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R.H. pag.N.1 )XQF LD GH SURGXF LH RPRWHWLF PXQF vQ FXOWXUD JUkXOXL Sursa : P. atunci raza OR ar fi tocmai traieFWRULD H[SDQVLXQLL GH VFDU  capital R Q P N P’ M M’ N’ G=25 G=40 Q’ R’ G=75 G=50 O Figura 2. 2 IXQF LH GH SURGXF LH FX YHQLWXUL GH VFDU IXQF LLORU GH SURGXF LH RPRWHWLFH 'DF FRQVWDQWH HVWH XQ FD] VSHFLDO DO J .Q ar reprezenta linii ale bugetului.Heller. 100. Internationaler Handel. ÌQ ILJXUD  GDF WDQJHQWHOH OD izocuante în punctele M.P. Zweifel.

C0. R IXQF LH DUH JUDGXO U DGLF r  úL W0 = f (M0.

r I r ·M0 vQ r ·C0. DWXQFL Â:0 DWXQFL &RQVLGHUkQG I Â00 GRX · W0 Â&0).

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9 Conrad (1989). LHIWLQLUHD XQXL IDFWRU DWUDJH GXS VLQH FUHúWHUHD LQWHQVLW LL DFHOXL IDFWRU Zweifel (1978). 8 Ray (1982). .

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$EXQGHQ D UHODWLY D IDFWRULORU GH SURGXF LH &HUHUHD UHFLSURF ÌQ VIkUúLW VH IDFH DEVWUDF LH GH FRVWXULOH GH WUDQVSRUW úL GH REVWDFROH vQ caOHD VFKLPEXULORU LQWHUQD LRQDOH SLH HOH EXQXULORU úL IDFWRULORU GH SURGXF LH VXQW perIHFW FRPSHWLWLYH LDU VXELHF LL HFRQRPLFL vúL RSWLPL]HD] SURJUDPHOH GH DFWLYLW L Unele dintre aceste premise restrictive sunt abandonate de unele teoreme GLQ PRGHO XUP ULQG R PDL ILGHO &RQGL LD QHFHVDU P UIXUL GLQWUH GRX GRX DFHVWH UL SUH XULOH GLIHU  GHVFULHUH D UHDOLW LL GLIHUH vQWUH FHOH FRVWXULOH VXQW ORU GH úL VXILFLHQW SHQWUX D MXVWLILFD HFRQRPLF VFKLPEXO GH UL HVWH FD SUH XULOH UHODWLYH DOH P UIXULORU V UHODWLYH DOH P UIXULORU VH GLIHU  GDF úL FkQG UL &RQVLGHUkQG SUHIHULQ HOH GH FRQVXP úL IXQF LLOH GH SURGXF LH LGHQWLFH vQ $FHDVW VLWXD LH UHDOL]HD]  DWXQFL vQGHSOLQLWH oportuniWDWH • • FRQFRPLWHQW GRX FRQGL LL LOH IDFWRULORU GLIHU vQWUH LQGXVWULL vQWUH vQ UL DILUP F  ILLQG úL GDWH SURGXFHUHD H[SRUWXO LQWHQVLW vQ]HVWUDUHD FX IDFWRUL GH SURGXF LH GLIHU WHRUHP PDL GLQ VXV UL VH ED]HD] SH PRGHOXO ULOH VH 3ULPD +HFNVFKHU 2KOLQ - premiselH ÌQ DPLQWLWH VSHFLDOL]HD] P UIXULORU LQWHQVLYH vQ IDFWRULL DEXQGHQ L LPSRUWkQG vQ VFKLPE P UIXUL LQWHQVLYH vQ IDFWRULL UDUL SHQWUX DFHVWH JHQHUDO FRPHU XO GLIHUHQ HOH GLQWUH UL SULYLQG abunGHQ D IDcWRULORU úL UHGXFH SULQFLSDOHOH HIHFWH DOH DFHVWRU GLIHUHQ H 'HPRQVWUD LD DFHVWHL WHRUHPH VH SRDWH IDFH XUPkQG GRX F F L .

DU WkQG GLIHUHQ HOH vQ YHUVLXQL GLIHUHQ HOH vQ vQ]HVWUDUHD FX IDFWRUL GH SURGXF LH FRQGXF OD GLIHUHQ H DOH FXUEHORU SURSRU LHL IDFWRULORU.

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 DU WkQG F ÌQ FRQWLQXDUH VH YRU DERUGD de transformare (versiXQHD YHUVLXQHD PHQ LQkQGX SUH XULORU SULYLQ D SUH XULORU IDFWRULORU FRQGXF OD GLIHUHQ H vQ SULYLQ D SUH XULORU P UIXULORU UHODWLYH.

 FD úL DPEHOH D FHULQ HL IL[H GH IDFWRUL GH -se premisa - în modelul ricardian - SURGXF LH SH XQLWDWHD GH SURGXV IDEULFDW 2.1 ÌQ]HVWUDUHD ULORU FX IDFWRUL GH SURGXF LH 'DF vQWU-R DU FDSLWDOXO DU IL QHOLPLWDW SURGXF LD DFHVWHLD DU GHSLQGH FD în modelul lui Ricardo. numai de FHULQ D úL GH GLVSRQLELOLW LOH GH PXQF  EconoPLD DU SURGXFH JUkX úL VWUXQJXUL.3.

FDUH H[SULP 'DF UHVWULF LD IDFWRUXOXL PXQF  HFRQRPLD DU GLVSXQH GH FDQWLW QHFHVDUXO úL GLVSRQLELOXO L QHOLPLWDWH GH PXQF  SURGXF LD DU GH FDSLWDO úL HFRQRPLD DU SURGXFH UHVWULF LD FDSLWDOXOXL VDX && . FD vQ ILJXUD  GH-a lungul dreptei MM'.

 FHUHUHD depinde doar de P UIXULOH PHQ LRQDWH GH D OXQJXO GUHSWHL &&  FDUH UHSUH]LQW - ÌQ RULFDUH GLQ FHOH GRX FD]XUL H[WUHPH SUH]HQWDWH SUH XO UHODWLY DO JUkXOXL LORU GH SURGXF LH 00 corespunde pantei liniei posibiOLW LQIOXHQ kQG GRDU VWUXFWXUD SURGXF LHL 'DF DU IL OLPLWDW GRDU PXQFD SUH XO UHODWLY DO JUkXOXL DU IL PDL ULGLFDW FX XUP WRDUHD GDF SUH XO UHODWLY V GHFkW vQ VLWXD LD vQ FDUH DU IL OLPLWDW GRDU FDSLWDOXO -ar stabili -ar FRUHVSXQGH R FDQWLWDWH PDL PDUH GH VWUXQJXUL GHFkW vQ VLWXD LD vQ FDUH SUH XO PHQ LRQDW VGRDU SRWULYLW FRQ LQXWXOXL GH PXQF DU VWDELOL SRWULYLW FDSLWDOXO ILLQG JUDWXLW.

 XQHL XQLW L IL]LFH GH JUkX L  FRQ LQXWXO FRQ LQXWXOXL GH FDSLWDO PXQFD ILLQG JUDWXLW L IL]LFH GH JUkX HVWH HJDO FX FHO DO L IL]LFH GH JUkX HVWH HJDO FX FHO DO XQLW XQLW .

 $GLF GH $FHDVW DILUPD LH HVWH HFKLYDOHQW munF DO XQHL XQLW L VWUXQJXUL LDU FRQ LQXWXO GH L VWUXQJXUL FDSLWDO DO XQHL XQLW fiind mai mare .

Cantitatea de strunguri M’ C’ Q’ X2 Q O X1 M C Cantitatea de grâu LHL Figura 2 2IHUWH IL[H GH IDFWRUL úL VWUXFWXUD SURGXF 'DF H[LVW UHODWLY LQHP VHDPD GH DPEHOH UHVWULF LL FRQVWDW P F L UHDOH HVWH GH GH SURGXF LH FRQGL LLOH LDU SXQFWXO 4 GRDU v n aria OMQC’ SURGXF LD FXUEHL GH SRVLELOLW DO UHSUH]LQW GH SDQWD FRUHVSXQ] WRDUH RFXS ULL FRPSOHWH D IDFWRULORU GH SURGXF LH ÌQ DFHVW SXQFW SUH XO JUkXOXL GDW FHUHULL UHVSHFWLY izoutLOLWDWH FHD PDL vQDOW afirPD F JUkXO HVWH intensive în capital. atunci acest raport la strunguri va fi egal cu  .7HRULL úL PRGHOH SULYLQG UHOD LLOH HFRQRPLFH LQWHUQD LRQDOH decât  'HFL OD VWUXQJXUL FRQ LQXWXO UHODWLY GH FDSLWDO HVWH PDL ULGLFDW GHFkW FRQ LQXWXO  LDU OD JUkX LQYHUV FRQ LQXWXO UHODWLY GH PXQF HVWH PDL ULGLFDW GHFkW  FDSLW UHODWLY GH PXQF FRQ LQXWXO UHODWLY GH FDSLWDO &RQFUHW FRQVLGHUkQG UDSRUWXO PXQF al la grâu egal cu unitatea. )LLQG GDWH .

10 a.b LOH GH IDFWRUL 0&. în urma sporirii disponibilului de capital al HFRQRPLHL FDQWLWDWHD GH PXQF U PkQkQG FRQVWDQW  SURGXF LD GH VWUXQJXUL FUHúWH D1 PXQF úL E1 FDSLWDO DVWIHO F iar cea de grâu scade.11a. În industria 1 o unitate de produs QHFHVLW volumele utilizate sunt: M1 = a1 × X1 úL &1 = b1 × X1 WRDUH VXQW 2.b În cea de-D GRXD LQGXVWULH UHOD LLOH FRUHVSXQ] M2 = a2 × X2 úL &2 = b2 × X2 2. FH WUHFH SULQ DFHVW SXQFW LQWHQVLY LOH vQ PXQF vQ GHFkW VWUXQJXULOH vQ FDUH FDUH VXQW PDL SH ÌQWUXFkW vQ 4 SDQWD UHVWULF LHL 00 HVWH PDL PDUH GHFkW D &&  SXWHP PDL LQWHQVLW IDFWRULORU FRQGL LLOH DFHúWLD VXQW deSOLQ XWLOL]D L R FUHúWHUH D RIHUWHL XQXL IDFWRU GH SURGXF LH DUH GUHSW FRQVHFLQ sporiUHD SURGXF LHL P UILL LQWHQVLYH vQ DFHO IDFWRU úL UHGXFHUHD SURGXF LHL FHOHLODOWH $FHDVW VLWXD LH FXQRVFXW FD teorema lui Rybczynski HVWH GHVFULV vQ ILJXUD  În figura 2.4 este evident cum.

12 . DWXQFL 'DF VXQW XWLOL]DWH FRPSOHW GLVSRQLELOLW M = M1 + M2 = a1 × X1 + a2 × X2 2.

4: Teorema lui Rybczinsky 6ROX LLOH DFHVWRU HFXD LL SHQWUX .2 sunt: 2.(b1/b2) × X1 'DF VH SUH]LQW FDQWLW vQ ILJXUD  úL E2 D1 LOH GH FDSLWDO úL PXQF 5H]XOW F /a2) > (b1/b2.$EXQGHQ D UHODWLY D IDFWRULORU GH SURGXF LH &HUHUHD UHFLSURF C = C1 + C2 = b1 × X1 + b2 × X2 2.14 2.15 X2 = M/a2 .(a1/a2) × X1 X2 = C/b2 .13 Cantitatea de strunguri M’ C*’ C’ Q* Q O M C C* Cantitatea de grâu Figura 2.

 UHVWULF LD SXV GH PXQF HVWH PDL DEUXSW  DúD FXP /a2) > (b1/a1). este raportul între QHFHVDUH SURGXFHULL XQHL XQLW WRU UDPXULL  LQGXVWULD  VWUXQJXUL. notat cu k2. Dar b2/a2.

HVWH PDL LQWHQVLY L GH SURGXV vQ UDPXUD vQ FDSLWDO GHFkW  2. iar k1 este cel coresSXQ] (grâu). 6ROX LLOH HFXD LLORU .

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iar DUD .16 2.a2 × b1) X2 = (a1 ×C .. VXQW XUP WRDUHOH X1 = (b2×M . SUH XO UHODWLY DO DUD .a2 × b1) ÌQWUXFkW QXPLWRUXO HVWH SR]LWLY UH]XOW F 2.b1 × M) / (a1 × b2 . FXUED SRVLELOLW LORU GH SURGXF LH HVWH & 4 0  ÌQ vQ ILJXUD  XQGH SHQWUX M.1 vQ FRQFRUGDQ cu teorema lui Rybczynski. GH JUkXOXL HVWH GDW GH SDQWD GUHSWHL &4 UHVWULF LD IDFWRUXOXL FDSLWDO. 'LIHUHQ D FRQFUHWL]HD] UHIOHFW SHQWUX GLQWUH FHOH GRX UL SULYLQG vQ]HVWUDUHD FX IDFW ori se vQ FXUEH GLIHULWH GH WUDQVIRUPDUH 3UHPLVD WHKQRORJLLORU LGHQWLFH VH VLWXD LH HVWH GHVFULV DUD .2 úL R UHGXFH SH FHD D OXL .17 R FUHúWHUH D OXL & vQ FRQGL LL GH RFXSDUH GHSOLQ  FUHúWH SURGXF LD OXL . FXUED SRVLELOLW LORU GH SURGXF LH HVWH &4 LQ SDQWHOH LGHQWLFH DOH UHVWULF LLORU IDFWRULORU $FHDVW DUD ..a2 × C) / (a1 × b2 .

 LDU vQ SDQWD OXL 0 4 UHVWULF LD IDFWRUXOXL PXQF .

 .

În figura 2.4 punctul Q se DVRFLD] XWLOL] ULL FRPSOHWH D IDFWRULORU GH SURGXF LH FkQG DWkW UDWD VDODULXOXL FkW úL XQXO GLQ IDFWRUL DU IL VXE XWLOL]DW L YHQLWXO FDSLWDOXOXL DX YDORUL SR]LWLYH 'DF VF GHD YHQLWXO úL SUH XO UHODWLY.7HRULL úL PRGHOH SULYLQG UHOD LLOH HFRQRPLFH LQWHUQD LRQDOH ÌQWUXFkW SUH XULOH UHODWLYH DOH P UIXULORU GLIHU UHVXUVH UHODWLY DEXQGHQWH GH PXQF úL 4 3  &RQVHFLQ HOH VXQW vQWUH FHOH GRX UL FHD FX YD H[SRUWD 41 JUkX LDU FHD FX UHVXUVH UHODWLY DEXQGHQWH GH FDSLWDO YD H[SRUWD 4 1 VWUXJXUL OD SUH XO UHODWLY GDW GH SDQWD OXL 43 fiecaUH DU YD DWLQJH XQ QLYHO PDL vQDOW GH FRQVXP YD XWLOL]D FRPSOHW UHVXUVHOH GH SURGXF LH úL VH YD vQUHJLVWUD R HJDOL]DUH D SUH XOXL reODWLY DO P UIXULORU VFKLPEDWH 2.2 ÌQWUH 3UH XULOH IDFWRULORU úL DOH P UIXULORU SUH XULOH P UIXULORU úL DOH IDFWRULORU H[LVW R UHOD LH VWUkQV  ModificaUHD SUH XOXL UHODWLY DO XQHL P UIL DWUDJH R PRGLILFDUH vQ DFHODúL VHQV D SUH XOXL UHOaWLY DO IDFWRUXOXL LQWHQVLY SHQWUX DFHD PDUI  GHILQLW SULQ UDSRUWDUHD venitului respectivului factor la venitul celuilalt factor.3.

OD ]HUR LDU SUH XO UHODWLY DGLF UHVWULF LLOH SXVH RFXS ULL DO -ar al celuilalt ar tinde spre OLPLWHOH UHODWLY PHQ LRQDWH VH UHG IDFWRUXOXL DO LQILQLW 3UH XO UHODWLY DO JUkXOXL SRDWH YDULD DYkQG FD OLPLWH SDQWHOH OXL 00 úL && GH IDFWRULL GH SURGXF LH 2ULFXP SUH XO UHODWLY DO JUkXOXL LQ D IDFWRULORU LDU SH VH YD DIOD vQWUH SUH XO vQ ILJXUD  XQGH SH DEVFLV RUGRQDW FRQGL LLOH SUH XO FRPSOHWH P UIL 'HVFULHUHD DFHVWRU HFXD LL HVWH UHDOL]DW UHODWLY XQHL JUkX.

  intensiv (munca) pentru acea marI R SDUWH GLQ UHVXUVHOH GH PXQF &kQG SUH XO UHODWLY DO JUkXOXL HVWH GDW GH SDQWD UHVWULF LHL FDSLWDOXOXL 23 .

&kQG SUH XO UHODWLY DO JUkXOXL HVWH GDW GH SDQWD UHVWULF LHL PXQFLL 23 . VXQW QH IRORVLWH UDWD VDODULXOXL HVWH ]HUR úL SUH XO relativ al muncii este zero.

38 .a2 × b1) Numitorul (pe care-O YRP QRWD vQ FRQWLQXDUH FX 1. 2. R parte din caSLWDO U rHODWLY DO JUkXOXL la OW2.19 P UIXUL Z HVWH UDWD VDODULLORU LDU U HVWH YHQLWXO FDSLWDOXOXL 6ROX LLOH FHORU GRX unde p1.20 2.a2 × b1) r = (a1 × p2 .b1 × p2) / (a1 × b2 . p2 VXQW i simultane sunt: 2.21 w = (b2 × p1 .a2 × p1) / (a1 × b2 . PkQH QH IRORVLW úL YHQLWXO V X HVWH ]HUR UHVSHFWLY SUH XO UHODWLY DO vQWUH DFHVWH GRX H[WUHPH PXQFLL HVWH LQILQLW &kQG SUH XO UHODWLY DO JUkXOXL VH DIO FUHúWH GH OD 231 SUH XO UHODWLY DO PXQFLL HVWH SR]LWLY úL FUHúWH FX SUH XO UHODWLY DO JUkXOXL &kQG SUH XO la OP2 SUH XO UHODWLY DO PXQFLL FUHúWH GH OD 2:1 ÌQ FRQGL LL GH HFKLOLEUX SH WHUPHQ OXQJ SUH XULOH VXQW HJDOH FX FRVWXULOH FDUH VXQW HJDOH FX UHPXQHUDUHD IDFWRULORU SH XQLWDWHD GH SURGXV DGLF  p1 = w × a1 + r × b1 úL S2 = w × a2 + r × b2 SUH XULOH FHORU GRX HFXD L 2.

HVWH SR]LWLY GDF industria 2 este mai LQWHQVLY vQ FDSLWDO GHFkW LQGXVWULD  (FXD LLOH .

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pot fi re scrise într-R IRUP FRQYHQDELO  DVWIHO w = (b2×p2/N)/(p1/p2 – b1/b2) r = (a2×p2/N)/(a1/a2 – p1/p2) 2.22 2.23 .

b1/b2) / (a1/a2 .$EXQGHQ D UHODWLY D IDFWRULORU GH SURGXF LH &HUHUHD UHFLSURF 3UH XO UHODWLY DO PXQFLL W2 W1 P2 O P' Figura 2 3UH P'' P1 XULOH IDFWRULORU úL DOH P UI 3UH XO UHODWLY DO JUkXOXL urilor Întrucât b1/b2 < p1/p2 < a1/a2 w/r = (b2/a2) × (p1/p2 . &XUED GLQ ILJXUD  DSOLFDW F  GDF DPEHORU UL SDUWLFLSDQWH OD VFKLPEXUL DUDW UL vQ SUH XO UHODWLY DO XQXL IDFWRU PXQFD.24 R PRGLILFDUH D OXL S1 /p2 LPSOLF R PRGLILFDUH GH DFHODúL VHQV D lui w/r.p1/p2) UH]XOW F Z U !  úL 2.

HVWH PDL VF ]XW vQ XQD GLQ ILH PDL VF ]XW úL PDUID DO F UHL DUD YD H[SRUWD PDUID UHVSHFWLY  SUH UHODWLY HVWH PDL PLF LQ FRQGL LL GH  YD FUHúWH úL FDUDFWHUL]HD] abVHQ D VFKLPEXULORU H[WHUQH DWXQFL úL SUH XO UHODWLY DO P UILL LQWHQVLYH LQ DFHO 2 DU H[SRUW IDFWRU JUkX.

WUHEXLH V autarKLH &D XUPDUH D H[SRUWXOXL vL FUHúWH SUH XO UHODWLY úL vQ FRQVHFLQ SUH XO UHODWLY DO IDFWRUXOXL LQWHQVLY SHQWUX DFHD PDUI  6LWXD LD RSXV FHDODOW PDUI úL UHVSHFWLY FHO ODOW IDFWRU GH SURGXF LH úL GHPRQVWUDW DUD vQ]HVWUDW $FHDVWD HVWH WHRUHPD IRUPXODW GH :ROIJDQJ 6WROSHU úL VFKLPEXULOH H[WHUQH DEXQGHQW FX DFHVW IDFWRU PaXO 6DPXHOVRQ 2 FRQVHFLQ vQ DUD PDL DEXQGHQW vQ]HVWUDW D DFHVWHL WHRUHPH HVWH DFHHD F YRU VSRUL SRQGHUHD PXQFLL vQ YHQLWXO UHDO vQ úL YRU UHGXFH SRQGHUHD FRUHVSXQ] WRDUH D FDSLWDOXOXL HIHFWXO RSXV vQUHJLVWUkQGX FX FDSLWDO $VWIHO VSXV vQ DUD FX PXQF YD FUHúWH VDODULXO UHDO úL YD VF GHD YHQLWXO UHDO DO FDSLWDOXOXL LDU vQ SDUWLFLS ULL OD VFKLPEXUL -se DEXQGHQW DUD FX FDSLWDO DEXQGHQW YD FUHúWH YHQLWXO UHDO DO FDSLWDOXOXL úL YD VF GHD VDODULXO UHDO FD XUPDUH D Din rHOD LLOH .

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p1/p2) VDODULXO UHDO úL YHQLWXO UHDO DO 2. SRW IL GHGXVH capitalului.b1/b2) r/p2 = a2/N × (a1/a2 .26 . exprimate în bunul intensiv în capital: w/p2 = b2/N × (p1/p2 .25 2.

7HRULL úL PRGHOH SULYLQG UHOD LLOH HFRQRPLFH LQWHUQD LRQDOH GH PXQF H[SULPDWH vQ EXQXO FX FRQ LQXW ULGLFDW GH FDSLWDO &RQFOX]LD HVWH DFHHDúL úL GDF Este evident F R FUHúWHUH D SUH XOXL UHODWLY DO EXQXOXL FX FRQ LQXW ULGLFDW S1/p2.

VSRUHúWH VDODULXO UHDO úL UHGXFH YHQLWXO UHDO DO FDSLWDOXOXL DPEHOH FHOH GRX P ULPL VH H[SULP vQ EXQXO FX FRQ LQXW ULGLFDW GH PXQF  3HQWUX DFHDVWD vPS U LP UHOD LLOH .

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OD S1 : w/p1 = (b2/N) × (p2/p1) × (p1/p2 .(b1/b2) × (p2/p1)] r/p1 = (a2/N) ×(p2/p1) × (a1/a2 .b1/b2) = = b2/N ×[1 .1] (VWH HYLGHQW F ULGLFDW GH PXQF .p1/p2) = a2/N) ×[(a1/a2) × (p2/p1) .

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Cf. Mihail Manoilescu (1931). Aurel Iancu (1983). .

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vQ FDGUXO XQHL HFRQRPLL QD LRQDOH HVWH UHSUH]HQWDW SULQ IURQWLHUD SRVLELOLW LORU HL GH SURGXF LH /RFXO XQGH VH YD staELOL SURGXF LD SH DFHDVW IURQWLHU GHSLQGH GH SUH XULOH P UIXULORU 3UH XULOH OD rânGXO ORU VXQW GHWHUPLQDWH SULQ LQWHUDF LXQHD FRQGL LLORU RIHUWHL FX FHOH DOH FHUHULL SHQWUX UHVSHFWLYD HFRQRPLH 0XO LPHD SUH XULORU GH HFKLOLEUX WUHEXLH V GRX FRQGL LL VDWLVIDF • • FHUHUHD SHQWUX ILHFDUH SURGXV V V ILH HJDO FX RIHUWD DFH stuia. de a-úL PRGLILFD SUH XUL &HUHUHD SHQWUX ILHFDUH SURGXV GHSLQGH GH SUH XUL úL GH YHQLW &RQVLGHUkQG o economie cu doaU P UIXUL QD LRQDO 3 SUH XO GRX < P UIXUL DYHP GH D IDFH FX XQ VLQJXU SUH - UHODWLY SHQWUX SURGXVXOXL OXL vQ UDSRUW F FX . ceste QX H[LVWH YUHXQ VWLPXOHQW QLFL SHQWUX SURGXF WRUL QLFL SHQWUX SURGXF LD VDX FRQVXPXO OD D consumatori.

I ] Ycer = [ P. I ] I = Xof + PYof HVWH YRUED GH FDQWLW L RIHULWH. (of DUDW va fi reprezentat astfel: Xcer = [ P. YHQLWXO . HVWH YDORDUHD I = Xof + PYof .

36 2.40. MX) Y = Y(CY. 2.42 .37 2. MY) 2.41 2.38 F HVWH YRUED GH FDQWLW PRGHO vQWUHJXO L FHUXWH WUHEXLH FKHOWXLW DGLF SURGXF LD vQ DFHVW YHQLW unde cer DUDW ÌQWUXFkW treEXLH XWLOL]DW  FHOH GRX HFXD LL VXQW LQWHUGHSHQGHQWH 9HQLWXO FDUH QX V-a cheltuit pentru X. trebuie cheltuit pentru Y. 6LVWHPXO FHUHULL 2. OD VLVWHPXO FH UHIOHFW HFKLOLEUXO JHQHUDO DO RIHUWHL Aceste HFXD LL VH DGDXJ GDWH SHQWUX SLD D IDFWRULORU XQHL HFRQRPLL FX vQ]HVWU UL IL[H GH IDFWRUL GH SURGXF LH WHKQRORJLL GDWH úL FRQGL LL X = X(CX.39 . Într-R HFRQRPLH vQFKLV Xcer = Xof  úL <cer = Yof 2.

7HRULL úL PRGHOH SULYLQG UHOD LLOH HFRQRPLFH LQWHUQD LRQDOH C = CX + CY M = MX + MY s = XM = PYM r = XC = PYC FD SUH DO FDSLWDOXOXL &.

defiQLW FD SUH SHQWUX PXQF 0.48 unde s este salariul.46 2. .M 2.45 . 2. 2.44 2.43 2.47 .

 5HOD LD V  U . 2. U HVWH UHQWD GHILQLW este produsul marginal al muncii în industria X.4.XQXL QLYHO LQIHULRU GH XWLOLWDWH $FHDVW UHSUH]HQWDUH SRDWH IL FRPSDUDW FX FHD D XQXL PXQWH GH EXQXUL LOXVWUDW SH KDUW FX DMXWRUXO FXUEHORU GH QLYHO GH indiIHUHQ  VDX L]RXWLOLWDWH. 'LQ SXQFW GH YHGHUH IRUPDO SUHIHULQ HOH LQGLYLGXDOH SRW IL DJUHJDWH úL utiOL]DWH FRQGL LL SHQWUX D UHSUH]HQWD EXQ VWDUHD úL FHUHUHD DJUHJDW  FX X P WRDUHOH r 21 : • ILHFDUH SHUVRDQ DUH XQ VLVWHP GH SUHIHULQ H FODU GHILQLW vQ FD]XO D doX P UIXUL DFHVW OXFUX SRDWH IL UHSUH]HQWDW SULQWU R PXO LPH GH - • • • • FXUEH GH LQGLIHUHQ FDUH QX VH LQWHUVHFWHD]  SUH XULOH P UIXULORU VXQW DFHOHDúL SHQWUX WR L FRQVXPDW orii. iar XC HVWH SURGXVXO PDUJLQDO DO FDSLWDOXOXL vQ LQGXVWULD . sau reale etc. iar cele aflate sub FXUE . 'H DVHPHQHD WUHEXLH vQGHSOLQLWH GRX GLQ XUP WRDUHOH WUHL FRQGL LL WR L FRQVXPDWRULL DX JXVWXUL LGHQWLFH WR L FRQVXPDWRULL DX IXQF LL GH XWLOLWDWH RPRWHWLFH distribuirea veniturilor între consumatori este ne modifiFDW GH LQGLIHUHQ LOXVWUHD]   3XQFWHOH &RQGL LLOH FHUHULL VH GHVFULX SULQ FXUEHOH VRFLDOH GH LQGLIHUHQ VLWXDWH SH R FXUE DFHODúL QLYHO GH XWLOLWDWH vQ WLPS FH punctele aflate deasupra acesteia corespund unui nivel superior.M /XC = YM /YC HVWH FRQGL LD DORF rii eficiHQWH D IDFWRULORU GH SURGXF LH 6LVWHPXO DVWIHO GHVFULV HVWH GHWHUPLQDW DYkQG DFHODúL QXP U GH HFXD LL úL GH QHFXQRVFXWH 6H SRW DVWIHO GHWHUPLQD YROXPXO SURGXF LHL SUH XULOH FRQVXPXO úL celelalte variabile ale economiei închise. poate duce la un consum mai mare de bunuri de lux. decât o distribuire mai unifRUP D DFHORUDúL YHQLWXUL ÌQ JHQHUDO SH PXO LPHD SUHIHULQ HORU VH SRDWH XWLOL]D R UHOD LH GH RUGLQH GDU QX VH SRW DSOLFD RSHUD LLOH GHILQLWH SH PXO LPHD numerelor naturale.2 3UHIHULQ HOH VRFLDOH úL EXQ VWDUHD 3UHIHULQ HOH FRQVXPDWRULORU VXQW UHSUH]HQWDWH VXE IRUPD XQHL PXO LPL GH FXUEH GH LQGLIHUHQ FH QX VH LQWHUVHFWHD]  (VWH YRUED GH SUH]HQWDUHD SUHIHULQ HORU sociale într-XQ PRG DQDORJ FX VLVWHPXO FHORU LQGLYLGXDOH 2 SUREOHP GHOLFDW rezult GLQ IDSWXO F  OD QLYHO VRFLDO SUHIHULQ HOH SRW V QX ILH LQGHSHQGHQWH ID GH PRGXO GH GLVWULEXLUH D YHQLWXULORU 'H H[HPSOX R GLVWULEX LH DFFHQWXDW LQHJDO D veniturilor.

21 Samuelson. GH 80 $VWIHO vQ ILJXU XWLOLWDWH VXSHULRU ID a 2. 11. . p. 1956.6. curba U1 DUDW XQ QLYHO GH .

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PLúFDUH YD GXUD SkQ VH YD DMXQJH OD SUH XO GH . VSRUXO GH FRQVXP DO XQHL P UIL úL UHGXFHUHD FRQVXPXOXL FHOHLODOWH P UIL I U YHQLWXULORU UHDOH consuPDWRULORU vQDOW FXUE 3XQFWHOH 3 úL 5 H[SULP FRPELQD LL GH EXQXUL FDUH SRW IL DFKL]L LRQDWH vQ OLPLWD DFHVWXL EXJHW FHD FRUHVSXQ] WRDUH OXL 3 RFD]LRQkQG XQ QLYHO mai ridicat de utilitate. În punctul P linia bugetului atinge cea mai GH L]RXWLOLWDWH DPEHOH DYkQG DFHHDúL SDQW  HJDO FX UDWD PDUJLQDO GH VXEVWLWX LH vQ FRQVXP Cantitatea de grâu B’ C2’ R P C2 U1 U0 B O C1’ C1 Figura 2 &XUEH GH LQGLIHUHQ Cantitatea de strunguri /XkQG vQ FRQVLGHUDUH FRQGL LLOH SURGXF LHL úL DOH FHUHULL VH SRDWH GHGXFH RSWLPXO HFRQRPLF VDX HFKLOLEUXO HFRQRPLHL QD LRQDOH Optimul într-R HFRQRPLH DIODW FRUHVSXQ] WRU XQHL HFRQRPLL vQFKLVH 3XQFWXO ( GH WDQJHQ DFHVW SXQFW UDWD PDUJLQDO vQ UHOD LL FX VWU LQ WDWHD HVWH VXSHULRU FHOXL HVWH GHVFULV vQ ILJXUD  LL FRQVXPDWRULORU ÌQ Echilibrul într-R HFRQRPLH vQFKLV D FXUEHL GH WUDQVIRUPDUH 77 FX FHD GH L]RXWLOLWDWH 8 FRUHVSXQGH PD[LPXOXL SURILWXOXL SURGXF WRULORU úL XWLOLW GH WUDQVIRUPDUH vQ SURGXF LH úL FHD GH VXEVWLWXLUH vQ conVXP VXQW LGHQWLFH GHWHUPLQkQG SUH XO GH HFKLOLEUX DO HFRQRPLHL 'DF SUH XO relativ al strungurilor (panta dreptei BB') ar fi inferior. comparativ cu R. fLUPHOH úL-ar reduce SURGXF LD GH VWUXQJXUL VXE 24 vQ WLPS FH FRQVXPDWRULL úL-ar spori cererea. SRWULYLW XQHL FXUEH VXSHULRDUH GH LQGLIHUHQ YD VSRUL SUH XO UHO WLY úL DFHDVW  SHVWH FDQWLWDWHD 24 ÌQ FRQVHFLQ  a echilibru al cererii cu oferta.

7HRULL úL PRGHOH SULYLQG UHOD LLOH HFRQRPLFH LQWHUQD LRQDOH Cantitatea de grâu B’ R T’ E Q2 U1 B O Q1 T Cantitatea de strunguri Figura 2. echilibrul economiei este realizat în SXQFWXO ( GH WDQJHQ D FXUEHORU 77 GH WUDQVIRUPDUH. ÌQ DEVHQ D VFKLPburilor externe.7: Echilibrul într-R HFRQRPLH vQFKLV Echilibrul într-R HFRQRPLH FH GHVI úRDU VFKLPEXUL H[WHUQH HVWH GHVFULV vQ figura 2.8.

úL 8 GH LQGLIHUHQ .

 DaF SH SLD D LQWHUQD LRQDO SUH XULOH UHODWLYH VXQW GLIHULWH GH FHOH LQWHUQH DSDU schimEXULOH FX VWU LQ WDWHD FDUH GDX posibilitatea atingerii unui nivel mai ridicat de consum. corespunz WRU XQXL SXQFW VLWXDW SH R FXUE GH LQGLIHUHQ VXSHULRDU 8.

 ÌQ H[HPSOXO GLQ ILJXUD  SUH XO UHODWLY LQWHUQD LRQDO DO VWUXQJXULORU reflectat de panta dreptei FF'. de WDQJHQ D OiQLHL EXJHWXOXL )) . este mai mic decâW SURGXF LD GH JUkX úL R YRU GLPLQXD SH FHD FHO LQWHUQ GDW GH UDWD PDUJLQDO GH WUDQVIRUPDUH vQ SURGXF LH GLQ SXQFWXO ( ) FkQG DEVWUDF LH GH FKHOWXLHOLOH GH WUDQVSRUW úL FHOH GH YDP  SURGXF WRULL QD LRQDOL vúL YRU P UL vQ DFHVWH FRQGL LL GH VWUXQJXUL DF LRQkQG SHQWUX maximizaUHD SURILWXOXL &RQVXPXO YD FUHúWH GHSODVkQGX-se spre punctul P.

& JUkX SUH XO UHODWLY LQWHUQD LRnal) al VWUXQJXULORU ILLQG HJDO FX 2) 2) 0'03 SUH XO PRQHWDU LQWHUQD LRQDO DO L UH]XOW VWUXQJXULORU  SUH XO PRQHWDU LQWHUQD LRQDO DO JUkXOXL 'LQ DFHVWH HJDOLW HFKLOLEUXO EDODQ HL VFKLPEXULORU úL DQXPH YDORDUHD LPSRUWXOXL FDQWLWDWHD strungurilor) = valoarea exportului (cantitatea × SUH XO JUkXOXL.& VWUXQJXUL úL VH YD H[SRUWD . OD FXUED GH LQGLIHUHQ 8 3HQWUX DFHDVWD VH YRU LPSRUWD .

 × SUH XO .

4.$EXQGHQ D UHODWLY D IDFWRULORU GH SURGXF LH &HUHUHD UHFLSURF Cantitatea de grâu F’ T’ X2 Q2 C2 M E D P U2 U1 F O X1 Q1 T C1 Cantitatea de strunguri Figura 2.3 a) 3HQWUX &HUHUHD UHFLSURF úL curba schimburilor (FKLOLEUXO HFRQRPLF LQWHUQD LRQDO D LOXVWUD PRGXO vQ GH VWDELOLUH D SUH XULORU úL PRQGLDOH LPSOLFD LLOH DFHVWXL difeUHQ HORU LQWHUQD LRQDOH VWUXFWXULOH SUH XULORU FRVWXULORU DVXSUD SURFHV VH XWLOL]HD] H[HPSOXO VLPSOX DO UHOD LLORU GLQWUH GRX GH WUDQVIRUPDUH HVWH 77 LDU FHD H[WHUQ PDUL vQ SURGXF LD GH JUkX SHQWUX HFRQRPLL QD LRQDOH HVWH 7 7  FHHD FH QD LRQDO  úL descrise în figura 2. &XUED LQWHUQ DUDW SRVLELOLW L PDL SRVLELOLW HFRQRPLD L PDL PDUL vQ SURGXF LD GH VWUXQJXUL SHQWUX VWU LQ WDWH ÌQ FRQGL LL GH DXWDUKLH SXQFWXO GH HFKLOLEUX SHQWUX HFRQRPLD QD LRQDO HVWH ( LDU SHQWUX VWU LQ WDWH (  UHVSHFWLY SXQFWHOH vQ FDUH FHOH GRX WUDQVIRUPDUH VXQW WDQJHQWH OD FXUEHOH GH LQGLIHUHQ 8 úL 8  3UH XO VWUXQJXOXL HVWH PDL ULGLFDW OD LQWHUQ GHFkW vQ VWU LQ WDWH FXUEH GH relativ al .9.8: Echilibrul într-o economie deschiV &kúWLJXO WRWDO RE LQXW FD XUPDUH D SDUWLFLS ULL OD VFKLPEXULOH LQWHUQD LRQDOH UH]XOW DWkW GLQ PRGLILFDUHD UDSRUWXOXL GH SUH XUL IDSW FH GH]DYDQWDMHD] SH XQLL FkúWLJ SURGXF WRUL LQWHUQL FkW úL GLQ VSHFLDOL]DUHD LQWHUQD LRQDO  DFHVW GLQ XUP GHS úLQG SLHUGHULOH SURGXF W oULORU GH]DYDQWDMD L 2.

7HRULL úL PRGHOH SULYLQG UHOD LLOH HFRQRPLFH LQWHUQD LRQDOH 'DF UL V GLQWUH VH OLEHUDOL]HD] VFKLPEXULOH SLH HOH FHORU GRX UL VH XQLILF úL VH VWDELOHVF QRL SUH XUL UHODWLYH GH HFKLOLEUX DVWIHO vQFkW VXPD SURGXF LLORU FHORU GRX ILH HJDODW UL V ILH GH VXPD FHUHULL ORU SHQWUX ILHFDUH PDUI HFKLOLEUDW  ÌQ H[SULPDUHD JHRPHWULF úL EDODQ D VFKLPEXULORU GLQ ILJXUD  FRQGL LD penWUX UHDOL]DUHD DFHVWXL HFKLOLEUX HVWH FRQJUXHQ D WULXQJKLXULORU VFKLPEXOXL 03' úL 0 3 ' .

9: Echilibrul econoPLF LQWHUQD ÌQ ILJXUD  SUH XO LQWHUQD LRQDO HVWH UHGDW GH SDQWD SDUDOHOHORU 3' úL 3 '  FDUH HVWH PDL PLF GHFkW SDQWD WDQJHQWHL OD FXUED GH WUDQVIRUPDUH 77 vQ ( úL PDL PDUH GHFkW FHD D WDQJHQWHL OD 77 vQ (  DPEHOH UHSUH]HQWkQG SUH XULOH interne reODWLYH 1RXO SUH 'DF FRPXQ HVWH SUH GH HFKLOLEUX VWDELOL]kQG SLH HOH XQLILFDWH &HUHUHD GH LPSRUW D ILHF UHL UL HVWH HJDO UL FX RIHUWD VD GH H[SRUW GLQ SXQFW GH DU FUHúWH SURGXF LD DFHOHLDúL P UIL úL vedere valoULF SUH XO UHODWLY SH SODQ LQWHUQD LRQDO DU IL PDL PLF PDUH. &RQJUXHQ D DFHVWRU WULXQJKLXUL SRDWH H[LVWD QXPDL GDF VWUXQJXULORU SH SODQ LQWHUQD LRQDO VH DIO VLWXDW vQWUH FRUHVSXQ] WRDUH LQWHUQH SUH XO UHODWLY DO UHODWLYH SUH XULOH Cantitatea de grâu F’ T’ D U1 U0 E M T1’ P P’ U1’ E’ M’ D’ F O T T1 Cantitatea de strunguri LRQDO U0’ Figura 2.

GHFkW DPEHOH SUH XUL UHODWLYH LQWHUQH vQ DPEHOH QX DU SXWHD DSDUH VFKLPEXO LQWHUQD LRQDO 3UH XO UHODWLY FRPXQ GDW GH SDQWD GUHSWHORU 3' úL 3 ' GHILQHúWH UDSRUWXO GH VFKLPE GLQWUH FHOH GRX HFRQRPLL QD LRQDOH 2 UHGXFHUH D SUH XOXL UHODWLY OD HúWH ID UDSRUWXO GH VFKLPE 'DF V DU imSRUWXO FXUE XQHL UL vL vPEXQ W - vPEXQ W L UDSRUWXO GH VFKLPE DO ULL GH UHIHULQ VFKLPE  FRQVXPDWRULL GLQ DFHDVW GLVWULEXLUHD vPEXQ W L DU DU DFFHGH OD R UH]XOWDWH ULL LL GLQ GH GH L]RXWLOLWDWH VXSHULRDU GH LQWHUQD LRQDOH 'DF GH 8 LDU FHL GLQ VWU LQ WDWH QX DU DMXQJH OD FkúWLJXULORU GH V DU UDSRUWXO VFKLPE DO U1’. RaSRUWXO VFKLPEXULOH UHIHULQ GHWHUPLQ -  3' DWXQFL úL 3 ' úL DU GLPLQXD SDQWD vQ GHWULPHQWXO VWU LQ W - . FRQVXPDWRULL GLQ DUD GH UHIHULQ DU FkúWLJD PDL PXOW LDU FHL GLQ VWU LQ WDWH PDL FHOH GRX UL FRQVLGHUDWH vQ ILJXUD  DU SX LQ GH SH X PD VFKLPEXULORU 'DF r . Deci.

Astfel.PSRUW VWU LQ GH JUkX Figura 2 (FKLOLEUXO SLH HL LQWHUQD LRQDOH úL FXUEHOH VFKLPEXULORU 3H D[D DEVFLVHORU VXQW UHSUH]HQWDWH vQ FDQWLW GH LOH GH VWUXQJXUL SUH XOXL FH YRU IL DO exSRUWDWH VDX GLPSRWULY  LPSRUWDWH strunguULORU SH SLD D PRQGLDO  DWkW vQ ))  DUD GH UHIHULQ HVWH GLVSXV V IXQF LH QLYHOXO UHODWLY DUD GH UHIHULQ  FkW úL GH F WUH VWU LQ WDWH GDW GH SDQWD GUHSWHL 'H H[HPSOX OD SUH XO UHODWLY DO VWUXQJXULORU SH SDLD D PRQGLDO LPSRUWH 29 VWUXQJXUL RIHULQG vQ VFKLPE OD export VW grâu.10 XQGH HVWH WUDVDW fiecaUH GLQ ULOH SDUWHQHUH FXUED FHUHULL GH LPSRUW úL D RIHUWHL GH H[SRUW SHQWUX .OXVWUDUHD VWDELOLUH HFKLOLEUXOXL figura 2.PSRUW VWU LQ GH VWUXQJXUL ([SRUW QD LRQDO GH JUkX . pentru RULFDUH QLYHO DO SUH XOXL UHODWLY DO VWUXQJXULORU SH .PSRUW QD LRQDO GH JUkX ([SRUW VWU LQ GH JUkX J H’ F’ .$EXQGHQ D UHODWLY D IDFWRULORU GH SURGXF LH &HUHUHD UHFLSURF SRVHGD FXUEH GH WUDQVIRUPDUH vQ SURGXF LH LGHQWLFH SXQFWHOH ( úL ( DU FRLQFLGH ú SUH XULOH FHORU GRX SLH HORU QD LRQDOH GHFL vQ vQ Q DU PRGLILFD SUH XULOH GH UHODWLYH LQGLIHUHQ 7RWXúL vQ FKLDU GDF DU i UL DU IL LGHQWLFH úL vQ DEVHQ D VFKLPEXULORU LDU XQLILFDUHD - FRQGL LLOH GHWHUPLQD DU SURGXF LHL GLQ FHOH G oX UL DU IL LGHQWLFH H[LVWHQ D XQRU GLIHUHQ H vQ VWUXFWXUD FXUEHORU UHODWLYH FRQVXP SLH HORU LQWHUQH 8QLILFDUHD QD LRQDOH cerHULL FRQILJXUD LD GLIHUHQ H SULYLQ D SUH XULORU HJDOL]D DFHVWH SUH XUL FX FRQV FLQ H DVXSUD DPEHORU HFRQRPLL e $úDGDU OHJHD DYDQWDMXOXL FRPSDUDWLY VH DSOLF UL H[LVW QX QXPDL FkQG vQWUH DFHVWH GLIHUHQ H UHODWLYH GH FRVWXUL FL úL GLIHUHQ H UHODWLYH GH SUH XUL Acestea VH SRW GDWRUD GLIHUHQ HORU ILH vQ SULYLQ D RIHUWHL ILH D FHUHULL ILH DPEHORU FDX]H b) &HUHUHD UHFLSURF SURFHVXOXL GH úL FXUEHOH VFKLPEXU D ilor LQWHUQD LRQDO DSDUH vQ .PSRUW QD LRQDO GH VWUXQJXUL ([SRUW VWU LQ GH VWUXQJXU J’ i V J F W Z’ H J’ Z O ([SRUW QD LRQDO GH VWUXQJXUL .

7HRULL úL PRGHOH SULYLQG UHOD LLOH HFRQRPLFH LQWHUQD LRQDOH SLD D PRQGLDO  H[LVW 7RDWH R FRQILJXUD LH GLVWLQFW ULL GH UHIHULQ FH UHGDX DFHVWH LPSRUW H[SRUW.

export "curba HVWH -2- LPSRUW. VWUXQJXUL LL FRQILJXUD L .

JUkX DWkW vQ FD]XO SXQFWHOH  FkW úL vQ FD]XO VWU LQ W i constituie schimburiORU LDU D VWU LQ W ILLQG UHGDW XQHL UL ÌQ ILJXUD  FXUED VFKLPEXULORU ULL GH UHIHULQ LL HVWH - 2-  DPEHOH UHSUH]HQWDWH SH D[H GH FRRUGRQDWH FRPXQH (OH vQ FDGUDQXO  SUH XO UHODWLY SH SLD D PRQGLDO SDQWD GUHSWHL ))  7RFPDL DFHVWD HVWH HJDOLWDWHD YDORULF VH LQWHUVHFWHD] GH (raportul de schimb) LQWHUQD LRQDO GH SUH XO echiliEUX F FL DVLJXU D VFKLPEXULORU UHFLSURFH 2ULFH DOW UDSRUW FHUHUL GH LPSRUW UHVSHFWLY RIHU GH VFKLPE GH H[HPSOX ++ .

ale ofertei de export (ε. GHWHUPLQ LQWHUQD LRQDOH te de export diferite ale partenerilor. deci nu poate asigura echilibrul schimburilor &XUED VFKLPEXULORU HYLGHQ LD] PD[LPL]HD] XWLOLWDWHD DJUHJDW D DFHOH FRPELQD LL GH H[SRUW úL LPSRUW FDUH QD LRQDOH SHQWUX WRDWH YDORULOH FX HFRQRPLHL posiELOH DOH UDSRUWXOXL GH VFKLPE LQWHUQD LRQDO Un indicator util este elasticitatea FXUEHL FkWH SURFHQWH WUHEXLH PRGLILFDW H[SRUWXO VFKLPEXULORU $FHVWD DUDW ULL SHQWUX D SXWHD FUHúWH FX XQ SURFHQW úL FHD GH SUH LPSRUWXO DFHVWHLD úL HVWH HFKLYDOHQW FX UDSRUWXO GLQWUH YDORDUHD PDUJLQDO medie a raportului de schimb.

úL FHUHULL GH LPSRUW η). când ε  úL η= - úL HVWH VWULFW SR]LWLY  GDU VXEXQLWDU  FkQG ε >  úL η< -1. elasticitDWHD FXUEHL VFKLPEXULORU HVWH VWULFW QHJDWLY  $UH YDORDUHD 0. Când ε úL η au valori cuprinse în intervalul (-1. 0). ([LVW R DQXPLW FRUHOD LH vQWUH DFHVW LQGLFDWRU úL HODVWLFLW LOH ID .

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