## Are you sure?

This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

is flowing.

Assume the flow is frictionless and adiabatic i.e., isentropic. In this case,

γ =

cp

cv ,

p

ργ

=c=

p1

ρ1γ

p

,

p ρ = ρ1 ( ) γ p1

1

.

Mechanical Energy (Bernoulli Balance)

u 2 u12 dp − +∫ =0 2 2 p1 ρ

. The above expression for ρ can be substituted into the pressure integral to obtain γ −1 p p 1 γ1 dp p1 p γ γ ∫ p1 γ = (γ − 1) ρ1 [( p1 ) − 1] ρ1 p 1 . Substituting this relationship back into the Bernoulli balance leads to the following velocity-pressure relationship:

2γ p1 p u = [1 − ( ) (γ − 1) ρ1 p1

2

γ −1 γ

] .

Oftentimes the mass flow rate, is the most important flow characteristic and here it is related to the pressure by the following relationship:

MW γ + 1 ρ1 ρ CT Thus the gas velocity at the throat of the converging-diverging nozzle under critical conditions is the local speed of sound. p1 γ +1 Then the critical velocity at the throat. the maximum occurs when d ( m A) =0 d ( p p1 ) . . γ +1 γ +1 If the diffuser section is absent. pCT: pCT 2 γ −1 ) =( . is obtained from the following relationship: 2 uCT =( γ 2γ p1 γpCT γRTCT ) = = = c2 . c. uCT . This is the maximum velocity that can be attained at the throat and it is referred to as choking the throat. Under choking conditions the critical mass flow rate is: mc = AT 2 γ −1 (γp1 ρ1 ( ) . the flow is essentially that through an orifice in a high-pressure reservoir with applications in the performance of rupture disks. The maximum value of γ −1 γ p ]( ) γ p1 2 m occurs at the throat of the converging-diverging A nozzle but it also depends on pressure.m 2γ p ( )2 = p1 ρ1[1 − ( ) A (γ − 1) p1 . where AT is the cross sectional area of the throat. The latter constraint leads to the definition of a critical pressure ratio at the throat.

In this case there is subsonic flow at the throat and p 2γp1 u= [1 − ( 1 ) p (γ − 1) ρ1 γ −1 γ = ρ T AT uT m where a subscript T denotes the throat of the converging-diverging nozzle. i..Example 1. . In this case the velocity increases as the area decreases and attains a maximum u < c at the throat and then the velocity deceases in the diverging section.e. Case I: u<c. Ma<1. everywhere.

γ +1 γ +1 γ +1 This equation can be solved for the ratio of outlet pressure to reservoir po p . There is one value of o . Case III: u>c somewhere in diverging section. Let x ≡ p1 p1 form: A (γ − 1) 2 γ −1 x 2 − x γ +1 − ( T ) 2 ( ) =0 . for which no shock occurs in a welldesigned nozzle. i. 3.. p1 p E in the previous figure. then the equation can be recast in the pressure. Since the process is assumed to be isentropic ρT p = ( T )γ ρ1 p1 and γ p 2 γ −1 ( T)=( ) . p o . i. In this case a shock. In this case γp c = T ρT 2 and 2γp1 p γp1 = [1 − ( T ) p1 ρ1 (γ − 1) ρ1 1 γ −1 γ ] .e.. i.. Case II: Sonic speed at the throat. a sudden change in pressure.e. This occurs when the pressure at the outlet of the nozzle. u=c.. occurs somewhere down stream of the throat. p1 γ +1 This ratio is approximately ½ for common gases. o . Determination of p C and p E (see the previous figure) leads to the following equation after some lengthy algebra: p 2 Ao2 po γ ( ) [1 − ( o ) AT p1 p1 2 γ −1 γ 2 γ −1 2 ) )( ] = (γ − 1)( .2.e. is lower than the value necessary to p produce a sonic velocity at the throat. i.e. 2 Ao γ +1 γ +1 .

Example A1 . if po = 20 psia . i. it follows that pC = (35)(0.3 flowing from a tank through a Consider a gas with γ ≡ converging-diverging nozzle of 1 in.936) = 32. Thus.7 psia p E = (35)(0. throat and 2 in exit diameter. Once the gas.108) = 3.There are two roots of this equation representing the values pE on the previous plot. This equation can be solved using Newton’s method to yield x ≈ 0. Ao cp cv = 1. for example.e. Here x 2 − x 2. .0129 = 0 .8 psia .. Thus. p1 pC and p1 γ and the geometry of the nozzle. the two pressures can be computed. The pressure in the tank is 35 psia. a shock would occur somewhere in the diverging section of the nozzle.925 . Determine po and pc.108 and x ≈ 0.3 − 0.

- Sheet Piles _ Steel Grades in Compliance With Standard en 10248-1 _ VÍTKOVICE STEEL, A
- Worked Example T-shaped Gravity Wall - Eurocodes - Europa
- Structural Design of Sump Wall
- Paper 290517
- ProductPresentation GATES 4.6
- gasDynamics.pdf
- 14-76
- Introduction to NODAL Analysis (1)
- Abet Course Syllabus - CHEN231
- Preface
- Physics, With Air
- 241 Gas Turbine Engines
- Resistance Coefficient K
- uc1.31822035102748-19-1513339011
- Cavitation Control Technologies
- Chap5-4.doc
- Berno Uli
- RCC31 One-Way Slabs (a&D)
- Latihan Bahagian B Dan C Tingkatan 4
- Combined Shell and Beam
- Passively Flapping Dynamics of a Flexible Foil Immersed in the Wake of a Cylinder
- Mahaveer Janapala's Resume
- RCC31 One-way Slabs (a&D)
- CFD Studies of Flow in Screw and Scroll Compressors
- Syllabus Eng Civil
- MPDS4 Piping 3D Design Add on En
- 3 Folien Summerschool SPP1506 Martin Woerner
- Design Methodology - Résumé
- Piping Stress Critical Lines_ Basis for Piping Critical Line List
- Piping Stress _ysis-En

- 10535_49.pdf
- rod-ends
- 39Furnace_Colling_Technology_in_Pyrometallurgical_153020.pdf
- contact problem simulation
- Philip_A._Schweitzer__P.E._Corrosion_of_Polymers_and_Elastomers_Corrosion_Engineering_Handbook,_Second_Edition__2006.pdf
- Nes Fe Jahan
- Rexnord Swaging Handbook
- 10535_06.pdf
- Modeling Compressible flow over an Airfoil
- Engineering Drawing and CAD course_notes.pdf
- Chemical Resistance Chart
- Nozzle design
- NZN Datasheet A1en
- Calendar 1392
- PipeFlow_5

Close Dialog## Are you sure?

This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

Loading