DAMBUSTING 101 Bomb released Bomb skips Back-spinning bomb hugs dam . would turn ihc valley into a lake. providing hydroelectric power for the valley's factories. of Vickers' aircraft division. the device would have to explode underwater to intensify the blast. Simple but ingcninus optical devices would enable Iioiiibardicrs to release the devices at exactly the correct altitude and distante from the dams. bridges demolished and factories ruined in Hooding ihat stretched for 50 miles. When dropped from a Lane flying 60 icet above the water at precisely 240 mph. afler two months of rehearsal over English reservoirs. and a pressure fuse set it offal maximum depih. which. the big Lanes flew low. 19 Lancasters launched Operation Chastise in three groups— one group to attack the Mohne and Edcr dams. developed what came to be called the "bouncing bomb" specifically for use against the dams. which flew through the blast. Several large dams blocked rivers thai fed the Ruhr. Lancaster four-engined bombers. but it required complex planning and precise timing. Another followed a moonlit firebreak through a forest. the attackers experienced mixed results. And. Detonating a bomb against the dry side of a thick dam would cause only superficial damage. Busting the dams wouldn't be easy. but torpedo netting protected the waler approaches. an effective bomb would have to detonate at the submerged base of the dam and hard up against ihe structure^—^precision impossible to attain with conventional aerial bombs. Germany had the vital Ruhr factories baek to normal production within lournionihs. 1943. a second to Iximb tJie Soqx' to stay in the air. eoal tnines flooded. fmlcss barrels were fitted laterally and partially retracted in the bomb bays of modified Avro Successful delivery of the bouncing bomb may seem childishly simple In the above illustration. thus. and the British realized they could badly damage the Nazi war effori hy flooding the area.000 of them were non-German loreed laborers. Operation Chastise nonetheless remains one of ihe most specialized iind leehnologieally advanced surprise bombing raids ofWorld War 11. British engineer Barnes Wallis. ihe dams held back hundreds of millions of gallons of water.RAF Dambusters Ov T he Ruhr Valley was Germany's workshop during World War II. And while villages were swept away. A hydraulic motor and belt dri\'c within the aircraft spun the bomb to 500 rpm during the approach to ihe target. one device per airplane. the bomb took a series of skips calculated to bring it 10 the upstream surface of the dam at water level. (7-' Bomb detonates at depth ae Furthennore. The RAF lost nearly half its attacking force—eight aircraft—and 56 men (three of whom were captured). One hit the sea. the Royal Air Force hoped. and attacks on several smaller dams failed.600 people died on the ground. though its bomb was torn loose. of course. o o dam and the third as a backup reserve. other than to damage ihc attacking buicasicr. Once over their targets.

known as "the Gibraltar of the Confederacy. Grant. burning Confederate supplies. Colonel Ben Grierson should be. and trashed an incalculable amount of enemy food.Grierson's Mississippi Raid n the opening years of the Civil War." as it sat atop a frontally unassailable 200-foot bluff. so the line went. marked the beginning of the end for the Confederacy. and Lee's concurrent defeat at Gettysburg. Southern boys had grown up racing and sporting with horses. General William T. To endrun its defenses. the Yankee serpent had slithered more than 600 miles through Mississippi and recrossed Union lines into Baton Rouge.700 men on what was arguably the most effective cavalry raid ot the Civil War. in the words of 1st Sergeant Stephen Forbes. the Federal raiders operated strictly under theneurreni rules of warlare. Of his 1. La. Miss. Grierson achieved exactly what he'd been ordered to do: Confederate forces were so disconcerted by the raid that Maj. stores and supplies. killed or wounded 100 Confederates. living off 1863 During their epic ride. hurned several large trains filled with Confederate goods: destroyed tons of small arms and ordnance." Despite his lifelong fear of horses. The Confederates had by that time tasked some 20. ever since one delivered a near-fatal kick to his head as a child. captured 500 prisoners and 1. One rail passenger was allowed to offload household goods before his train was torched. (3El I the land and generally confounding the South's citizenry and its army And he did just that. sacking plantations.700 horsemen into hostile Mississippi with no hope of support from other Union forces and maraud the entire length of the lion's den. Gen. and following Í another attack Grierson's troops 2 helped locals quench house fires S sparked by cinders from a railear the í Yankees had ignited. just 26 were killed.000 horses and mules. the city fell on July 4. Grant was able to sbuttle 23. Grierson. destroying military and government buildings. tearing down telegraph lines. it would fatally split the South. Colonel Benjamin Grierson led 1. when the Union cavalrymen had lo fight four small hut sharp engagements to reach safety. 1st Cavalry Division of the Union I6th Army Corps. wounded.000 officers and soldiers to stamp out Grierson. the Union would have to mass troops on the Vicksburg side of the river both north and south of the city. With Grant besieging Vicksburg from the south and Maj. On April 17. Ulysses S. Leading it was Colonel Benjamin H. Sherman and Lee are well remembered. The outcome of the war remained uncertain in early 1863. the South never laid a glove on him. Sherman battering it from the north. While a handfvil of Grierson's men ranged ahead of the main column in phony Confederate uniforms to gather inlormation. Control hinged on taking the river city of Vicksburg. But how to distract the Confederates during the troop buildup? Thai was Grierson's job: Lead 1. Despite that reputation. Sixteen days later. while Northerners. They could take whatever food they needed lor themselves and their mounts and destroy anything that might aid the South's war efforts. After all. Ï Uliimately. so he learned to lead cavalry by reading store-bought training manuals. but looting and pillaging were prohibited. . "|The brigadel slid like a huge serpent into the cover of the Mississippi woods. "Union cavalr^'" was sometimes disparaged as an oxymoron.1863. taken prisoner or missing. arguably the most successful eavalry operation of the entire war was carried out by the 1st Brigade. 1863. but until the last day of the raid.000 troops across the Mississippi River south of Vicksburg without significant opposition. might have done better saddling their cows. but President Lincoln figured if his armies could establish control of the Mississippi River. That loss. ripping up railway tracks. Grierson had turned down a West Point education in favor of the piano.700 cavalrymen. Grierson's raiders tore up nearly 60 miles of railroad track and telegraph lines.. a former Illinois music teacher and hand leader who hated horses.

Syria and on ofThuimoseiifromthe I .opposite opposite.000 horses in history's first large-scale amphibious operation. 1479-1425 Bc) fought more battles over a longer period and won more victories than any general in the ancient world.000 infantrymen. had just put ashore 10. MILITARY HISTORY . Thutmose III (r. he revealed himself projecting Egypt's might.2 years. facing the ?S::.In the era of crude papyrus maps and dead reckoning. offers no hint of his tactical In his first major campaign as pharaoh. 500 chariots and 1. the Euphrates—an average ot one every 1. While this was not a new experience—pharaoh Thutmose Ill's armies had invaded the region the year before—the method of the pharaonic marauders' arrival was unique: They had come from the sea. one of the great captains of antiquity and arguably Egypt's greatest general. P Temple Temple of of Amun Amun. Gabriel One afternoon in the year 1471 BC. Their ruler. In the 20 years between 1479 and 1459 BC. the people of what is now southern Lebanon were startled by the sudden appearance of vast numbers of Egyptian soldiers. A« inscrutable statue he fought g t 17 7 campaigns in Palestine. Thutmose III dared cross the seas to subdue a region By Richard A.S™:^d combined Syrian and Canaanite armies at Megiddo in the importance of navai 1 TA 1 • 1 A~Tr^ 1 1 ? ir superiority as a means of southern Palestme m 1479 BC.

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The perpetually timber-poor Egyptians constructed their carvel-style vessels by building up planking over widely separated ribs. Egyptian ship design reached its zenith during the reign of Hatshepsut. Whoever controlled the stopping points along the coast could thus also control the commercial shipping. where they facilitated wars of liberation against the Hyksos and later in keeping the Nile's traffic flowing. something no pharaoh before him had done. so they put in to the beach each evening.tHeyfurt ured the hull with bracing ropes. o to be a first-rate tactician and logistician. to command the dockyard. Huge rectangular sails caught tfie win from midship mastj rangjng. 2613-2589 BC) built vessels 100 cubits {170 feet) long and capable of carrying 80 to 100 tons of cargo. Ships involved in commercial trade among Egypt. the pharaoh again attacked the southern Lebanese coast. Thutmoses revival of Egyptian naval power in the eastem Mediterranean reveals the broad sweep of his strategic thinking. And in a preview of his future tactical innovation. LlJ fia o ^. he was also the first commander in history to cany out an amphibious river crossing. in the northeastern Nile Delta. and to him Egypt owes the design and implementation of a strategic vision that permitted the once defeated and insular society to become a great nation of imperial dimensions. Thutmose Ill's stepmother and aunt. The following year. Prompting the policy shift was the rise on the Euphrates (roughly the area of modern-day Kurdistan) ofthe Mitanni kingdom. as he led his army across the Euphrates in boats transported 300 miles overland and assembled on the banks of the river. Egypt had largely confined its naval operations to the Nile. turning it into a major port city He appointed his son. While the earliest example of an Egyptian seagoing ship dates from the reign of King Sahure(r 2487-2475 BC). King Snetru (r. Realizing the importance of maritime might. Amenhotep II. not warships. Until the 147Í BC campaign. Thutmose III upgraded the Egyptian navy and ordered construction of a large dockyard and mihtary base on the site of the old Hyksos capital at Avaris. seeking to establish a platform from which to launch further operations against Syria and the Mitanni. Thutmose III specifically regarded Syria as a strategic threat to Egypt. lu O z . Thutmose took an army to the Lebanese coast in 1472 BC to protect Egypt's supplies of strategic raw materials (cedar and tin) and to keep open the Lebanese ports and ground routes to the Syrian interior. a Hittite vassal state prone to interference in Syria. Canaan and Lebanon could make 50 to 60 miles in daylight with favorable winds.fn height/ from 18 to 51 feet. snof sailifig. but saihng on the open sea was not undertaken at night. Egyptian ships were transports. Thutmose was a brilliant strategic thinker..Thut's Transport The ancient Egyptians were perhaps the first people to construct genuine ships. Once MILITARY HISTORY .

Such ships could carr>' hetween 80 and 100 tons of cargo. about 30 miles by sea from Byblos. Although ihc Annah of Thutmose in the Temple of Amun at Karnak do not record where the invaders landed. and by dark the . Thutmose 111 could move his iroops and supplies by sea at will and wiihüui fear of attack. chariots and horses. a little over a week after leaving Egypt. oarsmen provided propulsion. T hutmose Ill's amphibious invasion of southern Lebanon was a massive logistical undertaking. despite the fact that ships put into shore each night for the crews to rest. yet were ot shallow enough draft to permit easy beaching and pushing off. The Egyptian landings met no resistance. speed. A sea voyage avoided the wear and tear on an army that inevitably accompanied an overland march. As each troopship approached the beach. his force would also include 2.ssembling the chariots and forming up before moving inland with the infantry. in addition to troops. for the average Egyptian soldier of tbe period-who stood 5-foot-8 and weighed around 145 pounds-carried some 60 pounds of weapons. The invasion fleet left Egypt in early ]une 1471 BC and made nightly stops along ihe coasts of Canaan and Lebanon. cargo space and tons burden to the average Roman Republican transport. The ships that would transport his force were ideally suited to the lask—^approximately 60 cubits (102 feet) long and 20 cubits (34 feet) wide and comparable in size. The fleet would have reached the landing site around midday. Elite chariot units were the first to unload. equipment and provisions. That's not to say they were lightly burdened. 340 miles distant. While an overland march from Egypt to Lebanon would have taken almost six weeks. troops or horses. the most logical place would have been the port of Simyra. the journey by ship took slightly more than a week. the men a.000 donkeys and mules needed by the army lor overland transport. the transports carrying the chariots and horses could beach themselves.men c^ntrolle the thick linen sails th lines and yard^ nd steered using two aft oars. Egypl conirolled ihc Lebanese ports. some 65 ships would have sufficed. eat and sleep. The ships would have reached the friendly port of Byhlos. ate and boarded the transports with their weapons and equipment. Eor an invasion force of this size. Once the infantry had secured the beach. The troops woke early at Byblos. The major strategic consequence of the pharaoh's revival of Egyptian naval capabilities was thus to secure effeclive control of the coastal easiem Mediterranean. Wben arriving in or departing from barbor. a dominance Egypt held for more than two centuries. a company of soldiers made its way from benches in the ship's belly to the deck and then jumped into the shallows to wade ashore. thus Thutmose Ill's troops arrived reasonably combat-ready.

on the Orontes River that prince's cartouche. prompting them to hastily send chariin the heart of the Eleutheros Valley. the largest agricultural town against the princes of awares. The large open plain northwest of the city is ideal That Thutmose III did after his victory at Kadesh suggests that intimidation. not conquest. It seems unlikely Kadesh itself actually fell to Egyptian arms. was the object of his march to the Syrian interior. overthrew it." on the Orontes close to modern-day Hama. HE GAVE TO ME GOLD BECAUSE OF BRAVERY. The knnah tell us he "came to the land of Senzar. The march took him through the territories of the powerful city-states of Qatna and Tunip. AS LIVING PRtSONERS. who fielded only from the coast. HE [Thutmose] CAPTURED THE CITY OF KADESH. each shield bearing subslanlial supporting infantry formations five-mile march to Kadesh. Amenemhab's account suggests a battle of some magnitude at Kadesh. w MILITARY HISTORY .troops jiid ihcir equipment were ashore and Temple inscriptions at ground for chariots. built field camp. His reference to his prisoners as "lords" also implies chariots took part in the battle. I BROUGHT OFF TWO MEN. Thutmose III amphibious campaigns their city probably caught the enemy unmarched lo Arka. THE LORD OF THE TWO LANDS. LORDS. and it is possible the battle established behind the shield wall of a hastily Karnak. the pharaoh's chariots and There he rested and prepared his troops for the them. Syria. about 40 miles fiiirttJ charioteers of Kadesh. attest to of which Amenemhab speaks was fought ihere. The pharaoh turned north and marched up the Orontes. BEFORE THE WHOLE PEOPLE. The appearance of an Egyptian army so near Thutmose's successf til With his army assembled. According to the Annais. above. The pharaoh fought in Thutmose's army during the Asiatic campaigns: was thus able to demonstrate that the main perpetrator AGAIN I BEHELD Hts B t i A V E R Y . THUTMOSE. a dramatic demonstration of both Egyptian military might and the pharaoh's wiUingness to confront the powerful Syrians on their own ground. ABSENT FROM THE PLACE WHERE HE WAS. Hundreds stand ots to block Thutmose Ill's further advancethe road through the mountains to the interior with hands bound behind On open ground. Thutmose was free to punish and harvested its grain." Supporting that account are the the city in the traditional fashion by cutting down its fruit lonib inscriptions of one Amenemhab. an officer who trees and seizing its recently harvested grain. threading Canaan. the term "lord" being a reference to the maryannu nobility thai served as chariot warriors. WHILE I WAS AMONG HIS FOLLOWof Egypt's troubles in Lebanon was no longer beyond ERS. would have had the advantage over the maryat the east end of the valley. cut down its groves maryamm from the field. I SET THEM BEFORE THE KING. LIVING FOREVER. I WAS NOT the reach of an Egyptian army. Thutmose "arrived a small number of supporting infantry After driving ihe al the city of Kadesh.

This time the target was Arvad. To the west and south rose a great seawall above a natural moat. their sons would be returned home to replace ihem and would. As titne passed and the old rulers died. which his men then disassetnbled and loaded on wagons for the march through the Eleutheros Valley and up the Orontes across Syria to the Euphrates. and second. the pharaoh became increasingly accustomed to the sea and would use it repeatedly to conduct expeditions in Syria and northern Canaan. Eighteen months later. his crossing of the mighty Euphrates. his crossing of the open sea. Gabriel recommends his own Thutmose III: The Military Biography of Eg>'pt's Greatest Warrior King. The pharaoh evidently sought to control the Lebanese coast long term. "Behold. its surface rising only a few feet above the waves. None was recorded. in the country' of Senzar. again by sea. He then turned west into the Eleutheros Valley and marched back to his base at Simyra. given hfc. But again the cities declined battle and offered no resistance to Thutmoses passage through their tenitories. its perimeter enclosed by walls of natural rock. As he had done in earlier campaigns. Reassembling the landing craft. He then turned west and marched back to the Lebanese coast. He could now respond quickly to any far-flung rebellion with large numbers of combat-ready troops. Senzar was close enough to have been one of Tunip's vassals. The success of both campaigns was largely due to the pharaohs innovations in amphibious warfare: first. winding up nearly a month of combat and maneuver. He came to inspect the ports and inland agricultural towns that had sworn allegiance and to check their progress in establishing supply depots and collecting the necessary stores. attacking and burning enemy towns as he went. Thutmose again arrived on the shores of Lebanon with an army His target this time was the Mitanni kingdom. remaining free and maintaining its lucrative trade. when he made a great slaughter among them. 1 brought off a hand there. He gave to me the gold of honor" The town seems to have been destroyed. But Thutmose was too shrewd to rely upon oaths alone. Thutmose Ul deserves regard as Egypt's greatest warrior pharaoh. the pharaoh lurned his army around and marched back dovm the Orontes. Thutmose took the sons of some chiefs as hostages. Just a few miles north of Tunip. remain loyal to Egyptian interests.Marching almost beneath the city walls of Qatna and Tunip was risky business indeed. which they took by storm. He dedicated just five troopships and 3. 26 miles north of Simyra and opposite modem-day Tartus. As the bulk of his army marched along lhe riverbank. enabling Egypt to project power f hutmose 111 returned to coastal Lebanon in the spring of 1470 BC. as Arvad's thousand inhabitants were unlikely to mount any appreciable resistance. The island is only a half-mile long and a quarter mile wide. Thulmose hoped. bul one he could only have pursued after successfully subduing Lebanon and using il as a strategic platform for lurther operations. where two semicircular harbors split by a jetty afforded seaborne access. After capturing Arvad. Thutmose soon drove the enemy from the field in a series of skirmishes. (^ Forjuiiher reading. But Arvad was vulnerable on its landward east side. "1 fought hand to hand before the king. . its equipment and its horses across the Euphrates in history's first amphibious river crossing. T A fter a few weeks of rest and replenishment. the pharaoh fell upon the town of Seruar. Sailing from port to port on his tour. To ensure the Syrians respected the scope of Egyptian power. It is surrounded on three sides hy submerged reefs and rocks. A 35-day march brought the Egyptians to the city of Carchemish. Richard A." Amenemhah said of the battle. an island port some two miles off the Lebanese coast. Thutmose Ill's army again took to the field. and Thutmose's attack was a direct challenge to Tunip's rulers. "I beheld the royal victories of [Thulmose III]. After sacking Senzar. Thutmose embarked on a lour of all the cities and towns he'd subdued in order to accept oaths of loyalty from their rulers. The Euphrates campaign was the greatest militar>' feat of Thulmose Ill's impressive military career. The island government saw that its interest lay in swearing allegiance to Egypt. The texts tell us that rulers of 36 principalities swore allegiance to their new sovereign. enabling Egypt to project power throughout the Levant. Tbutmose 111 had proven his ability to conduct an amphibious invasion far from Egypt. But neither city's army sallied forth to confront Thulmose III and his army. which lay east of the Euphrates more than 300 miles away Thutmose spent a month overseeing construction of amphibious landing craft. Thutmose III decided to take the city by amphibious assault. again passing defiantly through the territories of the three city-states. he loaded troops aboard the landing craft and sailed down the Euphrates. the army transported itself. the children of the chiefs and their brothers were brought to be in strong- á Thutmose could now respond quickly to any far-flung rebellion with combat-ready troops. holds in Egypt. By these benchmarks alone." as the Annals put it. and the "great slaughter" may have been Thutmose Ills deliberately bloody lesson to Tunip that it might meet a similar fate.000 men to the effort.

GERMAN V GERMAN A I Foreign troops fought on DO. sides of the Revoliuionary War —and in direct opposition L at the decisive final battle Bv David T.histor\' that th last major engagcmen of the Revolution pittei .. it is one ( the great ironies G militan..500 German soldiers fougl '• on the American sid( 1 Moreover. les ^ well known is that more tha: . Germans against Germans ii p bmtal slugfesi that hclpe( Idetermine the outcome o . Zabcdü lile every American schoo . Aild for the last 200-plus yeai has learned that Gertiian troop fought for the British durin 1 the American Revolution.

In this image. i^V .1781. opposite. Gen. Comte de Rochambeau. 14. commanded the French expeditionary corps. to which most of the Germans who fought on the American side at Yorktown belonged. troops of the French Gâtinais regiment and Régiment de Royal Deux-Ponts—the latter almost entirely German—storm Redoubt 9 on Oct.Lt. Jean-Baptiste Donatien de Vimeur.

Baron Ludwig von Closen. signed in Paris in Febniary 1778. Gilbert du Motier.000 German troops who served ihe British in North America actually came from the duchies of Hesse-Kassel and Hesse-Hanau. Count Christian von Zweibrücken commanded his father's regiment. Some came from the German-speaking Erench regions of Alsace or Lorraine. cuffs and facings. When Rochambeau formed his corps.000 soldiers. The Deux-Ponts Regiment had "an amazing number of Germanic names" on its roster. Rochambeau embarked from Brest in a 48-ship convoy bearing a Erench expeditionary force of some 6. N. while others were recruited into the French army from German border regions. France formally recognized the United Slates and effectively joined the struggle against their common British foe. Comprising 69 officers and 1.unit's coats were the deep celestial blue worn by the other German infantry regiments in French service f o oc LU 03 the Battle of Yorktown and.. he specifically asked for the Zweibrücken duc to its strength and fighting reputation. but its soldiers called themselves the Zweibrtlcken Regiment. while Christian's younger brother. Jean-Baptiste Donatien de Vimeur. the title "Royal" in a Erench regiment's designation indicated a foreign unit.Y. The Zweibrücken uniform also featured distinctive citron-yellow collars. his tiny single-regiment army served in the Erench army for its entire existence. Unlike British convention. the rest hailed from other German principalities. respectively. The regiment was raised in 1757 hy Duke Christian IV of Pfalz-Zweibrüeken. Deux-Ponts and Zwcihrücken mean the same thing—two bridges. ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ One of Rochambeau's ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ * seven infantry regiments was raised entirely on German soil. of Americas struggle for independence. The unit carried both the Ereneh flag and its own Zweibrücken flag into battle. The Zweibrücken Regiment F MILITARY HISTORY . This was fairly common practice among the major European armies of the time. Count Wilhelm von Zweibrücken— known as Comte Guillaume des Deux-Ponts in the French histories—served as his second. Gen. ollowing ihe 1777 American victory against British forces at Saratoga. Most of the Germans who fought on the American side served in the French expeditionary corps of Lt. the Zweibrücken units coats were the deep celestial blue worn hy the other German infantry regiments in Erench service. In Erench and German." little more than half of the estimated 30. He tapped one of the regiments junior officers. In late 1779. the French committed ground troops to the war during the Siege of Savannah.013 troops. The Erench included a significant number of Germanspeaking troops in their North American force on the theory they could recruit replacements from among the deserters of British-allied German regiments. to serve as his aide-de-camp during the American campaign. after the capital of the eponymous German duchy. Marquis dc Lafayette. The regiment had already served the Erench crown in combai at the 1757 Battle of Rossbach. In May 1780. by extension. Comte de Rochambeau. the Zweibrücken Regiment was among the largest of Rochambeaus units. While the other six infantr)' regiments in Rochambeau's corps wore the standard allwhite uniform of the Erench infantry. a member of a cadet branch of the Witlelsbach family that ruled Bavaria from 1180 to 1918. To offset a debt Duke Christian owed to King Louis XV of France. With that pact. and others pressed for the Franco-American Treaty of Alliance. Though broadly called "Hessians. observed military historian Trevor Dupuy The unit's official name was Rtgiment de Royal Deux-Ponts. 22 foreign regiments served under the Erench flag.

1780. By August the major British force in the South. enlist 67 men while in America. One battalion of Rochambeau's Saintonge Regiment consisted entirely of Germans recruited from Trier. the . the French took up defensive positions around Newport. the French force broke camp and headed for New York on June 19. R. effectively isolating Comwallis at Yorktown and setting the stage for a decisive battle. a French fleet under Admiral François-Joseph-Paul. Washington sent a small force under Lafayette to check Comwallis from the landward side. Rochambeau's cavalry force—commonly called Lauzun's Legion—was officially a German unit. There they remained almost a year to repel an attack thai never came. under Maj. the Bourbonnais Brigade made the final leg of its approach by ship down the Chesapeake Bay and took up positions around Yorktown on September 28. even senior French commanders did nol know iheir ñnal objective. Gen. did. the troops of ihe two elite tlank companies (grenadiers and chasseurs) were typically from German-speaking territories. the bulk of the French and American forces marched south from New York toward Yorktown.In Louis-Nicolas van Blarenberghe's 1784 painting The Surrender of Yorktown. in late August. But the Zweibrücken troops were not the only Germans in Rochambeaus corps. almost a third of the troops were sick with scurvy Anticipating a British naval assault. on July 11. defeated a British fleet under Rear Admiral Sir Thomas Graves al the Battle of the Virginia Capes. Comte de Grasse. T hanks to French local naval superiority. though the Saintonge was officially a French regiment. however.L. Up to that point. Then. had entrenched at Yorktown on the Virginia coast. although the troopers were Polish and Irish as well as Gennan. Following a May 1781 strategy-planning session between Rochambeau and Washington. Brigaded with the Bourbonnais Regiment. For most of the next two weeks. In most French regimenLs of the time. the Zweibrucken played a supporting role in the July 15 skirmish at Tarrytown. On September 5. in fact. Rochambeau's force debarked al Newport. After 71 days at sea. red-coated British troops parade between the lines of blue-coated Deux-Ponts Germans. Charles Comwallis.

Alexatider Hai^i||pí^¿*tormed Redoubt 10. The peninsula provided a narrow river distance to defend. a 2. ! . fill the ditch with fascines and j emplace ladders so the assault \ troops could scale the parapets. Cornwailis took over Yorktown and Gloucester Point. On October 1^ the British niaâé a sortie to disable Allied artillery. Gen. led by Ll. S/iíYís E n August 1781. led by Lt. Col. Count Wilhelm von Zweibrücken. Count Wilhelm^on Zweibrücken.. Grenadiers and chasseurs went first to clear the defensive works. could not be completed i Redoubts 9 and 10 were taken. but to iered on October 19. trenches and redoubts.^_^h5eptember 28 the main Continental and French army • S ^ d within a few miles of Yarktown. a peninsula across the York River from Yorktown. a task given to the Mar de Lafayette and the Baron de Vioméni!. Va. On the nigl October •145BÉteménirs 400 German troops. the Allies began shelling Cornwailis and his men the British fortifications began to crufñbleT'Coñstruction^ a second Allied parallel. began on the night of October 11. was manned on October 7. however. and heavily laden transvessels could easily maneuver in the relatively deep r of the York River. General Sir Henry Clinton ordered Lt. While the terrain provided reasondefense possibilities. seized Redoubt 9 wÉîÏÏe 400 of LafayeXlei^. Two later. Col. Comwallis therefore surrounded Yorktown with a defensive line of artillery batteries./fssicaj. and constructed siege w The first parallel.SIEGE OF YORKTOWN. southeast of Yorktown. -. On ihe morning of I abandoned iheir outermost fortifications. Lord Charles Cornwailis lo capture a coastal area where British ships could harbor safely.Çonlincnla! soldiers.000-yard-long trench about 800 ] from the British line. Redoubts 9 and 10 were constructed on the left of the British line. ^t The parallel. 750 yards long and 300 yards £ H the British. fortifications would be necessary. second paral b Allied first parallel 600 yards To main British defensive works 400 yards ^ To second parallel trench (under construction) ^ ^ 300 yards »^ ¿ ca DISTANCES: REDOUBT 9 to REDOUBT 10: 300 yatás Maps by Steve Waikowlak Redoubt illustration by Kevin Hand BARON DE VIOMÉNIL The Baron de Vioménll gave the ' of capturing Redoubt 9 to Lt. SEPTEMBER OCTOBER 1781 ßv. The Allies over the abandoned redoubts.

be^nning on August 19. Comte de Grasse*Tilly. sparking a two-hour hattle that forced the hattered British fleet to New York. contemporary manuais foilowed Vauban's techniques. arrived off Virginia on August 26 and closed off Chesapeake Bay. which inciuded encircling redoubts with a ditch filled with vertical palisades and slanted fraises.WASHINGTON'S ARMY Whîlë the British were fortifying Yorktown. During the War of independence. General Sir Henry Clinton. A firing step against the interior of the parapet. and it was a square rather than a pentagon. fraises. General Washington lersonaily addressed Hamilton's troops before he attack. Atlantic Ocean L. French Admiral François-Joseph-Paul. Hamilton's 400-man attack on Redouht 10 was led by sappers and miners tasked with clearing the obstacles confronting the infantry. they stealthily moved troops south 450 miles to Yorktown. NJ . abatis—Redoubt 10 was oser to the York River and smailer in area than s companion fortification. into thinking they would attack. Dirt from tbe ditch was used to form the parapet—the mound that formed the perimeter of the redoubt. 300 yards Conducted in virtually the same way as von Zweibrücken's assault on Redouht 9. stranding Cornwallis. Meanwhile. principies for constructing fortifications foilowed the doctrines of Sebastien le Prestre de Vauban. inside the city. Parapets helped keep the men inside from being seen. aiiowed men to look over tbe parapet and shoot. called a banquette. Gênerai George Washington and the Comte de Rochambeau were outside New York City. and the Americans tooi< the Drtification after a bitter 10-minute battle. s*^ -K parapet REDOUBT DETAIL in the 18th century. Rl Graves (British fleet) York River JIEDOUBT 10 hile it shared certain features with Redoubt 9 palisades. York "Tre "Trenton hiladelphia /_. . They deceived their British opponent. a Frenchman who served King Louis XIV.'Washington & l/'^^Rochambeau Wiiiiamsbu de Barras (artiilery transport) sails from Newport. —Instead. A British fleet under Rear-Admiral Thomas Graves arrived off the Virginia coast on Septemher 5. Openings caited embrasures were made in tbe parapet for artillery to fire through.

von Zweibrücken directed their fire on the defenders. These would not be easy positions to storm. von Zweibrücken evacuated to the rear for medical treatment. von Zweibrücken's troops mounted the parapet. Once his men controlled the heights. suflering about a dozen dead and 30 wounded. and many of the wounded later died of their injuries. while ^^^^^^^^* the Erench stormed Redoubl 9. Erench and American artillery moved up within range ofthe British garrison and began pounding its defenses. the British did not counterattack. inflicting several casualties. Forced to relint|tnsh command. a Hessian sentry shouted a challenge in German: "'Werdair ("Who's there?!") Maintaining silence. Tbat afternoon Viomênil. and the defenders immediately opened fire. Vioménil's second echelon consisted of the Bourbonnais and Agenois regiment chasseurs. Out in front of the column. The first 50 troops would throw hundled brushwood fascines into the perimeter ditch. Viomênil put Wilhelm von Zweibrücken in command of the 400-man all-German assault element. nearest the river. while 120 managed to fall back to British lines. Alexander Hamilton led a 400-man American assault on Redoubt 10. Spotting von Zweibrücken's troops about 100 yards out from the trench. The parapet was a hard climb under ideal conditions. led the French forces. The lead element comprised the grenadier and chasseur (light infantry) companies of the Gâtinais and Zweibrücken regiments. some 400 yards to the left. Gen. On the right. von Zweihrücken peered over the top ofthe parapet to assess the situation. Defending the redoubt were soldiers from Musketeer Regiment von Bose of Hesse-Kassel. Massed together. Thankfully. temporarily deafening and blinding him. Behind them followed eight soldiers wilh assault ladders. Von Zweibrüeken was about to order his men to fix bayonets and assault the posilion when the defenders laid down their amis and surrendered. As the assault troops were mopping up. but the attackers held on as the pioneers worked feverishly to widen the breaches in the defenses. Antoine Charles du Houx. The positions centered on strong field fortifications. Viomênil ordered von Zweibrücken to move into the trenches and advance to the line of departure. Gâti^^^^^^^^ nais Lieutenant Jean-François de Sillcgue helped hoist his commander to the top before taking a musket n^und in the thigh. von Zweibrücken and other officers reviewed the plan of attack on Redoubt 9 and reconnoitered the forward lines and axis of advance. as the British called them. Lt. As more men gained the top of the parapet. von Zweibrücken instmcted his troops to hold their fire until they reached the crest of the parapet. von Zweibrüeken consolidated his position and deployed his troops. Lt. Viomênil came forward and told them to expect a counterattack. compromised the entire operation. Their mission was to cut through the abatis. no one was to jump down into the British position until he gave the order. each capped by a parapet overlooking a defensive ditch. Breaking through in small numbers. As soon as the positions were secure. and von Zweibrückens men suffered more casualties as his axmen hacked away at the obstacle. simultaneous attack on the evening of October 14. Baron de Viomênil. the artillery signaled the attack. Before jumping ofT. Hamilton's Americans had an easier time taking Redoubt 10. he and his men waited for the signal that would launch the attack—six shells fired in rapid succession by a battery immediately to the rear. The defenders then tried to drive them oíT with a bayonet charge.Zweibrücken troops spent every third day digging trenches. But the capture ol' Redoubts 9 and 10 marked the beginning of the end of the Battle of Yorktown. 500 American diggers continued extending the second siege parallel to the river. Just then. a cannonball hit the redoubt. making it easier to cross. with the Gâtinais 2nd Battalion in reserve. rows of outward-facing sharpened stakes. a Continental Con- á George Washington clearly appreciated the role 'his Germans' played in the American victory at Yorktownf o o o: UJ o MILITARY HISTORY . They must fall. Once in position. Ringing the ditches were abatis. ricocheted close to the commander's head and blasted sand and gravel into his face. von Zweibrücken fell back into the ditch. In just seven minutes of combat. and von Zweibrücken led his troops forward in silence. On October 9. Completing the French assault echelon were the Gâtinais grenadiers and Zweibrücken grenadiers and chasseurs. As darkness fell. He presented the Gâtinais and Zweibrücken regiments each with one of the British brass cannon they had captured. Shortly after dark. On his first attempt. Col. only to encounter withering musket fire. When a sentry shouted thai the British were forming up to attack. He organized his column into three echelons. they made an easy target for the attackers' fire. Von Zweibrücken put the Gâtinais chasseurs at the head of his column. Wilhelm von Zweibnkkens force had lost 46 killed and 68 wounded. Under British artillery fire. The Hessian defenders suffered only lfi killed and 43 captured. Redoubts 9 and 10. who took up a makeshift defensive position behind some barrels. Artillery rounds had hardly touched the abatis. a pair of sergeants led a dozen ax-carrying pioneers from both regiments. He died 40 days after being wounded. li was the largest allied loss of the entire battle. The allies launched a two-pronged. Diggers began a second siege parallel on October 11 but were forced to halt work as the trench ran up against two strong defensive works on the British left near the York River. George Washington clearly appreciated the role "his Germans' had played in the American victory. tbe attackers pushed forward.

Acomb. As foreigners and noblemen. . Then.1791. The dukes of Zweibrücken lost their proprietorship of the Regiment de Royal Deux-Ponts about the time the French army dismissed its German officers. He translated von Zweibrückens journal into English and published it in America the following year. des Dames and Aisnc. it saw combat at though von Zweibrücken Verdun. The 240-year history of the 99th Infantry Regiguemines. Rochambeau noted he had approved two days' extra pay for the grenadiers and chasseurs of both regiments and a bonus above that to the pioneers who had spearheaded the attack and broken through the abatis. and in 19h8 wait was brief. Va. eventually reaching Boston in early December. and its solhero of Yorktown. in the province of Lorraine. serving in Lebanon reduction of the extensive British defenses at Yorktown. Cbemin was quite junior in seniority. In early July 1782. In November 1781. Munich and joined the service of their family. 1780-1783. next available regiment. command of the 3rd Regiin tbe 1980s and Bosnia in ment of Chasseurs at Sarrethe 1990s. which was eventually published in Fnglisb in 1958. from 1862 to 1865. at the age of 35. Rochambeau's corps went into winter quarters around Williamsburg and Jamestown. Va. He was promoted ment ended in 1997. A Wilhelm von Zweibrücken kept ajournai during his service in America. The 99tb InRochambeau sent von Zweifantry Regiment continued its brücken to deliver his official long record of distinguished report to King Louis XVI service to the Frencb army: It and present the court witb fought in the 1792 Battle of the captured British colors. Valmy. but it vanished in the chaos of the French Revolution. the regimental colors bore the The von Zweibrücken brothers were still serving in red lion from the coat of arms of Zweibrücken—which today the French army when revolution toppled the Ancien is a sister city of Yorktown. also kept a journal. Von Closen. from the war minister put him 1927 to 1964. von Zweibrücken took attention to the next tactical objective during the 1781 regiment. Rochambeau's aide-de-camp. Rochambeau's force boarded ships and departed for the French West Indies. Most of the noblemen in the officer corps enjoyed the social life of the Tidewater gentry. Until the end. when the unit disbanded as part of to brigadier general in January 1784 and to major general the French army downsizing and conversion into an allfour years later. translated and edited by Samuel Abbott Green. David Zabechi recommends: The Revolure. a future mayor of Boston. the Royal Deux-Ponts ment. His in 1944 and 1945. Louis. an American named Samuel Abbott Green. and edited by Evelvn M. French uniform. ahead of the regiThus. translated family's unsuccessful flight from Varennes onjune 25. officers around the same time. the Somme. Six day*. during the Order of St. and in January 1791 the regiment lost its "Royal" designation.signed his commission after being implicated in the royal tionary Journal of Baron von Closen.gress resolution confirmed the gift. the Von Zweibrücken received a 99th served in North America hero's welcome at Versailles. but many troops died from disease or wounds they had suffered at Yorktown. (0| Régime. In 1790 the French stopped recruiting soldiers in Germany. In his official report to the French government. leapfighting in the French Alps frogging him over more than during the Liberation of France 500 waiting colonels. Then the French National Assembly eliminated all regimental names and asrriving in France well signed number designations. the unit served atop the command list for the as an alpine infantry regiment. in June 1867. Wilhelm von became tbe 99th Infantry RegZweibrücken was feted as the iment of tbe Line. finally returning to France in June 1783. AlWorld War 1. the French started moving north. stumbled across the journal in a Parisian secondhand book stall. diers assumed the standard after Cornwallis surrenderee!. and My Campaigns in AmerThe army dismissed Christian and most other German ica: A Journal Kept by Count William de Deux-Ponts. On Christmas Day. as part of the French expediwhere the king awarded bim tionary force in Mexico. volunteer force. Wilhelm For further reading. The brothers then went to 1780-1781. In January General Washington directs the Comte de Rochambeau's it reverted to a standard infantry 1782. they fell under double suspicion by tbe revolutionary government.

FALL OFTHE Two decades ago. Berliners tore down their hated wall MILI lAKJl ROBERTLACKEmACH/TlMELIFEPICTURES/GETTYIMAQES .

East German troops would add more walls and watchtowers.A woman in West Berlin peers through a hole in the border wall shortly after its If completion in 1961. i .

Among their first victims was 18-year old Peter Fechter. 9. was called the "death strip. In the Cold War paranoia that followed World War II. Only a heroic effort by Allied transport MILITARY HISTORY . troops raised the border wall and added an inner wall to thwart escape from East Berlin. after long weeks of peaceful protests. a generation of forced isolation from their Western counterparts was over. tens of thousands of disaffected East Germans streamed unchallenged through checkpoints along the Berlin Wall—and just like that. The wall Joseph Stalin had built to keep people in no longer held any power. The barren no man's-land between walls.O n Nov. left. above. Soviet-occupied East Germany. It was all over but the sledgehammering. prompting the first wave of Western emigration. the East German secret police. below. who was shot to death on Aug.1962. gave guards shoot toki)l orders. 1989. Stalin dropped the Iron Curtain on As construction progressed. In 1948 he sought to starve out Berlins holdout Western sector with a yearlong blockade. 17." Stasi.

later. . East German guards forbade graffiti.The West Berlin side of the wait was something of a tourist attraction and. a canvas for graffiti artists.

HfUT'/irrtCHT. West and East Germans alike clambered like children atop the relic of communist oppression. RóíK^ltHT&lOS plESt KAlHT VEREINEN.3 million tons of food and supplies to West Berhn. in June 1961. DIE MHH DURtw MEIN I>>JNNES HEMD BEKUHRTÊ. . In desperation. Nikita Khrushchev ordered construction of the 103-mile wall. ¡Í. Finally. »IE yERLOÄENESWifoERFIHpEfi.. iHRUMVíRHDHj.IM SANFTEM I N n i l N E f i HA/»R. Even the wall couldn't quell the desire for freedom. including the stretch above. Stahn closed the border between the two German states. iB By the niid-1980s.^ DER i-flUEN LUFT.3£Dt'R L'AUF PER FSEIONISSE MAR DÍNKBAR. o o ÏSI ac LU OD CO o MILITARY HISTORY . kept that sector free. as East Germany shpped further into economic stagnation. who delivered more than 2.H M I T (N > GEBOftG M ' I Î Û S S ÜMÜ IHRER pilots. Through the 1950s.fMf< flECtHRÊN 'NDrüREWICmtlNANDfRzD VERStHMEUEN TANP SffNt TM ISPRMHUNG IN . but the exodus continued through West Berlin.. graffiti covered much of the West Berlin side of the wall. the brain drain to the West accelerated.. When the wall fell in late 1989. So it is this fall Germans mark a double anniversary (see H 11)—20 years since the wall came down and 19 since reunification. centered on verse entitled "Den Hellsten Stern Am Himmel Suchend' ("Searching for the Brightest Star in the Sky").

East German troops began demolishing the latter day concrete wall. Few traces remain. .Nearly 30 years after their forebears placed the first bricks.

a strong faction was just as vocal in ils support. Navy. For ibc next tbree years. During tbe second incident. Ala. Twice. supplies and men to aid the Cuban rebels.And as the debates wore on in Congress. ostensibly to an American namedjohn H Panerson. each time it found safety in tbe lee of tbe gunboat USS Kansas. Patterson was acting on bebalf of Quesada and two partners.To the Brink in sbip to carry munitions. Manuel de Quesada. Kansas' sister sbip. Manuel de Quesada bought a boat. Lieu- A Spanish gunboat finally caught up with Virginius. Virginius earned a reputation as an outlaw. Thousands of Cuban exiles in key American cities bad organized political groups. just two years into the ill-starred Ten Years' War for Cuban independence. and the resolution failed. Quesada's cboice was the 2üO-footlong side-wbeel steamer Virginius. While many Americans joined bim in opposing recognition ol the rebel Cuban republic. but at tbe last minute. Tbey planned to use tbe o MILITARY HISTORY . intervention—or at least recognition. it bad served in tbe mercantile trade between Havana and New Orleans. President Ulysses S. alternately flying the Cuban and American flags on its voyages and eluding capture by tbe powerful Spanish navy.S. Coincidentatly. Scottish huilt in 1864. After tbe war. In 1870 Virginius was auctioned off ai tbe Wasbington Navy Yard. Barring tbat. an American blockaderunner filled with Cuban rebels and munitions. staging social events and rallies to enlist the aid of moneyed businessmen and garner Congress' support. coffeeboftses and tbe offices of great men of commerce. What Spain did next nearly sparked a war BY RON SOODALTER In 1870. Ba^iins commander. operating between Havana and Mobile. he changed bis mind. the ship narrowly escaped capture. the ship had . commander in chief of lhe rebel Republic ol Cuba.begun life as a Confederate blockaderunner. sailed to the United States in se^cb of sympaihy and support. USS Canandaigua. sailed between Virginius and the Spanish gunboat Bazan. In fact. allowing Kansas to escort the blockade-runner safely into open walcr. tbey would happily accept money and munitions. or juntas. Crant came within a hair's breadtb of recognizing Cuban belligerency. the rebels sought U.S. who purchased tbc ship with funds from ihe New York Cuban junta. Ideally. witb belp from tbe U.

tenant José Maria Autrán. But in October 1873.s for bis first expedition to Cuba. He had fought for the Union in a regiment of New York volunteers during the Civil War. dier of fortune with a history of rein-. he stowed his goods and gear aboard iiw. a 28-year-old seasoned veteran with a reputation as a man of compassion. aka Bembeta. who was on his first outing as a soldier of the revolution. it was looking for experienced soldiers. Well over a year past its last overhaul. its luck ran out. Captain of Virginius . the ship was showing signs of hard usage as il lay at anchor off Kingston.' ^Joseph Fry. was furious al the loss of his quarry. Co!. hul he preferred to he ciîlled George Wasbington Ryan. Among the men scheduled to hoard Viigiiiius were three luminaries of the Cuhan revolution and a transplanted Irish soldier-adventurer. Viij^iniiis" luck held ihrough a threeyear succession of captains and dangerous missions. The flamboyant mercenary was given the rank of colonel. earning a captains bars and a commendation for bravery. venting himself. I will be with them. he struck a mutually advantageous deal with the Cuban junta. the provisional president's younger brother. was a tall. After the war. Jamaica. The three Cuhans were General Bernahé Varona. and Ryan was looking to make his fortune. handsome solDepictions of the Virginius Incident such as this period jllustration-in which Captain Fry bids farewell to each of his crewmen prior to execution-churned up war fever among the American public to an intensity unseen since the end of the Civil War eigbt years earlier. awaiting a New York steamer carrying supplies and more than 100 Cuhan volunteer soldiers. and less than 48 hours. an Irish cxpatriale named Ryan. In mid-October 1873. but be hrevelted himself a general. They shot yesterday splendid fellows. His birth name was William Allx-n Charles Ryan. a fortner landowner who had liberated his slaves when he Joined the fight. The fourth man. but he would soon have a chance lo even [he score. Lt. and Pedro de Céspedes. Jesus del Sol.

the Tampa native joined the Confederacy when Florida seceded. the don bad earned Cubans' Listing hatred long before Ins mistreatment of Fry and ibe V'irginiiis crew convinced Americans he was tbe epitome of evil. Fry was described as "tall. DESPOTS & DIPLOMATS \tanucl dc Qucsada As commander in chief of the rebel Republic of C uba. the night—beneath a beartbreakingly bright full moon. and he relied on this for proper treatmetit of his crew and passengers. Some were very young. finally. Its design speed of 12 knots had dropped in half. Gen. the same firm thai had constructed Virginius had buill Tornado: the Spanish ship was remarkably fast and carried 10 guns. at one point throwing haim. But Virginius had been run hard for years and was showing its age. the ships sighted one another.anililon I orramc Known for his naval skills and pugnacious nature. The Spanish authorities in Cuba had learned from their consul in Kingston that Virginius was on the way. Haiti. he took aboard 500 Remington rifles. -400 revolvers. As the hours crawled by. yet Fry drove on. No shipment oi this magnitude had ever been smuggled into Cuba. drill and train the recruits and make cursory repairs. When tbe vessel docked. and the chase was on. Many of the 52 men—nearly all American and British —who signed aboard had no idea of the actual nature of the voyage. lt took 10 days to load cargo and supplies. Spanish guards marched the prisoncrs^— crewmen and passengers alike—to jail to await trial on the charge of piracy. was a merciless martinet. 600 sabers and hundreds of thousands of rounds of ammunition. Fry's papers declared Virj^inius lo be an American-registered vessel. three no older than 13. Fry ordered his men to jettison guns and supplies and shovel even more coal into tbe already overextended boilers. Ryan served under former Confederate Brig. bacon and fat beef from ihe food stores into the fire. believing the aging cargo vessel to be on a routine run. and the chase was over. SIT l. and it fell to Fry to sign on a new crew. Virginius could take no more. and Spanish sailors rowed exultantly toward their prize. Virginius sleamed into the dusk and. Donjuán Burriel As commander of ihe vicious and despised V<ilijni(in<»s niihtia. His threat cowed the merciless Spaniard and helped save at least some of VirginiiiN' crew. The stokers frenziedly fed ihe boilers. as well as clothing. serving with distinction and rising to the rank of commodore. he could lose il in the dark. Within six miles of Jamaica. After Appomattox. work was hard to find—especially for a former Rebel—as the nation sank gradually into a depression. On the morning of October 31. it seemed Fry's plan would work. food and medical supplies. Coinciden la! ly. Fry took command of Vifginius to stipport his wife and seven children. One shot tore away Virginius' stack. Captain Fry was capable of rnnning tbe . ¡I'scpb 1 ry An experienced mariner and former C.onfederate naval officer. Most of Virginius' seamen left the ship at Kingston.V o (M irg^nius^ masler on that trip was an experienced officer named Joseph Fry. However. At Port-au-Prince. One ofthe boys was running away from home. Still. the head of a vicious paramilitary group of Spanish MILITARY HISTORY . Virginius' men were stripped.S. REBELS. a quantity of Spencer and Winchester repeaters. Black smoke and flaine pumped from the stacks of both ships as the distance between them closed. the president knew that a Congressional resoluiion supporting ihe rebels could draw America into a conllict for wbich her armed forces were imprepared. Ulysses S. Fry had to pul in to repair a leak. MARINERS. T he commanding general at Santiago. due to the heavy cargo and number of men on board. Virginius rode low in the water. It was leaking badly from the terrible pounding of its overworked boilers. firaiu Though supportive of Cuba's independence fnim Spain. Quesada organized a grassroots support movement in the tJnited States tbat—with tbt help of men like Fry— spirited supplies ibrougb tbe Spanish blockade. Then the Spaniards opened fire. bul poor weather and Viig/nins' decrepit condition conspired against him. Tornado sleatiied for tbe port of Santiago de Cuba and a waiting military court. Ryan A veteran of the Civil War who early on took up ihc causo of Cuban independence." After a 15year career in the U. Facing poverty. believing that if he could keep ahead of Tornado until nightfall. Tbomas Jordan as the rfhel army cbief of staff and inspector general." Tonuido lowered two boats. its prize in tow. The Spaniards unccretnonidusly threw the flag on the deck." with hair and full beard ihal "hardships and anxiety had blanched. At first. The boilers were severely strained. Early on ibe morning of November 1. Fry drove hard for Jamaica. and the hull caulking was giving out. After only iwo days at sea. and through the lotig night that (oilowed made a point of spitting and wiping their feet on il. and they sent the corvette Tornado to intercept and seize it.Spanish blockade. An imposing man in his mid-40s. the Spanish officer in charge rudely brushed ibe papers aside and ordered ihe American flagstmck. Navy. within sight of Cuba's coast. bound and rowed across to Tornado. Fry ordered the crew to "round her lo and stop the engines. Niobc's captain was fully prepared lo homharcl Iturricl's lorces. Don Juan Burriel. of almost gigantic stature.

desperate to avoid death. Of the four leading figures. an American citizen residing in Santiago. The first trial took place ahoard Tornado on the evening of November 2—the verdict a foregone conclusion. In an article ahout the Virginius incident. as well as reports in TTie New York Times. the three Cubans had already been tried and condemned in absentia. Schmitt was stymied. and the sentence. In a letter to his superior. True or not. Brooks wired the governor of Jamaica for advice and support. the verdict was guilty. such was not the case. Ryan's sentence followed in short order. including Pry. Early on the morning of November 4. a well-intentioned bureaucrat named Emil Schmitt. about a mile from the . appropriately. expected at the worst a short imprisonment and an early retum to the United States. The New York Times recalled: "Captain Fry and his men. neither of which was forthcoming. The Voluntarios refused to negotiate with rebels and on several occasions shot dead Cubans who violated their often-whimsical rules. highwalled adobe building that. 'The best of order prevailed. so he paid the general a visit. served as a slaughterhouse." Sherman's description is corroborated by some eyewitness accounts and disputed by others. and dumped out like a load of dirt in an open ditch. And the Voluntarios were rahidly anti-American. wrote of what he saw to The New York Herald: Though Fry initially believed Virginius could outrun her Spanish pursuer and reach safe port in Jamaica.Its members committed acts of barbarism that shocked even the government in Madrid. so the officer in charge ran a sword through his heart. according to eyewitnesses. the same officer who had been cheated of his prize earlier in the year.adventurers and fortune-hunters known as the Voluntarios ("Volunteers"). George Sherman. Ryan. The btxlies. were tried as pirates. death. and testimony was coerced. were then placed in a cart and taken out to a marshy spot." But according to eyewitnesses." Prosecuting the captives would be José Maria Autrán. First Céspedes and del Sol and then Ryan and Varona were led forward and shot. But the poor fellows had not reckoned on the blocxlthirsty temper of Gov. the sleeping lion awoke and ordered the "The soldiers who had been detailed to do this work by General Burriel were wretched marksmen. They threatened the hfe of the American consul in Santiago and shot any Cuban who claimed to be a naturalized American citizen. smoking a cigar the entire route. In all cases. Unable to contact the American consuls in Havana or Kingston." The four faced death bravely. "Viva Espanal" they were killed. When Schmitt protested that Ryan was a naturalized American citizen. tation. to avoid foreign interference. tried his best to stop—or at least slow—the inevitable. O n November 6. however. British Vice Consul Theodore Brooks learned that these crewmen would be executed the following day Knowing the list included 16 British subjects. thirty-seven of Virginius'crewmen. "trudged gaily along. a number of cavalrymen came on the spot and rode their horses over the bleeding corpses till they were in an almost unrecognizable state. Burriel wrote. One observer place of execution. The four heads were cut off and placed on poles and carried around by the people in triumph. Priests offered the men immunity from execution if they converted to Catholicism. Burriel and the Spanish volunteers and their intense hatred for this country. nol throwing it away until the moment came for the firing. His letters to Burriel went unanswered. They were deprived of legal represen- noted thai the musket fire didn't kill Ryan. After this. Burriel treated him "with the utmost disrespect" and denied him access to the telegraph.. underwent conversion. only to find it was a false promise. Finally. The American consul was away. but the vice consul. or rather what remained of them. Citizens attempting to enter or leave Havana without passes were summarily executed. Burriel determined to hold the executions as speedily as possible.. Some prisoners. If passersby refused to shout. heavy seas and the ship's ramshackle condition all but ensured her capture by the speedy corvette Tornado. soldiers took the four condemned men from their cells and marched them to the place of execution—a long. widely distributed artists' conceptions of the alleged atrocities soon fanned the flames of American outrage.

captain of a Brilish warship, HMS Niobe, lo sail from Colombia with all due speed and act to prevent further kilHng. They could not have picked a better man. Captain Sir Lambion Lorraine—stocky, bearded and pugnacious—steamed out of port so swiftly that he left some of his crew standing on the dock. As execution day dawned, Brooks appealed for a stay. Unimpressed, the arrogant Burriel refused; the 37 crewmen would die as scheduled. Fry spent much of his remaining time writing letters. He made an impassioned but unsuccessful plea for bis men, explaining their ignorance of the nature of the voyage. He wrote to friends, asking [hat they care for his impoverished family. He also wrote farewell letters to his wife and children. The execution had been scheduled for November 8. but Burriel had gotten wind of Niobe's mission and moved it up a day. Thus, at 4 in the afternoon, a squad of soldiers marched the condemned to the slaughterhouse wall. There unfolded a scene even more horrific than that which had taken place three days before. The men stood facing the wall as Fry walked the line, bidding farewell to each. Then came the order to fire. Again, the marksmanship was atrocious. Only Fry died instantly; the rest were merely wounded, some grievously. One observer conunented: "The Spanish butchers advanced to where the wounded men lay writhing and moaning in agony, and, placing the muzzles of their guns in some instances into the mouths of their victims, pulled the triggers, shattering tbeir heads into fragments. Others of the dying men grasped the weapons thrust at them with a despairing clutch, and shot after shot was poured into their bodies before death quieted them." Francis Cofîin, a sailor from another ship in port, was stunned by wbat he saw: "The scene that followed was the most frightful I ever witnessed, and I have been on manya battlefield....The poor creatures who were wounded lay upon the ground, rolling about frantically in their own blood and uttering

shrieks of pain and agony and loud appeals for mercy. Their appeals for mercy fell upon men deaf to compassion....! shall never forget the awful groans and shrieks that resounded from the place of slaughter.... It isa positive fact that, with the exception of Captain Fry, the head was blown off every man of the 36. The marines seemed to exult in their work of blood." It took an interminable 10 minutes from the initial volley until the last man lay still. Most of Virginius' crew lay dead.

sufficient protection of British subjects." Lorraine made it clear to Burriel that he represented the safety of not just British but U.S. citizens, as well as simple honor, and he further insisted the Spanish immediately desist from desecrating Virtjinhis" flag. A cowed Burriel assured Lorraine tlitexecutions would stop. As Lorraine tumed to leave, the general offered his hand; the feisty Briton curtly nodded at him and said to the interpreter. Tell him I do not shake hands with assassins." With tbat, Lorraine stalked out of the Governor's Palace and into the lore of the Cuban revolt. y tbe time news of Virginius' capture reacbed the United States, most of tbe crew bad already been sbot. Just eight years after the bloodiest conflict in its bistory, the country went wild with militaristic fever. Government officials pressed for war with Spain, and from around the nation President Grant received offers of military service from former soldiers, as well as private citizens who had never borne a weapon. Union and Confederate veterans offered lo serve side by side to redress the newly healed nation's wrong. A committee in Savannah inlormcd the president thai "5,000 colored citizens are ready to enlist for Cuha to teach the Spanisb authorities respect for tbe American flag." One contemporary writer stated: '"Indignation meetings' were held in almost ever)' city, town and village of the United States. Public opinion was unanimous in its verdict." The U.S. minister to Spain was former Union Maj. Gen. Daniel Edgar Sickles, one of the unlikeliest rogues to hold a diplomatic post. Sickles was a belligerent bothead wbo would seek out, ratber than avoid, a fighi. To make matters worse, he was dealing with Spain's shaky new Republican leaders, who lacked both the strength and fortitude to control Burriel and tlic CAÍ bans. They treated Sickles with disdain, lurlber enflaming his already volatile temper. War appeared unavoidable. Grant's secretary of state, tbc able Hamilton Fish, delivered an ultimatum to Spain,

áAs execution day dawned, Brooks appealed for a stay. Unimpressed, the arrogant BurrJel refused; the 37 crewmen would die as scheduled f
Niohe steamed into Santiago de Cuba Harbor the following day, but Burdel had managed to march out and slaughter another 12 prisoners in the early moming. Over a period of four days, he had executed 53 Cuban, American and British citizens—including two of tbree 13-year-old boys on Virginius' crew. When Lorraine arrived, he personally delivered a communiqué to the general: / demand thai you stop this dreadful butchery that is taking place here. Í do not believe that I need to explain what my actions will be in case my demand is not heeded. There is little doubt Lorraine would have brought his guns to bear on Santiago de Cuba; according to one chronicler, he bad done exactly that just two months earlier, firing on a Nicaraguan town he felt had "been guilty of in-

B

MILITARY HISTORY

demanding the return of all prisoners, as well as Virginius, and a sufficient indemnity to salve the nation's wounded pride. As tbe deadline approacbed, newspapers ran jingoistic headlines and overblown accounts of tbe U.S. Navy's state of readiness. Consider tbe following from The New York Times: "The Navy Department and all the bureaus are exerting every effort to place a large and powerful fleet in Cuban waters at tbe earliest possible moment, and prominent officers say tbat witbin 30 days there will be 20 of the most formidable vessels of the Navy tbere." Sucb claims were gross overstatement. At tbe time, the Navy was a thoroughgoing mess, described by one bistorian as "an assortment of rusty old bulks, most of wbicb had not been to sea since tbe close of the Civil War." TÏ1C Nation, a conservative journal, put it even more bluntly: "Tbe buge wooden screws wbicb we send cruising around tbe world...and wbicb are paraded in newspapers as terrible engines of war, are almost useless for military purposes. They belong to a class of ships whicb otber governments bave sold or are selling for firewood." Tbe Army was in no better shape. Commanding General William Tecumseh Sherman, in answer to tbe hawkisb comments of several officers, remarked tbat be found the prospect of a war over tbe incident preposterous, particularly considering tbe Army's "entirely inadequate" strengtb. War witb Spain could well bave proved disastrous. Fortunately, cooler beads prevailed, as Fish toiled behind tbe scenes toward a diplomatic resolution. The secretary of state worked painstakingly to secure concessions from Spain, and although the process would overrun the deadline, it was by then apparent Spain bad no wisb to see the situation deteriorate further. Britain also became involved in tbe diplomatic maneuvering and, tbrougb its minister in Madrid, was able to

further calm tempers and sootbe raw nerves. Ultimately, Spain paid the U.S. government tbe appreciable sum of $80,000 in reparations and released the surviving prisoners. Tbose crewmen who had not perisbed in tbe slaugbter bad remained incarcerated for over a month, suffering continual beatings, starvation and threats of execution. Finally, on December 18, guards led them from tbe dungeon to tbe Santiago dock, wbere tbey boarded VSS juniata and sailed to New York.

Virginius was in serious trouble, steaming on just one boiler; the next day it, too, died, tbe pumps quit and water poured in. As tbe sbip settled by tbe bow in beavy seas, a Navy cutter carried tbe crew to satety. By 5 in tbe afternoon, Virginius—whose fate had nearly started a war—bad slipped beneatb tbe waves. Tbe saga was over for the moment. Tbe United States would bave ils war with Spain over Cuba, but not for another 25 years. And when it did, the

fter releasing the surviving crewmen, tbe Spanish took Virginius to Bahía Honda, a port 45 miles west of Havana, where it rendezvoused witb USS Despatch. Tbe blockade-runner's boilers were spent, its bull was leaking badly and it had little coal. Tbe Spanisb had stripped Virginius. Tbe sbip stank of mold, rot and "unmentionable filth," and was "alive with cockroaches." Tbat afternoon an American prize crew boarded Virginius, stoked its boilers and steamed nortb—for all of 200 yards. Despatch, assigned to escort tbe steamer home, now bad to function as its towboat. Only a day into tbe journey, Virginius was sbipping water fast, and as the sea grew rougher, rivets popped from tbeir plates, opening more leaks. By Cbristmas Day,

A

Conducted against a slaughterhouse wall, the execution of Fry and 36 members of his crew was a scene of horrific carnage. Burners troops proved atrocious marksmen and finished off the wounded at close range.

nation^ newspapers revived tbe Virginius story as a battle cry. By tben, the country had reshaped its Army and Navy into world-class forces tbat were more tban capable of dealing witb a mucbdebilitated Spanisb enemy. Tbe war would be short, tbe outcome inevitable, and finally the U.S. would establish its yeamed-for presence in Cuba. (^ For further reading, Ron Soodalter recommends: Life of Captain Joseph Fry, tbe Cuban Martyr, by jeanic Mort Walker, and Tbe Virginius Affair, by
Richard H. Bradjoni.

eviews
Sketches from the Death March
an essentially novelistic purpose. Like Billy Pilgrim in Kurt Vonnegut's SíuughleríiouseFive, Steele's initial valtie to the story is simply that he lived to tell the tale—and, in Steele's ease, to illustrate it. But there's To w r i t e a b o u t w a r is to a keen psycholog)' behind this approach, again and again, choice. What happened on the the limits of language. It's death march and what happened to the survivors in the a problem faced by anyone long, long years until Japan's who writes about the actual defeat may seem somewhat experience of combat, and random, lt takes the tale of a the problem becomes griev- single survivor to depict the ous—almost incapacitating horror ofthat randomness, the —when the subject is atrocity. Few books have ever feeling of heing caught in an solved this problem with a more capacious grace than utterly senseless maelstrom of Tears in the Darkness. You will understand this book's suffering. Steele's story is one power the first time you reach for a glass of water after of survival against all odds. turning the last page. You may never look at water The story of Bataan is the story of the odds themselves. the same way again. —^Verlyn Klinkenborg Tears in the Darkness: The Story of the Bataan Death March and Us Aftermath., by Michael and Elizabeth M. Norman, Farrar, Straus and Giroux. New York, 2009, $30 Bataan begins as a battle— tbe first American land battle against the Japanese, fought during the early months of 1942 on a rugged peninsula of Luzon Island, just across the bay from Manila. But it enters the American imagination as a defeat—76,000 Filipino and American soldiers laid down arms to the Japanese—and then as a surrender into suffering of unimaginable proportions. The death march itself—a 66-mile trek after a four-month hattle of attrition and, ultimately, starvation— came to embody in the American mind the brutality of the Japanese army. By taking us into the experience of individual Japanese soldiers on Bataan, the Normans do everything in their power to show that brutahty was inherent and systemic in the Japanese militar)', which mitigates the horror of the death marcb not at all. And tbey also make it perfectly clear tbere is an American villain in this story: General Douglas MacArthur, the Allied commander in the Philippines. 1 leave it to the reader to follow the Normans' indictment of that vainglorious man. Tbe story of Balaan is hundreds of thousands of stories, of course. The Normans single out one 10 follow in detail—tbat of Ben Steele, a young, ranch-raised boy from Montana. At first this feels a little awkward, as if Steele was being used for The Cahanatuan Prison Raid: The Philippines, 1945, by Gordon L. Rottman, Osprey Publisbing, Oxford, England, 2009, $18.95 The Cabanatuan Prison Raid: The Philippines, 1945, highlights the Army Rangers' remarkable 30-mi!c sprint ahead of the U.S. Sixth Army in tbe Pbilippines to liberate Allied inmates at Cabanatuan prison camp before tbeir Japanese captors could murder tbem (see P 35). Tbis volume, tbe third in Ospreys new Raids series, applies the historical detail of the publisher's Campaigns series to a

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AMERICAN COURAGE, AMERICAN

JOHN C. McNANOS
Amerlc3n Courage, American Carnage, by Jobn C. McManus

Having explored tlic posl-WWll exploits of the U.S. Armys famed 7ih Infanlry Regiment in an earlier volume, historian McManus turns his atteniion in this exhaustively rcscanticd work lo the units earlier bistory, from iis 181 2 inception ihrough the Mexican War, Civil War and bolh world wars.

S. But as McCullougb as a fuzzy postscript to World War II or makes plain." Too many Americans today see it of Japanese convoys. Two t i t t t t SHW*. subturned by unseen hands. Was it the emperor's tipping point? o o tM ENJOYTHESE MAGAZINES FROM THE WEIDER HISTORY GROUP AMLlilCAN HiSTOfiY AMERICA'S CIVIL WAR BRITISH HERITAGE CIVIL WAR TIMES WILDWEST o ce UJ > MILITARY HISTORY QUARTERLY AVIATION HISTORY MILITARY HISTORY VIHNAM WORLD WAR II ARMCHAIR GENERAL en O I— Ü o MILITARY HISTORY . ton assessment led to repeated unsuccess.. Whether or not tbe torpedoes found tbeir marks. as though breakthrough guided U. McMicbae! cracking program.C. — William H. South Korea—and the Marines—from who ignored the parochial D. $27 tbat carried the day in tbe seminal Battle of Midway. let alone grasp tbe accuracy ofthe intelligence reports—the sacrifices and tremendous courage of code-breaking effort was kept close to tbe American military personnel posted so vest—were frustrated time and again when long ago on the far side of the world. KNOW MORE Now On Newsstands! How did American submarines transform their tactics to completely crush the Japanese in the Pacific? Reviews tbeir well-aimed torpedoes either ran too deep or failed to explode. won over Pacific Fleet Inchon 1950: The Battles That Saved Commander Admiral Chester Nimitz. in tbe context of the taxing no*iD forward torpedo room watcbed •ne E<tm*MDLNA» M M i M yet ultimately successful Pearl with borror as tbe valves in Harbor-based effort to crack tbeir compartment spun open JapansJN-25 naval code.sive Pacific Fleet counteroffensi\ I. Hypo's cbief. on a bit tbick in places. as though be were on a took so many American lives. D. baffled by tbe or wby it was fougbt. author Gordon Rottman presents aspects irom either side of this remarkable raid by tbe 6th Ranger Battalion.GET SMART.C.the green linoleum of tbe deck. Lt. anotber parocbial Washing. McCuUougb. S14. compelling—and. Josepb The Darkest Summer: Pusan and J.. McCullougb conveys a of one sucb attack.99 followed by a string of nerve-shattering depth charges. was nearly sbakcn clean off bis dangerous combat patrols that bunk. focused event. although he piles ii helped turn the war in favor of tbe U. wbich cost the Japanese four Almost six decades after America was of tbeir six largest aircraft carriers.an even more iragic preface to Vietnam.Far too few understand wbat it was about ful attacks. Cmdr. assessors bowever. the Russians stopped Napoleon at Eyiau in a fierce winter battle. 2009. by Bill Sloan. the Bureau of Ordnance blamed tbe misses on the skippers. Publisbing. Submariners." be writes twined.-based Extinction. engineered by the fleet decryption shop informally known as Hypo.S. Korea remains America's "Forgotten submarines the precise noontime positions War.Tbe men in the *N UMOLO |I(WT or WIN a. on tbe bureaucratic vine. tbe attacks nearly always A Tale of Two Subs. Mccuuous» McCullough does a nice job marines o\ uca\ing submarine operations and mas.000 NVA in their tracks prolwig the war in Vietnam for three more years? And just how did we get 250. eacb attack witb hair-raising vividness. —Jon Guttman Did one Marine's heroic action to stop 20.S. McCullougb details how Washington. Rochefort. Simon & assessors and boldly launcbed forces Sebuster. Grand Central escorting destroyer's insistent sonar pings.000 enemy fighters to defect? A TALE OF rwo SUBS In 1807. byjonatban prompted a morale-sapping response: an J.ilua lingo into his story. over tbe boat shattered and tinkled onto submarines wbose fates were sadly inter." efforts toward the Mmn J. On tbe whole. 2009.stories make up for tbose sbortcomings. McCullougb describes Tbis rich. tbe pace and strengtb of tbc initially doubted tbe merits of tbe code. New York. tbreatening to It was a breakthrough tbat almost died bog down the narrative. As usual. ultimately. train tbat bad sustained a beadHe also places their efforts on collision. acbingly ironic—World War U narrative "Everything went dark as ligbtbulbs all relates tbe slory of two Pacific-based U. That witb every explosion. with tbe invaluable belp ot Filipino guerrillas. "Mendenball vivid sense of the exbauslivt-.. Japanese commanders knew wbat was happening before the Navy Department. strategically blindsided in tbe summer of Hypo subsequently began feeding tbe 1950.

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Walton Walker included four U. "Lieutenant Lopez would be posthumously awarded the Korean War's first Medal of Honor. resulting in clear digital images without loss of quality. (1 lb.95 o o 1-800-543-3366 • www. to the Marine Corps itself. the Only and the Unexpected for 161 years. As a narrowly focused study of just the Marines at Pusan and Inchon. But ii you ve read nothing else aboui the Korean War. Gen. Bill Sloan's new book promises lo relate the story of the two epic opening battles of Pusan and Inchon. —David T. > o ÜJ America's Longest Running Catalog m Lifetime Guarantee of Complete Satisfaction." D. 2009 to receive free shipping with special offer code 600053. there the book falls short. The subtitle Tfie Battles that Saved Korea—and the Marines—from Extinction hiis closer to ibe mark. this book contains a wealth of detail and many inspirational stories.S. "The Marine Brigade would be under fire again. But by presenting the material as he does. this book rt'ully highlights ihe Marine Corps units in that campaign. Slides and negatives are placed into a tray that aligns each properly. Sloan's book would give you a dis- torted impression. five Republic of Korea Army divisions and the British 27th Infantry Brigade. It includes an SD memor>' card slot. ó'/V H x VA" W x 3'/. Army soldiers had earned the medal during the fighting inside the Pusan Perimeter.) item 76877 $129. the touch of a button converts the image instantly and stores it on tbe converter's 32 MB flash memory (which can store up to 56 pictures) as a JPEG file. 1MILITARY HISTORY ." But this statement is also misleading. with the fate of the Pusan Perimeter—and the entire South Korean nation— resting squarely on their shoulders. they did not carry those battles single-handedly. Air Force pilot and 13 U. Unfortunately. the author does a grave disservice to the broader historical record and. The Marine record stands tall on its own merit. Rather than a ihonnigh and balanced history of Korean combat in ihe summer of 1950. As he writes in Chapter 7. Sloan describes the heroic sacrifice of the 5th Marine Regiment's Baldomero Lopez on Red Beach on September 15. lt has a 5MP CMOS sensor that provides 10 bits per color channel.com/slide Order by November 30. Although the Marines fought magnificently at Pusan and Inchon. U can use USB or AC for power. Prior to Lopez—the first Maiine in Korea awarded the MoH—one U. Hammaeher Schiern o lo Offering the Best.S. The result is a look at Pusan and Inchon through a straw. ultimately. You can transfer images to a PC running Windows XP or Vista. They all had more than a bit to do with holding the 150-mile-Iong perimeter against relentless North Korean attacks.Reviews From its title.S. Images can be immediately previewed on the built-in 2V/" TFT color display. Army divisions. the UN forces under Lt. When the narrative moves to Inchon in Chapter 12. Zabecki Preserve Your Memories The Slide and Negative to Digital Picture Converter This device converts old 35mm slides and film negatives into digital images without the need for a computer." In addition to this single Marine brigade. Sloan writes. about halfway through the Pusan narrative.hammacher.

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Hub of the brutal fighting at First Manassas. Gen. That day I took my horse tion. Atop tbe bill. I rode was as decisive a Confederate win as the first.Jaekson sits astride bis borse. at tbe entire Civil War. at Second Manassas. War general retroactively James Longstreet. Gen. On a striking captured here by Civil War artist Mort Künstler. vilified. altbougb anotber over tbe battlefield was creditable story suggests a personal pilgrimage of it was Jaekson's inaction sorts. his once unsbakeand to tbe more spectral able reputation as a Civil presence of Brig. executed one of tbe most brilliant feats of generalsbip of the Tbomas j. in the nortbhad lost. "Look at Jackson rights of the freed slaves. Rut Longstreet knew wbat he was fall day a couple of years ago.ofaeresofwoodandfield to myself. 1 had just finished tbat Brig. Virginia By Stephen Budiansky W o o 03 ithin six weeks ofthe First Battle of Manassas in July 1861. uncommemorated The August 1862 Battle of Second Manassas. standing there like a backed Ulysses S. From the visitor center. Little Sorrel. S Lu o CJ a sbort loop trail offers a clear view of tbe compact events my borse along the line wbere. epitbet. a bronze. I've been over tbe same ground on foot many spot wbere tbe general earned the nickname "Stonewall"— times before and sinee and almost always bad the hundreds reportedly for bis stalwart defense of tbe Confederate posi. Gen. Union troops erected on Henry Hill the first of thousands of monuments that would mark where men fought and died in the American Civil War. Grant damned stone wall!" for president and tried to But I've always been convince bis lellow white drawn to tbe quieter si tes Southerners tbat tbe war of tbe Second Battle of was over—and ibat they Manassas. Henry Hill became the focal point of preservation efforts at the battlefield. lonely and really was referring to all but forgotten role in wben be bestowed tbat tbe aftermatb of tbe war. Today the hilltop is about the only place most visitors even get out of their cars. Hfe-size Lt. For tbat bc was west corner of tbe park. Bernard writing about Longstreets Bee ol Soutb Carolina courageous. besmirebed by bis political enemies. about tbose two critical days of Second o MILITARY HISTORY . baving sbouted wben be stood up for tbe angrily.Hallowed Ground Manassas. by monument or statue. Longstreet of tbe first battle.

The letting the enemy dash himself to pieces. Aug. some of the Union soldiers reached the embankment. brutal fighting at the July 21. Gen. not even waiting for stand atop the embankuient and grasp the utter exposure of the Lees order now that he knew the time was right. Lee three times ordered him to attack. Manassas. John Pope's battlefield was. too. which remains a sharp. Three times a half mile to the west. a tour de force of generalship and the decisive blow of the battle.Henry Hill witnessed some of the most he insisted. For the first time in a century or so.000 men falling on the Union flank. Jack. (Jl . Battle sons men had taken position behind the Almost unique among his fellow genembankment of an unfinished railroad of First Manassas. it will be an even more dramatic vista—the paih When Longstreet's corps began arriving the afternoon oí breaking from the woods into sudden bare vulnerability. parks recent and extremely controversial decision to cut down and only then counterattacking. 140 acres of woods to restore the 1862 appearance ol the That is exactly what Lorigstreet did as Maj. as they murderously enfiladed the Longstreet argued him out of it. menacingly apparent. It would be feeding men Union left. a spot known as the Deep Cut. slashing battle of the Civil War.1861. the unobstructed shot that Longstreet's artillery commanded Robert E. then lay as flat as they could on their side The hammer blow fell where the railroad grade euts ol the slope. At one point some of the Confederates were austere Union monument stands. a brilliant success when I returned troops hurled themselves again at lhe railroad grade around this summer. Incredibly. irying Lo fire over the top at the enemy on tlirough a small rise. Ai mid-afternoon. west of Groveton-Sudley Road. the 2yth and took up position on Jackson's right. 29 and 30. and when the tree-clearing having exhausted their ammunition. is finished. Longstreet Union troops that advanced across barefields. The present-day bridle trail left with nothing but rocks to throw down on their foes. I thought. The view from the erals of the war.piecemeal into an unknown situation. you can now noon the next day. It was the "as if on dress parade. a formula lor disaster. Gen. where an the other side. Longstreet had learned presence across the gently rising terrain visitor center remains largely unchanged. the value of waiting on Lhe defensive. the first major land grade." largest coordinated attack of the entire war. crosses the grade near here. 1862."What a slaughwheeled his entire force to the left within 30 minutes and ter!" remarked one Confederate as the Union troops came on sent all 25. instead of as if marching to their death.

Philadelphia D. These centuries later. Which warship al the Baille of Santiago Harbor featured a tumblehotne hull? A. B. Oregon 3. New York D. United States 9. Royal Air Force. Flying Regiment 19 On the Surface Two new naval powers—lapan and the United States—emerged at the tum of the 20th century. Texas G '8 'V 'V 'Q '3 ''- 6 'Ç > '01 'f 7 Z '8 '9 T ••'•'P"' "I . Imperial Russian army. C. Erench army. Lafayette Escadrille A. Cyrus the Younger of Persia. Swiss Guard 2. 1917 E. 1940 J. Kobe B.The Emperors Club For Roman emperors. Baltimore B. Arizona B. 1038 G. French air service. The Netherlands D. 1363 R Byzantine Empire. Where is George Dewey's preserved flagship Olympia docked? A. British army. Varangian Guard 10. 3. Test your quizworthiness. No. Brooklyn B. Which country demanded that Heihachiro Togo's flagship Mikasa be destroyed after World War II? A. 3rd Waldeck Regiment 6. What is ihe oldest extant dreadnaught battleship in the United States? A. 71 "Eagle" Squadron 9. Montfetrat. Missouri C. Iowa C. political survival meant conquest or bust. 1. J. H. New Jersey D. Domitian Marcus Aurehus Trajan Vitellius Vespasian Caracalla Tiherius Galha Titus Septimius Severus restored MÍÍÍÍÍSÍI? A. ¡owa C. F. Which hattleship rounded Cape Horn eastward to participate in the Spanish-American War? A. 1789 D. 1941 C. Indiana B. Osaka 6. What city showcases the A. Líitiíisíínecíite '^. E. can you tell Titus from Trajan? At Your Foreign Service Some foreign units are as well or better known than the forces or leaders they scr\'ed. Match each force to its employer. Czechoslovak Legion 8. Olympia C. 1916 H. Finnish air force. D. 401 BC 9 'Z '£ 'Of '6 T 7 'r 'ff > '-<^P'O 3. G. Emperor Charles y 1525 B. Oregon 4. John Hawkwood's White Company 4. Massachusetts D. Nagoya D. Great Britain C. Seattle 2. 1. I. Xenophon's Ten Thousand 7. 1777 1. Soviet Union B. Yokosuka C.

There the old tinkerer conceived of a weapon he called Ben's Brit Blaster. tested his weapon in a potato field outside Paris. A very pleased Franklin called them Freedom Fries. It did. Ben. jflh a: UJ CD > B O O o o MILITARY HISTORY . The charge funneled through the cannon was not strong enough to deter an army. however. and that would blast the Brits to smithereens. provide enough electricity to fry every potato in the field. Washington was somewhat skeptical. Americans would dangle cannon from kites flown above the British soldiers. Alas. It was simple. when both armies took refuge in tavems. accompanied by La Comtesse Énonne Derrière. Lightning rods would funnel an electrical charge through the hanging cannon. "Will someone By Rick Meyerowitz not save me from this old nincompoop?" And he was quick to point out that the weapon only worked during thunderstorms. He petitioned an aide. the blaster was never put into use.Weapons we're glad they never built o o cu Ben's Brit Blaster en Franklin spent much of the American War of Independence in Paris.

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