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Fenestration

Fenestration

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Fenestration 29.

5
small Ienestration product is exposed to a large room with surIace
temperatures equal to the air temperature, it is not valid in rooms
where the Ienestration product is exposed to other large areas oI
glazing surIaces (e.g., greenhouse, atrium) or to other cooled or
heated surIaces (Parmelee and Huebscher 1947).
The radiant temperature oI the outdoor environment is Ire-
quently assumed to be equal to the outdoor air temperature. This
assumption may be in error, because additional radiative heat loss
occurs between a Ienestration and the clear sky. ThereIore, Ior
clear-sky conditions, some eIIective outdoor temperature t
o,e
should replace t
o
, in Equation (1). AGSL (1992) discusses methods
Ior determining t
o,e
. Note that a Iully cloudy sky is assumed in
ASHRAE design conditions.
The air space in an insulating glass panel made up oI glass with
no reIlective coating on the air space surIaces has a coeIIicient h
S
oI
1.3 Btu/h· It
2
· °F. When a reIlective coating is applied to an air space
surIace, h
S
can be selected Irom Table 4 by Iirst calculating the
eIIective air space emittance E by Equation (5).
(5)
where e
o
and e
i
are the hemispherical emittances oI the two air space
surIaces. Hemispherical emittance oI ordinary uncoated glass is
0.84 over a wavelength range oI 0.4 to 40 µm.
Representative U-Factors
Table 5 lists computed U-Iactors Ior a variety oI generic Ienes-
tration products, which shoula only be usea as an estimating tool for
the early phases of aesign. The table is based on ASHRAE-spon-
sored research involving laboratory testing and computer simula-
tion oI various Ienestration products. In the past, test data were used
to provide more accurate results Ior speciIic products. However, a
wide range oI measured U-Iactors Ior similar products has been
reported (Hogan 1988). Also, diIIerent test methods sometimes give
diIIerent U-Iactors (McCabe et al. 1986). Consequently, computer
Table 2 Representative Fenestration Frame U-Factors in Btu/h· ft
2
· °F-Vertical Orientation
Frame Material
Type of
Spacer
Product Type/Number of Glazing Layers
Operable Fixed
Garden
Window
Plant-Assembled
Skylight Curtainwall
e
Sloped/Overhead
Glazing
e
Single
b
Double
c
Triple
d
Single
b
Double
c
Triple
d
Single
b
Double
c
Single
b
Double
c
Triple
d
Single
f
Double
g
Triple
h
Single
f
Double
g
Triple
h
Aluminum without
thermal break All 2.38 2.27 2.20 1.92 1.80 1.74 1.88 1.83 7.85 7.02 6.87 3.01 2.96 2.83 3.05 3.00 2.87
Aluminum with
thermal break
a
Metal 1.20 0.92 0.83 1.32 1.13 1.11 6.95 5.05 4.58 1.80 1.75 1.65 1.82 1.76 1.66
Insulated n/a 0.88 0.77 n/a 1.04 1.02 n/a 4.75 4.12 n/a 1.63 1.51 n/a 1.64 1.52
Aluminum-clad wood/
reinIorced vinyl
Metal 0.60 0.58 0.51 0.55 0.51 0.48 4.86 3.93 3.66
Insulated n/a 0.55 0.48 n/a 0.48 0.44 n/a 3.75 3.43
Wood/vinyl Metal 0.55 0.51 0.48 0.55 0.48 0.42 0.90 0.85 2.50 2.08 1.78
Insulated n/a 0.49 0.40 n/a 0.42 0.35 n/a 0.83 n/a 2.02 1.71
Insulated Iiberglass/
vinyl
Metal 0.37 0.33 0.32 0.37 0.33 0.32
Insulated n/a 0.32 0.26 n/a 0.32 0.26
Structural glazing Metal 1.80 1.27 1.04 1.82 1.28 1.05
Insulated n/a 1.02 0.75 n/a 1.02 0.75
Note: This table should only be used as an estimating tool Ior the early phases oI
design.
a
Depends strongly on width oI thermal break. Value given is Ior 3/8 in.
b
Single glazing corresponds to individual glazing unit thickness oI 1/8 in. (nominal).
c
Double glazing corresponds to individual glazing unit thickness oI 3/4 in. (nominal).
d
Triple glazing corresponds to individual glazing unit thickness oI 1-3/8 in. (nominal).
e
Glass thickness in curtainwall and sloped/overhead glazing is 1/4 in.
I
Single glazing corresponds to individual glazing unit thickness oI 1/4 in. (nominal).
g
Double glazing corresponds to individual glazing unit thickness oI 1 in. (nominal).
h
Triple glazing corresponds to individual glazing unit thickness oI 1-3/4 in. (nominal).
n/a Not applicable
Table 3 Indoor Surface Heat Transfer Coefficient h
i
in Btu/h· ft
2
· °F-Vertical Orientation (Still Air Conditions)
Glazing
ID Glazing Type
Glazing
Height
ft
Winter Conditions Summer Conditions
Glass Temp.
°F
Temp. Diff.
°F
h
i
Btu/h· ft
2
· °F
Glass Temp.
°F
Temp. Diff.
°F
h
i
Btu/h· ft
2
· °F
1 Single glazing 2 17 53 1.41 89 14 1.41
4 17 53 1.31 89 14 1.33
6 17 53 1.25 89 14 1.29
5 Double glazing with
1/2 in. airspace
2 45 25 1.36 89 14 1.41
4 45 25 1.27 89 14 1.33
6 45 25 1.22 89 14 1.29
23 Double glazing with
e ÷ 0.1 on surIace 2
and 1/2 in. argon space
2 56 14 1.31 87 12 1.38
4 56 14 1.23 87 12 1.31
6 56 14 1.19 87 12 1.27
43 Triple Glazing with
e ÷ 0.1 on surIaces 2 and 5
and 1/2 in. argon spaces
2 63 7 1.25 93 18 1.45
4 63 7 1.18 93 18 1.36
6 63 7 1.15 93 18 1.32
Notes: Glazing ID reIers to Ienestration assemblies in Table 5.
Winter conditions: room air temperature t
i
÷ 70°F, outdoor air temperature
t
o
÷ 0°F, no solar radiation
Summer conditions: room air temperature t
i
÷ 75°F, outdoor air temperature t
o
÷ 89°F,
direct solar irradiance E
D
÷ 248 Btu/h· It
2
E
1
1 e
o
' ( ) 1 e
i
' ( ) 1 ¹
------------------------------------------------ ÷
29.6 1997 ASHRAE Fundamentals Handbook
simulations (with high/low validation by testing) are now accepted
as a standard method Ior determining accurate, product-speciIic
U-Iactors. The simulation methodologies are speciIied in NFRC
100-91 or CSA A440.2-93.
Values are listed at winter design conditions Ior vertical instal-
lation and Ior skylights and other sloped installations with glazing
surIaces that are sloped 20° Irom the horizontal. Data are based on
center-oI-glass and edge-oI-glass component U-Iactors and
assume that there are no dividers. However, they apply only to the
speciIic design conditions described in the Iootnotes in the table,
and they are typically used only to determine peak load conditions
Ior sizing heating equipment. While these U-Iactors have been
determined Ior winter conditions, they can also be used to esti-
mate heat gain during peak cooling conditions, because conduc-
tive gain is usually a small portion oI the total heat gain Ior
Ienestration in direct sunlight. Glazing designs and Iraming mate-
rials may be compared in choosing a product that needs a speciIic
winter design U-Iactor.
Table 5 lists 48 types oI glazing. (A subset oI these types is
included in Table 11 which lists Solar Heat Gain CoeIIicient and
Visible Light Transmittance.) The multiple glazing categories are
appropriate Ior sealed glass units and the combinations oI storm
sash and other glazing units. No distinction is made between Ilat
and domed units such as skylights. For acrylic domes, an average
gas-space width should be used to determine the U-Iactor. Note
that garden window and skylight U-Iactors are approximately
twice those oI other similar products. While this diIIerence is par-
tially due to the diIIerence in slope in the skylights, it is largely
because these products project Irom the surIace oI the wall or
rooI. For instance, the skylight surIace area, which includes the
curb, can vary Irom 13 to 240° greater than the rough opening
area, depending on the size and mounting method. Unless other-
wise noted, all multiple-glazed units are Iilled with dry air. Argon
units are assumed to be Iilled with 90° argon (Elmahdy and
YusuI 1995). U-Iactors Ior CO
2
-Iilled units are similar to argon
Iills. For spaces up to 0.5 in., argon/SF
6
mixtures up to 70° SF
6
are generally the same as argon Iills. The use oI krypton gas can
provide U-Iactors lower than those Ior argon Ior glazing spaces
less than 0.5 in.
Table 5 provides data Ior six values oI hemispherical emit-
tance and Ior 0.25 and 0.5 in. gas space width. The emittance oI
various low-emittance glasses varies considerably between man-
uIacturers and processes. When the emittance is between the
listed values, interpolation may be used. When manuIacturers`
data are not available, assume that glass with a pyrolytic (hard)
coating has an emittance oI 0.40, and that glass with a sputtered
(soIt) coating has an emittance oI 0.10. Tinted glass does not
change the winter U-Iactor. Also, some reIlective glass may have
an emittance less than 0.84. Values listed are Ior insulating glass
units using aluminum edge spacers. II an insulated or non-metal-
lic spacer is used, the U-Iactors are approximately 0.03
Btu/h· It
2
· °F lower.
Fenestration products are subdivided by vertical versus
sloped installation and then into two general categoriesplant
assembled and site-assembled. Plant assembled products are
intended to be delivered as a complete unit to the site. These
products are typically installed in low-rise residential and small
commercial/institutional/industrial buildings. For vertical slid-
ers, horizontal sliders, casement, awning, pivoted, and dual-
action windows, and Ior sliding and swinging glass doors, use
the operable category in the table. For picture windows, use the
Iixed category. For products that project Irom the wall, use the
garden window category. For skylights, use the sloped skylight
category.
Site-assembled units represent products in which Irame extru-
sions are assembled on site into a Ienestration product and the
glazing is added on site. These products are typically installed in
Table 4 Air Space Coefficients for Horizontal Heat Flow
Air
Space
Thickness,
in.
Air
Space
Temp.,
°F
Air
Temp.
Diff., °F
Air Space Coefficient h
s
, Btu/h· ft
2
·°F
Effective Emittance E
0.82 0.72 0.40 0.20 0.10 0.05
0.5 5 10 0.88 0.82 0.60 0.46 0.39 0.35
25 0.90 0.83 0.61 0.48 0.41 0.37
55 1.00 0.93 0.71 0.57 0.50 0.47
70 1.05 0.98 0.76 0.62 0.55 0.51
90 1.10 1.03 0.81 0.67 0.60 0.57
32 10 1.00 0.92 0.66 0.50 0.42 0.38
25 1.01 0.93 0.67 0.51 0.43 0.39
55 1.08 1.00 0.74 0.57 0.49 0.45
70 1.12 1.04 0.78 0.62 0.53 0.49
90 1.17 1.09 0.83 0.67 0.58 0.54
50 10 1.09 1.00 0.71 0.53 0.44 0.39
25 1.10 1.01 0.72 0.54 0.44 0.40
55 1.14 1.05 0.76 0.58 0.49 0.44
70 1.18 1.09 0.80 0.62 0.53 0.48
90 1.23 1.14 0.85 0.67 0.57 0.53
85 10 1.28 1.16 0.81 0.59 0.48 0.42
25 1.28 1.17 0.81 0.59 0.48 0.43
55 1.30 1.19 0.84 0.62 0.51 0.45
70 1.33 1.21 0.86 0.64 0.53 0.47
90 1.36 1.25 0.90 0.67 0.56 0.51
120 10 1.48 1.35 0.92 0.66 0.52 0.46
25 1.49 1.35 0.92 0.66 0.52 0.46
55 1.50 1.37 0.94 0.67 0.54 0.47
70 1.51 1.38 0.95 0.68 0.55 0.48
90 1.53 1.40 0.97 0.70 0.57 0.50
0.4 5 10 0.96 0.89 0.67 0.54 0.47 0.43
55 1.00 0.93 0.71 0.57 0.50 0.47
90 1.07 1.01 0.78 0.64 0.58 0.54
32 10 1.09 1.00 0.74 0.58 0.50 0.46
55 1.11 1.03 0.76 0.60 0.52 0.48
90 1.15 1.07 0.81 0.64 0.56 0.52
50 10 1.18 1.09 0.79 0.61 0.52 0.48
55 1.19 1.10 0.81 0.63 0.54 0.49
90 1.22 1.13 0.84 0.66 0.57 0.52
85 10 1.37 1.26 0.90 0.68 0.57 0.51
55 1.38 1.26 0.91 0.69 0.58 0.52
90 1.40 1.26 0.93 0.70 0.59 0.54
120 10 1.58 1.45 1.02 0.75 0.62 0.55
55 1.59 1.45 1.02 0.76 0.62 0.56
90 1.60 1.46 1.03 0.77 0.63 0.57
0.3 5 ·90 1.10 1.03 0.81 0.68 0.61 0.57
32 ·90 1.23 1.15 0.89 0.72 0.64 0.60
50 ·90 1.32 1.23 0.94 0.76 0.67 0.62
85 ·90 1.52 1.41 1.06 0.84 0.72 0.67
120 ·90 1.74 1.61 1.18 0.92 0.78 0.72
0.25 5 ·90 1.20 1.13 0.91 0.77 0.70 0.67
32 ·90 1.34 1.26 0.99 0.83 0.75 0.71
50 ·90 1.43 1.34 1.05 0.87 0.78 0.74
85 ·90 1.64 1.53 1.18 0.96 0.84 0.79
120 ·90 1.87 1.74 1.31 1.04 0.91 0.84
0.2 5 ·90 1.36 1.29 1.07 0.93 0.86 0.83
32 ·90 1.50 1.42 1.16 1.00 0.92 0.88
50 ·90 1.61 1.52 1.23 1.05 0.95 0.91
85 ·90 1.83 1.71 1.36 1.14 1.03 0.97
120 ·90 2.07 1.93 1.51 1.24 1.10 1.04
Fenestration 29.7
high-rise residential and large commercial/institutional/industrial
buildings. Curtain walls are typically made up oI vision (transparent
portion) and spandrel (opaque portion) panels. Table 5 contains rep-
resentative U-Iactors Ior the vision panel (including mullions) Ior
these assemblies. The spandrel portion oI curtain walls usually con-
sists oI a metal pan Iilled with insulation and covered with a sheet oI
glass or other weatherprooI covering. Although the U-Iactor in the
center oI the spandrel panel can be quite low, the metal pan is a ther-
mal bridge and signiIicantly increases the U-Iactor oI the assembly.
Two-dimensional simulation validated by testing oI a curtain wall
having an aluminum Irame with a thermal break Iound that the
U-Iactor Ior the edge oI the spandrel panel (the 2-1/2 in. band
around the perimeter adjacent to the Irame) was 40° oI the way
towards the U-Iactor oI the Irame. The U-Iactor was 0.06
Btu/h· It
2
· °F Ior the center oI the spandrel, 0.45 Ior the edge oI the
spandrel, and 1.06 Ior the Irame (Carpenter and Elmahdy 1994).
Two-dimensional heat transIer analysis or physical testing should
be done to determine the U-Iactor oI spandrel panels. The
sloped/overhead glazing category Ior sloped glazing panels compa-
rable to curtain walls should be used.
Physical testing to evaluate the perIormance oI commercial sky-
lights including pyramid and barrel vault geometry showed U-Iac-
tors oI 1.0 Btu/h· It
2
· °F Ior a thermally broken aluminum pyramidal
skylight, and 1.3 Btu/h· It
2
· °F Ior an aluminum-Irame halI-round
barrel vault (both normalized to a rough opening oI 8 It by 8 It).
Until more conclusive results are available, U-Iactors Ior these sys-
tems can be estimated by multiplying the 'site-assembled
sloped/overhead glazing¨ values in Table 5 by the ratio oI total-
product surIace area (including curbs) to rough opening area. These
ratios range Irom 1.2 to 2.0 Ior low slope skylights, 1.4 to 2.1 Ior
pyramid assemblies sloped at 45°, and 1.7 to 2.9 Ior semicircular
barrel-vault assemblies. An example calculation is provided in
Example 4.
The U-Iactors in Table 5 are based on the deIinitions oI the types
oI product, Irame sizes, and proportion oI Irame to glass area as
shown in Figure 5. The categories are as Iollows:
· Operable glazing units are 15 It
2
in area and the overall size cor-
responds to a 3 It by 5 It Ienestration product.
· Fixed (non-operable) units are about 16 It
2
in area, and the overall
size corresponds to a 4 It by 4 It window.
· Garden Windows are 15 It
2
in projected area (35 It
2
in surIace
area) and 5 It wide by 3 It high by 15 in. deep.
· Plant Assembled Skylights are nominal 8 It
2
in area correspond-
ing to a 2 It by 4 It skylight. The nominal dimensions oI a rooI-
mounted skylight correspond to centerline spacings oI rooI Iram-
ing members; consequently, the rough opening dimensions are
22.5 in. by 46.5 in.
· Curtainwall and Sloped/Overhead Glazing are a nominal 16 It
2
in
area representing repeating 4 It. by 4 It. panels. The nominal
dimensions correspond to centerline spacings oI the head and sill
and vertical mullions.
Six Irame types are listed (though not all Ior any one category),
in order oI improving thermal perIormance. The most conservative
Irame to assume is the aluminum frame without thermal break
(although some products on the market have higher U-Iactors). The
aluminum frame with thermal break has at least a 3/8-in. ther-
mal break between the inside and outside Ior all members including
both the Irame and the operable sash, iI applicable. (Products are
available with signiIicantly wider thermal breaks, which reduce
heat Ilow considerably.)
The reinforced vinyl/aluminum clad wood category represents
vinyl-Irame products, such as sliding glass doors or large windows.
These units have extensive metal reinIorcing in the Irame and wood
products with extensive metal, usually on the exterior surIace oI the
Irame. The metal, oI course, degrades the thermal perIormance oI
the Irame material.
The wood/vinyl frame represents improved thermal perIormance
over reinIorced vinyl/aluminum clad wood. Insulated fiberglass/
vinyl frames do not have metal reinIorcing and the Irame cavities are
Iilled with insulation. For several site-assembled products, a struc-
tural glazing frame category represents products in which sheets oI
Frame MateriaI
Frame Width, inches
OperabIe Fixed
Garden
Window SkyIight CurtainwaII
SIoped/Overhead
GIazing
Aluminum without thermal break 1.5 1.3 1.75 0.7 2.25 2.25
Aluminum with thermal break 2.1 1.3 n/a 0.7 2.25 2.25
Aluminum-clad wood/reinforcing vinyl 2.8 1.6 n/a 0.9 n/a n/a
Wood/vinyl 2.8 1.6 1.75 0.9 n/a n/a
Insulated fiberglass/vinyl 3.1 1.8 n/a n/a n/a n/a
Structural glazing n/a n/a n/a n/a 2.25 2.5
Fig. 5 Standard Fenestration Units
29.8 1997 ASHRAE Fundamentals Handbook
Table 5 U-Factors for Various Fenestration Products in Btu/h· ft
2
· °F
Product Type Glass Only
Vertical Installation
Operable (including sliding and swinging glass doors) Fixed
Frame Type Center
of
Glass
Edge
of
Glass
Aluminum
without
Thermal
Break
Aluminum
with
Thermal
Break
Reinforced
Vinyl/
Aluminum
Clad Wood
Wood/
Vinyl
Insulated
Fiberglass/
Vinyl
Aluminum
without
Thermal
Break
Aluminum
with
Thermal
Break
Reinforced
Vinyl/
Aluminum
Clad Wood
Wood/
Vinyl
Insulated
Fiberglass/
Vinyl ID Glazing Type
Single Glazing
1 1/8 in. glass 1.04 1.04 1.27 1.08 0.90 0.89 0.81 1.13 1.07 0.98 0.98 0.94
2 1/4 in. acrylic/polycarb 0.88 0.88 1.14 0.96 0.79 0.78 0.71 0.99 0.92 0.84 0.84 0.81
3 1/8 in. acrylic/polycarb 0.96 0.96 1.21 1.02 0.85 0.83 0.76 1.06 1.00 0.91 0.91 0.87
Double Glazing
4 1/4 in. airspace 0.55 0.64 0.87 0.65 0.57 0.55 0.49 0.69 0.63 0.56 0.56 0.53
5 1/2 in. airspace 0.48 0.59 0.81 0.60 0.53 0.51 0.44 0.64 0.57 0.50 0.50 0.48
6 1/4 in. argon space 0.51 0.61 0.84 0.62 0.55 0.53 0.46 0.66 0.59 0.53 0.52 0.50
7 1/2 in. argon space 0.45 0.57 0.79 0.58 0.51 0.49 0.43 0.61 0.54 0.48 0.48 0.45
Double Glazing, e ÷ 0.60 on surface 2 or 3
8 1/4 in. airspace 0.52 0.62 0.84 0.63 0.55 0.53 0.47 0.67 0.60 0.54 0.53 0.51
9 1/2 in. airspace 0.44 0.56 0.78 0.57 0.50 0.48 0.42 0.60 0.53 0.47 0.47 0.45
10 1/4 in. argon space 0.47 0.58 0.81 0.59 0.52 0.50 0.44 0.63 0.56 0.50 0.49 0.47
11 1/2 in. argon space 0.41 0.54 0.76 0.55 0.48 0.46 0.40 0.58 0.51 0.45 0.44 0.42
Double Glazing, e ÷ 0.40 on surface 2 or 3
12 1/4 in. airspace 0.49 0.60 0.82 0.61 0.53 0.51 0.45 0.64 0.58 0.51 0.51 0.49
13 1/2 in. airspace 0.40 0.54 0.75 0.54 0.48 0.45 0.40 0.57 0.50 0.44 0.44 0.41
14 1/4 in. argon space 0.43 0.56 0.78 0.57 0.50 0.47 0.41 0.59 0.53 0.46 0.46 0.44
15 1/2 in. argon space 0.36 0.51 0.72 0.52 0.45 0.43 0.37 0.53 0.47 0.41 0.40 0.38
Double Glazing, e ÷ 0.20 on surface 2 or 3
16 1/4 in. airspace 0.45 0.57 0.79 0.58 0.51 0.49 0.43 0.61 0.54 0.48 0.48 0.45
17 1/2 in. airspace 0.35 0.50 0.71 0.51 0.44 0.42 0.36 0.53 0.46 0.40 0.39 0.37
18 1/4 in. argon space 0.38 0.52 0.74 0.53 0.46 0.44 0.38 0.55 0.48 0.42 0.42 0.40
19 1/2 in. argon space 0.30 0.46 0.67 0.47 0.41 0.39 0.33 0.48 0.41 0.36 0.35 0.33
Double Glazing, e ÷ 0.10 on surface 2 or 3
20 1/4 in. airspace 0.42 0.55 0.77 0.56 0.49 0.47 0.41 0.59 0.52 0.46 0.45 0.43
21 1/2 in. airspace 0.32 0.48 0.69 0.49 0.42 0.40 0.35 0.50 0.43 0.37 0.37 0.35
22 1/4 in. argon space 0.35 0.50 0.71 0.51 0.44 0.42 0.36 0.53 0.46 0.40 0.39 0.37
23 1/2 in. argon space 0.27 0.44 0.65 0.45 0.39 0.37 0.31 0.46 0.39 0.33 0.33 0.31
Double Glazing, e ÷ 0.05 on surface 2 or 3
24 1/4 in. airspace 0.41 0.54 0.76 0.55 0.48 0.46 0.40 0.58 0.51 0.45 0.44 0.42
25 1/2 in. airspace 0.30 0.46 0.67 0.47 0.41 0.39 0.33 0.48 0.41 0.36 0.35 0.33
26 1/4 in. argon space 0.33 0.48 0.70 0.49 0.43 0.41 0.35 0.51 0.44 0.38 0.38 0.36
27 1/2 in. argon space 0.25 0.42 0.63 0.44 0.38 0.36 0.30 0.44 0.37 0.32 0.31 0.29
Triple Glazing
28 1/4 in. airspaces 0.38 0.52 0.72 0.51 0.44 0.43 0.38 0.55 0.48 0.42 0.41 0.40
29 1/2 in. airspaces 0.31 0.47 0.67 0.46 0.40 0.39 0.34 0.49 0.42 0.36 0.35 0.34
30 1/4 in. argon spaces 0.34 0.49 0.69 0.48 0.42 0.41 0.35 0.51 0.45 0.39 0.38 0.36
31 1/2 in. argon spaces 0.29 0.45 0.65 0.44 0.38 0.37 0.32 0.47 0.40 0.34 0.34 0.32
Triple Glazing, e ÷ 0.20 on surface 2,3,4, or 5
32 1/4 in. airspaces 0.33 0.48 0.69 0.47 0.41 0.40 0.35 0.50 0.44 0.38 0.37 0.36
33 1/2 in. airspaces 0.25 0.42 0.62 0.41 0.36 0.35 0.30 0.43 0.37 0.31 0.30 0.29
34 1/4 in. argon spaces 0.28 0.45 0.65 0.44 0.38 0.37 0.32 0.46 0.40 0.34 0.33 0.32
35 1/2 in. argon spaces 0.22 0.40 0.60 0.39 0.34 0.33 0.28 0.41 0.34 0.29 0.28 0.27
Triple Glazing, e ÷ 0.20 on surfaces 2 or 3 and 4 or 5
36 1/4 in. airspaces 0.29 0.45 0.65 0.44 0.38 0.37 0.32 0.47 0.40 0.34 0.34 0.32
37 1/2 in. airspaces 0.20 0.39 0.58 0.38 0.32 0.31 0.27 0.39 0.33 0.27 0.26 0.25
38 1/4 in. argon spaces 0.23 0.41 0.61 0.40 0.34 0.33 0.29 0.42 0.35 0.30 0.29 0.28
39 1/2 in. argon spaces 0.17 0.36 0.56 0.36 0.30 0.29 0.25 0.37 0.30 0.25 0.24 0.23
Triple Glazing, e ÷ 0.10 on surfaces 2 or 3 and 4 or 5
40 1/4 in. airspaces 0.27 0.44 0.64 0.43 0.37 0.36 0.31 0.45 0.39 0.33 0.32 0.31
41 1/2 in. airspaces 0.18 0.37 0.57 0.36 0.31 0.30 0.25 0.37 0.31 0.25 0.25 0.23
42 1/4 in. argon spaces 0.21 0.39 0.59 0.39 0.33 0.32 0.27 0.40 0.34 0.28 0.27 0.26
43 1/2 in. argon spaces 0.14 0.34 0.54 0.33 0.28 0.27 0.23 0.34 0.28 0.22 0.21 0.20
Quadruple Glazing, e ÷ 0.10 on surfaces 2 or 3 and 4 or 5
44 1/4 in. airspaces 0.22 0.40 0.60 0.39 0.34 0.33 0.28 0.41 0.34 0.29 0.28 0.27
45 1/2 in. airspaces 0.15 0.35 0.54 0.34 0.29 0.28 0.24 0.35 0.28 0.23 0.22 0.21
46 1/4 in. argon spaces 0.17 0.36 0.56 0.36 0.30 0.29 0.25 0.37 0.30 0.25 0.24 0.23
47 1/2 in. argon spaces 0.12 0.32 0.52 0.32 0.27 0.26 0.22 0.32 0.26 0.20 0.20 0.19
48 1/4 in. krypton spaces 0.12 0.32 0.52 0.32 0.27 0.26 0.22 0.32 0.26 0.20 0.20 0.19
Notes:
1. All heat transmission coeIIicients in this table include Iilm resistances and are based
on winter conditions oI 0°F outdoor air temperature and 70°F indoor air temperature,
with 15 mph outdoor air velocity and zero solar Ilux. With the exception oI single glaz-
ing, small changes in the indoor and outdoor temperatures will not signiIicantly aIIect
overall U-Iactors. The coeIIicients are Ior vertical position except skylight and sloped
glazing values, which are Ior 20° Irom horizontal with heat Ilow up.
2. Glazing layer surIaces are numbered Irom the outdor to the indor. Double, triple and
quadruple reIer to the number oI glazing panels. All data are based on 1/8 inch glass,
unless otherwise noted. Thermal conductivities are: 0.53 Btu/(h·It· °F) Ior glass, and
0.11 Btu/(h·It· °F) Ior acrylic and polycarbonate.
3. Standard spacers are metal. Edge-oI-glass eIIects assumed to extend over the 2 1/2
inch band around perimeter oI each glazing unit as in Figure 3.
Fenestration 29.9
Table 5 U-Factors for Various Fenestration Products in Btu/h· ft
2
· °F (Concluded)
Vertical Installation Sloped Installation
ID
Garden Windows Curtainwall Glass Only (Skylights) Manufactured Skylight Site-Assembled Sloped/Overhead Glazing
Aluminum
without
Thermal
Break
Wood/
Vinyl
Aluminum
without
Thermal
Break
Aluminum
with
Thermal
Break
Structural
Glazing
Center
of
Glass
Edge
of
Glass
Aluminum
without
Thermal
Break
Aluminum
with
Thermal
Break
Reinforced
Vinyl/
Aluminum
Clad Wood
Wood/
Vinyl
Aluminum
without
Thermal
Break
Aluminum
with
Thermal
Break
Structural
Glazing
2.60 2.31 1.22 1.11 1.11 1.19 1.19 1.98 1.89 1.75 1.47 1.36 1.25 1.25 1
2.33 2.06 1.08 0.96 0.96 1.03 1.03 1.82 1.73 1.60 1.31 1.21 1.10 1.10 2
2.46 2.19 1.15 1.04 1.04 1.11 1.11 1.90 1.81 1.68 1.39 1.29 1.18 1.18 3
1.81 1.61 0.79 0.68 0.63 0.58 0.66 1.31 1.11 1.05 0.84 0.82 0.70 0.66 4
1.71 1.53 0.73 0.62 0.57 0.57 0.65 1.30 1.10 1.04 0.84 0.81 0.69 0.65 5
1.76 1.56 0.75 0.64 0.60 0.53 0.63 1.27 1.07 1.00 0.80 0.77 0.66 0.62 6
1.67 1.49 0.70 0.59 0.55 0.53 0.63 1.27 1.07 1.00 0.80 0.77 0.66 0.62 7
1.77 1.58 0.76 0.65 0.61 0.54 0.63 1.27 1.08 1.01 0.81 0.78 0.67 0.63 8
1.65 1.48 0.69 0.58 0.54 0.53 0.63 1.27 1.07 1.00 0.80 0.77 0.66 0.62 9
1.70 1.52 0.72 0.61 0.56 0.49 0.60 1.23 1.03 0.97 0.76 0.74 0.63 0.58 10
1.61 1.44 0.67 0.56 0.51 0.49 0.60 1.23 1.03 0.97 0.76 0.74 0.63 0.58 11
1.73 1.54 0.74 0.63 0.58 0.51 0.61 1.25 1.05 0.99 0.78 0.76 0.64 0.60 12
1.59 1.43 0.66 0.55 0.51 0.50 0.61 1.24 1.04 0.98 0.77 0.75 0.64 0.59 13
1.64 1.47 0.69 0.57 0.53 0.44 0.56 1.18 0.99 0.92 0.72 0.70 0.58 0.54 14
1.53 1.38 0.63 0.51 0.47 0.46 0.58 1.20 1.00 0.94 0.74 0.71 0.60 0.56 15
1.67 1.49 0.70 0.59 0.55 0.46 0.58 1.20 1.00 0.94 0.74 0.71 0.60 0.56 16
1.52 1.37 0.62 0.51 0.46 0.46 0.58 1.20 1.00 0.94 0.74 0.71 0.60 0.56 17
1.56 1.40 0.64 0.53 0.49 0.39 0.53 1.14 0.94 0.88 0.68 0.65 0.54 0.50 18
1.44 1.30 0.57 0.46 0.42 0.40 0.54 1.15 0.95 0.89 0.68 0.66 0.55 0.51 19
1.62 1.45 0.68 0.57 0.52 0.44 0.56 1.18 0.99 0.92 0.72 0.70 0.58 0.54 20
1.47 1.33 0.59 0.48 0.44 0.44 0.56 1.18 0.99 0.92 0.72 0.70 0.58 0.54 21
1.52 1.37 0.62 0.51 0.46 0.36 0.51 1.11 0.91 0.85 0.65 0.63 0.52 0.47 22
1.40 1.26 0.55 0.44 0.39 0.38 0.52 1.13 0.93 0.87 0.67 0.65 0.53 0.49 23
1.61 1.44 0.67 0.56 0.51 0.42 0.55 1.17 0.97 0.91 0.70 0.68 0.57 0.52 24
1.44 1.30 0.57 0.46 0.42 0.43 0.56 1.17 0.98 0.91 0.71 0.69 0.58 0.53 25
1.49 1.34 0.60 0.49 0.44 0.34 0.49 1.09 0.89 0.83 0.63 0.61 0.50 0.45 26
1.37 1.24 0.53 0.42 0.38 0.36 0.51 1.11 0.91 0.85 0.65 0.63 0.52 0.47 27
see see 0.63 0.52 0.47 0.39 0.53 1.12 0.89 0.84 0.64 0.64 0.53 0.48 28
note note 0.57 0.46 0.41 0.36 0.51 1.10 0.87 0.81 0.61 0.62 0.51 0.45 29
7 7 0.60 0.49 0.43 0.35 0.50 1.09 0.86 0.80 0.60 0.61 0.50 0.44 30
0.55 0.45 0.39 0.33 0.48 1.07 0.84 0.79 0.59 0.59 0.48 0.42 31
see see 0.59 0.48 0.42 0.34 0.49 1.08 0.85 0.79 0.59 0.60 0.49 0.43 32
note note 0.52 0.41 0.35 0.31 0.47 1.05 0.82 0.77 0.57 0.57 0.46 0.41 33
7 7 0.54 0.44 0.38 0.28 0.45 1.02 0.79 0.74 0.54 0.55 0.44 0.38 34
0.49 0.38 0.33 0.27 0.44 1.01 0.78 0.73 0.53 0.54 0.43 0.37 35
see see 0.55 0.45 0.39 0.29 0.45 1.03 0.80 0.75 0.55 0.56 0.45 0.39 36
note note 0.48 0.37 0.31 0.27 0.44 1.01 0.78 0.73 0.53 0.54 0.43 0.37 37
7 7 0.50 0.39 0.34 0.24 0.42 0.99 0.75 0.70 0.50 0.51 0.40 0.35 38
0.45 0.34 0.29 0.22 0.40 0.97 0.74 0.69 0.49 0.50 0.39 0.33 39
see see 0.54 0.43 0.37 0.27 0.44 1.01 0.78 0.73 0.53 0.54 0.43 0.37 40
note note 0.46 0.35 0.29 0.25 0.42 0.99 0.76 0.71 0.51 0.52 0.41 0.36 41
7 7 0.48 0.38 0.32 0.21 0.39 0.96 0.73 0.68 0.48 0.49 0.38 0.32 42
0.42 0.32 0.26 0.20 0.39 0.95 0.72 0.67 0.47 0.48 0.37 0.31 43
0.49 0.38 0.33 0.22 0.40 0.97 0.74 0.69 0.49 0.50 0.39 0.33 44
see see 0.43 0.32 0.27 0.19 0.38 0.94 0.71 0.66 0.46 0.47 0.36 0.30 45
note note 0.45 0.34 0.29 0.18 0.37 0.93 0.70 0.65 0.45 0.46 0.35 0.30 46
7 7 0.41 0.30 0.24 0.16 0.35 0.91 0.68 0.63 0.43 0.44 0.33 0.28 47
0.41 0.30 0.24 0.13 0.33 0.88 0.65 0.60 0.40 0.42 0.31 0.25 48
4. Product sizes are described in Figure 3 and Irame U-Iactors
are Irom Table 2.
5. Use U ÷ 0.60 Btu/h·It
2
·°F Ior glass block with mortar but
without reinIorcing or Iraming.
6. The use oI this table should be limited to that oI an estimat-
ing tool Ior the early phases oI design.
7. Values Ior triple- and quadruple-glazed garden windows are not listed as these are
not common products.
8. Minor diIIerences exist between the data in Table 5 and U-Iactors determined
using NFRC 100-91 because the data in Table 5 are generated using modiIied heat
transIer correlations Ior glazing cavities (Wright 1996) and indoor Ienestration sur-
Iaces (Curcija and Goss 1995b)
29.10 1997 ASHRAE Fundamentals Handbook
glass are butt glazed with a sealant only and no Iraming members are
exposed to the exterior.
For glazing with a steel frame, use aluminum Irame values. For
an aluminum window with wood trim or vinyl cladding, use the val-
ues Ior aluminum. Frame type reIers to the primary unit. Thus, when
storm sash is added over another Ienestration product, use the val-
ues given Ior the non-storm product.
To estimate the overall U-Iactor oI a Ienestration product that
diIIers signiIicantly Irom the assumptions given in Table 5 and/or
Figure 5, Iirst determine the area that is Irame/sash, center-oI-
glass, and edge-oI-glass (based on a 2.5 in. band around the perim-
eter oI each glazing unit). Next, determine the appropriate compo-
nent U-Iactors. These can be taken either Irom (1) the standard
values listed in italics in Table 5 Ior glass, (2) the values in Table 2
Ior Irames or Irom some other source such as test data, or (3) com-
puted Iactors. Finally, multiply the area and the component U-Iac-
tors, sum these products, and divide by the rough opening in the
building envelope where this product will Iit to obtain U
o
.
Table 6 provides approximate data to convert the overall U-Iac-
tor at one wind condition to a U-Iactor at another.
Representative U-factors for Doors. Doors are oIten an over-
looked component in the thermal integrity oI the building enve-
lope. Although swinging and revolving doors represent a small
portion oI the shell in residential, commercial, and institutional
buildings, their U-Iactor is usually many times higher than the
walls or ceilings. In some storage and industrial buildings, loading
bay doors (overhead doors) represent a signiIicant area oI high
heat loss. Table 7 contains representative U-Iactors Ior swinging,
overhead and revolving doors determined through computer simu-
lation (Carpenter and Hogan 1996). These are generic values and
product-speciIic values determined in accordance with standards
should be used whenever available. NFRC 100-91: Section B and
CSA A453 provide procedures Ior evaluating the perIormance oI
swinging doors. Overhead doors are oIten evaluated in accordance
with NAGDM 105-1992.
Swinging doors Iall into two categories: slab and stile and rail. A
stile-and-rail door is a swinging door with a Iull-glass insert sup-
ported by horizontal rails and vertical stiles. The stiles and rails are
typically either solid wood members or extruded aluminum or
vinyl, as shown in Figure 6. Most residential doors are slab doors
with either solid wood, steel, or Iiberglass skin over Ioam insulation
in a wood Irame with aluminum sill. The edges oI the steel skin door
are normally wood to provide a thermal break. In commercial con-
struction, doors are either steel skin over Ioam insulation in a steel
Irame (i.e., utility doors) or a Iull glass door with aluminum stiles,
rails, and Irame (i.e., entrance doors).
The most important Iactors aIIecting door U-Iactor are the con-
struction material and the size and type oI glass. Frame depth, slab
width, and number oI panels have a minor eIIect on door perIor-
mance. Sidelites and double doors have similar U-Iactors to a single
door oI the same construction. The glazing area does not have much
eIIect on the U-Iactor oI wood slab doors in a wood Irame. Glazing
area has a strong eIIect, however, on the U-Iactor oI the insulated steel
slab in a wood Irame. The U-Iactor oI a typical commercial insulated
slab door is approximately twice that oI a residential insulated door,
primarily because oI the thermal bridging oI the slab edge and the
steel Irame. Stile and rail doors, even iI thermally broken, have U-Iac-
tors 50° higher than a Iull-glass commercial steel slab door.
Three generic types oI overhead doors are available: roll-up,
uninsulated sectional, and insulated sectional. Metal roll-up doors
consist oI small metal plates approximately 2.5 in. in height that roll
up around a metal rod to open. Sectional doors consist oI a series oI
2 It high sections that travel in a track to open. Insulated overhead
doors are available in a wide range oI designs. Factors aIIecting heat
transIer include width oI insulation, design oI the thermal break (iI
Table 6 Glazing U-Factor for Various Wind Speeds
Wind speed, mph
15 7.5 0
U-Factor, Btu/h· ft
2
· °F
0.10 0.10 0.10
0.20 0.20 0.19
0.30 0.29 0.28
0.40 0.38 0.37
0.50 0.47 0.45
0.60 0.56 0.53
0.70 0.65 0.61
0.80 0.74 0.69
0.90 0.83 0.78
1.00 0.92 0.86
1.10 1.01 0.94
1.20 1.10 1.02
1.30 1.19 1.10
Table 7 U-Factors of Doors in Btu/h·ft
2
· °F
Door Type
No
Glazing
Single
Glazing
Double
Glazing
with
1/2 in.
Airspace
Double
Glazing
with
e ÷ 0.10,
1/2 in.
Argon
SWINGING DOORS (Rough Opening-38 in. × 82 in.)
Slab Doors
Wood slab in wood Irame
a
0.46
6° glazing (22 in. × 8 in. lite) 0.48 0.46 0.44
25° glazing (22 in. × 36 in. lite) 0.58 0.46 0.42
45° glazing (22 in. × 64 in. lite) 0.69 0.46 0.39
More than 50° glazing Use Table 5 (operable)
Insulated steel slab with wood edge
in wood Irame
a
0.16
6° glazing (22 in. × 8 in. lite) 0.21 0.19 0.18
25° glazing (22 in. × 36 in. lite) 0.39 0.26 0.23
45° glazing (22 in. × 64 in. lite) 0.58 0.35 0.26
More than 50° glazing Use Table 5 (operable)
Foam insulated steel slab with
metal edge in steel Irame
b
0.37
6° glazing (22 in. × 8 in. lite) 0.44 0.41 0.39
25° glazing (22 in. × 36 in. lite) 0.55 0.48 0.44
45° glazing (22 in. × 64 in. lite) 0.71 0.56 0.48
More than 50° glazing Use Table 5 (operable)
Cardboard honeycomb slab with
metal edge in steel Irame 0.61
Style ana Rail Doors
Sliding glass doors/
French doors
Use Table 5 (operable)
Site-Assemblea Style ana Rail Doors
Aluminum in aluminum Irame 1.32 0.93 0.79
Aluminum in aluminum Irame
with thermal break 1.13 0.74 0.63
REVOLVING DOORS (Rough Opening-82 in. × 84 in.)
Aluminum in aluminum Irame
Open 1.32
Closed 0.65
SECTIONAL OVERHEAD DOORS (Nominal-10 ft × 10 ft)
Uninsulated steel
(nominal U ÷ 1.15) 1.15
Insulated steel
(nominal U ÷ 0.11) 0.24
Insulated steel with thermal break
(nominal U ÷ 0.08) 0.13
a
thermally broken sill (add 0.03 Btu/h· It
2
· °F Ior non-thermally broken sill)
b
non-thermally broken sill
c
Nominal U-Iactors are through the center oI the insulated panel beIore consideration
oI thermal bridges around the edges oI the door sections and due to the Irame.
Fenestration 29.11
any), and design oI the interior skin. The uninsulated sectional door
has nearly the same U-Iactor as single glazing. The center oI the
insulated doors have low U-Iactors, but thermal bridging at the door
and section edges signiIicantly increases the total U-Iactor. For
doors without thermal broken edges, the total value is 2.5 to 3.3
times greater than the center value. The addition oI a good thermal
break reduces this multiplier to 1.6.
Many commercial buildings have revolving entrance doors.
Most oI these doors are oI similar design: single glazing in an alu-
minum Irame without thermal break. The door, however, can be in
two positions: closed or × shape (as viewed Irom above) or open or
¹ shaped. At night, these doors are locked in the × position, eIIec-
tively creating a double-glazed system. During the daytime, the
door revolves and is oIten leIt positioned so that there is only one
glazing between the inside and outside (¹ position). Table 7 lists
U-Iactors Ior both positions.
Example 1. Estimate the U-Iactor Ior a Iixed Ienestration product with a
reinIorced vinyl Irame and double-glazing with a sputter-type low-e
coating (e ÷ 0.10). The argon-Iilled gap is 0.5 in. wide and the spacer is
metal.
Solution: Locate the glazing system type in the Iirst column oI Table 5
(ID ÷ 23). Then, Iind the appropriate product type (Iixed) and Irame type
(reinIorced vinyl). The U-Iactor listed (in the tenth column oI U-Iactors)
is 0.33 Btu/h· It
2
· °F.
Example 2. Estimate a representative U-Iactor Ior a wood-Iramed, 38 in.
by 82 in. swinging French door with eight 11-in. by 16-in. panes (true
divided panels), each consisting oI clear double-glazing with a 0.25 in.
air space and a metal spacer.
Solution: Without more detailed inIormation, assume that the dividers
have the same U-Iactor as the Irame, and that the divider edge has the
same U-Iactor as the edge-oI-glass. Calculate the center-oI-glass,
edge-oI-glass, and Irame areas.
A
cg
÷ 8(11 ÷ 5)(16 ÷ 5) ÷ 528 in
2
A
eg
÷ 8(11× 16) ÷ 528 ÷ 880 in
2
A
f
÷ (38 × 82) ÷ 8(11 × 16) ÷ 1708 in
2
Select the center-oI-glass, edge-oI-glass, and Irame U-Iactors.
These component U-Iactors are 0.55 and 0.64 Btu/h· It
2
· °F (Irom Table
5, glazing ID ÷ 4, U-Iactor columns 1 and 2) and 0.51 Btu/h· It
2
· °F
(Irom Table 2, wood Irame, metal spacer, operable, double-glazing),
respectively.
Example 3. Estimate the overall average U-Iactor Ior a multi-Iloor curtain-
wall assembly that is part vision glass and part opaque spandrel. The
typical Iloor to Iloor height is 12 It and the building module is 4 It as
reIlected in the spacing oI the mullions both horizontally and vertically.
For a representative section, 4 It wide and 12 It tall, one oI the modules
is glazed and the other two are opaque. The mullions are aluminum
Irame with a thermal break, 3 in. wide, and centered on the module.
The glass is double glazing with a pyrolytic low-emissivity coating (r ÷
0.40), has a 1/2 inch gap Iilled with air and a metal spacer. The spandrel
panel has a metal pan backed by R-20 insulation and no intermediate
reinIorcing members.
Solution: First, calculate the overall U-Iactor Ior the glazed module.
Calculate the center-oI-glass, edge-oI-glass, and Irame areas. The glass
area is 45 in. by 45 in. in a 48 in. square module.
A
cg
÷ (45 ÷ 5)(45 ÷ 5) ÷ 1600 in
2
A
eg
÷ (45 × 45) ÷ 1600 ÷ 425 in
2
A
f
÷ (48 × 48) ÷ (45 × 45) ÷ 279 in
2
Select the center-oI-glass, edge-oI-glass, and Irame U-Iactors.
These component U-Iactors are 0.40 and 0.54 Btu/h· It
2
· °F (Irom Table
5, ID ÷ 13, columns 1 and 2) and 1.75 Btu/h· It
2
· °F (Irom Table 2, cur-
tainwall, aluminum Irame with a thermal break, double glazing, metal
spacer), respectively.
Then, calculate the overall U-Iactor Ior the two opaque spandrel
modules. The center-oI-spandrel, edge-oI spandrel, and Irame areas are
the same as the glazed module. The Irame U-Iactor is the same. Calcu-
late the center-oI-spandrel U-Iactor. In this particular case, the R-value
oI the insulation does not need to be derated as there are no intermedi-
ate Iraming members penetrating it and providing thermal short-cir-
cuits. When the resistance oI the R-20 insulation is added to the
exterior air Iilm resistance oI 0.17 and the interior air Iilm resistance oI
0.68 h· It
2
· °F/Btu (Irom Table 1, Chapter 24), the total resistance is
20.85 h· It
2
· °F/Btu and the U-Iactor is 1/20.85 ÷ 0.05 Btu/h· It
2
· °F. The
edge-oI-spandrel U-Iactor is 40° oI the way to the Irame U-Iactor and
is 0.05 ¹ |0.40(1.75 ÷ 0.05)| ÷ 0.73 Btu/h· It
2
· °F.
Finally, calculate the U-Iactor Ior the overall average U-Iactor Ior
the curtainwall assembly, including the one module oI vision glass and
the two modules oI opaque spandrel.
Note that even with double glazing having a low-emissivity coating
and with R-20 insulation in the opaque areas, this curtainwall with
metal pans only has an overall R-value oI approximately 2.
Example 4. Estimate the U-Iactor Ior a semicircular barrel vault that is 18
It wide (9 It tall) and 30 It long mounted on a 6 in. curb. The barrel
vault has an aluminum Irame without a thermal break. The glazing is
double with a 1/2 in. gap width Iilled with air and a low emissivity
coating (e ÷ 0.20).
Solution: An approximation can be made by multiplying the U-Iactor
Ior a site assembled sloped/overhead glazing product having the same
Irame and glazing Ieatures by the ratio oI the surIace area (including
the curb) oI the barrel vault to the rough opening area in the rooI that
the barrel vault Iits over.
1. Determine surIace area (including the curb) oI barrel vault.
Area oI curved portion oI barrel vault
÷ (r × diameter/2) × length ÷ (r × 18/2) × 30 ÷ 848 It
2
Fig. 6 Details of Stile and Rail Door
U
0
0.55 528 × ( ) 0.64 880 × ( ) 0.51 1708 × ( ) ¹ ¹
38 82 ×
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ÷
0.55 Btu/h It
2
°F ÷
U
gla:ing moaule
0.40 1600 × ( ) 0.54 425 × ( ) 1.75 279 × ( ) ¹ ¹
48 48 ×
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ÷
0.59 Btu/h It
2
°F ÷
U
opaque spanarel
0.05 1600 × ( ) 0.73 425 × ( ) 1.75 279 × ( ) ¹ ¹
48 48 ×
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ÷
0.38 Btu/h It
2
°F ÷
U
curtainwall
0.59 48 48 × × ( ) 2 0.38 × 48 48 × ( ) ¹
3 48 48 × ( )
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ÷
0.45 Btu/h It
2
°F ÷
29.12 1997 ASHRAE Fundamentals Handbook
Area oI two ends oI barrel vault
÷ 2r(radius
2
)/2 ÷ rr
2
÷ r9
2
÷ 254 It
2
Area oI curb
÷ perimeter × curb height ÷ (18 ¹ 30 ¹ 18 ¹ 30)6/12 ÷ 48 It
2
Total surIace area oI barrel vault
÷ 848 ¹ 254 ¹ 48 ÷ 1150 It
2
2. Determine rough opening area in rooI that barrel vault Iits over
÷ length × width ÷ 18 × 30 ÷ 540 It
2
3. Determine ratio oI surIace area to rough opening area
÷ 1150/540 ÷ 2.13
4. Determine the U-Iactor Irom Table 5 oI a site assembled
sloped/overhead glazing product having the same Irame and glaz-
ing Ieatures. The U-Iactor is 0.71 Btu/h· It
2
· °F (ID ÷ 17, 12th col-
umn on the second page oI Table 5).
5. Determine the estimated U-Iactor oI the barrel vault.
÷ 0.71 × 2.13 ÷ 1.51 Btu/h· It
2
· °F
AIR MOVEMENT
Infiltration Through Fenestration
InIiltration is the uncontrolled inward leakage oI air caused by
pressure eIIects oI wind or diIIerences in air density, such as the
stack eIIect. While Ienestration products can be operated to inten-
tionally provide natural ventilation and increase comIort, inIiltra-
tion should be reasonably reduced to avoid unpleasant conditions. II
additional air is required, controlled ventilation is preIerable to
inIiltration. Mechanical ventilation provides air in a comIortable
manner and when desired. For inIiltration, however, the peak supply
is more likely to occur as an uncomIortable draIt and when least
desired, such as during a storm or the coldest weather.
Air leakage is determined in accordance with NFRC Stanaara
400-95 and ASTM Stanaara E 283-91. These standards allow all
Ienestration products (i.e. operable and Iixed, windows and doors)
to be compared directly. Most manuIactured Ienestration products
have a maximum air leakage oI 0.5 cIm/It
2
oI gross Ienestration
product area. However, products that do not completely seal, such
as jalousie windows or doors, are likely to allow greater inIiltration,
and are most appropriate Ior installation in unconditioned spaces.
For products achieving this inIiltration level, the energy con-
sumption due to inIiltration is likely to be signiIicantly less than the
energy consumption due to conduction and solar heat gain. Also,
while overall air inIiltration is a signiIicant component oI a build-
ing`s heating and cooling loads, inIiltration oI 0.5 cIm/It
2
or less
through Ienestration generally accounts Ior a small portion oI the
total load.
Indoor Air Movement
Because supply air grilles are Irequently located directly below
Ienestration products, air sweeps the interior glass surIace. Heated
supply air should be directed away Irom the glass to prevent large
temperature diIIerences between the center and edges oI the glass.
These thermal eIIects must be considered, particularly when
annealed glass is used and when air is Iorced over the glass surIace
during the heating season. Direct Ilow oI heated air over the glass
surIace can increase the heat transIer coeIIicient and the tempera-
ture diIIerence, causing a substantial increase in heat loss; it may
also cause glass to break due to thermally induced stress.
An HVAC system that is designed primarily Ior cooling lowers
the glass temperature and rapidly picks up the cooling load. Both
conditions tend to improve comIort in the space. However, the space
has an increased net heat gain because (1) a larger portion oI the
absorbed solar heat is delivered to the indoor space; (2) the greater
convection at the indoor surIace increases the Ienestration U-Iactor;
and (3) supply air rather than room air is in contact with the glass
surIace, which increases the air-to-air temperature diIIerence. The
principal increase in heat gain with clear glass is because the glass
has a higher U-Iactor and the temperature diIIerence between the
conditioned space and the outside air is greater.
CONDENSATION RESISTANCE
Water vapor condenses in a Iilm on Ienestration surIaces that
are at temperatures below the dew point oI the inside air. II the sur-
Iace temperature is below Ireezing, Irost Iorms. Sometimes, con-
densation occurs Iirst and ice Irom the condensed water Iorms
when temperatures drop below Ireezing. Condensation Irequently
occurs on single glazing and on aluminum Irames without a ther-
mal break. The edge-seal creates a thermal bridge at the perimeter
oI the IGU.
The circulation oI Iill gas due to temperature diIIerences in the
IGU cavity contributes to the condensation problem at the bottom oI
the indoor glazing (Wright and Sullivan 1995a, 1995b; Curcija and
Goss 1994, 1995a). In winter, Iill gas near the indoor glazing is
warmed and Ilows up while gas near the outdoor glazing is cooled
and Ilows down. The descending gas becomes progressively colder
until it reaches the bottom oI the cavity. There the gas turns and
Ilows to the indoor glazing, resulting in higher heat transIer rates at
the bottom. Thus, the bottom edge oI the indoor glazing is cooled
both by edge-seal conduction and by Iill-gas convection. The com-
bined eIIect oI these two heat transIer mechanisms is shown in Fig-
ure 7. The surIace isotherms show a wider band oI cold glass at the
bottom oI the window. Typical condensation patterns match these
isotherms. The vertical indoor surIace temperature proIile also
shows the eIIect oI edge-seal conduction and that the minimum
indoor surIace temperature is near the bottom edge oI the glass.
Damage caused by condensation to the Ienestration and sur-
rounding structures can be extensive and can cause structural, aes-
thetic, and health problems. SpeciIic examples include peeling oI
paint, rotting oI wood, saturation oI insulation, and mold growth.
U
barrel vault
U
slopea overheaa gla:ing
SurIace area
Rough opening area
------------------------------------------------ ÷
Fig. 7 Temperature Distribution on Indoor Surfaces of
Insulated Glazing Unit

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