M I N D - nature & function

A Types 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Object possesors Conceptual & nonconceptual minds Sense and mental awarenesses Direct perceivers Inferential cognizers Re-cognizers Correct beliefs Non-ascertaining perceivers Doubts

10. Wrong awarenesses 11. Valid & non-valid cognizers

1.1 Object possesor - a functioning thing that expresses or cognizes an object;


object possessor & objects mutually dependent; obj. possessors & specially 1.2 Divisions 1.21 Expressive sounds - object of hearing, having sense meaning expressing definate object/thing; articulate words mind without an object any time;

sounds such as spoken

1.22 Persons - Inputed upon the five aggregates of form, feelings, discrination, evolving facts & consiousness; cognizing things/objects through their minds; performs actions and expereinces the results thereof; 1.23 Minds - principal function is to cognize objects; clarity (nature) & 1.231 subtle completion stage 1.232 cognition (function); Mind - levels - grosss (normal waking minds) , subtle, very (dream, death &meditative poise for practitioners);

Mind - (subtle) - location - crown chakra (discursive minds, confused minds); heart chakra hatred); navel chakra (desirous

minds, dull (love, compassion, attachment);



Conceptual & nonconceptual minds

2.1 Conceptual - a thought that apprehends its objects through a generic 2.11 Objects: (5 types) image (of the object); a appearing - seeing a table directly

appearing b observed - also the table c ebngaged - also the table d aprrehended - also the table e conceived - table not; any object through image

division (a) - 1. peceiving through image mainly from force of reading or seeing it 2. through image & force of contemplating the meaning of an thinking of it 3. image through previous inprints - like “I” division (b) - i. Correct & ii. wrong or object - image of flower after listening, image of flower after



since our birth we have been using the faculties we call the mind. It is not something which is new and we are not going to learn something which we do not know. It is possible that we are not very clear about what our mind is as there are different theories about it. If we are going to study the mind from the aspect of understanding the outside world then we will only understand that aspect. If we are going to study the mind with respect to the internal working of the mind then we will understand it from that aspect. If we have about the mind then our

understanding will be limited by those theories.

First of all we should put a question to ourself, in which we ask - what is the mind? Before we try to get any answer we must make it clear about the function of the mind and that which we generally talk about; one is called the subject and one is called


the object. If there is something to be seen or to be known then there must be something which observes, which sees or which knows it. The one which knows is what we call the subject and that which is seen or known is the object. There are three different parts which can take the role of the subject and then all other phenomena are the object. So we have to understand the difference between the one observing and the one observed. @@@@ the entire universe or existance can be divided into two portions, one which observes that is subject and one that is observed which is the object. The subject can have three classes, it can be either a mind, a person or articualted verbal sound. Everything else including these three things can be the object. The subject is dependent on the object. It does not mean that one thing is the subject and cannot be the object, this is not true, the subject itself can be the object. For example, if we talk about a person being the subject that very person at the same time can be the object of another person. In a similar way if we talk about the mind being a subject, the very same mind which is now seeing a house and a flower, can also be the object of


it does not have a colour. When you observe me speaking I become the object of your observation. at this time I am the subject and you are the object. The mind has the faculty of cognition. it is not space. at the very same time you can also be the subject because in your mind you are observing me as the speaker. What is mind? First we should try to define what is mind. is a material thing which can only be the object it cannot also be the subject. however all phenomena cannot be the subject. A person can be both the object and subject. the person and the articulated verbal sound can be both subject as well as object. The mind is defined to be something which has clarity and which is a cogniser. everything in existence can be object. The clarity aspect of the definition of the mind refers to something which is not material. for example when I am speaking. it has the conscious faculty of apprehension. it can 6 . it does not have a form. it can be described as similar to space like nature but.another mind. The mind. it does not have a shape. A chair. Everything in the universe.

people may come around us but we do not know because we are on a sub conscious level. The faculty of consciousness is possessed only by living beings. The gods and demi gods are often classed together because in many ways they are quite similar 7 . The majority of gods are said to be self born. Here we have to make the clarification that it is not the ‘God’ but gods.know things. They subsist on subtle energies and essences of nutrients. In buddhism we do not only talk of human beings as living beings. In many ways the gods and demi-gods (the third class) possess similar qualities to human beings but they have other different qualities which human beings do not possess. who like human beings are also numberless. One class we are very aware of is human being or the human race. The second class of beings are called gods. We say that material things do not have the faculty of consciousness. Their sustainance of living is also not dependent on material foods like we need. Without the mind we would not know. generally we consider that living beings consist of 6 classes. without depending on the mothers womb. At the time of our sleeping.

but they do have some different characteristics. The western term hell suggests a very horrible thing but there are human beings who are also in this part of existence as a hell being. Even among human beings we find that 8 . It is not easy for us to know or to have a good understanding of these things because as human beings we are only aware of ourselves and we do not give much thought to other beings but it is possible to have some idea about such things. The hungry ghosts are said to not always be miserly and living in misery but their main problem is always suffering from the inability to supress or satisfy their hunger. gods. the hungry ghosts and hell beings.thirst and so on. It is not that they do not have material things. These three groups of beings. The animal kingdom consists of the smallest insects to the biggest animal such as the elephant or even earlier the dinosaur. many of them are said to be rich with lots of material possessions but they are not able to enjoy them. the animal kingdom. The other three lower classes of beings are. The last class of beings is the hell beings. demi gods and human beings are said to be of the better part of the universe.

having pain or having pleasure and this is because of the mind. The function of the mind is to cognise. On the other side we can see similar situations to the hungry ghosts or the hell beings. for example through seeing things. especially now in Bosnia. We will all agree that this material table does not have pain. nor can we think of this table as having pleasure. We are talking of these different kinds of beings because the subject which we are talking about is the mind and the mind is possessed by each and everyone of these beings. So whoever possesses a mind can be described as a living being. These are the functions of the different aspects of the mind. As living beings we have the nature of either suffering.some people have a better physical body and a lighter way of living. When we see this kind of thing we can imagine the possibility of other beings in such conditions. observing things. which we can compare to the gods and demi gods. tasting and so on. Very often we find in many countries that there are wars going on. many people are living in the terror of guns and they do not find security in their lives. An overall general quality of the consciousness is 9 .

So what is the cause now can be the effect in the next moment. Todays mind is the cause for the birth of tomorrows mind and todays mind is the result of yesterday mind. We sometimes say that our hands are senseless. for example the hand itself cannot know although when I touch this I will feel something. observing and so on.apprehension and consists of seeing. This is cause and effect. it is not a material thing and it cannot be touched. The work of the mind or the capability of the mind is to know. from one moment to the next it is moving. This is a basic definition of the mind and from that definition we can talk about the mind as being something subtle. for example the second moment of the mind is caused by the earlier moment of the mind. this feeling is actually because of the mind. It is momentary. One important thing that we need to know about the mind is that it is not 10 . this is because the mind is not able to give the connectivity to that part of our body and so we feel it to be senseless. a knowing function. any phenomena can be the cause and the effect. It is a substantial phenomena and it is a phenomena having a mental function.

the ears we find on the head. Many people who think that the brain is the mind do so because if we observe the brain. the nose and the mouth.permanant. This might 11 . Even medically whenever the brain is damaged the person is said be in a dying state. even part of the sensation of the body is here. Many people these days believe that the brain is the mind. whenever there are sensations or activities taking place somewhere something is definitely happening in the brain. The eyes we find on the head. When we say that a thing is not permanant it does not mean that it will disappear it means that it is moving from one moment to the other. by using different kinds of mechanical instruments. firstly when something is happening in the brain it is very evident and secondly many of the sensual organs (except the physical body) are on the head. So we find everything on the head and the brain is in the head. There are many reasons why we think that the brain is the mind.

they are related in many ways. The mind is said to ride the energies which are passing through the channels and therefore those who theorise these things are basing their reasoning on this kind of thing. It is said that the energies are used like a vehicle by the mind and therefore for those who are observing or studying the working of the energies it is very difficult to differentiate which is the mind and which are the energies because the mind is very much dependent on the energy. We have a lot of energy passing through our body. So why do some people take these channels to be the mind? It is because the mind itself is dependent upon these energies. For us who perhaps cannot even recognise these energies then there is no point in making this confusion. the channels are there and they pass through different points. There are other traditions and theories according to which. 12 .lead us to believe very easily that the brain can be identified as the mind. the energy channels in the body are considered to be the mind.

If it was then without the mind working people should still be able to see because the sense organ is still active. The confusion is because the functions of the sense organs are working similarly to the function of the mind. When I use my eyes to look at something then I think that the eye sense organ is observing that thing I do not recognise that the mind is also working there.Many other theories subscribe to the theory that the sense organs can be regarded as or identified as the mind. This cannot really be the only agent which makes it possible to see something. but still the sense organs can be very active and can be utilised even for other human beings. In a similar way each of the sense organs are regarded or confused to be working as the mind. We have to observe the materials of the organ itself. when we observe the eye organ we find the eyeball itself or even the different parts of the eyeball. that means it still has the capability of a full organ.We know that a dying person has a certain time limit. In a similar way the different sense organs of a person are still active even 13 .We need to observe how the sense organs themselves are working.

the organs still have the capacity of regular organs but why are they not able to do the functions which they did? By technological advancement we have learnt how to identify things. The reception of 14 . Even if we examine sound. so why is the dead person not able to observe. see. at that moment. that is the difference. say something. When someone is declared to be dead. the tape recorder when it is played is making some sound so can we say that it has the same capability as the mouth? In a similar way the tape recorder when it is recording has the similar capacity as the sense of hearing. Although we can make these things we cannot make the functioning of the sense organ. which makes it possible to see things such as the organ itself and so now we can also replace things. hear. We have studied these things and we know that it is the mind which is coming through the sense organ of the eye and so we still cannot make fingers see like the eye sense organ does. Can we consider the camera to be similar to the eye sense organ? If we observe this kind of thing then we will have more understanding of this kind of mental factors.when the person is dead.

the sound is done by the recorder and this function is similar to the sense of hearing. when the eye sense organ is damaged we cannot see. then we will know that the sense organ itself is not mind as some theories now say. There are many similar questions that we can put about the different sense organs. It is sure that the mind is dependent on the sense organs because when an organ is damaged the mind cannot function for example. Without the eye organ then the mind cannot have the function of seeing. This kind of 15 . a physical force which is present in the body is considered to be the mind. We know that there is a relation between the eye organ and the sense of seeing but they are not seeing. If someone has a damaged eye he may not be able to see for some time but after medical care and if the eye organ is repaired then he is able to see again. if the organ of hearing is damaged we cannot hear. The fourth theory is that the mind itself is some kind of a phenomena which is a part of the body. This also shows us that there is something other than the sense organ itself through which the mind is acting.

it makes us concerned only for the physical body and the requirements of the physical body. This kind of thinking was also quite prominent in ancient times as it is now.theory is different from thinking that the brain is the mind or that the sense organs are the mind because they think that it is some kind of identical part of the body. That is why it is thought that when a man dies the life of the mind also dies. 16 . it is very similar to the body and when the body goes the mind also goes. This kind of attitude makes us very much concerned only with this present life and so we do not bother about any future existence. because they think the mind is something which is similar to the physical body itself. There is nothing different between the mind and the physical body itself. It is a physical force which is present in the body. They think that the mind is something which can not be differentiated from the body. an element of the body and that the life span of the mind is the same as that of the body.

Why is this kind of attitude making us only concerned with our physical body? It is because this thinking makes us not able to even consider existence apart from the physical body. having this kind of attitude in this present life will make us only more concerned for the physical part of the body than for the different parts of life which we can talk of as the mind.Even if we are not concerned about future existence.what are the requirements of the physical body? We could meet every requirement of the physical body and still there would be 17 . This kind of thinking leads us to the attitude of considering or treating this body as the most important thing and for this reason we are very much concerned with the physical body. We can understand that there is something other than the physical body in our life by examining and asking ourself . the existence of a mind seperate from the physical body.

The pains that we have had in our life. All of this process is seperate from the physical body and even apart from the sense organs.something which makes us feel unhappy or discontent. We know that there are certain things which effect us that are not the physical or the material body. the pleasures that we have had in our life. We have to go into detail on this because if we are not able to arrive at an understanding about the mind. there would still be something which we would find missing in our life. we can go back to those places immediately. If we have been to many different places even sitting here now. the existence of a mind apart from the physical body then we would not be able to talk about the mind which is having an effect. even if they were ten or 18 . During the last one and half hours I have been thinking and talking and you have been listening and thinking. If we try to go back into our childhood and from then onwards we try to remember different levels of our age we can still remember a lot of things and these memories are also not a physical thing. If we think what the requirements of the physical body are and we meet every requirement.

I think you would also agree that it is not important what we know quantity wise but it is more important we know something clearly.twenty years before. We may still have to cover the same subject in more detail going into the different factors of the mind but first we must have a clear idea about what the mind is and how far we can comprehend this idea of the mind. however far we go back we can still remember those things very cleary. if it is not clear it is not useful. somebody telling you many things cannot make you understand unless your mind is going with those things. I think we need to leave a little time for some questions. Therefore it is very important and so tomorrow we may touch again this subject in more detail. Only then can we talk about the factors. in this way it is much more useful. we could not have these memories going into the past or project ourself into the future. Otherwise there are millions of books in which there is all of 19 . Knowing anything depends upon us applying our own mind. Without the phenomena called the mind which has the cognitive force.

it is not the sensual organs. 20 . Enthusiastic perserverance generally is not only hard work it means having the wish to know the good and positive things. it is not the energy. We have laziness in everything. maybe we are holding a book and reading a lot but applying the mind is very difficult in the beginning but when we become used to it it can become quite easy. We can say what it is not and at the end we realsie what is the nature of the mind by the process of elimination.this information but until we apply our mind to knowing it even while reading we do not understand because the mind is not applied. maybe physically we are very active. Question Can we say that the mind and the consciousness are the same thing? ANSWER Yes. The mind is not the brain. it is not material.

it is a physical entity which is composed of both physical phenomena as well as mental phenomena. the second is the person and third is the articulated 21 . When we talked about the subject which consists of three things. gods and so on because if we do not do this then we may think that human beings are the only person. Generally we misunderstand this but animals are person because they are made from physical and mental. one is the mind. Every sentient being has to be regarded as a person. that is why at the beginning I was going around the different classes or realms of human beings.Other questions? QUESTION/DISCUSSION What is the difference between the mind and the person? ANSWER The person is a physical and mental entity. it is very clear that man is a person but animals are also person. We say this person and that person.

QUESTION The person is a knower? ANSWER YES. The mind. the person. QUESTION 22 . the mind is also a knower? ANSWER Yes.verbal sound. The second class. consists of all living beings. QUESTION So. the person and the articulated verbal sound are the three subjects and they are what know. This means the subject is less and the object is more. Not every phenomena is the subject but everything can be the object.

The person is a living entity. then person can also be seen as the subject but we may be confused because of the physical body. Otherwise if we simply take the mind. The mind is singular whereas the person is a combination of the body and mind. Here it may be confusing because we are saying mind and then articulated sound and then the person. The person consists of both the physical body and the mind. We have to regard the person seperately as a subject because if we simply talk about the mind and articulated sound as subject then we 23 . It is important because person consists not only of the mind but also of the physical aspect and that is why it is put seperately.Why do we not put together the person and mind? ANSWER The person does not mean only the physical part of the body. In the person there is also mind but here the person is regarded as one of the subjects seperately.The mind is the part of the person that knows. the mind is only the mind.It is not the body of the person that knows.

QUESTION Is it correct to say that the mind itself cannot exist without the person? ANSWER Yes. Mind is not existing as a living entity.The two exclude the misconception of confusing the person when regarded as a subject and exclude the misconception about the physical body as an object. it is necessary for the mind to be person. QUESTION Then it is the person who is knower not the mind? ANSWER 24 .will see that the person can also be a subject and then we will get confused because of the physical entity.

Within the person the mind can also function to know the different aspects of the mind. when you are looking at something at that moment your sixth sense can know that you are seeing something. If we define and seperate things into atoms and further into atoms then they exist but to be functional they have to come into some composition. We often talk about the six senses. QUESTION The mind exists by itself or only with the person or with the body? ANSWER Generally every phenomena even the smallest exists by itself but to be a functional thing then it has to come into composition. 25 . The subject mind becomes the object of the mind of the person.

even for short periods of time. I can relate one quite recent event. something which is not different from the physical body. they say that when the man dies the mind also dies.QUESTION Does the mind remain with a body which is dying? ANSWER That is what we discussed in one of the theories. There are those who regard the physical body as the mind.We know however that while living the seperation of the mind and the body can take place. QUESTION The mind is knowing also without sensory organs? ANSWER 26 . If we do not accept the existence of the mind other than as a part of the body we have to believe in the disappearance of the mind along with the death of the body.

the person and the articulated sound are the three things which are regarded as the subject and all other phenomena are regarded as the object. As we discussed yesterday the mind. It is the sixth sense. QUESTION >Not possible to hear< ANSWER Inherently nothing exists. so the mind or the subject can never be alone it will always be attracted to certain objects. We generally have millions and 27 . observing the idea of one thing in my head has a seperate identity but it is still existing. mental. The five senses come through the five sense organs and the sixth is not requiring this. I remember something so that memory itself of one item exists.Yes. We call it mind.

The mind is always holding some object. when you just look at the tangha you will see many points. generally we say that we are looking at the tangha but when you are looking at the tangha you will be drawn to the blue and red and round and square and after some time if you are really observant you are not looking anywhere just going around and around you are not on a point so you are not able to catch anything well.millions of objects in our daily life so our mind will always be we are going to look at this square or this thing. from this wondering we have to say . You will not find your mind idle. This is the way that our mind is just wondering around. When we develop motivation it means that we are drawing the mind from its scattering and we are making it do an appointed job. For example you can see at the back of me a tangha. there is no time and space when the mind is not totally drawn to an object. When we are looking at the mind from this point of view it 28 . even when we say it is idle it is still attracted to some object. there is no point when our mind is not holding an object. there are thousands and thousands of points in it.

it will wonder through its memories because it has seen a lot of things. If you close your ears then still it will be wondering.really needs to be brought up properly like we bring up a child. the mind the sixth sense itself is wondering. whatever we find in the universe is actually been apprehended by the mind. If you close your nose then still it will be wondering. it is able to observe many things. This wondering is not dependent on the sense organs alone. sometimes through the ears. What happens is that generally we have not been given the information that the mind 29 . Sometimes it wonders through the eyes. sometimes through the nose and smell and so on . Every moment we need to take care of the mind and draw it to certain work otherwise it is always wondering. For this you can say I am just looking at something and that is why my mind is wondering but if you close your eyes it will still be wondering.the senses are very important because the mind gets more doors to go out of but still it would be wondering even if it was not going through these senses. As we already discussed yesterday and just started today the mind as such is really very powerful in one sense.

If you were born blind then many aspects of the phenomena such as the colours. some are more 30 .even without the requirement of the five senses can still apply itself to all phenomena. the kind of shape and so on. what is smooth. There are many aspects to the mind some are positive and some are negative. shapes and so you may not receive but still you would develop a lot of other aspects because for example through your touch you would come to know what is rough. some are good and some are bad.

as a daughter and so on. So this same sort of thing can apply to 31 . your mother may remind you “do not behave like a child you already have a child with you” then you realise that you have to behave more like a mother than like a child. we should give more roles to the positive mind and give less roles to the negative mind. we should try to choose the more positive ones.powerful and some are less powerful. We might think how can this one mind have all these aspects? How can this mind act in a positive way and the same mind act negatively? How can the same mind act as a very small thing and a very big thing? The mind has a different variety of roles and this we can understand even within one person. as a mother. there are three people. just as we have already described different roles in your life. when you are behaving like a child in front of your mother. Suppose you are living with your mother and your daughter. How long will you be playing each role in each day? In one day how many minutes of each role will you play? In a similar way the different roles of the mind. one mind can have different roles and aspects.

for example the scientists are looking into each matter and when they know the secret of each phenomena they use this for making something useful.Actually we are all using this very mind the only thing is that we are not able to identify it and we do not know the different aspects and different roles. that we did not apply so many minds to make. People are now employing many different kinds of techniques.your mind. Getting used to something is one of the points that you have to keep in your mind. mind can also remember that . but now because we use many things we need more resources 32 . When we know about the different roles and aspects of the mind then it may be useful.“I should not be having this kind of negative attitude I should be having a positive attitude”. it is still working. in the past we did not know them so we were not able to use them but when we know them we are able to put together many things. Any materials that we use in making things. Earlier we were using mostly natural things. The mind is working all day even if we do not talk about it.

they are doing many things. pain or suffering. Therefore we have happiness or unhappiness. you cannot talk of being happy or unhappy.Our life is very much dependent not only on the physical part of the body but it is more dependent on the functioning of the mind. some are going to the shops. When we say “I am happy or unhappy. you cannot talk of happiness.Even if other people do not need to use it at least you need it yourself all the time. I am not feeling well” if you remove the mind of the person then you cannot talk of suffering. some are 33 . good feeling or pleasure because of the mind. When you go around the city everyday you will find many people moving this way and that way. because it is the mind which is apprehending all these things. It can be used by everybody. people are going this way and sometimes that way. I am having a problem today.I am giving these examples because knowing the mind and making use of the mind can be used all of the time in our life from our birth until our death. All these we cannot talk of unless we have mind.

when you see from your eyes 34 .you may find many not tasteful. we try to choose the objects which we feel are more important. Do these vehicles move without the drivers? the person who we are talking about. the man or woman is moved also by an internal driver which is the mind. Of all the things you find some of them tasteful. some are going to hospital and all these movements are activated by the mind of each person. Suppose we bring in this house a thousand items of foods.going to the church. but out of those tasteful ones many of them may not be very good for your health! So who is going to make the decision to take this one or not? From the material point of view. some maybe from Africa. Of all the objects. our mind always gets attracted to different objects. some from Asia. Some people choose some things and others choose different things. in general you do not choose the things you do not know. When you go around you choose only the things which you are used to.On the highways and roads we find so many vehicles moving.

If we leave it entirely to the material objects themselves and to the senses then we will choose those things which we like but which may not be very useful to us. From the sound point of view you might choose sounds which are nice to your ear. good shaped and so on then you choose it. so when we say “it is my instinct or 35 . our natural instinct is to fight back and we get attracted to something which is attractive. we say it is naturally attractive but we do not have the choice in that because. So we need certain things which do the right choosing. either we attract what we do not like or we just get attracted to what we like.something which is colourful. We need to know first about the nature of the mind and then. Generally what we call natural instinct we call natural but the natural things are not always the best things. when we know a bit better the nature of the mind then we need to know the aspects which are going to take us in the right direction. This is a natural thing. We have the natural instinct of hating somebody when they appear aggressive. then we need to choose because what comes naturally to us is not necessarily always the right thing.

Suppose now I wished to shout.. generally we talk about “it is my wish.. What is natural? Is habit natural? Do we call the things which we got through habit natural? What is habit? If there is something which we do repeatedly and we get used to it then that is habit and that is becoming natural! Why don’t we make an effort to remove the negative things from our habits? We know now that everything that centres around the mind is important so we need to have a little control over the mind and we also need to know that the controlling is done by some aspect of the mind itself. you have the liberty to 36 ... In general in a social sense we can talk about liberty and freedom as something that permits you to do the things that you like but does not encroach upon the liberties of other people..I would like to add some points here... I desire this kind of thing” we also often say that I should have the freedom to do this thing and freedom to not do that thing so here when we talk about freedom or liberty...natural” we need to go into more detail about these things..

So I can use this liberty of shouting only when I am alone in my room.not be disturbed by such noise. very sensitive and aware of each thing. To know the mind we should be very sharp. so what do we do? We try to convince him by telling him good things but he does not listen so we have to use force to take him to school or we deny him some privledges such as having sweets or we even beat him. In our social sense liberty has certain limitations. So this study of the mind needs one intellect which should be very sharp because we need to go into the subtle aspects of the mind. but the child does not necessarily like to go to school. he wants to play all the time. In a similar way the different aspects of the mind each have one aspect as their own liberty. The mind itself is very subtle so if we want to know the different aspects of the mind our application of the mind should be sharper because we 37 . This kind of beating and punishment we do not do against his freedom because we do these things for his betterment. If we have children we need to send them to school. so sometimes betterment for him means that we need to encroach upon certain limits of his freedom.

We have already talked quite a lot so what you need to do when you go back to your homes is you need to give a little time to reflect upon these things. these notes I will only use when I forget 38 .are talking of or learning a subtle thing so our mind has to also be very sharp and very clear. I do not say that we should not make notes or we should not record but our intention should be that I will directly record myself in my brain or my mind. It is also our human tendancy to say I will do this tommorrow. I will do this the next time. We should not make notes only for keeping a record and say “I will have the time to go through these notes later on” This tendancy of noting down is sometimes not a positive thing. If we do not apply some time to reflect on these points we will have a lot of information and then we may get tired. so we will be waiting for some free time which we will never get. Only then can we pick up these things. That reflection and going back on these points we need to do immediately because we are going to attend another session in the evening and at that time we are going to again accumulate more information and more points to reflect upon.

This is very important and I think the people who are making notes will realise this because we do this thing very often. So we should try to record directly into our mind. I will not depend on these notes.about certain things then I will look back. I know this from my own experience. QUESTION 39 . This kind of motivation is very important because we go on and on making notes and we never get the time to go back and we never make our mind record immediately. We have 5 or 6 minutes left which we will leave for some questions and answers. This kind of motivation is very important otherwise when we are making notes our mind says “ok I have made this note and I will find some time to go back over them later”. Whenever we are making notes or recording we should think that this is only a secondary source for when we do not remember certain important things then we can go back over them otherwise we should never use our notes.

You said before that each and everyone of the mental factors has its own freedom. QUESTION 40 . QUESTION If someone is using the visual organ too much they become distracted by sight so does this mean they lose the other of the sense organ functions? ANSWER Yes it is possible. I do not say that there is freedom or there is no freedom. how is this possible? ANSWER In society we talk a lot about freedom and I just simply carried that comparison to the mind.

We can even go to a different study room and read but generally what 41 . if you are resting and watching television just because it is there you do not watch everything you only look at those things which are useful or interesting. There are thousands and millions of things to be seen but you only tend to see those things which are useful to you for example.If you balance the sense organs does it make the mind more sharp and attentive? ANSWER Actually the point is not balancing. For example if I need to know something this knowing is not always dependent on my eyes. The point is whether we need to use these things or not. If I need to know something which is not coming on the television and if I can get this information from a book. I can shut off the television and then read the book but what often happens is the television is there so we put it on and we hold the book but we are looking at and we give more time to the television if we are really interested in the book we could put the television off.

the steering wheel which controls the car and so on and in the human body we have the sense organs such as eyes. In a motor car there are some sensitive parts such as the lights.Mind is difficult to grasp it is sleeping all the time. Both the car and the human body come into existence but both are unable to function until there is some force which operates it. . we get lost in whatever draws our attention most strongly. For 42 . It is very difficult but just one second in order to be centred on one point. So there are different parts of the car which more or less function like the human body.happens is attraction. So it is important to develop attention to the present. We find that the younger generation whenever they find something restricting their thinking they rebel against society. the very moment. ears and the senses of seeing and so on.

when the human mind is formatted in a proper way. In a similar way. organised properly then the human being as a whole can also function properly without many difficulties and problems. in the case of human beings we need food and drinks. the human body. Maybe we think that 43 . when it is not well settled then the human person cannot function properly.the motor car we need regular fuel like petrol. he will always be having problems and difficulties and he will not be able to work properly. For the motor car to be really active. but the mind has to come from its own source and that source is the proceeding mental factor. both the parents (the father and mother) were working together to produce the new human body. working and operational there has to be a human being which controls it. When the mind of the human being is not well organised. The proceeding mental factor is the seed for the generation of the next mind. In the case of the human being the mind is similar to the man in the motor car.

it cannot be combined together through different sources. 44 . if the father and the mother can give the seeds for the production of the human body then why can’t the father and mother give the seeds for the production of the new mind? One problem in this is if the father and mother are going to give the seed for the human mental product then the father and mother’s mind need to join together to produce the new mind. both of them have to contribute to produce the new human body. Also from our experience we know that children have different natures from the father and the mother. Here now arises the suspicion about the mind. In the case of the human body the mother alone or the father alone cannot give all the things necessary. Generally mind is of one nature.the parents (father and mother) had a mind so maybe the new mind is coming from their minds.

when and how this 45 . In this way we can also. The main characteristic of the human mind is knowing. The father may be a very learned and educated person and the mother may be very patient or have different qualities but the child may not posses these qualities. The question now coming is . therefore if the mind is coming from the parents. A glass comes from a product with a glass nature. From our experience we will come to know that it is very unlikely that our mind is a part of the mother and fathers mental product. If it was so then a generous father and mother should necessarily produce a generous son or daughter but a great musician father does not necessarily produce a great musical child. to some extent think that the mind must come from something with a similar nature to the mind itself. Even if we go to the material level. then the father and mother who are not learned parents cannot produce a child who is more knowledgable or learned. a glass particle whatever we do with it cannot produce gold.The father may be a very gentle person and the mother may be a very kind person but they can have a child who is neither kind or gentle.

immediately takes a next moment. Even though there are many sperms . in the scientific explanation the human male semen has the potentiality of producing many lives but in reality only one or two of the sperms have the possibility to come into contact with the ovum and ocassionally three but generally it is one. because it is not a static thing.Here there maybe some interesting points that even the scientists and biologists need to consider and think about.why are only a few able to fertilise? In some cases an husband and wife try to conceive but fail. it is a dynamic and fluid force. When the human mind and body seperate that is what we call death. As we have now learnt from the biologists. such as the fact that every sexual union does not result in mental product comes into being? When the human conception take place the past mental continuum of the previous mind is generated into a new mental continuum. I do not know whether the scientists can tell us why even 46 . immediately the body disintegrates into the basic elements and they absorb into their own elements and in a similar way the mind.

At each station there maybe a longer stay but then there is a change. Beings are born from eggs. the mind has been travelling for a very vast and infinate time.with the meeting of the sperm and the ovum that conception does not take place. A very endless sort of thing. The next moment is generated by the earlier moment and in this way each moment is taking a new birth. even by having implants. The same thing applies to the mind. humidity and so on. Even in taking a new life there are different kinds of form coming into being which are not always dependent on the mothers womb. it is sometimes in the form of a human being and during that time it sometimes 47 . this is taking place and therefore the mind should also have come from a previous mind. The mind is a continuation. generally the present mind is coming from the first moment and it is moving to the next moment. This kind of thing we have to take into consideration then we will come to know that there are other factors which must be present for the rebirth of a being.

otherwise there is no need for controlling. Controlling does not mean that we do not allow something it means that we are not giving the possibility or the chances to the negative aspects of mind we are giving more time or chance to the positive aspect of the mind. We are talking about controlling the mind because it effects much more in life than the physical body. At this point I think that we must consider another very important aspect .which is most important. If we like having pain we can leave the mind to get attracted to the pain feeling 48 .lives the length of 100 years and sometimes it lives to the age of say 2 or 3 years and then it takes a new life and it depends upon a new container. the person who uses the car or the car? Is the car for the person or is the person for the car? I am making this comparison because the mental life is much more important than the physical life. In this way the mind has been travelling and each time it is using a different kind of vehicle the mind has been travelling for an infinate time but it is a fluctuating thing.

mental aspect. Since pain and pleasure. depressed states of mind then we should recognise them and let them go away because there are other aspects of mind which are not bringing us this kind of feeling. If we do not want to feel continuously angry or irritated then we do not allow this state of mind to occur. This is in our hand. If we recognise the nature of the mind then we come to understand that these are states of the mind. happiness and unhappiness are all aspects of the mental states we must know these states and so we must know the mind. If we are attracted by the negative. Here it is not important that it was the Buddha who said that pain and pleasure are a result of the mind. we have to see for ourselves whether pain and pleasure are aspects of the mind and if we find that it is so then we have to change these aspect. In a similar way we can think about which is better for life. First we should try to recognise these things. generally we know that pain is not something that we like and naturally we like something pleasant and pleasurable. We face depression very often and if we keep hold of the depression we will keep it for a long time. Buddha is 49 .

If we get any message and we realise the knowledge of it then it belongs to us. We do not need to become a buddhist. By taking this information and using it I did not have to become an Indian. we need to remove those aspects of mind which are causing us these difficulties and we need to bring up those aspects of mind which make us more flexible. 50 . we do not need to become anything. If it helps me then I take that thing. I got this information or teachings from my teacher and my teacher got this message and teaching from his teacher. it does not even belong to the Buddha. open and happy. it does not belong to anybody. If I realise whatever meaning there is and I put it in my life and it helps me to remove the negative attitudes from my mind and it helps me to bring positive attitudes then I use it. I confess that I do not know very much but whatever I know it is not necessary that I know it in the order and the countings. The Buddha first gave these teachings to the Indian scholars and monks and they passed them on and they came to us.only pointing to us. so in this way we can trace to the Buddha.

this is because all sentient beings like us always find some problem in their life and we get tired of many things. information and techniques. This does not mean that you do not use it.I am not giving this talk or discussion or giving this kind of teaching to show that I know it. Other people could also be benefitted by simply sharing some of our experiences. Everything may not help you at this stage but gradually some may help you and at certain other times others may help. Rinpoche is trying to give some techniques and some methods by which we can find some relaxation and remove some of the problems that we create for ourself. I share these things because many of them have improved my life so I think that it is better that many more people also have the chance to try. you use it and share it with other people. Gangchen Rinpoche has been giving different kinds of teachings and currently he is giving the message of Self-Healing and a message of peace. even at this time you may realise something and gain help. In this way if you find some of these things interesting and useful then you carry on doing them and pass on the information. 51 .

a beautiful shape and so on. It maybe holding an object such as a colour or shape through the eye. maybe some kind of feeling through the tactile bodily sense of touch or maybe some idea through the mind. Unlike space which is just abstract. a sound through the ears. At present we do not seem to have the choice about which kind of phenomena we want to choose as an object for the mind. The mind is always holding a phenomena as an object. Any phenomena is an object and the mind generally and usually always apprehends an object. a smell through the nose. some kind of taste through the tongue. We think that this selection of the object is done by free will but if we examine it properly it is not free will. We think that it is our desire and that we like it but it is some kind of compulsion that occurs in us. we 52 . Most of the time we have the desire to hold something colourful. mind has the capability of the conscious faculty of knowing or apprehending any object. We cannot think of a blank mind which is not holding an object.mind is something similar to space that is to say it is not a physical thing.

we can train the mind and we can make the mind more major and in this way we are able to tackle the many different problems in life much better for those who have had very good exercise throughout their life. In a similar way those who have had a lot of mental exercise during their earlier lifetime will have a much easier mental life in the later part of their life. heat. When we recognise the mind. it is stronger and healthier but as we age we become weaker and we lose our good health and so on. Even the cold. pain and so on is coming through the body but mainly it is experienced through the mind. Of the two aspects of 53 . Everybody agrees that the later part of life is always more difficult than the younger part of our life because as a younger person our physical body has more energy.must also realise that happiness and unhappiness is because of the mind. they can handle their life much easier. Many of the things that we would like to do in later life we cannot. when they become older they are quite active and move easily. When we feel hungry perhaps we may feel that it is a physical kind of thing but without the mind we cannot feel hunger.

54 . We find in our present system many life insurance If we continue to train the mind well it can help us in the next five years and in this way it can carry us to the end of our life and then it will definately help us in our next life. many health insurance companies. QUESTION Does the mental training of this life help for future lifes? ANSWER Yes. We need to give some kind of education and training to the mind right now so that we are assured a better life in the later times. many things that are going to insure us for our later ages but nobody comes to insure us for our mental health. but what we are talking about generally is that we train the mind now so that it can help us in the next year. If we live a proper life this time we can be assured of a better life next time. the mental life is much more difficult if we do not have good training. It helps. the physical life and the mental life.

bringing about good thoughts? 55 . What will the children have impressed in their minds? They will never learn that compassion or being kind is something good they learn that you have to fight and kill. we are giving them a new culture of fighting and fighting even in the cartoons. Actually the human nature has a negative attitude and superficially the negative attitude is always more stronger but if we go deeper then we have got a very good nature. Any more questions? QUESTION To train the mind positively means doing Self-Healing. They get a very distorted and very aggressive impression and then it is difficult for them to get a good kind of message.what we are giving in the west to the next generation.

These are just simple examples that I am giving. The harsh words do not have any effect on you because you know that you spoke them yourself. You can go home and you can record into the tape recorder some harsh words and then you can listen to them. you will never get angry at these words because you know that you spoke them. We need to find the reason why we like 56 . Maybe it is because somebody has spoken some hard words to us. There are many phenomena in this world but certain phenomena we like and others we do not like. we must immediately look why we are getting irritated. Suppose we feel irritated.ANSWER Yes and it is a very pratical way. we simply want to be praised because we like it. In our life whenever we face something then immediately we should try to find the reason for this kind of mind. in the praise itself there is nothing that we should like. a word itself does not have that effect. The harsh words alone did not cause our irritation because we are conscious that a person spoke the words. This you can check yourself. In a similar way if somebody praises us we generally like it.

do not wait.certain things and we do not like others. We have to adopt 2 policies. This is very pratical and easy to carry out. the policy for the positive things . We know many good things but we do not move enough to reach them. In this way we can try to bring some changes in our attitude to the phenomena that we come across. Either we say it is not good or we say we will do it the next time. We need to tell our mind . do it right now.whatever we think to do we must not leave it for tomorrow. We need to ask oursleves why!! QUESTION When we move in one direction the mind wants to go the opposite way. we should try to do it 57 . ANSWER Yes one problem in us is laziness. the only difficulty is that we do not do it. like to the laziness which stops us from going forward.

For the negative things we need to do the opposite .today and what we have to do today we should do it right now. but we never have enough courage to do it. This can be done by us.what we feel to do now we should say that we will do it the next time. that is why we have to look for good friends. it need not have horns. 58 . When we talk about the devil it is only those things which are leading us to the negative side. As human beings we have the intelligence to know all these things but what we actually need is strong determination and some support. Good friends are those who try to encourage us in the positive ways and those who try to take you to the negative side are unfriendly or what we can call enemies.

59 .

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