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PHILIPPINE NATIONALISM

The Spanish Revolution of 1868 , the opening of the Suez Canal in1869, and the martyrdom of Father Gomez, Burgos and Zamora were the factors that gave birth to Philippine Nationalism., the consciousness of being one nation with common blood , and race, common customs and traditions, common history and destiny, common grievances and aspiration. When the Philippines was opened by Spain to world trade, the liberal ideas of Europe and America streamed into country, borne by ships and men from foreign ports. -the Filipino began to wonder at their deplorable situation. They began to discuss politics, justice and liberty , and , in the course of time, they become bold enough to ask for government reforms,- reforms which were urgently needed to correct conditions causing hardships among them. The Spanish Revolution of 1868Spain was swept by a revolution led by Generals Juan Prim and Francisco Serrano against autocratic rule of Isabela II (1833-68)beautiful but tactless queen. the Spanish patriots established on February 12,1873 the first Spanish Republic over the ruins of the Bourn monarchy. The Suez Canal and the Filipinos. November 17,1869- the opening of the Suez Canal to world shipping. this canal is 103 miles long, and connect the mediterranean with the gulf of Suez with the Red Sea and the Indian Ocean. The Philippines was brought closer to Europe. With the facilitation of sea travel and communication, more and more Spaniards(officials, adventures and job-seekers). De la Torre ,Liberal Spanish Governor (1868-71) the fall of Queen Isabela II and the rise of Liberalism in Spain brought a new Spanish governor general to Manila. He was Carlos Maria de la Torre, an able soldier and true democrat. The Filipino people and the Spanish liberals welcomed him. They rejoiced as he took office on June 23, 1869. The Liberty Serenade of 1869- the Filipinos serenaded governor De la Torre at his official residence to manifest their appreciation of an, and gratitude for, his liberal policies. Governor general entertained the Filipino leaders, who prepared the liberty parade, at a magnificent reception in his palace. The governors wife dressed in red, with red ribbon in her hair containing the words Viva el Pueblo Soberano(long Live the sovereign People)and a red tie, on one end of which was written Viva la Libertad!(long live Liberty) and on other end, Viva el General La Torre! (long Live General La Torre)because of her pro- Filipino sympathies she was called the Mother of the Filipinos. Liberalism and the Filipino Patriots- success of Spanish Revolution of 1868 and the liberal regime of Governor De la Torre encourage the Filipino patriots to discuss political matters and aspired for reforms: Formed organizations called the committee of reformers(comite de Reformadores)

Three Sections: -clergy: members Gomburza(Gomez, Burgos and Zamora) Fr Agustine Mendoza, Pedro Dandan, Toribio H del Pillar Feliciano Gomez, Jose Guevarra and Mariano Sevilla. -laymen: merchants Jose Ma. Basa, Balbino Mauricio, Maximo Paterno, Lawyers -students: student demonstrations against the Dominican authorities of the University of Santo Tomas. For better classroom instruction,academic freedom Achievement of De La Torre: -He abolished the strict censorship of the press -fostered the free discussion of political problems -recognized the freedom of speech and of the press Greatest achievement was the peaceful settlement of the agrarian trouble in Cavite. 18th century because of the oppression of the Filipino tenants had lost their lands. The Trial of Gom-bur-za : Father Mariano Gomez, Jose Burgos, and Jacinto Zamora accused was farce, there was no evidence of theirguilt. The star witness of the government, Francisco Zaldua, a former Bicolano soldier of battalion of artillery, was bribed by the government authorities to testify against Gom-bu-za. The martyrs execution February 17, 1872 were escorted under heavy guard to Luneta , a vast crowd, consisting of Filipinos and foreigners, witnessed the execution. Significance of the execution was a great blunder on the part of the Spanish officials in the Philippines .Archbishop Gregorio Meliton Martinez was requested by governor Izquierdo to degrade the three priest by taking off their priestly habits, but he refused. they knew that the three priest were innocent and that they were killed because they championed the right of the Filipinos. The forgot their tribal differences and regional barriers and joined together as one people to fight for their common cause. The execution of Gom-bur-za hastened the growth of Philippine nationalism which ultimately brought about Spains downfall.

PROPAGANDA MOVEMENT AND THE KATIPUNAN


The martyrdom of Gom-bur-za, instead of frightening the Filipino patriots, made them more determined to fight the evils of Spanish rule. The illustrados led by, Dr. Jose Rizal, M. H . del Pilar, and Graciano Lopez Jaena, organized the propaganda movement which was a peaceful crusade for reforms. Rise of the Propaganda Movement: After 1872, Philippine conditions went from bad to worse. The deportation of Filipino leaders to Spanish penal colonies, the persecution of the intellectuals, and the abuses of the Spanish masters continued unbated. The peaceful campaign for reforms was known in the Philippine history as the propaganda Movement. It began in 1872, when Gomez,Burgoz and Zamora were executed at the Luneta, and ended in 1896 when Rizal was exiled to Dapitan. -the Aim of the propaganda movement was peaceful assimilation referring to the transition of the Philippines from being a colony to a province of Spain.

Reforms Desired by the Propaganda Movement: The propaganda movement was not a revolutionary or seditious affair they ask merely reforms, not independence. The reforms which they ask were: 1.equality of Filipinos and Spaniards before the laws 2.assimilation of the Philippines as a regular province of Spain 3.restoration of Philippine representation in the Spanish Cortes 4. Filipinization of the Philippine parishes and expulsion of the Friars 5. human rights for Filipinos, such as freedom of speech, freedom pf the press, and freedom to meet and petition for redress of grievances. The propagandist: The propagandist were the scions of good families, highly intelligent, educated, patriotic and courageous, who symbolized the follower of Filipino manhood. One of the greatest propagandist was Marcelo H., del Pillar of Bulacan, lawyer and journalist beloved by the masses for his eloquent tagalong and fearless defense of the poor against friars. Other Filipino propagandist: Jose Rizal- physician-novelist and many-splendored genius Graciano Lopez Jaena- the greatest orator of the propaganda movement Mariano Ponce- medical student and biographical writer Juan luna and Felix Resurreccion Hidalgo- masters of the brush Dr. Pedro Paterno- lawyer and man-of-letters

Antonio Luna- pharmacist and essayist Pedro Serrano laktaw- teacher tutor of Prince Alfonso de bourbon Jose Ma. Panganiban- linguist and essayist Fernando Canon engineer and musician Jose Alejandrino- engineer and political writer Isabelo delos Reyes- folklorist, newspaperman and scholar Dominador Gomez- physician and orator Foreign friends of the propaganda Movement: Ferdinand Blumentritt- Austrian professor, scholar and Dr. Jose Rizal best friend he praised Rizals two novels(noli and fili) and wrote the prologue to Rizals annotated edition of Morgas Succesos de las Ilas Filipinas9Paris ,1890) La Solidaridad, organ of the Propaganda movement: Realizing the importance of mass media to propagate the propaganda objectives Graciano Lopez Jaena founded as fortnightly newspaper, La Solidaridad in Barcelona on February 15,1889 Aims of La Solidaridad; 1. To portray vividly the deplorable conditions of the Philippines 2. To work peacefully for political and social reforms 3. To combat the evil forces of medievalism and reaction 4. To advocate liberal ideas and progress 5. To champion the legitimate aspirations of the Filipino people for democracy and happiness. The contributors of La Solidaridad: were mostly Filipinos M.h. del Pillar (plaridel) Dr. Jose Rizal (laon-Laan) Mariano Ponce (nanning , Kalipulako or tigbalang), Antonio Luna (taga-ilog) Jose Ma. Panganiban (jomapa) In the last issue of La Solidaridad(novevember 15,1895) M.H. del Pillar wrote his farewell editorial saying: We are persuaded that noi sacrifices are too little to win the rights and the liberty of a nation that is oppressed by slavery. Masonry and the Propaganda Movement:- played a significant role in the propaganda movement. Many Filipino patriots turned masons, including Marcelo H. del Pillar,G. Lopez, Rizal , Ponce and others, because they needed the help of the Masons in Spain and in other foreign countries in their figth for reforms. First Filipino Masonic lodge called REVOLUCCION was founded by Lopez Jaena in Barcelona and was recognized on April ,1889 by the Grande Oriental Espanol headed by Don Miguel Morayta.First Filipino Masonic lodge in the Philippines founded by Serano Laktaw in Manila January 6,1892, Lodge Nilad All the Filipino Masonic Lodges in Spain and in the Philippines became the campaign for reforms in Spain. Rizal founded the Liga Filipina( Philippine League) Aims of the league were the following: 1.Union of the Archipelago into a compact ,vigorous and homogenous body 2.mutual protection in all cases of pressing necessity 3.defense against all violence and injustice 4.encouragement of education, agriculture, and commerce 5.study and application of reforms Motto: UNUS INSTAR OMNIUM( ONE LIKE ALL)

The Liga Filipina was a civil association of Filipinos; its constitution provided for the establishment of a supreme council for the whole country, a provincial council in every province, and a popular council in a every town .Every Filipino who had a heart the best interest and welfare of the fatherland was qualified to be a member. End of the propaganda movement: Rizals deportation to Dapitan proved to be the swan song of the propaganda movement. Liga Filipina collapsed the radical Andres Bonifacio and other radical members separated from it. New group called Los Compromisarios Because each member pledge or promised to contribute money for the financial aid of the propaganda movement in Spain. But time came when many members of the Compromisarios stopped paying their contributions so that the flow of funds to Spain ceased. And for lack of funds, La Solidaridad died out after its last issue on November 15,1895. The founding of the Katipunan: Andres Bonifacio, a member of the Liga Filipina, did not join the Compromisarios who were conservative intellectual and affluent merchants because he was both poor and a man of action and radical views. He firmly vbelieve that the happiness and welfare of the Filipino people could not be achieved by peaceful request for reforms, but by violent revolution. July 7, 1892 he and some patriotic friends who were radicals like him, met secretly in the house occupied by Deodato Arellano( brother in law of M.H. del pillar) Tondo manila secret meeting founded, they founded the secret revolutionary society called Kataastaasan Kagalangggalangang Katipunan ng mga anak ng Bayan (highest and respected Society of the Sons of the People) The men ,gathered around a flickering table lamp , signed their membership with their own blood. They also decided during the meeting , the payment of an entrance fee of one real fuerte(twenty-five centavos) and a monthly due of medio real (about twelve centavos) The Aims of the KKK were: 1.to unite the Filipinos and 2. to fight for Philippine independence The emergence of the katipunan was significant in the history of the Philippines, First it marked the end of the peaceful campaign for reforms and the beginning of a militant revolutionary movement, second, the Filipino people in despair, no longer aspired for mere reforms but for complete independence. KATIPUNAN GOVERNMENT:-the katipunan was government by itself, it had two constitutions a) one promulgated in 1892 b) 1894 The central government of the katipunan was vested in a Supreme council(kataastaasang Sanggunian)with president, a fiscal, a secretary, a treasurer, and a comptroller. In the province, there was a provincial council (Sangguniang Bayan) and in each town, a popular council(Sangguniang Balangay). The judicial power of the Katipunan resided in a secret chamber, called Judicial Council (Sangguniang Hukuman) which passed judgement over those members who violated the secrets of the society and decided differences arising among the brethren. Katipunan membership: Katipunan membership by means of the triangle system Bonifacio formed the first triangle with his two comrades Lata and Diwa Three grades of membership within the katipunan ranks:

First grade, a katipun (associate) he wore a black mask with triangle formed by ribbons and letters he carried side arms,revolver or bolo his password was ANAK NG BAYAN(SON OF PEOPLE) Second grade, kawal (soldier) wore a green mask and a sash of the same color, suspended from his neck was a green ribbon with a medal o which was inscribed the Malayan letter K his password GOM-BUR-ZA Third grade, Bayani( patriot) wore a meeting a red mask and sash, both bordered with green, his password was RIZAL, the name of the greatest Filipino hero and honorary president of the Katipunan. During the first election the following officers of the Supreme Council were chosen: Deodato Arellano- President Andres Bonifacio- Comptroller Ladislao Diwa Fiscal Teodoro Plata ---- Secretary Valentin Diaz ---- Treasurer The women in the katipunan: katipunan was purely an association for men, women were becoming suspicios of the nocturnal absences of their husbands and the reduction of their earnings, the door of the katipunan was opened to them ,thereby bringing them in the confidence of their menfolk. To be admitted in the womens section one had to be a wife, daughter or sister of a katipunero( male Member) gregoria de Jesus bonifacios wife, who was called the Lakambini of the K.K.K. and others. The women rendered valuable services to the katipunan. They guard the secret papers and document of the society at the risk of their lives. When the katipunan held a session in a certain house, they usually made merry, singing and dancing with some of the men in the living room so that the Civil Guards were misled to believe that there was merely a hamrmless social party going on. Three writers of the Katipunan; Bonifacio, Jacinto and Dr. Pio Valenzuela, they wrote stirring literature to exile the peoples patriotism and to arouse their patriotic spirit. Bonifacio- wrote Pag-ibig sa Tinubuang Bayan ( Love of Fatherland) Emilio Jacinto, a young law student at the University of Santo Tomas, and the youngest(19 yrs. Old) and most intellectual katipunero, was also a greatest writer. He became the adviser of Bonifacio, known as Brain of the Katipunan He wrote the Kartilla or the teachings of the katipunan. Prose work was liwanag at dilim (Light and Darkness) a series of articles of Human Rights, liberty, equality labor and love of country. Before his death in 1897 he wrote a poem in Spanish, A La PATRIA., which echoed the same sentiments of Rizals last farewell. Kalayaan organ of the katipunan ; Francisco del Castillo and Candidio Iban who had worked fro some years inAustralia and won a lottery prize in that country. The types used in printing were purchased from Isabela de los Reyes, and many were stolen from the press of the Diario de Manila( Manila Daily)the existence of the press was kept secrecy under jacintos supervision, this revolutionary newspaper was founded by Jacinto to disseminate the ideals of the society. The first came out in January 1896. First cry of Philippine Independence; during the Holy week in 1895, Bonifacio and a party of katipuneros reconnoitered the mountains of Montalban in search of a good hideout where they they could hold their secret meetings.April 10,1895 Bonifacio and companions entered the cave of Bernanrd Carpio( also known locally as Pamitinan Cave) where they held a secret session and wrote on the wall in SpanishVIVA LA INDEPENDENCIA FILIPINA this was the first cry of the Philippine independence. In Philippine history.

The Katipunan and Japan- 1896 a delegate of katipunan members headed by Jacinto and Bonifacio, conferred with a visiting Japanese naval officer and the Japanese consul at a Japanese bazaar in Manila.it was a good reason that the katipunan solicited Japans aid and alliance. The country had been friendly to the Filipino people, many Filipinos who fled from Spanish persecution were welcomed and were given full protection of the Japanese law. Bonifacio tried to purchased arms and ammunition in Japan, but failed for lack of funds. The katipunan prepares for war; 1896 the katipunan was preparing to strike for freedom they estimated to have reached about 20,000. The exact number of members could not be ascertained. A war plan was also prepared by Bonifacio and Jacinto to be the strategy of the katipunan military operations. The katipunan was finally discovered by the Spanish authorities on August 19,1896 alarmed such starting information, Fr. Gil accompanied by Spanish witnesses, searched the printing shop of the Diario de manila and found the incriminating evidence. He rushed to the authorities and denounced The revolutionary plot of the katipunan. The forces of the Spanish law pounced upon the homes of the suspects, and locked them up in jail, those who were warned in time,, notably Bonifacio, Jacinto and others fled into hiding. Through the dark of the night, many Filipino families in the city prayed and awaited, in suspense, the red dawn of the following day