The Aitareya-aranyaka consists of the following five Aranyakas: The first Aranyaka has five Adhyayas: 1.

First Adhyaya, Atha mahavratam, has four Khandas, 1-4. 2. Second Adhyaya, A tva ratham, has four Khandas, 5-8. 3. Third Adhyaya, Hinkarena, has eight [*2] Khandas, 9-16. 4. Fourth Adhyaya, Atha sudadohah, has three Khandas, 17-19. 5. Fifth Adhyaya, Vasam samsati, has three Khandas, 20-22. The second Aranyaka has seven Adhyayas: 6. First Adhyaya, Esha panthah, has eight Khandas, 1-8. 7. Second Adhyaya, Esha imam lokam, has four Khandas, 9-12. 8. Third Adhyaya, Yo ha va atmanam, has eight (not three) Khandas, 13-20. 9. Fourth Adhyaya, Atma va idam, has three Khandas, 21-23. 10. Fifth Adhyaya, Purushe ha va, has one Khanda, 24 11. Sixth Adhyaya, Ko 'yam atmeti, has one Khanda, 25. 12. Seventh Adhyaya, Van me manasi, has one Khanda, 26. The third Aranyaka has two Adhyayas: 13. First Adhyaya, Athatah samhitaya upanishat, has six Khandas, 1-6. 14. Second Adhyaya, Prano vamsa iti sthavirah Sakalyah, has six Khandas, 712. The fourth Aranyaka, has one Adhyaya: 15. First Adhyaya, Vida maghavan, has one Khanda (the Mahanamni's). The fifth Aranyaka has three Adhyayas:

Translation upto Third Aranyak only is available.

FIRST ARANYAKA. FIRST ADHYAYA. FIRST KHANDA. 1. Now follows the Mahavrata ceremony. 2. After having killed Vritra, Indra became great. When he became great, then there was the Mahavrata (the great work). This is why the Mahavrata ceremony is called Mahavrata. 3. Some people say: 'Let the priest make two (recitations with the offering of the) agya (ghee) on that day,' but the right thing is one [*1]. 4. He who desires prosperity should use the hymn, pra vo

devayagnaye (Rv. III, 13, 1). AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. 1

5. He who desires increase should use the hymn, viso viso atithim (Rv. VIII, 74, 1). 6. The people (visah) indeed are increase [*1], and therefore he (the sacrificer) becomes increased. 7. But (some say), there is the word atithim (in that hymn, which means a guest or stranger, asking for food). Let him not therefore take that hymn. Verily, the atithi (stranger) is able [*2] to go begging. 8. 'No,' he said, 'let him take that hymn. 9. 'For he who follows the good road and obtains distinction, he is an atithi (guest) [*3]. 10. 'They do not consider him who is not so, worthy to be (called) an atithi (guest). 11. 'Therefore let him by all means take that hymn.' 12. If he takes that hymn, let him place the (second) tristich, aganma vritrahantamam, 'we came near to the victorious,' first. 13. For people worship the whole year (performing the Gavamayana sacrifice) wishing for this day (the last but one)--they do come near.



14. The (next following) three tristichs begin with an Anushtubh [*4]. Now Brahman is Gayatri, speech is Anushtubh. He thus joins speech with Brahman. 15. He who desires glory should use the hymn, abodhy agnih samidha gananam (Rv. V, 1, 1). 16. He who desires offspring and cattle should use the hymn, hotaganishta ketanah (Rv. II, 5, 1). Footnotes
^157:1 That it should be one only is proved from the types, i. e. from other sacrifices, that have to be followed in the performance of the Mahavrata. The first type is the Agnishtoma, where one sastra is enjoined as agyasastra, viz. pra vo devayagnaye. In the Visvagit, which has to follow the Agnishtoma, another hymn is put in its place, viz. agnim naro didhitibhih. In the Mahavrata, which has to follow the Visvagit, some people recommend the use of both these hymns. But that is wrong, for there must be in the sacrifices which follow the Agnishtoma twelve sastras altogether; and if there were two here, instead of one, we should get a total of thirteen. ^158:1 The word visah, which occurs in the hymn, means people. The commentator says that because the Vaisyas or tradespeople increase their capital, therefore they are called increase. ^158:2 Able, or liable; cf. Ait. Ar. II, 3, 5, 7. ^158:3 Atithi is here explained by yo bhavati, and bhavati is explained as walking on the good road. One expects yo va atati. The obtaining of distinction is probably derived from ati, above, in atithi. ^158:4 In the first and second the Anushtubh is followed by two Gayatris.



'they caused the birth of Agni by moving their arms. 3. cattle have four feet. agnim naro didhitibhih (Rv. hastakyuti ganayanta. Verily. In the other (recitations accompanying the) offerings of agya (where Agni is likewise mentioned) the worshippers come more slowly near to Agni (because the name of Agni does not stand at the beginning of the hymn). 1) [*2]. 4. 4 . Through the words (occurring in the second foot of the first verse). therefore they serve for the gaining of cattle. 1. 2. Agni (fire) is the eater of food.FIRST ARANYAKA. He who desires proper food [*1] should use the hymn. FIRST ADHYAYA. There are four metrical feet (in the Trishtubh verses of this hymn). and therefore the hymn is endowed with (the word) birth. VII. he strikes down evil at once. But here a worshipper obtains proper food at once. AITAREYA-ARANYAKA.' the hymn becomes endowed with (the word) birth. Verily. the sacrificer is born from this day of the sacrifice. Verily. 1. SECOND KHANDA.

man is supported by two (feet). Man also consists of twenty-five. therefore this Virag. three are these three-fold worlds. which form a support (pratishtha). ten toes on his feet. Therefore these two. He adorns that trunk. Verily. two arms. into the small stomach food is placed [*3]. He who knows this. and the Stoma hymn of that day consists of twenty-five [*1] (verses). verses of this hymn). and the trunk (atman) the twenty-fifth. By saying them straight on there are twenty-five verses in this hymn. 11. Therefore they serve for the conquest of the worlds. 8. the twenty-fifth. 10. Therefore this hymn places the sacrificer who stands on two feet among cattle which stand on four. And then this day (of the sacrifice) consists of twenty-five. 7. 9.5. Into the small (heart) the vital spirits are placed. small by one. (they become) the AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. There are ten fingers on his hands. These (the Trishtubh and Virag verses of the hymn) form two metres. two legs. The verses (contained in the hymn agnim naro didhitibhih) become the Brihati [*4] metre and the Virag metre. are twenty-five [*2]. cattle by four feet. too small by one. 5 . This is a Virag. by this hymn. verse (consisting of thirty syllables). it becomes the same through the same. obtains those desires. 6. These twenty-five verses. become thirty less one. There are three metrical feet (in the Virag. the day and the hymn. by repeating the first thrice and the last thrice. serves for the obtainment of those desires. Verily.

according to rule. it is an essential part of the sacrifice. Therefore the eighteen Virag verses remain what they are. an eater of food. AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. and at the same time to be used by those who wish for proper food. ^160:4 The hymn consists of eighteen Virag and seven Trishtubh [p. 5. a healthy man. both as obligatory and as optional at the same time. 21. and taken over to the Mahavrata. by repeating the last three times. for the offerings of agya (ghee) dwell in Anushtubhs [*2]. 6 . and as each Brihati consists of thirty-six syllables. The nine times eight syllables. e. give us seventy-two syllables. ^159:2 This hymn is prescribed in the Visvagit sacrifice. ^160:3 Cf. It is used. Ar. Ait. though it is often an abstract of annada. 2. i. I. 1. It must be so translated here and elsewhere (1. according to the views of native metricians. only that the first is repeated three times. so that we have twenty Virag verses. here as annam tad adyam ka.perfection which belongs to that day (the mahavrata). ^160:1 Cf. thus changing them into nine Brihati verses. become nine. 3. Then they also become Anushtubh [*1]. We then take eight syllables away from each verse. Footnotes ^159:1 Annadyam is always explained as food. two Brihatis. 4. 3. 161] verses. But one or two syllables more or less does not destroy a metre. the Anushtubh should have thirty-two. ^161:1 The change of the first verse. 4. 10). 2. The seven Trishtubhs. however. into an Anushtubh is produced by a still easier process. which were taken off. which is a Virag of thirty-three syllables. The first Virag consists here of thirty-three syllables. ^160:2 The plural after the dual is explained by the fact that the hymn means the twenty-five verses. II. 7. I.

Verily. Pankti is food. Ushnih is life. and thus the sacrificer has a long life.' Others say: 'Let him take an Anushtubh hymn for the Pra-uga.' Others say: 'Let him take a Pankti hymn for the Pra-uga. Therefore if changed into an Anushtubh. Anushtubh is valour.' AITAREYA-ARANYAKA.' Others say: 'Let him take a Brihati hymn for the Pra-uga. Ait. Verily. Comm. Gayatri is brightness and glory of countenance.' Others say: 'Let him take a Trishtubh hymn for the Pra-uga. and thus the sacrificer becomes rich in food. Verily. 7 . Some say: 'Let him take a Gayatri hymn for the Pra-uga.' 2. and here has thirty-three. 1. Verily. FIRST ADHYAYA. and thus the sacrificer becomes fortunate. 4. 1. Brihati is fortune. it simply has one syllable over. ^161:2 Cf. Verily. and it serves for obtaining valour.The Virag itself. and thus the sacrificer becomes bright and glorious. for instance. should have thirty syllables. which is of no consequence. 1. Verily. Ar. I. and thus the sacrificer becomes strong. FIRST ARANYAKA. THIRD KHANDA [*3]. Others say: 'Let him take a Ushnih hymn for the Pra-uga. Trishtubh is strength.

Others say: 'Let him take a Gagati hymn for the Pra-uga. Verily, cattle is Gagati-like, and thus the sacrificer becomes rich in cattle.' But we say: 'Let him take a Gayatri hymn only. Verily, Gayatri is Brahman, and that day (the mahavrata) is (for the attainment of) Brahman. Thus he obtains Brahman by means of Brahman. 4. 'And it must be a Gayatri hymn by Madhukkhandas, 5. 'For Madhukkhandas is called Madhukkhandas, because he wishes (khandati) for honey (madhu) for the Rishis. 6. 'Now food verily is honey, all is honey, all desires are honey, and thus if he recites the hymn of Madhukkhandas, it serves for the attainment of all desires. 7. 'He who knows this, obtains all desires.' This (Gayatri pra-uga), according to the one-day (ekaha) ceremonial [*1], is perfect in form [*2]. On that day (the mahavrata) much is done now and then which has to be hidden [*1], and has to be atoned for y recitation of hymns). Atonement (santi) is rest, the one-day sacrifice. Therefore at the end of the year (on the last day but one of the sacrifice that lasts a whole year) the sacrificers rest on this atonement as their rest. 8. He who knows this rests firm, and they also for whom a Hotri priest who knows this, recites this hymn.



^161:3 Thus far the hymn which has to be recited by the Hotri priest, after the eating of the ritugrabas, has been considered. What follows next is the so-called Prauga hymn, consisting of seven trikas, which the Hotri has to recite after the Visvedevagraha. Different Sakhas recommend hymns of different metres, our Sakha fixes on the Gayatri. ^162:1 It is copied from the Visvagit, and that from the Agnishtoma. ^162:2 Nothing is wanting for its performance, if one only follows the rules given in the Agnishtoma. ^163:1 Dasinritya-bahubhutamaithuna-brahmakaripumskalisamprava-dadikam. See Rajendralal Mitra, Introduction to his edition of the Aitareya-aranyaka, p. 25. It might be better to join ekahah with santyam, but even then the argumentation is not quite clear.

FIRST ARANYAKA. FIRST ADHYAYA. FOURTH KHANDA [*2]. 1. Rv. I, 2, 1-3. Vayav a yahi darsateme soma aram kritah, 'Approach, O Vayu, conspicuous, these Somas have been made ready.' Because the word ready occurs in these verses, therefore is this day (of the sacrifice) ready (and auspicious) for the sacrificer and for the gods. 2. Yes, this day is ready (and auspicious) to him who knows this, or for whom a Hotri priest who knows this, recites.



3. Rv. I, 2, 4-6. Indravayu ime suta, a yatam upa nishkritam, 'Indra and Vayu, these Somas are prepared, come hither towards what has been prepared.' By nishkrita, prepared, he means what has been well prepared (samskrita). 4. Indra and Vayu go to what has been prepared by him who knows this, or for whom a Hotri priest who knows this, recites. 5. Rv. I, 2, 7. Mitram huve putadaksham, dhiyam ghritakim sadhanta, 'I call Mitra of holy strength; (he and Varuna) they fulfil the prayer accompanied with clarified butter.' Verily, speech is the prayer accompanied with clarified butter. 6. Speech is given to him who knows this, or for whom a Hotri priest who knows this, recites. 7. Rv. I, 3, 1. Asvina yagvarir ishah, 'O Asvinau, (eat) the sacrificial offerings.' Verily, the sacrificial offerings are food, and this serves for the acquirement of food. 8. Rv. I, 3, 3. A yatam rudravartani, 'Come hither, ye Rudravartani.' 9. The Asvinau go to the sacrifice of him who knows this, or for whom a Hotri priest who knows this, recites. 10. Rv. I, 3, 4-6. Indra yahi kitrabhano, indra yahi dhiyeshitah, indra yahi tutugana, 'Come hither, Indra, of bright splendour, Come hither, Indra, called by prayer, Come hither, Indra, quickly!' Thus he recites, Come hither, come hither!



Verily. recites. 'May the holy Sarasvati accept our sacrifice. Indra comes to the sacrifice of him who knows this. or for whom a Hotri priest who knows this. the Visve Devas come to the call of him who knows this. recites. 19. Omasas karshanidhrito visve devasa a gata. 15. I. Pavaka nah sarasvati yagnam vashtu dhiyavasuh. 17. Dasvamso dasushah sutam. 'Visve Devas. 11 . protectors. supporters of men. 'May she carry off our sacrifice!' AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. with whatever wish he recites this verse. i. I. Rv. I. 14. e. 10. 'Come ye givers to the libation of the giver!' By dasushah he means dadushah. 7. or for whom a Hotri priest who knows this. recites. Rv. 'May she accept our sacrifice!' what he means is. to the libation of every one that gives. (The wish of him) who knows this. 7. The gods fulfil his wish. 16. 12. recites. 3. rich in prayer!' Speech is meant by 'rich in prayer. or for whom a Hotri priest who knows this. 3.' 18.11. And when he says. Speech is given to him who knows this. Rv. come hither!' 13. 3. or for whom a Hotri priest who knows this.

3. He adorns that trunk.20. The trunk is the twenty-fifth. and Rv. There are ten fingers on his hands. idam vaso sutam andhah. Rv. There are ten fingers on his hands. 1. form the first (pratipad) and the second (anukara) of the Marutvatiya hymn. and the Stoma hymn of that day consists of twenty-five: it becomes the same through the same. Footnotes ^163:2 Next follows a list of the verses which form the seven trikas (groups of three verses) of the Pra-uga hymn. twenty-five. ten toes on his feet. are twenty-five. SECOND ADHYAYA. If these verses are recited straight on. they are twenty-one. Man also consists of twenty-one. and the trunk the twenty-fifth. AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. He adorns that trunk. ^165:1 Cf. 1-3. by this hymn'. FIRST KHANDA [*1]. 68. 12 . VIII. 2. a tva ratham yathotaye. 1-3. 5. FIRST ARANYAKA. 7. I. two legs. and the trunk the twenty-first. The two trikas. Now this day consists of twenty-five. with occasional remarks on certain words. the twenty-first. VIII. 1. two arms. Therefore these two. 7. they become twenty-five. the twenty-fifth. 21. by this hymn [*1]. I. ten toes on his feet. the day and the hymn. By repeating the first and the last verses thrice. and Pragapati is the twentyfifth. 2. yea.

pra su tira sakibhir ye ta ukthinah (Rv. 3). strong. Verily. indra nediya ed ihi. Atonement is rest. 13 . this day is an uktha. 1). and as endowed with an uktha. the form of this day is perfect.2. occurs (Rv. VIII. I. and has to be atoned for. as belonging to the one-day ceremonial [*2]. and they also for whom a Hotri priest who knows this. I. Verily. are perfect in form. In the first verse (of another Pragatha) the word vira. 4. 40. and as endowed with the word suvirya. I. AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. 3. He who knows this rests firm. there occurs the word ukthinah. reciters of hymns [*5]. killer of Vritra. In the second verse (of another Pragatha) the word suviryam. In the (Dhayya) verse agnir neta (Rv. and as endowed with an uktha. Therefore at the end of the year the sacrificers rest on this atonement as their rest. occurs. Both. strength. In the first verse (of another Pragatha) the word ukthyam. The killing of Vritra is a form (character) of Indra. 5. occurs (Rv. 4) the word vritraha. 40. 6. recites this hymn [*3]. strong. 5). 40. to be hymned. the one-day sacrifice. and as endowed with the word vira. the form of this day is perfect. III. 6). 53. occurs (Rv. and this is the (perfect) form of that day. In the second verse of (the Pragatha [*4]). 5. 2 0. strength. this day (the mahavrata) is an uktha (hymn). the form of this day is perfect. this day (the mahavrata) belongs to Indra. 7. On that day much is done now and then which has to be hidden. the form of this day is perfect.

I. and as endowed with the words paryasta and ranti the form of this day is perfect [*1]. Endowed with food is a form (character) of Indra. 10. 12. In the (Dhayya) verse tvam soma kratubhih sukratur bhuh (Rv. 6) the word vaginam. Verily. In (the Pragatha) pra va indraya brihate (Rv. 89. 13. 10) the words paryasa (he moved round) and na riramad (he did not enjoy) occur. In the same verse the word stanayantam. great. brihat is mahat (great). 91. occurs. I. this day belongs to Indra. Powerful is a form (character) of Indra. and as endowed with mahat. 11. thundering. 1) (the word brihat occurs). powerful. and this is the (perfect) form of that day. this day belongs to Indra. 32. In (the Pragatha) nakih sudaso ratham pary asa na riramad (Rv. the form of this day is perfect. 64. 9. and this is the (perfect) form of that day. Endowed with thundering is a form (character) of Indra. and this is the (perfect) form of that day. brihat is mahat (great). the form of this day (mahavrata) is perfect. 3) (the word brihat occurs). AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. VII. endowed with food. VIII. 89. In (the Pragatha) brihad indraya gayata (Rv. this day belongs to Indra. and as endowed with mahat. occurs. occurs. Verily.8. In the (Dhayya) verse pinvanty apah (Rv. 14 . 2) the word vrisha [*1]. VIII.

He recites all (these) Pragathas. and all the Savanas (libations). a division of sastras. FIRST ARANYAKA. 15 . ^166:2 Taken from the Agnishtoma. ^168:3 The stotras of the noon-libation. Footnotes ^166:1 In the first adhyaya the two hymns to be recited by the Hotri priest at the morning-libation (the agya and pra-uga sastra) have been considered. ^166:3 Cf. It is difficult to surpass the absurdity of these explanations. Comm. ^167:1 Cf. to be performed with the Rathantara. recitations. all the Prishthas [*3]. I. SECOND ADHYAYA. But even if it meant that no one rejoiced through the chariot of Sudas. I. 1. SECOND KHANDA [*6]. accompanying the oblations of agya. all the Sastras [*4]. ^166:4 All these Pragathas consist of two verses expanded into a trika. all the Pra-ugas [*5]. ^166:5 Hotradaya ukthinah sastrinah. in order to obtain all the days (of the sacrifice). to be recited by the Hotri priest at the noon-libation. ^168:5 The pra-ugas. serving for the ukthyakratus. AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. mentioned in the hymn. 3. Brihat. described above. all the Ukthas [*2]. could contribute to the perfection of a sacrifice which is to confer positive enjoyment on the worshipper. 2. 7-8. 14. it would be difficult to see how the negative of enjoyment. ^168:4 The sastras. Na riramat means no one stopped the chariot of Sudas. 2. ^168:2 The stotras following after the Yagnayagniya Saman. ^168:1 Because the performance of the Mahavrata sacrifice moves the worshipper round to another world and gives him enjoyment. and other Samans. Now follows the Marutvatiya hymn.

That hymn. the form of this day is perfect [*1]. occurs. That hymn is composed by Vasukra. 7. In the verse urvam gavyam mahi grinana indra the word mahi. 16 . is not definitely addressed to any deity. He recites the hymn (Rv. the destroyer of truth. Here they say: 'Why then is that Marutvatiya. Once in the hymn (Rv. 27. therefore it does not fall off from its form. (and in. hymn completed by the hymn of Vasukra?' Surely because no other Rishi but Vasukra brought out a Marutvatiya hymn. 22) he defines Indra (indraya sunvat). He recites the hymn. asat su me garitah sabhivegah (Rv. AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. 27. Therefore that Marutvatiya hymn is completed by the hymn of Vasukra. X. 1) piba somam abhi yam ugra tardah. or divided it properly [*3]. Verily. 6. Pragapati is indefinite. great. as connected with Indra. 3. 4. it the word) satyadhvritam. 17. and therefore the hymn serves to win Pragapati. that day is truth. Verily.1. the form of this day is perfect. VI. and that day is Brahman. 5. X. 1). Endowed with the word mahat. Vasukra is Brahman. Verily. asat su me. Thus he obtains Brahman by means of Brahman [*2]. and is therefore supposed to be addressed to Pragapati. 2. and as endowed with the word satya. truth.

165. 13. this day belongs to Indra. it serves for mutual understanding. the form of this day becomes perfect. He recites the hymn kaya subha savayasah sanilah (Rv. In it the words indra vrishabha (powerful) occur. and full of austerities. AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. let him recite the Kayasubhiya hymn for him. Therefore.8. He recites the hymn marutvan indra vrishabo ranaya (Rv. Endowed with the word uktha. I. who lived longest. Therefore if he recites the hymn of Bharadvaga. he becomes learned. Therefore. 165. if he recites the Kayasubhiya hymn. 9. then. I. In the verse a sasate prati haryanty uktha (Rv. which is called Kayasubhiya. 17 . powerful is a form of Indra [*2]. Verily. and this is the perfect form of that day. and Bharadvaga was he who knew most. if the sacrificer is dear to the Hotri. is mutual understanding and it is lasting. and performed the greatest austerities among the Rishis. and the Maruts came to a mutual understanding. III. By means of it Indra. Verily. 4) the word uktha occurs. that day (the mahavrata) is uktha (hymn). That hymn is composed by Bharadvaga. and by this hymn he drove away evil. 1). long-lived. 11. 47. Verily. 1). 14. That hymn is called Kayasubhiya [*1]. 12. 10. that hymn. The same hymn is also long life. after having driven away evil. Agastya.

Visvamitra was the friend (mitra) of all (visva). are ninety-seven verses [*2]. ganishtha ugrah sahase turaya (Rv. the shoulder-blade. and the trunk is the one hundred and first. Therefore at the end of the year (on the last day but one of the sacrifice that lasts a whole year) the sacrificers rest on this atonement as their rest. AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. That makes a hundred. of four joints each. 19. 17. they become one hundred and one verses. if recited straight on. The ninety are three Virag. and. this makes twenty-five. I. Whatever is the praise of the seven. 1).15. the arm. the eye. each consisting of thirty. Verily. By repeating the first and last verses three times each. two pits (in the elbow and the arm). and for whom a Hotri priest who knows this. There are five fingers. is the praise of ninety also. Atonement is rest. The other three parts have likewise twenty-five each [*1]. according to the one-day (ekaha) ceremonial. recites this hymn [*1]. and then the seven verses which are over. 20. 16. is perfect in form. 18. Everybody is the friend of him who knows this. That hymn is composed by Visvamitra. and has to be atoned for (by recitation of hymns). forms a Nividdhana [*3]. 18 . the one-day sacrifice. These. He who knows this rests firm. On that day much is done now and then which has to be hidden. 73. The next hymn. recites this hymn. and they also for whom a Hotri priest who knows this.

containing the Sutras or rules of Saunaka. health. Footnotes ^168:6 The type after which the Marutvatiya-sastra is to be performed is the Katurvimsa day. 2. 3. he who kills the destroyer of truth. ^170:2 Cf. Ait. brightness. The sacrificer as the one hundred and first rests in life. The six Pragathas. after the sixth verse. 1. 13). ^170:1 Cf. ^169:3 By separating the first trika from the second. All this is more fully described in the fifth Aranyaka (V.21. 4. the day preceding the Udayaniya or final day of the Gavamayana sattra. strength. AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. These verses become Trishtubh [*2]. 8. 22. 12. ^169:1 The commentator endeavours to make the meaning more natural by taking in the word prahanta. Now follow the verses which are new and peculiar to the Marutvatiya of the Mahavrata. and are therefore mixed up with matters not actually required for the performance of the sacrifice. while the earlier Aranyakas are reckoned as Brahmanas. 7. 11. ^169:2 Cf. and so forth.2. 5. and therefore it is called a nividdhana hymn. 3. ^171:1 With this hymn the Marutvatiya-sastra is finished. all that is taken over from the type to the modification. the rest are peculiar to the Mahavrata day. 1. 1). i.6). 1. I. All the hymns from a tva ratham to asat su me garitar are simply taken over from the Katurvimsa ceremonial. 3. nivids or invocations. 1. Ait. V. 8. 1. Piba somam = 15 (I. 2. 2. Hundred is life. are inserted. has been explained. such as indro marutvan. 8). Three Dhayyas = 3 (I. each of 2 verses raised to 3 (but the text gives seven Pragathas) = 18 (I. Hitherto (from a tva ratham to nakih sudasah). ^170:3 The hymn consists of eleven verses. 9). for the noonday-libation consists of Trishtubh verses. ^171:2 The first Stotriya and Anurupa trikas = 6 (I. But considering the general character of these remarks. II. 2. strength. 2. Asat su = 24 (I. Ar. the Marutvatiya. e.2. health. In the middle. 6. 19 . this is hardly necessary. 1. 2. Brahm. 16. 1. and brightness. 1).

FIRST ARANYAKA. and then the left and right side of the lower body. and that is why the swing is called prenkha. he is the swing. because the wind blows in one way. and it should be like them.9). 2. and it should be like the wind. 6. 2. ^172:1 The left side as well as the right. there should be three planks. Some say. 2.Kaya subha = Marutvan indra = Ganishtha ugrah = (TOTAL) 97 15 (I. that there should be one plank. Some say. making twenty-five on each side. for these two worlds (the earth and heaven) are seen as if most real. and three joints. That is not to be regarded. ^172:2 Approach the Trishtubh metre of the last hymn. 5. 11 (1. He indeed goes forward (pra + inkhate) in these worlds. 1. THIRD KHANDA [*3]. Comm. 2. 5 (I.2. SECOND ADHYAYA. AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. Therefore let there be two planks. They say: 'What is the meaning of prenkha. Let there be two. 2. who blows (the wind). 4. That is not to be regarded. a leg. because there are these three threefold worlds. while the ether (space) between the two is the sky (antariksha). 3. swing?' Verily. 20 . 2. 17). 13). Thus we have twenty joints of the five toes. a thigh.

Food. delights man. FOURTH KHANDA. The right ropes serve for some animals. for by that measure verily the Svarga worlds are measured. if placed in the middle. Verily. Some say: 'Let the swing be one ell (aratni) above the ground. 9.7. he proceeds to consider the Nishkevalya. Footnotes ^172:3 After having considered the Marutvatiya. and thus it serves to obtain sap and eatable food. therefore they should be made of Darbha grass. SECOND ADHYAYA. 1. This has to be recited by the Hotri while sitting on a swing. AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. If there are both kinds of rope. FIRST ARANYAKA.' That is not to be regarded. There are two kinds of rope. twisted towards the right and twisted towards the left. the Udumbara tree is sap and eatable food. 21 . Let them be elevated in the middle (between the earth and the cross-beam). Let them be made of Udumbara wood. and thus he places the sacrificer in the middle of eatable food. Let them be made of Darbha (Kusa grass). for among plants Darbha is free from evil. 10. 8. they serve for the attainment of both kinds of cattle. the left ropes for others.

and he is of all birds the strongest. and by that measure all eatable food is taken.' That is not to be regarded. They say: 'Let him mount the swing [*2] from behind. Therefore let him mount with his arms. thinking that thus they will obtain all desires. Therefore let him touch it with his chin.' Therefore let him mount it from behind. AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. 4. Let him touch the swing with his chin (khubuka). 22 . for the sun mounts these worlds from east to west. for by that measure verily all eatable food is made. for people mount a horse sideways [*1]. 6. and this swing is a ship in which to go to heaven. like he who shines. Let it be one fist (mushti).2. 5.' That is not to be regarded. therefore let it be one fist above the ground. 7. for people mount a ship from behind. Let him mount the swing with his arms [*3]. They say: 'Let him mount the swing from east to west. The parrot (suka) thus mounts a tree. Others say: 'Let it be one span (pradesa). Others say: 'Let him mount the swing sideways.' That is not to be regarded [*1]. 8. for by that measure verily the vital airs were measured. and he is of all birds the one who eats most food. 3. The hawk swoops thus on birds and on trees.

the Udgatri the seat made of Udumbara wood. verily. Let him not withdraw one foot (the right or left) from the earth. The swing is masculine. 16. 23 . gets offspring and cattle. The Hotri mounts the swing.' That is not to be regarded.9. Some say: 'Let him descend after saying vashat [*2]. 'That is not to be regarded. Neshtri. reeds. the seat feminine. Thus he mounts and obtains food and fortune. verily. that respect is not shown which is shown to one after he has approached quite close. Potri. Others say: 'Let him descend after he has taken the food in his hand. 14. 12. For. AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. they mount on solid and fluid as their proper food. the seat fortune. He who knows this. Next the swing is food. and they form a union. bear fruit. Thus if the priests mount on that day altogether (on their seats). and Akkhavaka) together with the Brahman sit down on cushions made of grass. &c. Brahmanakkhamsin. The Hotrakas (the Prasastri. 10. 15. Therefore this serves for the attainment of solid as proper food [*1]. Plants and trees. leaves. 13. that respect is not shown which is shown to one who does not see it [*3]. after they have grown up. Agnadhra. Thus he makes a union at the beginning of the uktha in order to get offspring. For. for fear that he may lose his hold.

^174:1 Here we have clearly riding on horseback. let him descend from the swing. FIRST KHANDA. The descending from the swing belongs. Only after having actually seen the food (that is brought to the sacrifice). or devaretasam pragayate? FIRST ARANYAKA. immediately after the Hotri has finished his part with the word vashat.' thus they say. yea. But as it is not brought near. Let him begin this day [*2] with singing 'Him. and thus mount. THIRD ADHYAYA. when it is brought near. ^176:1 Should it be devaretah sampragayate. 1. 18. 24 . but it is wanting in both text and commentary. turning towards the east. For. Comm. let him stand west. ^175:3 it is supposed that the Hotri rises from the swing to show respect to the sacrificial food. ^174:3 The fore-arms. Let him descend after he has seen the food.17. and this mark of respect. Let him descend turning towards the east. the aratni. to a later part of the sacrifice. AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. ^175:2 The word by which the Hotri invites the Adhvaryu to offer the oblation to the gods. also. the food could not see the Hotri rise. intended for the food. Therefore let him rise turning towards the east. and in other MSS. and they proceed one span from out the mouth. ^175:1 One expects ishah before urgah. that is real respect which is shown to one when he sees it. ^174:2 While the swing points to the east. Footnotes ^173:1 They rise one span above the heart. for in the east the seed of the gods springs up [*1]. from the elbow to the end. would thus be lost. of course. verily. Comm.

He who knows this digs up. I. by means of the sound Him. 4. 6. 25 . with a spade. thus he digs up Brahman. as he begins with the sound Him. Thus between the hymns. Footnotes ^176:2 The Nishkevalya-sastra. 5. holds apart divine and human speech [*1]. Verily. and the ordinary language of conversation the sound Him is interposed as a barrier. FIRST ARANYAKA. of the noon-libation. even the hardest soil. And as a man wishes to dig up any. As he begins with the sound Him.2. surely that masculine sound of Him and the feminine Rik (the verse) make a couple. Or. 4. 1. that sound is the holding apart of divine and human speech. 10. that day also is Brahman. everything he may desire. so the sound Him serves to dig up Brahman (the sap of the Veda). 2. Cf. obtains Brahman even by Brahman. after having uttered the sound Him. the sound Him is Brahman. If he begins with the sound Him. Thus he makes a couple at the beginning of the hymn in order to get offspring [*3]. gets cattle and offspring. I. Therefore. he who begins. He who knows this. divine speech that of the Veda. or the divine speech. 2. 3. ^177:1 Human speech is the ordinary speech. ^176:3 Cf. surely like a wooden spade. AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. 2. He who knows this.

for it is said. Yagus. Bhus the Rig-veda. 5.THIRD ADHYAYA. Svar are the three Vedas. or Saman verse. Speech yields all desires to him who knows this. or a Saman verse (divine speech). 4.' 8. Footnotes AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. he should not start with a Rik. 26 . Yagus. 3. All desires come to him who knows this. SECOND KHANDA. he does not start with a Rik. 6. Bhuvas the Yagur-veda. or Saman verse. a Yagus. for with the mind he conceives all desires. Therefore (by intercalating these) he does not begin simply with a Rik. All desires dwell in the one (mind). These interjections Bhus. All desires dwell in the mind. Here they say: 'Let him not begin this day with a Rik. let him say these Vyahritis (sacred interjections) first. or a Saman [*3]. 1. Svar the Sama-veda. a Yagus. the other yields all desires. 9.' 2. Bhuvas. Therefore. And here they ask: 'What is the beginning of this day?' Let him say: 'Mind and speech [*2]. 7. Speech yields all desires. for with speech he declares all his desires.

X. he begins. should not immediately begin with verses from the Vedas. if taken singly. that the priest. With this very word. this' is food. making it a name. And thus does a child. tata and tata (or tat). THIRD ADHYAYA. but should intercalate the three syllables bhur bhuvah svar. 'That which you have uttered. what is intended is clear. 'O Brihaspati. this. viz. tad id asa). consisting of one or two syllables. Pragapati indeed uttered this as the first word. as soon as he begins to speak.'--for names are made by speech. 27 .'--for this is the first and highest point of speech. 1. THIRD KHANDA. or.^177:2 Mind. However. bhuvas. 3. tata and tata (or tat) [*1]. consisting of one or two syllables. 2. to think about the hymns which have to be recited. 5. 1) [*2]:-4. Verily 'this. 71. He begins with tad. FIRST ARANYAKA. bhus. svar. This has been said by a Rishi (Rv. even after having uttered the sound Him. the first point of speech. consisting of tat or tatta. viz. (the first word of the first hymn. utter the word. AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. speech. to recite them without a flaw. viz. ^177:3 It is doubtful whether neyad rikah and apagakkhet can have this meaning. and thus he obtains food.

If tat is called the very same word. and that was manifest among the gods in heaven.6. viz. 1. It was said that tat was the first name applied to a child. those deities (which enter the body. or. and by parents in addressing their children.'--for this is the best and without a flaw. THIRD ADHYAYA. AITAREYA-ARANYAKA.'--for from it was born the fierce one. according to Asvalayana Grihya-sutra I. 'That (name) which was the best and without a flaw. 7. a name which no one knows except father and mother. the Brahman. I doubt whether even the commentator understood what was intended by the author. to tad. ^178:2 The verse is cited to confirm the meaning of tat. is made manifest. This is what was intended by the verse. 8. it may be. or whether the name refers to these gods. endowed with brilliant force. 16. 2. which becomes publicly known at a later time only. Now. as explained before. This is called the abhivadaniya name. 28 . He begins with: 'That indeed was the oldest in the worlds [*2]. FIRST ARANYAKA. entering the mouth.'--for this was hidden in the body. but quite in keeping with the general character of the Aranyaka. &c. who is endowed with brilliant force. Footnotes ^178:1 Tata and tata are used both by children in addressing their parents.'--for that (the Brahman) is verily the oldest in the worlds. In allusion to this custom it is said here that tata is the secret name of the child. Of course the interpretation of the verse in that sense is unnatural. FOURTH KHANDA [*1].). a name is given to a child at the time of its birth. the first word of the first hymn (tad id asa). till the time when he is initiated by a Guru. eva is used in the sense of iva. 'That which was hidden by their love. and whether the gods who enter the body are supposed to know the name. Agni as voice. 'Whence was born the fierce one.

'When these two become three protectors. 7. 'When born he at once destroys the enemies. all thoughts also turn to thee. all minds. 'Taking the breathing and the not-breathing. He who knows this. 29 .'—this means all these beings. causes fear to the slave.'--for everything is afraid of him. 8. 'He after whom all friends rejoice. 'He.'--this means everything is in thy power. 9. the almighty [*4]. and they rejoice after him. 'Growing by strength. 'Whatever has been offered at feasts came to thee.3.'--verily all friends are the creatures. 10. gets offspring and cattle. e. the almighty.'--for he (the sun) does grow by strength.'--this means the living and the lifeless. as enemy. 'All turn their thought also on thee [*5]. he has risen [*3].'--i. saying. when these two united beget offspring. 'He has risen. 6. 4. AITAREYA-ARANYAKA.'--for he at once when born struck down the evil one.' 5. 11.

'And this (the son. Gagati) having the Virag as the fourth. consisting of ten syllables. X. rests in these three metres [*3]. 16. 'Join what is sweeter than sweet (offspring) with the sweet (the parents). the twelve syllables are Gagati. 30 . 1) the eight syllables are Gayatri. and thus through the couple he conquers offspring [*1]. This is declared by a Rishi [*2]: 'Because he (Pragapati) raised his body (the hymn tad id asa or the Veda in general) in the body (of the sacrificer)' (therefore that Nishkevalya hymn is praised). and he thus joins the offspring with the couple. these are all metres. these (Gayatri. this body. Trishtubh. the couple is sweet. the eleven syllables are Trishtubh. 18.'--i. 14. when married) being very sweet. 15. in that corporeal form (of the sacrificer). In this manner this day is complete in all metres to him who knows this. The Virag. consisting of the Veda. that indeed goes into the Virag [*4]. Of this (the first foot of Rv.12. e. consisting of the Veda. this body. of that corporeal form (of the sacrificer). e.'--i. Footnotes AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. 13. conquered through the sweet. e. 17. 120. the ten syllables are Virag.--i. consisting of three syllables. the offspring is sweet. The word purusha. 'Then let this body indeed be the medicine of that body. the offspring is sweet.'--for the couple (father and mother) is sweet. Verily.

1. In order to bring them to the right number. 2. Cf.e. 6. V. AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. Ait. the sound is purusha. 1. 120. We thus get: tad id asa bhuvaneshu gyeshtham pu yato gagna ugras tveshanrimno ru sadyo gagnano ni rinati satrun anu yam visve madanti umah shah. ^180:4 If we simply count syllables. which really consists of Trishtubh verses. and fourth feet. X. as it were. man. X. to the first. FIFTH KHANDA. 31 . the first and second feet of the [p. 181] first verse consist of ten syllables only. which is called the Ragana. 120. ^179:3 The sun and the fire. He extends these (verses) by (interpolating) the sound [*1]. ^180:3 These metres are obtained by a purely arbitrary counting of syllables in the hymn tadidasa. sounds loud. ^179:2 Rv. ^180:1 All these are purely fanciful interpretations. 3. ^180:2 Not to be found in our Sakha of the Rig-veda. ^179:5 Rv. Verily. the second. the word purusha is to be added to what is a Virag. i. X. THIRD ADHYAYA. FIRST ARANYAKA. 1. Therefore every man when he speaks. 120. Ar.^179:1 He now explains the first hymn of the Nishkevalya. the fourth of nine or ten. ^179:4 Rv.

5. AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. 69. nadam va odatinam. for they seem to run continually. In nadam va odatinam (Rv. &c. odati [*1] are the waters in heaven. and they are the waters in the mouth. and they are the waters which spring from the organ. VIII. the dhenu (cows) are the waters. thou art food. 32 . 69. Sadyo gagnano ni rinati satrun patim vo aghnyanam. Thus the verse is to be recited as follows: Tad id asa bhuvaneshu gyeshtham pu nadam va odatinam. Anu yam visve madanti umah sho dhenunam ishudhyasi. he inserts one foot of the second verse of hymn Rv. 2). and ishudhyasi means. 69. yoyuvati are the waters in the sky. VIII. for they delight all this. 2). 3. VIII. 4. for they water all good food. 2). VIII. aghnya are the waters which spring from the smoke of fire. In patim vo aghnyanam (Rv. In nadam yoyuvatinam (Rv.2. 2). Yato gagna ugras tveshanrimno ru nadam yoyuvatinam. VIII. 69. 69. At the end of each foot of the first verse of the hymn tad id asa. and they are the waters of perspiration. for they water all this. for they seem to inundate. In dhenunam ishudhyasi (Rv.

1. Therefore the two. ^182:1 The nasal pluta on iti is 'tyantamadararthah. by repeating the first three times. Ait.6. 1. ten toes on his feet. two arms. while the sixth is intended for the glory of the whole hymn. FIRST ARANYAKA. 4. He extends a Trishtubh and an Anushtubh [*2]. Ar. 33 . and they make a couple. 1. Trishtubh is the man. I. nadam vah an Anushtubh. become twentyfive. explained as padapratikagrahane ^182:2 Tad id asa is a Trishtubh. Therefore does a man. 3. SIXTH KHANDA. According to the commentator. is really a verse beginning with nadam. 4. He adorns that trunk as the twenty-fifth. and the trunk the twenty-fifth. THIRD ADHYAYA. and Pragapati is the twenty-fifth [*3]. There are ten fingers on his hands. consider himself a more perfect man. Footnotes ^181:1 The sound. 2. The trunk is the twenty-fifth. Now this day consists of twenty-five. I. AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. 7. This is an exact repetition of the third khanda. two legs. 7. ^182:3 Cf. These verses. the third khanda was intended for the glory of the first word tad. Anushtubh the wife. 21. and which is interpolated after the syllables pu ru shah. the day and the hymn. are twenty-five . Cf. after having found a wife. II. THIRD ADHYAYA. FIRST ARANYAKA. and the Stoma hymn of that day consists of twenty-five: it becomes the same through the same. nada.

and Rv. The two feet. 1. Into the small heart the vital spirits are placed. great. gyeshtha. with the auspicious word mahitva. serve for the gaining of both kinds of food [*1]. the tenth is the (vital) self. of what has feet (animal food). Then follows the hymn. Endowed with mahat the form of this day is perfect. VI. Of those which are ten. Tam su te kirtim maghavan mahitva (Rv. Verily. X. 6. It serves for the attainment of these desires. X. 69. each consisting of ten syllables (Rv. X. He extends the first two padas. Then follows the hymn. He who knows them. into the small stomach food is placed. 4. with the auspicious word virya. 51. 4). Tad id asa. He who knows this. He begins with the hymn. 2 a) [*2]. with the auspicious word uktha. 7. by one syllable (Rv. Bhuya id vavridhe viryaya (Rv. obtains whatever he desires. This is the perfection of the (vital) self. 34 . VIII. Nrinam u tva nritamam gobhir ukthaih (Rv. the oldest. Eight syllables remain in each. 120). is mahat. 5. nine are the pranas (openings of the body) [*3]. and what has no feet (vegetable food). obtains these desires. 120. They come to be of eighteen syllables each [*2]. 120. 1 a. Then follows the hymn. bhuvaneshu gyeshtham (Rv. 54). 3.SEVENTH KHANDA. X. 30). 1 a. which are too small. 2. I. b). AITAREYA-ARANYAKA.

54) = 4. X. 2. 35 . X. 120) = 2. 1. I. a foot of ten syllables. Tad id asa (Rv. 4) = 23 + 2 = 25 9 verses 6" 5" 3" 3. I. 9. 30) = ^183:2 Cf. 51. VI. AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. Bhuya id vavridhe viryaya (Rv. Nrinam u tva (Rv. ^184:1 Because Virag.Footnotes ^183:1 The number is obtained as follows: 1. Tam su te kirtim (Rv. is food.

36 . Anushtubh. FIRST ARANYAKA. ten toes on his feet. 2) nadam va odatinam. Ushnih is life. and the trunk the twenty-fifth. speech. 1. &c.^184:2 Rv. He adorns that trunk as the twentyfifth. and the Stoma hymn of that day consists of twenty-five: it becomes the same through the same. X. Verily. is by its syllables an Ushnih [*5]. and Pragapati is the twenty-fifth. He extends (these verses) by (interpolating) the sound [*4]. The verse (VIII.. The trunk is the twenty-fifth. He thus places life and speech in him (the sacrificer. sapta vai sirshanyah prana dvav avankav iti. two legs. 69. as it were. There are ten fingers on his hands. Therefore every breath when it sounds. Now this day consists of twenty-five. two arms. they become twenty-five.) 3. THIRD ADHYAYA. 2. 120. 1 a = Rv. EIGHTH KHANDA. 2 a= Syllable pu = 1 18 10 7 ^184:3 Seven in the head and two in the body. AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. By repeating the first verse three times. sounds loud. breath (prana) is sound. by its feet an Anushtubh [*6]. 69. VIII.

8. 'As far as Brahman reaches. these five deities (powers) have entered into that person (purusha). this was intended. there is a word. This has been declared by a Rishi (Rv. with regard to the deities: The eye.'--verily. 'A thousandfold are these fifteen hymns. 10.'-. 4. there are nine pranas (openings). the ear. and breath. 'As large as heaven and earth. He is wholly pervaded there with his limbs to the very hairs and nails.'--wherever there is Brahman. 7. and wherever there is a word.'--for five arise from ten [*2]. 5. and that person entered into the five deities. so far reaches speech. and magnifies them. This is the twenty-fifth with regard to the body. the saying this the poet pleases the hymns (the senses). The first of the hymns among all those hymns has nine verses. 8):-6. Verily. speech.Therefore the two. 37 . AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. the day and the hymn. Next. 9. are twenty-five. X. the self (givatman) is as large as heaven and earth. there is Brahman. 'A thousandfold are the thousand powers [*3]. and it serves for their benefit. so large is it. Therefore all beings to the very insects are born as pervaded (by the deities or senses) [*1]. 4.

and they spring from the ten. yet afterwards stating that all beings are born. explaining atra. water. Footnotes ^184:4 Cf. as members or organs. as the body pervaded by the person. pervaded by the senses. Three are these threefold worlds. Verily' the Pankti consists of five feet. They are the five. fire. ^185:3 The application of the senses to a thousand different objects. to the immortal Self [*2]. and therefore called ten. ^185:1 The commentator takes this in a different sense. the seasons are six. ^184:6 Because it has four padas. hymns. Dasatah is explained by bhutadasakat. 14. forming part of the father and mother each. Then follows a hymn of six verses. He who knows this comes by this way (by making the verses the trunk of the bird) near to the immortal Self. ^185:2 The commentator explains uktha. and it serves for the gaining of proper food. wind. and it serves to obtain them. i.11. ^184:5 Each pada has seven syllables. Verily. leading to the world of the Devas. Pankti is food. from the five elements (earth. yea. but a seventh syllable is gained by pronouncing the y as i. Then follows a tristich. 38 . and it serves to conquer them. 1. and thus it is. Then follows a hymn of five verses. Verily. 13. That body of verses is the trunk (of the bird represented by the whole sastra). e. and ether). 5. 3. or a decade. These verses become Brihatis [*1]. 12. AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. there. I. Comm. the third only six. that metre being immortal.

if performed with meditation and a right understanding of its hidden meaning. and whatever there exists. FIRST KHANDA. That is in Gayatri verses. 2. Next follow the neck verses. The Gayatri is the beginning of all metres [*3]. He who knows this. according to their metre [*2]. Next comes the Sudadohas [*1] verse. It is in Arkavat verses (Rv. It serves for reciting one verse more than (the nine verses contained in) the Stoma [*5]. and thereby he joins all joints with breath. Next comes (again) the Sudadohas verse. They are nine verses. ^186:2 He obtains a birth among the gods by means of this Mahavrata ceremonial. In this manner the twentythree verses of the hymns yield forty-six Brihatis. He recites the tenth verse. Next follows the head. The head consists of nine pieces. all this is produced after the production of this Stoma and this metre. 7. 5. 1-9) [*4]. This gives eighteen syllables for each pada. They recite them as Ushnih. Two padas therefore give thirty-six syllables. Arka is Agni. Sudadohas is breath. FOURTH ADHYAYA. and this is a Brihati. 3. 39 . 1. the head the first of all members. Comm.^186:1 Each foot of the Trishtubh has eleven syllables. 4. and thereby he joins all joints with breath. These form the Trivrit Stoma and the Gayatri metre. AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. gets offspring and cattle. Therefore the recitation of these head-hymns serves for production. FIRST ARANYAKA. and that is the skin and the hairs on the head. to which seven are added from the Nada hymn. I. Sudadohas is breath.

and are to be recited such as they are. VIII. Ar. V. They are given by Saunaka. and the commentator seems to take it as such in his first explanation. another hymn has to be mentioned. the verse is called Sudadohas. vertebrae. ^187:5 The chanters of the Sama-veda make a Trivrit Stoma of this hymn. Therefore man says to man. and thereby he joins all joints with breath.6. 8. called Sudadohas. neck. because it could not be sa virago bhavanti. Ar. 69. 5. 7. Ait. 110. Rv. nor even sa virad bhavati. The text. 40 . Next comes the Sudadohas verse. wings. which has to be recited at the end of the hymns. pakshamularupa vigava abhihitah. 1. Sudadohas is breath. Ait. ^187:4 They are called so. I. is food. These verses are Virag (shining). ^188:1 Vigavas may be a singular.' Or because the (vertebrae of the neck) run close together. and stomach. 7. 109. ^187:2 They occur in another sakha. On p. described before. as the root of the wings. tail. folia and la feuille. ^187:3 It was created from the mouth of Pragapati. Footnotes ^187:1 The Nishkevalya-sastra is represented in the shape of a bird.' and because that word occurs in the verse. The reciters of the Rig-veda excel them therefore by reciting a tenth verse. 3. leaving out the tenth verse. plural vigavah. 'Thou carriest thy neck stiff. explains its meaning rightly. because the word arka occurs in them. consisting of trunk. It follows on the Nada verse. head. and again. This is called atisamsanam (or -na). which form the trunk. ta virago bhavanti. however. Possibly the word may occur in both forms.' or to a stiff and proud man. and food is strength. 2. Sudadohas is breath. Before describing the hymns which form the neck. Verily. and thereby he joins all joints with breath. For Virag. 1. In a somewhat similar way we find griva and grivah. Sudadohas is explained as 'yielding milk. vigu. without any repetitions. or rather the lower bones of AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. 'Thou shinest above us. Cf. and vigavah. Next follow the vertebrae [*1] (of the bird). He. Next comes the Sudadohas verse. they are taken to be the best food. p. the commentator speaks of vigavabhaga. without any insertions. proves nothing.

The excess belongs to the man. 1) serves for proper food. The Brihat (the left wing) is man. it is Vasishtha. Next follows the right wing. 41 . First vigu. it is that sun. though very empty. The Sampata hymn (Rv. FIRST ARANYAKA. i. the last probably used in the sense of to bring near. and lastly the verb pratyak. V. then the participles duta and sambalhatama. it a. FOURTH ADHYAYA. These two (the right and the left wings) are deficient and excessive [*2]. 23) serves indeed for obtaining desires and for firmness. it is the Rathantara [*1]. 80. Sudadohas is breath. it is a hundred [*1]. plural. vertebrae. they are represented as if they brought the best food. thereby he joins all joints with breath. SECOND KHANDA. IV. the Rathantara (the right wing) is woman. 2.the neck. 11). Therefore they are deficient and excessive. it is speech. It is that world (heaven). 4. IV. to represent. 81. The paragraph. with the superlative adverb annatamam (Pan. contains at least some interesting forms of language. These are the six powers (of the right wing) [*3]. it is this Agni. It is this world (the earth). AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. 1. 20) serves indeed for obtaining desires and for firmness. Next follows the left wing. The Pankti verse (Rv. Next comes the Sudadohas verse. The Sampata hymn (Rv. it is the Brihat. were originally the vertebrae of the neck. The Pankti verse (Rv. I. the deficiency to the woman. These are the six powers (of the left wing). 1) serves for proper food. it is mind. 4. I. e. Grivah. it is a hundred [*2]. 3.

Now the left wing of a bird is verily by one feather better. For the tail is a support. glory. Sudadohas is breath. 7. and thereby he joins all joints with breath. He (the bird and the hymn) is supported by two decades which are Virag. and the tail the support of all birds [*2]. This is made the form of two supports. Therefore all birds support themselves on their tail. then a Dhayya. therefore the left wing is larger by one verse. 9. serves for his happiness. [p. Therefore does the seed of both. 11. The man (the sacrificer) is supported by the two Dvipadas. For there are twenty-one backward feathers in a bird. the twenty first and twenty-second. the Dhayya a woman. when it is effused. 10. then a Sudadohas verse. AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. and having supported themselves on their tail. obtain oneness. Next follows the tail. Next comes the Sudadohas verse. That which forms the bird serves for the attainment of all desires. 8. The Sudadohas is a man. therefore he recites the Dhayya as embraced on both sides by the Sudadohas. Next comes a Sudadohas verse. He recites a twenty-second verse.5. They are twenty-one Dvipada verses [*1]. proper food. Then the Ekavimsa is the support of all Stomas. that which forms the man. they fly up. 42 . 191] 6. and honour.

2. and that the last verse is a Pankti. tvam hy ehi (Rv. 43 . 5. Agni. VII. 7) 2 (3) 3. VI. 25) 6 9. IV. 18) 15 4. Apurvya (Rv. 46. abhi tva purvapitaye (Rv. Indram narah (Rv. 23) 6 8. 18. Kada bhuvan (Rv. VIII. Anurupa. 28) 5 12. 34) 5 11. VII. tvam id dhi (Rv. 22) 2. VII. IV. Ya ogishthah (Rv. VII. I. 23) 10 5. ^189:2 1. abhi tva sura nonumah (Rv. 1) 2 (3) 2. Tve ha (Rv. 80. Brahma nah (Rv. 32) 15 4. 2. Footnotes ^189:1 Rathantara is the name of the whole number of hymns to be recited at this part of the sacrifice. Tam u shtuhi (Rv. 1) 1 99 (101) 2 (3) These hymns and verses are given Ait. Stotriya. VII. is called Sampata. VII. 35) 5 AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. ^190:1 The hundred verses are given Ait. 31) 5 8. Ugro gagne (Rv. Indrasya nu (Rv. VI. VI. 33) 5 10. 24) 10 6. Rathantara. VII. 26) 5 10. 2. Therefore he recites that Dhayya in that place . Suta it tvam (Rv. Yas tigma (Rv. Anurupa. V. VI. and a hundred. VI. 1-15) 15 5. Stotriya. VI. 32) 5 9. I. 25) 9 7. 19) 11 6. Ar. Here we also learn that hymn Rv. VII. V. 20) 10 7. VIII. Vasishtha. Sam ka tve (Rv. Abhur ekah (Rv. 61. 1. Vrisha madah (Rv. 29) 5 13. 32. 3. Ud u (Rv. 20. ^189:3 The six powers are earth. 1. Ittha hi (Rv. and consists of one hundred verses. VII. 20) 11 98 (100) 14. A te mahah (Rv. VI. VI. 27) 5 11. Ayam somah (Rv. It was made by Vasishtha. Hence birth takes place in and from the woman. VI. A na indrah (Rv. 7) 2 (3) 3. 2. Na somah (Rv. VI. VII. Ya ta utih (Rv. speech.and this with regard to the woman only. Ar.

1. Verily. ^191:1 These verses are given Ait. X. 16). Ar. 36) Arvag ratham (Rv. 37) Apad (Rv. Cf. may I win it. 1) 100 (102) 5 5 1 1 Though there are said to be 100 verses before the Pankti (No. 38) 5 Katha mahan (Rv. 81. 15. Ima nu kam (Rv. 13. at sacredtexts. VI. 172) 4 Pra va indraya &c. I.12. and 100 or 102 in the left wing. Whatever there is in this world of glory. 4. the eighty Gayatri tristichs are this world (earth). the left wing exceeds by one verse. 1. The Upanishads. VI. Saptadasa. 157) 5 A yahi (Rv. FIRST ARANYAKA. 23) 99 (101) 16. V. I count 99 or 101 verses in the right. food. Part 1 (SBE01). THIRD KHANDA. Pankadasa. may it be mine. 14. 5. by Max Muller. (not in the Sakalya-samhita) 3 21 9 ^191:2 The other Stomas of the Agnishtoma are the Trivrit. 9. ^190:2 The right wing. IV. is deficient by one verse. Indro madaya (Rv. 44 . 3. 2. 3. may I obtain it. and honour. I can get only 99 or 101. [1879]. wives. 2. (not in the Sakalya-samhita) Esha brahma &c. FOURTH ADHYAYA. I. 1. 2. AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. See the following note. greatness. VI. the Ekavimsa being the highest. He recites the eighty tristichs of Gayatris [*2]. Satra madasah (Rv.

He recites the eighty tristichs of Ushnih. Comm. with breath. Sudadohas verily is breath. food. the eighty Ushnih tristichs are that world. Sudadohas verily is the breath. Comm. may it be mine. AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. 6. Next comes the Sudadohas verse. He joins the world of the sky with breath. He joins this world with breath. also the divine being of the Devas (Brahman). the eighty Brihati tristichs are the world of the sky. ^192:2 These and the following verses form the food of the bird. greatness. may I obtain it. Next comes the Sudadohas verse. Sudadohas verily is breath. wives. He joins that world with breath. and honour. and honour. Footnotes ^192:1 Asmin vigavabhage. the heaven. 4. may I win it. wives. Whatever there is in the world of the sky of glory. may it be mine. Next comes the Sudadohas verse. 3. Verily. He recites the eighty tristichs of Brihatis.2. may I win it. food. Verily. may I obtain it. Whatever there is in that world of glory. 45 . 5. greatness. The verses themselves are given by Saunaka in the fifth Aranyaka. yea.

three below. seven in the head. as it were. Then the Ekavimsa is verily the support of all Stomas. 6. Next comes the Sudadohas verse. 2. 7. These pranas are verily twelvefold. 3. Verily. two on the breast. They consist of different metres. and according to rule [*5]. 5. Therefore he leaves it off there . &c. and the belly the support of all food. FIFTH ADHYAYA. some large. some small. according to the metre [*4]. Sudadohas verily is breath. They (its verses) are twenty-one [*2]. some shorter. with breath.FIRST ARANYAKA. He recites the Vasa hymn [*1]. He recites them with the pranava [*3]. wishing. AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. 1. spleen. May everything be in my power. some longer. the intestines are confused. 4. for twenty-one are the parts (the lungs. In these twelve places the pranas are contained. FIRST KHANDA.) in the belly. Verily. 46 . the intestines are according to rule. He joins the joints. After having recited that verse twelve times he leaves it off there. there they are perfect.

11. i. they come to be roused and to rise up. and he makes it into a Gayatri and Anushtubh. The hymn indragni yuvam su nah (Rv. 2.e. He recites a Trishtubh at the end. Rv. VIII. (they obey the commands of a strong shepherd. Anushtubh is speech. 9. inserting Om in the proper places. ^193:3 Pranavam means 'with pranava. 40) forms the two thighs (of the bird) belonging to Indra and Agni. standing on two feet. neck. so that they may stand firm. V. Therefore animals come near where there is strength (of command. and one Sudadohas. ^193:2 Verses 1-20 of the Vasa hymn. and thus does he come round animals by strength. among four-footed cattle. These (verses) consist of six feet. Gayatri is Brahman. Man stands firm on two feet. 2. and tail of the bird. He thus places man (the sacrificer).) Footnotes ^193:1 Having recited the verses which form the body. 5.8. That hymn takes the place of the stomach which receives the food intended for the bird. The second verse has seven feet. animals on four. wings. the hymn composed by Vasa. Ar. 4 it is called a Nivid. 5.). Cf. head. In I. 46. Trishtubh is strength. &c. the two supports with broad bones.e. 47 . he now describes the Vasa hymn. Ait. and he thus puts together speech with Brahman. also the food intended for the bird.' i. VIII. 10. AITAREYA-ARANYAKA.

who says that verse 15 is Dvipada. he inserts a Nivid [*2] (between the fourth and fifth verses). Thus he clearly places strength in himself (in the sastra. Ira an Ekapada there should be Om at the beginning and at the end. Thus let him know that day as having three Nivids. and the Nivid itself is a Nivid. They are Trishtubhs and Gagatis. AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. There they say: 'Why does he insert a Nivid among mixed Trishtubhs and Gagatis [*1]?' But surely one metre would never support the Nivid of this day. 2. Ait. 2. form an Ekapada. 5. 48 . so that they should come right as Asvalayana has prescribed the recitation of Dvipada and Ekapada verses. 50). V.^193:4 According as the metres of the different verses are fixed by Saunaka.e. nor fill it: therefore he inserts the Nivid among mixed Trishtubhs and Gagatis. FIFTH ADHYAYA. in himself). Ar. SECOND KHANDA. nunam atha. Let him know that this day has three Nivids: the Vasa hymn is a Nivid. in the bird. When he recites the Nishkevalya hymn addressed to Indra (Rv. 4. In a Dvipada there should be a stop after the first foot. i. X. pra vo mahe. 3. 1. and Om at the end o f the second. the Valakhilyas [*2] are a Nivid. ^193:5 According to rule. and that the last four words. FIRST ARANYAKA.

and may I thus finish the whole work of metres [*1]. X. Speech therefore. 7. so many years do they live beyond the (usual) age (of one hundred years). taken from the ten Mandalas and addressed to Indra. wishing that cattle may always come to his offspring. There are seven pranas (openings) in the head. Then follow the hymns vane na va (Rv. Then he recites the Ekapada (indro visvam vi ragati). wishing. By this insertion age is obtained. May my speech never be intertwined with the other pranas. as they insert (between the two above-mentioned hymns). after changing them into Brihatis. and he thinks. 10. though AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. and the hymn leads to welfare. 12). 6. Thus (by reciting the hymn) he fares well [*5]. As many Trishtubh and Gagati verses [*3]. Then comes an insertion. Tarkshya is verily welfare. 8. The eighth verse (half-verse) he does not intertwine [*3]. 29) and yo gata eva (Rv. I. and he thus places seven pranas in the head. In the fourth verse of the former hymn occur the words anne samasya yad asan manishah. 9. Then he recites the Tarkshya hymn [*4].5. and they serve for the winning of proper food. In reciting the hymn indram visva avivridhan (Rv. 11) he intertwines the first seven verses by intertwining their feet [*2]. II. After that he recites the Saganiya hymn. 49 . The eighth is speech. May I be everything at once.

' Thus wherever Brahmanic speech is uttered. This day also is the end (of the sacrifice which lasts a whole year) [*6]. May I be Vasishtha! 13. Verily.dwelling in the same abode as the other pranas. Virag verses are food. 16. esha stomo maha ugraya vahe. dhuh (the place where the horse is fastened to the car) is the end (of the car). AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. and they thus serve for the gaining of food. which. In the second foot of the fifth verse the word dhuri occurs. Thus the verse is fit for the day. 11. 50 . Therefore let a man who knows this. Comm. ^195:1 According to the Prakriti of the Agnishtoma they ought to be all Trishtubhs. Comm. wishing. Footnotes ^194:1 He repeats the Sudadohas verse no more. there his glory will be. is auspicious. 12. possessing the word mahat. when he who knows this finishes with that verse. is not intertwined with them. 15. But let him end with the fifth verse. Verily. In the third foot the word arka is auspicious. He ends with the hymn of Vasishtha [*5]. ^194:2 Sentences like indro devah somam pibatu. He recites the Virag verses [*4]. The last foot is: 'Make our glory high as heaven over heaven. finish (the Nishkevalya) with that verse. 14.

recites this hymn. 51 .^195:2 These hymns occur in the eighty Brihati tristichs. 3. He who knows this rests firm. 5. V. ^195:3 From the Samhita. 178. rest on this atonement as their rest. ^196:5 Rv. 82. On that day [*3] much is done now and then which has to be hidden. which consists of ten thousand verses. 82. taken from the Ekaha ceremonial and therefore proper [*2]. I. 1. and so on. and has to be atoned for. 13 ^196:1 The Ekapada forms the last metre in this ceremony. Comm. FIFTH ADHYAYA. Comm. 1-3) and adya no deva savitar (Rv. FIRST ARANYAKA. 1-6. 2. VII. Tat savitur vrinimahe (Rv. Comm. ^196:4 Rv. AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. it is called Tarkshya. 22. and they also for whom a Hotri priest who knows this. the fourth foot of the first verse with the second foot of the second verse. V. Therefore at the end of the year the sacrificers. ^196:3 Because nothing more follows. X. the one-day sacrifice. Atonement is rest. Comm. for instance. Tarksha Garuda being the deity of the hymn. VII. 24. THIRD KHANDA [*1]. 4-6) are the beginning (pratipad) and the next step (anukara) of the Vaisvadeva hymn. ^195:5 Cf. Of the remaining fourteen half-verses he joins. ^196:6 The last day is the udayaniyatiratra. ^196:2 The first and last half-verses of the hymn are not to be intertwined. ^195:4 Rv.

I. I.3. 9. Verily. IV. The hymn katara purva katara parayoh (Rv. and therefore proper. Thus it is fit for the day. 7. 89). This day too is the end. I. The hymn asya vamasya palitasya hotuh (Rv. IV. AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. is multiform. Thus the verse is fit for the day. and has to be atoned for. The hymn a no bhadrah kratavo yantu visvatah (Rv. This day also is the end (of the sacrifice). taken from the Ekaha ceremonial. I. great. The hymn anasvo gato anabhisur ukthyah (Rv. (in this foot) is the end [*4]. beginning with gaurir mimaya (Rv. 5. This day also is multiform [*3]. this day also (the mahavrata) is one in which many receive the same reward [*1]. 53). tad devasya savitur varyam mahat (Rv. 164). 4. mahat. the one-day sacrifice. On that day much is done now and then which has to be hidden. forms the Nividdhana. He recites the end of it. addressed to the Visvedevas. 164. addressed to the Visvedevas. is one in which many verses have the same ending. 41). 10. 185). Thus the verse is fit for the day. 6. 8. addressed to Dyavaprithivi. and trivat [*2] is verily the end. Thus the verse is fit for the day. In the first verse the word tri (kakrah) occurs. 52 . Verily. Atonement is rest. 36) is addressed to the Ribhus. Then (follows) the hymn addressed to Savitri.

2. 99. 12. this day also (the mahavrata) is one in which many receive the same reward. The hymn vaisvanaraya dhishanam ritavridhe (Rv. is one in which many verses have the same ending. I. The verses to be used for the Vaisvadeva hymn are prescribed in those normal sacrifices. the Agnishtoma Ekaha. is verily the end. 11. He who knows this rests firm. Footnotes ^197:1 After finishing the Nishkevalya of the noon-libation. 1. 13. I. recites this hymn. Thus it is fit for the day [*1]. ^197:3 Cf.Therefore at the end of the year the sacrificers rest on this atonement as their rest. The hymn prayagyavo maruto bhragadrishtayah (Rv. ^197:2 The norm of the Mahavrata is the Visvagit. Dhishana. I. Verily. AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. and they also for whom a Hotri priest who knows this. and leads to welfare. 53 . He recites the verse gatavedase sunavama somam (Rv. Ait. Thus it is fit for the day. is one in which many verses have the same ending. thought. That verse addressed to Gatavedas is verily welfare. this day also is one in which many receive the same reward. 2) forms the beginning of the Agnimaruta. he explains the vaisvadevasastra of the third libation. Verily. and are here adopted. 55). this day also is the end. 1). 14. III. before the (next following) hymn. it is fit for the day. addressed to Gatavedas. Thus (by reciting it) he fares well [*2]. The hymn imam stomam arhate gatavedase (Rv. addressed to Gatavedas. 2. and the norm of that. V. 94). addressed to the Maruts. Ar. yea. Thus it is fit for the day.

14.^197:4 Nothing higher than the great can be wished for or obtained. Ar. II. For these a knowledge of Brahman is intended. sometimes Mahaitareya-upanishad. ^199:2 Cf. Comm. 5. It comprises the second and third Aranyakas. p. ^198:3 Consisting of Vedic hymns and dances. 5. SECOND ARANYAKA. The character of the three component portions of the Upanishad can best be described in Sankara's own words (Ar. as before the dhuh. ^199:1 Cf. in addition to the usual two wheels. section 4. III. FIRST KHANDA. 4-6. Their general title is Bahvrikaupanishad. or three Upanishads. Cf. ^198:2 The third wheel. Cf. Comm. and may be said to consist of three divisions. 54 . I. FIRST ADHYAYA. The middle class are those who wish to become free gradually by attaining to the world of Hiranyagarbha. forms the end of a carriage. I. I. section 12. The highest consists of those who have turned away from the world. ^198:1 All who perform the ceremony obtain Brahman. as taught in the Ait. 1. 306): 'There are three classes of men who want to acquire knowledge. 8. For AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. while the Upanishad generally known as. and 6th adhyayas only of the second Aranyaka. whose minds are fixed on one subject and collected. &c. Introd. 2. Aitareya-upanishad comprises the 4th. This day also is the end. 5th. WITH the second Aranyaka the Upanishad begins. and who yearn to be free at once. 2.

Afterwards arises a desire for knowledge. and. 1-3. as it is sometimes translated. as explained in the third Aranyaka. Brahmanas. They cling too strongly to the letter of the sacred text to be able to surrender it for a knowledge either of Prana (life) or of Brahman. II.. 'consists in performing sacrifices. 55 . to a certain extent. In order to acquire that concentration. 1. Still we soon perceive that it would be impossible to understand the first Upanishad. The lowest class consists of those who do not care either for immediate or gradual freedom.' The connexion between the Upanishad or rather the three Upanishads and the first Aranyaka seems at first sight very slight.' This meditation or. II. 'Our first duty. Ar. in the Aranyakas also.' he says. such as we find described in our Upanishad. cattle. in Ar. Pratikopasana or meditation on symbols consists in AITAREYA-ARANYAKA.them the knowledge and worship of Prana (breath and life) is intended. For these the meditative worship of the Samhita is intended. IV. Brahmopasana or meditation on Brahman consists in thinking of him as distinguished by certain qualities. the performance of certain upasanas or meditations is enjoined. but who desire nothing but offspring. worship is of two kinds. as explained in the Ait. the Samhitas. without a previous knowledge of the Mahavrata ceremony as described in the first Aranyaka. viz. On this point too there are some pertinent remarks in Sankara's commentary on the Aranyaka II. which cannot be satisfied except a man has first attained complete concentration of thought (ekagrata). 2. &c. either brahmopasana or pratikopasana. such as are described in the first portion of the Veda.

the same explanation may be adopted by another Sakha also. and this Brahman. nor is even the time of the sacrifice the only right time for him to engage in these meditations. as described in the first Aranyaka. viz. In order that the mind may not be entirely absorbed by the sacrifice. it is lifted up during the performance from the consideration of these sacrificial objects to a meditation on higher objects. such as that of the Kaushitakins. with certain portions of the Mahavrata. In our Upanishad we have to deal with the former class only. in order thus to withdraw the mind from the too powerful influence of external objects. but it is left optional to the priest in what particular meditation he wishes to engage. leading up at last to Brahman as prana or life. Let no man swerve from it. This meditation is to be performed by the priests. however. a certain hymn has been symbolically explained. 2. and while they meditate they may meditate on a hymn or on a single word of it as meaning something else. AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. This is the path: this sacrifice. 1.looking upon certain worldly objects as if they were Brahman. It is not necessary. as in that of the Aitareyins. the earth. but not vice versa. either connected with sacrifice or not. These objects. 56 . for instance. such as the sun. or the sky. This is the true [*1]. that every part of the sacrifice should be accompanied by meditation. are of two kinds. And if in one Sakha. let no man transgress it. thus lifted up into symbols of Brahman.

or the ends of the earth). When he says: 'The blowing entered the Harits.' the great one in the midst of the world is meant for this Aditya. When he says: 'The great stood in the midst of the worlds. born again) as birds. 57 . AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. This has been declared by a Rishi (Rv. trees. 101. When he says: 'Three (classes of) people transgressed.' he means that Vayu.3. When he says: 'Others settled down round about the venerable. the air. herbs. Works or sacrifices have been described in the Samhita.' 5. consisting of works and knowledge. others settled down round about the venerable (Agni. Footnotes ^201:1 Comm. air) entered the Harits (the dawns. the purifier. 8. the sun. fire). entered all the corners of the earth [*2]. the great (sun) stood in the midst of the worlds. 7.' he means those who now sit down to worship Agni (fire). and the first Aranyaka. 6. Knowledge of Brahman forms the subject of the second and third Aranyakas. 14): 'Three (classes of) people transgressed. became lost. 4. VIII. The path is twofold. The true path is that of knowledge. For the old (sages) did not transgress it. and those who did transgress. the Brahmana. the blowing (Vayu. and serpents [*1].' the three (classes of) people who transgressed are what we see here (on earth.

The object of its praise is Aditya (the sun). worships Agni. 2. and men drive following the sky. People say: 'Uktha. and other gods. hymns! (without knowing what uktha. for by means of food one obtains everything. irapadah is explained by urahpadah sarpah. In Anandatirtha's commentary vayamsi are explained by Pisaka. hymn [*3]. for the birds fly along the sky. for from its gift (rain) all whatsoever exists arises. 1. 5. and the eighty verses (of the hymn) are food. FIRST ADHYAYA. uktha. for from it all whatsoever exists arises. now with reference to man (physiological). for by means of food one obtains everything. SECOND KHANDA.' hymns. Vayu. The object of its praise is Agni (fire). full of faith and desirous of reaching the highest world. like Vanga. and the eighty verses are food. 58 . for by means of food one obtains everything. ^202:2 Three classes of men go to Naraka (hell).^202:1 Vangah is explained by vanagata vrikshah. avagadhah is explained by vrihiyavadya oshadhayah. So much with reference to the gods (mythological). 4. AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. the fourth class. Vanavagadhas by Rakshasa. and Irapadas by Asuras. The hymn is truly the heaven. 3. SECOND ARANYAKA. Kera. and the eighty verses (of the hymn) are food. &c.) The hymn is truly (to be considered as) the earth. Comm. Possibly they are all old ethnic names. The object of its praise is Vayu (air). means. The hymn is truly the sky.

The hymn is his mouth. The eighty verses (of the hymn) are alike food with reference to the gods as well as with reference to man. 9. with reference to the gods as well as with reference to man. and the eighty verses (of the hymn) are food. The hymn is the forehead. 14. The object of its praise is speech. He is great. 13. and the eighty verses (of the hymn) are food. For all these beings breathe and live by means of food indeed.) he conquers this world. I am the hymn. for by means of food he obtains everything. by food (given in sacrifice) he conquers the other. is only the earth. for by means of food he obtains everything. Let him think. Therefore the eighty verses (of the hymn) are alike food. as before in the case of the earth. 8. 11. and the eighty verses (of the hymn) are food. All this that is food. By food (given in alms. 10. 12. &c. The object of its praise is the eye. as before in the case of heaven. the place of the brilliant (Aditya. for from the earth arises all whatever there is. 59 . The object of its praise is breath. The hymn is the nostrils.6. as it were. The hymn is truly man. and all this that consumes food. the sun). The slight bent (at the root) of the nose is. as before in the case of the sky. AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. for by means of food he obtains everything. he is Pragapati. 7.

as connected with the sacrifice. or. But while the ordinary performer of the Mahavrata has simply to recite the uktha or nishkevalya-sastra. of everything. while his servants live by him. not. nostrils. remains in his limited individual sphere. or the things which do not eat him [*2]. the highest Brahman. That earth is thus both food and consumer. 60 . The last sentence is explained differently by the commentator. though intended by the Brahmans to give a deeper meaning to certain ceremonial observances connected with the Mahavrata. 203] The object is now to show that the uktha or hymn used at the Mahavrata ceremony has a deeper meaning than it seems to have.15. 205] performed on the last day but one (the twenty-fourth) of the Gavamayana sacrifice. uttishthaty anena devataprasada iti vyutpatteh. The uktha. [p. consisting of eighty verses (trika) in the Gayatri. does not possess what he cannot eat (perceive). and all that goes thence (returns from heaven to a new life) the earth consumes it all. Comm. is part of the Mahavrata. I doubt whether. ^204:2 I have translated these paragraphs. or what cannot eat him (perceive him). according to the commentator. which is to be meditated on. and forehead. at least. ^204:1 As a master who lives by his servants. and is to meditate on it as being the earth. as the text expresses it. but Brahman considered as life (prana). and that its highest aim is Brahman. and Ushnih metres. Brihati. also as the human body. either in the original or in the interpretation of the commentator. and thus to become the universal spirit or Hiranyagarbha. while another sacrificer. the more advanced worshipper (or priest) is to know that this uktha has a deeper meaning. heaven. The worshipper is in fact to identify himself by meditation with the uktha in all its senses. the subject and object. sky. He also (the true worshipper who meditates on himself as being the uktha) is both consumer and consumed (subject and object [*1]). No one possesses that which he does not eat. heaven consumes it all. they yield any very definite sense. vague. not knowing this. or hymn. explains uktha as that from whence the favour of the gods arises. and its performance has been fully described in the Brahmanas and Aranyakas. By this process he becomes the consumer and consumed. as much as possible. That sacrifice lasts a whole year. to be [p. an important ceremony. mouth. Footnotes ^202:3 The Comm. to us. They are vague speculations. 16. And all that goes hence (dies on earth). however. but in AITAREYA-ARANYAKA.

The seed of rain are herbs. The seed of food is seed. The seed of speech is action (sacrifice). THIRD KHANDA.connexion with the whole passage it seems to me to become more intelligible. Next follows the origin of seed. Footnotes ^205:1 Play on words. The seed of Pragapati are the Devas (gods). He who knows this becomes golden in the other world. The action done (in a former state) is this man. if interpreted as I have proposed to interpret it. 2. and because he consists of food (iramaya). He (man) consists of food (ira). The seed of seed are creatures. AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. The seed of the heart is the mind. he consists of gold (hiranmaya [*1]). 61 . and is seen as golden (as the sun) for the benefit of all beings. The seed of herbs is food. 1. FIRST ADHYAYA. The seed of creatures is the heart. The seed of the Devas is rain. SECOND ARANYAKA. Comm. the abode of Brahman. The seed of the mind is speech (Veda).

Both (these places) are Brahman indeed [*3]. 62 . Then these delights alighted in the head. But Brahman crept upwards and came to the head. therefore the head is called head [*4]. therefore people call them the tips of the feet (prapada). why the head is called head. hearing. 7. and therefore they were (called) [*1] the thighs (uru). FIRST ADHYAYA. Then Brahman crept up higher. breath. 3. Then he said: 'Make room for me. FOURTH KHANDA. but hoofs and claws in other animals. 5. Delights alight on him who thus knows. 2. sight. the Arunis on the heart [*2]. 6.SECOND ARANYAKA. and because Brahman entered (prapadyata) into that man by the tips of his feet. and because he came to the head.' and that was (called) the belly (udara). 4. 8. speech. breath) entered into that man by the tips of his feet. mind. AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. 1. Then he said: 'Grasp wide. Brahman (in the shape of prana. The Sarkarakshyas meditate on the belly as Brahman.' and that was (called) the chest (uras).

then on whose entrance this body shall rise again. eating and drinking. yet the body without seeing remained. Hearing went out. Sight went out. eating and drinking. I am the uktha.' 10. then the evil enemy who hates him decays. then when breath was gone out. he shall be the uktha among us. eating and drinking. 'let us enter that body again. saying: 'I am the uktha. Breath went out. It was decayed. 13.' 'Well. yet the body. 'let us all go out from this body. I am the uktha [*5].' they said. saying: 'I am the uktha (hymn). yet the body without hearing remained. They strove again. yet the body without speaking remained. then on whose departure this body shall fall.' 'Well. it decayed. or the evil enemy who hates him is defeated. These (five delights or senses) strove together. as if blinking.' they said.' AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. he shall be the uktha among us [*1].9. eating and drinking. the body fell. 12. 11. Speech went out. and because people said. 63 . therefore it was (called) body (sarira). remained. If a man knows this. That is the reason of its name. Mind went out.

' 18. Kaush. 6. Brih. forehead were to be identified with the uktha. VI. Prasna Up. V. Up. because he hied up to the head. but the body lay still. as if we were to say. but the body lay still. Comm. the body rose. III. mouth. 2.14. 64 . Up. V. Breath entered. 12-14. III. This has also been said by a Rishi (Rv. ^207:1 Cf.' Footnotes ^206:1 These are all plays on words. as it was said before that the human body. ^206:3 The pluti in tazi is explained as sastriyaprasiddhyartha. Let people know that breath is the uktha indeed. 1. ^206:5 Each wished to be identified with the uktha. Up. Up. Mind entered. 92. II. Speech entered. 1. 16. Kh. but the body lay still. 15. ^206:2 This does not appear to be the case either in the Kh. ^206:4 All puns. 15. Therefore breath alone is the uktha. VIII. Hearing entered. we are thine. 1. and it became the uktha. therefore the head was called head. Kaush. Cf. Sight entered. nostrils. 3. 32): 'Thou art ours. 1. 17. or in the Satapatha-brahmana X. Up. The Devas (the other senses) said to breath: 'Thou art the uktha. 17. and when breath had entered. thou art all this. AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. thou art ours. II. we are thine. but the body lay still.

dark. Day. That breath is (to be called) sattya (the true).' then it was in the morning. &c. as entered into the body [*3]. 5. and being carried forth. it being white. sight that Aditya (sun). therefore. but their (phenomenal) appearance yonder is among the deities--this was intended. 2. These deities (Agni. 65 . without being constrained. when they said. To him who knows this all creatures. FIRST ADHYAYA. who knew this (and who by his knowledge had become Hiranyagarbha or the universal spirit). the union of the deities as sent forth. offer gifts. for sat is breath. mind the moon. night the breathing down [*1]. yam is the sun [*1]. 1. This is it. This is threefold. the union of the deities. hearing the Dis (quarters): this is the prahitam samyoga [*2]. Speech is Agni. is the breathing up. and the pupil. said: 'Whatever they do not give to me. 3. And Hiranyadat Vaida also.) are thus in the body. ti is food. 'He was stretched out. He who knows why AITAREYA-ARANYAKA.' I know the prahitam samyoga.' then it was in the evening. and threefold the eye also may be called. they do not possess themselves. 4. 'He is gone to rest. he was stretched out.Then the Devas carried him (the breath) forth.SECOND ARANYAKA. FIFTH KHANDA. and when people said.

which is the uktha. which is the worshipper. 225. Prahitoh samyoganam is the name of a Saman. FIRST ADHYAYA. People carry him who knows this. 6. however. the AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. For yam. and that this is called the prahitam samyogah. ^209:1 Cf. As Devas or gods they appear each in its own place. as if they were bound by a rope. placed. time. and by his names as by knots.true is true (why sattya is sattya). unless it refers to some other word. speech. the Ushnih verse forms the hairs. For dadyuh one expects dadyat. SIXTH KHANDA. possibly incorrect. 66 . pratar being derived from pratayi. III. and that therefore he might say that whatever was not surrendered to him did not really belong to anybody. The real object. The whole passage is very obscure. Footnotes ^208:1 All these are plays on words. is endowed with certain qualities. Thus by his speech as by a rope. Up. viz. It is probably formed from hi. and the Dis proceed from their own places to dwell together in the body of man. Kh. Prahit is explained as prahita. 3. Of the body of the breath thus meditated on. Moon. sayam from samagat. yet what he says is true. 5. 2. 209] through meditation acquired identity with the universal spirit. Stud. even if he should speak falsely. the Trishtubh the flesh. VIII. see Ait. &c. Agni. sent. and with speech he calls everything. not from dha. On Hiranyadat. 3. the names the knots [*2]. the Gayatri the skin. III. that the four deities. we expect yan. For all this are names indeed. all this is bound. ^208:2 The meaning is. Brahm. Speech is his (the breath's) rope. 1. Aditya. is to show that breath. SECOND ARANYAKA. Ind. What is intended is that Hiranyadat had [p. ^208:3 All this is extremely obscure.

the Pankti the marrow. metres). the breath. He says. AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. for he guards everything. is returning constantly in the midst of the worlds. He says: 'Coming and going on his ways. 'He is returning constantly in the midst of the worlds. therefore they call them khandas (coverings. 9. the verses cover him in whatever place he likes against any evil deed. This is said by a Rishi (Rv.' because the breath comes and goes on his ways. 5. illuminating the principal and intermediate quarters of the sky. metres).' because he returns indeed constantly in the midst of the worlds. That breath (in the body. 4. is a guardian. He says: 'Never tiring. the Brihati the breath [*3] (prana). never tiring. 8.' because he. He is covered with the verses (khandas. being identified with the sun among the Devas).' because the breath never rests. Because he is thus covered with verses. 164. 13):-6.Anushtubh the muscles. the principal and intermediate quarters of the sky. 7. 'I saw (the breath) as a guardian. He says: 'Illuminating the principal and intermediate. I. the Gagati the bone. coming and going on his ways (the arteries). 67 . 10.' He says: 'I saw a guardian.' because he illuminates these only. If a man knows the reason why khandas are called khandas.

13. so long does his world not decay who thus knows this power of speech. 55. As far as the earth reaches. and as this ether is supported by breath as Brihati. SECOND ARANYAKA. 3. speech. This ether is supported by breath as Brihati. AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. For all this is covered indeed by breath. and Agni (fire) makes them ripe and sweet. are supported by breath as Brihati. 1. 68 . take this. and as long as the world of the earth and fire does not decay. I. there is another verse (Rv. FIRST ADHYAYA.' thus saying do earth and fire serve their parent. And then.11. Comm. 2. not excepting ants. Herbs are produced on the earth. so one should know that all things. Footnotes ^209:2 The rope is supposed to be the chief rope to which various smaller ropes are attached for fastening animals. not as the deity.' 12. 'Take this. 81): 'They are covered like caves by those who make them. By his speech earth and fire were created. SEVENTH KHANDA. Next follow the powers of that Person [*1]. as far as fire reaches. ^209:3 Here conceived as the air breathed. so far does his world extend.

and as long as the world of the quarters and the moon does not decay. By breath (in the nose) the sky and the air were created. Thus do the heaven and the sun serve their parent. From all the quarters they come to him. so far does his world extend. so long does his world not decay who thus knows the power of the eye. People follow the sky. the eye. while the sun causes his light to shine. 6. As far as the quarters reach and as far as the moon reaches. so long does his world not decay who thus knows this power of breath. so far does his world extend. the breath. and as long as the world of heaven and the sun does not decay. 69 . and hear along the sky. so far does his world extend. and from all the quarters he hears. while the air carries along pure scent. 5. As far as heaven reaches and as far as the sun reaches. so long does his world not decay who thus knows the power of the ear.4. Thus do the quarters and the moon serve their parent. By his eye heaven and the sun were created. Heaven gives him rain and food. while the moon produces for him the bright and the dark halves for the sake of sacrificial work. the ear. AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. As far as the sky reaches. as far as the air reaches. Thus do sky and air serve their parent. and as long as the world of the sky and the air does not decay. By his ear the quarters and the moon were created.

that (the world) was the shoot (effect).7. Whatever there is belonging to the son. Water yields to him faith (being used for sacred acts). the sky. all this was water indeed. who knew this. said: 'I know myself (reaching) as far as the gods. so far does his world extend. and as long as the world of water and Varuna does not decay. belongs to the son. whatever there is belonging to the father. This was intended [*2]. Mahidasa Aitareya. FIRST ADHYAYA. they (earth. The manifestations of his power consist in creating the earth. This (water) was the root (cause). He (the person) is the father. SECOND ARANYAKA. Was it water really? Was it water? Yes. fire. the sun. heaven. as described before in the second chapter. Thus do water and Varuna serve their parent. the air. 2. the mind. fire. As far as water reaches and as far as Varuna reaches. 70 . belongs to the father. Footnotes ^210:1 The purusha. EIGHTH KHANDA [*1] 1. &c.) are the sons. Varuna keeps his offspring within the law. so long does his world not decay who thus knows the power of the mind. is the Pragapati or universal spirit with whom the worshipper is to identify himself by meditation. By his mind the water and Varuna were created. and I know the gods (reaching) as far as me. For AITAREYA-ARANYAKA.

these gods receive their gifts from hence. and breath. 9. the breath. 4. throws down the evil enemy who hates him. and thus they became great beings. He (the Prana.) worshipped him (prana) as Bhuti or being. breathes like bhurbhuh. And this has been said by a Rishi (Rv. 164. and not-being (when the givatman departs). 8. I.' 3. They call it the mountain of Brahman. eye. The Asuras worshipped him as Abhuti or not being. 10. And therefore even now a man who sleeps. and thus they were defeated. speech. 71 . and are supported from hence. He who knows this. 5. becomes great by himself. while the evil enemy who hates him. This is the mountain [*1]. He (the breath) is death (when he departs). the evil enemy who hates him is defeated. &c. viz. 7. ear. 6. He who knows this. identified with Brahman) is the life. and immortality (while he abides). The Devas (speech. he is being (while the givatman remains). mind. 38):-- AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. is defeated.

therefore water. he now discusses the question of the material cause of the world out of which it was created. are one. is explained by the commentator to mean here the five elements. being immortal. yea. and the earth. fire. Again a mere play of words. 13. 'Downwards and upwards he (the wind of the breath) goes. the breath. and earth. the body dying and remaining on earth). because it is swallowed or hidden by the other senses (giranat). He who knows this becomes immortal in that world (having become united with Hiranyagarbha). fire. and is seen as immortal (in the sun) by all beings. 'The immortal dwells with the mortal. to signify cause and effect. the bodies being clearly mortal. &c. ^212:2 Cause and effect are not entirely separated.. but they do not increase the other. They increase the one (the body). &c. as its effect. 72 . as the elementary cause. and his companions or servants created the world.' i. which is said to be the material of the world. 14. intended to show that Brahman under the form of Prana. Water.'--for this up-breathing.11. does not move forward (and leave the body altogether). as the father. as described above. but this being (the breath). e. being held back by the downbreathing. as his sons. the body supporting the senses of the breath: the former going upwards to another world.'--for through him (the breath) all this dwells together. is to be meditated on. Mula and tula. Footnotes ^212:1 Having described how Prana. ^213:1 Prana is called the girih. or life. likewise the worshipper. are evidently chosen for the sake of the rhyme. AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. 12. 'These two (body and breath) go for ever in different directions (the breath moving the senses of the body. but this being (breath) is immortal. root and shoot. held by food. by all beings. they increase these bodies (by food).

He as up-breathing is the swallower (gritsa). 3. honoured this world (the body of the worshipper. therefore there is AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. in the form of man [*2] (the worshipper who meditates on breath). therefore there are a hundred years in the life of a man. SECOND ADHYAYA [*1]. FIRST KHANDA. Therefore people call him who is really Prana (breath). by entering into it). Because he honoured him during a hundred years.SECOND ARANYAKA. He (breath) placed himself in the midst of all whatsoever exists. Of him. He (the sun). He honoured this (body of the worshipper) during a hundred years. Therefore people call him who is really Prana (breath). Because of him all (visvam) this whatsoever was a friend (mitram). as down-breathing he is delight (mada). called) the Madhyamas. Gritsamada. Because as up-breathing he is swallower (gritsa) and as down-breathing delight (mada). the Satarkin poets [*1]. called) Gritsamada. called) the Satarkin. (having honour for a hundred years. 73 . 1.) Therefore people call him who is really Prana (breath). therefore there are (the poets of the first Mandala of the Rig-veda. 2. therefore there are (the poets of the second to the ninth Mandala of the Rig-veda. (breath) all this whatsoever was a friend. 4. therefore there is (the poet of the second Mandala of the Rig-veda. who shines. For he who shines (the sun) is (the same as) the breath. Because he placed himself in the midst of all whatsoever exists. the Madhyama poets.

' Because the Devas said of him. AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. 6.(the poet of the third Mandala of the Rig-veda. conceived as Prana (life). ^215:1 The real ground for the name is that the poets of the first Mandala composed on an average each about a hundred Rik. Footnotes ^214:1 In the first adhyaya various forms of meditating on Uktha. They are of interest. that he was to be loved (vama) by all of them. however. Vamadeva. therefore there is (the poet of the fourth Mandala of the Rig-veda.) said to him (the breath): 'He is to be loved by all of us. called) Atrayah. ^214:2 The identity of the sun and of breath as living in man has been established before. divided and arranged as we now possess them. at the time when this Aranyaka was composed. Therefore people call him who is really Prana (breath). In the second some other forms of meditation. have been declared. are added. Therefore people call him who is really Prana (breath). Visvamitra. therefore there are (the poets of the fifth Mandala of the Rig-veda. Therefore people call him who is really Prana (breath). conceived either adhidaivatam (mythological) or adhyatmam (physiological). called) Vamadeva. verses. Atrayah. It is the same power in both. The Devas (speech. as showing the existence of the hymns of the Rig-veda. 5. called) Visvamitra. He (breath) guarded all this whatsoever from evil. all extremely fanciful. 74 . &c. Because he guarded (atrayata) all this whatsoever from evil.

therefore there are (the hymns and also the poets [*1] of the ninth Mandala of the Rig-veda.' Because the Devas said of him. 4. Because he went forth toward all this whatsoever. 1. Therefore people call him who is really Prana (breath).SECOND ARANYAKA. Therefore people call him who is really Prana (breath). He (breath) purified all this whatsoever. The Devas (speech. called) the Pragathas.) said to him: 'He it is who chiefly causes us to dwell on earth. called) Bharadvaga. SECOND KHANDA. Therefore people call him who is really Prana (breath). therefore there is (the poet of the sixth Mandala of the Rig-veda.' Therefore there were (the hymns and also the poets of AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. Bharadvaga. small (kshudra) and great (mahat). Because he purified all this whatsoever. that he chiefly caused them to dwell on earth. &c. and this became the Kshudrasuktas and Mahasuktas. Because he supports it. the Pavamanis. 75 . Offspring is vaga. SECOND ADHYAYA [*1]. the Pragathas. therefore there is (the poet of the seventh Mandala of the Rig-veda. Therefore people called him who is really Prana (breath). called) Vasishtha. therefore there are (the poets of the eighth Mandala of the Rig-veda. He (breath) is likewise a Bibhradvaga (bringer of offspring). 3. He (breath) said: 'Let me be everything whatsoever. and he (breath) supports offspring. 5. called) the Pavamanis. 2. He (breath) went forth towards [*2] all this whatsoever. Vasishtha [*1].

Therefore people call him who is really Prana (breath). called) the Kshudrasuktas (and Mahasuktas). 76 . Therefore people call him who is really Prana (breath). Sukta [*2]. for he did honour to all places (ardha) [*4]. 10. 6. therefore there was the Pada (word). and without him no one can pour out (atiksharati) gifts. He (breath) is an Ardharka (half-verse). Rik. 9. Pada. 8. Akshara [*2]. He (breath) said once: 'You have said what is well said (su-ukta) indeed. Because he did honour to all places.the tenth Mandala of the Rig-veda. 7. Therefore people call him who is really Prana (breath).' Therefore there was the Sukta. Therefore people call him who is really Prana (breath). This became a Sukta (hymn). Because he did honour to all beings. AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. Ardharka. He (breath) is a Pada (word) [*1]. Therefore people call him who is really Prana (breath). for he got into all these beings. He (breath) is a Rik (verse). therefore there was the Ardharka. Therefore people call him who is really Prana (breath). therefore there was the Rik verse. the Kshudrasuktas (and Mahasuktas). Therefore there was the Akshara (syllable). He (breath) is an Akshara (syllable). for he did honour [*3] to all beings (by entering into them). for he pours out (ksharati) gifts to all these beings. Because he got (padi) into all these beings.

Comm. The same etymology is repeated in the commentary on II. and probably with the intention of the author. Arsheya-brahmana. Footnotes ^216:1 I translate in accordance with the commentator.) Cf. taddrashtapi suktanamako 'bhut. It would be more natural to take vasishtha in the sense of the richest. THIRD KHANDA. SECOND ARANYAKA. Prana (breath). viz. 4. 2. Comm. ^217:4 Ardha means both half and place. Visvamitra (guessing that Indra wanted food) said to him. 77 . SECOND ADHYAYA [*1]. and the preposition abhi seems to show that the author too took that view of the etymology of pragatha. ^218:1 It may also be intended for pada. Thus all these Rik verses. all poets.11. p. ^218:2 The Prana (breath) is to be meditated on as all hymns. &c. all sounds [*3] are one word. ^217:3 I translate according to the commentator. 1. indeed. AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. Burnell.' and repeated the thousand Brihati verses [*5] By means of this he went to the delightful home of Indra (Svarga). 2. ^218:3 All aspirated sonant consonants. all words. ^217:1 It seems. foot of a verse. Comm. and the hymns of the tenth Mandala Kshudrasuktas and Mahasuktas (masc. Indra sat down near him [*4]. ed. ^216:2 This is the interpretation of the commentator. ^217:2 The poet also is called Sukta. all Vedas. 42. While Visvamitra was going to repeat the hymns of this day (the mahavrata). as if in the technical language of the Brahmans. the poets of the ninth Mandala were sometimes called Pavamanis. 'This (the verses of the hymn) is food. Let him know that Prana is all Rik verses.

' and repeated the thousand Brihati verses. thou hast come to my delightful home. 219] Though they consist of many metres. thou hast come to my delightful home. repeat a second hymn [*1]. however. The mistake is probably due to a correction. I grant thee a boon. By means of this he went to the delightful home of Indra (Svarga). [p.' Footnotes ^218:4 Upanishasasada. This is the food prepared by Visvamitra.' Visvamitra said: 'May I know thee. repeat a third hymn. AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. to ten parts of a bird. head. and thighs. as we saw. By means of this he went to the delightful home of Indra (Svarga). 'This (the verses of the hymn) is food. 3.' and repeated the thousand Brihati verses. Indra said to him: 'Rishi. are given in the first Aranyaka. left wing. sa for sha. root of wings. This food of mine (the hymn) is my friend and my support (dakshina). viz. tail. neck. Rishi. belly.2. Rishi. The verses corresponding to these ten parts. Skaro 'dhikas khandasah.' Visvamitra (guessing that Indra wanted food) said to him.' Visvamitra (guessing that Indra wanted food) said to him. 78 . thou hast come to my delightful home. chest. Indra said to him: 'Rishi. its body. Indra said to him: 'Rishi. right wing. 4. beginning with tad id asa bhuvaneshu gyeshtham.' Indra said: 'I am Prana (breath). ^218:5 These are meant for the Nishkevalya hymn recited at the noon-libation of the Mahavrata. O Rishi. the commentator. and more fully in the fifth Aranyaka by Saunaka. For it is Prana who shines as the sun. considers it as a Vedic license. instead of upanishasada. I am verily he who shines (the sun). thou art Prana. That hymn consists of ten parts. 'This (the verses of the hymn) is food. all things are Prana. and I here pervade all regions under that form. corresponding. yet.

Its consonants [*1] form its body. each consisting of thirty-six syllables.000). becomes full of knowledge. 2. with the vowels the days. full of the gods. there are 36. first as eighty Gayatri trikas. 2. This then becomes perfect as a thousand of Brihati verses. and Indra verily declared this to Bharadvaga.when one counts the syllables. its sibilants [*4] the air of the breath. 5. With the consonants they fill the nights. then as eighty Brihati trikas. 3. they give a thousand Brihati verses. full of Brahman. Therefore Indra is invoked by him as a friend [*6]. he took this name from thence [*5].000 syllables [*8]. This becomes perfect as a thousand of Brihati verses [*7]. consisting of eighty trikas. and of that hymn perfect with a thousand Brihad verses. SECOND ARANYAKA. 24). 4. the hymn is represented as three hymns. So many are also the thousands of days of a hundred years (36. after this thousand of Brihatis thus accomplished. yet as these eighty trikas were represented as three kinds of food (see Ait. 1. II. 1. FOURTH KHANDA. 79 . AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. He who knew this became Vasishtha. its voice [*2] (vowels) the Soul [*3]. full of the immortal. ^219:1 Although the Nishkevalya is but one hymn. lastly as eighty Ushnih trikas. and then goes also to the gods. He who knows this. Indra verily declared this to Visvamitra. Ar. This becomes perfect as a thousand of Brihati verses. SECOND ADHYAYA [*1].

that am I. What I am (the worshipper). explained by madhyasariram. 1): 'The sun is the self of all that moves and rests. ^220:8 Each Brihati has thirty-six syllables. Comm. I. 1. THIRD ADHYAYA [*1]. ether. 8. SECOND ARANYAKA. the fivefold uktha. 2. therefore the Rishi was called Vasishtha. Ar. For from him all this springs. Cf. ^220:6 At the Subrahmanya ceremony in the Soma sacrifices. or covers all (vasayati). ^220:5 He became Prana. let him look to that! Footnotes ^220:1 Vyanganani. 3. the invocations are. explained by aspirated sonant consonants. 115. Ait. Indra a gakkha. 7. This is the self. Ar. ^220:7 Cf. that is he (sun). explained by kadini. and fire (gyotis). hariva a gakkha. what he is. ^220:2 Ghosha. and because Prana causes all to dwell. and into him it enters AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. 2. He who knows himself as the fivefold hymn (uktha). Let him look to that.6. 80 . This has been said by a Rishi (Rv. ^220:4 Sashasahah. from whence all this springs [*2]. 8. ^220:3 Atma. These five are the earth.' 8. he is clever. II. 2. Comm. air. the emblem of Prana (breath). Ait. water. FIRST KHANDA. II.

He who knows this is over his friends. and food is never wanting. are feeders. ^221:2 Because the world is the result or reward for performing a meditation on the uktha. which can be meditated on as referring to Prana. Comm. a strong son is born. Water and earth are food. ^221:3 The digestive fire is lighted by the air of the breath. Fire and air are the feeder. for by means of them [*3] man eats all food. animals the feeder. AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. 5. the other animals are food. And to him who knows the food (object) and the feeder (subject) in that uktha. for animals eat herbs and trees. 81 . Therefore these overcome the other animals. shaped after the likeness of man. He who knows this. 3. Comm.again (at the dissolution of the world). Footnotes ^221:1 In this adhyaya some more qualities are explained belonging to the Mahavrata ceremonial and the hymns employed at it. becomes the bowl or support of his friends. for all food consists of these two. To him who knows the food and the feeder in that uktha. and food is never wanting. a strong son is born. for the eater is over the food. He who knows this. 4. Herbs and trees are food. becomes the refuge of his friends. Of them again those who have teeth above and below. 2. Ether is the bowl. life. for all this is poured into the ether.

4. They do not know what is to happen to-morrow. And in man again the self develops gradually. he knows heaven and hell. But they do not say what they have known. 2. He who knows the gradual development of the self in him (the man conceived as the uktha). 5. for in some sap (blood) is seen (as well as thought). but in others thought is not seen. There are herbs and trees and all that is animated. nor do they see what they have known. 82 . but thought (kitta) in animated beings. and he knows the self gradually developing in them. For in herbs and trees sap only is seen [*2]. SECOND KHANDA [*1]. for they are born according to their knowledge (in a former life). Footnotes AITAREYA-ARANYAKA.SECOND ARANYAKA. for he is most endowed with knowledge. nor heaven and hell. He knows what is to happen to-morrow. 1. Among animated beings again the self develops gradually. he sees what he has known [*3]. THIRD ADHYAYA [*1]. With regard to the other animals hunger and thirst only are a kind of understanding. By means of the mortal he desires the immortal--thus is he endowed. They go so far and no further. He says what he has known. obtains himself more development.

83 . Whatever he reaches. That man (conceived as uktha) is the sacrifice. and goes to the same place to see it again. mucus. the body is earth. backbreathing. are comprised under upbreathing and down-breathing. 2. 4. satta. rising beyond the whole world [*1]. they also depart with it. That sacrifice is AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. he would wish to go beyond. out-breathing. The other powers (devatas). viz. I know this. 5. breath is air. ^222:3 What he has known yesterday he remembers. 1. the apertures (of the senses) are ether. mind.^222:1 This treats of the gradual development of life in man. Comm. viz. up-breathing. Comm. That air is fivefold. That man is fivefold. If he should reach that (heavenly) world. and is able to say before men. but only being. For when breath departs. If he reaches the sky. 3. That man (conceived as uktha) is the sea. he wishes to go beyond [*2]. ^222:2 In stones there is not even sap. on-breathing. And when he has known a thing he remembers it. particularly of the development of a thinking soul (kaitanya). blood. he wishes to go beyond. SECOND ARANYAKA. and seed are water. down-breathing. hearing. sight. which is a succession now of speech and now of thought. THIRD ADHYAYA [*1]. The heat in him is fire. and speech. THIRD KHANDA.

fivefold, viz. the Agnihotra, the new and full moon sacrifices, the fourmonthly sacrifices, the animal sacrifice, the Soma sacrifice. The Soma sacrifice is the most perfect of sacrifices, for in it these five kinds of ceremonies are seen: the first which precedes the libations (the Diksha, &c.), then three libations, and what follows (the Avabhritha, &c.) is the fifth. Footnotes
^223:1 Bhuloka. Comm. ^223:2 Should it not be aty enan manyate?

SECOND ARANYAKA. THIRD ADHYAYA [*1]. FOURTH KHANDA. 1. He who knows one sacrifice above another, one day above another, one deity above the others, he is clever. Now this great uktha (the nishkevalya-sastra) is the sacrifice above another, the day above another, the deity above others [*1]. 2. This uktha is fivefold. With regard to its being performed as a Stoma (chorus), it is Trivrit, Pankadasa, Saptadasa, Ekavimsa, and Pankavimsa. With regard to its being performed as a Saman (song), it is Gayatra, Rathantara, Brihat, Bhadra, and Ragana. With regard to metre, it is Gayatri, Ushnih, Brihati, Trishtubh, and Dvipada. And the explanation (given before in the Aranyaka) is that it is the head, the right wing, the left wing, the tail, and the body of the bird [*2].



in each hymn. This, is the first round. He then sings the three middle verses in each hymn. This is the second round. He lastly sings the last three verses in each hymn. This is the third round. This song is called Udyati. The Pankadasa stoma is formed out of one Sukta only, consisting of three verses. In the first round he sings the first verse [p. 225] three times, the second and third once. In the second round he sings the middle verse three times, in the third round he sings the last verse three times. This song is called Vishtuti. The Saptadasa stoma is formed in the same manner, only that in the first round he sings the first verse three times, in the second the middle verse three times, in the third round the middle and last verses three times. This song is called Dasasapta. The Ekavimsa stoma is formed in the same manner, only that in the first round he sings the last verse once, in the second the first verse once, in the third the middle verse once, while the other verses are each repeated three times. This song is called Saptasaptini. The Pankavimsa stoma is formed in the same manner, only that in the first round he sings the first verse three times, the second four times, the last once; in the second round the first once, the second three times, the third four times; in the third round the first five times, the second once, the last three times; or he sings in the third round the first verse four times, the second twice, the last three times.



Sayana in his commentary on the Ait. Ar. takes the Trivrit stoma to be formed out of three hymns, each consisting of three verses, while he says that the other stomas are formed out of one hymn only. B. and R., sv. trivrit, state that this stoma consists of verses 1, 4, 7; 2, 5, 8; and 3, 6, 9 of the Rig-veda hymn IX, 11, but, according to Sayana, the stoma consists (1) of the first verses of the three Suktas, upasmai gayata, davidyutatya, and pavamanasya at the beginning of the Sama-veda-Uttararkika, (2) of the second, (3) Of the third verses of the same three hymns. Mahidhara (Yv. X, 9) takes the same view, though the MSS. seem to have left out the description of the second paryaya, while Sayana in his commentary to the Tandya-brahmana seems to support the opinion of B. and R. There is an omission, however, in the printed text of the commentary, which makes it difficult to see the exact meaning of Sayana. The Pankadasa stoma is well described by Sayana, Tandya Br. II, 4. Taking the Sukta agna a yahi (Uttararkika I, 1, 4 = Rv. VI, 16, 10-12), he shows the stoma to consist of (1) verse 1 * 3, 2, 3 (2) verse 1, 2 * 3, 3; (3) verse 1, 2, 3 * 3. The five Samans are explained by the commentator. The [p. 226] Gayatra is formed out of the Rik (III, 62, 10) tat savitur varenyam. The Rathantara is formed out of the Rik (VII, 32, 22) abhi tva sura nonuma. The Brihat is formed out of the Rik (VI, 46, 1) tvam id dhi havamahe. The Bhadra is formed out of the Rik (X, 57, 1) ima nu kam. The Ragana is formed out of the Rik (VII, 27, 1) indram naro nemadhita. The metres require no explanation.



Footnotes AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. 87 . That (thousand) is the whole. This (the hymns of this Sastra) as a whole (if properly counted with the Stobha syllables) comes to one thousand (of Brihati verses). &c. or by the three sets of eighty trikas). What precedes the eighty trikas. he performs the Nidhana in five ways [*1]. he performs the Pratihara in five ways. pervading everything). 4. Ten tens are a hundred. the tail to the hymns ima nu kam. recited (by the Hotri) in five orders. hundred. or musical syllables [*2]. He obtains that food by those (three numbers. ten is called the whole. &c. then follow the three sets of eighty trikas each.. &c. the head of the bird corresponds to the hymns indram id gathinah.. He performs the Prastava in five ways. For number is such (measured by ten). the body to the hymns tad id asa. &c. that is one order. All this together forms one thousand Stobhas. These are the three metres (the tens. And this food also (the three sets of hymns being represented as food) is threefold. and chewing. he performs the Udgitha in five ways. the left wing to the hymns tvam id dhi.. All this was explained in the first Aranyaka. &c. the right wing to the hymns abhi tva sura. ten.In identifying certain portions of the Nishkevalya hymn with a bird.. and what comes after is the fifth order [*3]. 3. drinking. Thus also are the Rik verses. eating. he performs the Upadrava in five ways. and that is the whole. ten hundreds are a thousand. 5. and thousand. and ten. contained in the Nishkevalya.

In singing the five Samans. ^226:3 There are in the Nishkevalya hymn. The second. See Kh. is as follows: There are three Suktas. I. as explained in the Sama-brahmana. and wings of the bird. 227] which precede these. as usual. as the emblem of the sastra. seeing. one thousand of such Stobha syllables are required. FIFTH KHANDA. 1. The first. ^226:2 The Stobha syllables are syllables without any meaning. the first being upasmai gayata. The Udgatri and Pratihartri sing their portions. consisting of the hymns which form the belly and the legs of the bird. begins with indro ya ogasa. THIRD ADHYAYA [*1]. head. each five times. five times. 13. the Udgitha and Pratihara. in order to have a support for the music. 11. The Trivrit stoma. This is one order. Then follow the three sets of eighty trikas each. form the body. when singing the Prastava portions. consisting of Brihatis. The third. and that is the most important day of the Soma sacrifice. lastly. and lastly. mind. The uktha belongs to the Mahavrata day. IX. 1. which the Hotri has to recite. And all the Udgatris together sing the Nidhana five times. V. pratihara. consisting of Gayatris. is above all other sacrifices. The Udgatri again sings the Upadrava five times. 1 = Rv. breath or life. The Prastotri. hearing. begins with ya indra somapatama. Up. Udgitha. sings them five times. five parts. and in that Saman there are. and Nidhana. This (nishkevalya-sastra) becomes perfect as a thousand of Brihati verses. AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. the fifth order. SECOND ARANYAKA. Upadrava. each consisting of three verses. three sets of eighty trikas each. 88 . the Prastava. The Soma sacrifice. speech. The hymns [p.^224:1 The uktha is to be conceived as prana. The Udgatri first sings the first three verses [*a]^224:a Hinkri with dative is explained as gai with accusative. S. ^226:1 The Samagas sing the Ragana at the Mahavrata. These three sets form the food of the bird. consisting of Ushnihs. ^224:2 All these are technicalities connected with the singing and reciting of the uktha. Uttararkika I. added when verses have to be sung. begins with ya kid anyad. and this prana was shown to be above the other powers (devatas). The commentator says: The stoma is a collection of single Rik verses occurring in the trikas which have to be sung.

2. That self (givatman) is surrounded on all sides by members. 9. For that self (consisting of Anushtubhs) is incomplete. 6. the Brihati also is on all sides surrounded by metres [*2]. rather is such a man liable to die before his time. No! he says. Some teachers (belonging to a different Sakha) recognise a thousand of different metres (not of Brihatis only). For if a man confines himself to speech. 8. 9):-5.' This is meant to say: They discovered (and meditated) in speech (called Anushtubh)--at that time (when they worshipped the uktha)--the Prana (breath) connected with Indra. They say: 'Is another thousand (a thousand of other verses) good? Let us say it is good. He (who takes the recited verses as Anushtubhs) is able to become celebrated and of good report. a thousand of Trishtubh verses. X. 124. 89 . not to breath. Let him work towards the Brihati. Some say. others a thousand of Gagati verses. for the Brihati (breath) is the complete self. then driven by his mind. AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. This has been said by a Rishi (Rv.' 3. others a thousand of Anushtubh verses. he does not succeed with speech [*1]. 4. And as that self is on all sides surrounded by members. 7. 'Poets through their understanding discovered Indra dancing an Anushtubh.

11. which is speech. For the self (in the heart) is the middle of these members. THIRD ADHYAYA [*1]. He says: 'If the Hotri priest proceeds with reciting the sastra. the activity of all the senses being dependent on breath. then. neglecting the Brihati (breath). through the mere wish of the mind. which is speech. He also would seem to have read prane na.' ^228:2 Either in the sastra.' The commentator therefore takes vagabhi for vakam abhi. SIXTH KHANDA. SECOND ARANYAKA. or for some old locative case formed by abhi. but (the other) able to die before his time. and probably corrupt. he does not by his speech obtain that sastra. Footnotes ^228:1 This passage is obscure. AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. For the smaller is contained in the larger. or in the list of metres. 90 . say the sastra. 'For that self. and driven by his mind to the Anushtubh (speech). 'He is able to become celebrated and of good report. One might translate. 1. This (nishkevalya-sastra) becomes perfect as a thousand of Brihati verses.10. and the Brihati is the middle of the metres. For the Brihati is the complete self. therefore let him work towards the Brihati (let him reckon the sastra recitation as a thousand Brihatis). others that have less syllables. looking to the Anushtubh. One might attempt another construction.' thus he said. not (if driven) by speech. and not to the thousand of Brihatis which are breath. there being some that have more. I have followed the commentator as much as possible. In this thousand of Brihatis there are one thousand one hundred and twenty-five Anushtubhs. is incomplete. For in speech without breath the Hotri cannot. though it is very doubtful. because he understands if driven to the mind by breath.

9. viz. What is true (Om) is the flower and fruit of speech. 12):-3. 91 . that is Anushtubh. 76.'--because the Brihati becomes nine-cornered (having nine feet of four syllables each). or any portion (parvan) of it. for he speaks the true (Om). 'He (the Hotri) makes the body out of Indra. 8. This Mahaduktha is the highest development of speech.'--because there are eight feet of four syllables each in the Anushtubh. 6. and therefore out of Prana as connected with Indra [*2]. 'Touching the truth.2. as a body [*3]. 7. A Saman.--'for out of this thousand of Brihati verses turned into Anushtubhs. Na is untrue. 'Of nine corners. and general remarks [*3]. He is able to become celebrated and of good report. 5. these are not measured (they are in prose). touched by the verse (Brihati) [*1]. VIII. AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. This has been said by a Rishi (Rv. true. and out of the Brihati (which is Prana). not measured. 4. and untrue. music. 'A speech of eight feet. Om is true. measured. A Rik verse. and it is fivefold. an invocation. he makes speech. is music. a gatha [*1]. a kumbya [*2] are measured (metrical).'--because speech (Anushtubh) is truth. A Yagus line. the flower and fruit of speech.

But if spoken aloud. 15. then his reputation would become evil. and manifested through different kinds of contact (mutes) and of wind (sibilants). 14. Therefore if a man says Om (yes) to everything. if spoken aloud. 12. and breath is incorporeal. and from the union of those two he grows. but guard oneself from it. 11. Therefore (if whispered) it is almost hidden. Speech if uttered in a whisper is breath. He who knows this speech of which this (the mahaduktha) is a development. A is the whole of speech. If a man says No to everything. That syllable Na (no) is full for oneself [*6]. and as a tree whose root is exposed dries up and perishes. then he would empty himself. for body is perceptible. Therefore let a man give at the proper time only. it becomes manifold and different. it is body. he is clever. If he says Om (yes) to everything. 92 . dries up and perishes. and therefore it is perceptible. That syllable Om (yes) goes forward (to the first cause of the world) and is empty. AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. thus a man who says what is untrue exposes his root. Thus he unites the true and the untrue. and that would ruin him even here. and becomes greater and greater.10. not at the wrong time. then that (which he gives away) is wanting to him here [*5]. it is body. Therefore one should not say what is untrue. 13. for what is incorporeal is almost hidden. and would not be capable of any enjoyments. Now the untrue is the root [*4] of speech.

therefore the Anushtubh is called its body. &c. explanatory passages. ^229:3 Because the Anushtubh is made out of the Brihati. e. speech. THIRD ADHYAYA [*1]. the Brihati being breath. also gossip. 3. pratah pratar anritam te vadanti. ^230:6 He who always says No. It is glory (the glorious Brahman. 1. This (nishkevalya-sastra) becomes perfect as a thousand of Brihatis. Comm. keeps everything to himself. and being joined with the Rik. such as. ^230:5 Then that man is left empty here on earth for that enjoyment. Ar. breath. or the Brihati. 93 . touches the true. breath. Prana. II. 4. ^230:1 A gatha is likewise in verse. i. &c. Comm. He who thus knows Indra as the lord of all beings.Footnotes ^229:1 Vak. not the absolute Brahman). taking the form of Anushtubh. departs from this world by loosening the bonds of life [*1]--so said Mahidasa Aitareya. brahmakaryasyaposanam karma kuru. And with regard to this they say: 'If a man obtains the other world in this form (by meditating on the prana. 2. for instance. which is to be meditated on under the form of the Brihati. such as is common in the king's palace. laughing at people. Ait. AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. Comm. SECOND ARANYAKA. Having departed he becomes Indra (or Hiranyagarbha) and shines in those worlds [*2]. Indra is the lord of all beings. divi ma svapsih. ^229:2 Cf. ^230:3 Such as arthavadas. ^230:2 A kumbya is a metrical precept. which is the uktha. it is Indra. 2. SEVENTH KHANDA. ^230:4 As diametrically opposed to the flowers and fruits which represent the true.

then in what form does he obtain this world ?' 3. Footnotes ^231:1 The commentator explains visrasa by 'merging his manhood in the identity with all. and through it with the prana (breath) and Hiranyagarbha. Thus these two grow together. Visras is the gradual loosening of the body. SECOND ARANYAKA. but here it has the meaning of vairagya rather. In this form (belonging to the woman and to fire) he goes to that world (belonging to the man and the sun). and marrow) to this self (skin. and flesh). is provisional only.the hymn of the mahavrata).' and doing this while still alive. and intended to prepare the mind of the worshipper for the reception of the highest knowledge of Brahman. blood. 1. does not [p. and in that form (belonging to man and the sun) he goes to this world (belonging to the woman and to fire ). 232] arrive at final liberation. Some hold that he who enters on this path. the shaking off of all that ties the Self to this body or this life. ^231:2 The fourteen worlds in the egg of Brahman. 94 . the decay of old age. and that self (man) gives his self (fat. Here (with regard to obtaining Hiranyagarbha) there are these Slokas: AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. show that this identification with the uktha. and marrow). Comm. therefore no one should despise it. bone. however. bone. And the seed of the man is a form of Aditya (sun). EIGHTH KHANDA. and flesh) to that self (fat. This self (the woman) gives her self (skin. blood. therefore no one should despise it. THIRD ADHYAYA [*1]. Others. Here the blood of the woman is a form of Agni (fire). and becomes deity.

95 . The fivefold body into which the indestructible (prana. AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. poets have discovered (what they sought for). and not to prana or breath). breath) by speech. that body which the harnessed horses (the senses) draw about. in that body (of the worshipper) all gods [*1] become one. Having driven away evil by means of that Brahman (which is hidden in prana). in it the gods exist all joined together. That body into which goes the indestructible (the breath) which we have joined (in meditation). breath) enters. the enlightened man goes to the Svarga world (becomes one with Hiranyagarbha [*3]. 6. describes him by calling him 'woman. proceeding from the indestructible (the highest Brahman). the universal spirit).' 'neither woman nor man. After separating themselves from the Yes and No of language.' or 'man' (all such names applying only to the material body. 5. 3. that body which the harnessed horses (the senses) draw about.2. breath). and of all that is hard and cruel. 4. dependent on names they rejoiced in what had been revealed [*2]. That in which the poets rejoiced (the revealed nature of prana. No one wishing to describe him (prana. that body where the true of the true follows after. in that body all gods become one. that body where the true of the true (the highest Brahman) follows after.

e. 9. its wheels the cars. 10. he reaches Hiranyagarbha).' and (Rv. all of which lie below the place of Hiranyagarbha). This has been said by a Rishi (Rv. Footnotes AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. VIII. the horses the eyes. By means of the syllable of life (the a) alone (which is contained in that thousand of hymns) does a man obtain the day of life (the mahavrata day. 12):-11.7. Prana (breath) mounts that chariot (and on it. by means of meditating on Prana.000 syllables. the moon. Brahman (as hidden beneath prana) is called the A. 73. sacrifice). 8. Now there is a chariot of the god (prana) destroying all desires (for the worlds of Indra. the twinkling of an eye [*2]. 96 . the earth. So many are also the thousands of days of human life [*1]. Its front part (the point of the two shafts of the carriage where the yoke is fastened) is speech. the driver the mind. i. and by means of the day of life (he obtains) the syllable of life. 39. and the I (ego) is gone there (the worshipper should know that he is uktha and prana).' yea. there are 36. X. perfect with a thousand Brihad verses. which completes the number of the days in the Gavamayana. and of that hymn. This becomes perfect as a thousand of Brihati verses. 2) 'Come hither on that which is quicker than the twinkling of an eye. 'Come hither on that which is quicker than mind.

and other powers carry him on. however. and marrow). and led by these he reaches the Brahma-loka. be lost. life with breath in the five elements. come from the sun and from man. At the time of death. But then the subtile body. as the emblem of prana. &c. and their identity with it through meditation or worship. Nor is the worship to be confined to the time of the sacrifice. He may create for himself a material body and enjoy all sorts of pleasures. and going to the gods. 4. I think. except that creative power belongs truly to the latter only. where prana or life is represented as the object of meditation. taught in the Khandogya. These gods (Agni and the rest) appear in the forms of speech. having been absorbed in the Highest Self. he who has become perfect in this meditation on uktha. Comm. &c. and moves about in them. red appearance. reaches a ray of the sun. In fact this world is the same for the devotee (yogin) and for the Highest Self.. which comprehends all gods. three having a. and by meditating on the uktha to obtain identity with Hiranyagarbha.^232:1 The last line on page 246 should. 97 . or he may. nor certain times and places. be the penultimate line of page 247. Of these. 2. ^233:2 The prana. will have his reward. according to his wish. ^234:2 The commentator remarks that the worship and meditation on the uktha as prana. whether by day or by night. without such a body. as here taught. is realised. that AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. The activity of the senses will be absorbed in the mind. enjoy all pleasures in mind only. rises again in the lotus of the heart. and that it should afterwards be repeated until death. the activity of the mind in breath. and these five elements will be absorbed up to their seed in the Paramatman or Highest Self. where he creates to himself every kind of enjoyment. At last the devotee gains the highest knowledge. as if in a state of waking. light. the knowledge of prana. ^233:3 Sarvahammani hiranyagarbha iti sruteh. 4. but it has to be repeated mentally during life. he creates also living souls in each. bone. ^233:1 The worshipper identifies himself by meditation with prana. as if in a dream. Comm.. as he pleases. Up to a certain point his fate will be the same as that of other people. &c. He enjoins that the meditation on [p. This ends the old birth. That Arkis. the Brihadaranyaka. three having a white appearance (fat. only. ^232:2 The body consists of six elements. the identification of the worshipper with prana. without any reference to the uktha or other portions of the Mahavrata ceremony. endowed with the internal organs of mind. and passing out by the channel of the head. and the reward of becoming a god. ^232:3 It is well therefore to shake off this body. fire. the Mahavrata. There are neither certain postures required for it. because otherwise the impression might vanish. 235] the uktha as prana should be continued till the desired result. breath. and is hence called shatkausika. come from fire and from the woman. breath. is different from the pranavidya. And as he creates these various bodies according to his wish. Comm. breath in the activity of life. Comm. ^234:1 Cf. 11. and goes at the northern or southern course of the sun to the road of Arkis or light.

though Sayana states that he follows in his commentary on the Upanishad the earlier commentary of Sankara. placed at the end of each paragraph. he obtains complete freedom with Brahman. Hitherto the answer to the question. commented on. best known under the name of the Aitareya-upanishad. and translated. and have marked those of Sankara's by figures in parentheses. It is one of the chief objects of the pranavidya. and then. sometimes also. by counting all adhyaya from the beginning of the Aitareya-aranyaka. I have given the divisions adopted by Sayana. or life-knowledge.of the Highest Self in himself. what we call the fourth adhyaya of the second Aranyaka. The difference between this Upanishad and the three preceding adhyayas is easily perceived. which was looked upon for a time as a sufficient explanation of all that is. 98 . SECOND ARANYAKA. point in of a view more this prana is the conscious it appears self as mythological form Hiranyagarbha. 'the golden germ. FOURTH ADHYAYA. From a psychological (pragnatman). If treated separately. becomes the first adhyaya of the Upanishad. FIRST KHANDA. and by Sankara. vary. The divisions adopted by Sayana.' sometimes even as Indra. Whence this world? had been. who explains the Upanishad as part of the Aranyaka. With this adhyaya begins the real Upanishad. who explains it independently. to show that the living principle in us is the same as the living principle in the sun. From Prana. at the dissolution of the Brahma-loka. the ninth. prana meaning breath and life. and that by a recognition of their identity and of the true nature of AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. and often separately edited.

In some places this doctrine is laid down in all its simplicity. Hari. and it is only towards the end that the identity of the self-conscious self with the Highest Self or Brahman is clearly enuntiated. is given in the Upanishad which teaches that Atman. however. Verily. enters after death into the world of Hiranyagarbha. AITAREYA-ARANYAKA.' This. there was nothing else blinking [*2] whatsoever. and not Prana. as immortality. Life. was not a final solution. 99 . prana is life. or he who has rightly meditated on prana during his life. the devotee. 2. anarthavada. arthavada. in the beginning [*1] all this was Self. but as it might often be more truly called. Immortality is prana. though it may have satisfied the mind of the Brahmans for a time. however. In other passages. where Indra says to Pratardana: 'I am Prana. one only. Life is prana. has its true being in the Highest Self only. meditate on me as the conscious self (pragnatman). and nearly in the whole of this Upanishad. fanciful. but of existence. this simple doctrine is mixed up with much that is mythological. Our true self. is the last and only cause of everything. by knowledge (pragna) true conception. This is well expressed in the Kaushitaki-upanishad III.prana. By prana he obtains immortality in the other world. as the commentators call it. the Self. it is said. That final solution of the problem not simply of life. Prana is consciousness (pragna). Adoration to the Highest Self. Om! 1. prana is immortality. consciousness is prana. as life. and absurd.

shall I send forth guardians of the worlds?' He then formed the Purusha (the person) [*1]. Mara (mortal). Ambhas (water). From the ears proceeded hearing. from speech Agni (fire) [*5]. The Marikis (the lights) are the sky. the support. 4. and the waters under the earth are the Ap world [*3]. He thought: 'Shall I send forth worlds?' (1) He sent forth these worlds. That Ambhas (water) is above the heaven.2. AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. From the nostrils proceeded scent (prana) [*6]. and when that person had thus been brooded on. a mouth burst forth [*4] like an egg. From the eyes proceeded sight. taking him forth from the water [*2]. From the mouth proceeded speech. and it is heaven. 100 . He thought: 'There are these worlds. (3) 6. and Ap (water). from hearing the Dis (quarters of the world). Ears burst forth. (2) 5. Eyes burst forth. The Mara (mortal) is the earth. Mariki (light). 3. from scent Vayu (air). from sight Aditya (sun). Nostrils burst forth. He brooded on him [*3].

though this expresses a part only of the meaning expressed by tap. like Sankara and Colebrooke. From the heart proceeded mind. and is the name given to the highest world. 2. antariksha. Colebrooke. from seed water. Ambhas was probably intended for the highest heaven (dyaus). from the five elements. 101 . &c. under the earth. (4) Footnotes ^237:1 Before the creation. and the earth is called so. mishat. as the commentator says. Roer. earth. ^238:1 Purusha.Skin burst forth. From the organ proceeded seed. the fourth division being the water round the earth. 190. AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. sky. as the third with sky and earth. but to conceive and to will and to create by mere will. Sayana. e. because all creatures living there must die.. or. From the skin proceeded hairs (sense of touch). Comm. the lord of all living. the support. Mara means dying. an embodied being. That person is meant for the Virag.' we should lose heaven altogether. visvasya mishato vasi. beginning with water. The usual division of the world is threefold. The heart burst forth. the waters above the heaven. yet heaven. from the hairs shrubs and trees. The generative organ burst forth. Ambhas means water. and was then explained both as what is above the heaven and as heaven itself. I have translated it by brooding. Marikis are rays. i. the Kandrayana. ^238:2 According to the commentator. as the commentator observes. From the navel proceeded the Apana (the downbreathing) [*7]. is essential in the Indian view of the world. from Apana death. does not mean here and in similar passages to perform austerities (tapas). here used as a name of the sky. ^237:2 Blinking. ^237:3 The names of the four worlds are peculiar. here explained as the waters under the earth. cf. I the water is the region above the heaven which heaven upholds. such as the Krikkhra. X. Ap is water. Rv. If we translate. living. and heaven. ^238:3 Tap. and heaven itself. from mind Kandramas (moon). Sayana seems to take mishat as a 3rd pers. sing. a being of human shape. The navel burst forth. Here it is fourfold. purushakaram viratpindam.

They said: 'This is not enough. the instrument of the sense. Then he (the Self) besieged him.' Therefore man is well done. and likewise from the prana as the principle of life. Then they said: 'Well done [*4]. i. ^238:5 Three things are always distinguished here--the place of each sense. in our place. SECOND ARANYAKA.^238:4 Literally. ^238:6 Prana. however. ^238:7 The Apana. must be distinguished from the prana. each according to his place. fell into this great ocean [*1]. after they had been sent forth. 2. and the presiding deity of the sense. the upbreathing. 102 .' (3) AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. 10.' (2) He led man [*3] towards them. down-breathing. Agni and the rest.' (1) He led a cow towards them (the deities). (the person) with hunger and thirst. indeed. FOURTH ADHYAYA. ghranendriya. is generally one of the five vital airs [p. The deities then (tormented by hunger and thirst) spoke to him (the Self): 'Allow us a place in which we may rest and eat food [*2]. as we shall see in II. Those deities (devata). He said to them: 'Enter. SECOND KHANDA. 1. 3. 3. apana is deglutition and digestion. 4. e. one of the five pranas.' He led a horse towards them. was opened. They said: 'This is not enough. 239] which are supposed to keep the body alive.

having become down-breathing. ^239:4 Sukrita. having become seed. FOURTH ADHYAYA. Kandramas (the moon). The shrubs and trees. entered the nostrils. entered the ears. Or they fell into the world. The Dis (regions).' Therefore to whatever deity an oblation is offered. 1. Death. I make you co-partners with them. Let me send forth food for them. entered the eyes. having become sight. self-made. Aditya (sun). if taken for svakrita. it can only be intended for intelligent man. having become scent. (4) 5. the last cause of which is ignorance. the universal person. having become speech. Then Hunger and Thirst spoke to him (the Self): 'Allow us two (a place). or. having become mind. entered the heart.' (1) AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. virtue. THIRD KHANDA. ^239:2 To eat food is explained to mean to perceive the objects which correspond to the senses. Vayu (air). having become hearing. SECOND ARANYAKA. entered the mouth. well done. entered the skin. presided over by the various deities. hunger and thirst are co-partners in it. entered the navel. having become hairs.' He said to them: 'I assign you to those very deities there.4. the Virag. The waters. the first created person. (5) Footnotes ^239:1 They fell back into that universal being from whence they had sprung. entered the generative organ. He thought: 'There are these worlds and the guardians of the worlds. Then Agni (fire). 103 . ^239:3 Here purusha is different from the first purusha.

man would be satisfied by seeing food. crying and turning away. man would be satisfied by smelling food. (7) He tried to grasp it by the mind. If he had grasped it by the skin. (6) He tried to grasp it by the skin. (2) 2. (4) He tried to grasp it by the eye. (5) He tried to grasp it by the ear. And that matter which was born. From the water thus brooded on. He could not grasp it by the eye. If he had grasped it by speech. If he had grasped it by the eye. man would be satisfied by touching food. When this food (the object matter) had thus been sent forth. man would be satisfied by thinking food. He could not grasp it by speech. man would be satisfied by hearing food. He (the subject) tried to grasp it by speech. man would be satisfied by naming food. He could not grasp it by the ear. He could not grasp it by scent. it wished to flee [*4]. 104 . (8) AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. that verily was food [*3]. If he had grasped it by the mind. He could not grasp it by the skin.He brooded over the water [*1]. matter [*2] (murti) was born. If he had grasped it by scent. If he had grasped it by the ear. He could not grasp it by the mind. (3) He tried to grasp it by scent (breath).

if the skin feels. And then he thought: 'By what way shall I get there [*2]?' 6. (12) AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. Thus it is Vayu (the getter [*1]) who lays hold of food. if the ear hears. Then opening the suture of the skull. three dreams. 9.He tried to grasp it by the generative organ. He thought: 'How can all this be without me?' 5. if scent smells. this dwelling-place (the eye). then what am I?' (11) 7. If he had grasped it by the organ. man would be satisfied by sending forth food. this dwelling-place (the heart) [*1]. That door is called the Vidriti (tearing asunder). 3. this dwelling-place (the throat). the payvindriya). if the mind thinks. (10) 4. 105 . if the offbreathing digests. He could not grasp it by the organ. the Nandana (the place of bliss). And then he thought: 'If speech names. (9) He tried to grasp it by the down-breathing (the breath which helps to swallow food through the mouth and to carry it off through the rectum. and the Vayu is verily Annayu (he who gives life or who lives by food). he got in by that door. There are three dwelling-places for him. if the eye sees. if the organ sends forth. 8. He got it.

Colebrooke. which is the knowledge of Brahman. When born (when the Highest Self had entered the body) he looked through all things. AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. i. as the heart. II. as mentioned before.' is supposed to point to his right eye. 106 . in a state of waking.e. and the heart. He saw this person only (himself) as the widely spread Brahman. ^240:3 Offered food.e. 1. yea. and the ether in the heart. dreaming. Being Idamdra by name. ^240:2 Murti. a being of organised form. in order to see whether anything wished to proclaim here another (Self). Roer. as the throat. the body of the mother. animal food for cats. Ait. and profound sleep. (13) Therefore he was Idam-dra (seeing this). by which of the two ways shall I get in. &c. form. 4. vrihiyavadirupa mushakadirupa ka murtih. Netre gagaritam vidyat kanthe svapnam samadiset. Sayana allows another interpretation of the three dwelling-places being the body of the father. in a state of profound sleep. the throat. ^241:1 An attempt to derive vayu from vi. sushuptam hridayasya tu. they call him Indra mysteriously. and he remarks that waking too is called a dream as compared with the true awakening. the inner mind. ^242:1 Passages like this must always have required an oral interpretation. to get.10. atisayena hantum gantum aikkhat. ^240:4 Atyagighamsat. or the five elements. vegetable food for men. ^241:2 Or. but it is by no means certain that the explanation given in the commentaries represents really the old traditional interpretation.' thus he said [*2]. and one's own body. (14) Footnotes ^240:1 The water. For the Devas love mystery. Sayana. 'I saw it. Sankara explains them as the right eye. The three dreams or sleeps he explains by waking. the one way being from the top of the foot (cf. i. the other from the skull? Comm. 1). 11. In the last sentence the speaker. they love mystery. when repeating three times 'this dwelling-place. Ar. for murtti. Sayana explains the three dwelling-places as the right eye. objects for the Devatas and the senses in the body. in a state of dreaming. This interpretation is supported by a passage in the Brahma-upanishad.

whether they existed by themselves or not. which is called seed. 'What does wish to proclaim here another Self?' And when he saw there was nothing which did not come from himself. the true Self. FIRST KHANDA.. he (the man) bears as self in his self (body). 'He considered all beings. he did so. Verily. was himself. he arrived at the conclusion. then he (the father) causes it to be born. This (seed). What shall I call different from the true Self?' The real difficulties. Let the women who are with child move away [*1]! 2. 'Did he see the other Self?' which is only a figure of speech to convey the meaning that he did not see it. SECOND ARANYAKA. or because the writers of the MSS. or. blind. When he commits the seed to the woman. was the Atman. First of all. he developed forms and names. Sankara fails us. but I am not certain that it conveys the true meaning. and secondly. FIFTH ADHYAYA. then he recognised that the Purusha. however. Sayana explains vavadishat by vadishyami. 1. but before iti the third person cannot well refer to the subject of vyaikshat. 243] the passage. viz.' or literally. left out [p. My own translation is literal. Anandagnana explains: 'He looked through all creatures. in order to find out. 3. the person he had sent forth. we expect vavadisham before iti. he identified himself with them. 107 . (i. from the beginning he (the self) is in man as a germ. as it is elsewhere expressed. which is strength gathered from all the limbs of the body. e. One might understand it as implying that the Self looked about through all things. as we should say. as Anandagnana says. That is his first birth. which is very obscure. and thought he was a man. the person he had created. or. The particle iti is then to be taken in a causal sense. and after having considered. unless anyam refers to atmanam. (1) AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. he thought the text was too easy to require any explanation.^242:2 In this passage. are not removed by these explanations. we expect anyad. &c. happy. And how did this mistake arise? Because he did not see the other. because what else could he have wished to proclaim?) But he allows another explanation. was the developed Brahman. either because.

11. He (the father) elevates the child even before the birth. But his other self (the father). (3) 10. For thus are these worlds continued. (2) She who nourishes. He (the son). That seed becomes the self of the woman. 1): (4) AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. is then placed in his stead for (the performance of) all good works. and immediately after [*1]. is to be nourished. departs.4. as if one of her own limbs. When he thus elevates the child both before and after his birth. IV. 13. being his self. And this has been declared by a Rishi (Rv. 5. That is his third birth. 27. 6. Therefore it does not injure her. And departing from hence he is born again. She nourishes his (her husband's) self (the son) within her. 9. For the continuation of these worlds (men). This is his second birth. 7. 8. he really elevates his own self. 108 . 12. The woman bears the germ. and having reached the full measure of his life. having done all he has to do.

A hundred iron strongholds kept me. I discovered all the births of these Devas. (6) Footnotes ^243:1 Some MSS. and by performing certain ceremonies both before and after the birth of a child. that by which we hear (sound). has thus declared this. 109 . may the women who are with child walk away! It is counted as a paragraph. perception. namely. and having obtained all his desires in that heavenly world. Let the women go back to their place. understanding.14. but I escaped quickly down like a falcon. ^244:1 By nourishing the mother. command. that by which we distinguish sweet and not sweet. FIRST KHANDA. SECOND ARANYAKA. 1. that by which we utter speech. That by which we see (form). that by which we perceive smells. he became immortal. Who is he whom [*1] we meditate on as the Self? Which [*2] is the Self? 3. SIXTH ADHYAYA. lying in the womb. became immortal. begin this adhyaya with the sentence apakramantu garbhinyah. 'While dwelling in the womb.' 15. yea. (1) and what comes from the heart and the mind. (5) And having this knowledge he stepped forth. after this dissolution of the body. AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. 2. Vamadeva.

earth. cows. considering. the real or the phenomenal. these five great elements. elephants. became immortal. and whatsoever breathes. air. all these are various names only of knowledge (the true Self).. thinking. born from germs [*6]. he became immortal.) [*3]. readiness (or suffering). and what is immoveable--all that is led (produced) by knowledge (the Self). having by this conscious self stepped forth from this world.knowledge. 6. remembering. seeing. is Brahman (m. conceiving. Which of the two. born from heat. Knowledge is its cause [*1]. (3) 8. It rests on knowledge (the Self). small and mixed [*5]. loving. fire. 110 . it is Indra. and seeds of this kind and that kind. Om. holding. Knowledge is Brahman. (4) Footnotes ^245:1 I read ko yam instead of ko 'yam. The world is led (produced) by knowledge (the Self). No. and having obtained all desires in that heavenly world. it is Pragapati [*4]. wisdom. the nirupadhika or sopadhika? AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. 7. these and those which are. willing. born from the womb. ether. He (Vamadeva). ^245:2 Or. as it were. born from eggs. breathing. horses. consisting of (knowledge). whether walking or flying. yea. All these Devas. Thus it is. water. (2) 5. desiring? 4. And that Self. men.

Sayana explains it in his commentary on the Aitareya-aranyaka. SECOND ARANYAKA. ^246:4 Ant.. May this protect me. It is frequently left out in the MSS. FIRST KHANDA. where the svedaga. born from heat or perspiration. I shall speak of the real. 3. which contain the Aitareya-upanishad with Sankara's commentary. and in one MS. state of knowing. May what I have learnt not forsake me [*5]. are not mentioned. 1. Both are names of the Highest Brahman. Kh. which is in my possession. may it protect the teacher. I join day and night with what I have learnt [*6]. I shall speak the true. ^245:6 Cf. AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. ^245:5 Serpents. of Sankara's commentary on the Aitareya-upanishad.^245:3 Hiranyagarbha. and Dr. Up. ^245:4 Virag. Roer has omitted it in his edition. 111 . Comm. ^246:3 The two depend on each other. VI. My speech rests in the mind. yea. the Agnapalaka of Virabukka-maharaga. 1. my mind rests in speech [*3]. and pragnana. the seventh adhyaya is added with the commentary of Madhavamatya. &c. the teacher! Footnotes ^246:2 This seventh adhyaya contains a propitiatory prayer (santikaro mantrah). may this protect the teacher! May it protect me. Appear to me (thou. SEVENTH ADHYAYA [*2]. says the commentary. which is the beginning and end (pratishtha) of everything that exists or seems to exist. Comm. explained by the commentator as anayanasamartha. the Highest Self)! You (speech and mind) are the two pins [*4] (that hold the wheels) of the Veda. act of knowing. ^246:1 We have no words to distinguish between pragna.

5. 3. thus says Mandukeya. 2. 4. The former half is speech. 112 . whether they say air or ether . their union is the ether. IV. Up. ^246:6 I repeat it day and night so that I may not forget it. Next follows the Upanishad of the Samhita [*2].^246:5 Cf. now with reference to the body (physiologically): 6. Verily. the latter half the heaven. 7. thus says Agastya. thus did Makshavya teach it. FIRST ADHYAYA. 1. 2. 5. So far with reference to deities (mythologically). their union the air [*3]. therefore I do not agree with his (Manduka's) son. their union breath (prana). and then we utter AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. the latter half is mind. therefore air is considered independent. But his eldest son said: The former half is mind. the two are the same. The former half is the earth. For we first conceive with the mind indeed . For it is the same. FIRST KHANDA. That air is not considered [*4] independent [*5]. thus says Suravira Mandukeya. the latter half speech. THIRD ARANYAKA [*1]. Kh.

explains it as an active verb. 36. and described by him in the journal of the Bombay Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society. the i uttararupa. AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. 11. 9. the latter half speech. and the world of Svarga. the first letter of a joined group the purvarupa (n. The joining together of two letters is called their samhita. Verily. I have collated it. 8. Comm. niskitavan. sing. discovered by Dr. we really worship Vishnu. is (like) a chariot drawn by two horses and one horse between them (prashtivahana). 113 . it is the same with both. ^247:2 Samhita is the sacred text in which all letters are closely joined. p. passive. ^247:4 Mene has here been taken as 3rd pers. or almost entirely obliterated. Buhler in Kashmir. Footnotes ^247:1 This last portion of the Upanishad is found in the MS. joined with mind. the heaven. For instance. the second the uttararupa. 1877. becomes united with offspring. and mi their samhita or union. the father (Mandukeya) and the son. ^247:3 As in worshipping the Salagrama stone. in agnim ile the m is purvarupa. This (meditation as here described). Therefore the former half is indeed mind. so we ought to perceive the earth. but their union is really breath. 10. so far as it was possible to read it. He lives his full age. ^247:5 Because it is included in the ether.). cattle.with speech. glory of countenance. and the air when we pronounce the first and the second letters of a group. and breath. The commentator. Now all this comes from the Mandukeyas. And he who thus knows this union. and that group itself. perf. speech. not the ether in the air. many lines being either broken off altogether. however. fame.

And as there are those three luminaries (in heaven). As there is that lightning in the sky. 4. there is this seed in the member. Then they say also (in ordinary language). day and night [*2]. The first half is the earth. 7. Every man is indeed like an egg [*3]. So much with regard to the deities. the second half heaven. Next comes the meditation as taught by Sakalya.THIRD ARANYAKA [*1]. AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. And so it is when he (Parganya) rains thus strongly. There are two halves [*4] (of him). 3. FIRST ADHYAYA. their uniting the rain. there are these three luminaries in man. 2. thus they say: 'This half is the earth. there is this eye in the head. 'Heaven and earth have come together. the uniter Parganya [*1]. as there is that fire on earth. 1. In this ether there (in the mouth) the breath is fixed. as in that other ether the air is fixed. 114 . like the ether between heaven and earth. there is this heart in the body.' 5. that half heaven. now with regard to the body:-6. without ceasing.' And there between them is the ether (the space of the mouth). SECOND KHANDA. As there is that sun in heaven.

FIRST ADHYAYA. Nirbhuga abides on earth. By the Ubhayamantara (what is between the two) both are fulfilled (both the sandhi and the pada). 9. Pratrinna in heaven.' But he who recites the Ubhayamantarena. that half heaven. 4. 3. cattle. 115 . becomes united with offspring. THIRD KHANDA [*1]. and the world of Svarga. that is the form of Nirbhuga [*5]. THIRD ARANYAKA [*1]. This comes first [*1]. let him answer: 'Thou art fallen from the two lower places [*3]. For when he turns out the Sandhi (the union of words). there is no chiding him. 1. AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. let him answer: 'Thou art fallen from the two higher places [*4].8. He lives his full age. glory of countenance. He who thus knows this union.' If any one should chide him who recites the Pratrinna. Having thus represented the self (body) as the whole world. if any one should chide him who recites the Nirbhuga. the Ubhayamantarena in the sky. Sakalya said: This half is the earth. fame. and when be pronounces two syllables pure (without modification). 2. Now. Next come the reciters of the Nirbhuga [*2]. that is the form of Pratrinna [*6].

the deity. 6. the deity. 8. let him say to him: 'Thou hast offended heaven. Nay. depend upon it. 116 . let him say to him: 'Thou hast offended the earth. the deity. let him who wishes for both say the Ubhayamantarena. Only he may curse a Brahmana in excessive wealth [*2]. will strike thee.' If another man should chide him who says the Pratrinna. will strike thee.' 7. Footnotes AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. heaven. not even in excessive wealth should he curse a Brahmana. the deity. let him say to him: 'Thou hast offended the sky. let him who wishes for Svarga. the earth. Let him who wishes for proper food say the Nirbhuga. will strike thee. it will come to pass. the deity. 9.'--thus says Suravira Mandukeya. the sky. Now if another man (an enemy) should chide him who says the Nirbhuga. the deity. 10. say the Pratrinna. but he should say. And whatever the reciter shall say to one who speaks to him or does not speak to him. But to a Brahmana let him not say anything except what is auspicious.5. 'I bow before Brahmanas.' If another man should chide him who says the Ubhayamantarena.

Thus Parganya. Here a is the cause which changes i into y. the god of rain. two arms to one body. By reciting the Samhita inattentively. the so-called Krama-patha. the other half from the upper jaw to the skull. the i is changed to y. Pratrinna is the recitation of each word by itself (pada-patha). therefore the same as Samhita. ^248:2 The man among heroes. one may use forms which belong to the Samhita-text. one may use forms which belong to the Pada-text. as declared and explained in this peculiar act of worship. ^250:3 From earth and sky. before they were united according to the laws of Sandhi. Kh. Comm. ^250:4 From the sky and from heaven. ^249:2 When it rains incessantly. or he may wish him the curse of excessive wealth. is the cause which unites earth and heaven into rain. and both are united as ya. ^250:6 Pratrinna means cut asunder. iii. and therefore mistakes are less likely to happen. p. the between the two. if he is exceeding rich. ^250:2 Nirbhuga(n) is the recitation of the Veda without intervals. ^250:5 Nirbhuga may mean without arms. Ubhayamantarena. and Nachtrage. or with two arms stretched out. the two words forming. Comm. is the intertwining of Samhita and Padapatha. II. ^248:4 Both views are admissible. ^249:3 Andam. if something great depends on it. reads manasaivagre. ^251:1 The words were first each separate. ^248:5 Pranasamhitah. a reading confirmed both by the commentary and by the Kashmir MS. We should read akasasketi. ed. as it were. andasadrisam. p. as if the arms of the words were taken away. Max Muller. ^251:2 He may curse him. AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. ^250:1 Cf. 22. Comm. Up. Kashmir MS. for it is not the actual air and ether which are meditated on. and by reciting the Pada inattentively. or he may curse him. but their names.^248:1 Both views are tenable. Comm. 3. heaven and earth seem to be one in rain. every word being separated from the others. But in reciting the Krama both the Samhita and Pada forms are used together. ^248:3 The Kashmir MS. ^249:4 The one half from the feet to the lower jaw. ii. 117 . Comm. Rig-veda-pratisakhya. Cf. ^249:1 If i is followed by a.

but he should say. But if he thinks himself not strong. it will come to pass. if he thinks himself strong.' 5. then. 1. Only he may curse a Brahmana in excessive wealth. thou dost not prevail against me who have grasped the breath as the beam. the beam. 2. But to a Brahmana let him not say anything except what is auspicious. 3. the beam. let him say to him: 'Thou couldst not grasp him who wishes to grasp the breath as the beam. Let him know that breath [*2] is the beam (on which the whole house of the body rests). Nay. well. the beam.' 4. he says: 'I grasped the breath. If any one (a Brahmana or another man) should chide him.THIRD ARANYAKA [*1]. Footnotes AITAREYA-ARANYAKA.' Let him say to him: 'Breath. will forsake thee. FIRST ADHYAYA. will forsake thee. depend upon it. Breath. And whatever the reciter shall say to one who speaks to him or does not speak to him. Next follow the imprecations [*1]. 'I bow before Brahmanas.'--thus says Suravira Mandukeya. 118 . who by meditation has become that breath as beam [*3]. not even in excessive wealth should he curse a Brahmana. FOURTH KHANDA.

becomes united with offspring. not as imprecations. such teachers say what follows.^252:1 The commentator explains anuvyahara. and the latter half the second syllable. 4. He lives his full age. He who thus knows this Samhita (union). 1. cf. fame. ^252:2 Breath. glory of countenance. ^252:3 If he should tell him that he did not meditate on breath properly. "Yes. the latter half the second syllable. III. but as referring to those who leach or use the imprecations. cattle. This is the opinion of Sthavira Sakalya.' 3. the former half is the first syllable. FIRST ADHYAYA. 'The former half [*1] is the first syllable. such imprecations being necessary to guard against the loss of the benefits accruing from the meditation and worship here described. 1. as explained before. Now Hrasva Mandukeya says: 'We reciters of Nirbhuga say. and knows what is the accent and what is not [*2]. 119 . and distinguishes what is the mora and what is not."' AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. and the world of Svarga. and the space between the first and second halves is the Samhita (union). the union of mind and speech. 1. FIFTH KHANDA. THIRD ARANYAKA [*1]. 2. but the Samhita is the space between the first and second halves in so far as by it one turns out the union (sandhi). Now those who repeat the Nirbhuga say: 2.

5. He who thus knows this Samhita (union), becomes united with offspring, cattle, fame, glory of countenance, and the world of Svarga. He lives his full age. 6. Now his middle son, the child of his mother Pratibodhi [*3], says: 'One pronounces these two syllables letter by letter, without entirely separating them, and without entirely uniting them [*1]. Then that mora between the first and second halves, which indicates the union, that is the Saman (evenness, sliding). I therefore hold Saman only to be the Samhita (union). 7. This has also been declared by a Rishi (Rv. II, 23, 16):-8. 'O Brihaspati, they know nothing higher than Saman.' 9. He who thus knows this Samhita (union), becomes united with offspring, cattle, fame, glory of countenance, and the world of Svarga. He lives his full age. Footnotes
^253:1 As spoken of before, III, 1, 1, 1. ^253:2 In agnim ile, ile by itself has no accent, but as joined by sandhi with agnim, its first syllable becomes svarita, its second prakita. In tava it, the vowel i is a short mora or matra; but if joined with va, it vanishes, and becomes long e, tavet. Comm. ^253:3 Pratibodhiputra, the son of Pratibodhi, she being probably one out of several wives of Hrasva. Another instance of this metronymic nomenclature occurred in Krishna Devakiputra, Kh. Up. III, 7, 6. The Kashmir MS. reads Prakibodhi, but Pratibodha is a recognised name in Gana Vidadi, and the right reading is probably Pratibodhi. The same MS. leaves out putra aha. ^254:1 So that the e in tavet should neither be one letter e, nor two letters a + i, but something between the two, enabling us to hear a + i in the pronunciation of e.



THIRD ARANYAKA [*1]. FIRST ADHYAYA. SIXTH KHANDA. 1. Tarukshya [*2] said: 'The Samhita (union) is formed by means of the Brihat and Rathantara [*3] Samans.' 2. Verily, the Rathantara Saman is speech, the Brihat Saman is breath. By both, by speech and breath, the Samhita is formed [*4]. 3. For this Upanishad (for acquiring from his teacher the knowledge of this Samhita of speech and breath) Tarukshya guards (his teacher's) cows a whole year. 4. For it alone Tarukshya guards the cows a whole year. 5. This has also been declared by a Rishi (Rv. X, 181, 1; and Rv. X, 181, 2):-6. 'Vasishtha carried hither the Rathantara; 'Bharadvaga brought hither the Brihat of Agni.' 7. He who thus knows this Samhita (union), becomes united with offspring, cattle, fame, glory of countenance, and the world of Svarga. He lives his full age. 8. Kauntharavya said: 'Speech is united with breath, breath with the blowing air, the blowing air with the Visvedevas, the Visvedevas with



the heavenly world, the heavenly world with Brahman. That Samhita is called the gradual Samhita.' 9. He who knows this gradual Samhita (union), becomes united with offspring, cattle, fame, glory of countenance, and the world of Svarga, in exactly the same manner as this Samhita, i.e. gradually. 10. If that worshipper, whether for his own sake or for that of another, recites (the Samhita), let him know when he is going to recite, that this Samhita went up to heaven, and that it will be even so with those who by knowing it become Devas. May it always be so! 11. He who thus knows this Samhita (union), becomes united with offspring, cattle, fame, glory of countenance, and the world of Svarga. He lives his full age. 12. Pankalakanda said: 'The Samhita (union, composition) is speech.' 13. Verily, by speech the Vedas, by speech the metres are composed. Friends unite through speech, all beings unite through speech; therefore speech is everything here [*1]. 14. With regard to this (view of speech being more than breath), it should be borne in mind that when we thus repeat (the Veda) or speak, breath is (absorbed) in speech; speech swallows breath. And when we are silent or sleep, speech is (absorbed) in breath; breath swallows speech. The two swallow each other. Verily, speech is the mother, breath the son.



becomes united with offspring. With my ripe mind I saw him close to me (in the heart). mother. son. is father. the latter half the man. He who thus knows this Samhita (union). and the world of Svarga. cattle. The former half is the wife. becomes united with offspring. 'There is one bird. father. fame. This has been declared also by a Rishi (Rv. He who thus knows this Samhita (union). the mother (licks or) absorbs him (breath). fame.' 23. (as wind) he has entered the sky. 10)-22.15. 21. (as breath or living soul) he saw this whole world. 20. and the world of Svarga. that Samhita is Aditi (indestructible). and he absorbs the mother (speech). 18. and begetting. Footnotes AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. cattle. 123 . For Aditi (indestructible) is all this whatever there is. He lives his full age. 19. 114. I. He lives his full age.' 17. This has also been declared by a Rishi (Rv. is son. the result of their union the son. glory of countenance. 4):-16. 'Aditi is mother. the act of their union the begetting. Next follows the Pragapati-Samhita. glory of countenance. 189. X.

and as the other beams rest on the house-beam. 5. Of that self the breathing is like the sibilants. there are 360 (parts) on this side (the right). flesh. and 360 on that side (the left). and the rest. ^254:4 These two. the marrow like the vowels. 105. blood. 1. a name used before as the title of a hymn (Ait. ^255:1 Everything can be obtained by speech in this life and in the next. 1-4. marrow. and the fourth part. and joints. Ar. the whole self rests on this [*3] breath. Thus that self which consists of sight. Ar. ^254:3 See Ait. I. To us it was said to be a triad only [*5]. bones. the ear. hearing. FIRST KHANDA. are required for the Prishthastotra in the Agnishtoma.^254:2 The Kashmir MS. reads Tarkshya. IV. mind. I. Comm. like the semivowels [*4]. metre. see Pan. 8). 124 . 2. the bones like the mutes. and speech is like unto the days. thus the eye. and 720 [*6] are the days and nights of the year. Of that triad.--so said Hrasva Mandukeya. 2. and they are to remind the worshipper that speech and breath are required for all actions. Sthavira Sakalya said that breath is the beam [*2]. SECOND ADHYAYA [*1]. They make 720 together. the senses. 4. the speech. 2. the body. AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. 4. Here Tarakshya seems preferable. viz. 3. 1. THIRD ARANYAKA [*1]. the mind. the Brihat and Rathantara.

1. 125 . There are 360 syllables (vowels). likeness. The self here is meant for the body. 3. has sons and cattle. SECOND ADHYAYA [*1]. and yet it seems to be different from sarira. Ar. 360. The Kashmir MS. not four. as we saw. SECOND KHANDA. hearing. ^257:5 Sakalya. What we called syllables are the days. obtains union. and lives his full age. and speech. writes antastha without visarga. reads trayam tv eva na ityetat proktam. ^257:2 Ait. So far with regard to the gods (the days). Footnotes ^257:1 In the first adhyaya meditations suggested by samhita. and krama have been discussed. reads etasmin prane. reads sapta vimsatis ka satani. or nearness with the days. Next comes Kauntharavya: 2. 360 sibilants (consonants). what we called sibilants are the nights. told his disciples that there were three classes only. ^257:6 The Kashmir MS. while it is otherwise most careful in writing all sibilants. 4. ^257:4 The Kashmir MS. which consists of sight. metre. ^257:3 The Kashmir MS. THIRD ARANYAKA [*1]. He who thus knows this self. Comm. III. what we called groups are the junctions of days and nights. groups.5. Now follow meditations suggested by certain classes of letters. AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. mind. 1. pada. as like unto the days.

Marrow is the real breath (life). The syllables which we explained mythologically. and speech. Thus that self which consists of sight. are physiologically the marrow. Footnotes ^258:1 There are in the Mahavrata eighty tristichs of Brihatis. Of that triad. likeness. and without breath (life) seed is not sown. and lives his full age. are physiologically the bones. and speech is like unto the syllables. are physiologically the joints. or nearness with the syllables. it will not grow. viz. They make the Brihati verses and the day (of the Mahavrata) [*1]. 8. and 540 on that side (the left). it will decay. metre. They make 1080 together. has sons and cattle. the sibilants which we explained mythologically. and 1080 are the rays of the sun. 5.4. Comm. 6. Or when it is sown without breath (life). hearing. mind. marrow. and as each Brihati is decreed to consist of thirty-six syllables. 9. obtains union. mind. AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. bones. 7. 1080. He who knows this self which consists of sight. ten would give 360 syllables. and three times ten. there are 540 (parts) on this side (the right). for marrow is seed. The groups which we explained mythologically. 126 . hearing. metre. as like unto syllables. Now with regard to the body. and joints.

SECOND ADHYAYA [*1]. Badhva [*1] says. the person of the Veda. Its essence is yonder sun. What we call the person of the Veda is (the mind) by which we know the Vedas. and is able to see any flaw in the sacrifice. 3. What we call the person of the body is this corporeal self. and Sama-veda. Its essence is the incorporeal conscious self. Therefore let one chose a Brahman-priest who is full of Brahman (the Veda). 7. and causes others to grow up. Its essence is Brahman [*2](m. 5. 1. The person of the body.) 6. 4. What we call the Great person is the year. What we call the person of the metres is this collection of letters (the Veda).THIRD ARANYAKA [*1]. the Rig-veda. which causes some beings to fall together. there are four persons (to be meditated on and worshipped). 127 . THIRD KHANDA. Its essence is the vowel a. and the Great person. AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. the person of the metres. Yagur-veda. 2.

' 11. hearing. 12. in trees. with whom he who knows the Veda becomes identified. mind. in the air. in all beings. That self which consists of sight. metre. 13. 128 . One should know that the incorporeal conscious self and yonder sun are both one and the same. Him they see in this earth. it filled heaven and earth and the sky. 9. ^259:2 Hiranyagarbha. and speech. 14. in the water.8. in the ether.' thus said Badhva. He who recites to another that self which consists of sight. in herbs. AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. the Khandogas in the Mahavrata ceremony. and Agni. For the Bahvrikas consider him (the self) in the great hymn (mahad uktha). hearing. Therefore the sun appears to every man singly (and differently). the eye of Mitra. mind. 115. the Adhvaryus in the sacrificial fire. Varuna. metre. in the stars. and is like unto the year. Footnotes ^259:1 Instead of Badhya. read Badhva. 'This I think to be the regular Samhita as conceived by me. 'The bright face of the gods arose. This has also been declared by a Rishi (Rv. Him alone they call Brahman. Comm. I. in the moon. and speech is like unto the year.--the sun is the self of all that rests and moves. 1):-10. the commentary and the Kashmir MS. in heaven.

SECOND ADHYAYA [*1]. 2. he hears in vain. Therefore let no one who knows this. 6):-3.THIRD ARANYAKA [*1]. he has no luck in what he has learnt (from his Guru). for that is done really for himself. 7. However. 6. When these two become separated [*2]. 5. the sun is seen as if it were the moon [*3]. let him not sing the Samans of the Mahavrata for another. Though he hears. and that he does not know the path of virtue. he does not know the path of virtue. in his speech there is no luck. let him not recite the Sastras of that day for another. 'He who has forsaken the friend (the Veda). that knows his friends. 129 . his head smells bad like a AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. Here it is clearly said that he has no luck in what he has learnt. 71. let him willingly do this for a father or for an Akarya. lay the sacrificial fire (belonging to the Mahavrata) for another. the patient cannot retain the wind. This has also been declared by a Rishi (Rv. the sky is red like madder. We have said that the incorporeal conscious self and the sun are one [*1]. To him the Vedas yield no more milk. X. no rays spring from it. for he does not know the path of virtue. FOURTH KHANDA. 1.' 4.

VIII. 10). IX. when the sun is seen pierced. or when he sees lightning in a cloudless sky. But if he does not see them. 2127). let him know then that it is so. 113. let him know then that it is so. then threads are seen as if falling together [*1]. let him cover his ears and listen. 10. when fire looks blue like the neck of a peacock [*3]. or without a head [*5]. or when he sees as it were bright rays in a dark cloud. let him know then that it is so (as stated before. and let him recite the following hymns: Yad anti yak ka durake (Rv. let him do it. let him know then that it is so. 12. e. 6. let him know then that it is so. 11. i. Next. I. Then whatever he thinks he has to do. Ud vayam tamasas pari (Rv. and there will be a sound as if of a burning fire or of a carriage [*2]. Yatra brahma pavamana (Rv. when he sees his own shadow pierced. 50. 67. or no lightning in a clouded sky. 30).. Ad it pratnasya retasah (Rv. AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. 8. and that he will not live very long [*4]. 130 . let him cover his eyes and watch. when he sees himself in a mirror or in the water with a crooked head. and seems like the nave of a cart-wheel. Next. 6-11). that he is going to die soon). But if he does not hear it. Next.raven's nest:--let him know then that his self (in the body) is gone. Next. 9. IX. Next. or when his pupils are seen inverted [*6] or not straight. 13.

let him know that it is so. or a boar kills him. he drives with asses and boars. 3. not seen. Ar. If a man sees any one of these (dreams). Footnotes ^261:1 Ait. wearing a wreath of red flowers (naladas) he drives a black cow with a black calf. classing. X. facing the south [*7]. and that man kills him. Let him know that the person within all beings. knowing. thinking. and then. These are the visible signs (from 7-14). he chews stalks. not understood. sacrifice it. not reached. Next. 16. not thought. the wind carries him along quickly. seeing. Next come the dreams [*4]. If he sees a black man with black teeth. he eats honey. but hearing. with other food (prepared at his house) eat himself the (rest of the) oblation. 12 7). 131 . 19.14. 2. not classed. accompanying each oblation with a verse of the Ratri hymn (Rv. having swallowed gold he spits it out [*6]. understanding. not subdued. III. a monkey jumps on [*5] him. after having fed the Brahmanas. AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. is his Self. when he sees the ground as if it were burning. 15. not heard here [*1]. let him fast. 18. 17. sounding. and cook a pot of milk. 8. he carries a red lotus.

^261:4 The Kashmir MS. FIFTH KHANDA [*2] 1. AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. 132 . Comm. THIRD ARANYAKA [*1]. ^263:1 The Kashmir MS. Now next the Upanishad of the whole speech. 2. ^261:3 elios menoeides Xen. 13. ^261:5 The Kashmir MS. reads svapnah. gr. which are left out in the printed text. True all these are Upanishads of the whole speech. Hist. and therefore a number of premonitory symptoms are considered in this place. but this they call so (chiefly). 10. 3. 8. reads gihmasirasam vasariram atmanam. so as to bring their number to ten. ^262:3 The Kashmir MS. reads mayuragriva ameghe. ^262:2 See Kh.^261:2 This separation of the self of the sun and the conscious self within us is taken as a sign of approaching death. ^262:5 The Kashmir MS. Up. the vowels heaven. SECOND ADHYAYA [*1]. ^262:7 The commentator separates the last dream. ^262:1 The Kashmir MS. the sibilants the sky. reads avagirati. reads sa yatas sruto. 4. The mute consonants represent the earth. and the commentary give the words rathasyevopabdis. The Kashmir MS. ^262:6 The Kashmir MS. reads givayishyati. ^262:4 The Kashmir MS. reads batirakani sampatantiva. ^261:6 A white pupil in a black eye-ball. III. reads askandati.

so there are touches of that. so there are strings of that [*3]. the sibilants the ear. in former times they covered a lute with a hairy skin. made by the gods). made by man). As there are consonants of this. As there are vowels of this. 3. so that is covered with a hairy skin. 4.The mute consonants represent Agni (fire). the sibilants air. 5. As there is a tongue of this. The lute made by man is an imitation of it. the vowels the back-breathing. so that is endowed with sound and firmly strung. As this is endowed with sound and firmly strung. Next comes this divine lute (the human body. the sibilants the down-breathing. so there are tones of that. so there is a head of that (lute. The mute consonants represent the eye. so there is a tongue [*2] in that. 133 . As this is covered with a hairy skin. the vowels the Sama-veda. As there are fingers of this. the vowels the mind. The mute consonants represent the Rig-veda. Verily. the vowels the sun. As there is a stomach of this. The mute consonants represent the up-breathing. AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. so there is the cavity [*1] (In the board) of that. As there is a head of this. the sibilants the Yagurveda.

6. ^264:2 Vadanam. there they know him. and wherever they speak Aryan languages. he now returns to the meditation on the letters. Comm. help me to speak well. 7. 1. SIXTH KHANDA. after having sent forth all creatures. let him say this verse: 8. Next follows the verse. who is covered. 'May the queen of all speech. He put himself together again by means of khandas (Vedas). who is a thunderbolt. ^264:1 The Kashmir MS. is willingly listened to. Next Krishna-Harita [*4] confided this Brahmana [*5] concerning speech to him (his pupil): 2. by the lips.' This is the vagrasa. what makes the instrument speak. &c. the essence of speech. Because he AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. as it were. his glory fills the earth. When a man reciting or speaking in an assembly does not please. the year. ^264:3 Here the order is inverted in the text. hastena. the essence of speech. surrounded by teeth. as if by spears. Footnotes ^263:2 After having inserted the preceding chapter on omina and the concluding paragraph on the highest knowledge. Pragapati. SECOND ADHYAYA [*1]. burst. He who knows this lute made by the Devas (and meditates on it). called vagrasa. 134 . THIRD ARANYAKA [*1]. reads udara evam.

135 . that is the end (of the other). then the letters n and sh have by this been obtained for us.put himself together again by means of khandas. 'With the letter n. 3. why should we sacrifice? We offer as a sacrifice breath in speech.' 6. the Kavasheyas [*3]. or speech in breath. Ar. and if we say the adhyaya of Mandukeya (Ait. Here the Rishis. If the pupil asks. Hrasva Mandukeya said: 'If we here recite the verses according to the Samhita (attending to the necessary changes of n and s into n and sh [*2]). 'Shall I say it with the letter sh or without it?' let the teacher say.' And if he asks. 'Shall I say it with the letter n or without it? 'let the teacher say. knowing this.' 8. 4. III. 1). said: 'Why should we repeat (the Veda). Of that Samhita the letter n is the strength.' AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. therefore (the text of the Veda) is called Samhita (put together). Sthavira Sakalya said: 'If we recite the verses according to the Samhita. 'With the letter sh [*1]. then the letters n and sh (strength and breath) have by this been obtained for us. 5.' 7. He who knows the Rik verses and the letters n and sh for every Samhita. and if we say the adhyaya of Mandukeya. What is the beginning (of one). he knows the Samhita with strength and breath. the letter sh the breath and self (Atman). Let him know that this is the life of the Samhita.

nor amuse himself with any one who does not know it. he should not forget this. 136 . and then rest in another place finishing it. he should not read [p. and who is not himself to become an instructor [*1]. 15.9. 'Nor should he forget it. yea. 12. 'And in the place where he reads this. III. 'It is enough. though he may read this (the Mahavrata) where he has read something else. it will be enough for himself (or for acquiring a knowledge of the Self). Even if he has read many other things. 13. 1-III. he should not become a snataka if he has not read this. and even if he should forget anything else. nor dine. 'If he does not forget this.' AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. 16. 14. 'Let him who knows this not communicate. who has not been with his teacher at least one year. 2) to one who is not a resident pupil. Thus say the teachers. Ar. 'No. thus say the teachers. 268] anything else. Let no one tell these Samhitas (Ait. 11. he should never forget this. let him know this to be true. 17. 'No one should bathe and become a snataka [*1c] who does not read this.

i. he becomes Brahman. ^265:1 The letters n and sh refer most likely to the rules of natva and shatva. ^264:5 Brahmana. and end in the evening before they fall together). nor should he glory in his knowledge. Instead of the morning and evening stoma they offer breath in speech. 'Iva. the changing of n and s into n and sh. breathing ceases. Comm. 'When the old water that stood round the roots of trees is dried up (after about the month of Pausha. 266] required. e. and when there is an unseasonable rain (after the months of Sravana and Bhadrapada. yea. in the sense of Upanishad. Nor should he at that time tell stories. he becomes Brahman.Then follow some more rules as to the reading of the Veda in general: 18. whenever they speak. ^265:3 The Kavasheyas said that. after they had arrived at the highest knowledge of Brahman (through the various forms of meditation and worship that lead to it and that have been described in the Upanishad) no further meditation and no further sacrifice could be [p.' which the commentator explains as restrictive or useless. speech ceases. August and September [*4c]) he should stop his Vedic reading for three nights. 137 . this secret doctrine or explanation. may mean. and he who thus knows the name of that Great Being. January to February [*2c]) he should not read. nor (at any time) in the morning or in the afternoon. something like a Brahmana. Nor should he read [*3c] when a cloud has risen. who was dark. ^265:2 If we know whenever n and s should be changed to n and sh in the Samhita. AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. When speech begins. It forms an appendix. like the svishtakrit at the end of a sacrifice. when they are silent or asleep.' Footnotes ^264:4 One of the sons of Harita. when breathing begins. 'This (the Veda thus learnt and studied) is the name of that Great Being. not even during the night. or speech in breath. when the shadows meet (he should begin at sunrise so soon as the shadows divide. 19.

and therefore it was necessary to say that no one who is adikshita. twice only. 'Let no one teach this day. 'Let the teaching not be more than saying it once or twice. like the rest of the sruti or sacred literature. the initiation for the Agnishtoma. and according to rule (niyamena). because what is done for them. the Aranyaka too. It would have seemed self-evident that. 'Not to a child. 'One man should tell it to one man. who has not passed through the Diksha. as here explained. and who does not mean to become a teacher in turn. 138 . 'The teacher and pupil should not stand. is done for ourselves. as at the end of the Upanishad: 4. 'The pupil should not lean backward while learning. should recite it for another person. or a corpse. that one should not recite the Mahavrata for another person. 267] when the Mahavrata is performed without (or with) an altar. Here we have first some rules as to who is qualified to recite the Mahavrata. nor to one who is not a brahmakarin and does not study the same Veda [*1b]. nor walk. Nor can there be any doubt that we ought to take the words asamvatsaravasin and apravaktri as limitations. If the Mahavrata is performed as a Sattra. when he has been writing or effacing his writing [*3b].^266:1 The strict prohibition uttered at the end of the third Aranyaka. No one is permitted to do so. when he has seen blood. when he has eaten flesh. e. or if it does not last one year. But if the Mahavrata is performed as an Ekaha or Ahina ceremony. and he naturally has passed through that ceremony. nor should he do so. parents and teachers are not to be understood as included. when he has been shaved or bathed. nor to one who does not come to him. oiled or rubbed his body. In saying. the sacrificer is a Hotri priest. and to translate. nor assume the postures of a devotee. to one who is not a regular pupil (antevasin). 9. nor sit on a couch. nor lie down. AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. but they should both sit on the ground.' That this is the right view is confirmed by similar injunctions given at the end of the fifth Aranyaka. certainly not to one who does not study the same Veda. nor to a man in his third stage of life. and here we read. but without using any of the apparel of a devotee. 7. by a pupil performing all the duties of a student (brahmakarin [*2a]). uninitiated. not to divulge a knowledge of the Samhita-upanishad (Ait. or when he has done an unlawful thing [*2b]. the Mahavrata. could have been learnt from the mouth of a teacher only. After these restrictions as to the recitation of the Mahavrata. or ornamented himself with flower-wreaths. nor lean forward. simply elevate his knees. put colour on. i. 8. certainly not to one who has not been so for one year. is peculiar. Nor should he learn. so says Gatukarnya. 1-2). III. 6. anybody might be the sacrificer. and has been so for one year. [p. He should not be covered with too much clothing. so that no one except a regular pupil (antevasin) could possibly gain access to it. however. when he has anointed his eyes. 'Let no one tell these Samhitas to any pupil who has not at least been a year with his master. and every portion of it. Ar. 5. follow other restrictions as to the teaching of it.

'Nor should he finish the reading in one day. 2. translated by Buhler. 33 (I. akramya is explained by the commentator by ^266:3b This. 11. and Buhler's note. p. 4. ^266:1c Apastamba-sutras. 92 (I. while according to Galava. ^266:2a Apastamba-sutras. 139 . 9. 33 (I. translated by Buhler. p. translated by Buhler. p. 31). ^266:1b See Gautama-sutras XIV.10. 3. 18. translated by Buhler. 1-4. 44 (I. if rightly translated. I. 2). p. Ar. so says Gatukarnya. 4). translated by Buhler. Agnivesyayana holds that he should finish all before the Trikasitis [*4b]^266:4b See Ait. AITAREYA-ARANYAKA. 21. 3. 1). he should finish it in one day. 9. 3. p. ^266:4c Apastamba-sutras. ^266:2c Apastamba-sutras. ^266:3c Apastamba-sutras. 30. would seem to be the earliest mention of actual writing in Sanskrit literature. 3. ^266:2b Navratyam ukkhishtadyakramana.

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