Chapter 12

Population Labour Force and Employment
Balanced growth in population is crucial for the welfare of the country or improving the productive capacity of the economy. It is important to know the size of a country’s population, its growth rate and other demographic attributes in order to analyze the dynamics of the population, labour force and employment and to estimate the quantity of goods and services that will be needed to meet future demand. The population of a country plays a vital role not only in the economic development but also for the social well-being of the people. However, poor management of human resources can lead to social distress and reduced economic performance. Due to rapid population growth and lack of welldeveloped human resources, Pakistan is faced with socioeconomic crises including food insecurity, and unemployment. Nevertheless, with continuous efforts of the government, the situation has started to improve. Due to improved health facilities and promotion of population welfare activities through the Ministry of Population Welfare the crude birth and fertility rates have been reduced considerably which has led to a reduction in the average growth rate of the population. This has been accompanied by an increased labor participation rate. However despite these improvements Pakistan is still lagging behind in comparison to its neighboring countries. For example, the fertility rate in Pakistan is still higher than neighboring countries like India, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Nepal and China. As a result population growth rate is not reducing considerably and at the same time dependency ratio is increasing. Therefore, it is imperative to put further efforts for development of better human resources. Since its creation Pakistan has exhibited a continuously high rate of population growth. When measured by population size it has moved from the thirteenth largest country in 1950 to the sixth largest country in 2011. According to World Bank projection it will become the fifth largest country by 2050. This rapid increase in population leads to greater demand for food, infrastructure, and services and puts an enormous strain on food security and provision of basic services. This chapter presents a discussion of the structure of Pakistan’s population and the evolution of demographic indicators, followed by a thorough overview of the structure of labour force, including unemployment statistics and details of government projects and programmes aimed at boosting employment opportunities. Overview of Population and Demographic Indicators The structure and growth pattern of population can be evaluated through certain key indicators. These are briefly explained below: Crude Birth Rate: The average annual number of births during a year per thousand persons in the population at midyear is known as the crude birth rate. The birth rate is the main factor in determining the rate of population growth. It depends on both the level of fertility and the age structure of the population. The Crude Birth Rate (CBR) does not take into account the age or sex differences among the population. A crude birth rate of more than 30 per thousand is considered high and a rate of less than 18 per thousand is considered low. The global crude birth rate in 2011 was 20 per thousand. The CBR in Pakistan is

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Pakistan Economic Survey 2011-12 estimated at 27.2 per thousand in 2011-12; in 2008 it was 25.0 per thousand. This indicates a marginally improving trend. Similarly, the crude death rate measures the rate of deaths per one thousand people in a given population per year. A crude death rate of less than ten per thousand is considered as low while above twenty per thousand is considered as high. According to the World Population Data Sheet 2011, the global crude death rate in 2010 was 8 persons per thousand. In Pakistan it was 7.3 per thousand in 2011. It is worth mentioning that the crude death rate decreased from 7.7 per thousand in mid-year 2008 to 7.2 per thousand in mid-year 2012, which shows an improving trend (Fig.1). Infant mortality in Pakistan has also improved as the country experienced a considerable decline in maternal and infant mortality. Infant mortality was 70.20 per thousand in mid year 2008, which reduced to 69.00 per thousand live births in mid year 2012. The major reason for this decline is provision of improved health facilities to control diarrhea and pneumonia which can be fatal for infants. Nevertheless, this decline is not significant, given the repeated pregnancies and
Table 12.1: Selected Demographic Indicators 2010-11 (1st July) Total Population (Million) Urban Population (Million) Rural Population (Million) Total Fertility Rate (TFR) Crude Birth Rate (Per thousand) Crude Death Rate (Per thousand) Population Growth Rate (Percent) Life Expectancy (Year) - Females - Males Source: P&D Division, National Institute of Population Studies 177.1 65.3 111.8 3.5 27.5 7.3 2.05 65.8 63.9 2011-12 (1st July) 180.71 67.55 113.16 3.4 27.2 7.2 2.03 66.1 64.3

births. The status of maternal health is improving in Pakistan. The maternal death rate decreased from 400 per 100,000 live births in 2005-06 to 276 per 100,000 live births in 2010. This decline is the result of the strengthening of the four pillars of safe motherhood including family planning, antenatal care, clean safe delivery and essential obstetrical care.
Fig-12.1: Population Overview
30 Crude Birth & Death Rate 25 20 15 10 5 0 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
Source: National Institute of Population Studies (NIPS) Population Census Organization
Crude birth rate Crude death rate Population (mln)

185 180 175 170 165 160 155

Some of the selected demographic indicators for the period (2010-11 and 2011-12) are posted in Table 12.1.

The demographic indicators reflect improvement in the structure of the population and point to future trends. There is improvement in life expectancy and a fall in the population growth rate. Increase in life expectancy indicates the provision of a better living environment and health facilities in the country. The decline in fertility and the

resultant decline in population growth lead to a lower dependency ratio which may help in improving living standards in the country. However the population growth rate is still higher than other neighboring countries and is still a challenge for the government.

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Population, Labour Force and Employment Age Composition of Population The age composition of a population gives insight to the size of the future productive human resource. It also highlights changes in the dependency levels. During 2011, the under-15 population was 62 million, whereas 104 million were between the ages 15-59 years. The available projections of the population by age categories indicate that those below 30 years of age will constitute more than 53 percent of the total population by 2030. Countries, like Pakistan, having a very young age structure are more likely
Table 12.2: Population by Age Groups Age Group 1998
00-04 05-09 10-14 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 50-54 55-59 60-64 65+ Total 19.59 20.72 17.14 13.73 11.88 9.76 8.24 6.32 5.89 4.68 4.26 2.86 2.72 4.64 132.43

to have large dependent population which puts a considerable stress on the economy. This higher percentage has a dual impact on the country’s future economic and social wellbeing. The growing youth population will only add marginally to the productive resources of the country but will put a large burden on health, education and decent jobs, if they are not trained properly. This will worsen both the economic and social situation. Conversely with effective government policies for their education and training, these youth can become a powerful force for economic development.
2015
22.76 21.33 20.07 20.12 19.8 17.13 14.72 12.4 10.36 8.49 6.88 5.53 4.31 7.82 191.72

2011
22.02 20.40 19.94 20.27 17.72 15.25 12.95 10.83 8.90 7.32 6.01 4.83 3.78 6.81 177.03

2020
23.28 22.35 21.24 20.01 20.05 19.71 17.04 14.62 12.27 10.2 8.26 6.57 5.13 9.39 210.12

2025
22.44 22.95 22.28 21.19 19.95 19.98 19.62 16.94 14.49 12.01 9.95 7.93 6.14 11.39 227.26

Million 2030
20.35 22.18 22.88 22.24 21.14 19.89 19.91 19.53 16.81 14.31 11.84 9.60 7.45 13.93 242.06

Source: National Institute of Population Studies, Planning & Development Division, June 2010

Regional Demographics The Pakistan family planning indicators, though improving, do not compare favorably with other countries. Table 12.3 and 12.4 present a comparison of the family planning indicators with neighboring and some brotherly Islamic countries. It is evident from the data that the performance of Pakistan when compared with these countries is modest. Many Muslim countries such as Turkey,

Iran and Egypt have experienced a considerable decline in the Total Fertility Rate (TFR). In Pakistan an important reason for the slower decline is the low Contraceptive Prevalence Rate (CPR) due to the lack of awareness because of which people hesitate in practicing contraception. The following table provides a comparison with regional countries on TFR, CPR and the Population Growth Rate (PGR).

Table 12.3: Family Planning Indicators of Regional Countries-2011 Contraceptive Prevalence Country Total Fertility Rate Rate %
Asia Bangladesh Bhutan 2.1 2.2 2.3 67 56 31

Population Growth Rate%
0.9 1.3 1.5

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0 percent in 2006 and the population growth rate has come down to 2.9 2.1 Iran 1.0 Turkey 2.7 2.8 2.5 1.6 Pakistan 3. and other things remaining the same Pakistan’s rank in terms of the selected social and economic indicators in comparison with other developing Asian countries may deteriorate further. vigorous efforts are needed to control population growth and reduce the TFR.5 3.1 61 1.6 2.0 73 1. The fertility rate per woman has been reduced to 3.1 2.2: Trend in Fertility Rate (%) 4.7 60 2.7 3.3 1.03 Source: i) State of the world population 2011. The TFR is closely tied to the population growth rates of a country and can be a good indicator of future population trends.3 1.0 Indonesia 2.6 55 1.0 Malaysia 2.4 percent in 2012 from 4. 2010 ii) Sub Group II on Population Projections for the 10th Five Year People’s Plan 2010-15 Fertility in Pakistan The Total Fertility Rate (TFR) of a population is the average number of children that are born to a woman over her life time.03 Source: i) State of the world population 2011.4: Family Planning Indicators of Muslim Countries-2011 Country Total Fertility Rate Contraceptive Prevalence Population Growth Rate % Rate% Egypt 1.2 3. United Nation Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) Population Projection by Planning Commission’s Working Group on Population Sector.Pakistan Economic Survey 2011-12 Table 12.3: Family Planning Indicators of Regional Countries-2011 Contraceptive Prevalence Country Total Fertility Rate Rate % India Maldives Nepal Sri Lanka Pakistan 2. Awareness of contraception is increasing in the country.7 0.2 63 1.7 2. Fig-12. The results are still not encouraging when compared with other developing countries of the region.6 Morocco 2. Therefore.3 3.1 3. If this trend prevails.6 73 1.5 4. 96 percent of women who have ever been married are aware of at least one family planning method compared to 78 percent in 1991.4 56 35 48 68 27 Population Growth Rate% 1. it is expected that Pakistan’s population will double in 2046. United Nation Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) Population Projection by Planning Commission’s Working Group on Population Sector. Pakistan has the highest birth as well as total fertility rate among the Asian developing countries. 2010 ii) Sub Group II on Population Projections for the 10th Five Year People’s Plan 2010-15 Table 12.4 27 2.5 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 Source: Sub group II on  population projection for the  10th Five Year People Plan 2010‐15 (Planning and  Development Division) 164 .3 4.03 percent.9 3. According to the Demographic and Health Survey of Pakistan 2006-07 by the Ministry of Population Welfare.The survey also shows that less than 30 percent of married women were using contraception.

therefore. At the International Summit on Population and Development in 1994. Similarly every child has the right to avail good quality health care. including decisions related to the timing and spacing of pregnancies and births. and to its functions and processes. A healthy and educated mother. seventeen percent seats have been reserved in the Senate. The first focus of population welfare. the general public is not sensitive about realizing and understanding the importance of reproductive health and as a result a large proportion of the population is reluctant to use contraception. training and science and technology The government has signed national and international commitments like Convention On Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination Against Women(CEDAW) and Millennium Development Goals(MDGs) Increase of women quota up to 10% for recruitment in public sector Reservation of thirty three percent seats for women in all local bodies. has to be on the education and health of a country’s female population which has direct relevance to children’s future. Now the provincial governments are responsible for implementing the Population Welfare Programme. Major achievements are listed as below: ` The population welfare program has established 2. in all matters relating to the reproductive system. plays an extremely important role in making sure that her children are physically healthy. The population welfare department played an impressive role in the promotion of health and family planning related services throughout the country. intellectually developed and academically active. The Rights of Women and Children The future of a country depends largely on the quality of maternal guidance to the children and Box 1 Measures for Empowering Women • • • • • • • Equal access to education. The federal government will be funding the programme for a four year period. The prevailing social mindset of son preference and the limited role of women in decision making for the welfare of the family hinder the effective implementation of any reproductive health program in many parts of the country. provision of transport facilities to female employees and establishment of day care centre are part of the government initiatives to resolve the problems faced by employed women the social and academic environment available to them. mental and social well-being (and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity). Provincial Assembly and in National Assembly Protection of women against harassment at workplace Benazir Income Support Programme (BISP) for enhancing the confidence of women Establishment of working women hostel. therefore. nations of the world agreed that progress in addressing population issues could be better achieved through empowering women and girls to participate in their societies and economies on equal footing with men and boys and to make fundamental decisions about their lives. Labour Force and Employment Reproductive Health Reproductive health is a state of complete physical. Contrary to its importance. voluntary family planning and reproductive health services is a fundamental human right. balanced diet and clean and safe environment. safe drinking water. The provision of comprehensive.891 family welfare centres 165 . Population Welfare Programme Since 2002 the service delivery of the Population Welfare Programme has been under the administrative control of the provinces.Population.

about 60 million people move from rural to urban areas each year and this rate of movement is expected to continue. These centres also assist in public health education campaigns and raising awareness about personal hygiene. Some of the reforms to manage urbanization are: 166 . The hospitals registered as RHS-B Centres are providing training for doctors and paramedics. This is the first time in human history that the majority of the world's population has been shifted to urban areas. two million people shifted from rural to urban areas in Pakistan. contraceptives and the treatment of minor ailments. The population in urban areas increased from 65. Hakims and Homeopaths are a significant source of health care provision in both the urban and rural areas of the country. Moreover the lack of basic facilities in rural areas like electricity. opportunities to improve their lives and make a better future for their children.241 184 27576 14009 ` ` Table-12.734 133 9297 8071 2011-12 (Target) 3427 269 300 10. In Pakistan cities are growing rapidly as a result of the movement of people from rural areas in search of jobs. ` At present 292 Mobile Service Units (MSU) are functioning in the country. In order to cope with the situation.3 billion people (more than one half of world population) are living in urban areas. During 2010-11.953 Private Sector RHS-B Centers 145 Registered Medical Practitioners 24273 (RMPs) Hakeems and Homeopaths 13925 Source: Planning and Development Division Urbanization Urbanization is a process which involves the absolute and relative growth of towns and cities within defined areas. The FWC is one of the main service delivery networks of the program established in rural and urban areas for the provision of Mother Child Health Services (MCH). ` Reproductive Health Services-A Centres (RHSA) are hospital based units which provide the full range of family planning methods including contraceptive surgery services. the government launched 133 RHS-B Centers. In developing countries.28 million in 2011 to 67. 2010-11 (Achievement) 2891 207 292 2. The annual population growth in urban areas is expected to increase further in coming years which may cause socio economic problems in future. It is predicted that by 2030 at least 60 percent of the population will be living in cities. Resultantly urbanization has been accelerated worldwide. This means that within a year. Major reasons for urbanization are better economic opportunities and living conditions as compared to rural areas.55 million in 2012. The MSU extends reproductive health and family planning services to villages through regular (twice a week) camping services.5: Physical and Contraceptive Users Targets (Cumulative Number) Name of Service 2010-11 Outlet / Unit (Target) Public Sector Family Welfare Centers (FWCs) 3084 Reproductive Health-A Centers 258 Mobile Service Units (MSUs) 293 Contraceptive users (million) 9. Due to the growing needs and limited work opportunities people are rapidly moving towards urban centers. At present 3.Pakistan Economic Survey 2011-12 (FWC) during 2010-11. There are 207 RHS-A centres functioning throughout the country. the government is not only trying to create a better economic and healthy environment in urban areas but also provide basic facilities in slum areas. sanitation. Registered Medical Practitioners. safe drinking water and schooling are some of the reasons for rapid urbanization.

six labour policies have been announced by the government. 1959. Since independence. electricity. 2002 and 2010. public transportation. Consolidation of labour laws is underway Mine workers. 2012). The policy of 1972 was the most progressive one in terms of reforming the labour laws. water and sanitation services.8.06 109. schools and health clinics. Pakistan has a very large labour force due to its large population size. 1972. These policies laid down the parameters for the growth of trade unionism. Labour Force and Employment ` Provision of adequate infrastructure. These were announced in 1955.6: Urban and Rural Population (Million) Mid-Year Urban Population Rural Population 2008 57.87 2010 63. protection of workers’ rights. recognizes that there should be a cordial relationship between workers and employers and at the same time both must enjoy reasonable benefits without inflicting any set back on the economy.82 113.28 2012 67. the settlement of industrial disputes and the redress of workers grievances. such as roads. will be provided with the same protection as other workers The government has started the process to regularize/confirm contract employees Elimination of gender discrimination Special emphasis on education of workers children Regulate and control child labour 167 . The present government. The labour policy 2010 has been developed within a framework of objectives and initiatives.46 111.32 2009 60.7.55 Source: Planning and Development Division 105.07 110.Population. country.16 Labour Force and Employment The labour force can be defined as that part of the economically active population which can supply labour for production of goods and services in the Box 2 Labour Policy 2010 Objectives ` ` ` ` ` ` Promotion of employee’s social security and social insurance programme Adequate security of jobs should be available to the workers Conditions should be created so that workers and employers are committed to enhancing labour productivity Promotion of higher jobs be ensured at all levels based on suitability and merit Forced labour in all its forms to be eliminated Just and humane conditions of work be guaranteed to all workers Initiatives ` ` ` ` ` ` ` The government has increased the minimum wages from Rs. 1969.000 to Rs.000 per month (announced by Prime Minister on 1st May. This is only possible if there is a mutual awareness and understanding between workers and employers of the rights and obligations. some of which are summarized in Box-2 ` ` Table 12. Transforming slums into legitimate communities. whether contracted or permanent.05 2011 65. Government supportive policies for agricultural sector. houses.

24 million people which is 0.65 49.3 168 .84 3.2 49.5 34.4 Female 10. In the case of the urban areas the female CAR increased more than the male CAR and there was an increase in the overall participation rate.5 Male 66.3 10.5 49.1 31.9 53.5 3.05 50.6 27.5 Female 37.6 35.3 19.5 19.4 Female 27.The CAR is the percentage of the labour force in the total population while RAR is the percentage of the labour force in the population of persons 10 years of age and above.0 40.2011 period. However in the urban areas both male and female RAR increased which on aggregate eliminated the effect of reduction in the rural RAR. Pakistan has a labour force of 57.63 million more than the preceding year.0 Female 9.3 Male 49.0 27.0 Male 50.21 3.9 15.5 37.24 53.0 48.2 27. Indicators 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 Refined Activity (Participation) Rates (%) Pakistan Total 45.7: Civilian Labour Force.09 50.0 31. Therefore the net effect on participation in rural areas was zero.5 15.6 7.5 39.2 61.6 42.93 Source: Various Issues of Labour Force Survey.1 10.68 2.33 51.4 Female 50.91million more than the Table-12.72 Employed 42 46.8 Male 49.0 30.8 38.9 53.69 2.4 Rural Total 49.3 66.6 50.84 million.3 68.7 21. no change has been seen in RAR at the country level. This is a good sign of female empowerment.1 Augmented Total 31.78 53.6 49.4 27. An important insight in this change is that female participation is increasing in urban areas.9 10. Between 2008-09 and 2010-11.2 Female 35.5 percent to Table-12.3 34.5 50.4 Urban Total 29.6 Augmented Total 38.6 Augmented Total 61.1 Male 71.0 32.8 8.6 percent whereas at the same time the female CAR increased from 18.8 35.7 Augmented Total 53.4 50.7 Male 69.0 70.0 Female 26. The RAR gives a relatively better picture of change in the labour force participation in the country because it is comprised of the active labour force.4 Augmented Total 42.4 66.8 33.7 51.95 47.1 10.0 Rural Total 34.9 37.79 Unemployed 3.6 Female 7.33 53.7 Augmented Total 40.3 13.2 percent to 48.2 50.40 According to the Labour Force Survey (LFS) 2010-11.Pakistan Economic Survey 2011-12 previous year.1 Source: Labour Force Survey 2010-11 19.8 38.9 30.3 Female 14.8: Labour Force Participation Rates Indicators 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 Crude Activity (Participation) Rates (%) Pakistan Total 32.2 49. The total number of people employed during 2010-11 was 53.9 45. 2010-11 Labour Force Participation Rates The Labour force participation is estimated on the basis of the Crude Activity Rate (CAR) and Refined Activity Rate (RAR).3 39.8 41.2 70. the CAR showed a mixed trend in the rural areas.7 Female 20.3 Urban Total 39.6 Female 18. There is a marginal increase in the female RAR and a decrease in the male RAR. Employed and Unemployed for Pakistan YEAR 2003-04 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 Labour Force 45.5 21.4 49.1 2. 2009-10 56. 0. The RAR for the rural areas shows a marginal decrease during the 2009. Therefore as a whole.7 42. The male CAR decreased from 49.1 13.0 60.8 68.8 Female 13.12 (Million) 2010-11 57.7 45.4 percent.

7 26.96 0.07 2007-08 50.06 15.45 2001-02 42.6 59.3 51.3 60+ 38.65 0.54 1.7 98.66 1.2011 period.5 64. The Share of wholesale and retail trade has decreased from 16.2 98.81 2.70 35.6 24.2 98.9 29.54 0. In the 45-54 and the 55-59 age groups the participation rate has decreased compared to last year.25 0.32 2.5 37.6 28.8 63.19 0.08 2006-07 49.3 percent to 16.2 55.Population.8 58.0 26.85 0.4 percent during this period.11 0.61 0.79 1.8 85.2 37.3 28.7 percent in 2009-10 to 7.1 52.81 percent in 2008 to 32.6 29. 25-34 and 35-44 age groups both male and female participation has increased.11 12.1 16.8 97.2 25.10: Age Specific Labour Force Participation Rate (%) Age 2008-09 2009-10 Groups Total Male Female Total Male 10-14 13.68 10.6 15.2 97.4 98.5 64.0 30.95 4.2 percent in 2009-10 to 13.9 Employment by Sectors Most of the labour force in Pakistan works in the rural areas where agriculture is the dominant activity.09 1.7 percent in 2010-11 and the share of construction sector has increased from 6. In the 60+ category the male participation rate has decreased while an increasing trend is observed in the female group in this cohort. Labour Force and Employment Table 12.8 percent in 2010-11.60 15. Contrary to that the male participation shows a declining trend. In case of the 20-24.9 59.29 2009-10 53.00 3.4 55-59 62.70 33.0 28.9 24.6 55.2 percent while.27 2005-06 47.46 1. There was a declining trend (1.0 percent in 2010-11. 169 .3 96.55 1.8 36.84 0.5 25-29 57.9 24.77 -0.4 62.7 26.4 50-54 63.4 15. the share of community / social and personel service sector has decreased from 11.6 56.25 0.2 9.48 1.8 98.4 29.3 11.1 97.10 percent) for males in the 15- 19 age groups whereas an increasing trend (0.0 Table-12.7 96.88 2.5 27.3 26.2 64.5 Source: Labour Force Survey 2010-11 Female 9.7 45-49 62. The total labour force participation rate increased from 32.2 27. 2010-11 Male 14.9 37.0 97.6 93.70 percent) was found in females of the same age group. The employment share by manufacturing sector has increased from 13.2 19.9: Employment Trend and Changes from 1999-00 to 2010-11 (Million) Pakistan Rural Urban Year Employed Change Employed Change Employed Change 36.01 1999-00 38.15 13.4 40-44 62.1 95.19 25.99 0.6 84.56 26.7 62. The total labour force working in the agricultural sector remained unchanged during the 2008.0 52.8 96.44 34. The participation rate in the 10-14 age groups decreased for both males and females.08 37.64 2008-09 53.5 29.63 37.97 2003-04 46.62 14.7 54.95 32.2 23.8 65.5 61.37 14.12 28.3 97.5 96.7 84.6 92.7 18.22 1.6 97.68 14.5 12.3 Female 8. The manufacturing and construction sectors are also playing an important role in the provision of employment.2 percent to 10.83 percent in 2010-11.4 97.8 93.4 22.4 53. However.49 3.1 26.3 30-34 58.03 2010-11 Source: Various issues of Labour Force Survey (2010-11) Pakistan Bureau of Statistics Age Specific Labour force Participation rates There is an unambiguous disparity between the male and female participation rates in Pakistan in age groups of 15 to 29 and 60+.6 22.7 20-24 53.6 62.0 96.5 62.0 13.6 35-39 62.8 19. female participation has shown an increase of 1.0 25.4 15-19 37.8 58.21 1.79 15.5 Total 11.9 24.

1 35.3 74 4.0 45.3 38.6 16.4 3. This s indicates that there is a possibi ility that th he services are not pro operly counted d in the rural areas.2 Source: Pa akistan Bureau of Statistics.4 2.2 11.9 100 100 Total 1.2 1.1 11: Employme ent Shares by Industry (%) ) Major Indu ustry Divisions s 2008-09 2009-10 Total Male Fem male Total Male Female Total 100 100 10 00 100 100 1 100 Agriculture e/ forestry/ 45.9 1 0.8 2.0 13. fema ales Table12.12 2: Employmen nt Status by Sex S (%) 20 008-09 Total M Male Fema ale Employers s 1.9 13.2 29.2 6.6 10.4 20.2 11.8 2.9 11.7 perc cent and em mployers at 1.5 0 0.12 su uggests that the emplo oyee and se elfemployed d category acc count for 36 percent p and 39 9.2 11.9 0 0.7 20 100 100 2010-11 Male Fe emale 1.0 0 0. 0f the unpa aid family helpers.3 percent.6 18.9 20.0 Constructio on 6.1 11 1.9 percent of the to otal employ yed workfor rce respective ely.7 20.2 5.4 6.4 40.6 0 0.3 Fig-12.6 21 1.6 8.9 hunting & fishing Manufactu uring 13.2 2 2.3 2.3 63.3 11 1.4 6.8 Total 100 100 100 Source: La abour Force Su urvey 2010-11 decreas sed from 65 5 percent to 63.1 40 13.3 Wholesale & retail trade 16. This is followed by unpaid fam mily helpers at a 27.6 10.8 39.6 7 74.9 9 27.8 0.3 39.7 7.4 14.4 percent.2 13.7 8.4 4 39. In the ru ural populatio on the numb ber of unpaid d family help pers is much h larger than n the urban areas.1 13.1 37.6 0.6 0.7 7 36.10 million in 2008-10 to t 14.5 15.2 personal se ervice *Others 2.5 8.5 0 0.4 percen nt and males from 20.2 6.2 7 75.1 Transport/ storage & 5.6 0 0.5 20.6 17.2 1.6 11. 2009-10 Male Fem male 1.0 0 100 0 170 .1 2010-11 Male Fe emale 100 100 36.1 1 11.3 0 0.3 20.7 13 3.1 Self emplo oyed 33.4: In ndustry-wise Employment E S Share 11% 5% 2% 45% Agriculture / forestry / hunting g & fishing Manufacturi ing Construction n Wholesale & retail trade 16% Transport / s storage & commun nication Community y / social & persona al service 7% 14% Others Employm ment Status The struc cture of empl loyment as shown s in Tab ble 12.7 66.3 34.0 36. Labour L Force Survey S 2010-11 1 Total 100 45.2 pe ercent to17.Pakistan Economic E Sur rvey 2011-12 2 Table-12.1 40.2 5.91 milli ion in 2010-11.5 1.2 65 Employees s 35. The e data indicat tes that unpaid d family helpers have decr reased from 15.3 communication Communit ty/social & 11.0 16.1 10.5 0.4 100 Total 1.1 Unpaid fam mily Helpers 29.

77 14.77 18.36 9.95 Source: Labour Force Survey 2010-11.0 100.84 2010-11 Urban 0.Formal 29.0 77.24 13.0 100.50 0.0 100.8 27.0 100.6 percent to 72.Population.7 26.0 .0 100.7 26.0 100.0 100.13: Employment Status by Region 2008-09 2009-10 Total Urban Rural Total Urban Employers 0.4 percent during this period.73 Total 50.12 37.8 76.08 10. Pakistan Bureau of Statistics (Million) Rural 0.2 Urban 100.4 Source: Labour Force Survey 2010-11 Pakistan Bureau of Statistics.3 73.8 percent of Pakistan’s total labour force.6 .9 . On the basis of the existing population of 180.83 8.0 . The overall percentage of persons working in the informal sector shows an increase in both the rural (from 76.Informal 70. Female 100.4 72.Formal 23. However.0 79.5 23.2 percent).10 1.5 percent) and urban areas (from 70.0 100.48 1.54 53.6 29.0 100.53 5.91 19.3 percent to 76.7 23.4 29. According to the Labour Force Survey (LFS) 2008-09.4 percent to 28.0 36.0 100.Informal 76.5 76.3 73.90 Unpaid family Helpers 15.0 100.2 percent).14 0.4 73. In Pakistan the labour force is classified to include all persons who are ten years of age and above and during the period are without work. willing and able to work at the prevailing wage rate are unable to find jobs.3 73.85 8.Informal 73.8 74.7 26.0 100.67 10.0 100.8 .0 .2 percent which remained constant in 2010-11.82 18.18 8.14 illustrates that the female employment rate in the rural informal sector is showing an increasing trend while in the urban informal sector.1 73.0 100.39 53. The total employment in this sector reduced marginally from 26.1percent in 2010-11).9 71.17 13.0 100.6 28.59 12.79 15.1 Rural 100.8 percent during this period.9 26.2 76. The employment ratio in rural informal sector (76. the total labour force is approximately 57.0 21.6 68.6 26.3 23.83 percent.4 percent to 71.2 percent.9 67.0 28.6 27.3 76.4 31.2 23. the male employment rate in the rural informal sector stood at 76. in the urban informal sector employment has increased from 70.99 Rural 0.Formal 26.7 76.84 13.4 71.1 Unemployment Unemployment is the situation in which people.0 100.2 70.24 million.1 32.21 15. It provides jobs and reduces unemployment but in many cases jobs are low paid. This sector employs 73.1 100.2 percent in 2008-09 to 63. Labour Force and Employment Table 12.0 22.14: Formal and informal Sector-Distribution of non-Agriculture Workers (%) Sector 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 Total Male Female Total Male Female Total Male Total 100.60 0.9 63.0 100.8 24. 171 .2 25.2 72.46 0.8 29.71 million with a labour force participation rate of 32.0 100.7percent to 26. currently available and seeking work.26 15.0 100.5 percent) is higher compared to that in the urban areas (71.8 22. the employment rate has decreased (from 67.91 4.25 35.0 100.82 Employees 18.21 4. However in urban areas there was a significant reduction from 29.0 100.77 37. The formal sector did not show any significant changes with respect to employment level during the 2008-2011 period.6 70.01 1.4 70. Table 12.67 Self employed 16.2 77.30 13.62 15.76 13. Table 12.85 Formal and Informal Sectors The informal sector covers a wide range of labour market activities and plays an important and sometimes controversial role.26 Total 0.32 18.0 100.

06 3.8 mployment ra ate has incre eased from 5.14 1.14 0.85 1.87 1. The number of unemployed people e in Sindh has h increased from 0.55 2.93 1. the unemp ployment rate e in urban are eas has increa ased from 7.8 7.55 Source: Pa akistan Bureau of Statistics.76 Rural 1.6 5 The unem percent in n 2009-10 to o 6.10 1.71 0.7 perc cent in 2010-11 due to su upportive poli ices of gover rnment.44 million m in 2008 8-09 to 0.31 0.70 1.77 Urban 1.12 0.12 1.18 0. .Pakistan Economic E Sur rvey 2011-12 2 Table 12.08 1.49 172 . l The comparison among a provinc ces shows th hat the unem mployment ra ate in Punjab b is high (a as shown in Table 12.1 15: Unemployment rate by area a Area/sex Unemployed labo our force (in million) m Tot tal R Rural Urban 2008-09 2.5 5 4.12 1.44 4 Punjab 1.2 6. in Baluch histan numb ber of une employed people p increas sed from 0.21 0.70 million m in 2010-11 while in Khyber-P Pakhtunkhwa (KPK) a fall fa in unemployment has been observ ved.8 percen nt in 2009-10 to 4.93 1.17 0.48 M Million 2010-11 Male 2.23 2010-11 3.79 0.89 1.36 1.85 1.7 8.0 percent in 2010-11.21 Rural 1.06 0. Labour L Force Survey S 2010-11 1 Total Un nemployment rate (%) Rural Urban 5. the situ uation seems to be the opp posite. Fig-12. .07 million n in 2010-11. Often n it is perceiv ved that the unemployment rate of ru ural areas is greater g becau use in rural areas a there is s a lower chance of emp ployment co ompared to the t urban are eas where em mployment op pportunities are a relatively better due to o greater eco onomic activi ity.22 1.87 1.44 1.68 0.40 1. Howeve er.5: Un nemployment Rates R over the e Years 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2 2008 Tota al Rural Urban 2009 2010 2 2011 Table-12.81 0.7 7.76 1.0 0 4. The T apparent t reason of this t eality is that the t industrial sector is faci ing an hard re acute shortage s of energy e resour rces and ther refore there is a reduction n in job oppo ortunities.16 0.94 1. It is i not only af ffecting econ nomic develo opment but is s also hamper ring social life.1 5. Contrary to this percep ption.16) as compar red to other r provinces. .79 0.6 6 4.0 06 million in n 2008-09 to o 0.1 16: Unemploy yed – Pakistan n and Province es Province /A Area Unempl loyment 2008-09 2009 9-10 Total l Male Female T Total Male e Female Pakistan 2. .76 Total 3. .18 0.66 1.17 2009-10 3.70 0. As is evident from m the data in the t above tab ble.25 Fem male 1.89 1.2 2 percent in 2009-10 to 8.8 8 percent in n 2010-11. In rural area as unemploym ment rate has decreased fro om 4.91 1.23 0.76 1.47 0.40 1.

01 0.70 0.08 0.10 0.55 0.85 0.15 0.16: Unemployed – Pakistan and Provinces Province /Area Unemployment 2008-09 2009-10 Total Male Female Total Male Female Urban 0. telecom engineering.08 0.30.07 0.Population.20 Rural 0. telecom sales. Under this scheme.56 0.22 0.16 0. The Bureau Emigration and overseas employment is making concerted efforts to boost overseas employment.06 0. finance and accounting etc.06 0.02 0.01 0.02 Urban 0.10 0. Karachi.04 0.29 0.16 Urban 0.53 0.000 per month is paid to the participants Skill Development Councils: Five Skill Development Councils (SDCs) one each at Islamabad.36 0.06 0.02 0.06 0.23 0.03 0. prioritize them on the basis of market demand and facilitate the training of workers through the public and private sector.32 0.21 0.33 0.05 0. In 2011 the total number of registered Pakistani workers in different countries was 456.51 0.29 0.12 0.44 0.24 0. President’s Rozgar Scheme by National Bank of Pakistan (NBP): The National Bank of Pakistan has developed a full range of products under the President’s Rozgar Scheme with the brand name of “NBP KAROBAR”.01 Employment Expansion policies Employment expansion policies are based on accelerating the rate of growth of the economy along with a special emphasis on the development of the relatively more labour intensive sectors. Overseas Employment: Overseas employment also provides an opportunity to developing countries to reduce poverty and to improve income distribution through growth in employment linkages.000 is given for a maximum period of five years with a grace period of three months for establishing the business.14 0. NAVTEC initiated two major training programs (President’s Funnee Maharat Program and the Prime Minister’s Hunarmand Pakistan Program) in the country under the President and the Prime Minister’s directives.07 0.02 Total 0.04 Balochistan 0.01 0. Lahore.78 0.28 0.12 0.30 0.01 0.12 0. a loan up to size of Rs.04 0. A stipend of Rs 2.35 0.03 0.01 Source: Labour Force Survey 2010-11 Million 2010-11 Male 0.54 0.02 0.03 Female 0.03 Rural 0.35 0.16 0. The SDCs assess the training needs of their geographical areas. These programs remained focused on young men and women throughout the country to provide them quality technical training.01 0. both directly or indirectly.16 0.10 KPK 0.45 0.12 Urban 0. National Vocational and Technical Education Commission: The National Vocational and Technical Education Commission (NAVTEC) was established with a view to overcoming skill gaps.44 0. 100.22 0.22 Rural 0. The specific policies are as follows: Micro Credit Facilities: The Khushali Bank was established to provide loans of up to Rs. customer services. Information Technology: The development of the IT and telecom sector has created considerable employment opportunities.73 0.05 0. 173 .41 0. This is one of the fastest growing sectors of the economy. Labour Force and Employment Table-12.28 Sindh 0.44 0.02 0.25 0.04 0.55 0.20 0. 000 per person to unemployed people to set up their own business. and the non‐ availability and lack of standardization of proper curricula. the SME Bank was established to provide financial assistance and business support to small and medium enterprises.15 0.11 0.02 0.30 0. Moreover.05 0. Peshawar and Quetta has been established. These Councils are fulfilling the diversified training needs of the industrial and commercial sectors.03 0.57 0.55 0. for educated unemployed in a wide range of areas like call centres.05 0.04 0.50 0.893.07 0.

18 presents labour export statistics during the 2008-2011 period. Investing in Increasing Water Resources: Agriculture is the largest sector of Pakistan’s economy and provides employment to nearly 45 percent of the country’s work force. The Public Sector Benevolent Fund and Group Insurance provide benefits to government employees especially in the form of education scholarships to their children and other financial aid at the time of emergency. Kuwait.43 million in 2008 which increased to 0. Presently Pakistan is exporting skilled. Table 12. 174 . and Qatar. More than two‐ thirds of the county’s population lives in the rural areas and depends directly or indirectly on the agriculture sector for their livelihood. 25. Under the first phase. In this regard. Free Skill Development and the Food Support Programme for helping the needy people.915 applications were received. Oman and Kuwait.14 million in 2008 to 0. divisions.138 applications have been verified by HEC and NADRA and are being placed in ministries. semi-skilled and unskilled labour. MoUs have been signed with several labour importing countries like Malaysia. Provincial and District government levels. GDP growth originating in agriculture is more effective in raising the income of the poor and increasing overall employment than other sectors of the economy.# Countries 2008 2009 2010 2011 1 UAE 221765 140889 113312 156353 Kuwait 6250 1542 153 173 3 Malaysia 1756 2435 3287 2092 4 Oman 37441 34089 37878 53525 5 Qatar 10171 4061 3039 5121 6 Saudi Arabia 138283 201816 189888 222247 7 UK 756 556 430 308 Source: Bureau of Emigration and Overseas Employment Saudi Arabia being a Muslim state is attractive for millions of Pakistani workers seeking jobs abroad.46 million in 2011. The major constraint in Pakistan’s agriculture has been the lack of availability of water resources. Employee Projection Policies: Efforts are being made to establish an efficient.18 Table 12. The second phase of the NIP was launched in February 2008.Pakistan Economic Survey 2011-12 National Internship Program: The first phase of the National Internship Program (NIP) has been completed. The government is making a heavy investment to develop water resources which will not only be helpful in increasing water availability and electricity but will also expand the employment opportunities in the country. The Zakat fund provides a monthly subsistence allowance and a rehabilitation grant is given to all the needy Muslims. as shown in Table 12. Export of Manpower The government of Pakistan is making sincere efforts to boost overseas employment which will not only reduce the unemployment burden in the country but will also increase remittances and thereby help to improve the economy of Pakistan. The number of emigrants in Saudi Arabia has increased from 0.826 applicants were offered internship at the Federal. Due to this fact Saudi Arabia has become the largest market for Pakistani workers in the world besides the Gulf States such as United Arab Emirate (UAE). A total of 71. The Bait-ul-Mall Fund has different projects such as Individual Financial Assistance.22 million in 2011. departments and provincial governments and at district level. The number of emigrants was 0. equitable and rightsbased labour market that provides mechanisms to allow productivity growth in the economy and result in real wage increases.17: Number of Pakistani workers registered for overseas employment through Bureau of Emigration & Overseas Employment during the period 2008-2011 S. So far 21.

it is imperative to put further efforts for development of better human resources.Population.18: Workers Registered For Overseas Employment Year Highly Qualified Highly Skilled Skilled Semi-Skilled Un-Skilled Total 2008 9713 33173 177791 4209 205428 430314 2009 4954 3260 182657 2465 210192 403528 2010 7081 31650 165726 5181 153266 362904 2011 6974 3018 171672 73247 201982 456893 Total 28722 71101 697846 85102 770868 1653639 Source: Bureau of Emigration and Overseas Employment Conclusion Historically. Labour Force and Employment Table 12. This has been accompanied by an increased labor participation rate. 175 . high population growth rate has been a major factor in Pakistan’s overall economic development. thereby leading to a reduction in the average growth rate of the population. Despite these improvements Pakistan is still lagging behind neighboring countries. Therefore. Improvements in health facilities and promotion of population welfare activities through the Ministry of Population Welfare have contributed to a significant decline in the crude birth and fertility rates. The government is committed to allocating funds and developing innovative policy measures to address the issue of managing population growth and the labour force.

.80 85.58 39.00 83.10 101.49 27.60 82.32 29.1 POPULATION Mid Year Population (mln) Labour Force Participation Rate(%) Civilian Labour Force (mln) Employed Total (mln) Crude Birth Rate Crude Infant Death Mortality Rate Rate (per 1000 persons) 1981 * 85.52 39.00 7. Note : Population figures in different tables (2) Labour Force Participation Rate : Labour Force Surveys..54 28. .50 1997 130.97 31.70 79.11 32.97 40.01 31..61 43.90 2000 139.30 25.60 73..10 32..35 36.42 27.40 1998 * 133.14 54.00 2003 148. population and (3) Infant Mortality Rate / Life expectancy at birth : Pakistan growth rates in this table have been Demographic Surveys.50 27.60 1996 127.10 100.60 9.17 52.20 8.94 32.40 7.22 .51 32.80 102.70 . : not available Sources : (1) Population : Population Census Organisation.50 47. may not tally due to different sources of Population Census of Pakistan 1998 data / agencies.82 43.86 .13 35.TABLE 12.90 84.23 49.69 35.41 28.20 2009 169.50 9..37 26.56 29.90 1993 118.17 36.30 10.90 72.46 34. 1991 112.00 2004 151..08 37.48 30. Pakistan * : Census Years.97 40.38 37.40 72.00 .41 32.07 25.90 10. . 2006 156. Federal Bureau of Statistics and Planning estimated on the basis of average annual Commission growth rate during 1981 and 1998 (4) Crude Birth Rate/Crude Death Rate: (i) Population Census of Pakistan 1981* and 1998* (ii) Pakistan Demographic Survey 1996-97 (5) Sub Group II on Population for the 10th Five Year Peoples Plan 2010-15 (6) National Institute of Population Studies (NIPS) .98 57.50 8. However.25 27..86 33.90 2005 153.00 .33 55.50 29.80 1994 121.71 32. 1999 136.18 32.76 52. 2001 142.23 38.41 45.20 69..00 7.88 33.10 7. . .50 2012 180.80 8.98 58.45 35.50 2010 173. .16 33.87 32.20 85.91 31.83 59. 2002 145.22 .77 32.61 27.28 29. .38 37. ..22 50.50 7.30 8.80 8..20 94.96 30..70 2007 162.70 70.10 76.61 43.48 27.95 42.35 28.30 70..60 9.00 2011 177.51 28.41 46.09 30.88 40.40 1995 124.01 33.05 28.40 1992 115.21 29.70 30.80 27.71 28.45 27.45 38.78 48.48 41.41 28..50 7. .22 54.40 2008 166.01 39.81 55.20 7.78 24.52 25.68 27.82 50.90 100..03 8.38 39. Planning Commission and Demographic Survey 1991 and 1996-97.. . .09 30.23 37.

09 42.07 2010 173..00 77.79 60. .79 70.06 2009 169.46 2011 177.11 60..05 61.19 1995 124.91 77.51 Sources: Population Census Organization Planning Commission.23 68.09 60.09 65.59 76.93 82.65 50.05 89.27 78.54 79.35 58.63 48.44 1998 * 133.40 69.11 47.61 77.86 95.13 29.91 103.98 62.65 67.91 2000 139.32 84.76 57.94 109. 55.45 52.65 99.64 40.50 81.76 83.51 86.31 55.83 56.62 73.75 97.18 44.82 66.91 2008 166. September 1972.05 2005 153.23 37.45 64.03 44. .08 1999 136.TABLE 12.51 65.55 2006 156.36 2002 146. January 1961.67 28.12 67..61 40.56 88.54 64.50 74.38 71.60 1993 118.53 101. FBS .87 87.51 110.36 .66 82.89 75.66 58.49 94.42 61.96 93.59 85.81 76.92 1991 112.78 71.13 72.48 93. 2007 162.69 1997 130.45 1994 121.41 77.96 101.2 POPULATION BY SEX AND RURAL / URBAN AREAS (million) Mid Year All Areas Rural areas Urban areas Male Female 1981 * 85. Islamabad Labour Force Survey.10 111.69 91.28 91.88 59.95 1996 127.82 * : Census Year Note: Population Censuses were conducted in February 1951. and March 1981 and 24.58 43.79 35.44 34.29 63.06 2003 149.63 2001 142..48 90.12 2004 152.01 63.17 49.41 105.77 .95 1992 115.82 53.60 46.

833 131 20.TABLE 12.600 8.874 63. ** : Adjusted due to transfer of some mouzas from Rawalpindi to Islamabad district Totals may not tally due to rounding of figures 1998 .465 72 17.220 82 259 183 100 113 7 92 (In thousand Nos.059 1.589 1.143 28.761 2.810 767 306 .196 399 13 9.225 16.994 1.412 136 34.579 359 Punjab Sind 30.029 11.500 7.131 647 218 8 7.863 1.048 1.332 2.767 113 6.316 46.742 1.909 75 13.913 1.602 26.607 14. 11.232 4.476 106 17.232 185 24.786 9.021 155 22.363 1.582 4.860 9.726 1.595 549 181 5 48.533 1.750 7.250 238 Balochistan 6.657 2.352 68.3 POPULATION BY SEX.332 5.071 1.030 5.806 86 15.220 4.023 24.100 3.071 10.300 2.193 7.199 44.977 3. URBAN/RURAL AREAS.948 50.655 2.061 4.405 14..606 1.433 898 371 .507 3..) Density Rural (Per sq.752 20.036 22.432 9.478 25.074 91 6. Male Female km) Region/ Province Both Sexes Total Male Female Both Sexes 1981 CENSUS PAKISTAN Islamabad Punjab Sind Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Balochistan FATA 84.594 77 9. 12.527 23.935 15. .091 1.253 340 47.621 38.139 1.209 7.243 1.284 1.192 3.284 89.019 12.997 2.909 5.098 14.947 64 16.193 2. 1972.999 5.430 7.194 166 Islamabad 805 434 371 529 291 238 276 143 133 889 73.398 6.485 117 * : This population does not include the population if AJK and Gilgit Baltistan Source: Population Census Organization.1981 AND 1998 CENSUS Population* Urban Both Sexes Male Female 1972 CENSUS PAKISTAN Islamabad** Punjab** Sind Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Balochistan FATA 65.183 5.056 23.089 8.566 3.407 216 Khyber Pakhtunkhwa 17.122 43.094 35.342 14.904 6.026 1.655 2.652 1.156 8..716 161 28.029 2.440 16.290 1.143 40.841 204 13.987 3.477 958 1.567 31 4.491 34.056 106 376 230 135 148 13 81 1998 CENSUS PAKISTAN 132.574 4.Census Report of Pakistan does not contain the 1972 Census figures.388 2.176 1.840 7.266 30.566 4. 60.340 19 FATA 3.052 8.429 2.241 10.258 22.428 8.665 677 .524 85 46 39 3.443 3.952 4.027 46 4.569 849 719 4.206 2.199 31.716 1.309 238 37.396 3.478 43.292 19.744 9.

106 8.891 2.584 2.400 6.055 12.909 20-24 11.848 1.653 1.4 19.767 11.119 2.331 4.105 2.574 13.004 3.396 4.569 849 720 1.452 1.912 2.505 60-64 2.956 1.745 2.402 6.170 1.815 25-29 9.713 1.216 987 1.610 1.459 1.372 742 630 909 504 405 799 431 368 478 265 214 386 214 172 400 217 183 Source: Population Census Organization.373 6.839 1.631 1.625 2.193 3.186 2.841 3.512 1.733 2.254 40-44 5.272 1.803 7.176 67.215 10.429 1.391 1.050 2.760 3.995 2.954 9.644 7.118 9.931 45-49 4.074 1.270 2.040 4.132 882 796 424 549 232 261 281 1981 Census 12.466 1.090 6.226 2.846 3.119 967 1.9 20.521 4.469 1.807 2.395 2.643 3.408 778 849 75 and above 1.214 8.418 65-69 1.563 * : Figures of FATA not included 61.223 4.974 5.854 2.610 3.162 42.203 1.187 1.966 1.024 3.838 1. SEX URBAN/RURAL AREAS 1981 AND 1998 CENSUS Age (in years) Total Male Rural Male (In thousand Nos.9 10-14 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 50-54 55-59 60-64 65-69 70-74 75 and above 82.490 5.4 5.514 2.320 1.175 1.067 2.225 13.822 6.245 5.228 5.167 3.121 1.074 991 569 695 334 374 466 129.909 15-19 13.608 4.766 1.812 1.935 2.965 6.219 704 631 714 86.402 1.791 3.973 4.617 4.360 50-54 4.076 1.001 867 987 851 585 491 564 458 632 531 58.865 3.158 3.815 2.328 751 917 431 484 588 23.745 5.466 6.709 6.480 2.951 22.946 3.588 2.TABLE 12.604 2.479 4.554 850 70-74 1.083 3.201 55-59 2.318 1.776 1.483 1.194 2.922 2.148 2.222 All ages 0.690 4.588 5.108 1.200 6.958 2.773 4.862 1.) Urban Male Female Both Sexes Female Both Sexes Female Both Sexes All ages 0.179 618 973 420 526 622 27.828 2.276 1.995 9.540 2.161 1.618 3.088 30.763 6.553 7.467 1.332 1.388 2.732 8.730 6.204 2.197 3.022 1.119 3.4 POPULATION BY AGE.684 5.357 9.984 1.121 1.846 2.008 1.076 2.812 1.899 5.111 1.948 1.854 1.705 20.077 1.387 4.133 4.879 30-34 8.229 2.563 2.333 4.086 1.638 859 1.232 35-39 6.719 1.211 11.365 1.571 10-14 16.205 1.516 41.571 2.595 1.981 3.891 4.092 5.660 2. .323 4.628 1.868 1.813 1.928 1.591 7.637 1.907 6.777 1.552 3.575 2.270 1.479 1.948 1.299 555 678 782 38.857 4.328 2.611 2.811 5.667 755 900 1.142 10.534 14.937 1.579 3.627 7.159 950 944 776 757 634 668 608 606 526 490 392 459 337 242 182 327 222 135 97 152 109 160 121 1998 Census* 44.369 43.761 5.

4) 205.464 (59.) 1972 1981 65.096 (100.731 (13.2) 118 (0.0) Province Punjab Sind Balochistan 906 96 (0.6) Source: Population Census Organisation .8) 140.4) 8.9) 6.332 (3.6) 14.0) 6.566 (5.345 (25.556 (13.1) 19.3) Note : Percentage distribution is given in parentheses Islamabad 238 340 805 (0.220 (3.914 (17.292 (56.4) 27.309 (100.5) 1961 42.5 ENUMERATED POPULATION OF PAKISTAN BY PROVINCE.744 (13.621 (55.607 (57.352 (100.440 (23.491 (3.367 (19.7) 347.6) 1951 33.190 (43.TABLE 12.8) 37.199 (2.6) 47.061 (13.029 (22.048 (17.0) 11.4) (0.332 (5.521 (9.8) 2.388 (12.847 (4.0) 5.4) 73.9) 1.740 (100.176 (2.541 (60.254 (100.4) 1.0) 8.3) 25.3) Population (In thousand Nos.0) 4.353 (3.1) (0.7) 2. LAND AREA AND PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION 1951-1998 Area Sq km PAKISTAN 796.880 (100.4) (0.6) 4.1) 2.5) 1.9) 20.167 (3.1) 1998 132.6) 30.7) 84.429 (3.0) 17.0) Khyber Pakhtunkhwa FATA 74.5) 1.4) 3.156 (21.

6 75.6 65.9 48.1 62.8 56.7 54.6 24.5 25.1 51.3 83.5 34.5 61. .6 57..1 17.8 1.0 69.3 6.5 Male 53.0 47..7 12.8 Rural 1981 10 Years & Above 17.7 17.3 47.3 32.7 69..8 28.2 53.0 16.6 42.7 44.5 48.TABLE 12.3 Female 11.0 1981 10 Years & Above 26.1 Male 48.8 34.4 70.6 ..5 39.1 BALOCHISTAN Both Sexes 23.5 3.3 57.7 21.2 SIND Both Sexes 43.4 46.2 77.4 65.2 31.8 42.1 27...8 PAKISTAN Both Sexes 41.9 24.2 13.4 20. Source: Population Census Organisation ..7 6.4 10.6 62.2 Male 79.8 46.5 39. .8 25.4 24.9 6.1 46.5 10..4 10.2 7.2 35.4 18.8 31.0 72.0 21.3 67. .8 24.6 2.2 21.0 6.9 58.5 70.0 29.3 59.6 46.4 36..5 5.1 55.8 FATA Both Sexes .6 82.. 1998 15 Years & Above 30.8 Male 55.0 55. Female .6 62.8 59.6 66.8 1998 15 Years & Above 61. Male .4 Female 28.0 36.4 80.8 6.1 33.9 68.7 55.4 15.7 50.6 9.0 KHYBER PAKHTUNKHWA Both Sexes 32.8 47. 10 Years & Above 33. .1 39.8 Female 58.8 46.3 54.7 58.8 Female 32.8 44.2 63.9 0.6 51.9 56.9 54. ..5 27.6 11.8 57. 10 Years & Above 63.1 25.2 4. 1998 AND 1981 CENSUS Total 1998 Sex 15 Years & Above 10 Years & Above 43.1 Male 33.4 51.4 . REGION AND URBAN/RURAL AREAS.7 Female 15.8 16.8 38.9 53.2 42.9 12.5 .0 Urban 1981 10 Years & Above 47..7 25.7 37.9 16.1 70.8 73.5 ISLAMABAD Both Sexes 70.4 29.4 18. : Not available. FATA : Federally Administered Tribal Areas.1 33.7 20.2 35.0 14.9 57.3 37.3 26.6 Male 53.7 64.1 45. .1 48.7 3.2 16.3 15.7 34.8 7. .8 32.4 28..3 PUNJAB Both Sexes 43.9 32.7 14.2 69.4 16.6 16.0 50.9 0.5 75.1 14.6 LITERACY RATIOS OF POPULATION BY SEX.2 35.9 10.3 20.2 9.2 36.9 34.5 43.8 35.6 Female 31.

75 0.864 23.43 23.740 100 20.770 100 86.566 4.00 20.36 177.630 (E) 4.392 13.61 Year 2005 153.40 Year 2006 156.683 54.330 1.61 340 0.82 0.52 42.00 94.61 27.029 22.07 4.58 41.40 805 0.292 56.41 7.63 35.220 3.061 13.71 36.770 1.176 2.458 22.556 13.13 4.60 8.59 11.914 17.124 1.7 PROVINCE-WISE POPULATION.621 55.00 35.550 54.352 100 73.TABLE 12.048 17.03 3.82 23. 2007.199 2.11 Year 1951 33.63 30. 2006. LAND AREA AND PERCENT DISTRIBUTION 1951.800 5.856 13.90 4.690 (E) 2.1998.640 (E) 13.70 74.00 87.190 43.300 23.42 906 0.521 9.770 13. 2010 and 2011 Province Area Sq.00 96.30 Year 1981 84.070 5.410 (E) 23.332 5.744 13.255 55.180 23.79 140.41 6.1981.254 100 47.541 60.291 100.71 Sources : i) Population Census Organization ii) Planning and Development Division .300 1.10 3.12 4.50 1.124 940 (E) 0.300 13.200 2.76 0. 2005.96 3.01 21.61 0.36 347.960 100 85.650 (E) 55.42 9.40 Year 1998 132.37 A PAKISTAN i) PUNJAB ii) SINDH KHYBER PAKHTUNKHW iii) iv) BALOCHISTAN v) FATA vi) ISLAMABAD 1.96 3.510 100.00 21.43 8.332 3.700 54.30 (Population in Thousand Nos.90 96 0.42 8. Kms 796.14 2.100 100.004 5.190 5.88 173.621 2.00 17.100 2.90 6.) Year Year Year 2007 2010 2011 16.345 25.440 23.096 100 205.50 1.167 3.13 19.

19 14.85 4.25 6.55 51.18 33.44 0.79 0.50 2.56 1.29 1.26 34.04 44.25 51.66 6.33 60.22 21.94 45.34 33.43 100.86 3.72 1.44 1.05 31.11 51.00 50.78 32.15 6.83 1.00 52.73 1.30 9.00 54.26 29.97 11.24 61.07 28.64 Civilian Labour Force PAKISTAN Rural Urban PUNJAB Rural Urban SINDH Rural Urban KHYBER 100.33 49.34 32.95 51.00 50.71 40.52 1.90 3.78 0.29 58.29 3.03 37.60 42.36 4.76 16.98 2.73 2.51 36.07 2.08 10.57 1.64 34.01 38.74 15.94 2.75 50.48 65.29 100.27 58.50 45.00 53.64 PAKHTUNKHW 100.18 35.19 36.87 5.57 51.17 19.29 36.19 1.08 2.97 15.61 33.27 47.60 46.82 8.97 33.74 35.65 Rural Urban Balochistan Rural Urban 100.43 38.69 32.26 39.30 43.00 49.13 16.00 50.88 50.29 1.12 38.61 2.81 35.06 60.96 0.06 48.86 0.58 37.48 40.71 100.10 34.14 43.02 31.00 54.49 18.59 34.93 3.26 43.90 18.44 7.32 42.02 41.71 11.88 52.67 49.33 Population 100.69 0.39 43.46 45.61 30.37 34.8 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF POPULATION OF 10 YEARS AND ABOVE AND CIVILIAN LABOUR FORCE BY SEX AND NATURE OF ACTIVITY (2010-11) (Percent Share) Not in Civilian Total Civilian Employed Unemployed Labour Force Labour Force Total Male Female Total Male Female Total Male Female Total Male Female Total Male Female 100.00 1.54 34.25 Sources : Labour Force Survey 2010-11 Pakistan Bureau of Statistics .43 64.28 1.00 55.00 3.41 5.74 1.54 46.87 100.00 31.38 7.43 1.03 12.30 0.84 48.66 2.97 4.31 15.71 49.29 45.00 51.46 17.24 34.76 1.39 18.97 43.00 55.72 1.05 35.45 13.19 44.98 38.31 6.37 42.07 2.73 100.55 41.20 61.03 48.80 100.83 35.94 2.69 35.45 44.00 48.74 2.81 39.74 13.70 4.66 100.99 47.76 34.51 36.25 1.86 18.42 2.79 48.65 100.05 38.55 1.21 35.00 50.32 33.53 15.84 1.00 19.98 49.42 34.12 45.89 39.98 13.TABLE 12.94 54.08 0.73 61.68 49.13 36.00 51.79 4.78 0.95 15.16 49.21 39.14 30.84 0.49 35.18 100.64 3.55 2.14 12.07 1.68 28.66 100.65 39.58 31.00 48.32 0.26 40.41 45.73 3.

.

26 Unemployed Labour Force 3.76 1.41 54.82 18.) Mid Year 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 Population 150.04 6.57 1.46 59.71 54.70 1.94 173.87 29.37 49.91 17.10 180.73 4.99 Source : Labour Force Surveys By Pakistan Bureau of Statistics Planning and Development Division For the years 2000-01.51 177.36 61.26 34.14 1.83 31.15 40.32 41.87 29.84 75.62 52.20 5.74 5.98 Urban 13.33 31.14 59.22 105.41 Rural 31.25 129. 2002-03 and 2004-05 LFS was not conducted .90 34.01 123.56 127.85 1.40 67.78 37.96 156.05 54.58 3.76 111.60 55.74 Urban 9.46 38.15 15.99 29.21 8.20 Labour Force 45.86 74.89 1.60 7.11 7.79 17.69 6.46 1.87 29.29 34.41 169.70 8.76 Rural 31.57 14.76 116.9 LABOUR FORCE AND EMPLOYMENT (Million Nos.11 7.91 166.24 Employed Labour Force Rural 28.46 3.46 18.41 32.70 113.53 2.60 3.80 29.30 17.33 1.43 7.95 6.75 108.87 40.78 34.05 108.99 29.63 36.00 1.81 32.50 34.87 15.90 Working Age Population Rural 73.47 Rural 100.28 1.05 117.69 61.17 32.02 37.58 16.18 17.97 41.19 83.55 102.69 42.67 57.68 4.23 33.20 5.41 70.81 32.65 32.35 4.04 3.79 34.20 30.98 3.53 36.18 43.50 52.55 115.86 84.34 7.18 3.79 45.82 4.52 109.70 Labour Force Participation Rates ( 30.20 153.72 1.68 9.22 47.29 38.84 8.32 35.41 54.95 5.28 1.85 1.79 18.46 5.71 4.93 1.18 62.TABLE 12.55 5.08 Urban 51.84 34.69 Unemployment Rate (%) Rural 6.50 121.82 50.62 36.01 118.98 32.71 101.70 Urban 39.20 28.77 162.22 112.97 46.22 32.09 Urban 1.28 1.22 58.13 2.02 37.83 32.25 16.73 4.16 52.76 82.52 Rural 2.68 51.58 18.00 85.02 54.07 Urban 14.02 33.26 29.59 14.68 55.73 2.84 30.11 38.24 39.05 45.22 13.79 74.31 40.02 Urban 29.03 15.46 5.29 34.

65 40.92 5.89 3.03 28.39 6.86 23.38 7.54 6.32 2.82 51.21 0.26 2.57 39.31 2.51 7.29 6.28 2.60 5.& Manu.66 3.45 32.18 0.92 3.79 2011 176.53 42.57 32.45 22.98 2006 * 156.73 2002 145.60 2001 142.Trade Others Force ture facturing ruction Distriport (End June) tion Rate(%) Force loyment bution 2000 139.39 6.17 53. 2002-03 and 2004-05 LFS was not conducted .33 2.18 7.96 2.26 1.84 3.64 16.29 2.52 6.22 2.36 2.14 18.12 3.15 5.16 0.83 57.36 2.32 18.78 8.20 32.44 54.16 53.82 3.50 3.Const.51 3.65 2009 168.74 8.41 45.40 24.95 7.96 28.98 31.40 2.49 3.28 6.03 7.15 2010 172.62 0.21 0.91 0.07 4.96 30.43 6.38 3.45 0.26 1.63 7.) Mining ElectriMid Crude Employed Year Popula.77 50.31 2.81 55.78 Source: Pakistan Bureau of Statistics Planning and Development Division For the years 2000-01.76 28.77 32.17 37.72 6.63 2.48 6.51 2.63 7.75 6.13 47.97 40.99 32.88 5.68 5.Labour Agricul.17 3.80 21.21 3.47 17.34 2007 161.75 7.TABLE 12.47 4.97 43.63 6.75 48.85 2.city & Gas Trans.37 20.01 6.40 0.95 3.60 2.46 0.03 5.47 0.22 18.63 2004 151.61 2008 165.61 3.22 50.34 5.05 52.89 6.10 POPULATION AND LABOUR FORCE (Million Nos.41 46.76 24.85 2005 153.98 56.55 2.37 2.91 3.78 6.09 30.43 2.78 0.50 2003 149.04 5.Activity Labour Unemp.24 38.86 28.82 8.42 18.60 43.26 5.97 41.52 0.97 44.

80 Construction Electricity & Gas Distribution 5.15 12.80 16.37 43.91 13.11 DISTRIBUTION OF EMPLOYED PERSONS OF 10 YEARS AGE AND ABOVE BY MAJOR INDUSTRIES Years 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009* 2010 2011 * : Estimated Agriculture 48.47 12.39 14.09 42.08 44.64 5.96 45.12 5.50 15.03 13.80 16.TABLE 12.29 0.73 14.05 Mining & Manufacturing 11.46 14.03 13.56 0.49 5.67 5.62 15.42 48.93 13.02 5.65 13.74 14.28 12.83 0.73 14.60 5.46 Source: Pakistan Bureau of Statistics Labour Force Surveys .61 44.67 6.11 13.14 13.67 15.85 16.69 6.65 45.48 Transport Trade (Percentage) Others 5.70 5.39 5.62 0.50 15.83 0.75 6.34 13.12 5.80 13.05 0.42 15.74 0.13 0.85 16.80 6.39 5.70 6.42 42.05 43.05 43.09 43.78 0.70 6.77 5.81 6.81 5.55 13.95 0.17 5.55 11.23 16.24 16.80 13.90 14.66 6.05 0.78 0.02 5.91 13.90 14.11 16.

13 78.50 0.84 1..89 3.46 0.37 0.03 0.87 1.66 2.01 0.73 0. Hunting and Forestry Fishing Mining and Quarrying Manufacturing Electricity.75 0.31 11.01 0.17 100.68 1.53 1.17 1.96 0.62 1.48 0.86 0.66 0.49 0.25 1.81 0.44 0..34 0.02 0. 0.71 4.77 1.18 1.30 0.57 0.41 1.01 . 0.28 1.15 7.01 0.01 0.98 1.95 2.46 2.99 100.81 1.00 45.47 0.08 1 2 3 4 5 6 Construction 7 Wholesale.21 3.62 6.48 0.21 83.47 0.15 1..03 0.01 0.23 2.18 12.70 2.20 1.42 2.94 1.02 2. 8 Restaurant and Hotels 9 Transport.73 0.08 1.44 10.06 1.88 6.80 0.02 0.40 2.88 3.00 47.03 7.52 36.TABLE 12.99 0..04 0.88 0.05 58.41 0.91 0.52 4.19 0.08 0.97 8.03 1. renting and 11 business activities Public Administration and 12 defence.31 0.89 0.97 1.29 1.01 0.47 7.86 0.43 3. : Not available 0.35 0.05 10.31 0.05 0.71 43.64 5.01 0.12 1.05 0.05 43.29 2.01 0.55 1.50 3.71 51.01 0.32 0.00 37.18 0.84 7.99 0.40 0.79 0.07 0.01 .01 .51 6.05 3.40 6.12 1.89 6.18 4.39 0.02 0.44 0.90 1.32 0.42 0. Gas and Water PAKISTAN Total Rural Urban Total PUNJAB Rural Urban Total SINDH Rural Urban KHYBER PAKHTUNKHWA (Percentage) BALUCHISTAN Total Rural Urban Total Rural Urban 100.38 100. 17 Extraterritorial organization and bodies 0..04 16.56 2.46 2.12 2.35 4.38 1.49 12.93 0.02 0.95 0.48 6.95 7.97 0.07 4.15 13.15 0.64 1.04 3.50 0.61 1.01 0.05 15.74 6.01 0.70 1.90 0.92 0.03 0.31 5.32 1.12 6.95 14.01 0.48 2.50 11. 0.11 0.67 1.01 0.31 3.01 0.05 14.32 4. Storage and Communication 10 Financial Intermediation Real estate..44 0.40 1.05 21.24 0.58 0.90 0.20 4.34 0.30 0.40 1.84 1.35 1.49 0.72 14.00 45.71 2.69 1.47 0.02 0.03 7.60 2.65 0.22 1.87 0.01 0.01 . compulsory social security 13 Education 14 Health and social Other Community.37 2.88 0.99 0. .02 0.72 1.48 10.03 7.02 0.06 41.29 1.92 0.71 0.00 54.02 0.51 2.52 4.20 0.01 0.95 0.31 72.45 1.43 0.20 4.19 100.43 0.08 1.30 0.01 Source : Labour Force Survey 2010-11.10 29.70 0.42 0.68 0.64 4.12 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF EMPLOYED PERSONS OF 10 YEARS AGE AND ABOVE BY MAJOR INDUSTRY 2010-11 Major Industry Division Total Agriculture.12 0. Retail Trade.66 1. Social 15 and Personal Service activities Activities of private households as employers 16 and undifferentiated production.91 0.65 0.26 0.70 1.93 15.47 70.70 1.93 0.40 0.98 6. 0.81 0.52 2.39 0.40 0. Pakistan Bureau of Statistics .96 14.01 0.32 3.14 .34 1.21 1.96 0.74 5.12 27.71 3.30 43.47 0.04 1.45 0.68 0.

27 10 years & over Both Sexes Male Female 10-14 Male Female 15-19 Male Female 20-24 Male Female 25-34 Male Female 35-44 Male Female 45-54 Male Female 55-59 Male Female 60+ Male Female .95 7.72 18.57 16.74 18.03 15.03 21.42 92.78 90.83 21.57 25.59 19.76 20.69 59.09 9.84 45.45 6.90 95.41 18.19 14.95 89.36 43.27 90.74 70.55 19.13 AGE SPECIFIC LABOUR FORCE PARTICIPATION RATE (Percentage) Age Group 1998-99 1999-00 2000-01 2001-02 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 43.55 19.62 Source: Labour Force Surveys.97 18.66 16.29 96.86 15.22 13.44 17.12 20.39 88.60 86.37 12.56 13.32 14.51 15.93 18.01 25.80 97.27 24.48 52.88 96.80 17..20 22.23 17.32 2.44 17.39 22.94 96. : Not available 59.38 55.38 58.49 54.63 20.68 18.42 9.18 6.45 6.63 11.07 97.69 25.57 58.70 21.07 96.61 15.28 57.68 18.92 9.80 70.61 85.37 27.50 15.19 85.69 15.04 43.31 20.88 96.27 8.41 93.78 87.54 25.68 13.84 63.53 27.70 15.68 19.89 68.31 97.66 98.93 20.26 7.56 13.69 68.54 19.89 25.53 2008-09 45.74 70.57 16.44 98.51 21.36 21.90 95.54 14.96 14.27 18.90 21.63 98.70 95. Pakistan Bureau of Statistics .36 21.18 6.90 21.51 85.45 45.59 17.03 15.70 18.01 92.42 25.54 23.69 53.34 70.40 52.19 14.65 13.18 70.29 16.34 70.94 96.18 56.95 14.90 46.20 9.43 13.50 56.27 18.90 43.50 56.07 97.46 56.62 97.51 85.00 14.21 60.48 97.66 97.70 18.86 93.00 14.01 71.61 15.16 96.83 51.87 26.46 97.63 15.95 89.71 26.TABLE 12.67 96.64 95.10 16.76 97.35 92.94 17.69 59.37 2009-10 45.63 20.26 27.80 97.39 13.19 23.36 43.17 69.24 52.39 88.91 87.98 2010-11 45.03 96.76 60.60 42.67 97.29 28.14 96.20 97.14 19.34 70.62 25.48 13.28 57.90 85.49 19.68 9.87 16.93 18.79 58.15 90.98 96.64 95.78 87.63 11.62 22.51 84.37 12.24 14.58 84.31 97.49 19.17 84.37 24.65 24.63 20.16 21.93 96.32 14.75 96.92 17.57 58.34 29.96 29.67 14.61 17.24 26.52 59.66 69.87 97.03 96.

00 120.00 500.00 145.00 250.57 292.30 298.00 Data pertains to month of November each year 2003 250.00 450.50 262.00 275.00 225.00 397.07 298.00 250.00 250.00 300.67 685.75 325.00 233.00 250.00 90.00 400.00 650.27 145.00 525.00 325.00 167.92 Source: Pakistan Bureau of Statistics .75 225.00 600.00 402.00 400.00 200.00 160.00 600.00 300.00 2009 625.00 557.00 300.00 2010 650.50 Peshawar 200.50 262.00 325.00 145.17 816.00 133.00 300.00 600.00 275.00 491.00 230.00 508.00 100.50 300.00 575.00 262.00 250.50 262.00 418.00 90.00 250.00 450.00 331.00 582.75 225.11 182.00 Quetta 250.00 387.50 262.00 115.58 200.00 375.00 500.17 579.23 325.00 301.00 308.00 361.00 331.00 325.67 275.00 185.00 575.57 292.50 262.00 527.00 589.00 318.00 450.00 Karachi 172.42 662.00 120.00 225.50 225.00 650.50 175.00 600.00 450.00 625.00 111.00 250.00 600.00 Quetta 250.00 250.00 250.00 750.42 250.07 298.00 Mason (Raj) Islamabad 225.00 225.08 Lahore 262.00 250.00 375.00 308.00 450.00 80.00 650.00 225.00 250.00 275.00 350.33 691.92 611.00 100.00 150.00 275.00 Peshawar 80.00 350.00 225.92 262.00 90.00 400.00 527.14 DAILY WAGES OF CONSTRUCTION WORKERS IN DIFFERENT CITIES* (In Pak Rupees) Category of 1999 2000 2001 2002 workers and cities Carpenter Islamabad 225.17 508.00 300.00 225.00 Labour (Unskilled) Islamabad 120.TABLE 12.00 183.50 Peshawar 200.00 488.00 331.00 350.50 632.00 389.00 130.00 410.04 182.00 150.00 200.00 275.00 2005 400.00 500.00 600.00 388.00 Quetta 110.50 262.00 557.00 500.50 618.11 174.00 218.00 350.00 369.33 300.00 145.00 200.67 2004 325.50 225.00 250.00 2011 687.00 650.00 Karachi 285.00 375.00 275.30 298.00 275.00 2006 450.00 210.00 218.23 380.00 275.00 Karachi 285.00 600.08 Lahore 262.00 284.00 625.00 402.11 Lahore 145.00 237.00 120.00 2008 600.00 375.00 200.00 2007 525.00 300.

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