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What does this current become when the input voltage is raised to 10 V?

Figure 4.69

Chapter 4, Solution 1.

+ −

8 (5 + 3) = 4Ω , i =

io =

1 1 = 1+ 4 5

1 1 i= = 0.1A 2 10

Since the resistance remains the same we get i = 10/5 = 2A which leads to io = (1/2)i = (1/2)2 = 1A.

PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this Manual may be displayed, reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, without the prior written permission of the publisher, or used beyond the limited distribution to teachers and educators permitted by McGraw-Hill for their individual course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

Chapter 4, Problem 2. Find vo in the circuit of Fig. 4.70. If the source current is reduced to 1 μA, what is vo?

Figure 4.70

Chapter 4, Solution 2.

6 (4 + 2) = 3Ω, i1 = i 2 =

io =

1 A 2

1 1 i1 = , v o = 2i o = 0.5V 2 4

If is = 1μA, then vo = 0.5μV

PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this Manual may be displayed, reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, without the prior written permission of the publisher, or used beyond the limited distribution to teachers and educators permitted by McGraw-Hill for their individual course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

Chapter 4, Problem 3. (a) In the circuit in Fig. 4.71, calculate vo and Io when vs = 1 V. (b) Find vo and io when vs = 10 V. (c) What are vo and Io when each of the 1-Ω resistors is replaced by a 10-Ω resistor and vs = 10 V?

Figure 4.71 Chapter 4, Solution 3.

+ −

+ vo

+ −

(a) We transform the Y sub-circuit to the equivalent Δ . 3R 2 3 3 3 3 = R, R + R = R R 3R = 4R 4 4 4 2 vs vo = independent of R 2 io = vo/(R) When vs = 1V, vo = 0.5V, io = 0.5A (b) When vs = 10V, vo = 5V, io = 5A (c) When vs = 10V and R = 10Ω, vo = 5V, io = 10/(10) = 500mA

PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this Manual may be displayed, reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, without the prior written permission of the publisher, or used beyond the limited distribution to teachers and educators permitted by McGraw-Hill for their individual course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

72 Chapter 4. i1 = Hence Is = 3 + 3 = 6A If Is = 6A Is = 9A Io = 1 Io = 9/6 = 1. No part of this Manual may be displayed. All rights reserved. + v1 3 6 = 2Ω .Chapter 4. or used beyond the limited distribution to teachers and educators permitted by McGraw-Hill for their individual course preparation. without the prior written permission of the publisher. 4 PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. you are using it without permission.72. the voltage across the 6Ω resistor is 6V so that the current through the 3Ω resistor is 2A. . Inc. vo = 3(4) = 12V. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies. Solution 4. 4. Figure 4. reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means. Use linearity to determine io in the circuit in Fig.5A vo = 3A. Problem 4. If Io = 1. If you are a student using this Manual.

Figure 4. 4. and use linearity to find the actual value of vo. + − If vo = 1V. assume vo = 1 V. Problem 5. reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means. Solution 5. If you are a student using this Manual. For the circuit in Fig.5V 10 Then vs = 15 PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. without the prior written permission of the publisher.73.Chapter 4.73 Chapter 4. Inc. . or used beyond the limited distribution to teachers and educators permitted by McGraw-Hill for their individual course preparation. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies. ⎛1⎞ V1 = ⎜ ⎟ + 1 = 2V ⎝3⎠ 10 ⎛2⎞ Vs = 2⎜ ⎟ + v1 = 3 ⎝3⎠ If vs = 10 3 vo = 1 vo = 3 x15 = 4. you are using it without permission. No part of this Manual may be displayed. All rights reserved.

use linearity to complete the following table. reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means. Solution 6. 4. All rights reserved. No part of this Manual may be displayed. Experiment 1 2 3 4 Vs 12 V -1V -Vo 4V 16 V --2V + Vs + _ Linear Circuit Vo – Figure 4.Chapter 4. we obtain: Experiment 2 3 4 Vs 48 1V -6 V Vo 16 V 0.333 V -2V PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. Chapter 4. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies. Due to linearity. For the linear circuit shown in Fig.74 For Prob. 1 Vo = Vs 3 Applying this to other experiments. Inc.6. If you are a student using this Manual. . from the first experiment. without the prior written permission of the publisher. Problem 6. you are using it without permission. 4. or used beyond the limited distribution to teachers and educators permitted by McGraw-Hill for their individual course preparation.74.

All rights reserved. Solution 7.75 For Prob. 1Ω 4Ω + 4V + _ 3Ω 2Ω Vo _ Figure 4.9 mV.Chapter 4.5. you are using it without permission. . 4.8889 V = 888.5 Then vs = 4 ⎯⎯ → 1 V ⎯⎯ → 1 x4 = 0.5 +3/3 = 1. The voltage across the 3-Ω resistor is ½ (4 + 2) = 3 V. reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means. Hence the source voltage vs = 1x1. then the current through the 2-Ω and 4-Ω resistors is ½ = 0. without the prior written permission of the publisher. Inc. No part of this Manual may be displayed. The total current through the 1-Ω resistor is 0. .7. or used beyond the limited distribution to teachers and educators permitted by McGraw-Hill for their individual course preparation.75. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies. Problem 7. Use linearity and the assumption that Vo = 1V to find the actual value of Vo in Fig.5 A. 4. If you are a student using this Manual.5 V If vs = 4. 4. If Vo = 1V.5 + 3 = 4.5 PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. Chapter 4.

PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. find Vo in the circuit of Fig. 4Ω Vo 1Ω 3Ω 5Ω + _ 9V + _ 3V Figure 4. Problem 8. Inc. or used beyond the limited distribution to teachers and educators permitted by McGraw-Hill for their individual course preparation. you are using it without permission. No part of this Manual may be displayed. 4.76.8. If you are a student using this Manual. All rights reserved.76 For Prob.Chapter 4. 4. . reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means. Using superposition. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies. without the prior written permission of the publisher.

or used beyond the limited distribution to teachers and educators permitted by McGraw-Hill for their individual course preparation.0769 To find V2. Let Vo = V1 + V2. without the prior written permission of the publisher. consider the circuit below.1538 V PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. . V1 9Ω 3Ω + _ 3V V2 V2 3 − V2 + = 9 3 1 ⎯⎯ → V2 = 27 /13 = 2. All rights reserved. Solution 8. where V1 and V2 are due to 9-V and 3-V sources respectively. consider the circuit below. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies. reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means. you are using it without permission. To find V1. If you are a student using this Manual. V1 3Ω 9Ω + _ 9V 1Ω 9 − V1 V1 V1 = + 3 9 1 ⎯⎯ → V1 = 27 /13 = 2. No part of this Manual may be displayed.0769 Vo = V1 + V2 = 4. Inc.Chapter 4.

No part of this Manual may be displayed. Inc. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies.Chapter 4. you are using it without permission. Use superposition to find vo in the circuit of Fig. Problem 9. 4. without the prior written permission of the publisher. 1Ω + _ 18 V PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. 2Ω 4Ω 2Ω 6A + vo _ Figure 4. reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means. or used beyond the limited distribution to teachers and educators permitted by McGraw-Hill for their individual course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual.9.77.77 For Prob. All rights reserved. 4. .

No part of this Manual may be displayed. you are using it without permission. or used beyond the limited distribution to teachers and educators permitted by McGraw-Hill for their individual course preparation. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies. Solution 9. All rights reserved. . without the prior written permission of the publisher. We find v1 using the circuit below.Chapter 4. reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means. Let vo = v1 + v2. 2Ω 2Ω 4Ω + v1 _ 1Ω 6A 2//2 = 1 Ω. If you are a student using this Manual. v1 = 1x 4 (6 A) = 4 V 4+2 We find v2 using the circuit below. Inc. where v1 and v2 are due to 6-A and 20-V sources respectively. 2Ω 2Ω 4Ω + v2 _ 1Ω + _ 18 V v2 = 1 (18) = 3 V 1+ 1+ 4 vo = v1 + v2 = 4 + 3 = 7 V PROPRIETARY MATERIAL.

. 4. reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means. consider Fig.vab1 – 3 vab1 + 10x0 + 4 = 0.Chapter 4. +− + − +− + vab1 + vab2 For vab1. No part of this Manual may be displayed. Applying KVL gives. Problem 10. Let vab = vab1 + vab2 where vab1 and vab2 are due to the 4-V and the 2-A sources respectively. without the prior written permission of the publisher. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies. consider Fig. Inc. Figure 4. All rights reserved. which leads to vab2 = 5 vab = 1 + 5 = 6 V PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. Applying KVL gives. vab2 – 3vab2 + 10x2 = 0. you are using it without permission. If you are a student using this Manual.78. For the circuit in Fig. find the terminal voltage Vab using superposition. or used beyond the limited distribution to teachers and educators permitted by McGraw-Hill for their individual course preparation. Solution 10. which leads to vab1 = 1 V For vab2. . (b). (a).78 Chapter 4.

Use the superposition principle to find io and vo in the circuit of Fig. . 4. For Prob. io 10 Ω + vo – – + 20 Ω 6A 40 Ω 4 io 30 V Figure 4. va va − vb + 40 10 ⎯⎯ → 240 = 5va − 4vb (1) –I1 – 4I1 + (vb – 0)/20 = 0 or vb = 100I1 PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. or used beyond the limited distribution to teachers and educators permitted by McGraw-Hill for their individual course preparation. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies. No part of this Manual may be displayed.11. Let vo = v1 + v2.Chapter 4. 4. 6= At node b. To find v1. If you are a student using this Manual.79 Chapter 4. Problem 11. without the prior written permission of the publisher. Solution 11. reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means. All rights reserved. I1 10 Ω + V1 _ 20 Ω va vb 6A 40 Ω 4 i1 At node a.79. you are using it without permission. consider the circuit below. Inc. where v1 and v2 are due to the 6-A and 80-V sources respectively.

636va = 240 or va = 175. you are using it without permission.96 However.799 A. No part of this Manual may be displayed.99 + 2 = 17. v1 = va – vb = 15.95 and vb = 159. Inc. PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. without the prior written permission of the publisher. consider the circuit below. . reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means. io 10 Ω + v2 _ 40 Ω f 20 Ω e vc 4 io – + 30 V 0 − vc (−30 − vc ) + 4io + =0 50 20 (0 − vc ) But io = 50 5vc (30 + vc ) − =0 ⎯⎯ → 50 20 0 − vc 0 + 10 1 i2 = = = 50 50 5 − vc = −10 V v2 = 10i2 = 2 V vo = v1 + v2 =15. All rights reserved. or used beyond the limited distribution to teachers and educators permitted by McGraw-Hill for their individual course preparation.99 V and io = vo/10= 1. If you are a student using this Manual.But i1 = va − vb 10 which leads to 100(va–vb)10 = vb or vb = 0.9091va (2) Substituting (2) into (1).99 V. 5va – 3. To find v2. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies.

or used beyond the limited distribution to teachers and educators permitted by McGraw-Hill for their individual course preparation. without the prior written permission of the publisher. .80 PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies. 4. Determine vo in the circuit in Fig.Chapter 4. Figure 4. reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means. All rights reserved. If you are a student using this Manual. Inc. No part of this Manual may be displayed. you are using it without permission.80 using the superposition principle. Problem 12.

Inc. + v 3 − + − + v 3 − + + − 7||12 = (84/19) ohms. For vo1. . or used beyond the limited distribution to teachers and educators permitted by McGraw-Hill for their individual course preparation. reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means.975 v = (-5/7)v2 = -7. All rights reserved. and 19-V sources respectively. io = 2/2 = 1. consider the circuit below. v2 = [(84/19)/(4 + 84/19)]19 = 9. vo2.125 vo = 5 + 2 – 7. 4||12 = 3 ohms. you are using it without permission. 12-V. and vo3 are due to the 2-A. without the prior written permission of the publisher. consider the circuit below. If you are a student using this Manual. v1 = [(24/11)/(6 + 24/11)]12 = 16/5 vo2 = (5/8)v1 = (5/8)(16/5) = 2 V For vo3.125 = -125 mV PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies. + v 1 − + v 1 − 6||3 = 2 ohms. Solution 12. Let vo = vo1 + vo2 + vo3. + − + v 2 − + − + + v 2 − 3||8 = 24/11.Chapter 4. consider the circuit shown below. No part of this Manual may be displayed. where vo1. vo1 = 5io = 5 V For vo2. Hence.

consider the circuit below. 4.81. Inc. without the prior written permission of the publisher. you are using it without permission. For Prob. No part of this Manual may be displayed. If you are a student using this Manual. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies. Problem 13. reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means.Chapter 4. where v1. . and v3 are due to the independent sources. Use superposition to find vo in the circuit of Fig. Let vo = v1 + v2 + v 3 . v2.81 Chapter 4. To find v1.3478 10 + 8 + 5 PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. All rights reserved.13. 4A 8Ω +– 12 V 2A 10 Ω 5Ω + vo _ Figure 4. Solution 13. or used beyond the limited distribution to teachers and educators permitted by McGraw-Hill for their individual course preparation. 8Ω 2A 10 Ω 5Ω + v1 _ v1 = 5 x 10 x2 = 4. 4.

consider the circuit below. Inc. 8Ω 12 V + – 10 Ω 5Ω + v3 _ 5 ⎛ ⎞ v3 = −12 ⎜ ⎟ = −2. consider the circuit below.To find v2. or used beyond the limited distribution to teachers and educators permitted by McGraw-Hill for their individual course preparation. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies. .6087 ⎝ 5 + 10 + 8 ⎠ vo = v1 + v2 + v 3 = 8.6956 V =8. without the prior written permission of the publisher. 4A 8Ω + 10 Ω 5Ω v2 _ v2 = 5 x 8 x4 = 6. If you are a student using this Manual. you are using it without permission. All rights reserved. No part of this Manual may be displayed. PROPRIETARY MATERIAL.9565 8 + 10 + 5 To find v3.696V. reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means.

.Chapter 4. If you are a student using this Manual. Figure 4. 4. All rights reserved. No part of this Manual may be displayed. reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means.82.82 PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. Inc. or used beyond the limited distribution to teachers and educators permitted by McGraw-Hill for their individual course preparation. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies. without the prior written permission of the publisher. Problem 14. you are using it without permission. Apply the superposition principle to find vo in the circuit of Fig.

consider the circuit below. or used beyond the limited distribution to teachers and educators permitted by McGraw-Hill for their individual course preparation. + − v 6||(4 + 2) = 3. vo2 = [2/(4 + 2 + 2)]4 = 1 V For vo3. consider the circuit below. . vo3 = (-1)3 = –3 vo = 10 + 1 – 3 = 8 V 3 + PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. vo2 . vo1 = (½)20 = 10 V For vo2. −+ + + 3||6 = 2 ohms. and vo3. and 2-A sources respectively. Solution 14. Let vo = vo1 + vo2 + vo3. where vo1. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies. consider the circuit below. you are using it without permission. without the prior written permission of the publisher. No part of this Manual may be displayed. If you are a student using this Manual. For vo1. All rights reserved. 1-A. Inc.Chapter 4. reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means. + − + 6||(4 + 2) = 3 ohms. are due to the 20-V.

and 16-V sources. consider the circuit below. Problem 15. All rights reserved. reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means. or used beyond the limited distribution to teachers and educators permitted by McGraw-Hill for their individual course preparation. 4. Calculate the power delivered to the 3-Ω resistor. No part of this Manual may be displayed. Figure 4. If you are a student using this Manual. and i3 are due to the 20-V. Let i = i1 + i2 + i3. + − 4||(3 + 1) = 2 ohms.83 Chapter 4. Inc. For the circuit in Fig. 2-A.5 A PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. you are using it without permission.Chapter 4.83. i2 . For i1. i1 = io/2 = 2. where i1 . use superposition to find i. Then io = [20/(2 + 2)] = 5 A. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies. without the prior written permission of the publisher. . Solution 15.

No part of this Manual may be displayed. reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means.375 i = 2.375 . 3 + 4/3 = 13/3 Using the current division principle. 2||4 = 4/3. i2 = [1/(1 + 13/2)]2 = 3/8 = 0. consider the circuit below.55 watts PROPRIETARY MATERIAL.1 = 1.For i3. Inc. without the prior written permission of the publisher. + − + vo’ 2||(1 + 3) = 4/3. . consider the circuit below.875 A p = i2R = (1. All rights reserved. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies. or used beyond the limited distribution to teachers and educators permitted by McGraw-Hill for their individual course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual. vo’ = [(4/3)/((4/3) + 4)](-16) = -4 i3 = vo’/4 = -1 For i2.5 + 0.875)23 = 10. you are using it without permission.

No part of this Manual may be displayed.84.84 PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. you are using it without permission. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies. without the prior written permission of the publisher. If you are a student using this Manual. All rights reserved. Figure 4.Chapter 4. Given the circuit in Fig. Problem 16. Inc. reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means. or used beyond the limited distribution to teachers and educators permitted by McGraw-Hill for their individual course preparation. use superposition to get io. . 4.

Inc. All rights reserved. io2 =[-10/(4 + 10)]i1 = -6/9 For io3. consider the circuit below. If you are a student using this Manual. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies. where io1. io3 = [-10/(10 + 4)]i2 = -5/9 io = (12/9) – (6/9) – (5/9) = 1/9 = 111. No part of this Manual may be displayed. consider the circuit below.11 mA PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. and 2-A sources. Solution 16. reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means. you are using it without permission. or used beyond the limited distribution to teachers and educators permitted by McGraw-Hill for their individual course preparation. Let io = io1 + io2 + io3. + − 10||(3 + 2 + 5) = 5 ohms. io1 = 12/(5 + 4) = (12/9) A For io2. consider the circuit below. For io1. io2.Chapter 4. 3 + 2 + 4||10 = 5 + 20/7 = 55/7 i2 = [5/(5 + 55/7)]2 = 7/9. . without the prior written permission of the publisher. and io3 are due to the 12-V. 4-A. 2 + 5 + 4||10 = 7 + 40/14 = 69/7 i1 = [3/(3 + 69/7)]4 = 84/90.

Chapter 4. Problem 17. 4. . or used beyond the limited distribution to teachers and educators permitted by McGraw-Hill for their individual course preparation. Check your result using PSpice. If you are a student using this Manual. Inc. No part of this Manual may be displayed.85 PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies. Figure 4. you are using it without permission. reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means. without the prior written permission of the publisher.85. Use superposition to obtain vx in the circuit of Fig. All rights reserved.

All rights reserved. + − + − + − io” = [12/(12 + 30)]2 = 24/42. . or used beyond the limited distribution to teachers and educators permitted by McGraw-Hill for their individual course preparation. reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means. 6-A.286 V For vx2. Let vx = vx1 + vx2 + vx3.714 = [12/(12 + 30)]2 = 24/42.714 = -8. vx1 = 10io = 600/42 = 14. you are using it without permission.286 – 17. 60||30 = 20 ohms By using current division.Chapter 4.143 V For vx3. where vx1. vx3 = -10io” = -5. If you are a student using this Manual.143 – 5. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies.571 V PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. without the prior written permission of the publisher. io = [20/(22 + 20)]3 = 60/42. No part of this Manual may be displayed. For vx1. and vx3 are due to the 90-V. consider the circuit below. vx3 = -10io” = -5.vx2. Solution 17. and 40-V sources. consider the circuit below. vx2 = –10io’ = –17. vx3 = -10io” = -5. + + − − + − 20||30 = 12 ohms. + − + v 2 − io’ = [12/(12 + 30)]6 = 72/42. consider the circuit below.714 vx = 14. Inc.714= [12/(12 + 30)]2 = 24/42.

18. All rights reserved. Inc.5 Vo 2Ω + 10 V + _ 2A 4Ω Vo _ Figure 4. Problem 18. or used beyond the limited distribution to teachers and educators permitted by McGraw-Hill for their individual course preparation. you are using it without permission. 1Ω 0. Use superposition to find Vo in the circuit of Fig.Chapter 4. 4. If you are a student using this Manual. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies. .86. reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means.86 For Prob. No part of this Manual may be displayed. without the prior written permission of the publisher. PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. 4.

Let Vo = V1 + V2. To find V1. reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means.5 V1 + 10 V + _ V1 _ 2Ω 2Ω 1Ω 0.5 V1 . Solution 18.Chapter 4.+ + 10 V + _ i 4Ω V1 _ -10 + 7i – 0. Inc. All rights reserved. without the prior written permission of the publisher. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies. . you are using it without permission. where V1 and V2 are due to 10-V and 2-A sources respectively. 1Ω 0. No part of this Manual may be displayed. or used beyond the limited distribution to teachers and educators permitted by McGraw-Hill for their individual course preparation. V1 = 8 V PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. we use the circuit below.5V1 = 0 But V1 = 4i `10 = 7i − 2i = 5i ⎯⎯ → i = 2. If you are a student using this Manual.

Inc.To find V2.8. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies.2 Vo = V1 + V2 = 8 +3. . All rights reserved.2 =11. you are using it without permission. we use the circuit below. or used beyond the limited distribution to teachers and educators permitted by McGraw-Hill for their individual course preparation.5 V2 . without the prior written permission of the publisher. reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means.5V2 =0 But V2 = 4i 4 = 7i − 2 i = 5 i ⎯⎯ → i = 0. 1Ω 0.2 V PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. V2 = 4i = 3.+ + 4V + _ i 4Ω V2 _ .5 V2 + 2A 4Ω V2 _ 2Ω 2Ω 1Ω 0. No part of this Manual may be displayed. If you are a student using this Manual.4 + 7i – 0.

4. Figure 4. Use superposition to solve for vx in the circuit of Fig. without the prior written permission of the publisher. you are using it without permission.87. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies. .87 PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means. No part of this Manual may be displayed. All rights reserved. Problem 19. or used beyond the limited distribution to teachers and educators permitted by McGraw-Hill for their individual course preparation.Chapter 4. If you are a student using this Manual. Inc.

13. without the prior written permission of the publisher.2(–0. consider the circuit shown in Fig. (b). you are using it without permission.5)v1 = 4 – 2ix or v1 = 6.5vx = 13.6 But ix = –0. (a). Checking. No part of this Manual may be displayed. Therefore. PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. ix = (v1 – (–4ix))/2 or ix = –0.6 which leads to v2 = –16 Hence. or used beyond the limited distribution to teachers and educators permitted by McGraw-Hill for their individual course preparation.125+0. which leads to v1 = –6.333 = 0 vx = –10. Thus.67)/8 = 3.6 = –10.Chapter 4.2(0.2ix But.333 – 3. v1/8 – 4 + (v1 – (–4ix))/2 = 0 or (0. Inc. If you are a student using this Manual. Let vx = v1 + v2.4 – 3. Solution 19.5v2) = 9. reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means. .333A Now all we need to do now is sum the currents flowing out of the top node.5v2. v2 + 3. where v1 and v2 are due to the 4-A and 6-A sources respectively.4/0.667 – 16 = –26.4 + 3. v2/8 – 6 + (v2 – (–4ix))/2 = 0 or v2 + 3.2ix = 9.333 – 6 – 4 + (–26. + −+ + −+ v1 v2 To find v1. v1 = 6. All rights reserved. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies.667 To find v2. consider the circuit in Fig.5v1). ix = –0.67V.5v1.

Chapter 4, Problem 20. Use source transformations to reduce the circuit in Fig. 4.88 to a single voltage source in series with a single resistor.

3A

10 Ω

20 Ω + _

40 Ω + _

12 V

16 V

Figure 4.88

For Prob. 4.20.

Chapter 4, Solution 20. Convert the voltage sources to current sources and obtain the circuit shown below.

3A

10 Ω

0.6

20 Ω

0.4

40 Ω

1 1 1 1 = + + = 0.1+ 0.05 + 0.025 = 0.175 Req 10 20 40 Ieq = 3 + 0.6 + 0.4 = 4

R 5.714 Ω eq = 5.7143 ⎯⎯ → R eq

Thus, the circuit is reduced as shown below. Please note, we that this is merely an exercise in combining sources and resistors. The circuit we have is an equivalent circuit which has no real purpose other than to demonstrate source transformation. In a practical situation, this would need some kind of reference and a use to an external circuit to be of real value. 5.714 Ω

18.285 V 4A 5.714 Ω

+ _

Chapter 4, Problem 21. Apply source transformation to determine vo and io in the circuit in Fig. 4.89.

Figure 4.89

Chapter 4, Solution 21. To get io, transform the current sources as shown in Fig. (a).

+ −

+ −

+ vo

From Fig. (a),

-12 + 9io + 6 = 0, therefore io = 666.7 mA

To get vo, transform the voltage sources as shown in Fig. (b). i = [6/(3 + 6)](2 + 2) = 8/3 vo = 3i = 8 V

10||10 = 5 ohms. . you are using it without permission. i = [5/(5 + 4)](2 – 1) = 5/9 = 555.Chapter 4. Referring to Fig. + − Figure 4.90. (a). reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means. or used beyond the limited distribution to teachers and educators permitted by McGraw-Hill for their individual course preparation. without the prior written permission of the publisher. If you are a student using this Manual. − + We now transform only the voltage source to obtain the circuit in Fig. Problem 22.5 mA PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. use source transformation to determine the current and power in the 8-Ω resistor. 4. All rights reserved. Solution 22. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies. (b). Inc.90 Chapter 4. No part of this Manual may be displayed. We transform the two sources to get the circuit shown in Fig.

© 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies. 10 Ω 8Ω 2Ω + 30V Applying KVL to the loop gives − 30 + 10 + I (10 + 8 + 2) = 0 ⎯ ⎯→ + 10V - I = 1A p = VI = I 2 R = 8 W PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. we obtain the circuit below. No part of this Manual may be displayed.91 Chapter 4.91. 8Ω 10 Ω 3A 6Ω 3Ω 5A 3//6 = 2-ohm. without the prior written permission of the publisher. Solution 23 If we transform the voltage source. . reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means. you are using it without permission. All rights reserved. Inc. Problem 23. 4. or used beyond the limited distribution to teachers and educators permitted by McGraw-Hill for their individual course preparation. use source transformation to determine the current and power in the 8-Ω resistor. Convert the current sources to voltages sources as shown below. Figure 4.Chapter 4. If you are a student using this Manual. Referring to Fig.

© 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies. or used beyond the limited distribution to teachers and educators permitted by McGraw-Hill for their individual course preparation.24. No part of this Manual may be displayed. 3A 8Ω + + _ Vx – 10 Ω 40 V 10 Ω 2 Vx Figure 4. . 4. PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. Use source transformation to find the voltage Vx in the circuit of Fig. All rights reserved.92 For Prob. Problem 24.92. 4. without the prior written permission of the publisher. If you are a student using this Manual. you are using it without permission. reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means. Inc.Chapter 4.

If you are a student using this Manual. Solution 24. or used beyond the limited distribution to teachers and educators permitted by McGraw-Hill for their individual course preparation. .978 V. without the prior written permission of the publisher. you are using it without permission. but Vx = 8I which leads to 28I + 160I = 70 or I = 0. reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means.Chapter 4. a 30-V source in series with a 10-Ω resistor and a 20Vx-V sources in series with a 10-Ω resistor. Transform the two current sources in parallel with the resistors into their voltage source equivalents yield. Inc. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies. No part of this Manual may be displayed. PROPRIETARY MATERIAL.3723 A or Vx = 2. 28I – 70 + 20Vx = 0 or 28I + 20Vx = 70. All rights reserved. 8Ω + + _ I Vx – – + 30 V 10 Ω 40 V 10 Ω 20Vx + – We now write the following mesh equation and constraint equation which will lead to a solution for Vx. We now have the following circuit.

3 vo = 2i = –6. Check your result using PSpice.Chapter 4. 4. If you are a student using this Manual. you are using it without permission. . Figure 4. Problem 25. or used beyond the limited distribution to teachers and educators permitted by McGraw-Hill for their individual course preparation. Inc. Obtain vo in the circuit of Fig. reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means. without the prior written permission of the publisher.93 Chapter 4. No part of this Manual may be displayed. All rights reserved. Transforming only the current source gives the circuit below. –(4 + 9 + 5 + 2)i + 12 – 18 – 30 – 30 = 0 20i = –66 which leads to i = –3.6 V PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. Solution 25. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies.93 using source transformation. −+ – + + − − + +− Applying KVL to the loop gives.

. Use source transformation to find io in the circuit of Fig. Inc. If you are a student using this Manual. No part of this Manual may be displayed. or used beyond the limited distribution to teachers and educators permitted by McGraw-Hill for their individual course preparation. For Prob. Solution 26. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies.Chapter 4. reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means. Transforming the current sources gives the circuit below.4 mA. 4. Problem 26. 5Ω 3A io 4Ω 6A 2Ω + _ 20 V Figure 4. 4.26. you are using it without permission. PROPRIETARY MATERIAL.94. All rights reserved. 2Ω 15 V – + 5Ω io 4Ω 12 V + _ + _ 20 V –12 + 11io –15 +20 = 0 or 11io = 7 or io = 636. without the prior written permission of the publisher.94 Chapter 4.

-40 + (8 + 12 + 20)i + 200 = 0 leads to i = -4 vx 12i = -48 V + v − + − + v − i + − PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. Figure 4.95 Chapter 4. Applying KVL to the loop.95. 10||40 = 8 ohms Transforming the current sources to voltage sources yields the circuit in Fig. reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means. Inc. Solution 27. All rights reserved. (a). © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies. (b). Problem 27. without the prior written permission of the publisher. or used beyond the limited distribution to teachers and educators permitted by McGraw-Hill for their individual course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual. No part of this Manual may be displayed. . 4. you are using it without permission. Apply source transformation to find vx in the circuit of Fig. Transforming the voltage sources to current sources gives the circuit in Fig.Chapter 4.

All rights reserved. you are using it without permission. No part of this Manual may be displayed. Use source transformation to find Io in Fig. Problem 28. reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means. 4.Chapter 4. If you are a student using this Manual.96 Chapter 4. Solution 28. .96. 1Ω io 4Ω + Vo _ 8V + _ – + 3Ω Vo Applying KVL. 4. −8 + io(1+ 4 + 3) − Vo = 0 But Vo = 4io −8 + 8io − 4io = 0 ⎯⎯ → io = 2 A PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. or used beyond the limited distribution to teachers and educators permitted by McGraw-Hill for their individual course preparation. Convert the dependent current source to a dependent voltage source as shown below. 1Ω Io 4Ω + Vo _ 8V + _ 3Ω ⅓ Vo Figure 4.28. For Prob. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies. without the prior written permission of the publisher. Inc.

2||4 = (4/3) k ohms −+ + + vo It is clear that i = 3 mA which leads to vo = 1000i = 3 V If the use of source transformations was not required for this problem. Use source transformation to find vo in the circuit of Fig. − + + vo Figure 4. you are using it without permission. the actual answer could have been determined by inspection right away since the only current that could have flowed through the 1 k ohm resistor is 3 mA. Problem 29. If you are a student using this Manual. Inc. .Chapter 4. or used beyond the limited distribution to teachers and educators permitted by McGraw-Hill for their individual course preparation. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies.93.93 Chapter 4. vo PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. without the prior written permission of the publisher. No part of this Manual may be displayed. Transform the dependent voltage source to a current source as shown in Fig. 4. reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means. (a). All rights reserved. Solution 29.

98 to find ix. All rights reserved. Figure 4. No part of this Manual may be displayed. Use source transformation on the circuit shown in Fig 4. you are using it without permission. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies.Chapter 4. Inc. reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means.98 PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. Problem 30. without the prior written permission of the publisher. or used beyond the limited distribution to teachers and educators permitted by McGraw-Hill for their individual course preparation. . If you are a student using this Manual.

ix 24 Ω 60 Ω 10 Ω + 12V - 30 Ω + 7ix Combine the 60-ohm with the 10-ohm and transform the dependent source as shown below. you are using it without permission. All rights reserved. ix 24 Ω + 12V - 30 Ω 70 Ω 0. or used beyond the limited distribution to teachers and educators permitted by McGraw-Hill for their individual course preparation. . © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies. Inc. ix 24 Ω 21 Ω + 12V - + 2.1 PROPRIETARY MATERIAL.8 mA 47.1ix Applying KVL to the loop gives 45i x − 12 + 2.1i x = 0 ⎯ ⎯→ ix = 12 = 254. Transform the dependent current source as shown below. reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means. If you are a student using this Manual.1ix Combining 30-ohm and 70-ohm gives 30//70 = 70x30/100 = 21-ohm.Chapter 4. Solution 30 Transform the dependent current source as shown below. No part of this Manual may be displayed. without the prior written permission of the publisher.

(a). If you are a student using this Manual. leads to vx = 84/23 = 3. (b). or i = vx/3. without the prior written permission of the publisher. Figure 4. Solution 31. No part of this Manual may be displayed. (b). Applying KVL. or used beyond the limited distribution to teachers and educators permitted by McGraw-Hill for their individual course preparation. All rights reserved. you are using it without permission. Problem 31. Transform the dependent source so that we have the circuit in Fig.99 using source transformation. 6||8 = (24/7) ohms. Determine vx in the circuit of Fig. Inc. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies. 4. + + − − + + − From Fig. Transform the dependent source again to get the circuit in Fig. -12 + (3 + 24/7)i + (24/21)vx = 0 12 = [(21 + 24)/7]vx/3 + (8/7)vx.99 Chapter 4. .652 V PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means. − + vx = 3i.Chapter 4.

Chapter 4, Problem 32. Use source transformation to find ix in the circuit of Fig. 4.100.

**Figure 4.100 Chapter 4, Solution 32. As shown in Fig. (a), we transform the dependent current source to a voltage source, −+
**

+ −

+

+

In Fig. (b), 50||50 = 25 ohms. Applying KVL in Fig. (c), -60 + 40ix – 2.5ix = 0, or ix = 1.6 A

Chapter 4, Problem 33. Determine RTh and VTh at terminals 1-2 of each of the circuits of Fig. 4.101.

Figure 4.101 Chapter 4, Solution 33. (a) RTh = 10||40 = 400/50 = 8 ohms VTh = (40/(40 + 10))20 = 16 V (b) RTh = 30||60 = 1800/90 = 20 ohms 2 + (30 – v1)/60 = v1/30, and v1 = VTh 120 + 30 – v1 = 2v1, or v1 = 50 V VTh = 50 V

Chapter 4, Problem 34. Find the Thevenin equivalent at terminals a-b of the circuit in Fig. 4.102.

Figure 4.102 Chapter 4, Solution 34. To find RTh, consider the circuit in Fig. (a).

+ −

+

RTh = 20 + 10||40 = 20 + 400/50 = 28 ohms To find VTh, consider the circuit in Fig. (b). At node 1, At node 2, (40 – v1)/10 = 3 + [(v1 – v2)/20] + v1/40, 40 = 7v1 – 2v2 3 + (v1- v2)/20 = 0, or v1 = v2 – 60 v1 = 32 V, v2 = 92 V, and VTh = v2 = 92 V (1) (2)

Solving (1) and (2),

No part of this Manual may be displayed. Figure 4. or used beyond the limited distribution to teachers and educators permitted by McGraw-Hill for their individual course preparation.80 PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. If you are a student using this Manual. Determine vo in the circuit in Fig. 4. Use Thevenin’s theorem to find vo in Prob. Problem 12.12. All rights reserved. you are using it without permission. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies. Chapter 4. reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means. . 4. without the prior written permission of the publisher.Chapter 4. Inc. Problem 35.80 using the superposition principle.

consider the circuit shown in Fig. or v2 = 33/4 -v1 + VTh + v2 = 0.25 + − +− vo = VTh/2 = -0. . © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. (b).25/2 = –125 mV PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. If you are a student using this Manual. RTh = Rab = 6||3 + 12||4 = 2 + 3 =5 ohms To find VTh. No part of this Manual may be displayed. or VTh = v1 – v2 = 8 – 33/4 = -0. To find RTh. (a). or v1 = 8 (19 – v2)/4 = 2 + v2/12. without the prior written permission of the publisher. or used beyond the limited distribution to teachers and educators permitted by McGraw-Hill for their individual course preparation. 2 + (12 – v1)/6 = v1/3.Chapter 4. you are using it without permission. + + − + v1 + v2 + − At node 1. At node 2. Solution 35. reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means. But. Inc. consider the circuit in Fig.

If you are a student using this Manual. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies. which leads to i = 500mA PROPRIETARY MATERIAL.Chapter 4. 4. All rights reserved. (Hint: Find the Thevenin equivalent as seen by the 12-Ω resistor. (b). Solution 36. without the prior written permission of the publisher. Applying KVL. From Fig. Remove the 30-V voltage source and the 20-ohm resistor.103 Chapter 4. + + − From Fig.103 using Thevenin’s theorem. 30 – 40 + (8 + 12)i = 0. (c). or used beyond the limited distribution to teachers and educators permitted by McGraw-Hill for their individual course preparation. Problem 36. reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means. . Inc.) Figure 4. No part of this Manual may be displayed. (a). RTh = 10||40 = 8 ohms VTh = (40/(10 + 40))50 = 40V + − + − The equivalent circuit of the original circuit is shown in Fig. you are using it without permission. Solve for the current i in the circuit of Fig.

Chapter 4, Problem 37. Find the Norton equivalent with respect to terminals a-b in the circuit shown in Fig. 4.100.

Figure 4.100

Chapter 4, Solution 37 RN is found from the circuit below. 20 Ω a 40 Ω

12 Ω

R N = 12 //( 20 + 40) = 10Ω IN is found from the circuit below. 20 Ω

b

2A a

+ 120V -

40 Ω

12 Ω IN b

Applying source transformation to the current source yields the circuit below. 20 Ω 40 Ω + 80 V -

+ 120V -

IN

**Applying KVL to the loop yields
**

− 120 + 80 + 60I N = 0 ⎯ ⎯→ I N = 40 / 60 =

666.7 mA.

Chapter 4, Problem 38. Apply Thèvenin's theorem to find Vo in the circuit of Fig. 4.105.

Figure 4.105

Chapter 4, Solution 38 We find Thevenin equivalent at the terminals of the 10-ohm resistor. For RTh, consider the circuit below. 1Ω 4Ω 5Ω 16 Ω RTh

RTh = 1 + 5 //( 4 + 16) = 1 + 4 = 5Ω

V V − V2 3= 1 + 1 16 4 ⎯ ⎯→ 48 = 5V1 − 4V2 (1) At node 2.2V + Vo - 10 Ω Using voltage division. Vo = 10 (19. .2 Thus. reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means. No part of this Manual may be displayed. consider the circuit below.2) = 12. Inc. All rights reserved. or used beyond the limited distribution to teachers and educators permitted by McGraw-Hill for their individual course preparation.8 V 10 + 5 PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. without the prior written permission of the publisher. If you are a student using this Manual. you are using it without permission. V1 4Ω V2 5Ω 3A 16 Ω + 12 V - 1Ω + VTh - At node 1. 5Ω + 19. V1 − V2 12 − V2 + =0 4 5 ⎯ ⎯→ 48 = −5V1 + 9V2 (2) Solving (1) and (2) leads to VTh = V2 = 19. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies.For VTh. the given circuit can be replaced as shown below.

4. 4. without the prior written permission of the publisher. or used beyond the limited distribution to teachers and educators permitted by McGraw-Hill for their individual course preparation. Obtain the Thevenin equivalent at terminals a-b of the circuit in Fig.39. reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means.Chapter 4. All rights reserved. PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. No part of this Manual may be displayed. Inc.106 For Prob. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies. Problem 39. 3A 10 Ω 10 Ω 24 V + _ 5Ω 16 Ω c a c b Figure 4. If you are a student using this Manual. . you are using it without permission.106.

Solution 39. .2 V But −V2 + 16 x3 + VTh = 0 ⎯⎯ → VTh = −49. No part of this Manual may be displayed. We obtain RTh using the circuit below. All rights reserved.2 V (1) (2) PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. V1 − V2 V =3+ 2 ⎯⎯ → 60 = 2V1 − 6V2 10 5 Substracting (1) from (2) gives 6 = −5V1 ⎯⎯ → V2 = 1. V −V 24 − V1 +3= 1 2 ⎯⎯ → 54 = 2V1 − V2 10 10 At node 2. we use the circuit below. If you are a student using this Manual. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies. without the prior written permission of the publisher. you are using it without permission. 10 Ω 16 10 Ω 5Ω RTh RTh = 16 + 20 // 5 = 16 + 20 x5 = 20 Ω 25 To find VTh. 3A 10 V1 10 Ω 24 + _ + V2 _ 5 V2 16 + VTh _ At node 1. reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means. or used beyond the limited distribution to teachers and educators permitted by McGraw-Hill for their individual course preparation. Inc.Chapter 4.

107. Problem 40.35 mA 10k 1 V 1 = RTh = kΩ = 2. If you are a student using this Manual. −70 + (10 + 20)kI + 4Vo = 0 But Vo = 10kI 70 = 70kI ⎯⎯ → I = 1mA −70 + 10kI + VTh = 0 ⎯⎯ → VTh = 60 V To find RTh. as shown in the circuit below. a – Vo + 10 kΩ 1V I2 c + _ b We notice that Vo = -1 V. 4. Chapter 4. Inc. All rights reserved. reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means.107 For Prob. ⎯⎯ → I1 = 0. 4.40. Solution 40. we apply KVL to the loop.35 PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. or used beyond the limited distribution to teachers and educators permitted by McGraw-Hill for their individual course preparation.25 mA −1+ 20kI1 + 4Vo = 0 I1 f 20 Ω + – 4 Vo I2 = I1 + V 1 = 0. you are using it without permission. Find the Thevenin equivalent at terminals a-b of the circuit in Fig.857 kΩ I2 0. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies. without the prior written permission of the publisher. we remove the 70-V source and apply a 1-V source at terminals a-b. To obtain VTh. No part of this Manual may be displayed.Chapter 4. + Vo – 10 kΩ 20 kΩ c a 70 V + _ c b + – 4 Vo Figure 4. .

4.108 PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. Problem 41. Inc. without the prior written permission of the publisher. If you are a student using this Manual. All rights reserved. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies.108. Figure 4. reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means. No part of this Manual may be displayed.Chapter 4. Find the Thèvenin and Norton equivalents at terminals a-b of the circuit shown in Fig. you are using it without permission. . or used beyond the limited distribution to teachers and educators permitted by McGraw-Hill for their individual course preparation.

or used beyond the limited distribution to teachers and educators permitted by McGraw-Hill for their individual course preparation. without the prior written permission of the publisher. V 14 + 6 − VTh = 3 + Th 6 + 14 5 3A 5Ω .Chapter 4. Solution 41 To find RTh. If you are a student using this Manual. reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means. All rights reserved.14V + 14 Ω VTh a ⎯ ⎯→ VTh = −8 V IN = Thus. VTh = −8V. we obtain the circuit below. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies. No part of this Manual may be displayed. you are using it without permission. . I N = −2 A PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. VTh = (−8) / 4 = −2 A RTh RTh = R N = 4Ω. 6Ω + 6V b At node a. consider the circuit below 14 Ω a 6Ω 5Ω b RTh = 5 //(14 + 6) = 4Ω = R N Applying source transformation to the 1-A current source. Inc.

For the circuit in Fig. find Thevenin equivalent between terminals a and b.Chapter 4. Inc. . Problem 42. without the prior written permission of the publisher.109 PROPRIETARY MATERIAL.109. you are using it without permission. or used beyond the limited distribution to teachers and educators permitted by McGraw-Hill for their individual course preparation. 4. If you are a student using this Manual. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies. reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means. All rights reserved. Figure 4. No part of this Manual may be displayed.

reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means. -vab – 10i1 + 30 – 10i2 = 0. . or -2 = 3i1 – i2 -50 – 10 + 30i2 – 10i1 = 0.Chapter 4. i2 = 2 A (1) (2) Solving (1) and (2). + −+ + − + − For loop 1. without the prior written permission of the publisher.5) = 10 ohms. you are using it without permission. or used beyond the limited distribution to teachers and educators permitted by McGraw-Hill for their individual course preparation. Transform the wye sub-network to a delta as shown in Fig. For loop 2. All rights reserved. 20||20 = 10 ohms. To find RTh. RTh = Rab = 30||(7.5 + 7. 10||30 = 7. To find VTh. -30 + 50 + 30i1 – 10i2 = 0. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies. We obtain the circuit shown in Fig. Inc. or 6 = -i1 + 3i2 i1 = 0. we transform the 20-V and the 5-V sources. No part of this Manual may be displayed. (b). vab = 10 V VTh = vab = 10 volts PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. (c). (a). consider the circuit in Fig.5 ohms. Applying KVL to the output loop. If you are a student using this Manual. Solution 42.

© 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies. Figure 4. without the prior written permission of the publisher. 4. + + − + va + vb RTh = 10||10 + 5 = 10 ohms To find VTh. va = 20/2 = 10 V But.110 and solve for ix. To find RTh. or VTh = va – vb = 0 volts PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. or used beyond the limited distribution to teachers and educators permitted by McGraw-Hill for their individual course preparation. . (a). Inc. -va + VTh + vb = 0. (b). consider the circuit in Fig. Solution 43. All rights reserved.Chapter 4. you are using it without permission.110 Chapter 4. Problem 43. consider the circuit in Fig. If you are a student using this Manual. reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means. Find the Thevenin equivalent looking into terminals a-b of the circuit in Fig. No part of this Manual may be displayed. vb = 2x5 = 10 V.

For the circuit in Fig. or used beyond the limited distribution to teachers and educators permitted by McGraw-Hill for their individual course preparation.Chapter 4.111. reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means. without the prior written permission of the publisher. Problem 44. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies. 4. obtain the Thevenin equivalent as seen from terminals (a) a-b (b) b-c Figure 4. . No part of this Manual may be displayed. If you are a student using this Manual. All rights reserved. you are using it without permission.111 PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. Inc.

. (c). consider the circuit in Fig. All rights reserved.Chapter 4. consider the circuit in Fig. 10 – 24 + i(3 + 4 + 5 + 2). KCL gives. (b). or vo = 15 PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies.857 ohms For VTh. (d). [(24 – vo)/9] + 2 = vo/5. (a) For RTh.214 ohms To get VTh. RTh = 1 + 4||(3 + 2 + 5) = 3. No part of this Manual may be displayed. or i = 1 VTh = 4i = 4 V + + − + − (b) For RTh. reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means. + − v + RTh = 5||(2 + 3 + 4) = 3. without the prior written permission of the publisher. consider the circuit in Fig. If you are a student using this Manual. Inc. or used beyond the limited distribution to teachers and educators permitted by McGraw-Hill for their individual course preparation. consider the circuit in Fig. Applying KVL gives. Solution 44. you are using it without permission. (a). At the node.

.112. All rights reserved. RN = (6 + 6)||4 = 3 ohms For IN. or used beyond the limited distribution to teachers and educators permitted by McGraw-Hill for their individual course preparation. Find the Thevenin equivalent of the circuit in Fig. Problem 45. IN = 4/2 = 2 A PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. you are using it without permission.VTh = vo = 15 V Chapter 4. If you are a student using this Manual. 4. No part of this Manual may be displayed. (a). reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means. Hence. Solution 45. (b). Inc. consider the circuit in Fig. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies.112 Chapter 4. without the prior written permission of the publisher. Figure 4. consider the circuit in Fig. The 4-ohm resistor is shorted so that 4-A current is equally divided between the two 6-ohm resistors. For RN.

Find the Norton equivalent at terminals a-b of the circuit in Fig. Problem 46. If you are a student using this Manual. Inc. Solution 46. Chapter 4. PROPRIETARY MATERIAL.113 For Prob. 10 Ω c a 20 Ω 4A 10 Ω Figure 4. All rights reserved. reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means. RN is found using the circuit below. 4. 10 Ω cb c a 20 Ω 10 Ω RN cb RN = 20//(10+10) = 10 Ω To find IN.113. 10 Ω 4A 10 Ω 20 Ω b IN The 20-Ω resistor is short-circuited and can be ignored. you are using it without permission. without the prior written permission of the publisher. 4.46. or used beyond the limited distribution to teachers and educators permitted by McGraw-Hill for their individual course preparation. No part of this Manual may be displayed. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies. consider the circuit below.Chapter 4. .

19 / 0. If you are a student using this Manual. No part of this Manual may be displayed. KCL gives V V 1 = 2V x + x + x ⎯ ⎯→ V x = 60 / 126 = 0.114 with respect to terminals a and b. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies.4762 = 2. Obtain the Thèvenin and Norton equivalent circuits of the circuit in Fig.114 Chapter 4. consider the circuit below.4762Ω. Figure 4.5 1 RTh Thus. 12 Ω Vx a 60 Ω 2Vx 1A At node a. reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means.19 V 12 60 To find RTh. without the prior written permission of the publisher. RTh = RN = 0.4762 60 12 V V RTh = x = 0. 4. VTh = 1. . or used beyond the limited distribution to teachers and educators permitted by McGraw-Hill for their individual course preparation.4762Ω.19V . I N = Th = 1.5 A PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. Solution 47 Since VTh = Vab = Vx.IN = ½ x 4 = 2 A Chapter 4. you are using it without permission. Problem 47. Inc. I N = 2. All rights reserved. we apply KCL at the node a and obtain 30 − VTh VTh = + 2VTh ⎯ ⎯→ VTh = 150 / 126 = 1.

© 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies. or V = -4 RN = RTh = V/1 = -4 ohms To get VTh. Io = 1. All rights reserved. If you are a student using this Manual.Chapter 4. No part of this Manual may be displayed. To get RTh.115 Chapter 4. 4. consider the circuit in Fig. reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means.115. Determine the Norton equivalent at terminals a-b for the circuit in Fig. you are using it without permission. Figure 4. (a). +− +− + + VTh V From Fig. Solution 48. (b). 6 – 10 – V = 0. consider the circuit in Fig. (a). without the prior written permission of the publisher. or used beyond the limited distribution to teachers and educators permitted by McGraw-Hill for their individual course preparation. Io = 2. VTh = -10Io + 4Io = -12 V IN = VTh/RTh = 3A PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. . Inc. Problem 48.

. Solution 49. + − At the node. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies. Find the Norton equivalent looking into terminals a-b of the circuit in Fig.102.102 Chapter 4. but IN = Isc = io + 3 = 3. consider the circuit below.286 A PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. If you are a student using this Manual. reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means. or used beyond the limited distribution to teachers and educators permitted by McGraw-Hill for their individual course preparation. Figure 4. 4. (40 – vo)/10 = 3 + (vo/40) + (vo/20). No part of this Manual may be displayed. without the prior written permission of the publisher. Inc. RN = RTh = 28 ohms To find IN. or vo = 40/7 io = vo/20 = 2/7. you are using it without permission. All rights reserved.Chapter 4. Problem 49.

(c). All rights reserved. Inc. RN = 6 + 4 = 10 ohms + − From Fig. which leads to IN = -0. If you are a student using this Manual. Problem 50. you are using it without permission.4.116 to the left of terminals a-b.6 V -IN = (12 – v)/6 = 0. Solution 50. 4. 2 + (12 – v)/6 = v/4. or used beyond the limited distribution to teachers and educators permitted by McGraw-Hill for their individual course preparation.116 Chapter 4. From Fig.4 A Combining the Norton equivalent with the right-hand side of the original circuit produces the circuit in Fig. (b). reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means. or v = 9.4) = 2.Chapter 4.4 A PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. without the prior written permission of the publisher. . Use the result to find current i Figure 4. i = [10/(10 + 5)] (4 – 0. No part of this Manual may be displayed. Obtain the Norton equivalent of the circuit in Fig. (a). © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies.

you are using it without permission. Problem 51. All rights reserved. Inc.117 Chapter 4. No part of this Manual may be displayed. Given the circuit in Fig. Solution 51. . (a) From the circuit in Fig. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies. obtain the Norton equivalent as viewed from terminals (a) a-b (b) c-d Figure 4.117. or used beyond the limited distribution to teachers and educators permitted by McGraw-Hill for their individual course preparation. RN = 4||(2 + 6||3) = 4||4 = 2 ohms + + − PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. (a). reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means. If you are a student using this Manual.Chapter 4. 4. without the prior written permission of the publisher.

-40 + 8i + 12 = 0 which gives i = 7/2 VTh = 4i = 14 therefore IN = VTh/RN = 14/2 = 7 A (b) To get RN. without the prior written permission of the publisher. IN = VTh/RN = 19/1. (b). (c). consider the circuit in Fig. Inc. the circuit in Fig.5 = 12.5 ohms + + − To get IN. (d). No part of this Manual may be displayed. (c) applies except that it needs slight modification as in Fig. All rights reserved.For IN or VTh. After some source transformations. (e). i = 7/2. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies. reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means. or used beyond the limited distribution to teachers and educators permitted by McGraw-Hill for their individual course preparation. VTh = 12 + 2i = 19. consider the circuit in Fig. you are using it without permission. + + − + − Applying KVL to the circuit in Fig. If you are a student using this Manual. .667 A PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. RN = 2||(4 + 6||3) = 2||6 = 1. (c). the circuit becomes that shown in Fig.

. you are using it without permission. hence the current source is inactive and RTh = 2 k ohms For VTh. Problem 52. Figure 4. (b). (a). without the prior written permission of the publisher. For the transistor model in Fig.Chapter 4. 4. reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means. All rights reserved. Solution 52. No part of this Manual may be displayed. Io = 6/3k = 2 mA VTh = (-20Io)(2k) = -20x2x10-3x2x103 = -80 V PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies. consider the circuit in Fig. obtain the Thevenin equivalent at terminals a-b. Inc. For RTh. Io = 0. + − + For Fig.118. consider the circuit in Fig. or used beyond the limited distribution to teachers and educators permitted by McGraw-Hill for their individual course preparation. (a).118 Chapter 4. If you are a student using this Manual.

Problem 53. . © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies.119.Chapter 4. Figure 4. you are using it without permission. or used beyond the limited distribution to teachers and educators permitted by McGraw-Hill for their individual course preparation. All rights reserved. without the prior written permission of the publisher. If you are a student using this Manual. Inc.119 PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means. 4. No part of this Manual may be displayed. Find the Norton equivalent at terminals a-b of the circuit in Fig.

+ vo + vo + vab From Fig. consider the circuit in Fig. To get RTh. vo = 2x1 = 2V. Inc. If you are a student using this Manual.25vo + IN. (b). or used beyond the limited distribution to teachers and educators permitted by McGraw-Hill for their individual course preparation. which leads to IN = 1 A PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. without the prior written permission of the publisher.25vo = (vo/2) + (vo/3) or vo = 4V But. All rights reserved. you are using it without permission. . © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies. No part of this Manual may be displayed. -vab + 2x(1/2) +vo = 0 vab = 3V RN = vab/1 = 3 ohms To get IN. Solution 53. (c). reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means. (vo/2) = 0. (a).Chapter 4. + − + vo [(18 – vo)/6] + 0. consider the circuit in Fig.

insert a 1-V source at terminals a-b and remove the 3-V independent source. reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means. as shown below. without the prior written permission of the publisher.120. consider the left loop. − 3 + 1000io + 2V x = 0 ⎯ ⎯→ For the right loop. 1 kΩ . All rights reserved. or used beyond the limited distribution to teachers and educators permitted by McGraw-Hill for their individual course preparation. Find the Thèvenin equivalent between terminals a-b of the circuit in Fig. 4. io + 2Vx 40io + Vx ix + 1V - 50 Ω V x = 1. . 3 = 1000io − 4000io = −3000io 3 = 1000io + 2V x (1) (2) ⎯ ⎯→ io = −1mA V x = −2000io = 2 ⎯ ⎯→ VTh = 2 To find RTh. No part of this Manual may be displayed.120 Chapter 4. io = − 2V x = −2mA 1000 i x = 40io + Vx 1 = −80mA + A = -60mA 50 50 PROPRIETARY MATERIAL.Chapter 4. V x = −50 x 40i o = −2000io Combining (1) and (2). © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies. Solution 54 To find VTh =Vx. Inc. If you are a student using this Manual. Problem 54. + – Figure 4. you are using it without permission.

you are using it without permission.1 = −1 / 0.121. If you are a student using this Manual. or used beyond the limited distribution to teachers and educators permitted by McGraw-Hill for their individual course preparation. reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means. RTh = Obtain the Norton equivalent at terminals a-b of the circuit in Fig. .001 Figure 4. 4. Problem 55. Inc. No part of this Manual may be displayed. without the prior written permission of the publisher. All rights reserved.67Ω ix Chapter 4. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies. 0.060 = − 16.121 PROPRIETARY MATERIAL.

and all voltages in volts. reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means. or vab = 100 RN = vab/1 = 100 k ohms To get IN. (b). Solution 55. .Chapter 4. apply a 1 mA source at the terminals a and b as shown in Fig. or I = -vab/8000 (2) From (1) and (2). At node a. (vab/50) – (80vab/8000) = 1. (a). IN = -80I. + + vab Since the 50-k ohm resistor is shorted. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies. No part of this Manual may be displayed. If you are a student using this Manual. Inc. consider the circuit in Fig. To get RN. All rights reserved. + − + + vab We assume all resistances are in k ohms. (vab/50) + 80I = 1 (1) Also. 8i = 2 which leads to I = (1/4) mA IN = -20 mA PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. or used beyond the limited distribution to teachers and educators permitted by McGraw-Hill for their individual course preparation. all currents in mA. -8I = (vab/1000). without the prior written permission of the publisher. you are using it without permission. vab = 0 Hence.

PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. 4.Chapter 4. 12 kΩ 2 kΩ 10 kΩ 36 V + _ 1 kΩ 24 kΩ 3 mA + Vo _ Figure 4. 4. Use Norton’s theorem to find Vo in the circuit of Fig. No part of this Manual may be displayed. All rights reserved.122. or used beyond the limited distribution to teachers and educators permitted by McGraw-Hill for their individual course preparation. without the prior written permission of the publisher.122 For Prob. . Problem 56. If you are a student using this Manual. reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means. you are using it without permission.56. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies. Inc.

All rights reserved. Inc. If you are a student using this Manual. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies. without the prior written permission of the publisher. you are using it without permission. No part of this Manual may be displayed. RN is obtained from the circuit below. Solution 56. We remove the 1-kΩ resistor temporarily and find Norton equivalent across its terminals. .Chapter 4. or used beyond the limited distribution to teachers and educators permitted by McGraw-Hill for their individual course preparation. 12 kΩ 2 kΩ 10 kΩ c 24 kΩ RN c RN = 10 + 2 + 12//24 = 12+8 = 20 kΩ IN is obtained from the circuit below. reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means. PROPRIETARY MATERIAL.

12 k 3 mA 12 k 24 k b I1 12//24 = 8 kΩ 8 (3mA) = 1. without the prior written permission of the publisher. I1 = 2k 10 k PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. Let IN = I1 + I2. We find I1 using the circuit below. Inc. reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means. we obtain the circuit below. you are using it without permission. or used beyond the limited distribution to teachers and educators permitted by McGraw-Hill for their individual course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies. where I1 and I2 are due to 16-V and 3-mA sources respectively. All rights reserved.2 mA 8 + 12 To find I2. consider the circuit below.12 k 2k 10 k 36 V + _ 24 kΩ 3 mA b IN We can use superposition theorem to find IN. 24 k 3 mA 12 k b I2 B . 12 k 2k 10 k 36 V + _ 24 kΩ b I1 Using source transformation. No part of this Manual may be displayed.

If you are a student using this Manual. Problem 57. All rights reserved. reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means. or used beyond the limited distribution to teachers and educators permitted by McGraw-Hill for their individual course preparation. you are using it without permission.2857 V ⎝ 20 + 1⎠ Chapter 4. . No part of this Manual may be displayed. without the prior written permission of the publisher.5(-3mA) = -1.3 mA)= -0.3 mA The Norton equivalent with the 1-kΩ resistor is shown below a + In 20 kΩ Vo – b 1 kΩ ⎛ 20 ⎞ Vo = 1k ⎜ ⎟(−0. Figure 4. Obtain the Thevenin and Norton equivalent circuits at the terminals a-b for the circuit in Fig.2 –1.123.5 mA IN = 1.2k + 12k//24 k = 10 kΩ I2=0.5 = -0. Inc. 4.123 PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies.

you are using it without permission.Chapter 4. + − i + 0. (a). reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means. All rights reserved. + vx We apply nodal analysis. as shown in Fig.5 (2) (1) PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. or used beyond the limited distribution to teachers and educators permitted by McGraw-Hill for their individual course preparation. and vx = 0. without the prior written permission of the publisher. At node B. At node A. If you are a student using this Manual. remove the 50V source and insert a 1-V source at a – b. Inc. To find RTh. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies. No part of this Manual may be displayed.5vx = (1/10) + (1 – vx)/2.6 (1 – vo)/2 = (vx/3) + (vx/6). Solution 57. . or i + vx = 0.

v2 = VTh = 166. and v1 = 0. (50 – v1)/3 = (v1/6) + (v1 – v2)/2. + − + vx + VTh (3) (4) At node 1. PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. No part of this Manual may be displayed. . or used beyond the limited distribution to teachers and educators permitted by McGraw-Hill for their individual course preparation. or 100 = 6v1 – 3v2 0. If you are a student using this Manual.6v2 From (3) and (4). Problem 58. At node 2. Inc. The network in Fig. (b). i = 0. vx = v1. Figure 4. you are using it without permission.667 A RN = RTh = 10 ohms Chapter 4. without the prior written permission of the publisher. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies. 4. Find the Thevenin resistance seen by the load. reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means. consider the circuit in Fig.67 V IN = VTh/RTh = 16. Solution 58.1 and RTh = 1/i = 10 ohms To get VTh.124 models a bipolar transistor common-emitter amplifier connected to a load.5vx + (v1 – v2)/2 = v2/10.From (1) and (2).124 Chapter 4. All rights reserved.

or used beyond the limited distribution to teachers and educators permitted by McGraw-Hill for their individual course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual. 4. or ib = Vs/(R1 + (1 + β)R2) Isc = IN = -βib = -βVs/(R1 + (1 + β)R2) Chapter 4. All rights reserved. IN can be found by solving for Isc. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies.125. Solution 59.This problem does not have a solution as it was originally stated.125 Chapter 4. you are using it without permission. without the prior written permission of the publisher. Determine the Thevenin and Norton equivalents at terminals a-b of the circuit in Fig. Inc. No part of this Manual may be displayed. The reason for this is that the load resistor is in series with a current source which means that the only equivalent circuit that will work will be a Norton circuit where the value of RN = infinity. ib + βib = vo/R2 = (1 + β)ib But ib = (Vs – vo)/R1 vo = Vs – ibR1 Vs – ibR1 = (1 + β)R2ib. Problem 59. Figure 4. . PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. i + − Writing the node equation at node vo. reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means.

. without the prior written permission of the publisher.RTh = (10 + 20)||(50 + 40) 30||90 = 22.126. consider the circuit below. Problem 60. or VTh = 20i2 –10i1 = 10i1 = 10x4 VTh = 40V. PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. 10i1 + VTh – 20i2 = 0.5 = 1. and IN = VTh/RTh = 40/22.7778 A Chapter 4.5 ohms To find VTh. If you are a student using this Manual. Inc. find the Thevenin and Norton equivalent circuits at terminals a-b. 4. For the circuit in Fig. + i1 = i2 = 8/2 = 4. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies. reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means. All rights reserved. you are using it without permission. No part of this Manual may be displayed. or used beyond the limited distribution to teachers and educators permitted by McGraw-Hill for their individual course preparation.

All rights reserved. If you are a student using this Manual.Figure 4. without the prior written permission of the publisher. Inc.126 Chapter 4. The circuit can be reduced by source transformations. you are using it without permission. No part of this Manual may be displayed. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies. PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means. + − + − . Solution 60. or used beyond the limited distribution to teachers and educators permitted by McGraw-Hill for their individual course preparation.

reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means. without the prior written permission of the publisher. Inc. or used beyond the limited distribution to teachers and educators permitted by McGraw-Hill for their individual course preparation. Obtain the Thevenin and Norton equivalent circuits at terminals a-b of the circuit in Fig. All rights reserved. 4. .127. Problem 61. If you are a student using this Manual.+ − Chapter 4. PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. No part of this Manual may be displayed. you are using it without permission. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies.

we apply mesh analysis to the circuit in Fig. (a). Let R = 2||18 = 1. or used beyond i3 the limited distribution to teachers and educators permitted by McGraw-Hill for their individual course preparation. − − . RTh = 2R||R = (2/3)R = 1. + without the prior written permission of the publisher. All rights reserved. Solution 61. If you + are a student using this Manual. Inc. To get VTh. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies. consider the circuit in Fig. (d). To find RTh.8 ohms. R PROPRIETARY MATERIAL.2 ohms. No part of this Manual may be displayed.127 Chapter 4. + you are using it without permission.Figure 4. reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means.

No part of this Manual may be displayed. and -3 i1 + 7 i2 – 3 i3 = -12 14 i3 – 6 i1 – 6 i2 = 0. and IN = VTh/RTh = 8 A Chapter 4. Inc. you are using it without permission. and 7 i1 – 3 i2 – 3i3 = 12 12 + 12 + 14 i2 – 6 i1 – 6 i3 = 0. Problem 62. . © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies. without the prior written permission of the publisher. Find the Thevenin equivalent of the circuit in Fig. −3 −3 7 7 12 − 3 Δ 2 = − 3 − 12 − 3 = −120 −3 0 7 i2 = Δ/Δ2 = -120/100 = -1. or used beyond the limited distribution to teachers and educators permitted by McGraw-Hill for their individual course preparation. ⎡ 7 − 3 − 3⎤ ⎡ i1 ⎤ ⎡ 12 ⎤ ⎢− 3 7 − 3⎥ ⎢i ⎥ = ⎢− 12⎥ ⎥ ⎥⎢ 2 ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ − 3 − 3 7 i 0 3 ⎦ ⎦⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎣ 7 −3 −3 Δ = − 3 7 − 3 = 100 . (2) and (3). All rights reserved.128. and -3 i1 – 3 i2 + 7 i3 = 0 (1) (2) (3) This leads to the following matrix form for (1). reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means.6 V. 4. PROPRIETARY MATERIAL.2 A VTh = 12 + 2i2 = 9. If you are a student using this Manual.-12 – 12 + 14i1 – 6i2 – 6i3 = 0.

If you are a student using this Manual. VTh = 0 V PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. or used beyond the limited distribution to teachers and educators permitted by McGraw-Hill for their individual course preparation. No part of this Manual may be displayed. Since there are no independent sources. All rights reserved. Inc. . without the prior written permission of the publisher. Solution 62. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies. reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means. you are using it without permission.Figure 4.128 Chapter 4.

129.To obtain RTh. All rights reserved. . ix + 0. PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. (v1/20) + 0.52 mA.1io = (1 – v1)/10. or 10ix + io = 1 – v1 At node 1.2v1 = 2 – 3v1 + 4 – 4v1 = 6 – 7v1 or From (1) and (3).2) ix = 31. 4. then (2) becomes. v1 = 6/9. Problem 63. or used beyond the limited distribution to teachers and educators permitted by McGraw-Hill for their individual course preparation. No part of this Manual may be displayed. 10ix + v1/20 = 1 – v1 10ix = 1 – v1 – v1/20 = 1 – (21/20)v1 = 1 – (21/20)(6/9. RTh = 1/ix = 31.2 (3) (2) (1) Chapter 4. without the prior written permission of the publisher. + + − + − At node 2.1io = [(2vo – v1)/40] + [(1 – v1)/10] But io = (v1/20) and vo = 1 – v1. 1. Inc. If you are a student using this Manual.1v1/20 = [(2 – 3v1)/40] + [(1 – v1)/10] 2. consider the circuit below. reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies. you are using it without permission. Find the Norton equivalent for the circuit in Fig.73 ohms.

Figure 4.3) = –3. IN = Isc = 0 A RN can be found using the circuit below. RN = 1/(–0.33333 = – 0.03333 – 0. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies. 4. PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. Because there are no independent sources. Hence. Solution 63. without the prior written permission of the publisher.3 A. + − v1 = 1. No part of this Manual may be displayed. All rights reserved. reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means. you are using it without permission.5vo = (1/30) – 0. Obtain the Thevenin equivalent seen at terminals a-b of the circuit in Fig.333 ohms Chapter 4.5x2/3 = 0.129 Chapter 4. Problem 64. Inc. . If you are a student using this Manual. + vo Applying KCL at node 1. and vo = (20/30)v1 = 2/3 io = (v1/30) – 0. or used beyond the limited distribution to teachers and educators permitted by McGraw-Hill for their individual course preparation.130.

you are using it without permission. Hence.Figure 4.131. io = (1 – vo)/1 = -1 Thus. For the circuit shown in Fig. or 5vo = 4 + 6ix But ix = vo/2. RTh = 1/io = –1 ohm (1) Chapter 4. No part of this Manual may be displayed. without the prior written permission of the publisher. Solution 64. To obtain RTh. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies. With no independent sources. PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. or vo = 2. reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means. 5vo = 4 + 3vo. or used beyond the limited distribution to teachers and educators permitted by McGraw-Hill for their individual course preparation.130 Chapter 4. consider the circuit shown below. + + − ix = [(1 – vo)/1] + [(10ix – vo)/4]. If you are a student using this Manual. All rights reserved. VTh = 0 V. . determine the relationship between Vo and Io. Problem 65. Inc. 4.

Solution 65 At the terminals of the unknown resistance. . 12 RTh = 2 + 4 // 12 = 2 + 3 = 5Ω. Find the maximum power that can be delivered to the resistor R in the circuit in Fig. − 24 + 5I o + Vo = 0 ⎯ ⎯→ Vo = 24 − 5I o Chapter 4. 5Ω + 24 V Io + Vo - Applying KVL to the loop.132. Inc. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies. without the prior written permission of the publisher. you are using it without permission.Figure 4. we replace the circuit by its Thevenin equivalent. Problem 66. No part of this Manual may be displayed. reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means. PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. 4. VTh = (32) = 24 V 12 + 4 Thus. or used beyond the limited distribution to teachers and educators permitted by McGraw-Hill for their individual course preparation.131 Chapter 4. If you are a student using this Manual. All rights reserved. the circuit can be replaced by that shown below.

or VTh = 2 V p = VTh2/(4RTh) = (2)2/[4(1. We first find the Thevenin equivalent at terminals a and b. If you are a student using this Manual.Figure 4. Solution 66. We find RTh using the circuit in Fig. you are using it without permission. Inc. All rights reserved. We now use this to find VTh. 10i + 30 + 20 + 10 = 0. (a). or i = –6 VTh + 10 + 2i = 0. No part of this Manual may be displayed. without the prior written permission of the publisher. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies. or used beyond the limited distribution to teachers and educators permitted by McGraw-Hill for their individual course preparation.6 ohms By performing source transformation on the given circuit. PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. . reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means. Problem 67. − + + + − − + RTh = 2||(3 + 5) = 2||8 = 1. we obatin the circuit in (b).6)] = 625 m watts Chapter 4.132 Chapter 4.

. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies. 80 Ω 40 V + – 20 Ω R 10 Ω 90 Ω Figure 4. you are using it without permission. Inc.133 For Prob. Chapter 4. or used beyond the limited distribution to teachers and educators permitted by McGraw-Hill for their individual course preparation. without the prior written permission of the publisher.133 is adjusted until it absorbs the maximum power from the circuit. (b) Determine the maximum power absorbed by R.The variable resistor R in Fig. All rights reserved. If you are a student using this Manual. Solution 67. 4.67. PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. 4. No part of this Manual may be displayed. reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means. (a) Calculate the value of R for maximum power.

We first find the Thevenin equivalent. reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means. Problem 68. or used beyond the limited distribution to teachers and educators permitted by McGraw-Hill for their individual course preparation. We apply mesh analysis. 80 Ω I1 40 V +– 20 Ω + VTH 10 Ω I2 90 Ω _ (80 + 20)i1 − 40 = 0 ⎯⎯ → i1 = 0. 80 Ω 20 Ω RTh 10 Ω 90 Ω RTh = 20 // 80 + 90 //10 = 16 + 9 = 25 Ω We find VTh using the circuit below. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies. If you are a student using this Manual. No part of this Manual may be displayed.84 W (b) Pmax = Th = 4RTh 100 Chapter 4. All rights reserved.4 −90i2 − 20i1 + VTh = 0 ⎯⎯ → VTh = −28 V (a) R = RTh = 25 Ω V2 (28)2 = 7. you are using it without permission. PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. Inc. We find RTh using the circuit below.4 (10 + 90)i2 + 40 = 0 ⎯⎯ → i2 = −0. without the prior written permission of the publisher. .

Inc. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies.Compute the value of R that results in maximum power transfer to the 10-Ω resistor in Fig. No part of this Manual may be displayed. RTh goes to zero and VTh goes to 4 volts. reduce RThev as much as possible. All rights reserved.6 watts. Chapter 4. or used beyond the limited distribution to teachers and educators permitted by McGraw-Hill for their individual course preparation. R + 12 V 10 Ω + - 20 Ω 8V - Removing the 10 ohm resistor and solving for the Thevenin Circuit results in: RTh = (Rx20/(R+20)) and a Voc = VTh = 12x(20/(R +20)) + (-8) As R goes to zero.6 watts Notice that if R = 20 ohms which gives an RTh = 10 ohms. which will result in maximum power transfer to the load.134 Chapter 4. Figure 4.2 watts and for the second case are = to 12 watts. When a load is specified and internal losses can be adjusted. reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means. This now becomes a "minimize losses" style problem. much less that the 1. If you are a student using this Manual. then the objective becomes. Find the maximum power. PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. then VTh becomes -2 volts and the power delivered to the load becomes 0. Solution 68. you are using it without permission. It is also interesting to note that the internal losses for the first case are 122/20 = 7. P = vi = v2/R = 4x4/10 = 1. which produces the maximum power delivered to the 10-ohm resistor. . This is a challenging problem in that the load is already specified.134. 4. Problem 69. This is a significant difference.1 watts. without the prior written permission of the publisher.

© 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies.135 Chapter 4.Find the maximum power transferred to resistor R in the circuit of Fig. without the prior written permission of the publisher. All rights reserved. reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means.003vo Figure 4. vo . If you are a student using this Manual. PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. No part of this Manual may be displayed. Inc. Solution 69. you are using it without permission. 4. or used beyond the limited distribution to teachers and educators permitted by McGraw-Hill+ for their individual course preparation.135. 0.

No part of this Manual may be displayed. To find RTh.We need the Thevenin equivalent across the resistor R.6 + 1363. consider the circuit below. + − + vo + VTh (100 – vo)/10 = (vo/40) + (vo – v1)/22 [(vo – v1)/22] + 3vo = (v1/30) Solving (1) and (2). or used beyond the limited distribution to teachers and educators permitted by McGraw-Hill for their individual course preparation. 15 + 45x(8v1/30) v1. Inc. and 8 + 22 = 30 1 + 3vo = (v1/30) + (v1/30) = (v1/15) 15 + 45vo = v1 But vo = (8/30)v1. without the prior written permission of the publisher. which leads to v1 = 1. The correct answer is therefore: VTh ⎛ ⎞ ⎛V ⎞ pR = ⎜ ⎟ 1363.3636 k ohms RTh being negative indicates an active circuit and if you now make R equal to 1. Problem 70.6 = ⎜ Th ⎟ 1363. Assume that all resistances are in k ohms and all currents are in mA.3636 RTh = v1/1 = –1.6 volts Chapter 4. If you are a student using this Manual. reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means. you are using it without permission.6 = ∞ ⎝ − 1363. . then the active circuit will actually try to supply infinite power to the resistor. v1 = VTh = -243. Consider the circuit below. (1) (2) PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. 10||40 = 8.6 ⎠ ⎝ 0 ⎠ 2 2 It may still be instructive to find VTh. hence. All rights reserved. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies.3636 k ohms.

3Vx 5Ω + 4V 15 Ω 5Ω + VTh + Vx - 6Ω From the figure. . If you are a student using this Manual. Solution 70 We find the Thevenin equivalent across the 10-ohm resistor. PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means.136 Chapter 4. Figure 4. without the prior written permission of the publisher.Determine the maximum power delivered to the variable resistor R shown in the circuit of Fig. 4. All rights reserved. you are using it without permission. No part of this Manual may be displayed. Inc. or used beyond the limited distribution to teachers and educators permitted by McGraw-Hill for their individual course preparation. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies. To find VTh.136. consider the circuit below.

75 V RTh V = 2 = 101. PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. No part of this Manual may be displayed. without the prior written permission of the publisher. 1 p max V 9 = Th = = 22. Problem 71. 5 15 5 At node 2.75Ω. 4 − V1 V V − V2 = 3V x + 1 + 1 . All rights reserved. V − V2 1 + 3V x + 1 =0 5 Vx V x = 6 x1 = 6 ⎯ ⎯→ 258 = 3V2 − 7V1 (1) ⎯ ⎯→ V1 = V2 − 95 (2) Solving (1) and (2) leads to V2 = 101. Inc. To find RTh.75 2 Chapter 4. 15 ( 4) = 3V 15 + 5 consider the circuit below: VTh = 3Vx 5Ω V1 + 4V 15 Ω 5Ω V2 6Ω - 1A + At node 1.V x = 0. . If you are a student using this Manual. or used beyond the limited distribution to teachers and educators permitted by McGraw-Hill for their individual course preparation. reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means. you are using it without permission. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies.11 mW 4 RTh 4 x101.

To find RTh. RTh = va/1 mA = 8 kohms To get VTh. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies.137. 1 = (va/40) + [(va + 120vo)/10].For the circuit in Fig. you are using it without permission. vo = (1/4)8 = 2 V For the right loop. 4. + vo − Assume that all resistances are in k ohms. No part of this Manual may be displayed. or 40 = 5va + 480vo (1) The loop on the left side has no voltage source. . Problem 72. Hence. va = 8 V. For the left loop. If you are a student using this Manual. without the prior written permission of the publisher. At node a. or used beyond the limited distribution to teachers and educators permitted by McGraw-Hill for their individual course preparation. PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. all currents are in mA. vo = 0. We need RTh and VTh at terminals a and b. Inc. reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means. and all voltages are in volts. All rights reserved. consider the original circuit. we insert a 1-mA source at the terminals a and b as shown below. Solution 71.152 watts Chapter 4. From (1). what resistor connected across terminals a-b will absorb maximum power from the circuit? What is that power? Figure 4. vR = VTh = (40/50)(-120vo) = -192 The resistance at the required resistor is R = RTh = 8 kohms p = VTh2/(4RTh) = (-192)2/(4x8x103) = 1.137 Chapter 4.

© 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies. Inc. (a) RTh and VTh are calculated using the circuits shown in Fig. (a) and (b) respectively. PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. (b). Figure 4. Chapter 4. RL = RTh = 12 ohms (d) p = VTh2/(4RTh) = (40)2/(4x12) = 33. reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means. RTh = 2 + 4 + 6 = 12 ohms -VTh + 12 + 8 + 20 = 0. Calculate the current in RL = 8Ω. you are using it without permission. 4. (a). From Fig. Solution 72.138 Chapter 4.138. All rights reserved. Determine that maximum power. Problem 73. or used beyond the limited distribution to teachers and educators permitted by McGraw-Hill for their individual course preparation. .33 watts. If you are a student using this Manual. Find RL for maximum power deliverable to RL. obtain the Thevenin equivalent at terminals a-b.(a) (b) (c) (d) For the circuit in Fig. or VTh = 40 V − + + − + − + VTh (b) (c) i = VTh/(RTh + R) = 40/(12 + 8) = 2A For maximum power transfer. without the prior written permission of the publisher. No part of this Manual may be displayed. From Fig.

reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means. without the prior written permission of the publisher. If you are a student using this Manual. Figure 4. All rights reserved. or used beyond the limited distribution to teachers and educators permitted by McGraw-Hill for their individual course preparation.Determine the maximum power that can be delivered to the variable resistor R in the circuit of Fig. Inc. Solution 73 PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. 4. you are using it without permission.139.139 Chapter 4. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies. . No part of this Manual may be displayed.

Problem 74. reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means. All rights reserved. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies.833 Chapter 4. or used beyond the limited distribution to teachers and educators permitted by McGraw-Hill for their individual course preparation. Inc.833Ω 10 Ω + 60 V + Va 20 (60) = 40. . If you are a student using this Manual. without the prior written permission of the publisher. 30 5 (60) = 10 30 25 Ω + VTh + 5Ω Vb - 20 Ω Va = Vb = ⎯ ⎯→ − Va + VTh + Vb = 0 2 VTh = Va − Vb = 40 − 10 = 30 V p max V 30 2 = Th = = 20. you are using it without permission.77 W 4 RTh 4 x10. PROPRIETARY MATERIAL.Find the Thevenin’s equivalent circuit across the terminals of R. No part of this Manual may be displayed. 10 Ω RTh 25 Ω 20 Ω 5Ω RTh = 10 // 20 + 25 // 5 = 325 / 30 = 10.

. 4. Inc. All rights reserved.For the bridge circuit shown in Fig. without the prior written permission of the publisher. Problem 75. Voc = VTh = vR2 – vR4 = ([R2/(R1 + R2)] – [R4/(R3 + R4)])Vs = {[(R2R3) – (R1R4)]/[(R1 + R2)(R3 + R4)]}Vs pmax = VTh2/(4RTh) = {[(R2R3) – (R1R4)]2/[(R1 + R2)(R3 + R4)]2}Vs2[( R1 + R2)( R3 + R4)]/[4(a)] where a = (R1 R2 R3 + R1 R2 R4 + R1 R3 R4 + R2 R3 R4) pmax = [(R2R3) – (R1R4)]2Vs2/[4(R1 + R2)(R3 + R4) (R1 R2 R3 + R1 R2 R4 + R1 R3 R4 + R2 R3 R4)] Chapter 4. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies. or used beyond the limited distribution to teachers and educators permitted by McGraw-Hill for their individual course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual. Figure 4. PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. you are using it without permission. When RL is removed and Vs is short-circuited. No part of this Manual may be displayed. reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means. find the load RL for maximum power transfer and the maximum power absorbed by the load. Solution 74. RTh = R1||R2 + R3||R4 = [R1 R2/( R1 + R2)] + [R3 R4/( R3 + R4)] RL = RTh = (R1 R2 R3 + R1 R2 R4 + R1 R3 R4 + R2 R3 R4)/[( R1 + R2)( R3 + R4)] When RL is removed and we apply the voltage division principle.140 Chapter 4.140.

you are using it without permission. Figure 4. reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means. All rights reserved. without the prior written permission of the publisher. No part of this Manual may be displayed. determine the value of R such that the maximum power delivered to the load is 3 mW. If you are a student using this Manual. Inc. 4. .For the circuit in Fig.141. or used beyond the limited distribution to teachers and educators permitted by McGraw-Hill for their individual course preparation. Solution 75.141 Chapter 4. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies. PROPRIETARY MATERIAL.

If you are a student using this Manual. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies. + − + − + − + VTh Consider the circuit in Fig. Problem 76.We need to first find RTh and VTh. ((1 – vo)/R) + ((2 – vo)/R) + ((3 – vo)/R) = 0 vo = 2 = VTh For maximum power transfer. All rights reserved. reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means. . No part of this Manual may be displayed. without the prior written permission of the publisher. RL = RTh = R/3 Pmax = [(VTh)2/(4RTh)] = 3 mW RTh = [(VTh)2/(4Pmax)] = 4/(4xPmax) = 1/Pmax = R/3 R = 3/(3x10-3) = 1 k ohms Chapter 4. (a). you are using it without permission. or used beyond the limited distribution to teachers and educators permitted by McGraw-Hill for their individual course preparation. Inc. PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. (1/RTh) = (1/R) + (1/R) + (1/R) = 3/R RTh = R/3 From the circuit in Fig. (b).

All rights reserved. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies. reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means.34 using PSpice.Solve Prob. Solution 76.98 Chapter 4.98. PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. Chapter 4. without the prior written permission of the publisher. If you are a student using this Manual. . or used beyond the limited distribution to teachers and educators permitted by McGraw-Hill for their individual course preparation. 4. 4. Figure 4. No part of this Manual may be displayed. you are using it without permission. Problem 34. Find the Thevenin equivalent at terminals a-b of the circuit in Fig. Inc.

No part of this Manual may be displayed. Inc. voltage axis intercept] R = Slope = (120 – 92)/1 = 28 ohms Chapter 4. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies. you are using it without permission. we obtain. All rights reserved. If you are a student using this Manual. The schematic and the output plots are shown below. without the prior written permission of the publisher. Problem 77. V = 92 V [i = 0.Follow the steps in Example 4. reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means. or used beyond the limited distribution to teachers and educators permitted by McGraw-Hill for their individual course preparation. From the plot.14. . PROPRIETARY MATERIAL.

If you are a student using this Manual. Solution 77.44 using PSpice. obtain the Thevenin equivalent as seen from terminals (b) a-b (b) b-c Figure 4. No part of this Manual may be displayed.Solve Prob. Problem 44. 4. 4. Chapter 4. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies. reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means.111. For the circuit in Fig. PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. without the prior written permission of the publisher. Inc. you are using it without permission. . or used beyond the limited distribution to teachers and educators permitted by McGraw-Hill for their individual course preparation.111 Chapter 4. All rights reserved.

I1.8 – 4)/1 = 3. you are using it without permission. or used beyond the limited distribution to teachers and educators permitted by McGraw-Hill for their individual course preparation. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies. Inc. We plot V(2) – V(1) as shown. connected between terminals a and b.8 ohms PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. . reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means. VTh = 4 V [zero intercept] RTh = (7. We label the top and bottom of source I1 as 2 and 1 respectively. without the prior written permission of the publisher.(a) The schematic is shown below. We perform a dc sweep on a current source. If you are a student using this Manual. All rights reserved. No part of this Manual may be displayed.

reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means.2 ohms PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. Inc. V = 15 V [zero intercept] R = (18.2 – 15)/1 = 3. From the plot. No part of this Manual may be displayed. All rights reserved. I1. is connected between terminals b and c as shown below. or used beyond the limited distribution to teachers and educators permitted by McGraw-Hill for their individual course preparation. We perform a dc sweep on I1 and obtain the plot shown below. without the prior written permission of the publisher. you are using it without permission. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies.(b) Everything remains the same as in part (a) except that the current source. . we obtain. If you are a student using this Manual.

4. If you are a student using this Manual. All rights reserved. Problem 52.111.111 PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. 4. No part of this Manual may be displayed.Chapter 4. or used beyond the limited distribution to teachers and educators permitted by McGraw-Hill for their individual course preparation. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies. For the transistor model in Fig. reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means. you are using it without permission. . without the prior written permission of the publisher. obtain the Thevenin equivalent at terminals a-b.52. Use PSpice to solve Prob. Inc. Chapter 4. Problem 78. Figure 4.

reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means. The plot is shown. VTh = -80 V [zero intercept] RTh = (1920 – (-80))/1 = 2 k ohms PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. The schematic is shown below. I1. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies.Chapter 4. . If you are a student using this Manual. From the plot we obtain. We perform a dc sweep on the current source. you are using it without permission. All rights reserved. without the prior written permission of the publisher. Inc. connected between terminals a and b. No part of this Manual may be displayed. or used beyond the limited distribution to teachers and educators permitted by McGraw-Hill for their individual course preparation. Solution 78.

If you are a student using this Manual. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies. .123 PROPRIETARY MATERIAL.Chapter 4. 4. without the prior written permission of the publisher. Obtain the Thevenin equivalent of the circuit in Fig. Inc. you are using it without permission. or used beyond the limited distribution to teachers and educators permitted by McGraw-Hill for their individual course preparation. Figure 4. reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means. No part of this Manual may be displayed. Problem 79.123 using PSpice. All rights reserved.

If you are a student using this Manual. Inc. Solution 79. we get. All rights reserved. No part of this Manual may be displayed. The plot is shown.Chapter 4. or used beyond the limited distribution to teachers and educators permitted by McGraw-Hill for their individual course preparation. V = 167 V [zero intercept] R = (177 – 167)/1 = 10 ohms PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies. After drawing and saving the schematic as shown below. From the plot. . without the prior written permission of the publisher. you are using it without permission. we perform a dc sweep on I1 connected across a and b. reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means.

Use PSpice to find the Thevenin equivalent circuit at terminals a-b of the circuit in Fig. Figure 4. . 4. without the prior written permission of the publisher. you are using it without permission.Chapter 4. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies. Problem 80.125 PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. Inc. reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means. or used beyond the limited distribution to teachers and educators permitted by McGraw-Hill for their individual course preparation.125. No part of this Manual may be displayed. If you are a student using this Manual. All rights reserved.

. All rights reserved. We label nodes a and b as 1 and 2 respectively. We perform dc sweep on I1. From the plot. If you are a student using this Manual. Inc. In the Trace/Add menu. type v(1) – v(2) which will result in the plot below. reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means. you are using it without permission. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies. No part of this Manual may be displayed.5 ohms [slope] PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. without the prior written permission of the publisher.Chapter 4. or used beyond the limited distribution to teachers and educators permitted by McGraw-Hill for their individual course preparation.5)/1 = 22. VTh = 40 V [zero intercept] RTh = (40 – 17. The schematic in shown below. Solution 80.

without the prior written permission of the publisher.Chapter 4. use PSpice to find the Thevenin equivalent at terminals a-b. Problem 81. For the circuit in Fig. All rights reserved. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies.126 PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. Figure 4. 4. . No part of this Manual may be displayed. If you are a student using this Manual. reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means.126. Inc. or used beyond the limited distribution to teachers and educators permitted by McGraw-Hill for their individual course preparation. you are using it without permission.

Note that this is in good agreement with the exact value of 3. The plot of the voltage across I2 is shown below. Inc. you are using it without permission. Solution 81. VTh = 10 V [zero intercept] RTh = (10 – 6. or used beyond the limited distribution to teachers and educators permitted by McGraw-Hill for their individual course preparation. No part of this Manual may be displayed. PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. We perform a dc sweep on the current source. All rights reserved. From the plot. connected between terminals a and b. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies.3 ohms.Chapter 4. without the prior written permission of the publisher. I2. If you are a student using this Manual. reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means. .333 ohms. The schematic is shown below.7)/1 = 3.

without the prior written permission of the publisher. or used beyond the limited distribution to teachers and educators permitted by McGraw-Hill for their individual course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual. No part of this Manual may be displayed. you are using it without permission. reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means. Inc. All rights reserved. .PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies.

Inc. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies. you are using it without permission. Problem 83. Problem 82.5A Find the Thevenin equivalent of the network.6)2(2) = 42. reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means. Isc = IN = 1. p = i2R = (12/2. + − i = 12/2. RTh = 8 ohms PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. Terminal Voltage Terminal Current 12 V 0V 0V 1. Chapter 4. Isc = 20 A RTh = Voc/Isc = 12/20 = 0. Solution 83. or used beyond the limited distribution to teachers and educators permitted by McGraw-Hill for their individual course preparation. Solution 82.6 watts The following results were obtained from measurements taken between the two terminals of a resistive network.6 ohm. No part of this Manual may be displayed. VTh = Voc = 12 V. If you are a student using this Manual. All rights reserved. Chapter 4. calculate the power dissipated by the bulb.5 A RTh = VTh/IN = 8 ohms.6 . VTh = Voc = 12 V. Chapter 4. . without the prior written permission of the publisher. If the battery is connected to an electric bulb of resistance 2 Ω. VTh = 12 V.Chapter 4. A battery has a short-circuit current of 20 A and an open-circuit voltage of 12 V.

a battery has a terminal voltage of 10. RTh IL VTh + + VL - RL For open circuit. All rights reserved.Chapter 4.8 V When RL = 4 ohm. ⎯ ⎯→ VTh = Voc = V L = 10. IL = But VL = 10. you are using it without permission. without the prior written permission of the publisher. When connected to a 4-Ω resistor. Problem 84. reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means.4444Ω 2.7 IL PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. No part of this Manual may be displayed. Chapter 4.7 RL ⎯ ⎯→ VTh = VL + I L RTh RTh = VTh − VL 12 − 10. Determine the Thèvenin equivalent circuit for the battery.8 = = 0. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies. . Inc.8 / 4 = 2. VL=10. R L = ∞. or used beyond the limited distribution to teachers and educators permitted by McGraw-Hill for their individual course preparation.8 V but produces 12 V on open circuit. Solution 84 Let the equivalent circuit of the battery terminated by a load be as shown below. If you are a student using this Manual.5.

All rights reserved. you are using it without permission. Solution 85 (a) Consider the equivalent circuit terminated with R as shown below.142 is to be determined by measurement. or used beyond the limited distribution to teachers and educators permitted by McGraw-Hill for their individual course preparation. Vab is measured as 12 V. reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means. Problem 85.142 Chapter 4. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies.Chapter 4. . Similarly. When a 30-kΩ resistor is connected to the terminals. When a 10-kΩ resistor is connected to terminals a-b. The Thèvenin equivalent at terminals a-b of the linear network shown in Fig. (b) Vab when a 20-kΩ resistor is connected to terminals a-b. 4. 30 12 = VTh ⎯ ⎯→ 30 + RTh Solving (1) and (2) leads to (1) 360 + 12 RTh = 30VTh (2) VTh = 24 V. Inc. Determine: (a) the Thèvenin equivalent at terminals a-b. If you are a student using this Manual. Figure 4.6 V 20 + 30 PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. the voltage Vab is measured as 6 V. RTh = 30kΩ (b) Vab = 20 (24) = 9. without the prior written permission of the publisher. No part of this Manual may be displayed. RTh a + VTh - + Vab b R Vab = R VTh R + RTh ⎯ ⎯→ 6= 10 VTh 10 + RTh or 60 + 6 RTh = 10VTh where RTh is in k-ohm.

Figure 4.5 1.5 i(A) 1. Problem 86.143. A black box with a circuit in it is connected to a variable resistor. R(Ω) 2 8 14 V(V) 3 8 10. without the prior written permission of the publisher. (b) Determine the maximum power from the box.Chapter 4. An ideal ammeter (with zero resistance) and an ideal voltmeter (with infinite resistance) are used to measure current and voltage as shown in Fig. 4.0 0. If you are a student using this Manual.75 PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. The results are shown in the table below. you are using it without permission.143 (a) Find i when R = 4 Ω. reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means. No part of this Manual may be displayed. . or used beyond the limited distribution to teachers and educators permitted by McGraw-Hill for their individual course preparation. All rights reserved. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies. Inc.

+ − + v VTh = v + iRTh When i = 1.Chapter 4. v = 3. We replace the box with the Thevenin equivalent. (a) (b) When R = 4. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies. No part of this Manual may be displayed. i = VTh/(R + RTh) = 18/(4 + 10) = 1.5. v = 8. reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means. you are using it without permission. Solution 86. All rights reserved.5RTh When i = 1. R = RTH Pmax = (VTh)2/4RTh = 182/(4x10) = 8. which implies that VTh = 3 + 1. which implies that VTh = 8 + 1xRTh From (1) and (2).1 watts (1) (2) PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. or used beyond the limited distribution to teachers and educators permitted by McGraw-Hill for their individual course preparation.2857 A For maximum power. Inc. If you are a student using this Manual. RTh = 10 ohms and VTh = 18 V. . without the prior written permission of the publisher.

1995 V From Fig. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies.975 mA x 20 = 0. If you are a student using this Manual. All rights reserved. calculate Is and Rs.926 mA PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. (a) If adding a 2-kΩ resistor across the source terminals causes the ammeter reading to fall to 9.876 mA + (0. A transducer is modeled with a current source Is and a parallel resistance Rs. (b) What will the ammeter reading be if the resistance between the source terminals is changed to 4 kΩ? Chapter 4.19752/Rs) Rs = 8 k ohms.19752 V Is = 9. (a) + vm From Fig.876 = 0.975 mA when an ammeter with an internal resistance of 20 Ω is used.Chapter 4. No part of this Manual may be displayed. vm = Rmim = 9. (a). you are using it without permission.19752/Rs) Solving (1) and (2) gives.975 mA + (0.876 mA. Solution 87. Is = 9.19752/2k) + (0. without the prior written permission of the publisher. (b) Is = 10 mA (2) (1) 8k||4k = 2. reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means. The current at the terminals of the source is measured to be 9. = 9.1995/Rs) vm = Rmim = 20x9.667 k ohms im’ = [2667/(2667 + 20)](10 mA) = 9. (b). Problem 87.975 mA + (0. . Inc. or used beyond the limited distribution to teachers and educators permitted by McGraw-Hill for their individual course preparation.

. Inc.) Figure 4. No part of this Manual may be displayed. Solution 88 To find RTh. consider the circuit below. Determine the reading of the ammeter if: (a) Ri = 500 Ω. An ammeter with internal resistance Ri is inserted between A and B to measure Io. you are using it without permission. If you are a student using this Manual. (b) Ri = 0 Ω. (Hint: Find the Thèvenin equivalent circuit at terminals A-B. or used beyond the limited distribution to teachers and educators permitted by McGraw-Hill for their individual course preparation. 25 VTh = V A − V B = 72 V PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. consider the circuit below. All rights reserved. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies. without the prior written permission of the publisher. Problem 88. A io 30k Ω 4mA B 5k Ω + 60 V - 20k Ω 10k Ω V A = 30 x 4 = 120. reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means. 4.144 Chapter 4. VB = 20 (60) = 48. RTh A B 30k Ω 5k Ω 20k Ω RTh 10k Ω = 30 + 10 + 20 // 5 = 44kΩ To find VTh .144.Chapter 4. Consider the circuit in Fig.

interchange the ammeter and the 12-V source and determine the ammeter reading again. If you are a student using this Manual. or used beyond the limited distribution to teachers and educators permitted by McGraw-Hill for their individual course preparation. Figure 4. (b) To verify the reciprocity theorem.145 PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. without the prior written permission of the publisher. (a) Replace the resistor RL by a zero resistance ammeter and determine the ammeter reading.Chapter 4. 4. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies. No part of this Manual may be displayed. reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means. Consider the circuit in Fig.145. Problem 89. All rights reserved. you are using it without permission. . Inc.

After the circuit is saved and simulated. If you are a student using this Manual. Inc. We insert a very small resistance in series IPROBE to avoid problem.99 μA . reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies. We obtain exactly the same result as in part (a). PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. the schematic is shown below. We insert IPROBE to measure the desired ammeter reading. the current is displaced on IPROBE as 99. All rights reserved. (a) The schematic is shown below. you are using it without permission. Solution 89 It is easy to solve this problem using Pspice. No part of this Manual may be displayed. (b) By interchanging the ammeter and the 12-V voltage source. .Chapter 4. or used beyond the limited distribution to teachers and educators permitted by McGraw-Hill for their individual course preparation. without the prior written permission of the publisher.

you are using it without permission. Rx = (R3/R1)R2 = (4/2)R2 = 42.6 Ω. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies. The adjustable resistor has a linear taper with a maximum value of 100 Ω. Solution 90. All rights reserved. Inc. The Wheatstone bridge circuit shown in Fig.6. . without the prior written permission of the publisher.3 which is (21.146 is used to measure the resistance of a strain gauge. R2 = 21.3ohms/100ohms)% = 21. If the resistance of the strain gauge is found to be 42. or used beyond the limited distribution to teachers and educators permitted by McGraw-Hill for their individual course preparation.146 Chapter 4.3% PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. No part of this Manual may be displayed. 4. Problem 90. reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means. If you are a student using this Manual.Chapter 4. what fraction of the full slider travel is the slider when the bridge is balanced? Figure 4.

Rx = 10 ohms. or R3 = 2R1 So we can select R1 = 100 ohms and R3 = 200 ohms PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. No part of this Manual may be displayed.Chapter 4. you are using it without permission. or used beyond the limited distribution to teachers and educators permitted by McGraw-Hill for their individual course preparation. (a) In the Wheatstone bridge circuit of Fig. Rx = (R3/R1)R2 (a) Since 0 < R2 < 50 ohms.147 select the values of R1 and R3 such that the bridge can measure Rx in the reange of 0-10 Ω. to make 0 < Rx < 10 ohms requires that when R2 = 50 ohms. All rights reserved. Inc. Solution 91. Chapter 4. Figure 4. Problem 91. If you are a student using this Manual.147 (b) Repeat for the range of 0-100 Ω. 4. . © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies. without the prior written permission of the publisher. 10 = (R3/R1)50 or R3 = R1/5 so we select R1 = 100 ohms and R3 = 20 ohms (b) For 0 < Rx < 100 ohms 100 = (R3/R1)50. reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means.

vab = 0.Chapter 4. without the prior written permission of the publisher. Inc. the bridge is balanced. All rights reserved. Consider the circuit in Fig. what resistor connected between terminals a-b absorbs the maximum power? What is this power?. Problem 92. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies. Figure 4. 0 = 24i2 – 8i1 or i2 = (1/3)i1 i1 = 30 mA and i2 = 10 mA Applying KVL to loop 0ab0 gives 5(i2 – i1) + vab + 10i2 = 0 V Since vab = 0. Solution 92. + − + v b 220 = 2i1 + 8(i1 – i2) or 220 = 10i1 – 8i2 (1) From (1) and (2). 4. where i1 and i2 are assumed to be in mA. No part of this Manual may be displayed. PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. For a balanced bridge. Is the bridge balanced? If the 10 Ω resistor is replaced by an 18-kΩ resistor. (a).148. you are using it without permission. reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means. (2) . We can use mesh analysis to find vab. If you are a student using this Manual. or used beyond the limited distribution to teachers and educators permitted by McGraw-Hill for their individual course preparation.148 Chapter 4. Consider the bridge circuit of Fig.

(1) remains the same but (2) becomes Solving (1) and (3). reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means. No part of this Manual may be displayed.5 mA. . without the prior written permission of the publisher.5 k ohms.5 + 6.625 V (3) To obtain RTh. All rights reserved.625)2/(4x6. Inc. R3 = 2x5/10 = 1 k ohm. (c). the gridge becomes unbalanced. or used beyond the limited distribution to teachers and educators permitted by McGraw-Hill for their individual course preparation.622 mWatts PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. you are using it without permission. R1 = 3x5/(2 + 3 + 5) = 1.398 k ohms RL = RTh = 6.875 mA vab = 5(i1 – i2) – 18i2 = -20. we convert the delta connection in Fig. R2 = 2x3/10 = 600 ohms. (b) to a wye connection shown in Fig.398 k ohms Pmax = (VTh)2/(4RTh) = (20. If you are a student using this Manual.6||9 = 6.When the 10 k ohm resistor is replaced by the 18 k ohm resistor. RTh = R1 + (R2 + 6)||(R3 + 18) = 1.625 V VTh = vab = -20. 0 = 32i2 – 8i1. i2 = 6. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies. or i2 = (1/4)i1 i1 = 27.398) = 16.

without the prior written permission of the publisher.Chapter 4. Problem 93. The circuit in Fig. Solution 93. reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means. Figure 4.149 models a common-emitter transistor amplifier.149 Chapter 4. Inc. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies. you are using it without permission. or used beyond the limited distribution to teachers and educators permitted by McGraw-Hill for their individual course preparation. 4. All rights reserved. Find ix using source transformation. If you are a student using this Manual. . No part of this Manual may be displayed. + − + -Vs + (Rs + Ro)ix + βRoix = 0 ix = Vs/(Rs + (1 + β)Ro) PROPRIETARY MATERIAL.

or used beyond the limited distribution to teachers and educators permitted by McGraw-Hill for their individual course preparation. calculate the current through a load of RL = 50 Ω when Vg = 12 V. design an attenuator that will meet the following requirements: Vo = 0. If you are a student using this Manual. Req = RTh = Rg = 100Ω Vg (b) Using the interface designed in part (a). without the prior written permission of the publisher.150. All rights reserved. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies. (a) By specifying Rs and Rp of the interface circuit in Fig. Figure 4. 4. An attenuator is an interface circuit that reduces the voltage level without changing the output resistance.Chapter 4.125.150 PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. No part of this Manual may be displayed. you are using it without permission. Inc. Problem 94. reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means. .

you are using it without permission. . Inc. Solution 94. Rp(1 . or used beyond the limited distribution to teachers and educators permitted by McGraw-Hill for their individual course preparation. reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means.29 ohms (b) (3) + − VTh = Vs = 0.125 = 700 ohms From (3) and (1a). © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies.125Vg = 1. Rp/α = Rg + Rs + Rp Rg + Rs = Rp((1/α) – 1) = Rp(1 .5/150 = 10 mA PROPRIETARY MATERIAL.α)/α]Rg = Rg/α Rp = Rg/(1 . Rs = [(1 .α)/α (1a) Combining (2) and (1a) gives.5 V RTh = Rg = 100 ohms I = VTh/(RTh + RL) = 1. (a) Vo/Vg = Rp/(Rg + Rs + Rp) Req = Rp||(Rg + Rs) = Rg Rg = Rp(Rg + Rs)/(Rp + Rg + Rs) RgRp + Rg2 + RgRs = RpRg + RpRs RpRs = Rg(Rg + Rs) (1) (2) From (1).125) = 114.Chapter 4. If you are a student using this Manual.α)/α]Req = (1 – 0. without the prior written permission of the publisher. All rights reserved.125)(100)/0. No part of this Manual may be displayed.α)/α = Rg + [(1 .α) = 100/(1 – 0.

reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means. A dc voltmeter with a sensitivity of 20 kΩ/V is used to find the Thevenin equivalent of a linear network. without the prior written permission of the publisher. If you are a student using this Manual. or used beyond the limited distribution to teachers and educators permitted by McGraw-Hill for their individual course preparation. .Chapter 4. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies. PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. All rights reserved. Readings on two scales are as follows: (c) 0-10 V scale: 4 V (d) 0-50 V scale: 5 V Obtain the Thevenin voltage and the Thevenin resistance of the network. Inc. you are using it without permission. Problem 95. No part of this Manual may be displayed.

1 x 50 μA = 5 μA VTh = 5 μA x RTh + 5 μA x 1 M ohm From (1) and (2) From (1).67 k ohms VTh = 4 + 20x10-6x(1/(15x10-6)) = 5. Inc. VTh = 5 + 5 μA RTh (2) (1) 0 = -1 + 15 μA RTh which leads to RTh = 66. you are using it without permission. Let 1/sensitivity = 1/(20 k ohms/volt) = 50 μA For the 0 – 10 V scale. Solution 95. Rm = Vfs/Ifs = 10/50 μA = 200 k ohms Rm = 50(20 k ohms/V) = 1 M ohm + − VTh = I(RTh + Rm) (a) A 4V reading corresponds to I = (4/10)Ifs = 0. For the 0 – 50 V scale. or used beyond the limited distribution to teachers and educators permitted by McGraw-Hill for their individual course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual. . © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies. reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means.Chapter 4. No part of this Manual may be displayed.333 V PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. without the prior written permission of the publisher.4x50 μA = 20 μA VTh = 20 μA RTh + 20 μA 250 k ohms = 4 + 20 μA RTh (b) A 5V reading corresponds to I = (5/50)Ifs = 0. All rights reserved.

Inc. All rights reserved. without the prior written permission of the publisher.151. or used beyond the limited distribution to teachers and educators permitted by McGraw-Hill for their individual course preparation. (f) Calculate the value of R that will draw the maximum current. reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means. A resistance array is connected to a load resistor R and a 9-V battery as shown in Fig.151 PROPRIETARY MATERIAL.Chapter 4. 4. What is the maximum current? Figure 4. . © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies. Problem 96. If you are a student using this Manual. No part of this Manual may be displayed.8 V. you are using it without permission. (e) Find the value of R such that Vo = 1.

8 R/(R + 37. Inc.143/(2x37.Chapter 4. -9 + 50i1 . .14) = 69.14 ohms Imax = VTh/(2RTh) = 5.143 V From Fig. (b). reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means. + − + VTh + − + Vo RTh = 10 + 10 + 60||(8 + 8 + 10||40) = 20 + 60||24 = 37. you are using it without permission. or used beyond the limited distribution to teachers and educators permitted by McGraw-Hill for their individual course preparation. All rights reserved.23 mA (1) (2) PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. Vo = [R/(R + RTh)]VTh = 1.40i2 = 0 116i2 – 40i1 = 0 or i1 = 2. No part of this Manual may be displayed. (a). Solution 96.143 which leads to R = 20 ohms (b) R = RTh = 37. without the prior written permission of the publisher.8/5. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies.9i2 From (1) and (2). i2 = 9/105 VTh = 60i2 = 5. If you are a student using this Manual.14) = 1.14 ohms Using mesh analysis. (a) The resistance network can be redrawn as shown in Fig.

4.4 k ohms VTh = [R2/(R1 + R2)]vs = [4/(6 + 4)](12) = 4. . without the prior written permission of the publisher. No part of this Manual may be displayed. or used beyond the limited distribution to teachers and educators permitted by McGraw-Hill for their individual course preparation. A common-emitter amplifier circuit is shown in Fig. Figure 4. reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means. + − + VTh RTh = R1||R2 = 6||4 = 2. All rights reserved. Obtain the Thevenin equivalent to the left of points B and E. you are using it without permission. If you are a student using this Manual.152. Problem 97.Chapter 4. Inc.152 Chapter 4. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies.8 V PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. Solution 97.

R1 = 20x60/(20 + 60 + 14) = 1200/94 = 12. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies. without the prior written permission of the publisher. reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means. Chapter 4. The 20-ohm. . All rights reserved.98 = 18. you are using it without permission. If you are a student using this Manual.936 + 12. Inc.766||32.Chapter 4. For Practice Prob.18. or used beyond the limited distribution to teachers and educators permitted by McGraw-Hill for their individual course preparation. (b). 4.139 ohms PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. No part of this Manual may be displayed. Solution 98. Problem 98. determine the current through the 40-Ω resistor and the power dissipated by the resistor.936 ohms RTh = R3 + R1||(R2 + 30) = 8. and 14-ohm resistors form a delta connection which needs to be connected to the wye connection as shown in Fig.979 ohms R3 = 60x14/94 = 8.766 ohms R2 = 20x14/94 = 2. 60-ohm.

consider the circuit in Fig. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies.42 mA P40 = I402R = 1.To find VTh.43 mA VTh = 14I1 + 30IT = 11. . without the prior written permission of the publisher.536/(18. (c). you are using it without permission.5748 watts PROPRIETARY MATERIAL.139 + 40) = 198. All rights reserved.745) = 349. reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means. No part of this Manual may be displayed. Inc.536 V I40 = VTh/(RTh + 40) = 11. + + − IT = 16/(30 + 15. or used beyond the limited distribution to teachers and educators permitted by McGraw-Hill for their individual course preparation.8 mA I1 = [20/(20 + 60 + 14)]IT = 74. If you are a student using this Manual.

Fundamentals of Electric Circuits 3rd Edition [Solution Manual]

Fundamentals of Electric Circuits 3rd Edition [Solution Manual]

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