KENYA CASE STUDY

The attraction of Kenya
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- it has an attractive climate (tropical) with sunshine all year round, hot and humid at the coast; temperate inland and dry in the NE - Safari holidays are popular - e.g. in the Maasai Mara / Nakuru National Park - Kenya has spectacular wildlife - including the big 5 - Lion, Elephant, Rhinoceros, Leopard and Buffalo - Cultural experience - many tourists visit local tribes such as the Maasai to find out more about their lifestyle and traditions - Coastal Holidays - SE of Kenya has fine sands and coral reefs with spectacular marine life - e.g. Mombassa

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Why have numbers of tourists visiting Kenya increased?

- Kenya was one of the first LEDC countries to acheive mass tourism and in the 1970s and 1980s there was a rapid increase in the numbers of tourists, particularly following the release of the films Born Free and Out of Africa. - Tourist numbers have also increased as larger aircraft in the 1980s brought prices of air travel down.
Advantage Reason (why …… because) You need some basics to start with eg: airport and some hotels and facilities, and these are very expensive, which LEDC’s like Kenya can’t easily afford. They often have to borrow money =

Reason (why …… Disadvantage because) Earns valuable Kenya can’t buy Providing the initial foreign exchange things it needs to infrastructure is develop without expensive. foreign currency. Eg: Hospitals, schools, major infrastructure and high tech equipment.

Provides direct employment in hotels, transport, guides, wardens etc. in the Maasi Mara National Park.

Jobs = money earnt, which can then be spent in many ways locally, so stimulating the local market economy. A sort of Multiplier Effect.

Much of the profit “leaks” overseas to the developing countries.

Provides indirect Maasi and Kikuyu employment for local farmers can provide people. food for the hotels, souvenir makers and sellers, again putting more money into the local economy. Attracts foreign Foreign investment = investment in hotels, quality facilities airport, roads, which will attract water/electric/sewag more tourists = more e services. money. Locals can benefit from improved infrastructure. Training provided by multinationals Money in the local More taxes can be economy. collected by the Kenyan goverment and spent on local developments such as hospitals and schools etc. Also a charge is made to enter the Park which goes to the Maasi tribes as an incentive and compensation for loss of land. Ensures the Competition from protection of the local farmers and resources that poachers would attract tourists eg: seriously endanger Discourages the animals. poaching of Big Poachers can earn Game animals and more money at less on the coast near risk in the tourist

Much of the profit “leaks” overseas to the developing countries.

debt. Many hotels are ownes by foreign multinational chains eg: Hilton, Sheraton, Holiday Inn. Foreign operators arrange the holidays eg: Going Places, Thompsons and the major money spent is in the home country. Some food is flown in from abroad to cater for fussy European tastes. Key positions given to foreign staff.

Creates economy

a

dual Local people who live near in Mombasa , Bamburi and Malindi by may benefit from the industry and spin offs, but there are few benefits elsewhere.

Environment may be Mass tourism can put at risk cause degradation of the area. Eg: The hotels have damaged the wetlands by draining water from the swamps for swimming pools and toilet facilities. The hotels also cut timber for the tourist barbecues = deforestation. Environment may be The large number of put at risk minibuses and 4 WD’s has caused damage to vegetation and is causing soil erosion. It also scares wildlife.

Mombasa, damage to reefs.

the trade now as a coral guide. Tourism provides easier money than farming in the game reserves.

Tourist money can be re-invested in creating new environmental projects.

Bamburi Cement Quarry near Mombasa has now been restored to an environmental attraction of subtropical forest and swamp and a sustainable commercial venture including a fish farm, a crocodile hatchery, sales of fruit and rice and attracts thousands of tourist visitors a year.

Mass tourism has The Maasi tribe have changed local lost their grazing cultures and rights in the National traditions. Park because tourists visiting the wild life is considered more important. Compensation is inadequate.

Local people are excluded from the Maasi Mara park conservation areas without compensation. Mass tourism has changed local cultures and traditions.

Increasing commercialisation of tourist attractions / activities.

Without adequate compensation, there is no incentive for the Maasi to protect wildlife and so poaching is still a problem Local people now use their culture, dance and costume as a money earning entertainment so degrading their traditions. Things like bungee jumping, micro-light aircraft, ballooning, sale of cheap trinkets and even drugs is leading to a tacky image and this may soon be a disincentive to visitors.