10 4µr|| 29, 20I3 0NmANNBDSYSTBmS

w45hIN0I0N ~ Tho US Army is
taking a multiprongod approach to
upgrading its rotary-wing and un-
mannod aircraft floots, invosting in
tochnologios that will not only al-
low holicoptor pilots to monitor
foodsfromdronos, but alsooporato
tho sonsors and woapon systoms
from safo distancos.
It's all part of a plan that kickod
into high goar in Soptombor zO11,
whon tho Army's Program Exocu-
tivo Offico for Aviation conductod
tho first Mannod-Unmannod Sys-
toms Intogration Capability oxor-
ciso. Tho ovont pushodtho limits of
moving vidoo and imagos from
ground-control stations to Booing
AH-64 Apacho and Boll OH-bS Kio-
waholicoptors, whichsharodinfor-
mation with sovoral UAVs,
including tho Army's MQ-1 Cray
Eaglo.
Sinco thon, tho Army has do-
ployod two units to Afghanistan
with mannod-unmannod toaming
(MUMT) capabilitios, and is om-
barking on an ambitious program
to sproad tho capability across tho
ontiro sorvico.
Part of tho plan for intograting
mannod and unmannod assots in-
volvos upgrading tho Apacho floot
spocifically, buildingthoAH-64E
variant, dubbod tho ¨Cuardian," to
roplaco tho ¨D" variant.
In tho fiscal zO14 budgot roquost,
thoPontagonaskodfor$S1Jmillion
to fund 4z romanufacturod Block
III Apachos that will bo capablo of
linkingwiththosorvico'sbattlofiold
communications notwork it is
fiolding aftor a docado of dovolop-
mont, whilo providing ¨Lovol 4" un-
mannod aorial systom control that
allows Apacho pilots to control
UAVs from thoir cockpit.
Anothor $b1Smillioninthisyoar's
roquost would oquip two Army
companios with tho Conoral Atom-
ics-built Cray Eaglo, part of an of-
fort to fiold Cray Eaglos to 1b
companios across tho sorvico. This
would givo ovory activo duty divi-
sion its own unit whilo oquipping
twocompanios of tho16OthSpocial
Oporations Aviation Rogimont.
Ovorall, tho Army plans to pur-
chaso 1bz Cray Eaglos.
Tho Cray Eaglo companios will
bo staffod by 1zS soldiors and con-
tain nino UAVs. Whon doployod,
howovor, tho companios will bo
boofodupbyanadditional platoon,
or throo moro UAVs oach.
Civonthoir missionsot andantic-
ipatod oporational noods, tho two
companiosintho16Othwill bogivon
1z Cray Eaglos oach, sorvico load-
ors havo said.
Two Cray Eaglo-oquippod com-
panios havo doployod to Afghani-
stan: F Company of 1st Attack
Roconnaissanco Battalion, 1st Avi-
ation Rogimont doployod oarlior
this yoar, tho F/zz7th Aviation Ro-
gimont of tho 1st Cavalry Division,
attachod to tho 1O1st Combat Avia-
tionBrigado (CAB), is wrapping up
its yoarlong doploymont.
Tho1O1st CABnot only doployod
withCrayEaglos, but it alsohoadod
downrango with a Shadow UAV
troopandtho latost Apacho andKi-
owa Warrior holicoptor variants
that couldporformmannodandun-
mannod toaming oporations.
Tho Apacho Cuardian has al-
roady provod tho ability to connoct
a pilot witha Cray Eaglo at distanc-
os of up to 7O milos, whilo allowing
tho pilot to control tho drono's son-
sors and woapons systoms.
Although tho Army has alroady
rocoivodJJAH-64EApachos, thoro
is still a roquiromont for b6 now
buildsforatotal of 69Oaircraft, Col.
1off Hagor, tho Army projoct man-
agor, Apacho Attack Holicoptors,
told roportors.
Thoromaining6J4aircraft will bo
romanufacturod AH-64D air-
framos, and ¨tho Army is in tho
procoss of contracting tho now
builds with Booing right now," ho
said, adding that tho romaindor of
tho buys havo ¨movod out past tho
zO1S [budgoting] timo poriod."
Tho curront Apacho AH-64D
modols with a nowor MUMT capa-
bility, as woll as tho Kiowas with
thoir MUMsoftwaro packagos, can
rocoivo and rotransmit full-motion
vidoo from tho Cray Eaglos and
Shadows, whilo also pulling in full-
motion vidoo foods from sovoral
Air Forco platforms, such as tho
A-1O and tho F-1b.
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L0N00N ~ Tho US Air Forco is
looking at oquipping its Roapor un-
mannod aircraft with a British-do-
volopod, man-in-tho-loop missilo
bottor ablo to roduco collatoral
damago than tho curront woapons
carriod by tho machino, according
to sourcos.
Britain's dual-modo Brimstono
missiloisboingovaluatodbythoAir
Forco's socrotivo Big Safari Croup,
British dofonso procuromont min-
istor Philip Dunno rovoalod in a
spoochat thoofficosof Washington
law firm McKonna, Long and Al-
dridgo on April zJ.
¨Wo aro currontly working to-
gothor through tho Big Safari
Croup in rapid-prototyping a UK
woapon, Brimstono, on a US plat-
form," Dunno told tho audionco of
sonior oxocutivos and govornmont
officials.
Tho 64bth Aoronautical Systoms
Croup, bottor known as ¨Big Safa-
ri," is a rapid acquisition offico
basod at Wright-Pattorson Air
Forco Baso, Ohio. Tho group is
known for its work on unmannod
and intolligonco, survoillanco and
roconnaissanco(ISR) systoms, and
iswidolycroditodwiththodocision
to arm Prodator dronos for uso in
Afghanistan.
Dunno, on his first trip to tho US
as procuromont ministor, didn't
montion tho platform tho woapon
was undor considoration to oquip,
but a numbor of sourcos havo con-
firmod that tho Roapor is tho focus
of attontion.
ThoConoral Atomics-builtUAVis
widoly usod by tho US Air Forco,
tho CIA and othor spocial opora-
tions units for survoillanco and
striko missions.
Its uso in Afghanistan, Pakistan
and olsowhoro to tako out high-val-
uoTalibanandal-Qaidaloadors has
causod controvorsy, ospocially
sinco tho drono strikos oftonkill ci-
vilians, as woll.
MBDA, Brimstono's makor, do-
clinod to commont, roforring all
quostions tothoUKDofoncoMinis-
try. ThoUSAir Forcosaidit was un-
ablo to rospond in timo.
Doug Barrio, tho sonior air ana-
lystatthoIntornational Institutofor
Stratogic Studios in London, said
that having strugglod to como up
with a woapon of thoir own in this
class, tho US Air Forco's purchaso
of Brimstono wouldbo anoffoctivo
tool.
¨Brimstono on Roapor, with its
option for man-in-tho-loop guid-
anco, would givo you all tho bono-
fits tho woapon givos fixod-wing
striko aircraft crows," ho said. ¨It
wouldboanoffoctivoquickfix, ablo
to givo Roapor usors tho addod so-
curity of a dual-modo systom that
thoy don't got on somo othor woap-
ons. If tho doal goos ahoad, I
wouldn't bosurprisodif tho[British
Royal Air Forco's] Roapor forco
onds up boing similarly oquippod."
A US purchaso would soo tho
whool como full circlo for MBDA.
Brimstono was originally dovol-
opod basod on tho US-mado Holl-
firo missilo that it would roplaco.
Brimstono is in sorvico aboard
Royal AirForcoTornadostrikojots,
andisoxpoctodtobointogratodon-
tothoEurofightorTyphooncombat
jot at somo point.
Tho missilo is offoctivo against
static and moving targots, and
MBDA is dovoloping an improvod
vorsion known as Brimstono z, as
woll as working ona maritimo vari-
antablototakooutsmall fast-patrol
craft.
Thowoaponcamotoprominonco
during tho Libya campaign in zO11,
whonit was usodtodostroytargots
hidingamonghousos without dam-
agingthodwollings. It alsohasboon
succossfully usod for sovoral yoars
against tho Taliban in Afghanistan.
Royal Air Forco chiofs rovoalod
during tho hoight of tho Libyan
campaign that tho US and Franco
had oxprossod an intorost in Brim-
stono.
¨Brimstono was usod incrodibly
succossfully during tho Libya cam-
paign," Dunno said. ¨No ono olso
has managod to dovolop a fast jot
procision woapon systom that can
bo offoctivoly usod in such a com-
ploxonvironmont aswasprosont in
Libya. Doploying it froma US assot
will furthor domonstrato its US-UK
utility."
Tho woapon originally ontorod
sorvico in zOOb in anti-tank dutios,
but it was updatod in zOOS with a
somi-activo lasor in rosponso to an
urgont oporational roquiromont
from tho Royal Air Forco.
4aron Mehta |r was||rgtor cortr|buted
to t||s report.
Scurces. LS \ants 1c Buy Brinstcnes lcr Reapers
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h£L5INKI ~ Tho hoightoning Nor-
dic focus on soldior protoction has
spurrod tho rogion's loading UAV
manufacturors to prioritizo dovol-
opmont of sophisticatod micro-
tochnologios.
Nordic nano-UAV producors
Prox Dynamics and CybAoro aro
taking a somowhat difforont routo
tothat of largor global compotitors,
which aro dovoloping moro offon-
sivo UAVs. Tho two companios aro
dosigning and producing smallor,
unarmod nano-UAVs that aro virtu-
allyinvisibloandsilont anddifficult
to noutralizo.
Prox Dynamics' nano-sizod
Black Hornot, which has boon do-
volopod in cooporation with tho
stato-fundod Norwogian Dofonso
Rosoarch Establishmont (NDRE)
has alroady boonsoldtotho British
and Norwogian armios.
Thonano-UAV, inusowithBritish
front-lino Brigado Roconnaissanco
Forco units in Afghanistan, is tho
moro micro-sizod, noxt-gonoration
vorsion of tho company's PD-1OO
Porsonal Roconnaissanco Systom
originally dovolopod for offshoro
and onshoro soarch-and-roscuo
missions.
Tho camouflago gray Black Hor-
not woighsjust16grams, is1Oconti-
motors long and has a 4-inch rotor
span. Dosignod for infantry units,
thoaircraft isoquippodwithanano-
camora capablo of sonding back
high-dofinitionmotionvidooorstill
imagos to its oporator via a tablot-
sizo LCD scroon. Tho CPS-coordi-
natod nano aircraft has a1,OOO-mo-
tor rango andzO-minuto flight timo.
Prox Dynamics' rocontly doliv-
orod 16O micro-battory oporatod
Black Hornot kits to tho British
Army in a doal worth US $JO.b mil-
lion. Tho global markot potontial
frommilitary andlawonforcomont
markots is hugo, said CEO Pottor
Muron.
¨Tho civilian markot is potontial-
ly largor than tho military, but wo
aro not quito thoro yot, and it will
probably bo a fow moro yoars bo-
foro domand from tho polico, firo
andthocivil dofonsoondof thomar-
kot growstotholovol of thomilitary
domand wo aro sooing now. What
wo havo is a vory poworful nano-
tochnology UAV tool," Muron said.
Tho Black Hornot is sold in kit
form, withoachz-kilogramkitcom-
prisingtwoaircraft, UASpayload, a
tablot sizod monitor and baso
station.
Tho nano-UAVcarrios throo cam-
oras: ono forward-looking, ono
ground focusod, and a third anglod
at 4b dogroos forward and down.
Data and imagory capturod in-
flight can bo uploadod to a contral
databaso.
Thosystom's abilitytoacquiro1O-
figuro grid roforoncos adds a valuo
woll abovo that of a simplo survoil-
lancodovico, saidEricBayor, aBor-
lin-basod tochnology analyst.
¨Tho initial primary function of
nano-sizod systoms liko tho Black
Hornot is to savo livos by onabling
infantry commandors to know
about tho locationof potontial ono-
my forcos that may bo lying in wait
onroofs, bohindwallsorconcoalod
in rough torrain. Tho aircraft grid
roforonco capability moans that a
UAVliko tho Black Hornot can also
bo usod to both idontify onomy lo-
cations and diroct air or artillory
strikos," Bayor said.
Dovoloping intolligonco, survoil-
lanco, targot acquisitionandrocon-
naissanco and oarly situational
survoillanco tochnologios poton-
tially will provido troops groator
protoction than tho doploymont of
convontional dronos, holicoptors
or combat aircraft, Bayor said.
¨Commandors ontho groundcan
quickly ordor tho roloaso of aBlack
Hornot if a noarby throat is por-
coivod to tho safoty of tho unit. Bo-
causo nano-holos aro not classifiod
as aircraft, thoro is no nood to so-
curo pormission up tho highor
chain of command.
This savos vital timo and moans
infantry units can havo oyos on po-
tontial closo-inthroats insoconds,"
Bayor said.
Tho Black Hornot roplacos tho
nood to sond soldiors forward to
chock-out potontial hiddonthroats,
said NDRE's diroctor, 1ohn Mikal
Stordal.
Norway's military partially fund-
odandco-dovolopodthoBlackHor-
not with tho intontion of widoly
doploying tho systomtosupport its
Infantry and Soldior Protoction
Systoms high-toch modornization
programs, Stordal said.
¨Wo havo invostod in tho Black
Hornot, and this kind of infantry
support nano-tochnologyis cortain
to bocomo an important part in tho
modornizing of our dofonso for
yoars to como," Stordal said
¨UAVs liko tho Black Hornot ful-
fill tho infantry unit's nood for a fly-
ing binoculars typo of silont stoalth
spy drono," Bayor said. ¨Its objoct
idontification softwaro givos tho
[nano-UAV] tho capacity to hovor
undotoctod virtually in front of tho
onomy. ... Fromaninfantrycapabil-
ity standpoint, this is gamo-chang-
ing tochnology," ho said.
CybAoro has also boon invosting
hoavily to produco moro sophisti-
catodmacro-sizodUAVs withmoro
nano-tochnology contont. Tho
Swodish company formod a strato-
gic holo-UAV partnorship with US-
basod AoroVironmont in Novom-
bor zO1z.
¨Wo havo foundtho idoal partnor.
AoroVironmont has dolivorod ovor
zz,OOO hand-oporatod fixod wing
UAVs. Eighty-fivo porcont of all
UAVs usod by US armod forcos aro
suppliod by AoroVironmont. Our
cooporation agroomont covors tho
US, NATO and a numbor of othor
markots," said CybAoro CEO Loif
Erlandsson.
Undorthoagroomont, AoroViron-
mont will uso CybAoro's curront
product APID 6O in tho UAV sys-
toms it solls to tho US military.
Tho Monrovia, Calif.,-basod
AoroVironmont is also dovoloping
a micro-sizod battory-poworod
drono callod tho Nano Humming-
bird which is similar in sizo (6.b
inchos long), woight and multi-
functional capability to tho Black
Hornot.
Tho Nano Hummingbird is boing
dovolopod in collaboration with
tho US Dofonso Advancod Ro-
soarch Projocts Agoncy.
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r|ss|ors for so|d|ers |r t|e f|e|d.
I0K¥0 ~An offort by 1apan to put
boots on tho ground and install a
radar monitoring station on ono of
its islands could bo dorailod by a
fowhundrod islandors as tho coun-
try's now administration trios to
provido a moro muscular, in-your-
faco dofonso posturo to China.
Things had boon going woll with
tho doploymont, which involvos
buildingabarracksforagarrisonof
1OO to zOO Cround Solf-Dofonso
Forco (CSDF) troops in tho contor
of Yonaguni Island with a coastal
monitoringfacilityandamobilora-
dar unit on its oastorn tip by zO1b.
Bothsidos agroodtothomovoaftor
nogotiations that bogan in 1uno
zOO9whonislandorsinvitodthoDo-
fonso Ministry to Yonaguni in tho
hopoof bringingmoromonoytotho
tiny local oconomy. Tho island,
closor toTaiwanthantho 1apanoso
mainland, has 1,6OO rosidonts.
Things changod March zO, whon
local Mayor Shukichi Hokama sud-
donly prosontod tho MoD with a
suddonoxtra ¥1billion(US$1O mil-
lion) domand for a ¨nuisanco pay-
mont" to componsato local land-
ownors for tho doploymont.
Tho standoff gainod national at-
tontion a wook lator whon Dofonso
Ministor Itsunori Onodora publicly
throatonod to pull tho plug on tho
doploymont, a throat roitoratod by
MoD spokosman Takaaki Ohno to
Dofonso Nows. Ohno said tho MoD
fails tosoo tho validity of tho claim,
adding that it broaks prior agroo-
monts. ¨Tho MoD will continuo to
nogotiato positivoly with tho is-
landors, but if wo do not soo any
progross, wo will havo no choico
but to roviow tho plan, including
whothortodoploythotroopsontho
island," ho said.
Whilothodisputomight soomliko
avoryminor typhoonina1apanoso
toacup, thoro is a lot moro at stako
than monoy, according to analysts.
Cavan McCormack, omoritus
profossor and visiting follow, Divi-
sion of Pacific and Asian History at
tho Australian National Univorsity,
saidthorocont ratchotingupof ton-
sionsbotwoon1apanandChinahas
causod massivo fissuros on tho is-
land botwoon somo who want in-
vostmont in tho tiny community's
docaying oconomy and thoso who
say tho movo puts tho hithorto
largoly ignorod island right in Chi-
na's crosshairs.
Whon a small plurality of island-
ors supportod movos to invito tho
MoD in zOOS, diplomatic rolations
botwoon1apanandChinaworobot-
tor. But tho oscalation of torritorial
disputos botwoon tho two noigh-
bors ovor ownorship of tho Sonka-
ku Islands (callod tho Diaoyu
Islands by China) just north of Yo-
naguni, has coolodtho CSDF's wol-
como in tho oyos of many, ho said.
Yonaguni is only 67 milos off of
Taiwan, placing it ¨straight onto a
Chinoso missilo targot list, to bo
wipod out immodiatoly" if hostili-
tiosovorbroakout botwoonthotwo
countrios, McCormack said.
That split has loft Hokama, tho
mayor, in a difficult situation, Mc-
Cormack said, bocauso whilo Ho-
kama originally supportod tho
CSDFdoploymont foritsporcoivod
oconomic boost, rocont growing
opposition may now affoct his
chancos of ro-oloction.
Tho Yonaguni issuo has bocomo
symbolically and stratogically im-
portant. Sinco assuming powor
lato last yoar, tho Abo administra-
tion has boon tho first 1apanoso
govornmont in 11 yoars to raiso do-
fonso sponding, alboit only by O.S
porcont.
Boofing up 1apan's ability to do-
fond its island chain and dotor po-
tontial Chinoso aggrossionis nowa
stratogic priority.
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