Inventing the Future without Forgetting the Past

Some time ago a fellow conservator told me in an informal chat that conservators from developing countries tend to be very good professionals because "they know how to do a lot with little". Dealing everyday with technology I realize how much we may get used to it. In conservation, as much as in other fields, there is a thin line between using technology for our profit and depending on it. Although I agree with my friend’s opinion, I also believe it is not only a question of developing versus industrialised countries but big budget institutions versus low budget institutions, wherever they are. Conservation requires conservators to make use of their creative skills, not only in their approach to the works of art but also in the solutions they find. These last can not depend only on technology. The young generation is eager to implement new technology-based solutions, and even though traditionally it is said that conservators are conservative, this professional need has been losing strength over time. We have developed a love-hate relationship with technology that is exemplified in the application of lasers and digital imaging. Laser technology was first applied to conservation some decades ago while digital imaging has been around since the 80s. Despite the fact that these technologies are available, and even that there has been much research and development on these subjects, technology is still far away from the regular conservation workshop. Still, there is a driving force against this natural friction, well exemplified this issue in the article about the VARIM project. This Spanish initiative combines the spectral analysis of paintings and open-source software, designed with a user-friendly interface, in order to enable hands-on conservators to use it. In this issue you can also read two interesting conference reviews. Christabel Blackman is sharing her reflections based on her experience at the Getty’s conference “The Object in Transition”, held last January in Los Angeles. The second is Anca Dina's review of the annual conservation conference held in Romania, where the most important conservation projects are presented. Among other interesting articles, there is a particular study about the curious history of the art collector Georges de Batz seen from the perspective of the conservator Niccolo Caldararo. This case-study brings us the research, history and examination of a Roger de la Fresnaye painting from the de Batz art collection. I hope you will enjoy the reading! Rui Bordalo, Executive Editor



José Manuel Menéndez. Los Angeles. Araceli Gabaldón.A Useful System for Acquiring and Composing Images in Painting Analysis Techniques by Juan Torres. A Study for Genoa and Savona. Lupu CASE STUDY 52 CASE STUDY Georges de Batz. California Review by Christabel Blackman 11 Conservation-Restoration Workshop for the Artistic Components of Historic Monuments Romanian Ministry of Culture and Cults 20-21 March 2008. A. The Mysterious Case of an Art Collector Extraordinary Found by Examination of a Painting by Niccolo Caldararo DOCUMENTATION 69 Survey and Drawing for a Conservation-Restoration Project. Marián del Egido & Miriam Bueso 27 43 MATERIAL STUDIES AND CHARACTERISATION Materials Used in Romanian Manuscripts from 15th to 19th century .INDEX NEWS 6 CONFERENCE REVIEW The Object in Transition: A Cross-Disciplinary Conference on the Preservation and Study of Modern and Contemporary Art The Getty Conservation Institute 24-26 January 2008. Bucharest. Alberto Posse. by Giulia Pellegri HERITAGE IN DANGER e_conser vation 84 Emergency and Preventive Conservation Interventions of Abandoned Churches in Transylvania by Péter Pál and Lóránd Kiss 5 . Romania Review by Anca Dina 18 2008 WORKSITES Conservation of the Mural Paintings from the Church of the Holy Archangels Michael and Gabriel – “Mantuleasa” by Simona Patrascu and Anca Nicolaescu EVENTS ARTICLES 23 UPCOMING EVENTS April to June 2008 TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT VARIM . Carmen Vega.Stereomicroscopy by Mihai I. Tomás Antelo.

. the inclusion of conservation at the highest and most essential level in International Network for the Conservation of Contemporary Art. Altruistically. Optimal organization and attendance. California Organisers: The Getty Conservation Institute and the Getty Research Institute www. (www. 2008 Los Angeles. No conference fees were charged and about 500 people came from all corners of the planet. perched above the sprawling flatness of L. historians and curators in the conference presentations or in the extremely lively and e_conser vation Review by Christabel Blackman North Building.A. The participation of some of the most focused and experienced contemporary art conservators. In the final days of January 2008. Geographically it is stoically posed upon its very own verdant mount. it is a singular and enticing place that offers a unique and marvelous experience to any and all For those who have not yet had the opportunity of visiting the Getty Center. Getty Center . it is what we all aspire to. along with a varied agenda and an exhibition of the works that were central to the conferences led to a successful encounter all round. the "Object in Transition: A Cross-Disciplinary Conference on the Preservation and Study of Modern and Contemporary Art" was offered by the Getty Research Institute and the Getty Conservation Institute. and in some way it is a symbolic destination for us. a proverbial Mecca. For conservators it represents an idealistic reverence for our vocation in its monumental presence and is a magnanimous attraction.getty.incca. A lunchtime course was also offered to conference participants about THE OBJECT IN TRANSITION A Cross-Disciplinary Conference on the Preservation and Study of Modern and Contemporary Art January 24-26.

the choices we make now rather than twenty years ago. N. and in thirty years’ time we will be looked back upon. In contemporary art. Contemporary works of art pose theoretical and technical challenges which are continually addressed by conservators. And that’s why Conservation matters! It is a difficult task to compress so much information into a simple review and I highly recommend readers to peruse their particular interests by logging onto the excellent video session reproductions available on the Getty website. the choices that we are making. are effected by who makes what decisions about conservation and the historically cultural moment in which they are made. (…) it is important to protract greater ideas. These physical restrictions and even the artist’s original intent often rely on people’s subjective experience and memories as documentation. inquisitive doubts and continual 'door opening' to new fields of thought were incisive and in abundance.Y. because of the limitations that exist in extensively documenting the nature of these works. historians. curators. The intentional use of rapidly degradable materials." The influence and importance of "artist’s intent" was an issue that sprung up continually over both days. but its actual physical state is beyond being merely conceptual. Jeffrey Weiss (former Director of Dia Art Foundation. Although a general sense of agreement was never a conclusive issue. However the challenging problems which do arise may often be parallel dichotomies. turn conservation into an almost impracticable endeavour. are also pertinent to this time. pertinent questions or relevant anecdotes. Self criticism is important to look at. made for a worthy and memorable experience. How important is artist’s intent. artists and many others. Getty by night e_conser vation 7 .) commented on "the importance of addressing bigger questions that are also about interpretation. the very concept of the object controls its physical facts and parameters. Conservation moves between the vulnerability of the physical object and the understanding of its meaning and thus the importance of the consequences of decision making in conservation. The decisions that are taken about an object’s conservation are subjective and because of the nature of decision making.CONFERENCE REVIEW articulate audience who continually jostled and vied for the microphone to transmit challenging outlooks.

how do we achieve this? In the section about "Artist's Voice: History's Claim". The idea of finishing a work of art. But what was the original intent. What is it we desire when we go to see an object. big questions were posed and different viewpoints offered distinctive answers. Uni.CONFERENCE REVIEW and can it always be obeyed. history. of California) added more interesting ideas. The 'utopian truth' of original intent and the changes that have come about over time leads us to consider our own role as conservators in the creation of what authenticity is. Does history always defend the present? Pip Laurenson (Tate. is that the original object now? What is historically significant authenticity? Objects are made in an interpretive moment and when they are to be conserved this is an equally interpretive moment as that of its creation. ethics and the decision making process become key questions. Is age authenticity? And for that matter what is authenticity? There was an ensuing discussion about authenticity. then I would have used it". is it aesthetics. which included a lot of defensive audience commentaries. What is authenticity? Is it in the object or the concept? If an object with grave irreparable problems is simply remade by the artist. "if this technique was available when I first made this work. at all costs? There seemed to be a popular view that the artist does have the right to intervene and continue to dictate his intent over his works during his lifetime and even sometimes posthumously through his estate or decreed intentions. London) engaged the audience and fellow speakers in some interesting lines of thought.e. Sometimes a work is translated into another medium and an installation or performance piece may become a video. Indeed. and can that change? Is it affected by the artist’s evolution or technological advances (i. that the death of the artist or the consequences of the museum as a recreational destination may impose changes on the e_conser vation . the object itself? There are often competing narratives 8 Coffee break and time for reflection within the same artwork which need to be maintained. gallery exhibition and thence the sale to a museum no longer exists. So is this the documentation or is it an evolution of the artwork? Do we have a responsibility to future accurate historical display of these works? Anne Wagner (Professor of Modern and Contemporary Art. and therefore it is valid to remake the work using such-and-such technique)? Should greatly deteriorated works of art that have modified beyond recognition be remade? But is that still the artist’s work or not? Who is responsible to make the decisions about an artwork? Is it exclusively the artist? These sorts of questions lead the way to problems of authenticity.

context greatly influences the artwork. as objects. All our old training rules have changed because the paradigms of making art have affected the paradigms of conservation. housing the Getty Conservation Institute A place to wander and wonder. In some way there seemed to a humble observer like myself to be a 'Botox principle' occurring: that the intentionality of contemporary art was to isolate a moment in time and negate aging which is a contradictory dichotomy because ‘agelessness’ implies discarding objects due to their age. When will the alternative discourse replace the present one?" e_conser vation 9 . that’s why it’s hard to find a common denominator." There were many comments that contemporary conservation often clashed with the established Codes of Ethics. Yve-Alain Bois (Art History Professor at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton. Paul Getty Museum) commented "We must address the fact that we are adrift. In the interesting discussion entitled "Life and Death of Objects". as the work circulates historically it may change. The intentional rejection of the age factor is a negation of the ephemeral physical object and part of the 21st century 'Botox' obsession about lifespan consequences. the grounds of the Getty is going to die anyway and it’s just slower in storage. The ethical. there are certain uncertainties and there are uncertain uncertainties.CONFERENCE REVIEW artwork. because it would become so general that it would no longer mean anything. Every work requires a different attitude. aesthetic questions change with time. I don’t think that it is possible. they are unstable because often they are movable objects and can keep being reinstalled. David Bomford (Associate Director for Collections at the J. and lose intention. then why not at least let a generation enjoy it? Trying to find a rule. There is a close intertwining between technical decisions and ethical questions so in the end the conservator needs to resort to common sense and prudence. New Jersey) said that "if a work Getty Center East Building.

and therefore it is now difficult to come to terms with objects that have a lifespan (or ‘life and death’) that may be witnessed within a single generation. Conservators. Perhaps the life and death of objects is part of the editing process that exists. 10 e_conser vation . Human beings had previously tended to create works of art that perjure time during many generations. She lives in Valencia. Italy). Reviewed by Christabel Blackman Christabel Blackman (b. It occurred to me that many of the present day dilemmas are due to the creation of artworks that have a limited life-span. this is without mentioning the economical questions The Getty Center that arise from the conclusive and final "death" of a work of art or the prestige and status anxiety created by its loss in the public sphere.CONFERENCE REVIEW He also went on to say "The residue of greater works of art that exist has been edited by time and history. where she is a free-lance senior paintings conservator. Spain." If the habit of cabbage throwing still existed. curators and art historians do not want to take on the responsibility of euthanasia decisions about the finality of artworks that have been intentionally made with ephemeral materials. Needless to say. David would have received a generous serving from the protesting audience’s heated response. 1959. Australia) holds a Masters Degree in Conservation and Restoration of Cultural Patrimony (Universidad Politecnica de Valencia. Spain) specializing in easel painting and a Diploma in canvas and panel easel paintings (Istituto per l’Arte ed il Restauro. The editing process of contemporary art has barely started.

hosted by the Romanian Ministry of Culture and Cults. young professionals and students. to bring into discussion and search solutions to the actual problems that concern the cultural heritage conservation. curators. the event gathered prominent personalities in the conservation-restoration Review by Anca Dina The "Conservation-Restoration Workshop for the Artistic Components of Historic Monuments". director of the General Direction of the National e_conser vation Cultural Heritage. It was shown that with time. This meeting aims. hoping at least a part of them may find solution. to keep and strengthen the link between the specialist conservators and the younger professionals and. such as the Bukovinian 11 .CONFERENCE REVIEW CONSERVATION-RESTORATION WORKSHOP for the Artistic Components of Historic Monuments 20 and 21 March 2008 Bucharest. helped to the promotion of several monuments with important artistic components. art historians. on one hand.cultura. on the other hand. and by Dan Nicolae. The event was opened by Mircea Angelescu. physicians. and implicitly the funds made available through the National Restoration Plan. All those interested in cultural heritage topics were present. such as conservators. chemists. Romania Organiser: Romanian Ministry of Culture and Cults www. In its second edition. the importance that the Ministry is giving to this cultural heritage sector. being the most recent opportunity for the Romanian professionals to meet and present their work. architect at the Direction of Historic Monuments and Archaeology. who sincerely welcomed such an initiative to discuss the problems that conservators face. took place in the pleasant environment of the Ministry conference hall in 20 and 21 March 2008.

Dan Nicolae. Several problems that the heritage faces have been underlined decays due to incorrect previous interventions were shown. the beneficiary and actual owners. the organiser of the event. were invited to moderate the sessions. starting with the Ministry. In the first day. the invitation for the third workshop was launched. In the second day. and Dan Kisielevici. technological and stylistic studies were exposed and different types of material deterioration of works of art have been analysed. Starting with the restorer approach to the work of art. Ecaterina Cincheza–Buculei and Tereza Sinigalia. which concern the stylistic and technical analysis or the study of the existent decay mechanisms. the community. Well appreciated was the intervention of conservator Simona Patrascu for the exterior mural painting conservation from Coltea Church in Bucharest. presented by the conservator Maria Dumbravicianu and completed by the research carried out by INOE (National Institute of Research and Development for Optoelectronics) on the 3D scanning of the monument. the discussion panels where conducted by the hosts. the church was subjected to extremely aggressive deterioration factors which drove in time to the decay and the disintegration of its mural paintings. Humor Monastery.CONFERENCE REVIEW mural painting ensembles and the Christian symbols and graffiti from Basarab. The presentations referred mainly to conservation works from Romania. in Suceava". although some aspects from France and Italy have also been stressed. Unfortunately. councillor from the Ministry of Culture and Cults. The objects of study were mural paintings. In these circumstances. architect at the Direction of Historic Monuments and Archaeology and Oana Gorea. Located in the centre of the capital. conservator-restorer and organiser of the event from the Ministry of Culture and Cults. and "Technological and stylistic aspects of the paintings by Costin Petrescu in the Concert Hall of the Romanian Athenaeum in Bucharest". renowned art historians. wooden paintings or stone based materials. presented by the restorers Anca and Sergiu Petrescu. next to the problems raised by the paintings conservation. as well as their advanced state of decay. director of the General Direction of the National Cultural Heritage. The event was opened by Mircea Angelescu. the aesthetical e_conser vation . the available funds are insufficient to face the wish for renewal and modernisation of many historic monuments. The workshop comprised 25 communications. Two of the papers dealt with this subject: "Decay of the mural painting from the Church Dormition of the Virgin. conservator-restorer Oana Gorea. it is essential to involve in these actions all parties. Therefore. different directions can be outlined. With regard to the given problems and the polemics developed by the present themes. The audience was presented with several casestudies of the undergoing or recently finished conservation projects. conserved in situ or as detached fragments. 12 it is worth mentioning his primary observations. At the end of the opening. the municipal councils and the city halls.

presenting "The Deer House from Sighisoara. however. intervention conducted by the conservator Simona Patrascu. through such an aesthetical recovery. from stratigraphic research to the complete reconstitution of the facades. Yet. According to the author. this representation was also distorted by the abusive chromatic integration. a critical view". Another case worthy of interest due to the importance of the monument and for its unfortunate and sad finality is the restoration of the 16th century monument "Deer House". together with the fundamental principle of materials compatibility. The presentation. An archaeological approach was chosen to the conservation of the support and lacunas. famous house. Dan Mohanu. Prof. entitled "The Deer House from Sighisoara. a discontentment regarding the dissonant aesthetic rapport between the conservator’s option for the presentation of the mural painting surface and the constructor’s solution for the final aspect of the towers. the plaster and the limewash were to be applied and modelled according to the traditional technology. In the same spirit. among which a Latin inscription and the unexpected representation of the two bodies of the deer united by the corner between the building’s facades. There is. Moreover. The ancient layers of plasters are no longer visible. e_conser vation Coltea Church in Bucharest. in order to valorise the 17th century painting fragments. 13 . the original image being replaced with that of a cold. that of authenticity. specialist conservator-restorer. the archaeological restitution of the facades aimed to preserve all the aged traces of this building. is focused on the research carried out by the restorers that brought to light plaster layers and historical limewashes. using coloured. texturised fillings. a case presented by the specialist conservator Dan Mohanu. However. from stratigraphic research to the complete reconstitution of the facades. empty of its history. a critical view". the only sign reminding that this is the "Deer House" is the deer representation on the corner of the facades.CONFERENCE REVIEW presentation was a big challenge for the restorers. the church partially regained its original aspect. what resulted at the end of the collaboration between the beneficiary and the restorers is very far from the initial proposal. after the conservation of the exterior walls painting. From the actual deformed image.

reducing firstly the risks involved by the intervention itself. incompatible additions with the nature of stone. Peter Church in Cluj-Napoca. Moreover. as these situations are real and they threaten the heritage with the falsification of its identity. the aesthetical approach must be permanently reported to the already stated principles. authentic image." e_conser vation . the plaster detachments. there are situations when the decision belongs only partially to the conservator. presenting "An experience concerning aesthetical approach – France and Italy". Problems and solutions. other works that requested the pluridisciplinary collaboration between specialists and a rigorous planning of the interventions were made. This aspect was pointed several times during the debates. mural painting conservator. the difficulty raised by the colour reattachment and the aesthetical approach to the lacunas. mural painting conservator. The monument presents.CONFERENCE REVIEW Dan Codrescu. The problems risen by each work in particular. multiple fissures and material detachments. the presence of vegetal colonial formations. prove once again the necessity of seeing the conservation intervention as a unitary action at all levels. environmental factors drove to the decay of the monument. conservator of mural painting. the presence of cement in the support. in what concerns the work of art. showing the case study entitled "Conservation works from the hospice of Bistrita Monastery in Valcea. The final task of the restorer. Restorers’ intervention was focused on the preservation of the authenticity and integrity of the work. Image from the presenation of Elena Murariu. the diversity of the lacunas and the necessity of adaptation of the restoration principles at each particular case demonstrate that the conservator main task must be to respect the professional deontology. with all the intention to preserve the unaltered. Dan Codrescu. mostly humidity and freezing-defreezing process. A complex intervention of mural painting conservation was recently finished by the conservator Elena Murariu. thus. Here. presented comparatively some few examples regarding the experience he accumulated on worksites in France and Italy. due to the pressure exerted by the beneficiary or sponsor. An important conservation project of a stone monument was presented by Benjamin Nagy 14 concerning the intervention made on the exterior sculpted decoration of the Baroque portico of St. Besides the conservation of the interior and exterior mural paintings. However. Here. specialists confronted problems due to the consistent accumulations and limewashes on the colour layer affected by salt crystallisations. and implicitly.

becoming a merely filling material with no adhesive properties. it is impossible to discuss at large each one of them. from Antim Monastery in Bucharest. with time. calcium caseinate served to the imperious safeguarding of the monument. The theoretical approach to some organic or mineral consolidant agents was based on laboratory tests and in situ situations. Nicholas Church in Bucharest. it should be reminded of the intervention made by the young conservator Maria Magdalena Drobota with Professor Oliviu Boldura. Oliviu Boldura from the point of view of the historical conservation interventions. conservation scientists but also young professionals. this time focused on the identification of an artwork by the Romanian artist Petre Alexandrescu. This product was largely employed by the conservators at that time. about the recovery of the paintings from Apor manor from under the limewash layers and by Peter Pal and Lorand Kiss on the research for the identification of Transylvanian mural paintings. At "The beheading of St. The actual conservation project made possible to study in-depth all the aspects. was only possible due to the restoration intervention which revealed the original image from under several overpaint layers. presented by Georgiana Zahariea and Prof. John the Baptist" Church in Arbore. However. Another research. However. several emergency conservation e_conser vation campaigns took place over the years. a site in conservation. we must highlight Claudiu Moldovan’s intervention at the Snagov Church Monastery in 2007 and that of Constantin Ritivoiu on the iconostasis from the St. As all the papers presented were equally interesting from different perspectives. being the only consolidant agent that was available locally. The Church from Arbore.among the audience. An appreciated research was that of the young professional Georgiana Zahariea together with Professor Oliviu Boldura. was presented by the conservators Oana and Dumitru Gorea. it was observed that the product used 30 years ago for consolidation of the support . 15 . Interesting cases were also presented by Istvand Tuzes. The work was completed by a resourceful research that established the origins of the painting. Also. The research was focused on the properties of some materials used in the consolidation of mural paintings. that was focused on the conservation of the fragments detached from the Princely church of Curtea de Arges.CONFERENCE REVIEW The well-attended workshop . this being a replica after the famous work of Daniele da Volterra from the Trinita dei Monti church in Rome.does not achieve its purpose due to the high contraction degree. Thus. at that time. The identification of the painting the "Descent from the Cross".calcium caseinate . were experienced conservator-restorers.

Those works that responded to the conservation principles were well appreciated.CONFERENCE REVIEW Debates on the theme of recent monuments conservation. It is striking. Nevertheless. It was reminded about those interventions on wooden support that aim at the consolidation of the support and the treatment against insects infestation using wax or rosin. is laudable. from the last century. Some very acute problems this unprivileged domain confronts with right now were brought into discussion. especially of the young professionals generation. The initiator of the event. who are given here the opportunity to familiarise with problems met “in situ” on the conservation sites for the artistic components. such as the beneficiaries. This was one of the wishes of the Ministry of Culture and Cults. expressed some of the impressions and experiences gathered on this occasion: "I wish to thank all the participants for their interest and participation to this event. same time. As a conclusion to that already mentioned. the absence from these debates of those persons with decisional role in heritage conservation. organised under the auspices of the Ministry of Culture and Cults. "Churches. This occasion gave specialists the opportunity of expressing their ideas in regard to the ideal and optimal conditions for a conservation process. Gabriela Stefanita proved once more the great deal of damage that paintings suffer due to incorrect interventions. a subject brought into discussion by the study of Raluca Bitiu Dancus Ceicu. At the 16 . those attitudes of interpreting the professional exigencies were critically commented. At the time of my graduation. According to restorers Cornelia and Dinu Savescu. which are not appreciated for their artistic value and thus. I wish to create this opportunity for the new generations. conservator Oana Gorea. Spyridon Church in Subesti. which tries to change the actual perception on the restoration interventions into an indispensable action which helps to the safeguarding of the memory of a nation. I am extremely pleased by the high number of participants. are threatened with the ablation or the repainting. monuments to-come". who could have learned some of the problems in this domain. thus now. Another aspect of this debate was the rather recent paintings. through my position within the Ministry. it should be said that the initiative for this event. it was possible to learn from the particularities of each intervention and to follow the evolution of the works. me and my colleagues were not given the chance to present our work and share our experiences within different worksites. as in the case of the iconostasis from the Church of Stelea Targoviste Monastery. together with the observation spirit and the correct attitude of the restorer. however. The purpose of such action was to resurge an older tradition which unfortunately got lost with time. these methods induce different types of degradation at the support level which implicitly influence the painting layer. and that was to disseminate e_conser vation Another focus of the discussions was to point out faulty treatments applied in the conservation of some artworks. showing comparative archive images and photos of the present state of conservation from St.

methodologies." The News section is publishing the most diverse information on cultural heritage topics. Another aim of this event was to valorise the work of the young generation of conservators. talks or workshops reviews.e-conservationline. during the receptions or inspections of the worksites. Within the framework of the “Conference of the Specialists in the National Cultural Heritage Domain” from Sinaia. lectures. e_conser vation 17 . three important conservation works were rewarded: the restoration of the mural painting from the hospice of Bistrita Monastery in Valcea. please send us your news or announcements. For collaboration. yet their work is rarely made public.CONFERENCE REVIEW and value this meticulous. use of poor materials and incorrect monument keeping. such as deadlines and publication guidelines. For more details. our problems and solutions. by according three prices for the worksites finished last year. briefly. conservator and initiator of the event from the Ministry of Culture and Cults of Romania. please check www. mural painting specialist. conservator-restorer. but also courses reviews and any other kind of appropriate announcements. These efforts. all our accumulated experience must be known at least by our colleagues. These people are often faced with complicated work situations. such as on-site conservation projects reports. with the rich activity of a large number of conservators which I consider must be shared. that comes now with a large experience acquired during the university and completed by scholarships or courses in other countries. The Ministry tired this year to reward these extraordinary efforts. we thank Oana Gorea. conferences. I am faced almost every day. the conservation of the mural paintings and decorations from the Fronius House in Sighisoara and the conservation works from the Concert Hall of the Romanian Athenaeum in Bucharest. Text translated by e-conservationline. If you are involved in interesting projects and you want to share your experience with everybody Review by Anca Dina. such as faulty execution technique. laborious and littleknown work.

the "Brâncovenesc style" . refined by sculpted 1 Constantin Brâncoveanu (1654 – 1714) was Prince of Wallachia between 1689 and 1714. this was the situation that the church faced until very recently. 18 e_conser vation . in Bucharest Worksite supervision: Simona Patrascu and Anca Nicolaescu. Fortunately for the monument an on-site conservation project was started by Restauro Art Grup and continues at the moment under the coordination of Simona Patrascu and Anca Nicolaescu.NEWS CONSERVATION OF THE MURAL PAINTINGS from the Church of the Holy Archangels Michael and Gabriel – “Mantuleasa”. by Mariia. remaining somehow isolated from the consideration that it is worthy of. Mantuleasa Church (up) and the portal inscriptions (down). The monument is characterised by equilibrated form and shape. his wife. Mantuleasa church is a reference for the Romanian art from the early 18th century. The architectural style derived from his name . specialist conservator-restorers Period: since October 2007 It is not very common to find in the middle of a tourist capital such as Bucharest a historic monument in such advanced state of decay as the Mantuleasa church. it seems that all this time Mantuleasa draw back from the traffic of the city centre. the sister of Boyar Manta and by Stanca. Out of sight between high modern buildings. Brancovenesc1 monument. However. According to the portal lettering. conservator-restorers of mural paintings. the church was erected in known as a synthesis of Renaissance and Byzantine architecture.

earthquakes and the parishioners’ needs. the ornaments embellish the church tower. made up by blue (charcoal black and lime). The most important modification was the enlargement of the interior space of the church. Unfortunately. however. The painting. the 1924 project recovered as much as possible from the original aspect of the church. had major negative effects on the stability of the entire architectural ensemble. What we see today on the painting is the result of the damages made by these several factors. Another unfortunate intervention was the oil repainting of the interior murals. by the extinction of the wall between the narthex and the nave. the ensemble was consolidated with coupling bars. The procedure used on that time to remove oil repaintings was not appropriate in regard to the conservation principles. green (clay pigmented with iron hydroxide) and red (clay with anhydrous iron oxide). this time however. one destructive by its own nature: the tower were rebuilt using reinforced concrete. After the earthquake from 1940. such as exfoliation. the bricks e_conser vation were darned with cement. black and ochre). black and ochre). the severe damages required a new intervention. from candle smoke to previous actions in the spirit of restoration. Simple and elegant in a basic chromatic scale (red. with its simplified chromatic harmonies. conservator-restorer. such as vegetal motifs and stylised crosses. is still an 18th century reference. Thus. with the exception of the porch vaulting.NEWS decoration and painted ornaments. time left several traces over the monument such as environmental factors. The restoration of the paintings focused on removing the oil repainting and cleaning the original and was performed by Paul Molda. the interior painting was washed and replenished and the facades were remade together with the ornaments and the exterior painting. soda provoking more damage to the original painting. Suppressing the wall. meant to divide members from different social classes. both at the level of architectural components and wall paintings. however. using rich lime and sodium bicarbonate. Both the architecture and the mural painting of high quality require a rigorous approach to the undergoing conservation intervention. The The porch columns with decoration in a basic chromatic scale (red. the porch columns and arches. Still. several inevitable repairs and modifications took place since its erection until 1924 when a first written testimony concerning a conservation intervention is mentioned in the archives. powdering and salt efflorescence. the masonry was remade of rich lime. 19 .

it proposes: . Porch north vaulting. At the moment. Nathex to central nave. The intervention in these areas will be executed by construction specialists supervised by the conservators’ team. both on the inside and outside of the church. they are now in an advanced. The final aim of this intervention is to regain the artistic configuration of the monument. all the facades were plastered except the tower profiles from under the cornice and the medial belt which still presents painted ornaments.Emergency intervention to protect the areas where consolidation works are already undergoing.NEWS project is structured according to the priorities and among its aims.The conservation of the exterior painted decoration and the renewal of the plaster and the architectonic profiles. actual conservation state. From this reason. during the conservation. unaesthetic state of decay. 20 e_conser vation . .

the consolidation of the structure was finished. salt crystallisations. Thereby. the research laboratory provided data regarding the nature of these materials which helped to the establishment of the appropriate intervention methodology. especially the triumphal arch in the central nave and the north and south arches 21 .Assistance for the structure consolidation works. The conservation project proposal was made after a preliminary thorough in situ research.NEWS Detail of a saint medalion. The areas to be consolie_conser vation dated by injection were previously prepared by the conservators. Initially.The conservation of the interior mural paintings. based on the good cooperation between our conservator’s team and the constructors. tests for the removal of the adherent deposits and improper anterior repairs. . the damages were hard to evaluate due to the thick layer of dirt that covered the entire surface. During the preliminary operations for the emergency intervention. . dome. after the removal of previous improper repairs (upper right) and after filling of the lacunas with mortars (lower right). fact that facilitated the evaluation of the monument’s stability and unity. anterior intervention mortars and paint layer. Initial state of conservation (up). measures were taken for a safe emergency intervention: scaffoldings to sustain the arches. Thus. the previous repairs were removed. After in situ sampling of the support. At the present time. several stratigraphic tests were carried on to establish the painting stratigraphy.

the degradation of the painted surface has also been stopped. It is a conservation enterprise accredited by the Romanian Ministry of Culture that has run several conservation projects for important historic monuments in Romania. By the end of the year. 22 e_conser vation .L.R. using coloured mortars. small lacunas of the support and colour layer are to be chromatically integrated by tratteggio and finally. Presently. the small loses of the colour layer by velatura. the final results of our intervention are to be presented in a future article. that of the aesthetical presentation of the lacunas: large areas are to be treated archaeologically. adequate for an eventual future seismic activity. Our intervention had the aim of assuring the entire ensemble a high resistance capacity. which presented severe cracks and strong detachments of the masonry. Once accomplished. Anca Nicolaescu and Silviu Petrescu. by the consolidation and reattachment of the pulverulent colour layer on extended areas. As an emergency conservation operation. was founded in 2000 by the conservators Simona Patrascu.NEWS from the narthex. Text by Simona Patrascu and Anca Nicolaescu Restauro Art Grup S. among which the conservation of the mural ensemble from the Surpatele Monastery (2002-2003). this selective treatment up to each degradation type having accomplished the adherence of the colour layer to the support. This operation was performed by treating differentially the multiple types of detachments of the surface. a new stage is undergoing. we expect to finalise the conservation of this monument. the mural painting conservation from the Church of Jgheaburi Monastery (2003-2004) and the conservation of the exterior murals and original renderings from Coltea Church (2006).

. Theoretical and practical approaches to preservation. May 2008 Stone Consolidation in Cultural Heritage . Spain TECHNARTE is an international conference on art and technology that seeks to become the most important event of its kind. Read more. Read more. In case the event does not have an individual page. Click on "Read more. More and more Heritage must be addressed in innovativesustainable ways.. the calendar of events will open at www. Estonia The aim of this meeting is to enhance the role of preservation of cultural heritage as well as to point out the importance of the conservation. or industrial representatives. meant to highlight successful projects completed by conservators partnering with professionals in other fields... Read more.. and to provide a forum for debate and reflection on the convergence between technology and art. AIC 2008 Annual Meeting April 2008 Date: 21 –24 April Place: Denver. 8th Triennial Meeting for Conservators of the Baltic States Date: 7-10 May Place: Tallinn." to find out more details about each event. Portugal Read more. owners/ shareholders.. underlining the role of human and natural heritage as one of the contra-hegemonic trends in a more and more global world. e_conser vation events .research and practice Date: 6-7 May Place: Technarte 2008 Date: 24-25 April Place: Bilbao.. conservation and research as well as new technical solutions will be presented and discussed during the sessions. The theme is an intentionally broad. USA The theme for AIC’s 2008 Annual Meeting is Creative Collaborations. It was born as a conference where the most important thinkers in the sector and the most advanced technologists can be heard. This Symposium will focus on the present state of the art and state of the practice as regards consolidation mechanisms.conservationevents. novel products for consolidation and long term monitoring of consolidation interventions on monuments aiming at discussing both research and practical issues.. Read more. engineers. One of the main goals of the Conference is to promote significant discussion on these relevant issues. degradation of consolidated stones. such as scientists. artists. The aims are to present technological developments that enhance a broader expression of modern art.. Heritage 2008: World Heritage and Sustainable Development Date: 7-9 May Place: Vila Nova de Foz Côa. Portugal HERITAGE 2008 aims to gather in an International Conference several worldwide experts on the relationships between Heritage and Human Development.... Natural Environment and Building Preservation.The events in this section are linked to the original homepage of the organisers.

Israel The main objective of Art2008 is bringing together experts in nondestructive evaluation and material analysis with professionals from the fields of preservation of cultural heritage. art history and architectural researchers of ancient structures. Architecture and Design. Roehampton. Research Exchange in the History of Art.. librarians. Art2008 .. Place: Jersualem.. archivists. ascription and examination in the museums. Italy Attraverso una serie di lezioni teoriche. curators. Vernici. International Paper Historians Congress 2008 Date: 27-30 May Place: Stockholm.. Petersburg. Its third annual postgraduate conference takes place on 10 May 2008 at the University of Reading.. Museums and tourism. Kingston. The overall theme of the Congress will be The Birth of an Industry – from Forest to Paper during the 19th Century and it will concentrate on describing the huge structural changes that took place during this period when the papermaking changed from a handicraft type of activity to a continuously operating process industry. Saint-Petersburg State University invites you to take part in the international scientific conference "Museum studies in the 21th century: the Problems of research and teaching". Read more. Southampton and Warwick). Museum studies in the 21th century The Problems of Research and Teaching Date: 14-15 May Place: St. Bristol.. is a consortium of nine university departments (Birmingham. Reading. UK RX.. dimostrazioni e sessioni pratiche. protection of the museums. tasks of modern museum studies... Read more. Sweden The event will be organized in conjunction with the 100 years anniversary of SPCI. Preparing for the Unexpected Protection and Security for Cultural Collections Date: 12-13 May Place: Philadelphia. The topics themes are: Museum as a phenomenon of modern culture. questo workshop si prefigge di aggiornare i restauratori/conservatori ai più recenti sviluppi nei materiali e tecniche di verniciatura. RX Futures Conference 2008 May 2008 Date: 10 May Place: Reading.EVENTS Technologies and Techniques. Brighton. 24 e_conser vation March 2008 . Read more. microanalysis and preservation in the conservation of cultural and environmental heritage Date: 25-30 May Read more. and for staff responsible for the safety of collections. and stewards of historic house museums.. including conservators.9th International Conference Non-destructive testing. Solventi e Colori da Ritoco nel Restauro Date: 20-23 May Place: Vicenza. archeology. collections managers. USA This program is intended for staff charged with collections care. such as site and facility managers and security and safety staff. Russia Read more... Read more. the Swedish Association of Paper and Pulp Engineers. scientific investigations in the museums. Oxford Brookes.

. "read" the originals and produce the required papers. Latest research into painting techniques of Impressionists and Postimpressionists Date: 12-14 June Place: Cologne. involved in multivariate techniques in order to improve the knowledge of the environment and of the cultural artifacts. Study and Serendipity: Testimonies on Artists' Practice Date: 12-13 June Place: Glasgow University. Place: Jacksonville. from treatises and manuals to correspondence. Every analytical technique/method is welcome if it can be used in a multivariate way. professors.. film etc.. The Meeting will be interest to theorists. chemistry and surfaces are given. technicians.. Germany The event is planned to accompany the exhibition „Painting Light – Hidden techniques of the Impressionists“.. This course will help participants to understand the fascinating processes. prints.. Date: 1-4 June Place: Ventotene Island.. USA This symposium will bring together directors of excavations and of centralized storage repositories for archaeological collections. Read more.. Scotland The aim of this meeting is to explore artists' practice from all disciplines and periods as recorded in visual and written testimonies. as well as images: paintings. USA This revitalized version of the three-day School for Scanning conference presents the essentials of digitization and is geared toward participants with a beginning or intermediate level of digital knowledge. Italy Read more. from metadata to rights management. e_conser vation 25 June 2008 Multivariate Analysis and Chemometrics applied to Environment and Cultural Heritage Digital Directions . Read more. Insights into history. and archaeologists who have developed digital management systems for portable finds.EVENTS June 2008 Fundamentals of Creating and Managing Digital Collections Date: 10-12 June Read more. diaries and journals. chemistry and surfaces are given.. sustainable digital collections.. Insights into history. The keynotes of the event are information on the current state of scholarship and interdisciplinary exchange between conservators and art historians. Workshop in Paste Paper in Conservation Date: 9-13 June Place: Ascona. researchers. Switzerland Historical paste paper techniques as needed for adequate infills and bindings have not changed fundamentally since the 17th century. From file formats to funding. Read more. Read more. ledgers. learn how to create and manage Symposium on Archaeological Storage Date: 6-8 June Place: Los Angeles.. archaeological conservators who have achieved innovative and accessible storage methods.. photographs. experts.

Biology. Iconology. Conservation Policies and any other field applied to Conservation and Restoration of works of art. Museology. Cultural Management. Preventive Conservation Theoretic principles Case studies Documentation in Conservation Standardisation Documentation methods Data management Conservation Theory Ethics Conservation History Check out more: . Physics. Photography. Chemistry.article AREAS OF PUBLISHING Conservation Treatment Mural Painting Painting Stone Sculpture Textiles Paper / Documents Photography Metals Tile / Ceramic / Glass Furniture Music instruments Ethnographic assets Archeological objects Conservation Science Scientific research Material studies and characterisation Analytical techniques Technology development Biodeterioration State-of-the-art Reviews Art History. Iconography. Computer Science. Legislation and Juridical Processes.


the traditional method entails several problems that make the task very slow and tedious. Thus. it is an all-purpose 28 tool which not only can create a reflectographic mosaic but its modular structure makes possible its use for other analysis techniques such as radiography. These images are later merged to obtain a unique image called mosaic. The increasing development of the computer systems and the advances in the image processing algorithms and computer vision not only provide new instruments of analysis but also permit to improve the ones already existing. Although this technique has been used for decades. This system is able to create. as further shown. to carry out an exhaustive study of the art materials’ composition. A large number of images of a painting are required so small details can be appreciated. This implies a monotonous task. art historians and researchers in general. for instance. this improvement allows the reduction of costs. the acquisition task is done in a manual way. technology progress has not only affected the creation of artistic compositions but has also improved their study and analysis. .JUAN TORRES et al. The user should select the sub-images one by one and mark at least a similar point in two of the e_conser vation . placing and controlling the camera in the right position. placing the camera in front of the desired area of the painting for each capture. As new techniques have arisen. In addition.Usually.The mosaicing is also a manual task. But its main importance lies in offering study tools even to users having scant resources and knowledge due to a user friendly design. making the technology accessible to a greater number of conservatorrestorers. new techniques of microscopic analysis provide with more data about the state of the paintings. as well as their conservation and restoration. in an automatic way. VARIM history The infrared reflectography [1] is an analysis technique used since the 70’s and it consists of acquiring a set of contiguous images of a painting using a video camera sensitive exclusively to the infrared area. If a high resolution is required. The different sort of analysis offer different information about works of art: advances in the chemistry field make possible. Introduction Along the history. The final mosaic offers information about the underdrawing layer which is not directly visible by the human eye. VARIM has brought improvements to old methods. Moreover. Having this idea in mind. In this project. the number of captured images must be increased. Moreover. the VARIM project (Visión Artificial aplicada a la Reflectografía de Infrarrojos Mecanizada – Computer Vision applied to Mechanized Infrared Reflectography) was born. the entire image of the underdrawing layer of a painting using advanced computer vision techniques. Nevertheless. the way artists show their ideas has changed. etc. curators. such as: . VARIM project tried to solve a set of problems which can be found in other systems offering a versatile tool for everyone. art has always been linked to technology development. as it was already stated. Among the difficulties. this kind of analysis has not been accessible to modest institutions. a complete system for acquiring and composing the infrared reflectography mosaic was designed and created.

Any interested person can download the application from the web page of the VARIM project. and the software application which handles these devices and includes useful image processing tools. the software is distributed for free and released under the terms of the GPL license. Although not all the physical devices are available to any user -for instance the infrared camera is an expensive device. VARIM provides different tools that solve the difficulties already enumerated. ultraviolet and radiography ones. colour.the software application can be used independently to acquire colour images and to join any kind of images.The imperfections of the infrared camera. e. as well as it brings additional advantages to be mentioned further on. this task can involve several hours of tedious work. This way. Depending on the number of sub-images.VARIM PROJECT consecutive sub-images. VARIM application e_conser vation 29 . . System Description The VARIM system is formed by two components: the physical devices composing the hardware architecture. . processing and mosaicing. the mechanical elements and the variations in the light conditions make very difficult to obtain high quality mosaics. To handle several programs for the same process can cause incompatibilities among them while integration in one only makes easier the user’s tasks.In the traditional method. different computing applications are used for each step: acquisition.. Figure 1. In addition. i.

. a near infrared camera. Figure 2.A stable structure that allows camera controlled movements among an area of 1x1 meter Figure 3. a lighting system. allowing the system to reach paintings that can not be moved. . Hardware sub-system. VARIM’s physical structure set up for infrared reflectography mosaicing Figure 2 shows VARIM’s physical diagram architecture.A mobile structure that makes the stable structure to achieve a height of 6 meters. and a PC platform with a framegrabber. The mechanical position system is formed by: . This structure can be transported to place it in front of the work o f art at the laboratory or outside (left and center images in Figure 3). such as those in a church (right image in Figure 3).JUAN TORRES et al. (two degrees of freedom) operated by the PC using the Ethernet module. a mechanical position system (handled through an Ethernet module). which is composed of the painting.

three important methods have been designed and developed: 1.A Video and Image Acquisition Module (VIAM). A noise pattern suppression method. This process is carried out without any other human intervention besides the input of some data: the initial and the final positions and the selected overlapping area between the acquired images. The lighting system is placed in a fixed way on both sides of the painting in order to obtain a uniform light condition all over the painting surface. This wear produces an undesirable pattern in all the captured images. VARIM software. main and secondary windows . The different modules are as follows: Figure 4. Some cameras show a geometrical distortion due to the imperfection of their lenses. 2. An automatic luminosity control in e_conser vation 31 . A geometrical distortion correction algorithm [2]. This is the module in charge of the camera control. Human errors during the movement are thus avoided with this automatic acquisition. . Thus.VARIM PROJECT The system is able to move the structure in a smart way. Some generic image processing tools are implemented in this module besides the mosaicing algorithms (VIPS library is used). As well as the generic tools. This is an algorithm able correct the wear that some old infrared cameras have. Software application VARIM application is designed as modular software and it can be used separately. the automatic acquisition of the subimages which compose the entire mosaic. a method for correcting this effect has been implemented. that is. acquiring each sub-image that will configure the mosaic and inserting them automatically in the application. 3.An Image Processing Module (IPM).

the mechanical position system is required. Figure 5 . It is believed these paintings were made in the 15th century for the altarpiece of the Zamora’s Cathedral. Then. VIPS library is used to merge the two images using those automatic calculated points. This algorithm has been implemented in order to maintain a regular luminosity during the acquisition process. points that are found by an automatic algorithm [4]. "Noli me tangere" and "Pentecostés" (both in the Zamora’s Cathedral Museum). This study presents the fieldwork done due to the "Sumas y restas de las tablas de Arcenillas" exhibition in the Zamora Museum. almost all the projects carried out by the Physics Studies area of the Instituto del Patrimonio Histórico Español (IPHE) use this software application. where all the acquired sub-images are listed and organized by rows.A Mechanical Control Module (MCM). the VARIM application produces very satisfactory results. In the 18th century. In this exhibition. A main window interface. acquisition [3].JUAN TORRES et al. Figure 4 shows an example of the application. some of the features of VARIM are available using specific physical devices. It is in charge of the manual and automatic movement and of positioning the camera in front of the painting. one of the most recent studies has been selected: "Estudio comparativo de tres pinturas sobre tabla". a comparative analysis of the three paintings was requested. Applications and Results Nowadays. Indeed. correcting the differences in the incident light and its variation in each capture. In order to form the mosaic. The applied intervention protocol was the regular one used by the IPHE’s laboratory of Physics Studies and the stages where VARIM was used were divided into two steps: the acquisition and mosaicing of the infrared reflectography and the mosaicing of the digitalized X-ray images. the composition of any kind of images and the image processing tools can be used without any restriction. gives access to all the implemented functionalities. every image registration in the mosaicing process requires one or two correspondence points in two consecutive (horizontal or vertical) images. the foreground window shows the composed mosaic. to acquire images in an automatic way. For instance. In 2007.Automatic image registration As earlier stated. 32 e_conser vation . . As an example. three wooden paintings belonging to an alterpiece ascribed to Fernando Gallego were shown: "Adoración de los Magos" (nowadays in the Museo de Bellas Artes of Asturias). this altarpiece was replaced and purchased by a nearly village called Arcenillas. Nevertheless. The background window lists the acquired sub-images. Figure 5 shows an example of this image registration. together with a detail of a particular union and its position in the whole mosaic.

E.VARIM PROJECT Figure 6.H. Sección de Estudios Físicos e_conser vation 33 . I. “Adoración de los Magos” (visible).P.

E. As this depends on the motif to be studied. initially a double sampling of the painting is done because the type of sensor to be used depends on the pigments’ properties: infrared reflectograph (mounted in an analog camera) or CCD (mounted in a conventional digital camera. I.E. the camera was placed in its support using a B+W 093 filter to avoid visible radiation inside the camera lens.P. This kind of sensor is low cost (compared to the infrared one) and more accessible to researchers. Location and assembly of the mechanical position system. In this case. 3. Figure 7. with no infrared filter). Acquisition and mosaicing. I. Because of this. Sección de Estudios Físicos Figure 8. The mechanical support is usually taken in pieces because of the movement. thus a CCD was chosen. the spatial resolution was the decisive feature. 2.H. Using contiguous images. “Pentecostés” (visible). Thus. Moreover. horizontal and vertical. “Noli me tangere” (visible). its size was decided using a previous tracking of the painting.H.P. Later. the partial displacements were decided in order to obtain e_conser vation . this system must be placed parallel to the painting from a distance previously established in order to obtain a correct automatic composition.JUAN TORRES et al. All the images acquired and composed were obtained using VARIM application and the study was divided in four stages: 34 1. Decision of the size of the mosaic. it is important to check if all devices are perfectly adjusted before acquisition. Sección de Estudios Físicos The infrared reflectography The first stage in a study on the response of a painting to infrared radiation is to decide between a better spectral or spatial resolution.

“Adoración de los Magos” (reflectography).H. I.VARIM PROJECT Figure 9.E. Sección de Estudios Físicos e_conser vation 35 .P.

some observations can be drawn from the pervious statements. the visible composition fits with the preparatory drawing. A first approach to the pieces 36 could give the sensation of great differences but similar areas demonstrate that the creation process is the same. Thus. In this case some labels regarding colours were drawn. This parameter depends on several factors but the main one is the type of drawing. 4.JUAN TORRES et al. “Pentecostés” (reflectography).P. I.H. as for instance. Figure 10.E. the drawing is of high quality and the lines are confident. Sección de Estudios Físicos a correct overlapping area between images. they were integrated in the workspace and the final mosaics were obtained. Moreover. this also occurs i n other studied paintings from the same author (Fernando Gallego). some similarities in the preparatory drawing of the three paintings have been found. Sección de Estudios Físicos Figure 11.H. Lastly. Once the images were acquired. 2 Each X-ray was obtained in one shot using a Philips MCN 165 device under the parameters 40 kV and 184 mAxs/m2. 4 Type II norm ASTM (D-7 by AGFA) e_conser vation . Next. In fact. As a conclusion. expressing a vigorous image. “Noli me tangere” (reflectography). I.P. it must be mentioned that this is a comparative study which will comprise other 11 wooded paintings from Arcenillas’ Church (Zamora). only one label1 (regarding the green colour.E. "verde") has been found in "La Adoración de los Magos" (Figure 9). The used film4 has 1 The artists usually draw some texts in the underdrawing giving instructions to their pupils. in general. Analysis and exhibition of the obtained results [5]. 3 In an automatic process during 8 minutes and 30 ºC. Firstly. in the altarpiece of Trujillo (Cáceres) and in "La Virgen de la Rosa" (Salamanca’s Cathedral Museum). The X-ray analysis First of all. all the X-ray belonging to the wooden boards were made2 and developed3 under the same conditions.

P.E. Sección de Estudios Físicos.VARIM PROJECT Figure 12. e_conser vation 37 . “Adoración de los Magos” (X-ray). I.H.

Altogether more than 7 meters of film was needed.H. Using the union algorithms provided by VARIM. the joint process is automatic and instantaneous. Once the X-ray was obtained. The film was cut into strips of the same height as the boards. The other paintings do not have any staples in spite of some cracks of the wooden boards. Previously.P.E. some differences were found e_conser vation . The dissemination of the obtained digital document is important for conservation and the digitalized X-ray makes easier the study of the painting for a great number of researchers because no additional and expensive devices are needed. Sección de Estudios Físicos Figure 14. the preservation of this digital document is very important and its manipulation must be avoided. 38 VARIM was also used in the joint of digitalized plates.E. In addition. it was digitalized. “Noli me tangere” (X-ray).H. Figure 13. “Pentecostés” (X-ray). The document is of high importance as a witness of the conservation status of the painting. some metallic staples were found in order to reinforce some cracks in "La Adoración de los Magos" (Figure 12). In this case study (Figures 12-14). the exhaustive analysis of these documents provides valuable data. On the other hand. I.JUAN TORRES et al.P. other image processing applications were used but a clear and artificial line appeared in the joint area due to the lack of an overlapping area in the images. Sección de Estudios Físicos usually a format of roll of 30 cm width and 61 meters long. On the other hand. I. invisible to the human eye.

thanks to the fact that the software is distributed for free. Furthermore. San Diego. Using the application preferences. Even users without deep computer knowledge can use the application in an easy way. IEEE International Conference on Image Processing. PhD thesis. "Sumas o restas: incógnitas en torno al retablo de Arcenillas”. September. “A contribution to the examination of earlier European paintings”. Menéndez. where an incisive drawing and a clear vanishing point appears in both X-ray (Figures 12 and 14). Finally.M. e_conser vation Finally. A. in a real environment. J. 1970 2. 2005 4. in Sumas y restas de las tablas de Arcenillas. Zamora. “An adaptive real-time method for controlling the luminosity in digital video acquisition”. pp. Torres and J. easy to use and accessible to a great number of people. Posse. thanks to the accessibility criteria applied in the design stage. Fernado Gallego y el antiguo retablo de la Catedral de Zamora. J. 133-137. One of the main objectives established at the beginning of the project was achieved: to create a functional tool. Thus. R. VARIM is an application that integrates in only one work environment all acquiring and mosaicing tasks. Menéndez. "Matching points in low contrast images”. Vega. the user can specify the work directory and a different one where the partial results are stored. its extensive use and the obtained feedback made possible to correct some bugs and to improve its functionalities. October 2008 (Under revision) 5. pp. Torres and J.M. M. Imaging and Image Processing. Gabaldón and C. Van Asperen de Boer. “A practical algorithm to correct geometrical distortion of image acquisition cameras”. 2007 39 . International Conference on Image Processing (ICIP). T. some similarities were found between "La Adoración de los Magos" and "Pentecostés". the system allows to save a considerable amount of time. A.VARIM PROJECT regarding the fabric placed between the preparatory layer and the painting. Another interesting feature is the use of temporal and work directories. Antelo. IAESTED International Conference on Visualization. the use of workspaces and the storage of all the information is done in an easy and fast way which is especially useful due to the great number of images that are handled in each session. Moreover. 2451-2454. Conclusions The VARIM system has demonstrated that it is of inestimable help and has brought improvement compared to the traditional method. the application offers a tool where the acquisition and mosaicing tasks are user-friendly and easy. J. III. thanks to the automatic methods previously mentioned. This makes the entire process more efficient. J. University of Amsterdam. This fabric is complete in the case of "La Adoración de los Magos" while the other two painting present fabric in the panels joints and in the cracks. USA. Menéndez. vol. Torres and J. October 2004 3. References 1.

The IPHE also co-operates with other public administrations and public or private institutions for the development of these plans. Ingenieros de Telecomunicación. In 2006. Since 2002.gatv. e_conser vation Instituto del Patrimonio Histórico Español (IPHE) www. coding. funded by the Ministry of Industry. image restoration and analysis. as well as research and study of criteria.upm. he is a member of the Signals.mcu. The IPHE works on the available documentation. he obtained the Researcher Aptitude in the Ph. computer graphics.ssr. VARIM: A USEFUL SYSTEM FOR ACQUIRING AND COMPOSING IMAGES IN PAINTINGS ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES Universidad Politécnica de Madrid www. he is a PhD candidate researching on the variations of the internal parameters of the video cameras digital acquisition. program called "Communications Technologies and Systems" Polytechnic University of Madrid development and implementation of plans for the conservation and restoration of historical heritage. one of the most important universities in Spain. Ingenieros de Telecomunicación of the Universidad Politécnica de Madrid . His master thesis was performed in the VARIM Project (Artificial Vision applied to Mechanized Infrared Reflectography) framework. Systems and Radio communications Department of the E. Nowadays.) in 2004 from He received the Telecommunications Engineer degree (Hons.T. he has taught a course belonged to a Master in Arqueometry of the Universidad Autónoma de Madrid.T. organization of work produced and archival on the historic heritage of the Spanish Historical Heritage Institute IPHE operates within the Dirección General de Bellas Artes y Bienes Culturales of the Spanish Ministry of Culture and takes care of the 40 . Movable heritage and historical buildings are included.ssr. etc. object and movement location and tracking.JUAN TORRES et al. Moreover. he is author of several international and national papers and scientific contributions and has been invited to several national Visual Telecommunication Application Group G@TV is a research group that belongs to the Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (UPM). in the development of Intelligent Transport Systems and surveillance systems. Grupo de Aplicación de Telecomunicaciones Visuales (G@TV) www. The experience on image and video extends throughout computer vision applied to art conservation and restoration.upm.S.upm. In addition. This group has experience in image/video processing. JUAN TORRES contact: jta@gatv. methods and updated techniques in conservation and restoration of cultural heritage.

He is Ph. contributing to develop research and publications about physical studies of cultural assets. She is employed at IPHE Physical Studies Section since 1971. in Biophysics. e_conser vation TOMÁS ANTELO Bachelor of Arts.S. Ingenieros de Telecomunicación. X-rays installation supervisor at IPHE (Madrid) and the Museo Nacional Centro de Arte Reina Sofía (Madrid).T. she is working at IPHE Physical Studies Section since 2005. he develops projects on X-rays. she contributes to research and to develop technical studies with electromagnetic radiation on cultural beings. digital video broadcasting and visual communications. Ingenieros de Telecomunicación of the Universidad Politécnica de Madrid in 2007.D. Graduate in Conservation on the speciality of Archaeology and Assistant Curator of Museums. MARIÁN DEL EGIDO Bachelor's Degree in Physical Science. she is involved in several projects on scientific studies of cultural heritage. IR. Dr. CARMEN VEGA Ph. visible studies on cultural assets at IPHE Physical Studies Section since 1970. She participates on publications and congresses about this specialised subject. remote sensing and computer vision. degree in Communications (summa cum laude) in 1996. she has been collaborating at IPHE Physical Studies Section since 2001 as expert on infrared reflectography studies on cultural assets.T. Since 1988 he is a member of the Signals. Curator of Museums and Chief of IPHE Scientific Department since 2000. image registration.S. UV. MIRIAM BUESO Bachelor of Arts and Archaeology. Menéndez has published about 40 international publications about computer vision and image processing.D. Systems and Radio communications Department of the E. JOSÉ MANUEL MENÉNDEZ He received the Telecommunications Engineer degree (Hons. and he is co-author of a book (in Spanish) about Audio and Video Technology for undergraduate engineering level.D. He has been actively involved both in European (Eureka. X-rays installation operator.S. image processing. ACTS. His professional interests include image and digital video processing. ARACELI GABALDÓN Bachelor's Degree in Physical Science. Race. 41 . His professional interests include computer vision. both in international journals and conferences. Esprit.) in 1988 and the Ph. becoming associate professor in 1996. candidate and researcher assistant at the Visual Applications Telecommunications Group being involved in several R&D National and European Projects in relation with Audiovisual and Remote Sensing technologies. and IST. His master thesis was performed in the VARIM Project (Artificial Vision applied to Mechanized Infrared Reflectography) framework. since the II FP) and in national projects since 1988. both by the E. Ingenieros de Telecomunicación of the Universidad Politécnica de Madrid.VARIM PROJECT ALBERTO POSSE He received the Telecommunications Engineer degree (Hons.T.) from E.

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Manuscript Ms. but much more precise and it was possible to determine calcite and gypsum. azurite. cinnabar and red lead. the results were similar to those obtained by stereo44 microscopy (SMC). micro-Raman. which were presented in the second volume of the book “Miniatura si ornamentul manuscriselor din Colectia de Arta Medievala Romaneasca”. The results are presented synthetically and show similarities with the pigments used in the same period in Western Europe [1. and cinnabar for the red ink. [3] The Romanian Medieval Art Department of NMAR contains a collection of 33 illuminated manuscripts from the 13th to the 19th century. e_conser vation Image 1. gold sheet and some unidentified organic pigments. ultramarine. some bilingual. . some written in Greek. This study presents the results of the microscopic research in the visible and U. LUPU Introduction The paper presents the results of compared stereomicroscopy for the pigments used in the Romanian manuscripts dated between 15th and 19th century from the National Museum of Art of Romania (NAMR) collection. published by Simetria. 10/12617. green and brown earth. written in Greek-Romanian and Slavonic-Romanian. orpiment and realgar. even in very small quantities. iron gall ink and charcoal for the black powder. 2]. smalt. malachite. and a red one cinnabar or red lead. Three different kinds of inks were determined: a black one . a gold one . massicot and litharge. This type of analysis was done because it was not possible to take samples for microchemical analysis. written by the Romanian art historian Liana Tugearu. one in Romanian written in Slavonic and one in Latin alphabet. Bucharest (2006).MIHAI I. Another possibility to make these analyses without sampling was carried out using the following in-situ techniques: X-ray Fluorescence (XRF). According to the analyses. The results indicated the presence of: gelatine. A. colloidal gold for the gold ink. for the pigments used in the miniature paintings and manuscripts decorations (Table 1). Fiber-Optic Fourier Transform Mid-Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy and Near Infrared (NIR). An Olympus stereomicroscope SZ 60 was used to compare the pigments with others already determined. red and yellow ochre. This was possible due to the European research project MOLAB with the help of the University of Perugia in 2005 at Putna Monastery which focused on the research of the most important illuminated Romanian manuscripts from the 15th century.containing vegetable charcoal. The pigments correspond to all those already mentioned for that period: ceruse (white lead).V light for 13 of these artworks.

10/12617. Name 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Gospel Gospel Gospel Gospel Gospel Gospel “Omliile” Gospel Gospel Gospel Gospel "Rand la slujba" "Talcuire" Inventory No.11/12618 Ms. the north-east side of the Romanian present territory and in Walachia. 45 .18/12625 Year 1435-36 1511-12 1518-19 16th century 1579 1575 1581 1583 16th century 1940 1946 1656-57 ~1775 Language Slavonic / Bulgarian Slavonic / Romanian Slavonic / Romanian Slavonic / Romanian Slavonic / Romanian Slavonic / Romanian Slavonic / Romanian Slavonic / Serbian Slavonic / Romanian Slavonic / Romanian Slavonic / Romanian Slavonic / Romanian Slavonic / Russian Ukrainian Monastery Neamt Neamt County Moldavia Moldavia Walachia Putna Moldavia Walachia Moldavia Walachia Walachia Moldavia Walachia Radauti Moldavia Walachia Kiev Table 1. 7/12614 Ms.13/12620 Ms. the monasteries or counties where they were made and the period. each Gospel (images 1-3 and 5) while the other one depicts the images of the Four Evangelists.12/12619 Ms.31/68257 Ms. 9/12616 Ms. Identification of the materials was made by comparison with original pigments. the south-east region.20/12627 Ms. The results are presented in Table 2.ROMANIAN MANUSCRIPTS No. The first of them was written in Bulgarian and the last one in Russian-Ukrainian language. 6/12613 Ms. detail of decoration. The manuscripts were made in Moldavia. Most part of the illuminated manuscripts have two different kinds of decorations: one of them is used for the beginning and the final parts of e_conser vation Image 2. Sometimes the authors used the same pigments while other times differences between the number and the tones of the used colours can be seen.10/12617 Ms. Ms. Manuscript Ms. The studied manuscripts.21/12628 Ms.22/12629 Ms. Results and discussions Table I presents in chronological order the studied manuscripts and the Monasteries or Counties where they were made. The Illuminated Manuscripts are written in the Slavonic alphabet. 4/12611 Ms. which was used in the official Romanian medieval documents and by the Orthodox Church between the 12th and the 19th century.

LUPU 46 e_conser vation Image 3.MIHAI I. A. Manuscript Ms. 4/12611 .

Pigment results. litharge. red-orange: cinnabar.ROMANIAN MANUSCRIPTS Manuscris / Pigment Lead White Massicot Litharge Oripiment Realgar Yellow Ochre Red Lead Cinnabar Red Ochre Azurite Smalt Lapis lazuli Malachite Green Earth Brown Gold Indigo Black 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Table 2. green earth. Illustration: red lead. e_conser vation reddish-violet: cinnabar + lead white + azurite. charcoal black. malachite. green earth. azurite. lead white (image 4). The numbers of the manuscripts are correspondent to Table 1. yellow ochre. the manuscript MS 9/12616 from Putna Monastery. candle black. red lead + charcoal black. gold powder. The difference between the decoration and illustration consists in the double number 47 . Decoration: red lead. azurite. Moldavia will be presented. pink: cinnabar + ceruse. red ochre. gold powder. Natural Umber. Pigments presence is shown by the coloured rectangles. As an example.

7 for the first and 14 for the second. for her help with the documentation for this paper. A. Antwerp. Part II. Reviews in Conservation (2001). gold was preponderantly used for text and illustration. I. art historian. 631-639. Serbian. M. Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Non-destructive Testing and Microanalysis for the Diagnostics and Conservation of the Cultural and Environmental Heritage ART’99. pp. In the Illuminated Manuscripts the original technique uses the whiteness of the vellum. it was replaced with yellow ochre. pp. Cenino Cennini. LUPU of colours. I would also like to thank my colleague. In this particular manuscript the technique is most similar with that used for the Byzantine Icons from the Balkan Peninsula (Greeks. Research and Technology for the Conservation of the European Cultural Heritage (2005) 4.he either mixed some of them or added more pigments. pp. I. Clark. Bulgarian and Romanian) and Russia. Jr. MOLAB. Liana Tugearu. 48 Image 4. A. 2141-2151 6. This method does not permit to see if the ground layer from the Gospel illustration is similar with that usually used for icons. Previous studies regarding Romanian icons from the same period and the comparison with the Illuminated Manuscripts indicate the use of best quality pigments (lapis-lazuli. Acknowledgements This study could not have been possible without the decisive contribution of Ms. References 1. “Cross-section and Chemical Analysis of Paint Samples”. “The Craftsman’s Handbook”. M. Studies in Conservation 2. New York (1960) 3. Carmen Tanasoiu. “User Report”. e_conser vation . 134-155 5. after this. J. Luke the Evangelist. Access.MIHAI I. Lupu. Until the 18th century. The miniaturist tried to represent in a pictorial mode the Four Evangelists. and thus. "Microchemical Analysis of Inorganic Materials used in Romanian 16th-19th Century Icons”. 3-17 2. translated by Daniel V. A. Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Non-Destructive Testing and Microanalysis for the Diagnostics and Conservation of the Cultural and Environmental Heritage (ART 2002). Thompson. litharge and orpiment). (1956). art conservator.. Dover Publications. May 1999. M. 2-6 June 2002. 9/12616. especially in the 15th century. massicot. Part I. Rome. he could not limit himself to use a smaller number of colours . Lupu. pp. “Microchemical Analysis of Inorganic Materials used in Romanian 16th-19th Century Icons”. when the Byzantine culture was very well represented in Moldavia and Walachia. Plesters. specialist in Romanian Illuminated Manuscripts. The portraits are painted from dark colours (proplasma) to lighter ones. Manuscrpit Ms. prepared with lead white [3]. “The analysis of medieval European manuscripts”.

6/12613.ROMANIAN MANUSCRIPTS Image 5. ensamble of decoration. Manuscript Ms. e_conser vation 49 .

etc. Between the receival of the manuscript until the final publication may pass up to 3 months according with: . June 2008 – submission due 30 April 2008 for Issue 6. National Museum of Art of Romania Calea Victoriei 49-53. submitted earlier by other authors . He has continuously worked in the conservation field since 32 years. He collaborated on the analysis and conservation of the mural paintings from Agapia Monastery and several other painted monuments from Romania. 1993 and 1996. MIHAI I. Next deadlines for article submission are: for Issue 5. graphic documents. Read more. METAL 1995 and 1998. Ministry of Culture and Cults from LUPU Contact: lupu@art. Bucharest Romania www. you can always submit your manuscript when it is ready.MIHAI Phone: 0040-21-313 30 30 Fax: 0040-21-312 43 27 50 e_conser vation .. LUPU CALL FOR SUBMISSIONS e_conservation magazine is open to the submission of articles on a wide range of relevant topics for the cultural heritage sector. mural painting and textiles.the release date of the upcoming issue . Mihai Lupu is a conservator scientist at the Conservation Department of National Museum of Art (MNAR) from Bucharest. 2002 and 2005.. August 2008 – submission due 30 June 2008 Nevertheless. The results of his research were published and presented at national and international conferences among which ART 1999. A. He was also member of the Artistic Components Commission. performing research and acquiring experience in different materials such as metals. Triennal ICOM-CC meetings in 1987. painting.the number of the manuscripts on hold.mnar.the pre-allocated space in the magazine to each section Please check our publication guidelines for more information.

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case study GEORGES DE BATZ The Mysterious Case of an Art Collector Extraordinary Found by Examination of a Painting by NICCOLO CALDARARO .

the other mystery surrounds a huge painting he possessed and its examination. I worked in the Achenbach Foundation with the Western Regional Paper Conservation Laboratory and Painting Conservation Departments of the Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco. de Batz' apartment without a "second". Frankly. This was really the most essential part of my role as I was to learn later. This arrangement had been negotiated some years before by then Museum Director Mr. an installment payment for the part purchase and part donation of his rather lavish. I was to provide moral support and act as that kind of convenient person who can produce the reminder that it is time to leave. Rather "San Francisco" in many ways. one which is about his fortune and another which tells the tale of the authenticity of a painting he possessed at his death. He was. Part I: The Nature of the Collector The story of Georges de Batz. It was not the usual duty for a museum professional. civilizations and different periods of history. This paper investigates two mysteries. my museum duties did not qualify me for my task that day. Terri Picante and myself at the time. It was so small we often had to take large paintings into the hallway to turn them around or over to be able to work on the verso or recto. very talkative and very eccentric. Rosston that she should not go to Mr. Thomas Carr Howe and its arrival was as rewarding a treasure as its owner was an enigma. curious and frustrating collection of prints and drawings. encompasses two mysteries. I could not conceive that my brief meeting with this strange but brilliant little man that 53 . As a cultural trait we find collections in many different cultures. but at the same time. Achenbach Foundation Director-in-Charge. accomplished collector and dealer in fine arts. The latter Department was really made up of Ms. However.GEORGES DE BATZ Cultural objects appear in our museums as the result of the efforts of particular individuals who decide to collect certain kinds of objects for a variety of personal reasons. one describes the personal journey of one modern collector. I first met Georges de Batz (Figure 1) in early 1979 when I accompanied Achenbach Foundation Assistant Curator Maxine Rosston to his home on Polk Street in San Francisco. but whose history is little known especially regarding his demise and the dispersal of his personal fortune. Her mission was to deliver a check to de Batz. Rosston's visit. One example is the Aztec collections mentioned by many of the Spanish at the time of their contact with Native American societies and summarized by Pietro de Marytr in the early 16th century. Robert Johnson had agreed with Ms. since Mr. whose contributions to two major American museums were substantial. I was chosen mainly due to the fact that I was a young man and being such I would function as a distraction for the purpose of Mrs. simply. de Batz was neither threatening nor formidable. Mostly we worked at the De Young Museum as the studio e_conser vation at the Legion of Honor was only the size of a large dining room.

jewelry. we are defeated. in the autumn of 1939 on the last ship leaving France as the Second World War began. Both de Batz' connoisseurship and his generosity are reflected in his museum donations. by collector and scholar and was so renowned that a photograph of a part of the interior was included in the Boston catalogue. He was as great a mystery as his collections were rich. from art to "Christmas tree ornaments from Woolworths". his apartment was seen as a most special creation of a rather rare character. From Shang bronzes to Rembrandt drawings. Carr. Yet. which was certainly remarkable for how deeply moved he was by every purchase. His taste was of such developed quality that friends and colleagues soon recognized the virtuoso that he was. In the preface to the Boston MFA catalogue of the de Batz collection [1]. His range of mood was both unexpected and unnerving. From the beginning of his arrival he impressed all he met with a wonder for things. old silver. This was always an animated affair. glass. which were first displayed at the Museum in Boston in 1953. Mr. For several years I had occasionally seen Mr. of personal elements of his life and history. either de Batz was upset and angry or happy and almost delirious. His achievements live on in both the Achenbach Foundation and in the Boston Museum of Fine Arts (MFA) Asian Art collection. Georges arrived with his baggage filled with drawings. miniatures e_conser vation . de Batz in the Achenbach speaking with Mrs. published in the San Francisco Examiner. with a robust and fleshy body. According to art historian Allen E. if we look for other images of that character. his intensity was a surprise.NICCOLO CALDARARO day would connect with a grand mystery related to another fabulous work of art of which he was the central character. One was left with a great deal of consternation at how to regard and respond to his distress or joy. textiles. yet since he spoke French as his native tongue his English became unintelligible as his ardor increased. de Batz had been a collector known to curators and dealers from coast to coast in America. Johnson. Rosston and Mr. His home was considered a private museum 54 Figure 1.J.S. Photographic image of Georges de Batz. Curator George Boas tells us that Georges de Batz came to the U. His abilities are legion in regard to the arts and we are told that Johns Hopkins University produced several exhibitions (19401942) organized by de Batz of Persian manuscripts. As he was a small man. de Batz' father had also been a collector and dealer of fine art in France.

In the mid 1990s I conserved a number of paintings for Mr. Still. But this element of the fragmented history and mystery of the life of Georges de Batz did not become important until I was asked to look at huge painting more than a decade later owned by Mr. we know little of the man himself. It was common knowledge around the Museum that de Batz had been a friend of former Achenbach Director E. poets. books. including trips to Argentina and Uruguay. and within these tales would be found the lesson of his great "finds". It was rumored that Troche had come to the USA from South America where he had been a dealer of fine art. followed by discussions or lectures of the most lively nature. as I recall from his visits to the Achenbach and from the comments of others concerning their meetings with him. His resumé lacked a certain precision during the period of the Second World War in Germany and after. artifacts. etc. Mr. A Michelangelo here. Darker recollections were made about earlier acquaintances in Europe before the Second World War. The time that I visited his apartment in San Francisco with Mrs. His apartment was luxuriously decorated but a bit crowded and rather cluttered with curios. papers and magazines pilled about here and there on chairs. and encouraged some rumors and speculation. Former Achenbach Curator Fenton Kastner and former Asian Art Museum Conservator. papers and magazines pilled about here and there on chairs. Gunter Troche. books. collectors. He organized a catalogue of the art of Vincent van Gogh in aid of the American and Dutch war relief at Wildenstein in 1943 and wrote a number of catalogues for other exhibitions at Johns Hopkins and Wildenstein at the end of the Second World War. the rich. His activities aided the education of students from 1939 to 1942 by providing the most exquisite experiences of art and beauty.GEORGES DE BATZ and paintings. tables and the floor. 55 . there seemed to be order and not chaos as he produced objects and documents from amid these mounds at will to illustrate some point or story. One day Mr. and shadows of the Second World War. demonstrations with examples of encounters he had had with artists. Rosston his garrulous nature exposed me to a variety of rich vignettes of famous people – artists. Herbert Hoover of San Francisco. This was the stock in trade of his conversation. musicians. But despite all this. He is also the author of a book on the art scene in San Francisco in the 1980s. Alex Penkovic often spoke of their association and how this friendship between collector and Director had e_conser vation His apartment was luxuriously decorated but a bit crowded and rather cluttered with curios. military generals. Hoover called me to come and examine a large canvas he had purchased in the 1980s which had suffered a blow to the surface (Figure 2). artifacts. Hoover is a successful dealer and appraiser of fine art and once owned a commercial art gallery in San Francisco. tables and the floor. a Chasseriau there. Hoover. and so on. involved both shining lights of exhibitions and art for the Museums.

This was a large figurative work of a seated man. The book had belonged to de Batz and contained the original dedication from Seligman to de Batz as well as many letters from Seligman to de Batz relating friendly and warm correspondence (Figure 3. Hoover had purchased the painting at an auction held at Butterfields of de Batz' estate. see online Appendix). See also the online Appendix with photographs of letters glued into a book owned by Mr. Letter from Seligman to Georges de Batz. At that time. But when he opened it up. painted on an absorbent ground. Roger de la Fresnaye. he saw it was a painting. typical of paintings produced in Europe by a number of painters around the turn of the 20th century and into the 20s and 30s.NICCOLO CALDARARO Figure 2. e_conser vation . Such analytical work is not thought to be 56 Figure 3. It had been sold as a rug. Roger de la Fresnaye painting in Hoover Collection. He later purchased a Germain Seligman monograph on the French artist. he had it framed. Georges de Batz. In order to conserve the painting I needed information about the absorbent ground. Mr. pigments and the working method of the artist. unframed and folded several times. the late 1980s.

if not crucial. None were. Figure 4). Bock-Weiss of the School of the Art Institute of Chicago. and in this case. always necessary in conservation. I took samples of the pigment from the painting and sent them to Walter McCrone. Hoover did the same at the Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco. it was important since understanding the ground was essential to the conservation of the work. I contacted the Boston MFA to find out if any personal papers or other information on de Batz were available. The pigments were so similar and the grounds as well. He was known to have been a friend of artist Marie Laurencin who was active in the production of drawings for the Ballets Russes. as the catalogue contained a number of images similar to that in the painting and the technique seemed quite similar. It was not listed in the monograph by Seligman [2] and although e_conser vation Seligman stated in the text that it was not complete. but nothing was found. Mr. but is however very helpful. Dr. but could offer no information on de Batz or Seligman. He compared the pigment from the Hoover painting to samples sent from museums which owned other de la Fresnaye paintings. She speculated that de la Fresnaye had been involved in a number of salons and performances. Mr. it seemed strange that someone as familiar with Seligman as de Batz would possess a major work by the artist and not share it with his friend so it might be included in the artist’s anthology. an international forensic scientist and expert on pigments and grounds. There was a nagging question about the painting that bothered me. Hoover thought that the painting might be by de la Fresnaye. 57 . and they surveyed local collectors for me to no avail. that McCrone concluded that the Hoover painting was produced by the same artist using the same palette (see report. who had written on de la Fresnaye considered the painting a possible work by the artist.GEORGES DE BATZ Figure 4. Catherine C. Report on analysis of samples by Walter Mcrone.

This association is also mentioned by Seligman [2]. the canvas fiber of the Picasso "Rideau…" in the Pompidu Center in Paris. He suggested Dr. Silver contributed some advice concerning both the Selgiman/de Batz link and the nature 58 of the Hoover painting. What might also have been true. however.NICCOLO CALDARARO It still seemed as if de Batz had no past at all. So we went e_conser vation . Silver related that de la Fresnaye was homosexual and that this was entwined with the family’s regard for him and his public assessment. Paintings and other works had been distributed to friends and lovers and there was a marked coolness between family and de la Fresnaye’s friends. contacting local collectors for information on de Batz. Dr. For example. Attempts to contact the family were also not successful. A picture of the artist and the complication of his life came into focus as a factor in the fate of the painting. We had known that de la Fresnaye had been a war hero in France after the First World War. and secondly that it had been seized by the Nazis and was illegal contraband which de Batz had somehow acquired. Here we came to another dead end. Butterfield's for clues. and that his fame was doubled by the tragic wounds he had received which prematurely ended his life and career. Silver and Murdock both suggested that access to work might have been limited to Seligman and that de Batz. Nevertheless. Silver who was interested in helping and thought we might meet when I examined a painting by de la Fresnaye at the The Museum of Modern Art (MoMA) in New York. We were disappointed when we viewed the painting however. which I have seen. was that the Hoover painting may have been the property of families which were dispossessed by the Nazis. BockWeiss suggested I speak to a Mr. We went to the auction house. It still seemed as if de Batz had no past at all. Mr. firstly that it had been given to a lover or friend renounced by the family and unavailable to Seligman when he wrote the book. we could find little about the man as he lived except for his passion of collecting art and donating to the public. Unexpectedly. who had written about de la Fresnaye [3]. as it had been lined and coated with a heavy varnish. he did not have access to his papers. A relative had controlled the sale of his work after the war and then after his death. is the same. So we decided to seek him posthumously. Thus we had at least two explanations of why the painting would not appear in the Seligman book. Murdock who had interviewed Seligman and had done some research on de la Fresnaye. I contacted Dr. Murdock was helpful. but could not enlighten us either about the painting or the Seligman/de Batz relationship. I had extensive conversations with Nancy Van Norman Baer about Laurencin's work in the 1980s and recognized that the materials often used in this setting bore a similarity to the Hoover painting. who was also of the same sexual inclination may have had access to other sources not available to the family or to Seligman. While he had met Seligman. according to Silver. Kenneth Silver at New York University. Their records were only kept for five years and then destroyed. Robert M. we could find little about the man as he lived except for his passion of collecting art and donating to the public.

sometimes caused by poor execution by the artists. But when I asked about the files for Walkup's work with de Batz she informed me that the office did not have them. To our amazement. the last file of the probate was missing. Howard. This was delayed several times due to Mr. or other documentation of the work of the Foundation. He said the Foundation had been only himself and that he had given the money away over the years to art organizations and religious charities. I contacted the Georges de Batz Trust for the Arts. especially those that had programs for children. incorrect methodology of application. we also found another mystery. Howard. in the final disposition of the de Batz estate. Hoover could not believe this report on the Foundation. etc. Howard's illness. We contacted the Walkup offices again but were told they had nothing relating to de Batz or the Foundation. but when it took place he found the information was correct. Hoover's painting is a masterwork of a man sitting in a chair surveying a world with such interest that one can only imagine the bemused face of de Batz looking out amid the cubist fragments.GEORGES DE BATZ to the probate court to find what might have been the disposition of his property and perhaps his papers. I was able to speak with the woman who had been his secretary. And thus Georges de Batz' life was as much a mystery as the dispersal of his fortune and yet. Perhaps the problem may reside in determining the original paint from overpainting and attempting to resolve with the curator or owner a balanced treatment which reflects the intent of the artist [4]. Introduction The conservator is often faced with difficult problems presented by paintings. I called the Walkup office in San Francisco to find that Mr. Mr. Questions of authorship often arise which can only be addressed by reference 59 . The probate court had the files containing his property and the sales. Bruce Walkup when de Batz was found unable to care for himself and was removed to a care facility in the early 1980s. Howard referred us back to Walkup's office. we were disappointed. e_conser vation and so he arranged to meet Mr. I asked if there were any publications of the Foundation. We could not trace where his personal effects went or who received the more than $1 million in proceeds from the sale of his art and property. and that no records were kept. Walkup had died some years ago. Here again. These problems can include multiple layers which lack adhesion. I was told there were no publications about this giving. Henry W. She told me to go to the de Batz Foundation. the Foundation was nearly out of money and Mr. papers filed by this lawyer. We found the documents created by Walkup for the sale of de Batz's art but nothing that could give us a clear picture of what had been the origin of the painting or its relation to de Batz. There were no records. Part II: Conservation Examination for Treatment: its role in Research using a case study of a painting by Roger de la Fresnaye from the Collection of Herbert Hoover 6/01 1. I did find out that he did not have any files or personal effects of de Batz. by inadequate storage conditions. whose only trustee was a Mr. who was quite elderly and seemed confused each time when I spoke to him. Mr.000 or so. I called a number of arts organizations in San Francisco and a few recalled that they had had visits by an elderly man once in a while who would hand them a check for $10.

60 At times our laboratory has been asked to solve relatively simple conservation tasks only to become involved in more elaborate forensic work. in Sonia Delaunay's "Prismes electriques" (1914) and Nathalie Gontcharova's e_conser vation . We will never know. in "Le reveil-matin" (1914). Jacques Lipchitz in his "Personnage Debout" (1916). however. This fiber is found in paintings of the period 1900 to 1940 by a number of painters including. 14] indicates hemp. both essential to understanding the appearance of the painting and its conservation and yet. a scroll made of skin presented to the British Museum and other public and private collections in the last century as an original volume from the ancient libraries of Israel [9]. 7]. At times our laboratory has been asked to solve relatively simple conservation tasks only to become involved in more elaborate forensic work. forgeries and reproductions [6. As Kahle and I described [10]. In this section of this article I will describe our attempt to identify the condition of the painting and to study its materials and method of execution. for the Schapira scroll disappeared. in Picasso's "Nature Morte" (1922). A good example of this is the Shapira Scroll. then the condition of the Schapira scroll could be understood and found to be authentic [11]. The owner was concerned that the painting appeared to be suffering some deterioration. and his "Feme en rouge et vert" (1914). Paul Klee. Ferinand Hodler in his monumental mural scenes at the Zurich Kunsthaus.NICCOLO CALDARARO to the analysis of similar types based on scientific analysis [5]. gauze-like appearance) and it is well known that fibers used for artist's canvas at the turn of this century were quite varied and many contained mixed fibers [12]. The canvas sample was compared with the fiber content of several la Fresnaye paintings in American collections. The Hemp-like fiber of the Hoover painting can be found in the sample from the Philadelphia Museum of Art (which also has a open weave. but when a detailed examination of the state of preservation of these scrolls was put in series and related to the variations in manufacture and how conditions of storage affected ageing. Several samples of paint and ground were taken from the verso of the canvas. secondarily. Often. Canvas A sample of the canvas was taken at the top right area above the strainer on the verso of the painting. productive in information to the determination of its authenticity. Comparison with standard reference samples [13. even the best efforts are defeated by the ideas of art styles of the time and the development of fashionable tastes that influence the concept of the original [8]. all pigments were sampled. 2. Uberschach (1937). One case of this kind is the Hoover painting which was brought to our attention due to distortions in the canvas with a rough and uneven surface. Fiber comparison was made with samples from several museums (see Table 1). unfortunately. Kirchner. the scroll appeared too new in the context of other scroll fragments from the same period. This painting is on a wide woven fabric (likely a species of hemp). Fernand Leger. In these cases the conservator can be asked to join in the art historical or curatorial debate to investigate fakes. Stat-geschiter (1911).

it was applied with e_conser vation a lower oil to pigment ratio. 61 . "Rideau pour le ballet". iron. These unusual marks and holes may be related to its original use. and was used in numerous other paintings of the period. The painting measures approximately 7 feet by 10 and one-half feet. However. If it is oil. fiber color to a large theatrical background by Picasso. Test results from Harlan Associates for the ground by FT-IR show it to be composed of barium sulfate and lead chromate with calcium carbonate as a minor component. Pigments include aluminum silicate. Analysis of pigments in a number of paintings by de la Fresnaye in American collections and the Hoover painting conducted by McCrone Associates demonstrated the pigments were virtually identical and probably from the same palette (see copy of McCrone report.g. Present tests of the Hoover Collection painting with gas chromatography and IR spectrographic analysis indicate a linseed oil medium.. "Mercure" (1924) and the already mentioned Hodler mural. The appearance is similar to that described for French paintings of the period that are categorized as painted on "absorbent canvas" [15. while holes in the canvas indicate an earlier mount which may have been slightly smaller. in the collection of the New York Museum of Modern Art is primarily lead white and a small amount of calcite [20] (see Figure 5 for detail of pigment on canvas). A sample of the ground was also analyzed by Harlan Associates indicating it was primarily composed of barium sulfate and zinc stearate with a binder of an oil containing palmitic acid and stearic acid by FT-IR. perhaps in a theatrical installation or ballet piece. but this may not have been the original size as it has been recently mounted onto a strainer. and mixed with pigment in most of the canvas. calcium. incompletely applied grounds are found on la Fresnaye paintings in the U. Barium sulfate was a frequent component of grounds used by French painters in absorbent ground paintings according to Bomford et al. 1990. 3. the Hoover canvas is nearly identical in weave size. coarse. but rather very flat and brittle like tempera. Paint and Ground The pigment appears to be in an oil medium. in the collection of the Indianapolis Museum of Art [18]. "Les collines au-delà de Meulan" at the Indianapolis Museum of Art [21]. Figure 3). While there was variation in why artists used absorbent canvases and speculation about this by art historians and conservators [17]. silicon and copper.. The ground is very thin. e. This is similar to the paint described for "Les Collines au-delà de Meulan". The ground which la Fresnaye used in his "The Conquest of Air". Thin.S. the specific wide weave of the Hoover canvas is found on a subset of these works.A. but generally they are larger. It also contains an ester polymer indicating a natural resin or oil. barium sulfate and lead chromate (green chromate) and zinc stearate [19]. coated in lower center and central figure areas with a shiny media. Emission spectrographic analysis produced results of barium and zinc.GEORGES DE BATZ "Les porteubes" (1911). aluminum. Interestingly. in general an attitude was present that associated the absorbent canvas with a prohibition against varnishing. both large and small. Barium sulfate was a frequent component of grounds used by French painters in absorbent ground paintings according to Jirat-Wasiutynski & Newton [22]. magnesium. 16]..

S. The size of the painting. No damage to the paint layer has resulted and thus I did not recommend an extensive cleaning. This evidence is contained in tacking holes in the canvas as a tacking edge and by tacking holes which are either painted around by the artist or had a plate or other cover over them during the execution of the work. however. tonality. A number of paintings by de la Fresnaye are in public collections in the U. Close-up of paint surface of de la Fresnaye painting The size of the original canvas is unknown as it was purchased wrapped into squares. this could indicate the canvas was used as a theatrical background as the "Picasso Rideau. There is evidence of an unusual installation of the painting on the canvas as mentioned. This may be remnants of how the artist set the canvas for painting on a temporary easel. However. which is now 7 feet high by 10 and 1/2 foot in length (Figure 2). A detailed study of "The Conquest of Air" at the Museum of Modern Art in New York City was conducted to compare surface features.NICCOLO CALDARARO Figure 5. A survey of these paintings was undertaken to acquire any available technical information (Table 1). demonstrated the same feature of the design soaking through the canvas as in the absorbent ground paintings 62 examined by Jirat-Wasiutynski & Newton [22]. The exercise was not very fruitful as the painting had not only been varnished e_conser vation .". remounting or other treatment at the time other than a light surface cleaning and adjustment of sagging in some areas of the canvas by re-stretching. and were identified by use of the catalogue raisonné by Germain Seligman [2]... The distortions in the canvas from folding are not severe and are only noticeable in raking light. or as attached to a wall in the studio (marouflage). Transmitted light. Many of de la Fresnaye's paintings in America are lined and this limits the ability to sample both fiber and ground for testing.A. canvas and ground. is very similar to that of "The Conquest of Air".


heavily, but had been relined with the waxresin method by the Kecks. They had removed an earlier heavy varnish which had yellowed [23]. However, in conversation with Dr. Steven Silver of New York University (NYU), we noticed that the painting shared some similarities of execution with the Hoover canvas, most apparent was the incomplete application of ground and pigment leaving areas of raw canvas and ground as part of the painting surface. This has been shown to be common
Metropolitan Museum of Art

in many of de la Fresnaye's works. The de la Fresnaye painting, "Le Cuirassier" (1910-11) is now at the Musee d'Art Contemporary of the City of Paris and appears to be varnished. I could not examine the verso to determine if it had been lined, however. The fiber appears to be linen and close-weaved. The de la Fresnaye, "Le Quatorze Juillet" (1914) is also painted on linen and is close-weaved. It does not show the same ground as the Hoover painting.

Nature Morte aux pommes avec pichet de faience Portrait: Goerges de Mire Nature Morte a la bouteille, pipe et pot a tabac

tests results not available linen ?

tests results not available linen ? linen linen/hemp "linen-like fiber" open filled with wax ? open weave open weave open weave gauze-like

Metropolitan Museum of Art A. Silbermann Galleries, New York Indianapolis Museum of Art Philadelphia Museum of Art Albright-Knox Gallery, Buffalo

La conquete de l'Air L'Homme Buvant et chantant (gallery defunct) Les Collines au-delà de Meulan Le village de Meulan Marie Ressort avec ses vaches, la Berbere Nature morte aux trois anses

results not available cotton-linen blend close weave

Minneapolis Institute of Art Barnes Foundation Museum of Art, Toledo

La vie conjugale La vie conjugale Nature morte a la cafetiere

results not available linen light weight plain weave

examined by Richard Buck, found “normal” ground. Phillips Collection, Washington Sara Lee Corporation (now in collection of Houston Museum of Fine Arts) M. Knoedler & Co. La Mappemonde Les Baigneurs canvas relined no sample possible sample pending

Portrait de L'Artiste Grande nature morte aux tasses blanches

not available not available (on panel) probably linen probably linen close weave close weave

Musee Contemporary City of Paris

Le Quatorze Juillet Le Cuirassier

Table 1. Fiber analysis of Canvas Information in Museum or Gallery Publications or provided by phone conversations with institution staff.
e_conser vation



The Conquest of Air Georges De Mire Hoover Frederick Church Les Collines au-delà de Meulan

lead white/calcite Calcium carbonate Barium sulfate/ zinc stearate Calcium carbonate and glue Barium, zinc, calcium, Magnesium, iron, silicon, copper

Ordonez Harlan Harlan Zucker (reported in Jirat Wasiutynski, 1998) Harlan

Table 2 - Results of Ground and Pigment Tests

Design and Execution The design of the Hoover de la Fresnaye is similar to "L'Homme Assis" (1913-1914) in the Musee National d'Art Moderne which is smaller (131x162cm) and less so to "Le Quatorze Juillet" (1914) which is very small in comparison (74x 92cm). The largest of these two is, therefore, almost 1/2 the size of the Hoover painting. However, the La Conquete de L'Air (1913) is 107x89 inches approximately, making it almost exactly the same size. As Seligman states about these other two paintings, they were painted in the period of the years of the great figure compositions and still-lifes. We must assume that if the Hoover painting is a de la Fresnaye it would have to have been painted during this time. Seligman refers [2] to de la Fresnaye's admiration of Italian frescos which one biographer notes is where he derived his fresco-like quality of image and tone. Such an admiration would insensibly lead to a desire to paint in a large format. Cogninet & George [24] come to a similar conclusion. The support for the painting, a rough open-weave fabric, is more characteristic of ad hoc theatrical sets as in a scrim for a Ballets Russes and de la Fresnaye's association with artist Marie Laurencin [2] places de la Fresnaye in the company of artists who regularly worked in the theater [25;26]. This may be improbable by the fact that most of Diaghilev's stage settings were painted in water based pigments on the

floor. All this parallels many other French paintings of the period where the paint soaks through the canvas [22] (Figure 6). De la Fresnaye produced a number of works of varied subjects which were curious in intent and also never exhibited in any of the salons, like the "Jeanne d'Arc" (1912). More interesting is the fact that de la Fresnaye was interested in the color experiments of Robert Delaunay [2] and that "La Conquete de l'Air" is characterized as an experiment in pure color as Delaunay was conducting. Many of de la Fresnaye's paintings are executed on an absorbent ground similar to that seen in Delaunay's paintings. It is in the gradual increase in such experiment in color and size of painting that we find a place for the Hoover de la Fresnaye, as Seligman argues that in "Le Quatorze Juillet" de la Fresnaye had heroic proportions in mind for the final version of the canvas [2]. Between 1912 and the first 7 months of 1914 de la Fresnaye's production was considerable and in the pressure of the time an ad hoc work on a fairly cheap support might be expected which approaches the limits of grandeur. This is, nevertheless, a dangerous place to approach, for most fakes and forgeries tend to be created to fill in such missing pieces of an artist's
e_conser vation


Figure 6. Verso of de la Fresnaye painting in transmitted light

work, the expected great masterpiece which completes a series [27]. As Seligman states [2], "Le Quatorze Juillet" was destined to remain an unfinished monument to an unfinished life. Still, we lack the analysis of the ground of "La Conquete de l'Air", though we have the results of the analysis of the Hoover painting and the Georges De Mire. It would be interesting to compare these results with an analysis of the pigment in the painting in the Musee National d'Art Moderne ("L'Homme assis"), with closeup photos of the weave in the Hoover and Paris paintings, which might provide additional materials to our analysis. Analysis of a surface sample from "La Conquete de l'Air" by Eugena Ordonez [28] - which may prove to be ground, although she was not entirely sure - showed the sample to be lead white and a small amount of calcite.
e_conser vation

As in the mystery of the dispersal of de Batz's fortune, we cannot solve the problem either of the authenticity of the painting nor of its provenance.
Conclusion The working method in the Hoover painting compared to that in "Les Collines au-delà de Meulan" show considerable similarity, with areas scraped and reworked*, but with similar color schema piled, drawn and pared down. More studies of de la Fresnaye paintings for working method evidence will enhance our understanding

*References to condition and examination notes of paintings taken from documents supplied by various museums and private collectors.

can we use this same information to establish. It is not the place for a conservator to determine an attribution of a painting. however.NICCOLO CALDARARO of de la Fresnaye's approach. Conversations with the executor of the de Batz estate and the Director of the Georges de Batz Foundation. show that the Hoover painting was purchased from Butterfield's auction a few years after the main sale of the de Batz estate. including a sales receipt. Lucy for the analysis of pigments from several museums. Some of these were accomplished by the first lawyer for the estate. I am especially indebted to Walter McCrone and his wife/colaborator. Georges de Batz. demonstrate that many of the paintings from the de Batz house and the estate were disposed of outside of the initial Butterfield's sale. however. without a doubt that the painting is by the artist. The letters are written by Seligman to de Batz and indicate an intimate relationship. like the painting. an intriguing enigma waiting for solution. In every case Georges de Batz remains. we cannot solve the problem either of the authenticity of the painting nor of its provenance. Acknowledgements A research project like this one cannot be carried out without the cooperation and genuine professional care of many conservators. nor. Herbert Hoover. compared with paintings by other artists of the period provide a strong basis for placing the Hoover de la Fresnaye in context with the body of work by Roger de la Fresnaye. collectors. who was also a collector. How de Batz gained possession of this painting is a mystery. but also provided other information about the e_conser vation . Yet as in the mystery of the dispersal of de Batz's fortune. art historians and scientists. though we know that the Ballet Russes did come to New York in the early part of the last century so if the painting was created for the Ballet it could have come to America then. It is simply beyond our brief and yet we can recognize that the painting shares material and aesthetic qualities with works of that artist. The combination of the scientific data available from a number of other de la Fresnaye paintings. Information drawn from the papers of Mr. could have acquired the painting in France before the Second World War or directly from de la Fresnaye. David Miller & Don Steele of the Indianapolis Museum of Art helped in this way. rather we more often provide evidence which undermines such attributions. Bruce Walkup. Further art historical information is necessary although the information on Georges de Batz and his relationship with Seligman contained in their letters is compelling but does requires some clarification. In this case we have investigated each and every aspect of the painting 66 in a physical sense and attempted to disprove its association with the painter. Yet de Batz or his father. What is reproduced in Figure 4 and the online Appendix are photographs of letters glued into a book owned by Mr. that this cannot be achieved. the method of execution and the presence of the painting in San Francisco at the same auction house as the sale of the de Batz collection and de Batz's connection with Seligman all go far to establishing a link between the painting and Roger de la Fresnaye. The willingness of institutions to provide samples and take the time to take them and label and send them was of great benefit and I am both humbled and heartened by their dedication to building our knowledge. The physical evidence of the materials of the painting. All of our questions remain open and yet the trail has gone cold. We have come to the conclusion.

Kenneth E. 3. M. "Oeuvre Complete: Roger de la Fresnaye”. A. Marquis and D. "Fake or transitional form? Analysis of a purported Pre-Columbian Olmec artifact and comparison with similar published objects from Mesoamerica". N. Matteness and Varnishing". Keck. vol. 1997. Personal Communication. Michael Duffy. T. Houston. The same role was played by David Marquis. 10. Paris. 19141925”. Kahle and N. 21. Dr. 1993. 46. "Papermaking Fibers". Raymond Cogniat and Waldemar George. Caldararo. Harlan & Associates. “The Shapira Affair”. “Fakes”. London. 1994. 1969. Katlan. D. 1953. 22. JAIC. “Esprit de Corps: The Art of the Parisian avant-garde and the First World War. 12. JAIC. Eugena Ordonez. Getty Trust. ed. Kirby. dated 9/9/48. Sheldon and Caroline K. Roy. 1980. 19. vol. 16. D. 3. Newton. Radiocarbon. Press. 18. IIC. National Gallery. Archaeology. Soundview Press. J. Caldararo. Conservation Report. Robert M. 7-11 September 1998. 28. Phelan of the Museum of Fine Arts. Van Norman Baer. vol. London. pp. "A study of French painting canvases". 20. 20. Myers. Mexicon. Conservation of Artifacts Made from Plant Materials. Caldararo. London. Murdock of New York.1986. Linda D. Hulmer. "American Artists’ Materials". 321.. Personal Communication. 1997. pp. A. 6. N. Caldararo. pp. Jim Coddington. C. vol. 3-20. Roy and P. Materials and Studio. Florian. 1989. V. Silver of New York University. 23. P. Dr. 1998. D. 1992. 14. Conn. 7. Garden City. "Report on the results of GS and IR spectrographic analysis of samples from the Hoover Painting".). Norton. Eric C. J. 9. Lucy Belloli of the Metropolitan Museum of Art was also of assistance. 25. Bock-Weiss of the School of the Art Institute of Chicago. Faber and Faber. June 2000. Routledge. Antique West. “An Exhibition of The deBatz Collection”. London. J. Cote (ed. B. Personal Communication. 6066. David Miller. "Profiting from reproductions". “Conservation Skills: Judgement. Katrina Vanderlip Carbonnel. 58-63. n. N. 121-2. George Boas. Thames and Hudson. n. "Tribal art: authenticity and 'fakes'". "Identification of plant and animal materials in artifacts". 1990. Kenneth E. 2. 17. Nancy Van Norman Baer. 1967. 2004. A. and Mr. "State of preservation of the Dead Sea Scrolls". Feb. O. 24. Eugena Ordonez. ed. 1997. 14. Dover Books. Smith.GEORGES DE BATZ de la Fresnaye in their collection and worked with the curators there to answer other questions. 43. Jirat-Wasiutynski and T. 26.. 15. of the Upper Midwest Conservation Association Laboratory. n. “Bronislava Nijinska: A Dancer's Legacy”. “Roger de la Fresnaye with a Catalogue Raisonne”. Personal Communication. Marilou Florian. Kurz. New York. 5. Allegro. 37. 1984-88 (and my own personal experience and research while working with artifacts from the Ballets Russes in several shows installed in the Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco). Caldararo. 1992. 23. Caple. Mayer and G. Professor Catherine C. Personal Communications. Bomford. pp. 67 . 8 May. editions Rivarol. 1986. pp. N. pp. W. L. 2000." in Painting Techniques: History. Henderson of The University of Texas at Austin. Kronkright. Andrea Guidi di Bagno and Wynne H. Silver.6. 8. 1965. Nature. Ann Arbor. "Art in the Making: Impressionism". 1997. University of Pittsburgh 1955 (available from University Microfilms International. Miller. 29-79. e_conser vation 11. Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco. “The Role of Conservation in Connoisseurship”. 1950. pp. Contributions to the Dublin Congress. 13. 2. Method and Decision Making”. Doubleday. "Absorbent grounds and the matt aesthetic in Post Impressionist painting. 4. "American Impressionism. Eugena Ordonez and Christopher McGlinchey of the New York Museum of Modern Art. vol. 21-32. 1981. Madison. Boston Museum of Fine Arts. Princeton U. 235-9. "Storage conditions and physical treatments relating to the dating of the Dead Sea Scrolls". 1990. 237-254. 27. Germain Seligman. Steele. New York Graphic Society. Leighton and A. D. and R. pp. Suzanne Penn of the Philadelphia Museum of Art. References 1. 2.32. Michigan). 2. Syracuse University Press. in M. 1.

Desmond Clark. Caldararo@aol. San Francisco. Another was just published in the AIC Objects Specialty Group's Postprints for the 2004 Annual Meeting in Portland. Niccolo's research in conservation was concerned with the evolution of decision making with specific focus on treatment development by different conservators dealing with similar P. He received his MA in Anthropology with a specialization in archaeological conservation in 1983 from San Francisco State University. the Asian Art Museum of San Francisco. Gary Pahl. e_conser vation . One publication that resulted from this research was published in Studies in Conservation. 42. Oregon mainly on the use of ultrasound and benefited form work with Robert Organ and John Asmus. He received his BA in Anthropology from the University of California. v. and the durability of treatments over time.NICCOLO CALDARARO NICCOLO CALDARARO CONSERVATION ART SERVICE. California 94107 Niccolo Caldararo is Director and Chief Conservator of Conservation Art Service in San Francisco. Box 77570. 68 Today his research is organized around how different peoples preserve their heritage in contrast with his nearly 20 CAP reports on specific museums and historical societies in the USA in the past 20 years. Berkeley in 1970 after working in the Anthropology Department's Archaeology Laboratory under J. a private conservation laboratory. Niccolo has been employed by a number of museums over the past 30 years including the California Academy of Sciences. having set up a conservation laboratory at the University's Tiburon Center for archaeological excavations on Da Silva Island for Dr. He is also an Adjunct Professor of Anthropology at San Francisco State University. 1997:157-164 on painted surfaces on ceramic and glass. the De Young Museum and the California Palace of the Legion of Honor.

SURVEY AND DRAWING FOR A CONSERVATION-RESTORATION PROJECT. A STUDY FOR GENOA AND SAVONA Contribute to conservation and enhancement of cultural heritage in Europe by GIULIA PELLEGRI documentatio .

Analysis is the first step of the historical and iconographic research. The work was developed on the basis of three fundamental themes: Analysis. decorative and typological characImage 1 teristics. 70 e_conser vation . The architectonic and decorative particulars have been drawn in scale of 1:20. both architectonic and formal. such as building textures which are particular interesting as far as the study of wall stratification units (Unità Stratigrafiche Murarie) are concerned. and puts in evidence the studies about the actual architectonic configuration principally through the deep analysis of the medieval building components.GIULIA PELLEGRI THE WATERFRONT OF GENOA Studies and Surveys Introduction This article concerns the facades of the waterfront of Genoa in Italy. structural. stylistic. Survey and Evolution. survey is a very important knowledge instrument. evolution and building transformations are the basis to find the original medieval typologies. The 31 single facades of the urban front have been surveyed and drawn in scale 1:50 in order to evidence and to study the architectonic. especially through the study of the drawing representation of the building materials.

is a scientific method to analyse the building’s typological.General description (data found at the Superintendence of Architectonic and Environmental Liguria Goods.The 31 studied buildings . During the research project the author took into consideration the next principal phases for the complete waterfront study: Inspection of the site .scale 1:20 . townplanning situations and cultural incidences.Planimetric individuation of plots through spaces and types with the passing of the centuries Survey .Studies upon the front materials characterization .Planimetric individuation of the water-front buildings in the urban context . The first survey stage consisted in direct measurements which were compared by the means of more sophisticated survey instruments such as Nikon total station and photogrammetry software (straightened photos).Wall textures details .Architectonic-decorative description (front analysis: elevation fascias.SURVEY AND DRAWING FOR CONSERVATION The survey is not only the process of measuring a building’s form. many pencil proportional drawings of the facades and studies about the planimetrical development connected to Genoa’s historical centre were made.Cadastral and Archive research .Indirect survey using total station Nikon DTM 200 Facade historical stratifications .Taking note and examining the object of study .Architectonic and metric survey for the fronts’ details . The archaeological stratifications bases were applied to some parts of the fronts to put in evidence the historical sequences and to help to the comprehension of the original aspect and architectonic form. supported by studies about history.Checking the accuracy of the previous and old survey records .Plastic and painted facade’s decorations scale 1:20 Cards . In fact the critical survey. historical research becomes essential to the survey phase as fundamental knowledge instrument. architectonicdecorative cards.scale 1:200 . bibliography) . typological individuations.Bibliographic research .Study of architectonic and town-planning evolution site .Photographic recognition from panoramic to detail e_conser vation Historical Analysis . The final step of the study concerns the drawing up of the synthesis cards: general description of every single front. linguistic and stylistic characteristics. From this point of view. structural. individuation 71 . distributive. historical cartography and iconography represent very important steps during the study. Historiography. survey and analysis of building stratification.Individuations and analysis of the wall historical stratifications Survey Drawings .scale 1:100 and 1:50 . Historical Archive of Genoa.Historical research and inquiry about typological urban building evolution .Geometric survey with direct method .

old maps of the city of Genoa. The research also put in evidence the very important theme: colour-architecture. 1982) but also the environmental urban scale: streets. The waterfront of Genoa is characterized by a continue colonnade. both as applied colour and as used material. The Colour is a fundamental aspect because it is always a characteristic element of a place and consequently. and for this reason famous among the many other “painted” cities in Italy and in Europe. facts and known events. In fact. with the intent of boosting houses’ widening by taxes exemption for new buildings and raisings. plastic and painted particulars) . all the historical or non-historical components which influence the material aspect and therefore the historical. being planned as a service infrastructure and not just as a passageway. taking in consideration and associating all the factors required by the complexity of a historical building. Conservation recognizes the importance of this contextual aspect as a whole. Image 2 . the study compared all the literary sources. social. This debate concerns not only the architectonic scale of single buildings (the theme of the “Painted Fronts” International Congress in Genoa. Thus.GIULIA PELLEGRI of decorative. historical views and contracts about plan modifications). photographic documentation and anterior studies (ancient and original drawings of the buildings.Typological description (types connected to the historical matrix) . squares and every urban route.USM survey and analysis of the wall historical stratifications (critical interpretation of the Harris Matrix) For every front of Ripa Maris. to compare right methodological approaches and new techniques for restoration. but Genoa also rises occasions to debate about the "theme-problem". morphological and stylistic values must be considered. it is a cultural element. in 1133 and 1143 "Consules de Communi" decided (due to the rules for regularizing the arcade’s forms and materials) to lean the arcade against the walls of the buildings. Genoa is not only historically the city of Painted Fronts.

5 meters high stone columns with cross vaults and a vault or plan roof. marble and bricks with new doors and windows openings. As far as the constructive and material elements are concerned. due to the law approved by the consuls concerning the houses’ widening the total width of the arcade passage was then comprehended between the arcs and the houses (actual Via Sottoripa). whose traces are still visible on the walls. linguistic and stylistic elements. View of the first part of waterfront . original drawing scale 1:50.1 to n. In fact. Ripa still presents medieval components: the ponderous Romanesque buildings became lighter in the XIIIth and XIVth centuries. in this way it became possible to build new mezzanines at the height of the aqueduct’s pipes.was leaned against the walls of the houses of Sottoripa.the evident ideal cut of elevated railway. Upper left: Medieval tissue cut. The most significant elements of Ripa Maris buildings are: building type. Image 5. Drawing restitution of survey from front n. using stone. 27. L. Upper right: Marble Terrace Plan. technological and technical-structural components to testify the many processes which characterize this unitary architectonical "organism" (urban archaeological site). Image 3. Image 4. Image 6. The individuation of a consistent number of the existent building characteristics of the different historical phases permitted to reconstruct the progressive buildings transformation process. Down: Plan of first and second stretch of Carlo Alberto street. During the XIIIth century a new service element the aqueduct . Spinola e Calvi leaned to the sea-walls (1796). view of Ripa Maris buildings with Ponte Reale. Giuidotti. e_conser vation 73 . distributive and functional characteristics. Giolfi.SURVEY AND DRAWING FOR CONSERVATION Historical mentions The new colonnade was built with 4.

In 1836. but the historical photos (from Historic Archive of Genoa) put into evidence the beautiful. The arcades from Via al Ponte Calvi to Vico Giannini were restored in 1893 and in 1898 as well as the part between Vico Giannini e Vico Morchi in 1893 and 1903. 17. Archive research has brought to light the original plan-drawings for the painted facades of the buildings between Vico Giannini and Vico Morchi. great buildings with portico have been erected. 16. 74 Image 8. fronts n. Historical photo. In fact to construct this road great cuts of the medieval urban tissue had to be made (image 6).GIULIA PELLEGRI In the case of the waterfront buildings. from Porta dei Vacca to via Ponte Calvi (lots in succession from n. Historic Archive of Genoa. On this occasion the arcades were covered by new palaces and part of Via Turati arcs disappeared under the new buildings. through the recomposition of the internal and external fronts. and 25 to 27) are very interesting to study. Unfortunately. In fact. between Via al Ponte Calvi and De Marini square. e_conser vation . Some fronts (n. The central part. remains the only part with original portico. A further transformation phase took place during the XVIIth century. because of the new Raibetta Square opening in 1861. these painted decorations completely disappeared.1-8). 8).Via Carlo Alberto – which was considered a very important commercial street. 12. The typological description is aimed to put in evidence the principal matrix courses and the urban context through a synoptic table about building types of Ripa Maris. The restoration plan included the demolition of the parts that covered the medieval portico. 23. the walls stratification research being based upon the Image 7. 13. precious facade decorations (images 7. scale 1:100. the unifying horizontal direction plays an important role both in the elevation alignment and in the structural elements of the complex image configuration of the colonnade with unified and raised houses. 14-15. cutting most of the medieval houses of the Waterfront first stretch. with the construction of the sea-wall (image 5). which are the result of elementary cells aggregation. Plan drawings of painted facades between Vico Giannini and Vico Morchi. in front of Ripa Maris a new road was constructed . The street goes from San Tomaso Door (Porta dei Vacca) to the actual Raibetta Square.

in Storia dalla terra. For the basis type A2. Einaudi. techniques and findings used for decorative facing. "the correct exam of materials. Manuale di scavo archeologico. multiple remelting. principally there are Basis Types which are the matrix of the typological development of the building: one-family building cell with one (A1) or two arcs (A2) at the ground-floor. forms and decorative elements. two windows are placed in axis with the arches of the foundation.. 1 Mariette De Vos. Torino. "La scheda di unità stratigrafica di rivestimento (pavimenti e decorazioni)". The unification of all the found elements and their interpretation as stratified components help to recover information on the architecture history and on the cultural development of the environment. their geographic diffusion and also the precise diachronic. The Matrix card permits to memorize all the observed data and further.. absolute and relative indirect dating. Image 9. Fronts n. A2 Basis type (tipo-base). the principal front has a central window. The union of many basis types gives origin to remelting (transformation of basis types into multifamiliar-multiple buildings). 25-26: Actual plan (left) and hypothetical medieval reconstruction (right) 75 . a new slimmer window can be added (basis type A1). 1991. with reduced height from high to low and width of the front between four and six metres. A. and two or three original floors on the foundation level. where the access is made from the portico or sometimes from the lateral front (variante d’angolo – corner variant). Carandini. remelting variants. Variant and Corner Variant of A2: Remeltings. As Mariette De Vos noted1. The base is in promontory stone and the elevation part is made in brick load-bearing wall. absolute direct. but if the stairs allow. Synoptic table of Ripa Maris Building Types: A1 Basis type (tipo-base) and Angle Variant of A1. the technological aspect permits to gather information on the relationship between superficies." In the case of Ripa. quantitative and qualitative estimation are necessary to reconstruction.SURVEY AND DRAWING FOR CONSERVATION critical interpretation and application of the “Harris Matrix” connected to the date scheme about direct. e_conser vation Image 10. Generally.

10). The buildings that occupied the actual lot n. the multiple remelting being the most frequent case of typological transformation of the medieval buildings of Ripa Maris (Figures 9. Waterfront’s sections The first section of the waterfront. the walling up of the arches and the opening of the XVIth and XVIIth centuries rectangular windows. from Ponte Calvi to Vico Morchi (fronts n.1 to 8 (upper left). Porta dei Vacca (upper right) and drawing restitution of survey original scale 1:50 Fronts n. the remeltings and raisings from the XIXth century and the restoration plan of the XXth century that brought to light the medieval pre-existences. 1 to 8 (lower).GIULIA PELLEGRI The economic growth of Genoa during the XVth century induced a great level of urbanization near the port. different town-plans and buildings restorations involving the waterfront have brought the author to individuate five principal lots. 76 e_conser vation . is particularly interesting because of the façade continuity. The second lot. from Porta dei Vacca to Vico del Serriglio. These lots differ one from the other because of their many peculiar typological and stylistic characteristics. 9 to 17). Here. the floors replacement. the arcade was absorbed into the new foundation of the new palaces. The study put in evidence the principal phases of transformation of the single parts: the XIIIth and XIVth centuries constructive phase. Images 11-13. but the covered arcades “Dark Ripa” remained unaltered in matter and form. 1 to 8) is completely modified because of the construction of the new road Via Carlo Alberto. 17 basis types have been fused into the continue portico. During the centuries. (fronts n. 18 were destroyed by the bombs of the Second World War and so the original buildings were substituted by modern buildings (images 20-22). presenting evident traces of the first constructive phase: the first and second floors have stone and brick walls and stone with white marble arches (images 14-19). Survey updating of fronts n.

Fronts 18-19 destroyed from the bombs of the Second World War.13 (upper right) and drawing restitution of survey. original scale 1:50. 21. Images 20. 77 .SURVEY AND DRAWING FOR CONSERVATION Images 14-19. Survey update of fronts n. 9 to 17 (lower). e_conser vation Image 22. fronts n. photographic images of wall facing stratifications of front n. The new buildings. 9 to 17 (upper left).

is characterized by facades that do not have a stylistic unity. 27. from Vico del Serriglio to Via al Ponte Reale (fronts n. Image 25. Here the portico is partially covered by the aqueduct (images 23-25). the development traces of remeltings. 23 to 27 have maintained the original medieval peculiarities: the promontory-stone pillars of the base part. the traces of acute arches and the facing from the constructive phase of XIIIth and XIVth century. 19 to 22. n. West view of the fronts n. raisings and unification of different types must be considered. fronts n. 25 and n. Image 23. Image 24. 78 The fronts n. Updating survey of fronts n.GIULIA PELLEGRI The third portion. In fact. Images 26. 26 are very interesting as far as wall stratification analysis is concerned: the walls present different plaster treatments and stratifications. The arcades of the fronts n. Fronts n. Drawing restitution of survey. 20-21-22-23 with the original part of aqueduct. 23-25-26-27: Matrix of Harris and dating of the wall stratification. 23 (Cattaneo Adorno Palace).19 to 22. original scale 1:50. making possible to read the construce_conser vation . 19 to 22).

28 to 31 (upper left).SURVEY AND DRAWING FOR CONSERVATION tive phases connected to the different wall stratification units. 2. Porta dei Vacca Front n. Colour and Project for the Waterfront of Genoa Fronts 1. Updating survey of fronts n. aerial photography of the Via Turati buildings (upper right) and drawing restitution of survey original scale 1:50 (lower). 3 e_conser vation 107 . the last fronts (Via Turati) were erected over the medieval traces. 3. Finally. Front n. 23 Images 29 . with basis part with rusticated and round arches built in 1866.31. There are 4 great neorenaissance style buildings. Image 28.

17. . 5/6. 2 and 3. Fronts 5. 10 and 11. Colour study of the fronts n. 22. 1. Fronts 20. Front 8.GIULIA PELLEGRI Colour study of the facades of Ripa Maris: fronts n. 4. Fronts n. 21. Fronts 9. Fronts 16. 7 and 8. 10 an Fronts 12. Front 4. 13. 9. 6.

Colour study of the fronts n. 15. especially of the coloured and painted facades. typical characteristics are in perfect correspondence with those of the Genovese historical centre and those of Liguria culture. that report to the various ages. 32. On Pia road. there are still many medieval building examples. with a series of evolution building examples. The facades are also various in external finishes. some of the most interesting examples of successive transformation in the houses’ medieval arcades are still conserved. this historical city episode is particularly interesting for the complexity. Contrary to the cases of coastal historical centers with painted facades. 19.14 . Via Pia in Savona Via Pia in Savona constitutes an interesting case from several reasons. On the other hand. 14. it constitutes a challenge in regard to the methodological application for the conservation of the historical building facades. Moreover. with the single units testified by the brick arches of the e_conser vation windows and marked by the medieval hanging arches of separation between the ground floor and the first floor. where the architectonic elements are all uniform. 16 and 17. in the sequence of the compact buildings with crowd typology. Here.SURVEY AND DRAWING FOR CONSERVATION nd 11. Photo during survey phase (left) and straightened photo and screening of contrast (right). Via Pia n. 12. richness and stratification of its valuable architectonic elements.Graffiti decoration facade. 21 and 22. 20. First of all. a typical phenomenon of Liguria. documenting the transformations of the original medieval matrix with many different elements of great interest. Figures 31. 13. here a totally new fact can be observed: an historical road axis of medieval origins. so that the continuous street wings of Pia road constitute a sole testimony palimpsest of buildings history and of Savona’s historical centre culture. Colour study of the fronts n. Figure 30. due to the commercial specialization of 1200. 81 .

GIULIA PELLEGRI The Renaissance fronts are characterized by the painted facade. architectonic . -Specifications for restoration. 14. Pia Street. Savona – Digital photos of painted decoration and straightened photos and screening of contrast. -Direct and indirect survey. the materials and colours. deduced from the contemporary Genoa models. 35. cards: general description. survey and graphic restitution. Some examples are particularly significant: the palace of the Rovere-Cassinis (n. n. -Drawing restitution. the state of conservation and the types of degradation. Restoration of the facades of Via Pia in Savona. Figure 33. -Colour survey (direct). 36 and 37. 82 Figures 34. the Sormano Palace (n. which represents in this case a stratified and rich example of a strong and evocative medieval matrix. The "requalification" of the fronts of Pia road contains a more ambitious restoration plan of a city-environmental image. based upon an extended knowledge concerning the facades with decorations. It is planned to valorize and conserve the building culture. 5). e_conser vation .historical description. -Fronts analysis. Intervention phases: -Photographic recognition from panoramic to detail. 1) and the most recent but very precious graffito example from the beginning of the twentieth century.decorative .

She also cosupervised several degree thesis at the Faculty of Architecture in 2006/2007.) contact: studiogpa@libero. Department of Science for Architecture ( Giulia Pellegri graduated at the Faculty of Architecture of the athenaeum in Genoa in 1994 and since then she is collaborating with the course of Survey of Architecture at the Department of Science for Architecture (D.) of the Faculty of Architecture in Genoa.A. of the Faculty of Architecture in Genoa through research conferment in 2005-06. She develops her research at the Department of Construction. photographic straightening and chromatic elaborations.SURVEY AND DRAWING FOR CONSERVATION GIULIA PELLEGRI UNIVERSITY OF GENOA – FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE. focused on computerized methodologies in survey. In 1999 she presented her PhD thesis in Research in Survey and Drawing Representation of the Architecture and Environment.S.A.A. among others. Urban Planning and Engineering Materials (DEUIM) of the Faculty of Engineering in Genoa through research conferment in 2003-04 and 2004-05 and at the Department D.S.S. e_conser vation 83 . Since 2001 she teaches courses in the areas of measurement and architectonic survey at the Faculty of Architecture. She also teaches several other seminars at the Faculty of Engineering in Genoa since 2003.

heritage in danger EMERGENCY AND PREVENTIVE CONSERVATION of Abandoned Churches in Transylvania by PÉTER PÁL and LÓRÁND KISS The reformed church of Nima before conservation. e_conser vation .

especially those of the Calvinist Reformed religion. Even if our basic activities are focused on mural paintings. the population often had to suffer the consequence of raids more than in hidden territories of mountains or basins. These churches are located mostly in the south of Transylvania. in the light of preservation of their artistic components (mural paintings. these communities started during the communist period and ended after the revolution.) The emergency conservation interventions were made by Imago Picta SRL. Another group of churches is that of the Saxon Evangelical churches. woodcarvings. social and historical background of the phenomenon. The church of Chimindia during our intervention. in Brasov County and near the Tarnava river. 85 . The reason for the desolation of these churches could be due to the fact that along the course of those rivers. in Alba and Hunedoara counties. due to their massive exodus. in Sibiu. and those in northern Transylvania are located along the Somes river. The departure of e_conser vation The reformed church of Nima with a protector rooftop. Another smaller group can be found in the north of Bistrita area. the enterprise is focused mainly on the conservation of church monuments in Transylvania. wooden furniture. we consider important to outline the geographical. Since 2004.ABANDONED CHURCHES IN TRANSYLVANIA The present paper is a contribute to the conservation works performed on medieval churches and abandoned or ruined buildings on the periphery of ethnic communities. in Cluj and Bistrita river. research and mural paintings conservation. a conservation enterprise that deals with the preservation and safeguarding of endangered monuments. are displayed in Southern Transylvania. etc. Geographical and historical background All the examined churches are geographically located in specific regions: the Hungarian communities.


Our activity started with the research and the emergency conservation of some of those churches. We quickly realized that we are facing not just a few particular cases, but a symptom affecting larger areas. This kind of actions require directives for a concept to organize our work. We acted voluntarily or partially supported by civil organizations. This activity was meant to compensate the lack of governmental support in such areas. Even though there were endeavors, until the present time no real help came from the state. As a first step of our long term project we worked on the research of a few endangered churches. This way we could estimate the size and location of certain values and to evaluate the priorities of the interventions. The first priority was, no doubt, the case of buildings left uncovered, but bearing important works of art, such as valuable wall paintings. In many cases the mural painting itself was the factor that mobilized parts of civil society, such as foundations, and made possible the minimal preservation for the building, like in the case of building a roof for the church of Chimindia. As far as conservation is concerned, the churches with formerly uncovered mural painting took advantage. In most cases, the amount of interventions did not exceed the preventive conservation of the monuments.
The initial state of conservation, details from the church of Ormani.
86 e_conser vation


Detail from Nima Church under conservation. The advanced biologic attack on the surface of the painting can be noticed.

Our leading principle was the preservation in the light of today's conservation concepts. A complex conservation and restoration took place only in a few cases. In our vision, the research and preventive conservation of these monuments should be followed by the creation of a documentary database distributed to specialists, as well as to the owners of the monuments. Even though we are struggling to preserve and stop the deterioration of these murals, there are several problems exceeding our professional and financial possibilities. Such problems include the monitoring of the monument, its maintenance in time and its promotion in the local and European art history, tourism, etc.
Church of Nima, detail of mural painting under conservation.
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The murals on the eastern and southern walls of the church of Nima during the intervention (up) and detail of mural painting (right).

Short study of a particular case The Reformed church of Nima – the conservation of its mural paintings The intervention in an emergency status took place as a request of The Reformed Church of Transylvania in November 2006. All started previously in the year 2003 with a stratigraphic research of the church walls. That time the building was a ruin with the roof destroyed and huge vegetation growing inside. The paintings were discovered in 1970. Today one can see the fragments of a 14th15th century painted layer in the a fresco technique, depicting a gallery of apostles


e_conser vation

especially the color layer. . These.Clearing the surface from additional mortars.. Materials used: Japanese paper and CMC (carboxy methyl cellulose sodium salt). with a large surface covered by mould and fungi.ABANDONED CHURCHES IN TRANSYLVANIA on the three sides of the choir. On the south wing of the exterior walls. The mortar became friable and pulverous being exposed to extreme weather conditions.The transitory fixation of the dislocated fragments of the mortar.D. and the falling stones from the superior parts of the wall. Biological attack is also present. The methodology was as follow: .. and over it an inscription with capital characters: A. affecting the surface. Materials used: lime-based mortar proportion 1/3 (washed sand with medium granulation). deteriorated persistently the layer of mortars.:163. a solar disc is visible with roman digits. and fixing the edges of the original layer. DIE. Details from the southern wall of the altar in the church of Nima. e_conser vation 89 . some of them mixed with cement. MAY GEORGIUS ENYEDI RECTOR SCHOLAE NEMAINAE The conservation On the surface of the walls there are several fissures.

Afterwards the surface was treated with alcoholized water. Materials used: Estel 100 (non-hydrophobic). .Injecting the mortar with Primal solution in the areas endangered by fall off. Materials used: lime-based mortar proportion 1/3 (washed sand with different granulation according to the size of the holes). This solution was applied on the whole surface of the existing original because of its continuous exposure to altering weather conditions.Padding the different size holes and cracks with an apposite material as color and structure. to attract and involve state institutions for financial and professional support. 90 After our intervention.Disinfecting the surface by spreading Sintosept QR 15 solution. The still wet fillings of the lacunas can be seen. a larger strategy could be developed at a regional level. . .PÉTER PÁL and LÓRÁND KISS Details from the mural painting of Ormani after the conservation intervention. . e_conser vation .Impregnation of friable mortar with a silicate based solution. for the safeguarding of a segment of art especially endangered that belongs to the European heritage.Cleaning the surface of the painting from lime and impurities. Our future aim is. This way. . The intervention performed is assuring for now only the preventive conservation of these mural paintings. a protecting roof was built over the altar with the hope that in 2008 a final rooftop will be executed. besides to sensitize the public to such cases.

He is also a professor at the Arts School from Tîrgu Mures. since 2004. obtaining his degree in Graphic Arts in 1996. 1973. granted by the Kemeny Zsigmond Cultural Institute.C.R. Imago Picta SRL. Romania.L. He graduated from the Arts School in 1991 and followed education at the Ion Andreescu Academy of Visual Arts from Cluj. Ars Antiqua S. He worked in on-site conservation projects within S. PÁL PÉTER contact: palpeter@zappmobile. Hungary. on the conservation of the church-monuments from Daia and Chilieni in Covasna.C.R. Tîrgu Mures) is a conservator and member of S. between Kiss Lóránd (b. Ars Antiqua S.C. from the The Union of Romanian Plastic Artists and from Kemeny Zsigmond Cultural Institute. He previously worked for several conservation enterprises such as S. C. research and conservation of mural paintings. Imago Picta S. since 2004. for a postgraduate course in conservation at the Direction of Historic Monuments in Budapest.L. teaching "Image Interpretative Methods and Techniques". He also he attended a course in conservation from the Direction of Historic Monuments in Budapest. 1961. a conservation enterprise that deals with the safeguarding of endangered monuments.R. Tîrgu Mures).C. He has received several awards and grants. is working for S. At the moment his activity at Imago Picta is focused on emergency interventions and preservation of abandoned monuments from Transylvania. Hungary. Grigorescu Art Institute in Bucharest.C. e_conser vation KISS LÓRÁND contact: kisslori@zappmobile. He graduated in Monumental Art and Conservation from N.ABANDONED CHURCHES IN TRANSYLVANIA Two layers from different time periods on the southern wall of the church in Chimindia. 91 .R. Currently he is also an assistant at the Human Sciences Faculty of the Sapientia University in Cluj. and S. Pál Péter (b.

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