This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Online Open Access publishing platform for Management Research
ISSN 2229 – 3795
Evaluating training & development effectiveness - A measurement model
Rama Devi V1©, Nagurvali Shaik2 1- Professor in KLU Business School, KL University, Guntur (Dt), Andhra Pradesh. 2- MBA fourth semester in KLU Business School, KL University firstname.lastname@example.org
ABSTRACT Human capital is an important asset for organizations under intense competition. Training and Development function enables human capital to unleash their dexterity. A profound training program acts as a vehicle to enhance employee skills and enable them to perform better in their job. Training and development is very crucial to the employees, the organization and their effectiveness. Human capital is the differentiator between a good company and a great company. The organizations have long understood that their most valuable asset is their human capital and many are convinced for large investments in employee training and development. An effective training program is one that addresses training needs and delivers training according to training objectives. Research in Training and Development function has produced many results. In the last decade, training evaluation has been the main focus for many studies. This literature review based article presents different viewpoints of various authors regarding the significance of training & development, perceptions of employees towards training effectiveness, training evaluation and training effectiveness. It finally endeavours to measure training effectiveness by proposing a new model. Keywords: Human capital, training effectiveness, training evaluation. 1. Introduction The world is experiencing technological and informational revolution that makes for variations in nature of business. To meet these variations and beat out the competition in ever changing business scenario, human capital is a major weapon used by organizations. Contemporary management thinking suggests that, human capital can be a competitive advantage to organizations. This competitive advantage can be made sustainable only when human capital is knowledgeable and dextrous. Training and Development function ensures that human capital inculcate required knowledge and abilities. Thus, Training and Development function is considered as significant function in any organization. In India, more importance is given to the conduction of a training program to enhance human assets of firms. To attract new customers, meet customer expectations, attain customer satisfaction and to retain customers, organizations are striving to be best in their products, service quality and in their customer encounters. This can happen only when organizations have highly skilful employees as their assets. And those employees should be trained on contemporary issues to meet present world ‗techno -customers‘ ‘ expectations. Thus, significance of training and development function is conspicuous. Being, realized of the fact that training and development function is significant in delivering best quality outcome to customers; Indian ASIAN JOURNAL OF MANAGEMENT RESEARCH Volume 2 Issue 1, 2012 722
5. success rate of a customer engineer. thereby taking measures for further improvements in the training program delivered.Evaluating Training & Development Effectiveness . are interested to know impact of training program on trainees. training alone can‘t give sustainable competitive advantage for any organization. 2. 2. Literature Review Literature review of this paper has been segregated into five sections as enlisted under: 1. skills and abilities to employees. 1998.1 Training Training is the process of imparting knowledge. Hence. & Weick. Training is considered as a technical skill enhancement program of employees. However. 2. enhancing those specific skills and abilities to immediately perform their jobs. 1970).A Measurement Model Rama Devi V. A training program is said to effective.2 Development As a study conveys development enhances behaviors and improves performance and training is more present-day oriented. overall productivity of employees. Employee development. as it gains competitive advantage for an organization over its competitors.. training program is evaluated to determine the extent of knowledge. Significance of training and development function Training and development practices Perceptions of employees towards training effectiveness Training evaluation Effectiveness of training function 3. 2012 723 . 1984). 3. or skills (Campbekl. effort and time involvement in training function. top management also. 3. Results of training have to be measured in order to know its impact on business results. generally focuses on future jobs in the organization. (Brown and Read. Rajan et al. Japanese management practices clearly indicated that business success based on high standards of performance was dependent on a highly trained and developed workforce. and customer satisfaction. Training is defined as a planned learning experience designed to bring about permanent change in an individual‘s knowledge. skills and abilities delivered through training and translated into performance.. 4.1 Significance of training and development function Training and development is considered as significant human resource function. Lawler. During 1980s. Training and ASIAN JOURNAL OF MANAGEMENT RESEARCH Volume 2 Issue 1. Recent research also indicates a causal link between high commitment practices (including training and development) and improvements in an establishment‘s performance and competitive advantage. Because of huge investments. on the other hand. when it delivers what is intended. This paper proposes a model for measuring training effectiveness. Dunnette. Effectiveness of training and development can be measured by average time taken to diagnose a problem. 2. 1996). attitudes. (Patterson et al. Conceptual Framework 2.3 Effectiveness Effectiveness is defined as the capability of producing a desired effect. ROI (Return on Investment). its focus is on individuals‘ current jobs. Nagurvali Shaik companies started investing in training and development function.
the responsibility of training function lies with HR or training specialist. 1989).3 Perceptions of employees towards training effectiveness Training should be designed and delivered to meet the needs of all employees.6% of Indian companies provide training with an objective to improve productivity. Manju. 2009). In more than 71% of Indian organizations. (Hall.A Measurement Model Rama Devi V.Evaluating Training & Development Effectiveness . 2011 says training acts as an intervention to improve quality of products and services of an organization in stiff competition by improvements in technical skills of employees. A research by Kate Hutchings. and performance improvements. 2002. 2004). 1999). Zhu.3 was spent on an employee as training investment. major drivers and key result areas of T&D.S & Dr.3% of organizations conduct training evaluation to determine effectiveness of T&D. and Kimberley (2002) concluded that training is a factor that enhances employee commitment and maximizes employee potential. Robinson & Robinson. timing. Nagurvali Shaik development is most effective motivating and retaining high quality human resources within organization. As the need for current and future effective managers increases in all types of organizations. major perceived deficiencies and challenges of T&D function. Suresh B.. purposes. on corporate training and development policies and practices in India (N= 252 Indian companies) and Britain (N=174 Britain companies) provides an overview of training and development function in India and Britain. 2012 724 . Training programs are intended to improve employee workplace performance.2 Training and development practices A research by Yadapadithaya and Jim Stewart (2003). Yiming Zhang and Sijun Shao. 55% of staff receive training and an amount of Rs. 3. training is increasingly being called on to help companies achieve their strategic objectives (Martocchio & Baldwin. 3. Brain K. (Ekaterini Galanou. Tennyson. Along with other human resource functions‘. Training can be conceived as a change intervention designed to influence learning and behavior change. 1997). Lowry. The two country comparisons revealed that while some of the findings related to corporate T&D policies and practices exhibited differences. levels. 2009). 78. and designs of evaluation. training programmes and design tools for the evaluation process become more important (Eseryel et al. It is expected that a welldesigned and well conducted training program will lead to positive reactions from trainees. Yiming Zhang and Sijun Shao (2009) in China on 310 semi-skilled and skilled workers (technicians) about perceptions of effectiveness of training and development revealed that employee perceived value of ASIAN JOURNAL OF MANAGEMENT RESEARCH Volume 2 Issue 1.Zhu. others also reflected similarity. 89. (Huse. Cooper. Organizational training activities are recognized as being able to become sources of competitive advantage (Barney. corporate commitment to training and development. behavior change on the job. The training process is one of the most pervasive methods for enhancing the productivity of individuals and communicating organizational goals to personnel. Ostroff Cheri 1991. learning of the important material. Simon. Study considered international dimensions of training and development such as key responsibility function. Michael. 1995) through their impact on employees‘ productivity (Ng & Siu. 1975). and employees should perceive that they are being treated fairly and equitably with regard to the training they receive. Cherrie J. (Kate Hutchings.H. Cooper. quality and innovation among employees. 2009). Cherrie J. 1997.. (Schmidt Steven W. Brian K. instruments. 253. Nania Sharon. 2001. L. constantinos-Vasilios priporas. Noe.
1. 52. while there is a significant relationship between job training satisfaction and job tenure. Perceived effectiveness of training and development varied by age. Training had increased their technical abilities Improved understanding of business Prepared them better for future assignments Developed skills to do a number of jobs Increased confidence to undertake work tasks Taught them about organization values Training program is better implemented than. Research was performed on a 301 customer and technical service executives with an aim to study job training satisfaction. 6. 1. 1. 1. team work. 5. However. respondents reported that training and development practices had a positive impact on preparing them to be more effective in their work. 2012 725 .Evaluating Training & Development Effectiveness . in other organizations in which they had been employed. Motivates them to work in this organization 3. 2. Training had increased their technical abilities 2. Results of research work concluded that no significant relationship between job training satisfaction and formal education level achieved.2% of respondents reported that training provided substantial training when they first joined work. gender.A Measurement Model Rama Devi V. Technical service representatives began ASIAN JOURNAL OF MANAGEMENT RESEARCH Volume 2 Issue 1. customer service representatives started with a fairly high level of job training satisfaction that steadily declined as job tenure increased to the 10-12 year period. Satisfaction then sharply increased for employees with more than 12 years of job tenure. 2. increasing their technical abilities. 3.S and Canadian companies. 4. job confidence and work motivation. Compared with managers/supervisors. Older employees are more likely to feel than younger that. 7. Nagurvali Shaik training has differed by age and position. Training had prepared them better for future job assignments. Training was provided when they first join organization. Schmidt Steven W. age. Training had provided them with increase in salary Greater opportunity for promotion Prepared for better job assignments Developed skills to do number of jobs Improved their understanding of business Increased their confidence to undertake task Older employees are less likely to say that. Builds teamwork in organization Females were less likely to say that. 2. 3. 8. 36. 25. Training had provided greater opportunities for promotions and increase in salary. (2009) conducted a research on Employee demographics and job training satisfaction in nine U. 5. race/ethnicity.3% of respondents reported that training practices had not provided them with an increase in salary.2% of respondents reported that training had not provided them with an opportunity for promotion. Results also say that. gender & position and findings suggests that. 6. workers are less likely to report that. 4. interpersonal abilities.
geographic location. 3. As a result of the financial investments organizations make in training. evaluation should include procedures that ensure alignment of a training activity with the organization‘s strategy. According to Manju. and work experience.. job tenure. 1976. There were no significant differences in the amount of training received by permanent or temporary employees. 2012 726 . Other demographic dimensions in the context of organization involves educational background. knowledge acquisition. Annie. Suresh B. it is important to provide evidence that training efforts are being fully realized (Casio. then sharply decreased again at ten years of job tenure. 4. marital status. 2003. Kirkpatrick. organizations have no good way to know whether training dollars are being spent wisely (Grove & Ostroff. From Schmidt Steven W. researchers have developed systematic procedures for training evaluation. Mark & Liu H. Kirkpatrick‘s four level model Hamblin‘s fie level model Warr‘s famework of evaluation Virmani and Premila‘s model of evaluation Peter Bramely‘s model of evaluation David Reay‘s approach to evaluatoin Among these widely accepted framework is four stage training evaluation model proposed by Kirkpatrick (1959). 2005). ethnicity. 2. sharply increased between the seventh and ninth year of tenure. Similarly. income. 2000. 2002). Megan (2002).A Measurement Model Rama Devi V. Evaluation of the effectiveness of training programs is critical (Goldstein. Hinrichs. Temporary employees were significantly more satisfied with the training they received than permanent employees. allows training and development staff to identify areas where particular courses or training programs may be strengthened. 2011. Over the years. physical abilities. to evaluate training investments critically. (2009) research work following observations is made with reference to demographic factors of trainne. organizations need to know how reactions. age and other socially meaningful categorizations. and behaviour change impact outcomes. parental status. Dowling & Welch. Organizations spend an immense amount of time and money on training in order to facilitate employee's learning of job-related competencies (Casio. 1986. 6.S & Dr. Kirkpatrick‘s framework classifies training evaluations into four ASIAN JOURNAL OF MANAGEMENT RESEARCH Volume 2 Issue 1. 37) defined diversity as composed of ‗variations in race. 1981). religious belief. but their job training satisfaction sharply declined during the fourth through sixth year of tenure. military experience. social class.4 Training evaluation Training evaluation is often defined as the systematic process of collecting data to determine if training is effective (Goldstein & Ford.. training evaluation has received extensive credit as being advantageous and useful. Permanent employees received an average of 13 days of training per year and temporary employees an average of almost 16 days of training per year. Noe. Nagurvali Shaik with higher levels of job training satisfaction than customer service representatives. Some of them are presented here. 2009). 1. 1978. 5. According to Brown G. gender. (Schmidt Steven W. 2000. Kenneth & Gerhardt W.H. 2002. Noe 2006). Wexley & Latham. According to Leach P. Ferdman (1995. nationality. Without documentation of the effectiveness of training. organizations need to know the value of measuring training at multiple stages. 1991). 3.Evaluating Training & Development Effectiveness . job status.
Peter Warr had. Context and Input evaluation. 4. Nagurvali Shaik categories. Mark & Liu H. ability of the trainer to deliver and trainees to absorb. 4 changes in organizationally desired outcomes. the inherent difficulties involved in collecting objective performance measures of trainees. 2003). David Reay has divided evaluation into three stages: the trial phase. Annie. 2012 727 .A Measurement Model Rama Devi V.5 Effectiveness of training function A training program is said to be effective when training outcome matches with its objectives. evaluation during the event. other factors — including transfer of learning. the ongoing phase. evaluation is the most important means to determine the effectiveness of training.O (Context evaluation. 1988. Post-Training evaluation. improvements in training and allocation of training resources. Outcome evaluation) framework of evaluation. To examine training effectiveness using results criteria. (Ostroff Cheri 1991). Goldstein. Virmani and Premila‘s model of evaluation embraces three stages: Pre-training evaluation. The failure to consistently find results for the effectiveness of training through the use of behavioural and performance rating criteria can be attributed to several sources. Job Behaviour and Functioning. 3 changes in work behaviours.P. as it helps in making decisions related to continuation of training. Peter Bramely‘s model of Evaluation includes three stages: evaluation before designing learning event. however. major responsibility associated with HR or specialist trainer and involvement of line manager. investment and time spent on training. The purpose of training will be served when employees who undergo training learn skills and knowledge from the training program and apply them in their job. performance of the trainees and their ability to transfer techniques to their jobs. work environment characteristics. ability of the institute and the trainers to recognize the needs and properly address them. including training design issues. The degree with which outcome is closer to objective determines training effectiveness. because. 3. Participants‘ reactions to the training program. What it makes more difficult in measuring training effectiveness is its complexity in measuring results in terms of monetary value. and criterion issues (Baldwin & Ford. recommended the C. evaluation after the event. the final phase.I. It is difficult to measure training effectiveness.Evaluating Training & Development Effectiveness . Process evaluation. ASIAN JOURNAL OF MANAGEMENT RESEARCH Volume 2 Issue 1. training design and contextual factors (Scaduto Anne. (Leach P. Input evaluation. Changes in attitude. Model for measuring training effectiveness The importance assigned to Training and Development function in an organization can be understood by knowing commitment from top managers. Yet it is very vital to measure training effectiveness.S and Vyas L (2008). According to Lina Vyas (2004). 2008). training results may not be immediately reflected in trainee performance and contribution of training knowledge in improved performance levels can‘t be judged objectively. and adequate matching of training package to trainees requirements — also have an influence on the effectiveness of training. 2. Training effectiveness can also be a function of trainee characteristics. for evaluating organization training. According to Huque A. 2010). Learning. 1. training effectiveness may be assessed by considering the results or evaluation. trainee characteristics. Evaluating the effectiveness of training program is an important step as it is carried out to see how well the training objectives have been met and whether it is the best method for achieving those objectives (Niraj Kishore Chimote. knowledge or skill levels. 1986). Lindsay Douglas & Chiabur S. Dan. According to Hamblin training can be evaluated in four levels: Reaction.
Inputs from each stage are taken from the previous stage. The new model is called. etc. objectives of training program should be formulated.Evaluating Training & Development Effectiveness . he/she attains a high level of satisfaction and grades the training delivered as very effective (Lina Vyas. Effectiveness of training depends on relevance of the training package to trainee's genuine needs. To evaluate effectiveness of training program. By the end of training needs analysis. These objectives in turn should be considered as a benchmark. Hence. ASIAN JOURNAL OF MANAGEMENT RESEARCH Volume 2 Issue 1. Stage1. Trainee performance It is proposed that if each of these stages is evaluated for its perfection. If the training programme addresses needs of trainees. evaluation should be made for training objectives. Trainee needs assessment Training needs are determined based on gaps in trainees‘ knowledge . In this stage of a training program. 2012 728 . against which entire training program effectiveness is measured. training objectives formulated based on training needs analysis is a crucial factor in determining effectiveness of a training program.1 Four stage cyclic model for measuring training effectiveness In this paper an attempt is made to develop a comprehensive model for training effectiveness which envisages concepts starting from training needs assessment to trainee performance. training effectiveness can be measured effectively. ‗Four stage cyclic model to measure Training Effectiveness‘. Nagurvali Shaik 4. 2004). (shown in figure 1). Trainer performance Stage4. Training needs Stage2. training objectives should fulfil following criteria. ability. skill.A Measurement Model Rama Devi V. Training design Stage3. Stage 1: Training Needs Assessment Stage 4: Trainee Performance Training effectiveness Stage 2: Training Design Stage 3: Trainer Performance Figure 1: Four stage cyclic model of training effectiveness Stage1. This model considers evaluation of four stages of a training program to measure training effectiveness.
gaps/breaks during training program. Thus organizations should design their training programmes to include such factors that increase likelihood of transfer Manju. Dubinsky J. Stage 4: Trainee performance Employees. No matter. the gap between required skill levels and current skill levels of employees. Stage 2: Training design Design is the outline dictating fundamental characteristics of the training. Training design refers to the degree to which the training has been designed and delivered in such a way that provides trainees the ability to transfer learning back to the job (Holton. There are several training design factors that influence transfer of training.management and relapse prevention strategies (e. but if trainer performance is not good. 1975) and goal setting (e. 2012 729 . Brown G. Alan (1996) argues that greater the proportion of sales training devoted to product knowledge.H(2011). There are various ways of collecting training needs. Thus. have to be evaluated to understand change in their learning levels. Suresh B. etc. Tziner. James (1998).g. who have gone through training. Training goals (taken from training needs) acts as benchmark against which employee‘s performance is evaluated and relativity (positive or negative) is analyzed. Jr. Stage 3: Trainer performance Trainer performance has a great impact not only in attracting trainees towards goals of program. training methods will be used. Kenneth & Gerhardt W. Training effectiveness is dependent factor of variables like training material. Hence training design is considered as one component of training evaluation of 4 stage cyclic model. whether training goals are formulated to befit. 1990). Wexley & Nemeroff. Training needs should evolve objectively from trainee requirements. Training objectives should set benchmark 3. training aids. methods used. In an empirical study by Manju. The effectiveness of any training program is determined not only by the successful acquisition of critical knowledge but also the ability to ASIAN JOURNAL OF MANAGEMENT RESEARCH Volume 2 Issue 1. source of trainer decisions. methods are good. This indicates the importance to training content and the base work required in making a training program effective. 1991. Nagurvali Shaik 1. well laid down training goals make it easy to measure degree of transfer of learning to employees. Training objectives should be measurable. Gist. Suresh B. entire training program will eventually turn ineffective. 2004).S & Dr. variables should be evaluated individually. Observable.H(2011) on 30 industrial units. Megan (2002). training aids. Transfer is the evidence that what was learned is actually being used on the job for which it was intended. 2000).S & Dr. These are Instructional techniques and learning principles (Alwarez. aimed at ascertaining training design interventions.Evaluating Training & Development Effectiveness .g. Self. Olsen H. training aids required.A Measurement Model Rama Devi V. the more effective training program. Training design includes training schedule. material. results showed that the training design interventions have got the due attention of the industrial units and training design and implementation is significantly related to productivity effectiveness of training. but also to the entire effectiveness of training. such as detailing employee job description. 2.
Personal Psychology. The degree with which these results meet with training objectives. Lindsay Douglas & Chiabur S.Evaluating Training & Development Effectiveness . 3. Baldwin. E.. Ilgen. J. Bradford S. pp 96111. pp 641-672. Alwarez. pp 63-103. Antonio Sebastiano and Riccardo Peccei (2009). References 1. Hollenbeck. Robert E.A Measurement Model Rama Devi V. trainee performance is measured. 2012 730 . (1988). It is not just sufficient to conduct a training program. Salas.K.M. Gorofano (2004). Ilgen (2005). Training Design Interventions and Implications for the productivity Effectiveness. K. An evaluation of generic teamwork skills training with action teams: effects on cognitive and skill-based outcomes. Robert E. Ellis. Performance management system outputs can be utilized to know the difference in performance of trainees after training program. 2. Training evaluation should be a regular system by the fact that trainees are transient groups. after application of these learned skills into a project or regular work by trainee. If training program is intended to impart behavioural aspects. Conclusion Training and Development contributes in such a way that employees can enhance their dexterity. Daniel R. Synergy. Proper evaluation is the base to effective training. determines training effectiveness. Ellis. Human Resource Development Review 3. enhanced results should be considered in determining impact of training on trainee. Bell. again after application of these skills into real work. and Ford. pp 52-68. Bell. Ployhart. Daniel R. 58. Trainee performance evaluation should be tailor made for an organization. Personnel Psychology 41.J. Nagurvali Shaik effectively transfer that knowledge to the performance environment (Alkesander P. Transfer of trainng: a review and directors for future research. (2011). 5.S & Dr. Antonio Giangreco. There is a causal relation between training and employee performance. Quoted in Manju. ASIAN JOURNAL OF MANAGEMENT RESEARCH Volume 2 Issue 1. 9(1). new knowledge and skill becomes necessary. Training helps organizations in achieving their strategic objectives and gives organizations a competitive edge.H. organizations train and develop their employees to the fullest advantage in order to enhance their effectiveness. Suresh B. pp 385-407. The International Journal of Human Resource Management. Hollenbeck. pp 158-170. An Integral Model of Training Evaluation and Effectiveness. John R. 4. Leader influences on training effectiveness: motivation and outcome expectation process. 20(1). Ployhart. International Journal of Training and Development 12(3). Dan (2008). Over time. They attend training program to acquire specific skills and return to work to apply them. 2005). John R. and C. or to measure trainee performance. T. Bradford S. T. If training program is intended to impart technical aspects. Organizations should evaluate whether training & development programs are effective and producing desired results.J. Quoted in Scaduto Anne. 6. Trainee‘s reactions to training: an analysis of the factors affecting overall satisfaction with training. In this context. again they return to training program. Alkesander P.
F. A. III & Weick. pp 48-57. simon. B. (1995). International Journal of Training and Development. Leader influences on training effectiveness: motivation and outcome expectation process. 4th edition. Colquitt. (2000).S & Dr. Constantinos-Vasilios Priporas (2009).J. W..H (2011). Brown.A Measurement Model Rama Devi V.E (2005). A model for evaluating the effectiveness of middle managers‘ training courses: evidence from a major banking organization in Greece. 9. MI: UMI Research Press. Sales Training: An Analysis of Field Sales Techniques. Mason. Dunnette. A. Nagurvali Shaik 5. J. 11(4). LePine. Eerde. R. D.R. Campbell. P. Personnel and Training Policies – Some Lessons for Western Companies. E. J.H: Thomson SouthWestern. Lawler. Barney. Quoted in Noe A. Academy of Management Review. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management. The mediating role of training needs assessment and Organizational Effectiveness. (2011). 10. Suresh B. International Human Resource Management: Managing People in a Multinational Context. 9(1) pp 52-68. Current Practice in Designing Training for Complex Skills: Implications for Design and Evaluation of ASIAN JOURNAL OF MANAGEMENT RESEARCH Volume 2 Issue 1. Formative evaluation: an integrative practice model and case study. and Welch. pp 221245. Some Assumptions about the Effectiveness of Sales Training. Dowling. Quoted in Manju. J. Tang.S & Dr.W. Looking inside for competitive advantage. Quoted in Manju. 85.. 11. Training Design Interventions and Implications for the productivity Effectiveness. pp 951-983. Cincinnati OH: South-Western. 13. Lindsay Douglas & Chiabur S. (2000). Graeme (2008). K. 17(2). 15. Suresh B. Synergy. Synergy..J. G. Quoted in Scaduto Anne. Quoted in Manju. Kenneth & Gerhardt W. Ekaterini Galanou. Suresh B. 12. M. pp 679-707. pp 679-707. 2012 731 . pp 67-76. performance and effectiveness.P. Psychology. Jr. pp 158-170. 25(3). Raymond (1996). (1984)... Personnel Psychology. 9(4). & Talbot. (1980). 85. A. Alan (1996).S & Dr. A. and Noe. J. Ann Arbor. NewYork: McGraw-Hill. Journal of Applied Psychology.Evaluating Training & Development Effectiveness . 16. 9(1) pp 52-68. Dan (2008). 55. pp 63-73. Synergy. A. pp 736-749. 7. Trainees‘ Attributes and Attitudes: Neglected Influences on Training Effectiveness.E. C. M.D. Toward and integrative theory of training motivation: a meta-analytic path analysis of 20 years of research. Training Design Interventions and Implications for the productivity Effectiveness.H (2011). 4th Ed. The Academy of Management Executive. Training Design Interventions and Implications for the productivity Effectiveness. 19 (1). Casio. (1970). Brown G.. 6. Costing Human Resources: The Financial Impact of Behavior in Organizations. 9(1) pp 52-68. pp 49–61. The International Journal of Human Resource Management. 8. M.. and Read. Eseryel. Schuver-van Blanken. Managerial behavior. International Journal of Training and Development 12(3). D. Long Range Planning. Megan (2002). O. J. K. Dubinsky J. V.. Dubinaky.. and Spector.H. 14.R.
M.Evaluating Training & Development Effectiveness .Howe. Human Resource Development Quarterly. M. Nagurvali Shaik ADAPT-IT‘. 4th edition. Bates. An Evaluation of Sales Training in the U. Holton. (2003).A Measurement Model Rama Devi V. Proceedings of ED -MEDIA 2001: World Conference on Educational Multimedia. Development of a generalized learning transfer system inventory. Training Design and Evaluation: An example from a satellite based distance learning program. CA: Josey-Bass and Pfeiffer.S Banking Industry. E. Handbook of Industrial/Organizational Psychology. S. Goldstein IL (1986). in C. 2012 732 . Improving Learning Transfer Systems in Organizations‖. and T. W. E. pp 353. San Francisco. Grove D. Holton. CA: Wadsworth. 11. 24. & Telecommunications (Tampere. 21. 19. Hypermedia.T..Chemers. B. Michael. A. E. M.R. Public Personnel Management. Training in Organizations: Needs assessment. Costanzo.M (1995). 23. Honeycutt. 26. Thousand Oaks. Industrial Marketing Management. pp 829-860. Training Effectiveness measures and scoring schemes: A comparison. S.A & Rouna. C. 28. 22. 18. Developing Human Resources. DC: BNA Books. Training evaluation. T. Large-scale Performance Driven Training Needs Assessment: A Case Study. (1997). L. Hall. A.N. CA: Sage. (2000). Oskamp and M.S. In Wexley KN (Ed.F. R. L.Berry and M. ASIAN JOURNAL OF MANAGEMENT RESEARCH Volume 2 Issue 1. pp 40-47. Ferdman. Ford J (2002). Nania Sharon. Cultural identity and diversity in organizations: Bridging the gap between group differences and individual uniqueness in Diversity in Organizations. 25. Personnel Psychology. 17. CA: Brooks/Cole. 20. & Naquin.. Vitelli.K (1990). Bavetta. Finland: Association for Advancement of Computing in Education). ed.)..W. pp 333-360. development and evaluation.G.. Public Administration Quarterly. New York: Rand McNally.374. Gist.E. Journal of Personal Selling and Sales Management. 4.E. 29.F. Belmont. & Stevens. III and Baldwin. Holton. Personnel Psychology.. ASPA Handbook of Human Resource Management. Bowers (1984). Ingram (1983).A. R. Personnel Training. C. 44. Ostroff C (1991). In Dunnette MD (Ed.. pp 837-861. Washington. Hinrichs JR (1976). Transfer Training Method: It‘s Influence on the Acquisition and Maintenance of Complex Interpersonal Skills. New perspectives for a changing workplace. III. Monetery. Bates. Shortcomings of Sales Training Programs. (2000). Futrell. pp 370-385. pp 249-268 27. pp 117-123. V. Goldstein IL. Montgomerie and J.). pp 474–479.L. Quoted in Ostroff Cheri (1991). pp 37-61.
S and Vyas L (2008). Mark & Liu H. (1997). NJ: Erlbaum). The IUP Journal of Organizational Behavior. Training and enterprise performance in transition: evidence from China. Manju. pp 327-339. Y. Raymond (1996). 11(4). Lina Vyas (2004). Toward improved employment relations practices of casual employees in the New South Wales registered clubs industry. 36. J.S & Dr. Perceptions of the effectiveness of training and development of ‗grey-collar‘ workers in the People‘s Republic of China. Delivering Better Government: Assessing the Effectiveness of Public Service Training in India. Martocchio JJ. Ng. pp 188-204. International Journal of Human Resource Management. Zhu. 38. Teachout (eds). 37. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Assoicates).H (2011). Kate Hutchings. pp 1-46. 32.W. pp 193-223. An organizational systems approach for the implementation and transfer of training in J. pp 291-306.Evaluating Training & Development Effectiveness . Kozlowki. pp 736-749. Evaluating in-house training programs.F.). Kirkpatrick DL (1978). S. (2003). pp 32-37. Mathieu.. Cherrie J. Y. Kozlowski. Public Personnel Management. Suresh B. K. Improving effectiveness in work organizations (Mahawah. MN:West. J. E. 19(1). Human Resource Development Quarterly 13(1). (1997). Improving Training Effectiveness in Work Organizations (Mahwah. ASIAN JOURNAL OF MANAGEMENT RESEARCH Volume 2 Issue 1. The International Journal of Human Resource Management. Brain K. 2012 733 .S. Training and Development Journal. pp 53-69... (ed. Baldwin TT. Academy of Management Review. XXII(4). In Ferris GR (Exi. Cooper.A Measurement Model Rama Devi V. Leach P. E. 35. Synergy. Greenwich. Ford. M. N. 12(3). Training Design Interventions and Implications for the productivity Effectiveness. Huse. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management. IX(3). CT. Human Resource Development International.E and Martineau. Huque A. Organization development and change. 39. pp 28-47. 34. Expectations and performance: assessment of public service training in Hong Kong. Yiming Zhang and Sijun Shao (2009). pp 247-287. Paul. Annie. E. C. 33.K For. The evolution of strategic organizational training: New objectives and research agenda. pp 878–894. (2004). (1975). W. Investigating interrelations among sales training evaluations. pp 279-296. 9(1) pp 52-68. Lowry. Kraiger. Research in personnel and human resources management. 15(4/5). (1997). Individual and situational influences on training motivation in J. J. St. Jai Press.W. Training Programs: Evaluation of Trainees‘ expectations and experience.J and Salas. 41. 31. Simon and N. S.K. Trainees‘ Attributes and Attitudes: Neglected Influences on Training Effectiveness. Nagurvali Shaik 29. 40.. Niraj Kishore Chimote (2010). A.. Quoted in Noe A.). 15. 30. and Siu. 33(3). D. 38. Salas and M. Kimberley (2002).
(1996). A. 48. (1991). MA: McGraw – Hill Irwin). pp 95-101. 45. (2006). A. R.. Haccoun.. 50. 46. Employee demographics and job training satisfaction: the relationship between dimensions of diversity and satisfaction with job training. Wexley KN. Systematic Program Evaluation. pp 353. 54. Academy of Management Review.. Latham GP (1981). vanEupen.. Jamesl.374.. ―Trainees‘ Attributes and Attitudes: Neglected Influences on Training Effectiveness‖. Personnel Psychology. B.A. Olsen H. Jr. 51. DC: American Psychological Association).A. Training Effectiveness measures and scoring schemes: A comparison. The Impact of people Management Practices on Business Performance (London:CIPD).. 11 (4). M. Lindsay Douglas & Chiabur S. 2012 734 . The evaluation and enhancement of training transfer. Excel Books. P. Training for a Rapidly Changing Workforce: Application of Psychological Research (Washington. Personnel Psychology. Gerhart.A.A Measurement Model Rama Devi V. Schmidt Steven W (2009). Grbham J. Foresman. 52. International Journal of Training and Development 12(3).. 44. Smith H.M. and Nickell. Human Resource Development International.Evaluating Training & Development Effectiveness . Quinones and A. Wayne & George E. and Rajan.. 43. Ostroff Cheri (1991). 47. 12(3). M. Enriching Human Capital through Training and Development. Contextual influences on training effectiveness in M. (6th Ed).. Training Effectiveness measures and scoring schemes: A comparison. W (1975). pp 239-246. S. Dan (2008). & Kadish. Tziner.. pp 177-201.N and Nemeroff. Quoted in Ostroff Cheri (1991). pp 158-170. pp 167-077.G. Hollenbeck. 2(1). Lawthom. Clay (1983). IL: Scott.374. Journal of Occupational Psychology. Scaduto Anne. Shaping up for Change Through Investors in People (London: Centre for Employment and Technology in Europe). A.A. (Boston. West. M.R. R. (1998). A. Wexley. Journal of Applied Psychology. P. Glenview. ASIAN JOURNAL OF MANAGEMENT RESEARCH Volume 2 Issue 1. pp 61-75. 53. International Journal of Training and Development. (1998). (1997). 64. Personal and Situational Characteristics Influencing the Effectiveness of Transfer of Training Improvement Strategies. pp 297-312. Effectiveness of Positive Reinforcement and Goal setting as Methods of Management Development. Quinones. Noe. Nagurvali Shaik 42. pp 736-749. 49. Patterson. 55. Rao. Ehrenstein. Human Resource Planning. Human Resource Management: Gaining a Competitive Advantage.R. Raymond (1996). Noe A. 64. pp 353.L. R. P. Rajan. K. & Wright. J. (2008). (eds). Leader influences on training effectiveness: motivation and outcome expectation process. Developing and training human resources in organizations.
Stewart Jim (2003).Evaluating Training & Development Effectiveness . 2012 735 .A Measurement Model Rama Devi V. pp 108-123.S. Yadapadithaya P. Nagurvali Shaik 56. Corporate training and development policies and practices: a cross-national study of India and Britain. ASIAN JOURNAL OF MANAGEMENT RESEARCH Volume 2 Issue 1. International Journal of Training and Development.