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APPLIED SOLID MECHANICS

Much of the world around us, both natural and man-made, is built from and held together by solid materials. Understanding how they behave is the task of solid mechanics, which can in turn be applied to a wide range of areas from earthquake mechanics and the construction industry to biomechanics. The variety of materials (such as metals, rocks, glasses, sand, ﬂesh and bone) and their properties (such as porosity, viscosity, elasticity, plasticity) are reﬂected by the concepts and techniques needed to understand them, which are a rich mixture of mathematics, physics, experiment and intuition. These are all brought to bear in this distinctive book, which is based on years of experience in research and teaching. Theory is related to practical applications, where surprising phenomena occur and where innovative mathematical methods are needed to understand features such as fracture. Starting from the very simplest situations, based on elementary observations in engineering and physics, models of increasing sophistication are derived and applied. The emphasis is on problem solving and on building an intuitive understanding, rather than on a technical presentation of theoretical topics. The text is complemented by over 100 carefully chosen exercises, and the minimal prerequisites make it an ideal companion for mathematics students taking advanced courses, for those undertaking research in the area or for those working in other disciplines in which solid mechanics plays a crucial role.

**Cambridge Texts in Applied Mathematics
**

Editorial Board Mark Ablowitz, University of Colorado, Boulder S. Davis, Northwestern University E. J. Hinch, University of Cambridge Arieh Iserles, University of Cambridge John Ockendon, University of Oxford Peter Olver, University of Minnesota

**APPLIED SOLID MECHANICS
**

PETER HOWELL

University of Oxford

GREGORY KOZYREFF

Fonds de la Recherche Scientiﬁque—FNRS and Universit´ e Libre de Bruxelles

JOHN OCKENDON

University of Oxford

CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS

Cambridge, New York, Melbourne, Madrid, Cape Town, Singapore, São Paulo Cambridge University Press The Edinburgh Building, Cambridge CB2 8RU, UK Published in the United States of America by Cambridge University Press, New York www.cambridge.org Information on this title: www.cambridge.org/9780521854894 © P. D. Howell, G. Kozyreff and J. R. Ockendon 2009 This publication is in copyright. Subject to statutory exception and to the provision of relevant collective licensing agreements, no reproduction of any part may take place without the written permission of Cambridge University Press. First published in print format 2008

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Contents

List of illustrations Prologue Modelling solids 1.1 Introduction 1.2 Hooke’s law 1.3 Lagrangian and Eulerian coordinates 1.4 Strain 1.5 Stress 1.6 Conservation of momentum 1.7 Linear elasticity 1.8 The incompressibility approximation 1.9 Energy 1.10 Boundary conditions and well-posedness 1.11 Coordinate systems Exercises Linear elastostatics 2.1 Introduction 2.2 Linear displacements 2.3 Antiplane strain 2.4 Torsion 2.5 Multiply-connected domains 2.6 Plane strain 2.7 Compatibility 2.8 Generalised stress functions 2.9 Singular solutions in elastostatics 2.10 Concluding remark Exercises v

page viii xiii 1 1 2 3 4 7 10 11 13 14 16 19 24 28 28 29 37 39 42 47 68 70 82 93 93

vi

Contents

Linear elastodynamics 3.1 Introduction 3.2 Normal modes and plane waves 3.3 Dynamic stress functions 3.4 Waves in cylinders and spheres 3.5 Initial-value problems 3.6 Moving singularities 3.7 Concluding remarks Exercises Approximate theories 4.1 Introduction 4.2 Longitudinal displacement of a bar 4.3 Transverse displacements of a string 4.4 Transverse displacements of a beam 4.5 Linear rod theory 4.6 Linear plate theory 4.7 Von K´ arm´ an plate theory 4.8 Weakly curved shell theory 4.9 Nonlinear beam theory 4.10 Nonlinear rod theory 4.11 Geometrically nonlinear wave propagation 4.12 Concluding remarks Exercises Nonlinear elasticity 5.1 Introduction 5.2 Stress and strain revisited 5.3 The constitutive relation 5.4 Examples 5.5 Concluding remarks Exercises Asymptotic analysis 6.1 Introduction 6.2 Antiplane strain in a thin plate 6.3 The linear plate equation 6.4 Boundary conditions and Saint-Venant’s principle 6.5 The von K´ arm´ an plate equations 6.6 The Euler–Bernoulli plate equations 6.7 The linear rod equations 6.8 Linear shell theory

103 103 104 121 124 132 138 143 143 150 150 151 152 153 158 162 172 177 187 195 198 204 205 215 215 216 221 233 239 239 245 245 246 248 253 261 267 273 278

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3 Dislocation theory 8.9 Simultaneous elasticity and plasticity 8.2 Static brittle fracture 7.1 Introduction 9.11 Concluding remarks Exercises More general theories 9.4 Concluding remarks Exercises Plasticity 8.3 Contact 7.6 Conservation of momentum 8.5 Poroelasticity 9.6 Anisotropy 9.2 Models for granular material 8.7 Conservation of energy 8.Contents vii 6.8 The ﬂow rule 8.4 Composite materials and homogenisation 9.5 Kinematics 8.4 Perfect plasticity theory for metals 8.1 Introduction 8.10 Examples 8.9 Concluding remarks Exercises Fracture and contact 7.3 Thermoelasticity 9.1 Introduction 7.7 Concluding remarks Exercises Epilogue Appendix References Index Orthogonal curvilinear coordinates 282 283 287 287 288 309 320 321 328 328 330 337 344 358 360 360 362 364 365 370 372 378 378 379 388 391 408 413 417 417 426 428 440 442 .2 Viscoelasticity 9.

135 viii .8 2.9 2. 39 A uniform tubular torsion bar.2 1. 134 The two-dimensional fundamental solution.4 1. page 8 The forces acting on a small two-dimensional element. 65 83 A family of functions δε (x) that approach a delta-function as ε → 0. 116 A layered elastic medium.3 2. 9 A small pill-box-shaped region at the boundary between two elastic solids.13 2. (c) uniaxial stretching.6 3.14 2. 128 The one-dimensional fundamental solution.4 2.11 2.12 2. 38 A twisted bar.1 3.7 A reference tetrahedron.6 2.5 2. 117 Dispersion relation for symmetric and antisymmetric Love waves. Contours of the maximum shear stress created by a point force acting at the origin. 30 A uniform bar being stretched under a tensile force. 32 A paper model with negative Poisson’s ratio.15 2.2 3.5 3.16 3.10 2. 44 The unit normal and tangent to the boundary of a plane region. (b) one-dimensional shear. 18 Forces acting on a polar element of solid. 91 Plots of the ﬁrst three Bessel functions. 53 A plane rectangular region subject to tangential tractions on its faces. 57 The tractions applied to the edge of a semi-inﬁnite strip. 59 The surface displacement of a half-space and corresponding surface pressure. 34 A bar in a state of antiplane strain. 25 A unit cube undergoing (a) uniform expansion. (b) a cut tube.7 2. 43 The cross-section of (a) a circular cylindrical tube. 120 Illustration of ﬂexural waves. 49 A plane annulus being inﬂated by an internal pressure. 108 A P -wave reﬂecting from a rigid boundary.4 3.3 1. 85 Four point forces.3 3. 22 A system of masses connected by springs. 33 A strained plate.1 1.5 2.2 2.1 2.Illustrations 1.

186 A beam (a) before and (b) after bending. 175 Typical surface shapes with (a) zero.27 The cone x2 + y 2 = c2 t2 tangent to the plane k1 x + k2 y = ωt. 193 (a) Pitchfork bifurcation diagram of leading-order amplitude versus forcing parameter.18 4. 200 Travelling wave solution of the nonlinear beam equations. (b) The sign convention for the forces at the ends of the beam. (c) another developable surface.12 3.8 4.and S -wave-fronts generated by a point force moving at speed V in plane strain.24 4. 146 The forces acting on a small length of a uniform bar.11 3.20 ix 4. 142 Group velocity versus wave-number for symmetric and antisymmetric Love waves.10 3.191 (a) Response diagram of the amplitude of the linearised solution for a buckling beam versus the force parameter. 201 A beam clamped near the edge of a table.3 4. 184 Deformations of an anticlastic shell. 139 Wave-fronts generated by a moving force on an elastic membrane. (b) a cone. simply supported and free conditions.23 4. 206 A beam supported at two points. 141 P -wave. 199 A kink propagating along a series of pendulums attached to a rod.25 4.17 4. 164 The displacement of a simply supported rectangular plate sagging under gravity.8 3. 179 Deformations of a cylindrical shell.9 3. 153 The forces and moments acting on a small segment of an elastic beam. 161 The forces acting on a small section of an elastic plate.7 4.2 4. 159 Examples of cross-sections in the (y. 207 The ﬁrst three buckling modes of a vertically clamped beam.21 4.13 4. (d) a hyperboloid. 154 The end of a beam under clamped.26 4.9 4. 187 (a) The forces and moments acting on a small segment of a beam. 157 The internal force components in a thin elastic rod.12 4. 185 Deformations of a synclastic shell. (b) negative and (c) positive Gaussian curvature.10 4. (c) a close-up of the displacement ﬁeld. (b) Deﬂection of a diving board for various values of the force parameter.155 The ﬁrst three buckling modes of a clamped elastic beam.16 4. 151 The forces acting on a small length of an elastic string.1 4. 138 The response of a string to a point force moving at speed V . 169 (a) A cylinder.15 4. 163 The bending moments acting on a section of an elastic plate. z )-plane and their bending stiﬀnesses.19 4. 159 Cross-section through a rod showing the bending moment components.6 4.4 4.5 4. (b) The corresponding diagram when asymmetry is introduced.List of illustrations 3.13 4. 195 A system of pendulums attached to a twisting rubber band. 213 . 188 (a) Final angle of a diving board versus applied force parameter.14 4.22 4. (b) Corresponding response of the weakly nonlinear solution.11 4. 138 The two-sheeted characteristic cone for the Navier equation.

8 8. The triaxial stress factor versus angle of friction. Response diagrams for a biaxially-loaded incompressible sheet of Mooney–Rivlin material. A moving edge dislocation.13 7. The displacement of a Mode II crack under increasing shear stress. A Mode I crack.1 8.17 7.5 8.6 6.2 7.4 7. An antiplane cut-and-weld operation.16 7. Contour plot of the maximum shear stress around a Mode I crack. The penetration of a quadratic punch into an elastic half-space.6 8. Deﬁnition sketch of a thin crack. The normal force and frictional force acting on a surface element inside a granular material.4 8. Three candidate solutions for a contact problem.2 8. Typical force–strain graphs for uniaxial tests on various materials. Scaled pressure inside a balloon as a function of the stretch for various values of the Mooney–Rivlin parameter. The displacement ﬁeld in an edge dislocation.3 5. The stress–strain relationship for a perfectly plastic material.7 8.11 8. (b) The regularised problem of a thin elliptical crack. (a) A planar Mode II crack.5 7.7 7. √ 2 2 Deﬁnition sketch for the function z − c .11 7.x 5.10 7.12 List of illustrations The deformation of a small scalene cylinder.12 7.1 7.18 8.3 8. A ﬂexible ruler ﬂattened against a table. The normalised torque versus twist applied to an elastic-plastic cylindrical bar. A wave travelling along a rope on the ground. The displacement of a Mode I crack under increasing normal stress.10 8. The Mohr circle. The normalised torque versus twist applied to an elastic-plastic cylindrical bar. A square membrane subject to an isotropic tensile force.3 7. Contour plot of the maximum shear stress around a Mode II crack.8 7.15 7. Displacement ﬁeld for a Mode III crack.2 5. The forces acting on a particle at the surface of a granular material. Solution for the contact between a string and a level surface. showing the recovery phase.9 7.14 7. Contact between a rigid body and an elastic half-space.9 8. The contact between a beam and a horizontal surface under a uniform pressure.2 7. The geometry of a deformed two-dimensional plate. (a) A Mode III crack. 218 233 234 235 236 238 254 269 288 288 290 292 293 297 301 303 304 306 307 310 311 314 317 319 326 326 329 330 331 332 333 336 339 340 341 342 347 348 .4 5.6 7. A typical stress–strain relationship for a plastic material.5 5. (b) A cross-section in the (x. The edge of a plate subject to tractions. An edge dislocation in a square crystal lattice. Deﬁnition sketch for contact between two solids. y )-plane. Gas pressure inside a cavity as a function of inﬂation coeﬃcient for various values of the Mooney–Rivlin parameter.1 5.1 6.

14 A system of masses connected by springs and dashpots in parallel.2(a).18 L¨ uders bands in a thin sheet of metal.20 The normalised torque versus twist applied to an elastic-plastic cylindrical bar undergoing a loading cycle.5 (a) The variation of Young’s modulus with position in a bar. 352 8. 412 9.List of illustrations 8.3 Displacement of a Voigt element due to the applied tension shown in Figure 9. 396 9. 382 9. 349 Residual shear stress in a gun barrel versus radial distance for diﬀerent values of the maximum internal pressurisation. 383 9. 400 9. 358 8.1 (a) A spring. 407 9.16 Dimensionless wavenumber versus Young’s modulus contrast for a piecewise uniform bar. (b) a dashpot. 392 9. 411 9.19 The Mohr surface for three-dimensional granular ﬂow. 418 9. 402 9.3 Spherical polar coordinates. 380 9.14 xi The free-boundary problem for an elastic-perfectly plastic torsion bar.10 Dimensionless wavenumber versus the Young’s modulus non-uniformity parameter. 395 9. 438 .2 (a) Applied tension as a function of time. 375 9. (c) Resultant displacement of a linear dashpot.7 A periodic microstructured shear modulus. 418 9. 432 A1.12 Dimensionless stress applied to a sponge versus dimensionless time for diﬀerent values of the P´ eclet number.381 9.15 A system of masses connected by springs and dashpots in series. (d) a spring and dashpot connected in series. (b) Resultant displacement of a linear elastic spring.17 The Coulomb yield surface.2(a).9 Some modulus distributions that are antisymmetric about the diagonals of a square. 419 9.16 The von Mises yield surface.11 The one-dimensional squeezing of a sponge.13 8. (b) The corresponding longitudinal displacement. piecewise constant shear modulus distribution.8 A symmetric. 373 8.6 (a) The variation of Young’s modulus with position in a bar. 424 A1. 355 8. 356 8. (c) a spring and dashpot connected in parallel.4 Displacement of a Maxwell element due to the applied tension shown in Figure 9. 369 8. (b) The corresponding longitudinal displacement.1 A small reference box.2 Cylindrical polar coordinates.15 The Tresca yield surface.13 A Jeﬀreys viscoelastic element. 437 A1.

.

shock waves and turbulence in ﬂuid dynamics. Our layout is essentially pragmatic. cannot be fully described xiii . Several reasons can be advanced for this disparity. Examples include fracture. we begin by deriving the basic Navier equations of linear elasticity. such as the prevalence of tensors in models for solids or the especial diﬃculty of handling nonlinearity. Our principal objective in this book is to demonstrate this fact to undergraduate and beginning graduate students. based on elementary observations in engineering and physics. We soon discover that many everyday phenomena. buckling and plasticity. We do this by relating the theory to practical applications where surprising phenomena occur and where innovative mathematical methods are needed. ﬂuid mechanics. beams. Hence. than its close relative. and these pose intellectual challenges in solid mechanics that are every bit as fascinating as concepts like ﬂight. before illustrating the mathematical techniques that allow these equations to be solved in many diﬀerent practically relevant situations. it is often less popular. both static and dynamic. such as the buckling of a beam under a compressive load. namely bars. plates and shells. We then proceed to describe some approximate theories for the elastic deformation of thin solids. Although more advanced texts in solid mechanics often begin with quite general theories founded on basic mechanical and thermodynamic principles. rods. strings. and build our way towards models that are the basis for current applied research in solid mechanics. Perhaps the most daunting prospect for the student is the multitude of diﬀerent behaviours that can occur and cause elementary theories of elasticity to become irrelevant in practice. at least among students. We aim to give the subject as wide an accessibility as possible to mathematically-minded students and to emphasise the interesting mathematical issues that it raises. we start from the very simplest models.Prologue Although solid mechanics is a vitally important branch of applied mechanics.

Although we regard such asymptotic techniques as invaluable to any applied mathematician. the book is very far from being self-contained. will readily be acquired by a student who works through the exercises in the early Chapters. Hilary Ockendon and Tom Witelski who gave invaluable advice on draft Chapters. Any student who aspires to becoming a solid mechanics specialist will have to delve further into the literature. and pose ever more elaborate modelling questions. viscoelasticity and porosity. having read this book. We are also indebted to David Tranah and his colleagues at Cambridge University Press for helping to make this book a reality.xiv Prologue using linear theories. especially those cited in the text. Sam Howison. Jon Chapman. we received a great deal of help and inspiration as a result of discussions with David Allwright. in particular. and then show how formal asymptotic methods allow simpliﬁed linear and weakly nonlinear models to be systematically deduced. We assume only that the reader has a reasonable familiarity with the calculus of several variables. Indeed. We would like to express our particular gratitude to Gareth Jones. partial diﬀerential equations. Next. Fluency with the more advanced techniques required for Chapters 6 and 7. complex variable theory. we ﬁrmly believe that solid mechanics provides a wonderful arena in which to build an understanding of such important mathematical areas as linear algebra. and we will provide references to help with this. we show how plasticity theory can be used to describe situations where a solid yields under a suﬃciently high stress. Our hope is that. Despite the breadth of the models and relevant techniques that will emerge in this book. During the writing of this book. these last two topics may both be omitted on a ﬁrst reading without loss of continuity. Nonetheless. we show how elasticity theory may be generalised to include further physical effects. Mahadevan. We go on to present simple models for fracture and contact. comparing and contrasting these apparently similar phenomena. diﬀerential geometry and the calculus of variations. . we will usually try to present the theoretical developments ab initio. Roman Novokshanov and Domingo Salazar. a student should be able to confront any practical problem that may be encountered in everyday solid mechanics with at least some idea of the basic mathematical modelling that will be required. such as thermal stresses. These “combined ﬁelds” of solid mechanics are increasingly ﬁnding applications in industrial and medical processes. as well as many other colleagues and students too numerous to thank individually. Finally. L. We therefore give a brief exposition of the general theory of nonlinear elasticity.

at least to begin with. and this book will be concerned with that class of continuum models that describes solids. from which it is displaced by a distance that depends on the applied forces. the material starts at some reference state. ultrasonic testing and the buckling of railway tracks. When we refer to a solid “particle”.1 Introduction In everyday life we regularly encounter physical phenomena that apparently vary continuously in space and time. We take the most fundamental pieces of experimental evidence. Such phenomena can be described mathematically. There is no hard-andfast rule about this but. we will be thinking of a very small region of matter but one whose dimension is nonetheless much greater than an atomic spacing. for example Hooke’s law. we will say that a continuum is a solid when the response consists of displacements distributed through the material.1 Modelling solids 1. Our modelling philosophy is straightforward. 1 . and use mathematical ideas to combine this evidence with the basic laws of mechanics to construct a model that describes the elastic deformation of a continuous solid. we will ﬁnd that we can construct solid mechanics theories for phenomena as diverse as earthquakes. Following this simple approach. to lowest order. Hence. For our purposes. by a continuum model. Examples are the bending of a paper clip. In other words. even though these ideas lead to great practical insight and also to some beautiful mathematics. the ﬂow of water or the propagation of sound or light waves. This is in contrast with a ﬂuid. for most of this book. we will avoid all consideration of the “atomistic” structure of solids. the diagnostic feature of a solid is the way in which it responds to an applied system of forces and moments. which has no special rest state and responds to forces via a velocity distribution.

For many materials. or by condensation. (1. when forces and moments are applied and then removed. . In this situation. say. However.e. for example. . a rubber band. then T = k ( − L). and reversible for time-dependent problems. We will defer consideration of all these combined ﬁelds until the ﬁnal chapter. nonlinear elasticity encompasses some striking new behaviours not predicted by linear theory. the solid takes on some of the attributes of a ﬂuid. Reversibility may apply even when the forces and displacements are so large that the problem ceases to be linear. the system is not dissipative. as can be seen by simply bending a metal paper clip.” Hooke’s observation is exempliﬁed by a simple high-school physics experiment in which a tensile force T is applied to a spring whose natural length is L. or crowding of those parts nearer together. we will ﬁrst be led to a system of diﬀerential equations that is both linear. Hooke’s law states that the resulting extension of the spring is proportional to T : if the new length of the spring is . water. for small enough forces and displacements.1) where the constant of proportionality k is called the spring constant. the most striking phenomenon being that of fracture under extreme stress. Practical solid mechanics encompasses not only all the phenomena mentioned above but also the eﬀects of elasticity when combined with heat transfer (leading to thermoelasticity) and with genuine ﬂuid eﬀects. On the other hand. evident that the rule or law of nature in every springing body is that the force or power thereof to restore itself to its natural position is always proportionate to the distance or space it is removed therefrom.2 Modelling solids By basing our theory on Hooke’s law.2. irreversibility can readily occur and this is associated with plastic ﬂow that is signiﬁcantly dissipative. whether it be by rarefaction. 1. in cases where the material ﬂows even in the absence of large applied forces (leading to viscoelasticity) or when the material is porous (leading to poroelasticity). can undergo large displacements and still return to its initial state. the simplest model of elasticity.2 Hooke’s law Robert Hooke (1678) wrote “it is . but the model for its ﬂow is quite diﬀerent from that for. . including the possibility of multiple steady states and buckling. or separation of its parts the one from the other. experimental evidence reveals that even more dramatic changes can take place as the load increases. i. By this we mean that. and therefore mathematically tractable. the system eventually returns to its original state without any signiﬁcant energy being lost.

that is u(X . glass and the like. in which no macroscopic forces exist in the solid or on its boundary. wood. but.1) in the form −L . is called the strain. In the alternative Eulerian approach. Under the action of any subsequently applied forces and moments.3 Lagrangian and Eulerian coordinates Suppose that a three-dimensional solid starts. t). hair. we ﬁrst need to generalise the concepts of strain and tension. but noted that it appears to apply to all “springy bodies whatsoever. to generalise it to a three-dimensional continuum. 1. in its rest state. (1. . Equation (1. t) = x(X . t) − X . sinews. between any particle’s initial position and its current position.2) is the simplest example of the all-important constitutive law relating the force to displacement. and label its initial position by X (x. while the Lagrangian coordinate X is ﬁxed in the material. In short. stones. t).3. The mathematical consequence of our statement that the solid is a continuum is that there must be a smooth one-to-one relationship between X and x. baked earths. t) is deﬁned in the obvious way to be the diﬀerence between the current and initial positions of a particle. silk.2) T =k L where k is the elastic modulus of the spring. the solid will be deformed such that. bones. (1.e. it is commonly observed that k scales with 1/L.1) Many basic problems in solid mechanics amount to determining the displacement ﬁeld u corresponding to a given system of applied forces.” In practice.1.2. measuring the extension relative to the initial length. a “particle” in the solid whose initial position was the point X is displaced to the point x (X .2. it is possible to construct a one-dimensional continuum model for an elastic solid from this law. whether metal.2. As shown in Exercise 1. that is.3. t) labels a material particle. everything else being equal. The displacement u(X . This is a Lagrangian description of the continuum: if the independent variable X is held ﬁxed as t increases. It is therefore sensible to write (1.3 Lagrangian and Eulerian coordinates 3 Hooke devised his law while designing clock springs. horns. The dimensionless quantity ( − L)/L. then x(X . i. we consider the material point which currently occupies position x at time t. the Eulerian coordinate x is ﬁxed in space. a sample that is initially twice as long will stretch twice as far under the same force. or reference state. at time t = 0. at some later time t. which will be deﬁned more rigorously in Chapter 2.

M (t) must be a constant. We can use (1.3. in terms of the density ρ(X . The positivity of J means that we exclude the possibility that the solid turns itself inside-out. ∂Xj (1. we consider the deformation of a small line segment joining two neighbouring particles with initial positions X and X + δ X . (1.6) Hence.3) as shorthand. (1. Since V is arbitrary.3.3. 1. but (1. Thus we can use Taylor’s theorem to show that the line element . Its mass at time t is given.4 Modelling solids This will be the case provided the Jacobian of the transformation from X to x is bounded away from zero: 0 < J < ∞. where J = det ∂xi .3.6) also applies if ρ0 = ρ0 (X ). we can calculate the density at any time t in terms of ρ0 and the displacement ﬁeld. namely its initial value M (0): ρJ dX = M (t) = M (0) = V (0) V (0) ρ0 dX . t) and X + δ X + u(X + δ X . The initial density ρ0 is usually taken as constant.4 Strain To generalise the concept of strain introduced in Section 1.3.5) where ρ0 is the density in the rest state.3.2. (1. t) respectively. by M (t) = V (t) ρ dx = V (0) ρJ dX .3) to derive a kinematic equation representing conservation of mass.3. Consider a moving volume V (t) that is always bounded by the same solid particles. the solid deforms such that the particles are displaced to X + u(X . we deduce that ρJ = ρ0 . or dx = J dX (1. t).4) Since V (t) designates a ﬁxed set of material points.2) The physical signiﬁcance of J is that it measures the change in a small volume compared with its initial volume: dx1 dx2 dx3 = J dX1 dX2 dX3 . At some later time.

1. Then (1. t)|2 .4) may be written in at least two alternative ways. t) = δ X + (δ X · ∇)u(X . (1. This avoids the annoyance of having to write explicit summation. Now let us ask: “what happens when we perform the same calculation in a coordinate system rotated by an .6) Second.4.4. Then.4.3) Although we will try in subsequent chapters to minimise the use of suﬃces.1) where (δ X · ∇) = δX1 ∂ ∂ ∂ + δX2 + δX3 .7) It is clear from (1.j =1 Eij δXi δXj .4. the diﬀerence − L is known as the stretch. + + ∂Xj ∂Xi ∂Xi ∂Xj (1. First.4.4.4. (1.4. X3 )T and similarly for u.4.4. t) − u(X . where Eij = 1 2 ∂uj ∂uk ∂uk ∂ui . to lowest order in L.4.4) that the stretch is measured by the quantities Eij . the stretch is zero for all line elements if and only if Eij ≡ 0. t) + · · · . we may invoke the summation convention. ∂X1 ∂X2 ∂X3 (1. we note that 2 − L2 is a quadratic form on the symmetric matrix E whose components are (Eij ): 2 − L2 = 2 δ X T E δ X . It is thus natural to identify Eij with the strain. in particular. 2 = |δ X + (δ X · ∇)u(X . we point out that (1.2) Let L = |δ X | and = |δ x| denote the initial and current lengths respectively of the line segment.4 Strain 5 δ X that joins the two particles is transformed to δ x = δ X + u(X + δ X . X2 .4) where Eij = 1 2 ∂uj ∂ui + + ∂Xj ∂Xi 3 k =1 ∂uk ∂uk ∂Xi ∂Xj . so (1. (1.5) By way of introduction to some notation that will be useful later. (1. (1. it is helpful at this stage to introduce components so that X = (Xi ) = (X1 .3) may be written in the form 3 2 −L =2 2 i. in which one automatically sums over any repeated suﬃx.4) is simply 2 = L2 + 2Eij δXi δXj .

Arrays that obey the transformation law (1. to give Eij = piα pjβ Eαβ .6 Modelling solids orthogonal matrix P = (pij )?” Intuitively.9) The strain in the new coordinate system is denoted by Eij = 1 2 ∂uj ∂uk ∂uk ∂ui + + ∂Xj ∂Xi ∂Xi ∂Xj .4.4. (1.4. . we might expect the strain to be invariant under such a rotation. we have Xβ = pjβ Xj . for example. (1. More precisely. A vector.11) so the 3 × 3 symmetric array (Eij ) transforms exactly like a matrix representing a linear transformation of the vector space R3 .8) Since P is orthogonal.11) to a tensor with any number of indices.4.13) into (1. ui = piα uα . and E = (Eij ) is therefore called the strain tensor. † The word “tensor” as used here is eﬀectively synonymous with “matrix”.11) takes the form E = P EP T.4. (1.10) which may be manipulated using the chain rule. (1. This result follows directly from substituting (1. where X = P X. (1.4.4. u = P u.13) where I is the identity matrix while the vector c and orthogonal matrix Q are constant.4. but it is easy to generalise (1. (1. as shown in Exercise 1. and conﬁrms our intuition that a rigid-body motion induces no deformation.4. is a tensor with just one index.† Almost as important as the fact that E is a tensor is the fact that it can vanish without u vanishing.4. Alternatively.8) may be inverted to give X = P T X .4. using suﬃx notation. then E is identically zero.4. The vectors X and u are transformed to X and u in the new coordinate system.12) (1. if we consider a rigid-body translation and rotation u = c + (Q − I )X . In matrix notation.11) are called second-rank Cartesian tensors.4. (1.6) and using the fact that QQT = I . and we can verify that this is so as follows.

a force can only be transmitted to a solid by being applied to its boundary. If it is contained within a stressed medium.5 Stress 7 1. p) is independent of the direction of n. τ21 . (By Newton’s third law. gravitational or electromagnetic) effects. 2. (ii) the magnitude of the stress (i. j = 1.5. In an elastic solid. we generate three vectors τ j (j = 1.1. .) In the expectation that the force should be proportional to the area da. each representing the stress acting on an element normal to the xj -direction. 3). therefore. By doing the same for elements with normals in the x2 .1.5 Stress In the absence of any volumetric (e. First consider a surface element whose normal points in the x1 -direction. and denote the stress acting on such an element by τ 1 = (τ11 . To do so. whose area and unit normal are da and n respectively. then it is an elementary exercise in trigonometry to show that ai = ani . (1. where τij is the i-component of τ j . we now analyse an inﬁnitesimal surface element. we write df = σ da. τ31 )T . with components (ni ). Perhaps the most familiar example is that of an inviscid ﬂuid. then the material on (say) the side into which n points will exert a force df on the element. It is. The scalars τij may be used to determine the stress on an arbitrary surface element by considering the tetrahedron shown in Figure 1. Here ai denotes the area of the face orthogonal to the xi -axis. we obtain nine scalars τij (i.3) where ei is the unit vector in the xi -direction. therefore.2) This expression implies that (i) the stress acts only in a direction normal to the surface element. that is τ j = τij ei . The fourth face has area 2 2 a = a2 1 + a2 + a3 .and x3 -directions.1) where σ is called the traction or stress acting on the element. In total.e. the material on the other side will also exert a force equal to −df .g. 2. natural to consider the force per unit area or stress applied at that boundary. (1. in which the stress is related to the pressure p by σ = −pn. (1. neither of these simplifying assumptions holds.5.5. in fact if this face has unit normal n as shown. 3). we must allow for stress which acts in both tangential and normal directions and whose magnitude depends on the orientation of the surface element.

while the volume is proportional to 3 .4) When we substitute for aj and τ j .5. Since the area a scales with 2 . if the stress on the fourth face is denoted by σ . We reassure such readers that (1. Hence. ai is the area of the face orthogonal to the xi -axis.6) can be more rigorously justiﬁed provided the macroscopic dimensions of the solid are large compared to any atomistic length-scale. (1. Similar expressions hold for the faces with areas a2 and a3 . where is a typical edge length.5) Now we shrink the tetrahedron to zero volume.5. The outward normal to the face with area a1 is in the negative x1 -direction and the force on this face is thus −a1 τ 1 . we ﬁnd that the components of f are given by fi = a (σi − τij nj ) . .† Hence we deduce an † Readers of a sensitive disposition may be slightly perturbed by our glibly letting the dimensional variable tend to zero: if is reduced indeﬁnitely then we will eventually reach an atomic scale on which the solid can no longer be treated as a continuum. (1. we see that f /a must tend to zero as → 0. 1.1 A reference tetrahedron.8 Modelling solids x3 a1 n a2 x2 a3 x1 Fig. if we apply Newton’s second law and insist that the acceleration be ﬁnite. then the total force on the tetrahedron is f = aσ − aj τ j .5.

6) will become σ =τ n where.2. The net anticlockwise moment acting about the centre of mass G is (per unit length in the x3 -direction) 2 (τ21 δx2 ) δx1 δx2 − 2 (τ12 δx1 ) . 1. called the Cauchy stress tensor. In the new frame. they transform according to σ = P σ. (1. We can make one further observation about τij by considering the angular momentum of the small two-dimensional solid element shown in Figure 1.2 The forces acting on a small two-dimensional element.8) (1.9) Thus τij . Now let us follow Section 1.5 Stress 9 τ22 τ12 τ21 τ11 δx2 x2 τ21 δx1 G τ11 τ12 x1 τ22 Fig.4 and examine what happens to τij when we rotate the axes by an orthogonal matrix P . is a second-rank tensor. like Eij .5.1. n = P n. 2 2 .5. τ = P τ P T. or σ = τ n. or τij = piα pjβ ταβ . (1.5.5. since σ and n are vectors. (1.6) This important result enables us to ﬁnd the stress on any surface element in terms of the nine quantities (τij ) = τ . expression for σ : σi = τij nj . (1.5. since n is arbitrary.7) It follows that τ n = (P τ P T )n and so.

4) ∂xj Since τ is symmetric.6. whose unit normal is n. ∂xj (1. we arrive at Cauchy’s momentum equation : ρ ∂τij ∂ 2 ui = ρgi + .2) Assuming each integrand is continuous. The distinction between solid. ﬂuid ρ . and using the fact that V (t) is arbitrary.10) ∂ui ρ dx = ∂t gi ρ dx + V (t) ∂V (t) τij nj da.10 Modelling solids where τ21 and τ12 are evaluated at G to lowest order.6.6 Conservation of momentum Now we derive the basic governing equation of solid mechanics by applying Newton’s second law to a material volume V (t) that moves with the deforming solid: d dt V (t) (1.e. ∂t2 ∂xj (1.1) represent successively the rate of change of momentum of the material in V (t). (1. i. We diﬀerentiate under the integral (using the fact that ρ dx = ρ0 dX is independent of t) and apply the divergence theorem to the ﬁnal term to obtain V (t) ∂ 2 ui ρ dx = ∂t2 gi ρ dx + V (t) V (t) ∂τij dx. like Eij .6. is a symmetric tensor.5.3) This may alternatively be written in vector form by adopting the following notation for the divergence of a tensor: we deﬁne the ith component of ∇ · τ to be ∂τji (∇ · τ )i = .6.6. such as gravity. and insisting that the angular acceleration be ﬁnite. we deduce that τ12 = τ21 . 1.5) and it shows that τij ≡ τji for all i and j . and the traction exerted on the boundary of V . we may thus write Cauchy’s equation as ∂2u = ρg + ∇ · τ. (1. (1.6. by the material around it. This argument can be generalised to three dimensions (see Exercise 1. By letting the rectangle shrink to zero (see again the footnote on page 8).5) ∂t2 This equation applies to any continuous medium for which a displacement u and stress tensor τ can be deﬁned.1) The terms in (1. that τij . the force due to an external body force g .

First.3.5) is taken in a Lagrangian frame.7 Linear elasticity 11 or some other continuum comes when we impose an empirical constitutive relation between τ and u.4. restrict our attention to linear elasticity in which. we will write E = (eij ).5) already confronts us with a distinctive fundamental diﬃculty. Finally. the time derivative in (1. the stress tensor τ has been deﬁned relative to Eulerian coordinates and is diﬀerentiated in (1.5) with respect to the Eulerian variable x.6. The most obvious generalisation of Hooke’s law is to suppose that a linear relationship exists between the stress τ and the strain E . however eij does not vanish for such rigid-body motions. This assumption allows the theory developed thus far to be simpliﬁed in several ways. we can use the smallness of ∂ui /∂xj to neglect the quadratic term in (1.1) Much of this book will be concerned with this approximation. and with a slight abuse of notation.1) even when u is not small compared with X . there is no need to distinguish between the Eulerian and Lagrangian variables: we can simply replace X by x and ∂ui /∂Xj by ∂ui /∂xj throughout. with X ﬁxed.7.6) tells us that the density ρ is ﬁxed. at its initial value ρ0 . Remembering (1. how the stress and strain. We will postpone the full resolution of this diﬃculty until Chapter 5 and.7. just as long as u is close to a rigid-body translation and rotation.7 Linear elasticity The theory of linear elasticity follows from the assumption that the displacement u is small relative to any other length-scale. to leading order.13). if we only consider leading-order terms.3. as we shall see.5) and hence obtain the linearised strain tensor Eij ≈ eij = 1 2 ∂uj ∂ui + ∂xj ∂xi .13). It occurs because Eij is identically zero for rigid-body motions of the solid given by (1. . we note that it is possible to approximate E by (1. it means that ∂ui /∂Xj is small for all i and j . therefore.6. It is not immediately clear.1.4. the two frames are essentially identical. This situation is called geometric nonlinearity and we will encounter it frequently in Chapters 4 and 6. (1. may be self-consistently related. (1. Therefore. for the present.1) that x and X are equal to lowest order in u. so (1. 1. indeed. we note from (1.6. Second.4. A corollary is that the Jacobian J is approximately equal to one. which are deﬁned in diﬀerent frames of reference.4 in terms of the Lagrangian variables X . On the other hand. For solids. But we now recall that E was deﬁned in Section 1. Hence.

τij = λ (ekk ) δij + 2µeij . (1. Assuming the validity of (1.7.1. 2µ (3λ + 2µ) In Chapter 9 we will consider solids. = 1. It will be observed that these values may be very large for relatively “hard” .7.2) where c and ω are constant (see Exercise 1. we apparently are led to the problem of deﬁning 81 material parameters Cijk (i. we can now generalise Hooke’s law by postulating a linear relationship between the stress and strain tensors. such that Cijk = λδij δk + 2µδik δj .7. and we will consider some of the implications of so-called residual stress in Chapter 8.7. for example.6) This relation can also be inverted to give the strain corresponding to a given stress. j. Ockendon & Ockendon. The material parameters λ and µ are known as the Lam´ e constants. pp. 3) such that τij = Cijk ek .1). It can be shown (see. that is 1 λ(τkk ) (1. We assume that τ is zero when E is. k.12 Modelling solids but rather for displacements of the form u = c + ω × x. They have the units of pressure. which represents the identity matrix.7. 2. This can be reduced to a more manageable number by assuming that the solid is isotropic.3) The symmetry of τij and eij only enables us to reduce the number of unknowns to 36. in other words the stress is zero in the reference state. Even with this assumption. typical values for a few familiar solid materials are given in Table 1.6).As we shall see in Chapter 2.6) must be generalised. and for which (1. consequently.7. 1995. (1. 7–9) that this is suﬃcient to reduce the speciﬁcation of Cijk to just two scalar quantities λ and µ. such as wood or ﬁbre-reinforced materials. that are not isotropic.7) eij = τij − δij .7.7. λ and µ measure a material’s ability to resist elastic deformation.4) for all orthogonal matrices P = (pij ).5) where δij is the usual Kronecker delta. (1. (1. This is not the case for pre-stressed materials. and µ is called the shear modulus. by which we mean that it behaves the same way in all directions. This implies that Cijk must satisfy Cijk pii pjj pkk p ≡ Ci j k (1.

3) and replace X with x to obtain the Navier equation.7.9) where the ﬁnal ∂x2 j is treated as a repeated suﬃx. Now we substitute our linear constitutive relation (1. although elastic. In linear elasticity.7.04 2. this amounts to saying that the Lam´ e constant λ is much larger than the shear modulus µ.7.1 Typical values of the Lam´ e constants λ and µ for some everyday −2 9 materials (1 GPa = 10 N m = 104 atmospheres. (1.8 The incompressibility approximation There is an interesting and important class of materials that. so they may be sheared elastically but are highly resistant to tension or compression. or ∂2u = ρg + (λ + 2µ) grad div u − µ curl curl u.2 30 28 37 78 400 13 Table 1.7.6) into the momentum equation (1. also known as the Lam´ e equation. so that linear elasticity is valid. ∂t2 where we have used the well-known vector identity ρ “del squared equals grad div minus curl curl.8) comprises three equations for the three components of u.8) ∂t2 Recall that ρ does not vary to leading order.6.10) (1. the signiﬁcance being that tractions much less than these values will result in small deformations. a typical car tyre pressure is two atmospheres).3 10 28 86 100 270 µ (GPa) 9 × 10−5 0.11) . It may alternatively be written in component form ρ ρ ∂ 2 uj ∂ 2 ui ∂ 2 ui = ρg + ( λ + µ ) + µ . are virtually incompressible.” 1. so (1.7.1. i ∂t2 ∂xi ∂xj ∂x2 j (1. ∂2u = ρg + (λ + µ) grad div u + µ∇2 u. (1. materials.003 1.8 The incompressibility approximation λ (GPa) Cartilage Rubber Polystyrene Granite Glass Copper Steel Diamond 3 × 10−5 0.7.

that is ρ div u = 0. using the divergence theorem. (1. we can set 1 λ = . we expect that.2).2) into the Navier equation (1. ∂t (1. If a material is almost incompressible.2) pε = − div u.6. as do many biomaterials such as muscle.8). and it imposes an extra constraint on the Navier equation.1) and (1. Hence.1) where ε is a small parameter.9.14 Modelling solids The values given in Table 1.2) .3a) (1. When we now substitute (1.8.8.8.9.8. gives us the extra freedom we need to satisfy this constraint. The extra unknown p. µ ε (1.3b) means that each material volume is conserved during the deformation. From (1. representing the isotropic pressure in the medium. ∂xj ∂t ∂eij dx.8.9 Energy We can obtain an energy equation from (1.7. ∂t2 along with the limit of (1.1) The ﬁnal term may be rearranged.8. 1.7. div u will be of order ε.3) by taking the dot product with ∂ u/∂t and integrating over an arbitrary volume V : ρ V ∂ 2 ui ∂ui dx = ∂t2 ∂t ∂τij ∂ui dx = ∂xj ∂t ρgi V ∂ui dx + ∂t V ∂τij ∂ui dx. to V ∂V ∂ui τij nj da − ∂t τij V (1. in the limit ε → 0.8.8) and let ε → 0. we obtain ∂2u = ρg − ∇p + µ∇2 u.8.1 show that rubber has this property. ε then pε will approach a ﬁnite limit p as ε → 0.3b) The condition (1. if we deﬁne a scalar function p such that µ (1.

9. This is analogous to the energy stored in a stretched spring (see Exercise 1.9.7.3) reﬂects the fact that the Navier equation is not dissipative. say. The net conservation of energy implied by (1.9. even without the constitutive relation (1.4) to determine W up to an arbitrary constant as 1 1 W = τij eij = λ (ekk )2 + µ (eij eij ). chemical or thermal eﬀects.9 Energy 15 Hence (1. (1.6). 2 2 (1.9.9. The difference between the rate of working and the rate of change of kinetic energy is the rate at which elastic energy is stored in the material as it deforms. (1.9.9. in the absence of other energy sources resulting from. In fact. If µ. Furthermore. Hence. while the terms on the right-hand side represent the rate of working of the external body force g and the tractions on ∂V respectively.3) ∂t where W is a scalar function of the strain components that is chosen to satisfy ∂W = τij .9. W is therefore called the strain energy density. is a manifestation of the energy stored in the bonds between the atoms. at a fundamental scale.9. namely U= D W − ρg · u dx.1. whose unique global minimum is attained when eij = 0.6).4) With τij given by (1.7 demonstrates that it is only necessary to have µ. ∂eij (1.6) .5) that W is a non-negative function of the strain components. The ﬁrst term in braces in (1. we can easily see from (1.3) is the net kinetic energy in V . while (eij eij ) is the sum of the squares of the components of E .9. the steady Navier equation is a necessary condition for the net gravitational and strain energy in an elastic body D. Exercise 1.7. we can integrate (1. (λ + 2µ/3) > 0.5) Here the summation convention is invoked such that (ekk )2 is the square of the trace of E . λ > 0.1) and.3) as a statement of conservation of energy. we can interpret equation (1.1) may be written in the form d dt 1 ∂u ρ 2 ∂t 2 dx + V W dx ρgi V V = ∂ui dx + ∂t ∂V ∂ui τij nj da.

the situation changes when thermal eﬀects are important.7. t) when t is positive and x lies in some prescribed domain D. we specify either the displacement u or the traction τ n everywhere on the boundary. u satisﬁes the steady Navier equation ∂τij + ρgi = 0. by multiplying (1.6). In elastostatic problems. therefore.10.10. Suppose that two solutions u(1) and u(2) exist and let u = u(1) −u(2) . However. (1.5).8.7. roughly speaking.1) exists. as shown in Exercise 1. First consider a solid body D on whose boundary the displacement is prescribed. It follows that the strain tensor eij . that is u = ub (x) on ∂D.10. is unique and depends continuously on the boundary data?” For boundary-value problems in linear elasticity. a generalisation of a scalar elliptic equation.8) for u(x.2) with the boundary condition (1.2) by ui .10. as we will see in Chapter 9. (1. if a solution u of (1.3) is zero by the boundary conditions. we obtain ui τij nj da = ∂D D eij τij dx = 2 D W dx. be zero. In many physical problems. while the integrand W on the right-hand side is nonnegative and must. the Navier system is. 1. one for which a solution u exists.16 Modelling solids to be minimised. with ub = g = 0. (1.9.7. then it is unique. ∂xj (1.10.10. Now. in which the left-hand side of (1.2) and we will now show that. it seems appropriate for either u or three linearly independent scalar combinations of u and ∂ u/∂n to be prescribed on ∂D.8) is zero. in other words. and we will now examine each of these in turn. it is generally far easier to discuss questions of uniqueness than it is to prove existence.10. Hence in this section we will focus only on establishing uniqueness. The left-hand side of (1. By analogy.3) where W is given by (1. integrating over D and using the divergence theorem. Thus u satisﬁes the homogeneous problem.1) Inside D. We now ask: “what sort of boundary conditions may be imposed on ∂D to obtain a well-posed mathematical problem.10 Boundary conditions and well-posedness Suppose that we wish to solve (1.

as shown in Exercise 1. 154).10. and the displacement can therefore only be a rigidbody motion (i.10. with g and σ set to zero.10.10. we deduce that the strain tensor eij must be identically zero.6. Now suppose the solvability conditions (1. p.2) and the boundary condition (1. there are generalisations in which the traction is speciﬁed on some parts of the boundary .6). 43). to give x×σ da + ∂D D ρx×g dx = 0. the Navier equation only admits solutions satisfying (1.2) over D and use the divergence theorem. Thus the solution of (1.6) and (1. we ﬁnd that τij nj da + ∂D D ρgi dx = 0 (1. rather than the displacement. we deduce that it must be zero everywhere and.10. a uniform translation and rotation. As before.4) is determined only up to the addition of an arbitrary translation and rotation.. 2003.e.4) if so-called solvability conditions are satisﬁed. p. If we integrate (1.10 Boundary conditions and well-posedness 17 is identically zero in D. (1.6) This represents a net balance between the forces.2) before integrating.10.5) and hence that σ da + ∂D D ρg dx = 0.4) exist. By an argument analogous to that presented above.10. the diﬀerence u = u(1) − u(2) satisﬁes the homogeneous version of the problem.4). we can only infer from this that the displacement is a rigid-body motion.7) as shown in Exercise 1.10.10. hence.10.2) subject to the applied traction (1. An analogous balance between the moments acting on D may also be obtained by taking the cross product of x with (1.10.10.10. namely surface traction and gravity.4) Like the Neumann problem for a scalar elliptic partial diﬀerential equation (Ockendon et al.6) and (1.9. Since u is zero on ∂D.7) may be interpreted as instances of the Fredholm Alternative (see Ockendon et al. see Exercise 1.1) and (1.10. As well as the boundary conditions (1.10.7) are satisﬁed and that two solutions u(1) and u(2) of (1. (1.. (1. 2003. (1. acting on D. since u is now not speciﬁed on ∂D. is speciﬁed: τ n = σ (x) on ∂D. However. that u(1) ≡ u(2) .1. Now we attempt the same calculation when the surface traction.10. As well as representing physical balances on the system.10.

if two unbonded solids are in smooth contact.1) or (1. for example in contact problems and in fracture.7. in the meantime. Then the displacement vectors are the same on either side of ∂D and. On the other hand. as shown in Figure 1.10.9) which describes small transverse waves on a string with tension T and line density (see Section 4.10. (1.10.18 Modelling solids n solid 2 solid 1 Fig. Thus there are six continuity conditions across such a boundary. we expect to prescribe Cauchy initial conditions for u and ∂ u/∂t at t = 0. we may anticipate that (1. Frictional contact between rough unbonded surfaces poses serious modelling challenges.1) and (1. and the displacement on others. We will examine elastic waves in more detail in Chapter 3 but. only the normal displacement is continuous across ∂D. by balancing the stresses on the small pill-box-shaped region shown in Figure 1.8) where τ (1) and τ (2) are the values of τ on either side of the boundary.3). as well as elliptic boundary conditions such as (1. It may.4). Another common generalisation of (1.10. therefore. However.3.4) occurs when two solids with diﬀerent elastic moduli are bonded together across a common boundary ∂D. we see that τ (1) n = τ (2) n.8) admits wavelike solutions.10.3. be viewed as a generalisation of a scalar wave equation. For elastodynamic problems. 1.10.3 A small pill-box-shaped region at the boundary between two elastic solids. this loss of information is compensated by the fact that the four tangential components of τ (1) n and τ (2) n are zero and the normal components of these tractions are continuous. . such as the familiar equation ∂2w ∂2w = T ∂t2 ∂x2 (1. as described in Chapter 7. as we will see in Chapter 7.

eyy = ∂y ∂w ezz = .7.}. it is often useful to employ coordinate systems particularly chosen to ﬁt the geometry of the problem being considered.7. τxz = 2µexz . ∂z ∂x 2exy = = λexx + (λ + 2µ)eyy + λezz . ∂z ∂x ∂u ∂w 2exz = + . ∂x ∂v . τyy τzz where ∂u . ∂z exx = ∂u ∂v + . This means that the coordinate axes at any ﬁxed point are orthogonal and may thus be obtained by a rotation of the usual Cartesian axes. v. = λexx + λeyy + (λ + 2µ)ezz . τxy = 2µexy . in other words the tangent vectors obtained by varying each coordinate in turn are mutually perpendicular. In doing so. the Cartesian stress and strain components are related by (1.7.} rather than {τ11 . which is invariant under any such rotation. cylindrical polar and spherical polar coordinates.1. . It is also conventional to label the stress components by {τxx . Under the assumptions of isotropic linear elasticity.11 Coordinate systems 19 1. (1.11 Coordinate systems In the next two chapters.11. All three of these coordinate systems are orthogonal . ∂y ∂x ∂v ∂w 2eyz = + . τ12 . . Hence the constitutive relation (1.6).6) gives τxx = (λ + 2µ)exx + λeyy + λezz .7.2) .1) (1. τxy .1 Cartesian coordinates First we write out in full the results derived thus far using the usual Cartesian coordinates (x. namely Cartesian. . . 1. Here we state the main results that will be useful in subsequent chapters for the three most popular coordinate systems. A detailed derivation of the Navier equation in an arbitrary orthogonal coordinate system may be found in the Appendix. y. . we will construct some elementary solutions of the Navier equation (1. we will denote the displacement components by u = (u. To avoid the use of suﬃces. z ).8). w)T .11.6) applies literally to any orthogonal coordinate system. τyz = 2µeyz . . The linear constitutive relation (1. and similarly for the strain components.11.

As noted above.5.11. ρ 2 = ρgz + ∂t ∂x ∂y ∂z ρ (1. τrz = 2µerz . = ρgx + 2 ∂t ∂x ∂y ∂z ∂τyy ∂τyz ∂τxy ∂2v ρ 2 = ρgy + + + . τzz = λerr + λeθθ + (λ + 2µ)ezz .6) applies directly to this coordinate system.3) where the body force is g = (gx .4) 1. ∂t ∂z ρ (1. so that τrr = (λ + 2µ)err + λeθθ + λezz . as in Section 1. gz )T . θ.6) = ∂z r ∂θ τrθ = 2µerθ . τθz = 2µeθz . the constitutive relation (1. (1. (1. = ∂z 2erθ = 2erz 2eθz ∂uθ uθ 1 ∂ur + − . ∂r 1 ∂uθ + ur . r ∂θ ∂r r ∂uz ∂ur + . = ρgx + (λ + µ) 2 ∂t ∂x ∂2v ∂ ρ 2 = ρgy + (λ + µ) (∇ · u) + µ∇2 v. θ or z and. the Navier equation reads (assuming that λ and µ are constant) ∂ ∂2u (∇ · u) + µ∇2 u.11. τθθ = λerr + (λ + 2µ)eθθ + λezz .and z -directions by ur . τij is deﬁned to be the i-component of stress on a surface element whose normal points in the j direction.11.11.20 Modelling solids and the three components of Cauchy’s momentum equation are ∂τxy ∂τxz ∂2u ∂τxx + + . where the strain components are now given by err = eθθ ezz ∂ur .5) . θ. ∂t ∂x ∂y ∂z ∂τyz ∂τzz ∂2w ∂τxz + + .11. = ∂z ∂r 1 ∂uz ∂uθ + . In terms of the displacements. z ) in the usual way and denote the displacements in the r-.2 Cylindrical polar coordinates We deﬁne cylindrical polar coordinates (r. ∂t ∂y ∂2w ∂ ρ 2 = ρgz + (λ + µ) (∇ · u) + µ∇2 w.7. gy . = r ∂θ ∂uz . uθ and uz respectively. The stress components are denoted by τij where now i and j are equal to either r.

The origin of these terms may be understood in two dimensions (r. expressed in cylindrical polars.11.11) .11.11. (1. r ∂r r ∂θ ∂z 1 ∂ ∂ui 1 ∂ 2 ui ∂ 2 ui ∇2 u i = + r + 2 r ∂r ∂r r ∂θ2 ∂z 2 (1. Summing the resultant forces in the r.7) are given in the Appendix. ∂t r ∂r r ∂θ ∂z r ∂ 2 uz ∂τzz 1 ∂ 1 ∂τθz ρ 2 = ρgz + (rτrz ) + + . ∂t r ∂r r ∂θ ∂z ρ (1. ρ 2 = ρgθ + ∂t r ∂θ r r ∂θ ∂ 2 uz ∂ ρ 2 = ρgz + (λ + µ) (∇ · u) + µ∇2 uz .3). θ) by considering the equilibrium of a small polar element as illustrated in Figure 1. = ρgr + (λ + µ) (∇ · u) + µ ∇2 ur − 2 − 2 2 ∂t ∂r r r ∂θ ∂ 2 uθ (λ + µ) ∂ uθ 2 ∂ur (∇ · u) + µ ∇2 uθ − 2 + 2 .10) when we expand using Taylor’s theorem.9) are the divergence of u and the Laplacian of ui respectively. (1. these become ∂ 2 ur ∂ ur 2 ∂uθ .4.7) where the body force is g = gr er + gθ eθ + gz ez . + δθ ∂θ (1.11.11 Coordinate systems 21 The three components of Cauchy’s momentum equation (1. in which τ ˜αβ = ταβ (r + δr.11.6.11. = ρgr + 2 ∂t r ∂r r ∂θ ∂z r ∂ 2 uθ ∂τθz τrθ 1 ∂ 1 ∂τθθ ρ 2 = ρgθ + (rτrθ ) + + + . θ) = ταβ + δr τ ˆαβ = ταβ (r.2) and (1.11.and θ-directions to zero results in τ ˜rr (r + δr) δθ − τrr rδθ − τ ˆθθ δr sin δθ + τ ˆrθ δr cos δθ − τrθ δr = 0.11.6) and (1. θ + δθ) = ταβ ∂ταβ + ··· .1. Written out in terms of displacements. ∂r ∂ταβ + ··· . τ ˆθθ δr cos δθ − τθθ δr + τ ˆrθ δr sin δθ + τ ˜rθ (r + δr) δθ − τrθ rδθ = 0. Notice the undiﬀerentiated terms proportional to 1/r which are not present in the corresponding Cartesian expressions (1.8) ∂t ∂z ρ where ∇·u = 1 ∂uθ ∂uz 1 ∂ (rur ) + + .3) read ∂ 2 ur ∂τrz τθθ 1 ∂ 1 ∂τrθ (rτrr ) + + − . Detailed derivations of (1.11.

τrθ = 2µerθ .4 Forces acting on a polar element of solid. The stress component τθθ is the so-called hoop stress in the θ-direction that results from inﬂating an elastic object radially. we can apply the constitutive relation (1.10).7).12) ∂r r ∂θ r ∂r r ∂θ r which are the components of the two-dimensional steady Navier equation in plane polar coordinates with no body force. δr → 0 and using (1.6) literally.11.11. θ. θ.3 Spherical polar coordinates The spherical polar coordinates (r.11. τrφ = 2µerφ . + + = 0. cf (1. τφφ = λerr + λeθθ + (λ + 2µ)eφφ . (1.7.11. we obtain 1 ∂τrθ τrr − τθθ ∂τrθ 1 ∂τθθ 2τrθ ∂τrr + + = 0.22 Modelling solids τ ˆrθ τ ˜rθ τ ˆθθ τ ˜rr eθ δr er τrr r δθ τrθ τrθ τθθ Fig. τθθ = λerr + (λ + 2µ)eθθ + λeφφ . τθφ = 2µeθφ . (1.11. such that the position vector of any point is given by r sin θ cos φ r (r.6.14) .11. (1. we will see an explicit example of hoop stress in Section 2. φ) are deﬁned in the usual way. to obtain τrr = (λ + 2µ)err + λeθθ + λeφφ . φ) = r sin θ sin φ . 1. 1.13) r cos θ Again. Now letting δθ.

= r sin θ ∂φ r r r sin θ ∂φ r ∂θ r (1. (1. the Navier equation reads ρ ∂ 2 ur ∂ = ρgr + (λ + µ) (∇ · u) ∂t2 ∂r ∂ 2ur 2 2 ∂uφ (uθ sin θ) − 2 + µ ∇2 u r − 2 − 2 r r sin θ ∂θ r sin θ ∂φ .11. ∂r r ∂θ ∂r r ∂uφ uφ 1 ∂uθ 1 ∂ur 2erφ = + ur .1.15) and (1. = r ∂θ r sin θ ∂φ ∂r r uφ cot θ ur uθ cot θ 1 ∂uφ 1 ∂uφ 1 ∂uθ + + .11. + − . In terms of displacements. Again. + r sin θ ∂φ r 1 ∂ (sin θτθθ ) ∂ 2 uθ 1 ∂ (r2 τrθ ) + ρ 2 = ρgθ + 2 ∂t r ∂r r sin θ ∂θ τrθ − cot θτφφ 1 ∂τθφ + .11 Coordinate systems 23 The linearised strain components are now given by err = eθθ eφφ ∂uθ uθ ∂ur 1 ∂ur .11. ρ (λ + µ) ∂ ∂ 2 uθ (∇ · u) = ρgθ + 2 ∂t r ∂θ uθ 2 ∂ur 2 cos θ ∂uφ − 2 2 − 2 2 + µ ∇2 u θ + 2 r ∂θ r sin θ r sin θ ∂φ . + r sin θ ∂φ r ρ (1.16) where the body force is g = gr er + gθ eθ + gφ eφ .11. 2erθ = + − . + r sin θ ∂φ r ∂ 2 uφ 1 ∂ (sin θτθφ ) 1 ∂ (r2 τrφ ) + ρ 2 = ρgφ + 2 ∂t r ∂r r sin θ ∂θ τrφ + cot θτθφ 1 ∂τφφ + . 2eθφ = + − . .15) Cauchy’s equation of motion leads to the three equations 1 ∂ (sin θτrθ ) 1 ∂ (r2 τrr ) ∂ 2 ur + = ρg + r 2 2 ∂t r ∂r r sin θ ∂θ τθθ + τφφ 1 ∂τrφ − .16) may be derived using the general approach given in the Appendix or more directly by analysing a small polar element.

dt2 1 + k ( − L)2 + mg (L − ) = const. 2 and interpret this result in terms of energy. dt2 where Tn = k (un +1 − un ). . .9). Show that the length of the spring satisﬁes the diﬀerential equation m Deduce that 1 m 2 1. if x = a and x = b are any two points along the string. Given that w satisﬁes the wave equation (1.1).10. r 2 ur + 2 r ∂r r sin θ ∂θ r sin θ ∂φ 1 ∂ ∂ui 1 ∂ ∂ui 1 ∂ 2 ui ∇2 u i = 2 . 2. A system of masses m along the x-axis at positions Xn = nL (n = 0. a 1.24 Modelling solids ρ ∂ 2 uφ (λ + µ) ∂ (∇ · u) = ρgφ + 2 ∂t r sin θ ∂φ uφ 2 cos θ ∂uθ 2 ∂ur + µ ∇2 u φ + 2 + 2 2 − 2 2 r sin θ ∂φ r sin θ ∂φ r sin θ . d dt 1 2 b a ∂w ∂t 2 b dx + a 1 2 ∂w ∂x 2 T dx ∂w ∂w = T ∂x ∂t b .18) Exercises 1. show that. A string.2 d dt 2 d2 + k ( − L) − mg = 0. r2 + 2 sin θ + 2 2 r ∂r ∂r r sin θ ∂θ ∂θ r sin θ ∂φ2 (1. where is the mass per unit length of the string.1 A light spring of natural length L and spring constant k hangs freely with a mass m attached to one end and the other end ﬁxed.11. undergoes small transverse displacements such that its position at time t is given by the graph z = w(x. If each mass is displaced by a distance un (t).2. as shown in Figure 1.5. . stretched to a tension T along the x-axis. (1.) are linked by springs satisfying Hooke’s law (1. 1. show that the tension Tn joining Xn to Xn +1 satisﬁes T n − Tn − 1 = m d2 un .11. t).3 Interpret this result in terms of conservation of energy.17) where ∇·u= 1 ∂uφ 1 ∂ 1 ∂ (sin θuθ ) + . .

[It is not so easy to use discrete element models in more than one dimension. and known to be zero at three non-collinear points. Show that the linearised strain eij .4 where X = nL.1). for example. ∂t2 ∂X 2 1. is identically zero if and only if u = c + ω ×x.6. given by (1. . since P is orthogonal.] Consider a volume V (t) that is ﬁxed in a deforming solid body. If u is of this form.3).4.5 ∂u ρ dx = ∂t x×g ρ dx + V (t) ∂V (t) x×(τ n) da. pkl pkm ≡ δlm .4. use the chain rule to show that ∂uα ∂ui = piα pjβ .6 From this and Cauchy’s momentum equation (1. Show that this approximates the rigid-body motion (1.7. t) and c2 = kL2 /m. 1. deduce that c = ω = 0.Exercises m un−1 Tn−1 Tn−1 un Tn m Tn m un+1 25 Fig. un (t) = u(X.11) to show that Eij transforms as a tensor under a rotation of the coordinate axes. Deduce that m d2 un = k (un +1 − 2un + un −1 ) dt2 and show that this is a spatial discretisation of the partial diﬀerential equation 2 ∂2u 2 ∂ u = c . [Hint: note that. where c and ω are spatially-uniform vectors. 1.4. Show that conservation of angular momentum for V (t) leads to the equation d dt x× V (t) 1.9). deduce that τij ≡ τji . x .5 A system of masses connected by springs along the x-axis. it can be shown that it is impossible to retrieve the Navier equation as the limit of a lattice of masses joined by springs aligned along three orthogonal axes. ∂xj ∂xβ Hence establish equation (1. u and u are related by (1.] If x.13) when P is close to I .

8. if a solution exists.10. [Hint: use the fact that τij is symmetric. show that it is also necessary.2) in a region D and the mixed boundary condition α(x)u + β (x)τ n = f (x) on ∂D.26 Modelling solids 1. Suppose a solid body occupies the region D and the displacement u is prescribed on ∂D.] Use the divergence theorem to show that δU = ∂D ηi τij nj da − D ∂τij + ρgi ηi dx.10. Show also that the minimisation of U subject to the constraint div u ≡ 0 leads to the steady incompressible Navier equation (1. . it is suﬃcient for µ and λ +2µ/3 to be positive. By considering particular values of eij . then the corresponding leading-order change in U is δU = D ∂ηi τij − ρgi ηi ∂xj dx. An elastic body D at rest is subject to a traction τ n = σ (x) on its boundary ∂D. if no boundary condition is imposed. where W is the strain energy density.7 By writing the linearised strain tensor eij as the sum of a zerotrace contribution eij − (1/3)δij ekk and a purely diagonal contribution (1/3)δij ekk . for W to have a single global minimum at eij = 0. By taking the cross product of x with (1. Show that. 3 1.2) before integrating over D. Deduce also that. Show that. Let U= D W − ρg · u dx. derive (1.9 1. Suppose that u satisﬁes the steady Navier equation (1.7) and deduce that the net moment acting on D must be zero. the natural boundary condition is the vanishing of the traction τij nj on ∂D. show that W can be rewritten as W= λ µ + 2 3 1 (ekk )2 + µ eij − δij ekk 3 1 eij − δij ekk . ∂xj 1. if ui is changed by a small virtual displacement ηi .10 and deduce that the minimisation of U with respect to all displacements satisfying the given boundary condition leads to the steady Navier equation. it is unique provided α > 0 and β 0.10.3a). where p is a Lagrange multiplier.8 Deduce that.

2erθ = + − . 2003. + ∂r ∂θ (d) Hence show that |δ x|2 = |δ X |2 + (δr. with u = ur (r. = −er .11 [If α and β take diﬀerent signs. eθθ = ∂r r ∂θ ∂r r r ∂uθ + ur . θ) and (r + δr. dθ dθ (b) Consider a small line segment joining two particles whose polar coordinates are (r.. (c) If a two-dimensional displacement ﬁeld is imposed.] (a) Show that. as in (1. θ + δθ). to leading order in the displacements.Exercises 27 1. ∂θ [These are the elements of the linearised strain tensor in plane polar coordinates.11.] . the basis vectors satisfy deθ der = eθ . 154). θ)eθ (θ). show that the line element δ X is displaced to δx = δX + ∂ur ∂ur δr + δθ − uθ δθ er ∂r ∂θ ∂uθ ∂uθ δr + δθ + ur δθ eθ . then there is no guarantee of uniqueness. rδθ) err erθ erθ eθθ δr rδθ where. err = ∂uθ uθ ∂ur 1 ∂ur 1 . Show that the vector joining the two particles is given to leading order by δ X ∼ δrer + rδθeθ . θ)er (θ) + uθ (r. This is analogous to the diﬃculty associated with the Robin boundary condition for scalar elliptic partial diﬀerential equations (Ockendon et al. p.6). θ). in plane polar coordinates (r.

which has a direct physical interpretation. This equation. This leads to a class of exact solutions of the Navier equation in terms of solutions of Laplace’s equation in two dimensions. However. as distinct from the use of Laplace’s equation in. which does not. which concerns the twisting of an elastic bar. Our ﬁrst application of practical importance is elastic torsion. which are the elastic analogues of electrostatic or gravitational potentials. This means we have to be especially careful to ensure that the solution is single-valued in situations involving multiply-connected bars. the dependent variable is the displacement. We will begin by listing some very simple explicit solutions which give valuable intuition concerning the role of the elastic moduli introduced in Chapter 1. the method of separation of variables. This topic may appear to be the simplest in the whole of solid mechanics. we will ﬁnd that it is much more diﬃcult to construct explicit solutions using. rather than a potential. hydrodynamics or electromagnetism. the material presented in this chapter will provide crucial underpinning to the more general theories of later chapters. Moreover. which will be seen to be ubiquitous in linear elastostatics. but we will ﬁnd that it oﬀers many interesting mathematical challenges. say. In particular. We 28 .2 Linear elastostatics 2.1 Introduction This chapter concerns steady state problems in linear elasticity. or the stream function in hydrodynamics. These remarks remain important when we move on to another class of two-dimensional problems called plane strain problems. An interesting technique to emerge from both these classes of problems is the use of stress potentials. for example. say. poses signiﬁcant extra diﬃculties as compared to Laplace’s equation. These have even more general practical relevance but involve the biharmonic equation.

each being the response to a diﬀerent kind of localised forcing.2. To avoid suﬃces.2. 2.2. This idea opens up one of the most distinctive and fascinating aspects of linear elasticity: because of the intricacy of (1. which will vary depending on the situation being modelled. suppose u= α x. z )T . If the displacement u is a linear function of position x.2. and the catalogue of these diﬀerent responses is a very helpful toolkit for thinking about solid mechanics more generally. we will be able to provide a conceptual framework within which to represent the solution by generalising the idea of Green’s functions for scalar ordinary and partial diﬀerential equations. therefore. As discussed in Section 1.8).2) where α is a constant scalar.10.2. y. this corresponds to a uniform isotropic expansion of the . It follows that the stress tensor τ is also uniform and. (2. it needs to be supplemented with suitable boundary conditions. 2.1). for example two-dimensional or axisymmetric. which must be small for linear elasticity to be valid.2. Nonetheless.2 Linear displacements 29 will ﬁnd that a large class of elastostatic problems with some symmetry.1) and also give a feel for the signiﬁcance of the parameters λ and µ.1 Isotropic expansion As a ﬁrst example.2 Linear displacements We will begin by neglecting the body force g so the steady Navier equation reduces to ∇ · τ = (λ + µ) grad div u + µ∇2 u = 0. then the strain tensor E is spatially uniform.7. Fully three-dimensional problems are mostly too diﬃcult to be suitable for this chapter. can be described using a single scalar potential that satisﬁes the biharmonic equation. many diﬀerent kinds of singular solutions can be constructed using stress functions and Green’s tensors. w)T and x = (x. When α > 0. v.1) This vector partial diﬀerential equation for u is the starting point for all we will say in this chapter. The necessary Green’s tensor describes the response of an elastic body to a localised point force applied at some arbitrary position in the body. we will write u = (u. trivially satisﬁes (2. Such solutions provide considerable insight into the predictions of (2. 3 (2.

) Since α is small. .8). 2.6).2. the relative change in volume is thus α 3 − 1 ∼ α. the displacement is an isotropic contraction.2. (2. as illustrated in Figure 2. (Of course. from Exercise 1.2).1 A unit cube undergoing (a) uniform expansion (2. a unit cube is transformed to a cube with sides of length 1 + α/3. in which the stress is characterised by a scalar isotropic pressure p. 3 (2. if α is negative. where 2 K =λ+ µ 3 (2.1(a).4) This is a so-called hydrostatic situation. (b) one-dimensional shear (2. and τij = −pδij . (c) uniaxial stretching (2.2.5) measures the resistance to expansion or compression and is called the bulk modulus or modulus of compression . we know that K is positive.2.30 Linear elastostatics y 1 1 z (a) (b) 1 + α/3 1 + α/3 α 1 + α/3 1 x (c) 1+α 1 − αν 1 − αν Fig.2. The pressure is related to the relative volume change by p = −Kα.7.2. medium so that.3) 1+ 3 The strain and stress tensors corresponding to this displacement ﬁeld are given by eij = α δij 3 and τij = 2 λ + µ αδij .

(2. since the bar is assumed not to vary in the x-direction. as shown in Figure 2. 2. (2. We suppose. (2. τ = α 0 (1 − 2ν )λ − 2νµ 0 0 0 (1 − 2ν )λ − 2νµ (2. The corresponding displacement.1(b).2.2. strain and stress are x 1 0 0 u = α −νy . τ = αµ 1 0 0 .3 Uniaxial stretching Our next example is uniaxial stretching in which. the solid is stretched by a factor α in (say) the x-direction. The strain and stress tensors are now given by 0 1 0 0 1 0 α E = 1 0 0 .2.10) ν= 2 (λ + µ) . as shown in Figure 2. If the curved surface of the bar is stress-free.2 Simple shear As our next example. which occurs if λ .2. so the response to shear is accounted for entirely by µ. the outward normal n to the lateral boundary always lies in the (y.2.7) 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 Note that λ does not aﬀect the stress.1(c).2. which is therefore called the shear modulus.2. that the solid simultaneously shrinks by a factor να in the other two directions. for reasons that will emerge shortly. then the resulting boundary condition τ n = 0 may be satisﬁed identically by ensuring that τyy = τzz = 0.2 Linear displacements 31 2. z )-plane.9) This simple solution may be used to describe a uniform elastic bar that is stretched in the x-direction under a tensile force T .2. E = α 0 −ν 0 . Notice that. w 0 (2.2. suppose u αy u = v = 0 .6) where α is again a constant scalar. This corresponds to a simple shear of the solid in the x-direction. as illustrated in Figure 2.8) −νz 0 0 −ν (1 − 2ν )λ + 2µ 0 0 .

namely τxx = Eα. the corresponding extensional strain α and transverse contraction να. must shrink by a factor να in the two transverse directions.2.7) can be written in terms of E and ν as Eeij = (1 + ν )τij − ντkk δij . The ratio ν between lateral contraction and longitudinal extension is called Poisson’s ratio.7.2.2.11) is called Young’s modulus. The lower bound for ν comes from the condition λ +2µ/3 > 0 . 2(1 + ν ) (2.2. If the cross-section of the bar has area A. (2. the stress tensor has just one non-zero element.2. (2. then the tensile force T applied to the bar is related to the stress by T = Aτxx = AEα.2. if ν happened to be negative.13) thus AE is the elastic modulus k referred to in (1. this would correspond to an expansion. one may thus infer the values of E and ν for a particular solid from a bar-stretching experiment like that illustrated in Figure 2. By measuring T .2.32 Linear elastostatics y τn = 0 T z Fig. The Lam´ e constants may then be evaluated using λ= νE .2).2 A uniform bar being stretched under a tensile force T .15) While E is a positive constant with the dimensions of pressure. x A T Hence the bar. ν is dimensionless and constrained on physical grounds to lie in the range −1 < ν < 1/2. 2. With ν given by (2.2. while stretching by a factor α in the x-direction. where E= µ(3λ + 2µ) λ+µ (2. (1 + ν )(1 − 2ν ) µ= E .12) (2.10).14) We note that the constitutive relation (1.

required for convexity of the strain energy.3.2.2.3 A paper model with negative Poisson’s ratio. the stress and strain tensors are both constant.4 Biaxial strain As a ﬁnal illustrative example. as in Section 2. For most solids.2. have been developed whose microscopic structure mimics such paper models so they also display negative values of ν and they expand in all directions when pulled in only one (see Lakes. w −γz (2.2. as shown in Exercise 1.7. Suppose the plate experiences a linear in-plane distortion while shrinking by a factor γ in the z -direction. try extending a crumpled piece of paper! So-called auxetic materials. 2.3 and consider an elastic plate strained in the (x.2.4. y )-plane as illustrated in Figure 2. 2. we generalise Section 2. in other words as the material becomes incompressible. so the displacement is given by u ax + by u = v = cx + dy . 1987).2 Linear displacements (b) (a) 33 Fig.16) and.8. as discussed in Section 1. Here we choose γ to satisfy the condition τzz = 0 on the traction-free upper and .3) to construct simple hinged paper models with negative Poisson’s ratio. Each line segment is a strip of paper viewed end-on. in which ν < 0. ν is positive. The upper bound ν → 1/2 is approached as λ → ∞. but it is possible (see Figure 2.

2. We can use (2. 1 − ν2 (2. 1 − ν2 (2. with b = c = d = 0. 1 − ν2 τxy = E (b + c) .19b) (2. as illustrated in Figure 2.2. 1 − ν2 (2.17) where ν again denotes Poisson’s ratio. lower surfaces of the plate. = 1+ν Eh = (νexx + eyy ).19c) These will provide useful evidence when constructing more general models for the deformation of plates in Chapter 4.18) to relate these to the in-plane strain components by Txx = Txy = Tyx Tyy Eh (exx + νeyy ).4 A plate being strained under tensions Txx . and with E again denoting the Young’s modulus. 1 − ν2 Eh exy .2. that is Txy = Tyy = 0. (2. On the other hand. Ty y and shear forces Txy . z )-plane.20) .2.2. Ty x .34 Tyy y Linear elastostatics Tyx z Txy Txx Txx Txy h Tyx Tyy x Fig.19a) (2.2.4. τyy = Eνa . so that γ= λ λ + 2µ (a + d) = ν 1−ν (a + d). 2(1 + ν ) τyy = E (νa + d) .2. with d = −νa and Txx = Eha. the only non-zero stress components are τxx = E (a + νd) .19) reproduces the results of uniaxial stretching. With this choice.2. If no force is applied in the y -direction.18) We denote the net in-plane tensions and shear stresses applied to the plate by Tij = hτij . then (2. it is possible for the displacement to be purely in the (x. 2. 1 − ν2 τxx = Ea .

25) . when expanded in a Taylor series about some point x0 .23) 0 −ω1 . and may be written as the sum of symmetric and skew-symmetric parts: ∂uj 1 = ∂xi 2 ∂uj ∂ui + ∂xj ∂xi + 1 2 ∂uj ∂ui − ∂xi ∂xj . that is x = x0 + P T x . while the skew-symmetric part may be written in the form 0 −ω3 ω2 1 ∇u − ∇uT = ω3 (2. These eigenvalues are referred to as the principal strains.2.21) Here ∇u is the displacement gradient matrix. followed by a linear deformation characterised by the matrix E . with ω = (ω1 . u.2.2 Linear displacements 35 Thus a transverse stress τyy must be applied to prevent the plate from contracting in the y -direction when we stretch it in the x-direction. (2. ω such that u = u0 + ω ×x + E x + · · · .21) becomes u(x) = u0 + ω ×(x − x0 ) + E (x − x0 ) + · · · . (2.2. If we use an orthogonal matrix P to align the coordinate axes with these principal directions.22) We recognise the symmetric part of ∇u as the linear strain tensor E . and the directions deﬁned by the eigenvectors as the principal directions. 2 . ω2 . u . ω3 )T .2. say { 1 . which shows that purely two-dimensional stretching is always more strenuous than uniaxial stretching. whose entries are conventionally deﬁned to be ∇u = (∂uj /∂xi ). ω are transformed to E .2.24) The terms on the right-hand side represent a small rigid-body translation and rotation. 2. Since E is real and symmetric. 3 }.26) (2. (2.2. is linear to leading order: u(x) = u(x0 ) + ∇u (x0 ) T (x − x0 ) + · · · . it has real eigenvalues. Notice also that the eﬀective elastic modulus E/(1 − ν 2 ) is larger than E whenever ν is non-zero.2. Indeed. 2 −ω2 ω1 0 so that.2. (2. and orthogonal eigenvectors.2. any displacement ﬁeld. then E .5 General linear displacements The simple linear examples considered above shed useful light on more general solutions of the Navier equation. (2.

36 Linear elastostatics where E = P EP T = 0 0 1 0 2 0 0. and the eigenvalues {τ1 .32) u = 0 = −x + x + y − y − x . followed by a small rigid-body rotation.2. Generalising Section 2.2. 2 1 v 2 = −1 . where τ = λ( 1 + 2 + 3 ) + 2µ 2 . 0 1 = α =− . 2 4 4 0 0 0 0 The terms on the right-hand side represent a rigid-body rotation. we can decompose the displacement as follows: y x+y x−y αy α α α (2. τ = 0 τ2 0 . As an illustration.31a) (2.2. In the original non-principal axes.2. 1 3 (2. the stress tensor is also diagonal. 0)T plus an equal and opposite contraction in the direction (1. The eigenvalues and corresponding eigenvectors v i of E are readily found to be α . 0)T . depending on the signs of { 1 .2.2. τ3 } are called the principal stresses.30) 0 0 τ3 τ3 = λ( 1 + 2 + 3 ) + 2µ 3 . let us re-examine the simple shear of Section 2. τ2 .2.1. 0 v 3 = 0 .2. −1.2. an expansion and an orthogonal contraction.29) With respect to the principal axes. we note that the net relative volume change associated with this expansion/contraction is (1 + 1 )(1 + 2 )(1 + 3) −1= 1 + 2 + 3 + ··· . . 3 }. namely τ1 0 0 τ1 = λ( 1 + 2 + 3 ) + 2µ 1 . 2 1 v 1 = 1 . (2. (2. 2 (2. 3 (2.2. 0 2 = 0.27) 0 We can hence think of the strain at any point as comprising three orthogonal expansions or contractions. 1. 2 .31b) Hence the shear is equivalent to an expansion of magnitude α/2 in the direction (1.28) The sum of the eigenvalues is the invariant trace of the matrix E so that the relative volume change is Tr (E ) = ekk = ∇ · u.

2.35) cos θ sin θ −sin θ cos θ (2. the principal strains i and principal stresses τi are functions of position x. In particular. the oﬀ-diagonal shear stress takes its maximum value |τ1 − τ2 |/2 when θ = ±π/4. always lie between min(τi ) and max(τi ). 2. u = (0. It is shown in Exercise 2. (τ1 − τ2 ) sin θ cos θ τ2 cos2 θ + τ1 sin2 θ (2. known as the normal stresses. and a fuller account of plasticity will be given in Chapter 8. particularly metals.36) This is often used as a diagnostic to test for failure.j |τi − τj | . are susceptible to plastic deformation when subject to excessive shear stress.5 how this criterion can be applied to predict the failure of a gun barrel.9 that these properties also hold for threedimensional stress ﬁelds.33) It is easiest to understand the consequence of such a rotation in two dimensions. τ = Qτ QT . when we can take Q= and (2.2.33b) becomes τ = τ1 cos2 θ + τ2 sin2 θ (τ1 − τ2 ) sin θ cos θ .2. It follows that the diagonal elements of the stress tensor. w)T say. and w depends only on the transverse coordinates (x.6.34) with an analogous expression for E .3 Antiplane strain The simplest two-dimensional model for elastostatics occurs when the displacement u is unidirectional.2. We will show below in Section 2. therefore. The so-called Tresca criterion proposes that a material will yield and become plastic when S exceeds some critical yield stress τY. the maximum shear stress always occurs at an angle of π/4 with two of the principal axes and is given by S = max i. One way to create this state of antiplane strain is to apply a tangential traction σ (x. the strain and stress tensors are diagonal only with respect to the principal axes. y ). then the strain and stress tensors become E and τ respectively. 2 (2. the strain tensor E and. 0. where E = QE QT . if these axes are rotated by another orthogonal matrix Q. At any such position. since many elastic materials. y ). . However.2. (2. in the axial direction only.3 Antiplane strain 37 In general.2.

y to the curved boundary of a cylindrical bar.38 Linear elastostatics z surface traction σ D x Fig. the stress tensor is 0 τ = 0 ∂w µ ∂x 0 0 µ ∂w ∂y ∂w µ ∂x ∂w . so the applied traction is simply a shear force σ in the z -direction that is related to w by σ (x) = τzn = µ ∂w ∂n on ∂D. Of course. sin θ.2) to be solved inside the cross-section D of the bar.3. ∂x2 ∂y 2 (2.3. whose maximum value as θ varies is µ|∇w|. y )-plane.5 A bar in a state of antiplane strain. the unit normal n to the curved boundary lies in the (x. which is a region of the (x.10. Since the bar is uniform. as illustrated in Figure 2. y )-plane. If we neglect gravity. 0)T is µ (cos θ∂w/∂x + sin θ∂w/∂y ). (2. 2.3. With the z -axis parallel to the bar.3) . µ ∂y 0 (2. σ (x) must exert no net force or moment on the bar. the traction on an element normal to (cos θ.1) At any point of the bar. the Navier equation reduces to the two-dimensional Laplace’s equation ∂2w ∂2w + = ∇2 w = 0. as pointed out in Section 1.5.

3.2). y ) of a nearly planar membrane under tension (Exercise 2.4. (2.3.5) then correspond to prescribing either force or displacement at its boundary.4 Torsion 39 z M M D x y Fig.1) w Ωψ (x. y ) on ∂D (2.4 Torsion Now consider a bar which.5) instead of (2. we would obtain the Dirichlet boundary condition w = f (x. and may be described by a displacement ﬁeld of the form u −Ωyz u = v = Ωxz .6 A bar being twisted under a moment M . instead of stretching or contracting along its axis.4) which conﬁrms that no net traction may be applied to any cross-section (cf equation (1. (2. (2. 2.3. we will ﬁnd this model a very useful paradigm when we come to consider fracture in Chapter 7. 2.3). We note that (2. If. (2.3.3. Despite its simplicity.6)).2) also describes the small transverse displacement w(x.2.3. ∂D (2.8).3. Such torsion bars are often used in car suspensions.3) is σ ds = 0.3) and (2. We note that the strain energy density is W = µ|∇w|2 and that. we were to specify the displacement w on ∂D. y ) . when the total elastic energy in the bar is minimised using the calculus of variations.3.10. The solvability condition for the Neumann problem (2. instead of the traction.3.2).3) with σ = 0 is the natural boundary condition (as in Exercise 1. twists under the action of moments applied at its ends.

4.4.4. (2.4. now.7) say.4.4) where D is the cross-section of the bar. where R=µ D x ∂ψ ∂ψ −y + x2 + y 2 ∂y ∂x dxdy. (2. Once ψ has been found.2) 0 τyz τxz τyz 0 where.6) Notice that the solvability condition for the Neumann problem (2.6) is satisﬁed identically. The quantity R/µ is proportional to the square of the cross-sectional area of the bar and. τxz = µΩ ∂ψ −y . the displacement w = Ωψ is uniquely determined up to an arbitrary constant. we must have dY dX − τyz =0 on ∂D.4. y )-plane.4). (2. −dX/ds. since the bar is uniform. the moment applied at each end of the bar is given by M= D (xτyz − yτxz ) dxdy = RΩ. is readily found for simple cross-section shapes. corresponding to an arbitrary uniform translation.4. y = Y (s). as in Section 2. as we will see shortly. given the shape of the cross-section D. ∂y (2.4. As in Section 2.4.8) The constant of proportionality R between the applied moment M and the resulting twist Ω is called the torsional rigidity of the bar.5) (2. if ∂D is parametrised by x = X (s). assuming the curved boundary of the bar is stress-free. the stress tensor is of the form 0 0 τxz τ = 0 (2. ψ satisﬁes Laplace’s equation ∇2 ψ = 0 in D. ds ds and the corresponding boundary condition for ψ is τxz 1 d ∂ψ = X2 + Y 2 ∂n 2 ds on ∂D. . (2. Hence.3. its unit normal n lies purely in the (x.3) The Navier equation therefore implies that. (2. Recall that. then n = (dY /ds. 0)T . where s is arc-length.3. Hence. ∂x τyz = µΩ ∂ψ +x .40 Linear elastostatics where Ω is a constant representing the twist of the bar about its axis.

4.2).3.3).4. The zero-stress boundary condition (2. exactly the same procedure could have been applied to the antiplane strain problem (2.10) where the factors of µΩ are introduced for later convenience. (2.4. we may take φ=0 on ∂D. (2.4.2.4.2) and there is no body force.9) to exist. Moreover.11) that ψ and φ +(x2 + y 2 )/2 are harmonic conjugates.4). φ is unique only up to the addition of an arbitrary constant. ∂x ∂y ∂ψ ∂φ =− − x. (2.4. which has a unique solution.4.4.9) We can guarantee that (2. The torque M is then given in terms of φ by M = µΩ D −x ∂φ ∂φ −y ∂x ∂y dxdy = 2µΩ D φ dxdy.4.4. ∂x ∂y (2.10) with (2. the steady Navier equation reduces to ∂τyz ∂τxz + = 0.4.9) is satisﬁed by postulating the existence of a stress function φ (x. in our case.11) Elimination of φ retrieves (2. Such potentials are never uniquely deﬁned. and the existence of a magnetic vector potential ensures that the magnetic ﬁeld is divergencefree in magnetostatics.4 Torsion 41 The boundary-value problem (2. the existence of a stream function in ﬂuid dynamics guarantees mass conservation.3).14) .4. y ) such that τxz = µΩ ∂φ . ∂y ∂x (2.4. In the same way.4. without loss of generality.13) The advantage of introducing the stress function φ is that the Neumann problem for ψ has been converted to the Dirichlet problem (2.12) Indeed. ∂y τyz = −µΩ ∂φ . By comparing (2. (2.4. it is easy to see from (2. it can be shown that the existence of φ is necessary as well as suﬃcient for solutions of (2.13). (2.5) implies that φ is constant on ∂D and. while elimination of ψ reveals that φ satisﬁes Poisson’s equation ∇2 φ = −2 in D.4).6) for ψ may be usefully reformulated as follows. (2.4.3. ∂x (2.4.12). Whenever the stress tensor is of the form (2. we see that φ and ψ are related by ∂ψ ∂φ = + y.4.

An alternative formula to (2.4.4.4.4.17) Note that a circular cylinder is the only case in which the right-hand side of (2.17) as expected. Many torsion bars are tubular in practice. r = a. hence. (2. bounded as r → 0. whose solution. r = a. θ) are the usual plane polar coordinates.4.4.4. therefore. we may solve the Dirichlet problem (2. This result can easily be generalised to bars of elliptical cross section (see Exercise 2. 2 πµa4 . (2.4. we have implicitly assumed that D is simply connected.4.8) for the torsional rigidity is. where (r.4.4.42 Linear elastostatics the ﬁnal step being a consequence of Green’s theorem and (2.12). R = 2µ D φ dxdy.4. ∂ψ = 0.13). (2.6) becomes r < a.4). For any other cross-sectional shape. (2.4.6) is zero. twisting a bar inevitably results in a non-zero axial displacement w = Ωψ .16a) ∇2 ψ = 0.18a) (2.16b) ∂r It follows that ψ is a constant and. is φ= a2 − r2 . (2.13) for φ. we have ∇2 φ = 1 d r dr r dφ dr = −2. that the torsional rigidity is R=µ D x2 + y 2 dxdy = µ 0 2π 0 a r3 drdθ = πµa4 . φ = 0.15) To illustrate the theory of this section we will now ﬁnd the torsional rigidity of a circular bar ﬁrstly using ψ and secondly using φ. (2.4.18b) The torsional rigidity is then given by (2. Assuming that φ is a function only of r.4. 2 (2.15): 2π a 0 R=µ 0 (a2 − r2 )r drdθ = (2.4). 2 (2. 2.4.4. Alternatively. If D is the disc r < a. and the resulting change in topology .19) r < a. then the Neumann problem (2.5 Multiply-connected domains In Section 2.4.20) which reproduces (2.

2) = 2µ D φ dxdy + 2µkAi . Hence.5.5) on two stress-free boundaries. as illustrated in Figure 2. we may only choose φ to satisfy φ=0 on ∂Do .5. We now have to apply the condition (2. By working with the stress function φ. namely the inner (∂Di ) and outer (∂Do ) surfaces of the tube. φ=k on ∂Di . As before. with inner and outer free surfaces given by ∂Di and ∂Do respectively.4. we have reduced the torsional rigidity problem to a seemingly innocuous Poisson equation (2.7 A uniform tubular torsion bar. but these two constants are not necessarily equal.5 Multiply-connected domains 43 ∂Do D ∂Di z y x Fig. we can deduce that φ must be constant on each of these boundaries. makes a big diﬀerence to the integration of our mathematical model.4.12) with . after using Green’s theorem.1) where k is a constant. The torsional rigidity is now given by R = −µ D x = −µ D ∂φ ∂φ +y dxdy ∂x ∂y ∂ ∂ (xφ) + (yφ) − 2φ ∂x ∂y dxdy (2. To obtain φ and thus R uniquely.2. Note that k is not simply additive to φ and hence may not be set to zero without loss of generality. we still have to evaluate the unknown constant k . where Ai is the area of the hole inside ∂Di . 2. (2.7.

5.5. In fact.5.1) on the two boundaries of the annular tube. Dirichlet boundary conditions (2. it is readily shown that (2.5. with φ taking the constant value ki (i = 1.8 The cross-section of (a) a circular cylindrical tube. φ and R. If there are m holes in the cross-section.5. as illustrated in Figure 2. .5). . as before.5. φ = k. This constraint gives the extra information needed to determine the constant k and.4) to determine the ki . φ = 0.5a) (2.5b) (2. we have temporarily lost sight of the displacement ﬁeld w = Ωψ . then there are m relations of the form (2. suppose that D is the circular annulus a < r < b in plane polar coordinates (r.5.44 Linear elastostatics y (a) b a x (b) b y a x Fig.4) ∂D i ∂D i where. which implies that ∂ψ ∂ψ dx + dy ≡ 0 ∂x ∂y (2.11). it must satisfy the boundary-value problem ∇2 φ = 1 d r dr r dφ dr = −2. (b) a cut tube.3) C for all simple closed paths C contained in D. r = a. which has yet to be determined from (2.3) holds for all such paths if it holds when C is the inner boundary ∂Di (see Exercise 2. However.4. By substituting for ψ in favour of φ. 2. a < r < b.8(a). As an illustration. (2. y ). . r = b.5. To be physically acceptable. m) on each hole. hence. ψ must be a single-valued function of (x. we therefore obtain ∂φ ∂φ dy − dx = ∂x ∂y ∂φ ds = −2Ai ∂n (2. . θ). Ai is the area of the void in the tube cross-section.5c) . Assuming that φ is a function of r alone.

8) This value of k eliminates the logarithmic term from (2.5. log (a/b) (2.6).4) tells us that k= b2 − a2 .5.6) We can determine k by substituting this expression for φ into (2.5. (2.5. We therefore ﬁnd that φ= b2 − r 2 .2. (2.5.5.11) and it is straightforward to substitute this into (2.5. 2 Had we chosen to use ψ instead of φ.9) and −log r is the harmonic conjugate of θ.12) using (2.5 Multiply-connected domains 45 whose solution is easily found to be φ= b2 − a2 b2 − r 2 + k− 2 2 log (r/b) .5.5.5. Even in this simple radially symmetric geometry. we would have discovered that ψ is constant and then quickly reproduced (2. . the bother of ﬁnding the arbitrary constant k has outweighed the convenience of introducing a stress function. so (2.2) and obtain the torsional rigidity µπ 4 R= (2.12) b − a4 . 2 (2. + k − 2 2 log r (2.8). − k − b2 − a2 2 θ.10) which is evidently a single-valued function only if k satisﬁes (2.5.4) to give ∂φ ds = ∂n 2π 0 ∂D i dφ dr a dθ = −2πa2 + r=a 2π log (a/b) k− b2 − a2 2 .4. 2 (2. we deduce that ψ = const.5. Since φ+ b2 − a2 r2 = const. and we might have anticipated that this would be necessary by recalling that ψ and φ+r2 /2 are harmonic conjugates.8).7) while Ai = πa2 .5. When considering multiply-connected domains it is therefore often a better idea to return to the physical variable ψ .

so that φ must satisfy ∇2 φ = with φ=0 and φ=0 on θ = 0. with a thin axial cut.5. where ε is again small.15) Notice that (2.5. (2.5. R = 4πµa2 ε 0 1 φ dξ = 2π 4 3 µa ε . (2.5. so a and b are nearly equal. 3 (2. Here the cross-section is simply connected.4. 2π . then R = 2µπa4 ε 1 + O (ε) . (2.17) for a solid circular bar as a tends to zero. (2. if the tube is thin. then an approximate solution may be found by performing the rescaling r = a (1 + εξ ) .46 Linear elastostatics Notice that (2.8(b).13) where ε = b/a − 1 1.14b) 1 ∂ r ∂r r ∂φ ∂r + 1 ∂2φ = −2.5.15) to determine the torsional rigidity and thus obtain.5. ∂ξ 2 with φ=0 whose solution is φ = ε2 a2 ξ (1 − ξ ). This is because there are so-called boundary layers near the cut where the θ-derivatives must be retained in (2.16b) 0 < ξ < 1.6. For this simply-connected cross-section. this problem can be solved exactly by separating the variables. if we assume that the tube is thin. to lowest order in ε. as illustrated in Figure 2. Alternatively. r2 ∂θ2 a < r < b.5.5.14a) As shown in Exercise 2. On the other hand. b. such as part of an old bicycle frame.14a.5. (2. (2.5.17) on ξ = 0.12) reproduces the result (2. we may use (2.4.5. (2.5. We can now compare this with the torsional rigidity of a tube. (2.14c) on r = a.14).5.b) reduces to ∂2φ = −2ε2 a2 . To lowest order in ε.18) . 2π. 1.17) does not satisfy the boundary conditions on θ = 0.16a) (2.

y ) . y ) u = v (x.5. when a z -independent traction just in the (x.13).2. ∂y ∂x ∂u ∂v + . (λ + µ) ∂2u ∂2v + ∂x2 ∂x∂y 2 ∂ u ∂2v (λ + µ) + 2 ∂x∂y ∂y +µ ∂2u ∂2u + 2 ∂x2 ∂y 2 ∂ v ∂2v +µ + 2 2 ∂x ∂y = 0. 0 0 τzz where τxx = λ τyy = λ ∂u ∂v + ∂x ∂y ∂u ∂v + ∂x ∂y ∂u .5a) (2.6.6 Plane strain 2.6. and gravity neglected. ∂x ∂v + 2µ . the Navier equation reduces to ∂τxy ∂τxx + = 0.3b) (2.6.6. y )-plane is applied to the curved boundary of a cylindrical bar aligned with the z -axis.6.1) 0 we ﬁnd that the stress tensor takes the form τxx τxy 0 τ = τxy τyy 0 . ∂x ∂y (2. (2.1 Deﬁnition A more common conﬁguration than that of antiplane strain is plane strain. ∂y + 2µ τxy = µ τzz = λ ∂u ∂v + . ∂x ∂y (2.6 Plane strain 47 Comparing (2.6.2 The Airy stress function With the stress tensor given by (2.3a) (2.2). in which a solid is displaced in the (x. The easily-forgotten stress component τzz represents the normal traction that would need to be applied to the ends of such a bar to prevent it expanding or contracting in the z -direction. Writing u (x. y )-plane only.6. for example. = 0. we see that the change in topology caused by introducing the cut has a dramatic inﬂuence on the strength of the tube.4) . (2. ∂x ∂y or. reducing its torsional rigidity by two orders of magnitude! 2.2) This conﬁguration arises. with the displacement being independent of z .6.5. in terms of displacements.6.6.5b) ∂τxy ∂τyy + = 0. 2.18) with (2.

6. By using (2.6.48 Linear elastostatics By cross-diﬀerentiating.6. By inspection.6.9b) (2.9c) and using (2. we can reduce (2. v0 and ω constant.6. v = v0 + ωx.6.9b). 2µ ∂y ∂x2 ∂y 2 ∂ A ∂u ∂v + =− .6. A is only deﬁned to within a function that is linear in x and y . we can eliminate u and v and hence ﬁnd that A satisﬁes the biharmonic equation: ∇4 A = 0. (2.6. ∂x∂y τyy = ∂2A .4) is the existence of an Airy stress function A such that τxx = ∂2A .11) .6.6. by taking ∂ 2 /∂x∂y of (2.9a) (2.10) Moreover.3).6. in other words.4.5) and thus show that each satisﬁes the biharmonic equation ∇4 u = ∇4 v = 0.5) to a single biharmonic equation by making use of another potential function as follows. ∂y 2 τxy = − ∂2A . ∂y ∂x ∂x∂y 2µ (2. we obtain the following expressions for the displacement gradients ∂2A ∂2A ∂u = −ν 2 + (1 − ν ) 2 .8) In the same way that the stress function φ in (2.6. (2. any such function may be added to A without contributing to the stress.6) In fact. the integrability condition for the system (2. with u0 .6. ∂x4 ∂x2 ∂y 2 ∂y 4 (2. (2.6. given A.9c) µ Now.6.10) is only deﬁned to within a constant.9) forms a compatible system of three equations that determine u and v to within a small rigid body displacement in which u = u0 − ωy . ∂x ∂x ∂y 2 2 ∂ A ∂ A ∂v = (1 − ν ) −ν 2. where ∇4 refers here to the two-dimensional biharmonic operator: ∇4 = ∂2 ∂2 + ∂x2 ∂y 2 ∂2 ∂2 + ∂x2 ∂y 2 = ∂4 ∂4 ∂4 + 2 + . ∂x2 (2.9a) and (2. We now recall that the general solution of Laplace’s equation in two dimensions may be written in the form φ = Re f (z ) .7) (2. it is straightforward to eliminate u and v in turn from (2.6.

10) has the Goursat representation A = Re z ¯f (z ) + g (z ) .14) . Y (s) .9. where s is arc-length.6. However.6. Similarly. By choosing diﬀerent functional forms for f and g . the general solution of (2. as we will see in Chapter 7.7).6. (2. y ) = X (s). 2. Y (s) Fig. (2.2. 2.12) to construct many exact solutions of the biharmonic equation. so the unit tangent and outward normal vectors are given by t= X Y .12) where z ¯ = x − iy . on whose boundary a prescribed traction σ is imposed. we parametrise ∂D using (x. y ) = X (s).13) As illustrated in Figure 2.6. that is τn = σ on ∂D.6.6 Plane strain 49 y t n D x ∂D (x.9 The unit normal n and tangent t to the boundary ∂D of a plane region D.10) in some region D. making this representation satisfy realistic boundary conditions is usually not easy. g are analytic (see Exercise 2.6. (2. n= Y −X . where f is an arbitrary analytic function of z = x + iy . we can use (2.6. and f .3 Boundary conditions Suppose we wish to solve (2.

6. in a simply-connected region.17) on ∂D. (2. as noted above. by taking the dot product of ∇A with t and n respectively.6. (2.6. we thus ﬁnd that (2.50 Linear elastostatics where is shorthand for d/ds.6.13) can be written in the form d ds ∂ A/∂y −∂ A/∂x = σ.17) to be imposed on a stress-free boundary.6. The former of these tells us that A is constant on ∂D and.16) on ∂D. take this constant to be zero without loss of generality.17) reveals that A ≡ 0. then it follows from (2. without loss of generality. then ∇2 A = 0 and a second use of (2.19) . if A satisﬁes the biharmonic equation in D and the boundary conditions (2.15) If no surface traction is applied.6. an arbitrary linear function of x and y may be added to A without aﬀecting the stresses.6. This result conﬁrms that the stresses inside a closed body in plane strain are uniquely determined by the tractions applied to the boundary. we can. Using (2.8) to write the stress components in terms of A. Since.18) div A grad(∇2 A) − div ∇2 A grad A = D A∇4 A − ∇2 A 2 Hence. ∂A =0 ∂n (2. this constant may. Finally. (2. Then. be set to zero.6.15) that ∇A is constant on ∂D.6.6. again. We can combine (2. We note that the divergence theorem on any closed region D yields A ∂D ∂ ∂A 2 ∇2 A − ∇ A ∂n ∂n = D ds dxdy dxdy. we deduce that ∂A dA = =0 ds ∂n (2.6.9) to obtain the strain energy density in the form W= 1 (τxx exx + 2τxy exy + τyy eyy ) 2 ∂2A 1 2 (1 − ν ) ∇2 A + 2 = 4µ ∂x∂y 2 −2 ∂2A ∂2A ∂x2 ∂y 2 .8) and (2. we arrive at the boundary conditions A = 0. that is σ = 0.6.

The biharmonic equation for A reads τrr = ∇4 A = 1 ∂2 ∂2 1 ∂ + + ∂r2 r ∂r r2 ∂θ2 2 A = 0.6.7) with gi = 0 and all variables depending only on r and θ.8 that other stress functions can be deﬁned that are better suited to such problems.8) in plane polar coordinates.21) We will only consider here cases where a purely normal pressure P is applied. let us consider plane strain in a circular region r < a on whose boundary r = a a prescribed traction is applied.4 Plane strain in a disc As a ﬁrst illustrative example. (2. This is because the displacements are related to A by (2.2. so boundary conditions for u and v cannot usually be expressed simply in terms of A.6. (2.6.9).10). we ﬁnd that ∂ 1 ∂A .11. Since ∂ 2 /∂r2 (rB ) is now equal to −∂ 3 A/∂r2 ∂θ.7b) gives −∂ 3 A/∂r2 ∂θ = 2τrθ + r∂τrθ /∂r.20) are the analogues of (2.6.6. We begin by deriving the relations between the Airy stress function and the stress components in polar coordinates.6. When the displacement rather than the stress is prescribed on a boundary in plane strain. which suggests that we write τrθ = ∂B/∂r.6.6.6.20a) Then (1.20c) + r2 ∂θ2 r ∂r Equations (2. (2.6.11. + r2 ∂θ2 r ∂r ∂ ∂r A r =0 on r = a. 2. the usefulness of the stress function A is diminished.11. ∂r2 (2. We will show in Section 2.22) .6 Plane strain 51 Then the calculus of variations can be used to show that minimisers of the net strain energy U= D W dxdy in a closed region D satisfy the biharmonic equation (2. we try writing τθθ = ∂2A . (2.7a) gives 1 ∂2A 1 ∂A .20b) τrθ = − ∂r r ∂θ and then (1. so the boundary conditions on r = a are 1 ∂2A 1 ∂A = −P. Recalling (1.

6. (2.6.6. where k satisﬁes k 2 − n2 (k − 2)2 − n2 = 0. we ﬁnd that n2 1 d d2 − + dr2 r dr r2 2 (2. Seeking a solution of (2.24) It is then straightforward to solve (2.6. (2. For the special case n = 1.6.6. we obtain P 2 (2.6. the only physically acceptable solution is f (r) = c1 r3 .6.21) in the form A(r.26) r + a2 .24). and now this restricts us to the solutions k = n. we require A to be twice diﬀerentiable as r → 0 and hence. where n is a positive integer. that is f (r) = c1 rn +2 + c2 rn .20) are well deﬁned as r → 0.6.23) dr2 r dr subject to the boundary conditions A=r dA = −P a2 dr on r = a.29) We must again ensure that the stress components (2. applying the boundary conditions (2. The problem thus reduces to 2 1 d d2 + A = 0.6.6. The simplest case occurs if P is constant. then we can solve the problem by separating the variables in polar coordinates. (2.27) f = 0. A=− 2 If P is not assumed to be constant. n + 2.6.28) This Euler diﬀerential equation admits the solution f (r) = rk .6.30) where the ci are again arbitrary constants. (2. (2. (2. so we expect the displacement to be purely radial and A to be a function of r alone.25) For the stresses to exist throughout the circle.52 Linear elastostatics we obtain the latter equation by integrating the condition τrθ = 0 with respect to θ. θ) = f (r) sin(nθ).31) . (2. using the fact that A must be a 2π -periodic function of θ.23) in the form A = c1 r2 + c2 + c3 r2 log r + c4 log r.

2.6 Plane strain

53

r=a

r=b

P

Fig. 2.10 A plane annulus being inﬂated by an internal pressure P .

We can take a linear combination of separable solutions that satisfy (2.6.24) and the radially-symmetric solution (2.6.26) to obtain A=− 1 + 2

∞ n =2

r2 + a2 4

A0 An cos(nθ) + Bn sin(nθ) , (2.6.32)

rn rn +2 − (n − 1)an −2 (n + 1)an

**where An and Bn are the Fourier coeﬃcients of P , that is An = 1 π
**

2π

P (θ) cos(nθ) dθ,

0

Bn =

1 π

2π

P (θ) sin(nθ) dθ.

0

(2.6.33)

Notice that the n = 1 term does not appear in the series in (2.6.32), so it is possible to satisfy the boundary condition (2.6.22) only if

2π

P (θ)

0

cos θ sin θ

dθ = 0.

(2.6.34)

This is simply a manifestation of the solvability condition (1.10.6) and states that the net force on the disc must be zero.

2.6.5 Plane strain in an annulus Our next example concerns the inﬂation of a circular annulus a < r < b under an applied internal pressure P , as illustrated in Figure 2.10. This practical and important instance of plane strain might model, for example, the response of a gun barrel or a diving cylinder, or even the skin of a Belgian sausage. We will only consider here a constant pressure P , the techniques of the previous section again being appropriate when the pressure depends on θ.

54

Linear elastostatics

Assuming that A is a function of r alone, it is given by (2.6.25), but, since we are now solving in the annular region a < r < b, there is no a priori justiﬁcation for eliminating the logarithmic terms that cause the stress to be ill-behaved as r → 0. We therefore have four arbitrary constants ci in (2.6.25) to be determined from the boundary conditions. The condition of zero traction on the outer boundary r = b means, as explained in Section 2.6.3, that we may without loss of generality set dA =0 on r = b. (2.6.35a) dr With A independent of θ, τrθ is identically zero, so the speciﬁed internal pressure gives us just one more boundary condition, namely A= 1 dA = −P r dr on r = a. (2.6.35b)

As in Section 2.5, the vital fourth relation needed to determine the constants ci comes from the realisation that the annulus is multiply connected. We need A(r) to be such that the displacement ur (r) exists and is singlevalued, where, from the constitutive relations (1.11.5), dur ur d2 A ur 1 dA dur = (λ + 2µ) +λ , + (λ + 2µ) . (2.6.36) =λ 2 r dr dr r dr dr r By cross-diﬀerentiation, we ﬁnd that that the compatibility condition for ur to exist is d3 A 1 d2 A 1 dA = 0, (2.6.37) + − 2 3 2 dr r dr r dr which is satisﬁed by (2.6.25) only if c3 = 0. The boundary conditions (2.6.35) may then be used to evaluate the remaining three constants and hence show that r P a2 b2 P a2 2 2 − a log − A= r . (2.6.38) 2 2 2 2 2 (b − a ) b −a b In a plane strain problem with multiple traction-free holes, we would have ∂A (2.6.39) = Ki ∂n on the ith hole, where the constants ki and Ki must be determined by ensuring that both displacement components (u, v ) are single-valued around each hole. As noted in Section 2.5, the utility of introducing a stress function in such cases is negated by the diﬃculty of solving for all the arbitrary constants, and it is often preferable to work with physical variables in A = ki ,

2.6 Plane strain

55

multiply-connected domains. By way of illustration, had we posed the annular problem above in terms of the radial displacement ur (r) rather than A, we would have obtained the considerably more tractable problem 1 d (rur ) = 0, r dr ur dur + λ = −P, (λ + 2µ) dr r ur dur + λ = 0, (λ + 2µ) dr r This quickly yields the solution d dr ur = P a2 2 (b2 − a2 ) a < r < b, r = a, r = b. (2.6.40a) (2.6.40b) (2.6.40c)

r b2 + λ + µ µr

,

(2.6.41)

and we can then recover the stress components using the constitutive relations (1.11.5). In our radially symmetric geometry, τrθ is zero and the only non zero stresses are the radial stress τrr , the hoop stress τθθ and the axial stress τzz , given respectively by τrr = P a2 b2 − a2 1− b2 r2 , τθθ = P a2 b2 − a2 1+ b2 r2 , τzz = 2νP a2 , b2 − a2 (2.6.42)

where ν denotes Poisson’s ratio, as usual. These results are in accordance with (2.6.38). We can now use the above solution to predict the failure of a gun barrel as P increases. As explained in Section 2.2.5, the Tresca criterion predicts that the material will fail when |τi − τj | = τY , (2.6.43) S = max i,j 2 where τY is the yield stress and τi are the principal stresses. Here the stress tensor is diagonal, so τi are just the three stress components given in (2.6.42). If we assume that the material has positive Poisson’s ratio† then, since ν < 1/2 and r < b, we can deduce from (2.6.42) the inequalities τrr < 0 < τzz < τθθ , and so the maximum shear stress is S=

†

(2.6.44)

P a2 b2 τθθ − τrr = 2 . 2 (b − a2 ) r2

(2.6.45)

for an auxetic material with ν < 0, the second inequality in (2.6.44) is reversed and the maximum shear stress may be τ θ θ − τ z z instead of (2.6.45)

56

Linear elastostatics

This is maximised at r = a, so we would expect a gun barrel always to yield ﬁrst on its inner surface, along a generator. We can also use (2.6.45) to predict the maximum pressure P ∗ that the barrel can withstand, namely P ∗ = τY 1− a2 b2 . (2.6.46)

Notice in particular how the barrel becomes more susceptible to failure as its thickness b − a is reduced. It turns out that this is a canonical problem for the theory of plasticity, as will be explained in Chapter 8. 2.6.6 Plane strain in a rectangle In Section 2.6.4, we showed how plane strain in a disc can be solved by separating the variables in polar coordinates. On the face of it, the procedure was only slightly more complicated than that for solving Laplace’s equation, the extra complication arising from the application of two boundary conditions rather than one on r = a. In other geometries, however, solving the biharmonic equation generally involves serious practical diﬃculties that are not encountered with Laplace’s equation. To illustrate the problems that may occur, we will now consider plane strain in a cylinder with rectangular cross-section |x| < a, |y | < b. For simplicity, we suppose that the faces are subject to purely tangential tractions, that is τxx = 0, τyy = 0, τxy = g± (y ) τxy = f± (x) on x = ±a, on y = ±b, (2.6.47a) (2.6.47b)

as shown schematically in Figure 2.11. Of course the applied tractions must exert no net force or moment, so that

a −a a

f+ (x) − f− (x) dx =

b −b b −b

g+ (y ) − g− (y ) dy = 0, g+ (y ) + g− (y ) dy = 0.

(2.6.48a) (2.6.48b)

b

−a

f+ (x) + f− (x) dx − a

The Airy stress function therefore satisﬁes the biharmonic equation subject to A = 0, A = 0, ∂2A = −g± (y ) ∂x∂y ∂2A = −f± (x) ∂x∂y on x = ±a, on y = ±b, (2.6.49a) (2.6.49b)

after integrating the normal stress conditions as in Section 2.6.3.

2.6 Plane strain

57

y f+ g+ b a x

g− f−

Fig. 2.11 A plane rectangular region subject to tangential tractions on its faces.

The seemingly simplest solution procedure is to separate the variables, writing A(x, y ) = F (x)G(y ) where F G G F +2 + = 0. F F G G (2.6.50)

For any ﬁxed value of y , this is a linear, constant-coeﬃcient, fourth-order ordinary diﬀerential equation for F (x), which suggests writing F as a combination of exponentials eαx . This leads to G + 2α2 G + α4 G = 0 (2.6.51)

and hence to solutions of the form A = a1 y cos (αy ) + a2 y sin (αy ) + a3 cos (αy ) + a4 sin (αy ) eαx + b1 y cos (αy ) + b2 y sin (αy ) + b3 cos (αy ) + b4 sin (αy ) e−αx . (2.6.52) Clearly a second class of separable solutions arises from exchanging the roles of x, y . All these solutions can also be derived from (2.6.12) by putting f = Aeαz + B e−αz , g = C eαz + De−αz . We now need to select from (2.6.52) functions which satisfy A = 0 on |x| = a and on |y | = b. For simplicity, we suppose that the tangential tractions f± (x) and g± (y ) are both odd functions. We can thus assume that A is an even function of x and y , which is analogous to seeking a Fourier cosine series representation for solutions of Laplace’s equation. After a little experimentation, we ﬁnd that α must be of the form (n +1/2)π/a or (n +1/2)π/b, for some integer n. By interchanging x and y , we can therefore construct a

58

Linear elastostatics

**solution of the form A=
**

n odd

An Fn (x) cos

nπy nπx + Bn Gn (y ) cos 2b 2a

,

(2.6.53)

where An and Bn are constants and the functions Fn and Gn are deﬁned by nπa nπx nπa nπx Fn (x) = a sinh cosh − x cosh sinh , (2.6.54a) 2b 2b 2b 2b nπy nπy nπb nπb cosh sinh − y cosh . (2.6.54b) Gn (y ) = b sinh 2a 2a 2a 2a In contrast to more elementary Fourier series examples, we now encounter a serious diﬃculty when we try to determine An and Bn in terms of the applied tractions. Considering x = a, for example, we ﬁnd that nπy πn nπ g+ (y ) = aFn (a)An sin + b sin Bn Gn (y ) , (2.6.55) 2ab 2b 2

n odd

but {sin(nπy/2b), Gn (y )} do not form an orthogonal set on −b < y < b. Hence, if we were to multiply (2.6.55) by Gm (y ) and integrate over |y | < b in the usual Fourier series procedure, we would end up with an inﬁnite system of equations for the constants An and Bn . We will discuss this diﬃculty further below. 2.6.7 Plane strain in a semi-inﬁnite strip We now present an example which is technically easier than the rectangular geometry discussed above and which has wide signiﬁcance in the theory of linear elasticity. We consider plane strain in the semi-inﬁnite strip 0 < x < ∞, −h/2 < y < h/2, with zero stress on y = ±h/2 and with prescribed tractions τxx = σx (y ), τxy = σy (y ) (2.6.56)

on x = 0, as illustrated in Figure 2.12. Then the Airy stress function satisﬁes the biharmonic equation along with the boundary conditions ∂2A (0, y ) = σx (y ), ∂y 2 ∂2A (0, y ) = −σy (y ), ∂x∂y ∂A (x, h/2) = 0. ∂y (2.6.57)

and, as in Section 2.6.3, we can choose A such that A(x, h/2) = (2.6.58)

However, because the end x = 0 is not traction-free, we cannot use the same conditions on the other face y = −h/2. All we can safely deduce from the

2.6 Plane strain

59

y stress free

τxx = σx (y )

x

τxy = σy (y )

stress free

Fig. 2.12 The tractions applied to the edge of a semi-inﬁnite strip.

zero-stress condition is that ∂2A ∂2A (x, −h/2) = 0, ( x, − h/ 2) = ∂x2 ∂x∂y which implies that A(x, −h/2) = a + bx, ∂A (x, −h/2) = c, ∂y (2.6.59b) (2.6.59a)

where a, b and c are constants. We can calculate these constants by insisting that A and ∇A be continuous at the corners (0, ±h/2); otherwise we would, in general, have point forces or moments acting there, rather than just jump discontinuities in the tractions. By integrating (2.6.57) with respect to y , we ﬁnd that

h/ 2

A=

y

(η − y )σx (η ) dη,

∂A = ∂x

h/ 2

σy (η ) dη,

y

∂A =− ∂y

h/ 2

σx (η ) dη

y

**(2.6.60) on x = 0, and we deduce that
**

h/ 2 h/ 2

a=

−h/ 2

(y + h/2) σx (y ) dy, b =

−h/ 2

σy (y ) dy, c = −

h/ 2 −h/ 2

σx (y ) dy. (2.6.61)

We would like to try to solve this problem by separating the variables, as in Section 2.6.6, but this is diﬃcult because of the inhomogeneous boundary condition (2.6.59b). However, we note that the function A∞ (x, y ) = (h − 2y )2 4a(h + y ) + 4bx(h + y ) + ch(h + 2y ) 8h3 (2.6.62)

60

Linear elastostatics

satisﬁes both the biharmonic equation and the boundary conditions (2.6.58), (2.6.59). Hence, if we set ˜, A = A∞ + A (2.6.63)

˜ is biharmonic and satisﬁes homogeneous boundary conditions then A ˜ ˜ ˜ (x, h/2) = ∂ A (x, h/2) = 0. ˜ (x, −h/2) = ∂ A (x, −h/2) = A A ∂y ∂y (2.6.64)

Using (2.6.52), we can write the solution as a superposition of functions of the form ˜ = a1 y cos (αy ) + a2 y sin (αy ) + a3 cos (αy ) + a4 sin (αy ) e−αx , (2.6.65) A with Re(α) > 0. The boundary conditions (2.6.64) lead to four homogeneous linear equations of the form h ± cos 2 αh 2 αh 2 − a1 + h sin 2 αh 2 αh 2 a2 + cos αh 2 a3 ± sin αh 2 a4 = 0, (2.6.66a) cos αh sin 2 a1 ± sin αh αh αh cos + 2 2 2 αh αh a3 + α cos ∓ α sin 2 2 a2 a4 = 0, (2.6.66b) which admit nontrivial solutions for the constants ai only if the relevant determinant is zero. This eventually leads to the transcendental equation† sin (αh) = ±αh, (2.6.67)

and the “eigenvalues” α satisfying (2.6.67) are complex. This occurs because the ordinary diﬀerential equation (2.6.51), along with the boundary conditions G = G = 0 at y = ±h/2 is not a self-adjoint eigenvalue problem, in contrast with the St¨ urm–Liouville problems which would be encountered were we solving Laplace’s equation. This has the additional implication that

†

the calculation is much simpler if the problem is posed on the strip 0 < y < h

2.6 Plane strain

61

the “eigenfunctions” are not mutually orthogonal, which seriously complicates the task of ﬁtting the initial conditions, as in (2.6.55). Had we instead imposed the conditions A = ∂ 2 A/∂y 2 = 0 on y = ±h/2, we would have found that the eigenvalues are real and the eigenfunctions are orthogonal trigonometric functions. We will see a practically relevant example of this in Section 4.6 but, unfortunately, specifying ∂ 2 A/∂n2 on the boundary has no obvious physical signiﬁcance in plane strain. ˜ can in fact be A completeness argument can be given to show that A expressed as a sum of terms of the form (2.6.65), with Re(α) > 0, although, because of the diﬃculties described above, the coeﬃcients can only be computed numerically by inverting an inﬁnite matrix. Thus, whatever tractions ˜ will decay exponentially as x → ∞. The stress far are imposed on x = 0, A from the edge of the strip will then be characterised entirely by the stress function A∞ , which corresponds to a far-ﬁeld stress, as x → ∞, τxx → 12y (a + bx) + h(6y − h)c , h3 τxy → 3b h2 − 4y 2 , 2h3 τyy → 0. (2.6.68) The net tensile force T , shear force N and bending moment M exerted on any section x = const. by the stress ﬁeld (2.6.68) are given by

h/ 2

T (x) =

−h/ 2

τxx dy = −c,

h/ 2

h/ 2

N (x) =

−h/ 2

τxy dy = b, ch . 2

(2.6.69a)

M (x) =

−h/ 2

yτxx dy = a + bx +

(2.6.69b)

**From (2.6.61), we deduce that T , N and M satisfy the diﬀerential equation dM = N, dx and the boundary conditions
**

h/ 2 h/ 2

(2.6.70)

T (0) =

−h/ 2

σx (y ) dy,

N (0) =

−h/ 2 h/ 2

σy (y ) dy,

(2.6.71a)

M (0) =

−h/ 2

yσx (y ) dy.

(2.6.71b)

Note that (2.6.71) does not correspond to setting x = 0 as in (2.6.57); rather it is the matching condition between (2.6.68) and the solution for A in the form (2.6.63). The only information about the tractions applied to x = 0 that is preserved as x → ∞ is the value of the scalars T , N and M , which

all the diﬃculties associated with the separability of solutions melt away when we consider a half-space. we also recall the inversion formula ∞ 1 ˆ e−ikx dx. y ) eikx dx. σy (y ) applied to the edge of an elastic strip is indistinguishable from a diﬀerent set of tractions which exerts the same net force and moment.9).62) and (2. we deﬁne the Fourier transform ∞ A (k . ν ∂y 1 − ν ∂x h h3 3N ∂u ∂v + = 3 h2 − 4y 2 .70) between the shear force and bending moment. It follows that any system of tractions σx (y ). A (2.6.6. y ) = −∞ A (x. and we will also re-encounter the relation (2.6.6. just as long as we are suﬃciently far from the edge. we ﬁnd that u and v satisfy − 2µ ∂u T 12M (x)y 2µ ∂v = = + .6.74) Assuming that P and σ decrease suﬃciently rapidly as |x| → ∞. when considering the boundary conditions to be imposed on thin solids such as plates and rods.6. 2. From (2. This phenomenon occurs quite generally in elasticity and is known as Saint-Venant’s principle : any localised system of tractions applied to a suﬃciently large elastic body may be characterised in the far ﬁeld purely by its net force and moment. (2. with prescribed traction τyy = −P (x). (2.6. say y > 0.75) Assuming further that this integral converges.6. let us examine the far-ﬁeld displacement by using (2.6.72b) with respect to x to obtain ∂2u ∂2v =− = − ∂x2 ∂x∂y M (x).72b) We can eliminate u by diﬀerentiating (2. (2.6.76) A= 2π −∞ . τxy = σ (x) on y = 0.62 Linear elastostatics correspond to the net force and moment exerted on the edge of the strip. Finally.6.8 Plane strain in a half-space As long as we are deft with Fourier transforms.72a) (2.73) This relationship between the bending moment and the curvature of the displaced strip will also prove very useful in Chapter 4.6. µ ∂y ∂x 2h 6(1 − ν ) µh3 (2.9). We will return to this important fact in Chapters 4 and 6.

(2. may be inverted as convolutions of the form τxx = − τxy = − τyy = − 2 π 2 π 2 π ∞ −∞ ∞ −∞ ∞ −∞ P (x − s) P (x − s) P (x − s) s2 y ds (s2 + y 2 )2 sy 2 ds (s2 + y 2 )2 y 3 ds (s2 + y 2 )2 .6.10) we ﬁnd that d2 − k2 dy 2 and. .77c) (2.77a) This ordinary diﬀerential equation for A is readily solved to give A= iy 1 + y |k | P (k ) − σ (k ) e−y |k | . τxy = P (k )iyk e−|k |y . However.80a) (2.80b) (2.6.6 Plane strain 63 From the biharmonic equation (2. (2.6.77d) 2 A=0 y > 0.6. For example.6.6.78) The presence of inverse powers of k in (2.11(a).79a) (2. we can avoid the use of complex k by inverting the formulae for the stress components. we just consider the case σ = 0. when we deduce that τxx = −P (k ) (1 − y |k |) e−|k |y .9) to calculate the displacements.79b) (2.77b) (2. as shown in Exercise 2. y → ∞.78) indicates that the integral in (2. 2 k k (2. .6. τyy = −P (k ) (1 + y |k |) e−|k |y .6.75) fails to converge unless k is a complex variable.6.6.74). y = 0. = −(1 − ν )k 2 A − ν 2 = ((2ν − 1) − y |k |) P dy dy (2. (2. For simplicity. (2. from (2.6.81) .6. v satisﬁes 2µ d2 A dv ˆ (k )e−y |k | . ˆ = P (k ) k2 A ik dA = σ (k ) dy A→0 y = 0.79c) which.6.6.2.6.6.80c) We can now use (2.6.

= 2(1 + ν ) 2 ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y (2. As shown in Exercise 2.6.85) where H[P ] is called the Hilbert transform of P .6.12. this is awkward to invert as it stands (because of the |k | in the denominator) and it is easier ﬁrst to diﬀerentiate with respect to x.87a) and both are plotted in Figure 2. in the case σ = 0. to obtain 2µv = y+2 1−ν |k | P (k ) e−y |k | . (2.12. Notice that in some parts a negative pressure must be applied to obtain the given bounded surface displacement. namely µ P =− H v0 .80) and then integrating with respect to x.83) reduces to the singular integral µ 1 ∞ P (s) ds dv0 = (1 − ν ) − = (1 − ν )H[P ].6. and hence we can calculate the pressure required to achieve a given surface displacement v0 (x). When we do so.6. (2. . As shown in Exercise 2.87b) a 1 + x2 /L2 (2.6. we can also obtain (2.6.13. (2. this leads to µ 1 ∂v =− ∂x π ∞ −∞ (1 − ν )s2 + (2 − ν )y 2 (s2 + y 2 )2 P (x − s)s ds.83) from the identity E ∂τyy ∂τxy ∂τxx ∂2v − +ν . the right-hand side of (2. The displacement v0 (x) = v (x.82) Again.6.6.13. as shown in Exercise 2.64 Linear elastostatics which may be integrated. 0) of the surface caused by the imposed pressure can now be found by carefully letting y tend to zero. (1 − ν )L (1 + x2 /L2 )2 (2. dx π −∞ s − x (2.11(b). − being the principal value integral deﬁned in Exercise 2. this transform may be inverted using the formula H H[f ] ≡ −f .84) by using (2.83) Alternatively.86) 1−ν As an illustrative example.6. the surface displacement v0 (x) = corresponds to a surface pressure P (x) = 1 − x2 /L2 µa .6.

6. y ). if ∞ P (x) dx = 0.6.9. ∂x2 (2. The general question of the indentation produced by traction applied to the boundary of a half-plane will be discussed further in connection with “punch” problems in Chapter 7.8 0. then the two-dimensional Navier equation takes the form ∂τxy ∂V ∂τxx + =ρ .90) ∂τxy ∂τyy ∂V + =ρ . 2. ∂y 2 τxy = − ˜ ∂2A .6.6.88) and it is therefore necessary for P to change sign.3 that it does not occur in radially symmetric problems.85) that it is only possible to achieve a localised displacement. with v0 → 0 as x → ±∞.2.9 Plane strain with a body force The Airy stress function approach can easily be extended to plane strain under the action of a body force that is conservative.6. and we will see in Section 2.89) .13 The surface displacement v0 (x) of a half-space and corresponding surface pressure P (x) deﬁned by (2. This phenomenon is an artefact of plane strain which results from the artiﬁcial constraint of zero transverse strain.6. One can deduce generally from (2.87). −∞ (2.4 0. If −g may be written as the gradient of a potential V (x.2 -4 -2 x/L Fig.8) therefore generalises to τxx = ρV + ˜ ∂2A .6 Plane strain 1 65 0.6.6 v0 /a (1 − ν )LP/µa 2 4 0. 2. ∂x ∂y ∂x and (2. ∂x ∂y ∂y (2. ∂x∂y τyy = ρV + ˜ ∂2A .

V will enter when (2.20) by setting τrr = ρg (r sin θ − H ) + τrθ = − ∂ ∂r ˜ 1 ∂A r ∂θ .66 Linear elastostatics ˜ satisﬁes the Now when we eliminate the displacements. but replaces it with boundary tractions.90) is used to transform these con˜ . we discover that A inhomogeneous biharmonic equation ˜+ ∇4 A 1 − 2ν 1−ν ∇2 V = 0.92c) τθθ = ρg (r sin θ − H ) + where the depth is −y = H −r sin θ. θ). has no eﬀect on A for τ are given. (2.91) This result makes it appear that gravity. we obtain By eliminating ∂ A ˜ ∂2A ˜ = ρga2 (H − a sin θ) +A ∂θ2 on r = a.6. Supposing that the tunnel is circular. whose general This is eﬀectively an ordinary diﬀerential equation for A solution is 3 ˜ (a.6. if traction conditions V = gy . θ) = ρga2 H + ρga θ cos θ + Aa cos θ + Ba sin θ.6.6.92a) (2.6.6. let us try to ﬁnd the stress in the elastic medium surrounding a tunnel.93) on r = a. the modiﬁed Airy stress function satisﬁes the biharmonic equation. A 2 (2. since ∇2 V = 0. + 2 2 r ∂θ r ∂r (2.6. and at a depth H . with radius a. ∂r2 ˜ ˜ 1 ∂2A 1 ∂A .6.6.6. a problem of importance say to civil engineers involved with underground railways.6.90) ditions into boundary data for A eliminates the body force from the problem. However. ˜ ˜ 1 ∂2A 1 ∂A = ρg (H − r sin θ) + r2 ∂θ2 r ∂r (2. In other words. As shown above. and the zero-traction conditions τrr = τrθ = 0 on the tunnel wall lead to ∂ ∂r ˜ A r = 0. the substitution (2.92b) (2.94) ˜ (a. ˜ ∂2A . This substitution is often useful in solving elastostatic problems numerically. we incorporate gravity into the plane polar stress components (2. ˜ /∂r from the boundary conditions (2. (2. which is modelled by setting ˜ . As an illustration.93).95a) .

the key to closing the problem in this multiply-connected domain is to ensure that the displacement ﬁeld is single-valued.98) We thus evaluate the stress components as τrr = ρg 1 − τrθ τθθ (1 − 2ν ) a2 a2 − H + r sin θ 1 + .6. As shown in Exercise 2.6.97) 1 + 2 log a We do not yet have a unique solution.5. and (2.96) The functions fj (r) can.6.6. (2. r2 4(1 − ν ) r2 a2 ρga2 cos θ (1 − 2ν ) 1− 2 . and we ﬁnd that A = 0.6.99c) . rather than imposing traction-free boundary conditions on y = 0.6.2. (2. We also recall that A arbitrary linear function of x and y . we simply ensure that ˜ decay suﬃciently rapidly as r → ∞ for the far-ﬁeld the derivatives of A ˜ is only deﬁned up to an stress ﬁeld to be hydrostatic.6 Plane strain 67 where A and B are arbitrary constants.95). so we can ignore terms proportional to r cos θ and r sin θ to obtain 2 ˜ = ρga2 H 1 + log(r/a) + ρga rθ cos θ A 2 a2 + + 2r log r r A cos θ + B sin θ . =− r 4(1 − ν ) r 2 (1 − 2ν ) a2 sin θ a . since the constants A and B still appear to be arbitrary.6. As in Section 2. in principle.6.6. We now make the important simplifying assumption that H a so that.6. −H + = ρgr sin θ + ρg 1 + 2 r 4(1 − ν ) r (2.99a) (2.93) then gives us the second condition ˜ ρga2 ∂A = ρgaH + θ cos θ + A cos θ + B sin θ ∂r 2 on r = a.96) into the biharmonic equation and into the boundary conditions (2. be found by substituting (2. A (2.95b) These boundary conditions suggest that we try a solution of the form ˜ = f1 (r) + f2 (r)θ cos θ + f3 (r) cos θ + f4 (r) sin θ. B= ρga2 (1 − 2ν )(1 + 2 log a) .15. this condition allows us to determine both remaining constants. 8(1 − ν ) (2.6.99b) (2.

and the non-zero hoop stress on the tunnel is given by τθθ = −2ρgH + 3 − 4ν ρga sin θ 2(1 − ν ) on r = a. τrr and τrθ are both zero on r = a.7.2. which of course must satisfy (2. 1939). which is the roof of the tunnel.7.1) is underdetermined. If we were in the very fortunate position of knowing all the stress components τij . given τij . comprising just three equations for six unknowns. as required. Since these conditions will soon be seen to have considerable theoretical and practical importance.7. while the maximum compressive stress is at the bottom θ = −π/2. It follows that. we could view our expression eij = 1 2 ∂uj ∂ui + ∂xj ∂xi (2. (2.2) is itself an over-determined system for the displacements.100) Hence a small tunnel suﬀers twice as much compressive stress as would occur in its absence. In this light.7. τij = λ (ekk ) δij + 2µeij = λ ∂uk ∂xk δij + µ ∂uj ∂ui + ∂xj ∂xi (2.68 Linear elastostatics Evidently.7.1) for the stress tensor in elastostatics in the presence of a body force gi . (2.1). called compatibility conditions.7 Compatibility In Section 1. Newton’s second law led us to write down the equation ∂τij + ρgi = 0 ∂xj (2. and this imposes on eij severe restrictions. Thus. the minimum compressive stress occurs at θ = π/2.3) as a system of equations for the displacement components ui . (2. It was only by using the constitutive relations (1. (2.6. we will now derive them.6).15). 2.7. rather than a deﬁnition of eij . Viewed as a system of equations for the stress components.3) is a set of six partial diﬀerential equations for the three displacements ui .7. . it can be shown that this ﬁnal result remains valid for all values of H and a (see Mindlin. Moreover. then it would be straightforward to obtain the corresponding linearised strain tensor from (2. however.2) that we were able to obtain a closed system of the three Navier equations for the three components of displacement.7.6. given τij . In fact.

However. in the sense that cross-diﬀerentiation to eliminate all but three unknowns from (2. only three of the equations are independent. ∂y 2 ∂x∂y ∂x2 (2. for example.7. y ). In fact. It then follows from cross-diﬀerentiation that ∂ 2 eyy ∂ 2 exy ∂ 2 exx + − 2 = 0.4) is over-determined when viewed as a system of equations for (u. However. ∂y (2.5a) Equation (2. z ).7.7. However.5e) (2.7.7. v and w. z )-planes.and (y. which now seems excessive for a system of six equations in the three unknowns ui .7. (2. (2. (2. so that. in which u = u(x.7.5a) is the compatibility condition which ensures that (2.2.7. 0 and exx = ∂u .5) inevitably leads to just one independent equation. we obtain the additional three compatibility relations ∂ ∂ 2 exx = ∂y∂z ∂x ∂ 2 eyy ∂ = ∂z∂x ∂y 2 ∂ ezz ∂ = ∂x∂y ∂z ∂exy ∂eyz ∂exz + − ∂y ∂z ∂x ∂eyx ∂eyz ∂ezx + − ∂z ∂x ∂y ∂exy ∂ezy ∂ezx + − ∂x ∂y ∂z . .7 Compatibility 69 T First consider a plane strain problem.4) Since the three strain components are functions of just two displacements. we must have ∂ 2 u/∂x∂y ≡ ∂ 2 u/∂y∂x and similarly for v . all six compatibility conditions are necessary for a single-valued displacement to exist. (2.7.5c) + ∂x2 ∂z∂x ∂z 2 and it might look as if we have then found all the compatibility conditions needed for the existence of u. ∂x exy = 1 2 ∂u ∂v + ∂y ∂x .5d) (2. Once we take this into account. whenever u is a twice continuously diﬀerentiable single-valued function. v (x. ∂ 2 w/∂x∂y ≡ ∂ 2 w/∂y∂x. .4) can be solved for single-valued functions u and v .5f) We thus have a total of six compatibility conditions. eyy = ∂v .5b) ∂z 2 ∂y∂z ∂y 2 ∂ 2 ezx ∂ 2 exx ∂ 2 ezz − 2 = 0. we also have to ensure that displacements transverse to each coordinate plane exist and are singlevalued. This situation is analogous . v ). y ). the same argument applies to the in-plane displacements in the (x.7.7. In three dimensions. yielding ∂ 2 eyy ∂ 2 eyz ∂ 2 ezz + − 2 = 0.

we see that div u must be a harmonic function: ∇2 (div u) = 0. incompatible with linear elasticity. It is important to note that. (2. since.1) in the absence of body forces.8.7.5). we ﬁnd that curl3 u = 0.6.7. Our situation is a generalisation of this statement. In this case. the compatibility conditions (2. If instead we take the curl of (2. some non-zero boundary tractions.1) .5). then. and we will show below in Section 2.8.6) −∂/∂y ∂/∂x 0 We also remark that any three independent compatibility equations for eij are just as under-determined as the three equilibrium equations (2. then there is no physically acceptable displacement ﬁeld that gives rise to such a strain and it is.5) are equivalent to the components of the tensor equation 0 −∂/∂z ∂/∂y curl (curl E )T = 0.21.7.70 Linear elastostatics to that which arises when considering a vector ﬁeld u which is the gradient of a potential. Hence.2) (2. therefore. (2.1). we simply conjecture that. We have already encountered an application of this idea to plane strain in Section 2.7. and we will see speciﬁc examples of this in Section 8.8 how it may be generalised to non-planar problems. where curl = ∂/∂z 0 −∂/∂x .9. although only two components of curl u are independent in the above sense.2.4. it is necessary that all three components of curl u vanish.1) will similarly guarantee the existence of three scalar stress functions. if we are presented with an elastic material which has been deformed under the action of. if eij does not satisfy (2. the necessary and suﬃcient condition for the material to return to its pristine unstrained state is that the strain ﬁeld in it satisﬁes (2. Meanwhile. 2.8.2. In Section 2. when the tractions are removed. as shown in Exercise 2.1) are for τij . the fact that the compatibility conditions ensure the existence of three physically acceptable displacement components suggests that (2.4 we will discuss one physical interpretation of incompatibility in detail.1 General observations By taking the divergence of the steady Navier equation (2. say.7.8 Generalised stress functions 2.7.

We have already seen some examples of this approach in plane and antiplane strain (Sections 2.7.7) imply the existence of an Airy stress function A.2.8.6.8.4) 4 ∇ w in Cartesian coordinates.2 Plane strain revisited We begin by re-examining the theory of plane strain in the light of the concept of compatibility developed in Section 2.8.5) (It may be shown that this decomposition applies to any continuously differentiable vector ﬁeld u.8.6 for plane strain.6) and we will now show how analogous ideas may be applied in some other commonly-occurring conﬁgurations.8.1) reveals that the potential functions φ and A must also satisfy the biharmonic equation ∇4 φ = 0.8.) Substitution of (2.8.7. We then eliminated the displacement components to deduce that A satisﬁes the biharmonic equation. (2. (2. We emphasise that (2. with ∇ · A = 0. (2. we may use the Helmholtz representation to write u as the sum of a gradient and a curl: u = ∇φ + ∇×A. 2. in any other coordinate systems we must use the identity (1.1). we obtain ∇ 4 u = 0.11). the two conservation laws ∂τxy ∂τxx + = 0.5) into (2.8. ∂x ∂y ∂τxy ∂τyy + =0 ∂x ∂y (2.5a) which.2. ∇4 A = 0. As we showed in Section 2. We can make this procedure more systematic by making use of the plane compatibility condition (2.3) Each Cartesian component of the displacement must therefore satisfy the biharmonic equation.8.6) These results all suggest that we may be able to construct large classes of solutions of (2.1) by considering suitable harmonic or biharmonic scalar problems.8 Generalised stress functions 71 and so. when written in terms of the stress .2. as shown in Section 2.7.3–2. Alternatively.3) can only be written component-wise as 4 ∇ u ∇4 u = ∇4 v = 0 (2. We thus implicitly assumed compatibility of the stress tensor with a physically acceptable displacement ﬁeld. by taking the curl once more and using (2.

so there is no such force. It is worth noting that an inhomogeneous equation for A of the form ∇4 A = f (2.8.8.8. ∂2 − ν ∇2 A2 − ∂y 2 ∂2 + (1 − ν )∇2 A1 = 0. so that. ∂x (2.8. Instead the right-hand side f of (2.8. is ∂ 2 τyy ∂ 2 τxy ∂ 2 τxx + − 2 − ν ∇2 (τxx + τyy ) = 0. as in Section 2.13) To write this in conservation form. τyy ).8.8) form a closed system of partial diﬀerential equations for the stress components (τxx .9) then the stress balance equations (2.9. and we will discuss in Section 2. τxy .8. From (2.7a) is modiﬁed to ∂τxy ∂τxx + = −f. ∂x∂y τyy = ∂2A . the x-direction so that the ﬁrst Navier equation (2.11) Now there is no longer an Airy stress function.6. ∂y 2 τxy = − ∂2A .10) corresponds to a distribution of incompatibility through the material.72 Linear elastostatics components.8) quickly retrieves the biharmonic equation for A.4 and Chapter 8 what the physical signiﬁcance of such a conﬁguration might be. The mere existence of A implies that (2. without loss of generality.7) and (2. y ) such that τxy = ∂A1 . ∂y τyy = − ∂A1 .8) becomes ∂2 − ν ∇2 τxx − ∂y 2 ∂2 + (1 − ν )∇2 ∂y 2 ∂A1 = 0.8. and substitution of (2. ∂x ∂y (2.8. as might have been suspected from (2. Now let us suppose that we do impose a body force in.6.8. ∂y 2 (2.12) so the compatibility condition (2.10) does not.8. ∂x2 (2. correspond to the imposition of a body force.91). say.8. we ﬁrst let A2 be such that τxx = ∂A2 /∂x.9) into (2. but we can instead try to obtain an integrability condition from the two remaining homogeneous equations (2. If.7) are satisﬁed. ∂y 2 ∂x∂y ∂x2 (2.8.7) are satisﬁed identically.7b) we deduce the existence of a function A1 (x. ∂x (2.8.8.8).8. we write τxx = ∂2A .8) Now (2.14) .8.8.7b) and (2.8.

∂y ∂y ∂y 2 ∂ ∂2 ∂A1 τyy = − =− − ν ∇2 L.17) Even though the Love function is ideally suited to problems with a unidirectional body force.8. when we ﬁnally substitute these into the x-momentum equation (2.16).8. ∂x ∂x ∂y 2 ∂ ∂2 ∂A1 τxy = = − ν ∇2 L.8. in which case f ≡ 0 and L satisﬁes the biharmonic equation.8.8. apart from a rigid body displacement. v=− 1 ∂2L . ∂y ∂x ∂v = (1 − ν )τyy − ντxx . Hence.18a) (2. then (2.18b) (2.8.16b) (2. 2µ ∂x∂y (2.16c) and. when we try to ﬁnd u and v using ∂u = (1 − ν )τxx − ντyy . Indeed.8.15) The existence of the Love function L. also known as the Love stress function or the Love strain function.8.8. we may obtain the explicit formulae u= 1 2µ (1 − 2ν )∇2 L + ∂2L ∂y 2 . it provides an alternative to the Airy stress function for plane strain problems. ∂y 2 (2. the derivation given above remains valid if there is no body force. ∂x ∂y (2. by our construction of L. 2µ ∂y 2µ (2.16a) (2. since L is also easily related to the stress components by (2. indeed it can be shown that ∂ L/∂x diﬀers from A by a harmonic function.19) .8 Generalised stress functions 73 We must now spot that. ∂x ∂x ∂y 2 τxx = (2.8. ∂x ∂u ∂v + = τxy .8.18c) µ the resulting system is guaranteed to be integrable.8. More importantly. It is related to the stress components by ∂ ∂2 ∂A2 = + (1 − ν )∇2 L.11).14) is satisﬁed identically by A1 = ∂2 − ν ∇2 L. we ﬁnd that L is such that ∂τxy ∂τxx + = (1 − ν )∇4 L = −f. if we set A2 = A1 + ∇2 L. guarantees that the strain ﬁeld is compatible and the stress balance in the y -direction is satisﬁed.2.

8. For a more direct.8. we would have obtained a diﬀerent but mathematically equivalent formulation for L. We can still use the compatibility condition (2. it is clear that (2. rigid body displacements create quadratic terms in L and cubic terms proportional to νy 3 − 3(1 − ν )x2 y .19) is just the integrability condition for (2.8. although now we must allow A to be a function of x. the diﬃculties associated with posing displacement boundary conditions in the Airy stress function formulation can be avoided: all you need is Love. y and z . L is determined uniquely up to terms linear in x.5a) to deduce that A satisﬁes the two-dimensional biharmonic equation ∇ A= 4 ∂2 ∂2 + ∂x2 ∂y 2 2 A = 0. derivation of (2. or considered a body force in the y -direction. Clearly we can thus deﬁne a one-parameter family of Love functions corresponding to an arbitrarily-oriented unidirectional body force.8. (2. in a plate with no applied traction on its faces and suitably chosen loading conditions on its edges. this intuitively appealing derivation is deceptively simple. the normal stress τzz is in general non-zero.19) guarantees (2.20). we note that our derivation of the Love function depended on initially disregarding the x-momentum equation.74 Linear elastostatics Hence.21) the tilde denoting that ∂ 2 /∂z 2 has been omitted from the Laplacian. y . It contrasts with plane strain.8.8. for example. If we had instead discarded the y -momentum equation. indeed we will meet exactly this conﬁguration again in Chapters 4 and 6. that is exz = eyz = ezz = 0.8.8. may be rearranged to ∂2 ∂2u + (1 − 2ν )∇2 + 2 ∂x∂y ∂y v = 0.5b). Such a state might exist. However. τxy and τyy . Finally. (2. Now we instead look for a state of plane stress. However.20) but we have not proved the converse.20) Now we can argue that (2.8). this is now insuﬃcient to determine the z -dependence of A. though perhaps less instructive.7. in which the only non-zero components of the stress tensor are τxx .6. and so we . for a given displacement ﬁeld. where. We note that. written out in terms of the displacements. as we recall from Section 2. 2.19) we note that the second Navier equation (2.6.3 Plane stress Plane strain is characterised by the fact that the strain tensor E is purely two-dimensional. We again introduce an Airy stress function A as in (2. in principle.6.

2(1 + ν ) (2.8. without loss of generality.2.5d) and (2.22d) Eezz = −ν (τxx + τyy ) = −ν ∇2 A.7.27) and it follows that A may be written in the form A=− νφ(x.8.8 Generalised stress functions 75 must ensure that all ﬁve remaining compatibility conditions are also satisﬁed.24) (2.22a) (2. we obtain d2 f ∂2 2 A = = 0. To this end we ﬁnd that the non-zero strain components are given by Eexx = τxx − ντyy = Eexy = (1 + ν )τxy Eeyy = τyy − ντxx ∂2A ∂2A − ν . note in particular that ezz is in general non-zero.8. we ﬁnd that ∂2 ∂x2 (1 + ν ) ∂2A + νφ ∂z 2 ∂2A ∂2 (1 + ν ) 2 + νφ ∂x∂y ∂z 2 2 ∂ A ∂ (1 + ν ) 2 + νφ = 0.8.25) ∇ ∂z 2 dz 2 so.5c) and (2.22c) (2.23) where ∇2 φ = 0 and f is arbitrary.28) .8. = −(1 + ν ) ∂x∂y ∂2A ∂2A = − ν . we lose no generality in setting (1 + ν ) ∂2A + νφ = 0. y ).7. (2.5b) and (2.8.7. First considering (2.26) = ∂y 2 ∂z = Since terms linear in x and y do not contribute to the stress.5f) individually.7. y ). we may set f (z ) = βz for some constant β . ∂x∂z ∂y∂z from which we deduce that ∇2 A = f (z ) + φ(x.7. ∂x2 ∂y 2 (2. taking (2. y ) + χ0 (x.8.22b) (2.8. in contrast with plane strain.8.5e). Next. (2. (2.5c). ∂y 2 ∂x2 ∂2A . y )z 2 + zχ1 (x.8.7.5b). (2.7. ∂z 2 (2. we obtain ∂2 ∂2 ∇2 A = ∇2 A = 0. Finally. by adding (2.

which may be reproduced by setting χ1 to be zero and χ0 to be a suitable quadratic function of x and y .8. and will provide a useful check on the approximate beam theory to be developed in Chapters 4 and 6.4. 1944. 2. in cylindrical coordinates. Indeed. A simple example is that of biaxial strain. τyy = τxy = 0. Article 188).8. introduced in Section 2.32) . Although technically tedious. ∇2 χ1 = β = const.8. Another case is obtained by choosing φ = 0.8. in which the displacement takes the form u = ur (r.30a) while the corresponding displacement ﬁeld is −2xz κ .8.2. the derivation of the axisymmetric Love function follows the same conceptual procedure as for the plane strain Love function described in Section 2. We will instead follow the more direct. The homogeneous er -component of the Navier equation.2.8. χ0 and χ1 is one of the few ways in which three-dimensional stress ﬁelds can be generated analytically. Let us consider an axisymmetric problem. the Navier equation does not take the conservation form required for an analogue of the Airy stress function to be deﬁned. u= 2νyz 2 2 2 2 x − νy + νz (2. although slightly cavalier. (2. z )ez (2.8. χ0 = 0 and χ1 = −Eκy 2 /2. (2.11. so that β = −Eκ and τxx = −Eκz. given by (1. may be written in the form ∂ 2 uz + 2(1 − ν ) ∂r∂z ∂2 1 1 ∂ − 2 + 2 ∂r r ∂r r + (1 − 2ν ) ∂2 ∂z 2 ur = 0.2.31) and there is a unidirectional body force in the z -direction.76 Linear elastostatics where ∇2 χ0 = φ. (2.30b) This solution represents bending of a beam about the y -axis. approach suggested at the end of Section 2.4 Axisymmetric geometry The Love function was ﬁrst introduced for axisymmetric stress ﬁelds.29) This rather unwieldy representation in terms of three stress potentials φ.8). z )er + uz (r.8. ∇2 φ = 0.. (Love.

8.8. (2. we ﬁnd that L satisﬁes (1 − ν )∇4 L = −f.2. we may infer from (2.8.8. it is straightforward to evaluate the stress components from (1. After a lengthy algebraic manipulation.8.8.37) r ∂r ∂z where the body force is f ez per unit volume. 2µ ∂r∂z 1 ∂ r ∂r ∂ ∂r 1 ∂f r ∂r = 1 ∂2f 1 ∂f = − 2 2 r ∂r r ∂r 1 ∂ 1 − 2 r ∂r r ∂f ∂r (2.5) as τrr = − τrz = τzz τθθ ∂ ∂z ∂2L − ν ∇2 L .38) .36d) ∂ ∂r ∂ = ∂z ∂ = ∂z Now to obtain an equation for L. r ∂r ∂r 1 ∂L − + ν ∇2 L .8.8 Generalised stress functions 77 When seeking an integrability condition for this equation. ∂r2 1 ∂ ∂L r − ν ∇2 L . (2.33) f. r ∂r (2. which reads 1 ∂ ∂τzz (rτrz ) + = −f. z ) such that ur = − uz = 1 2µ (1 − 2ν )∇2 L + 1 ∂ r ∂r r ∂L ∂r . we must substitute these into the ez -component of the Navier equation.8. z ).35) With this displacement.11.32) the existence of a function L(r.8.34) Since the right-hand side may be written as (1 − 2ν )∇2 + r f. for any suitably diﬀerentiable function f (r.8.36c) (2. Instead.36a) (2. (2. (2. the relation ∂ ∂r implies that 2(1 − ν ) ∂2 ∂2 ∂2f 1 1 ∂ + (1 − 2 ν ) − + ∂r2 r ∂r r2 ∂z 2 ∂r∂z ∂2 ∂2 ∂2 1 ∂ 2(1 − ν ) + (1 − 2ν ) 2 = + 2 ∂r∂z ∂r r ∂r ∂z ∂2 ∂r∂z 1 ∂2L . r ∂r ∂r 1 ∂ ∂L r + (1 − ν )∇2 L .36b) (2. we must keep in mind that the diﬀerential operators acting on uz and ur do not commute.

8.8.5 The Galerkin representation We will now show brieﬂy how the planar and axisymmetric Love functions may be viewed as instances of a more widely-applicable theory.78 Linear elastostatics which is identical to the equation (2.41) and the diﬀerential operator on the left-hand side may be made proportional to the biharmonic operator by choosing λ + 2µ a = = 2(1 − ν ).8.8.8.8.40) for some vector ﬁeld B(x) and suitably chosen constants a and b.8.42) The planar and cylindrical Love functions may now be obtained by supposing that B = L(x. To obtain the Galerkin representation.43) (2. in Section 2. (2.40) into (2.8.8.39).8.39) where the body force f per unit volume is no longer presumed to be unidirectional.8.7.5). Evidently each will only satisfy (2. if B = ∇ϕ .8.8. (2. . (2.8. when we substitute (2. we ﬁnd that B satisﬁes (λ + 2µ)(a − b) (grad div)2 B + µa curl4 B = −f . z )ez respectively.8.17) for the planar Love function. Note also that. † This is reasonable since we expect the curl of (2. We start from the three-dimensional Navier equation in the form (λ + µ) grad div u + µ∇2 u = −f .11). 2. We will now show that this is no accident and.40) is eﬀectively a Poisson equation for ϕ . we make the “out-of-the-blue” hypothesis that the displacement can be written in the form u = a∇2 B − b grad div B.† The advantage of this representation is that.8.44) (2. (2. and. then we ﬁnd that B satisﬁes (1 − ν )∇4 B = −f .40) to determine curl B given u. in view of (1. we will further show how to use Love functions to construct solutions of the Navier equation corresponding to point forces.44) may be viewed as an example of a Helmholtz representation (2. and (2. b λ+µ If we also (arbitrarily) set b = 1/2µ. y )i or B = L(r.9. (2.43) if the body force f shares the corresponding symmetry.40) reads 2µu = 2(1 − ν )∇2 B − grad div B. (2.

we have replaced the job of ﬁnding three scalar biharmonic functions (the components of B) with that of ﬁnding four scalar harmonic functions.45) Now.43) becomes ∇2 Ψ = − f . φ and the Cartesian components of Ψ all satisfy Laplace’s equation.6 Papkovich–Neuber potentials Next we will show that (2.8.8.11).8.8. 1−ν (2.8.49) (2. In plane strain. the well-known (and easily proved) identity 1 1 div Ψ ≡ ∇2 (x · Ψ) − x · ∇2 Ψ 2 2 allows us to write (2. we can represent the displacement in terms of a single biharmonic Love function. disappointingly.47) in the form ∇2 div B − and prompts us to deﬁne 1 φ = div B − x · Ψ.47) so that.8.8.44) can be used to obtain an extremely useful representation for u that avoids all mention of the biharmonic operator and only involves solutions of Laplace’s equation or Poisson’s equation.8 Generalised stress functions 79 However.45) and (2.44) into the Papkovich–Neuber representation 1 2µu = 2(1 − ν )Ψ − grad φ + x · Ψ .43) opens up the possibility of ﬁnding a wealth of scalar stress functions describing problems with various symmetries.50) transform (2.8. using the vector identity (1. (2.8.8. 2 (2. while three . In other words. We can obtain an immediate simpliﬁcation by deﬁning Ψ = ∇2 B.51) When there is no body force.8. 2.7. The deﬁnitions (2.46) (2. (2.8.2. div B turns out not to be a harmonic function. 2 (2. in cases where there is no body force.8. However.50) 1 ( x · Ψ) 2 = x·f 2(1 − ν ) (2.48) so that φ satisﬁes a simple Poisson equation. so that (2.8.8. we easily ﬁnd that ∇2 (div B) ≡ div ∇2 B = div Ψ. simply by posing suitable forms for B.

2 (2.8.8. the use of φ and harmonic conjugates ψ1 and ψ2 to represent A is far from unique. (2.80 Linear elastostatics Papkovich–Neuber potentials are required. we simply take Ψ= z ∂ψ ∂ψ . (2. namely φ and two components of Ψ.8. and we could equally well set ψ1 = 0 and 1 A = φ + yψ2 − (1 − ν ) 2 y ψ2 (x. However.8.3 for an axisymmetric point force problem and in Chapter 7 for crack problems.8.55a) (2.8. (2.6. ∂x∂y ∂x∂y (2.57) which is equivalent to (2.9.51) gives 2µu = 2(1 − ν )ψ1 − 1 ∂ φ + (xψ1 + yψ2 ) ∂x 2 ∂ 1 2µv = 2(1 − ν )ψ2 − φ + (xψ1 + yψ2 ) ∂y 2 (2.6. after a simple calculation.58) . 0 T T .8.51) can prove extremely useful. 0. as we will see in Section 2.55b) and Ψ = ψ1 (x.12). y ))T . To illustrate the Papkovich–Neuber potentials in antiplane strain problems with u = (0.51) gives 2µu = 0. y ) dy . ∂x ∂y (2.8.9c) gives the Goursat representation 2µ ∂u ∂v + ∂y ∂x = 2(1 − ν ) ∂ψ1 ∂ψ2 + ∂y ∂x −2 1 A = φ + (xψ1 + yψ2 ). Then (2.6. y ). (2.8. ψ2 (x.9c) suggests that we choose ∂ψ1 /∂y + ∂ψ2 /∂x to be zero and this in turn suggests that we take ψ1 and ψ2 to be harmonic conjugates.52) whence.53) . y ) so that (2.56) Hence (2. Concerning plane strain.8. w(x. 0. Laplace’s equation is susceptible to so many more solution techniques than the biharmonic equation that (2. Nevertheless. y ). 4(1 − ν )(1 − 2ν )ψ with the anticipated result that ∇2 w = 0. (3 − 4ν )ψ ∂x ∂y T and φ = z 2 x ∂ψ ∂ψ +y −ψ . we anticipate that φ = φ(x.8.54) and ∂2φ ∂2 − (xψ1 + yψ2 ).z .

jmn ∂xl ∂xn (2. The uniqueness of the Papkovich–Neuber representation is discussed in Barber (1993. we can construct a symmetric stress tensor τ (x) with zero divergence using the formula τij = k.7.7.n ikl ∂ 2 Akm .8 Generalised stress functions 81 where ψ2 is a harmonic function.8.59a) ∂ 2 χ2 .8. . =2 ∂x∂y τxy = τyz τzy ∂ ∂z ∂ = ∂x ∂ = ∂y ∂ψ3 ∂ψ1 ∂ψ2 − − ∂z ∂x ∂y ∂ψ2 ∂ψ3 ∂ψ1 − − ∂x ∂y ∂z ∂ψ2 ∂ψ3 ∂ψ1 − − ∂y ∂z ∂x .8.l. deﬁned by τxx = ∂ 2 χ3 ∂ 2 χ2 + . we will now show that these potentials suggest a useful uniﬁcation of all the stress functions that we have thus far encountered. ∂y 2 ∂z 2 ∂ 2 χ3 .60b) (2. for which τxx = 2 τyy τzz ∂ 2 ψ1 .1) comprises just three equations in the six stress components. Section 15. This representation will be found to be very useful in Chapter 7. In general. we would therefore expect to need three scalar potentials to ensure integrability of (2. ∂z 2 ∂x2 ∂ 2 χ1 . there is some freedom in selecting a particular set of stress functions.61) .1) with gi = 0. =2 ∂z∂x ∂ 2 ψ3 . (2. given any symmetric matrix ﬁeld A(x).7 Maxwell and Morera potentials We recall our observation in Section 2.60a) (2. little is gained by formulating three-dimensional problems in terms of three stress functions rather than just using the three components of the displacement u.8.8. Another popular choice is the Morera stress functions ψi .59b) τxy = − τyz = − τzx = − It is easy to verify that the steady Navier equation with no body force is identically satisﬁed for any stress ﬁeld of this form. One well-known possibility is the Maxwell stress functions χi . ∂y∂z ∂ 2 ψ2 . ∂z∂x (2. ∂x2 ∂y 2 (2.8.60c) At ﬁrst glance. 2. ∂x∂y τyy = ∂ 2 χ1 ∂ 2 χ3 + . .8. As usual. ∂y∂z τzz = ∂ 2 χ2 ∂ 2 χ1 + .2. However.4). In three dimensions.7 that the equilibrium Navier equation (2.m.

(2.8.1 The delta-function In potential theory.61) in the form τ = curl (curl A)T . we can formally write (2. since its existence relies on the compatibility conditions as well as one component of the equilibrium equation. χ3 = A.9 Singular solutions in elastostatics 2.4 corresponds to χ3 = 0. ∂χ1 /∂x − ∂χ2 /∂y = Ωµφ(x.60) satisﬁed by the Maxwell and Morera stress potentials and the compatibility conditions that we found for the strain components in Section 2.62) which makes it clear that the tensor τ thus deﬁned is symmetric and identically satisﬁes div τ ≡ 0. in the latter of which the singularity is localised on a line rather than a point.63) 0 0 χ3 ψ2 ψ1 0 respectively. (2. Finally. As we shall see.9. The Love function L does not fall into the same category. can then be found by substituting for τ from (2.6). .6).64) and the equations satisﬁed by the Maxwell functions χi .8.8.7. or A = − ψ3 0 ψ1 .59). (2. In inviscid ﬂuid dynamics it is also common to discuss singular solutions describing sources and vortices. y ).62) shows that this resemblance is no accident.8. we note the strong analogy between the equations (2.7. we can obtain the compatibility condition for τ . For example. it is often helpful to introduce point singularities such as point charges or dipoles in electrostatics or point masses in gravitation.8. The Airy stress function for plane strain (or plane stress) is obtained by setting χ1 = χ2 = 0.8. 2. while the antiplane stress function φ from Section 2. (2.8.7. namely curl curl (1 + ν )τ − ντkk I T = 0. All the stress functions we have used in this chapter can now be viewed simply as particular choices of the matrix A. such fundamental solutions are very useful building blocks for constructing more general solutions.62). for example. the Maxwell and Morera functions are obtained by choosing χ1 0 0 0 ψ3 ψ2 A = 0 χ2 0 . Using (2.8.82 Linear elastostatics where ijk is the alternating symbol. The formulation (2. By using (2. This is why it is often referred to as a strain function rather than a stress function.

for example δ (x) = δ (x)δ (y )δ (z ).8 ε = 0. We begin with an informal discussion of the Dirac delta-function.3) for any suitably smooth test function ψ .6 0.4 0. although δε (x) → 0 as ε → 0 at any ﬁxed non-zero value of x.9.5 ε = 1. but has unit area.2. (2.) Although some care is needed to formalise such a deﬁnition mathematically.14.1) δε (x) = 2 π (x + ε2 ) have the property that ∞ −∞ δε (x) dx ≡ 1 (2. as illustrated in Figure 2.9.0 1 2 3 4 0. We can then deﬁne a multidimensional delta-function δ (x) as a product of one-dimensional delta-functions. then δ (x) is zero everywhere except at x = 0. which will be used henceforth in describing various point and line singularities.9.2 -4 -3 -2 -1 x Fig.9.2) for any ε > 0. the family of functions ε (2. we can use it to deduce the important property that ∞ −∞ δ (x − ξ )ψ (ξ ) dξ = ψ (x) (2. In one dimension.14 A family of functions δε (x) that approach a delta-function as ε → 0.4) .2 1 0. 2. For example. (It therefore is not really a function and is called either a generalised function or a distribution. we can view the delta-function as the singular limit of a one-parameter family of well-deﬁned positive functions.25 ε = 0. If we “deﬁne” δ (x) = limε→0 δε (x).9 Singular solutions in elastostatics 83 δε (x) 1.

9.9.9.9. (2.7a) (2.9.2 Point and line forces Let us ﬁrst consider plane strain subject to a point force (really a line force in (x. namely ∇2 L = 1 d r dr r dL dr =− f log r. a point charge in electrostatics and a point mass in gravitation are both described by Poisson’s equation with a localised righthand side.7c) 1 log x2 + y 2 2π −1 4π x2 + y2 + z2 2.8) As described in Section 2. = δ (x)δ (y ).7b) (2. (2. namely ∇2 φ = −δ (x). this function possesses a property analogous to (2.9) Now we can read oﬀ from (2.5) R3 By way of illustration. derived in Exercise 2. this problem may conveniently be posed in terms of a Love function L satisfying (1 − ν )∇4 L = −f δ (x)δ (y ).2.7b) a suitable radially-symmetric solution for ∇2 L.3).9. ∂x ∂y (2. ∂x ∂y ∂τxy ∂τyy + = 0.23: one dimension: two dimensions: three dimensions: ∇2 ∇2 ∇2 |x| 2 = δ (x). 2π (1 − ν ) (2.6) Suitable singular solutions of this equation can be constructed using the following key results.9.9. y. z )-space) of magnitude f in the x-direction at the origin.10) . By construction. (2.9. (2.9.84 Linear elastostatics in three dimensions. This situation is described by applying a point body force to the two-dimensional Navier equation. that is δ (x − ξ )ψ (ξ ) dξ = ψ (x).8. = δ (x)δ (y )δ (z ). that is ∂τxy ∂τxx + = −f δ (x)δ (y ).9.

15 (with ν = 1/4).8. and analytical solutions are usually impossible to ﬁnd unless the geometry is very simple. by calculating the eigenvalues τi of τ : τ= f 4π (1 − ν ) r4 S= f |τ1 − τ2 | = 2 2π (1 − ν )r2 4(1 − ν )2 x2 + (1 − 2ν )2 y 2 .2. we obtain the Love function L=− f r2 (log r − 1).16) as −(3 − 2ν )x3 − (1 − 2ν )xy 2 −(3 − 2ν )x2 y − (1 − 2ν )y 3 . One relatively straightforward example .15 Contours of the maximum shear stress S created by a point force acting at the origin. The response to a point force in three dimensions may be found in an analogous fashion by using the axisymmetric Love function. where r2 = x2 + y 2 . Such problems become very much harder if we attempt to impose any boundary conditions. up to an arbitrary constant. 0.9. 2.19) to give 2 x − y2 − (3 − 4ν ) log r f .14) Typical contours of this function are plotted in Figure 2. −(3 − 2ν )x2 y − (1 − 2ν )y 3 (1 − 2ν )x3 − (1 + 2ν )xy 2 (2.2.13) We can hence ﬁnd the maximum shear stress S deﬁned in (2. Here ν = 1/4 and f /S = 0.36). (2.9. The shear stress becomes unbounded as the point force at the origin is approached.2.9. .8.9 Singular solutions in elastostatics 85 y x Fig. and we would expect the material to yield plastically on that surface at which S reaches a critical value.12) u= xy 8πµ(1 − ν ) r2 and the stress is recovered from (2.4. Integrating with respect to r and neglecting another arbitrary constant. 2. . .9. see Exercise 2. . 8π (1 − ν ) (2. 2r2 (2.0.19.11) The displacement ﬁeld is then found by substitution into (2.

6. At ﬁrst sight. then the stress due to the point force at (0. Since we still had to solve a non-trivial problem for A debatable whether the problem was signiﬁcantly simpliﬁed by introducing the image. y ). h) is given by τ0 (x.9. and it seems sensible to try and apply a suitable generalisation here. We recall that. it is potential theory.6. However. If the tensor ﬁeld deﬁned by (2.18b) (2.9. it seems that we can solve the half-space problem by superimposing this and the response to an identical point force at (0. we ﬁnd a stress ﬁeld in which τxy is zero at y = 0 but τyy is not. (2. for corresponding half-space problems in potential theory. (2.9.16) into (2. −h).17) + 4h(1 − ν ) tan−1 x This example shows. y − h) + τ0 (x. ∂y ˜ f x (1 + 2ν )h2 − (1 − 2ν )x2 ∂2A = ∂x2 2π (1 − ν ) (h2 + x2 )2 (2. We therefore seek a solution of the form 2 ˜ ˜ ∂ A ∂2A − ∂y 2 ∂x∂y (2.80) to give ˜= A f 4π (1 − ν ) −2hxy − (1 − 2ν )x log x2 + (y + h)2 x2 + (y + h)2 y+h .9.8.15) τ = τ0 (x.86 Linear elastostatics concerns plane strain in the half-space y > 0 with a stress-free boundary at y = 0 and a point force in the x-direction applied at the point (0. once again. with ∂ ∂2L − ν ∇2 L = 2 ∂y ∂y ∂2L − ν ∇2 L ∂y 2 =0 on y = 0. h). y + h) + . This is now precisely the half-space problem we have already analysed in Section 2.9. 2 ˜ ˜ ∂2A ∂ A − ∂x∂y ∂x2 ˜ now satisﬁes the two-dimensional biharmonic equation in y > 0 where A and the boundary conditions ˜ ∂A = 0.16) on y = 0.18a) . the method of images provides a simple solution procedure. how the vectorial nature of the Navier equation complicates well-known techniques like the method of images from ˜ . and may be solved by substituting the right-hand side of (2. when we add these contributions together. A more direct attack using the Love function leads to (1 − ν )∇4 L = −f δ (x)δ (y − h) in y > 0. y − h).9.9.13) is denoted by τ0 (x.

Let us consider the axisymmetric version of the half-space problem of Section 2. Hence 2µur = − ∂φ 1 ∂ψ − z .24) on z = 0 and.9.51).23) Hence. = ∂z (2. it is identically zero.9.2. writing L=− f ˜.21) From the formulae of Section 1.8. ∂r∂z ∂r (2. since the left-hand side is a harmonic function that also vanishes at inﬁnity. ∂r 2 ∂r 2µuz = 2(1 − ν )ψ − ∂φ 1 ∂ (zψ ) − .8 in cylindrical polar coordinates (r. ∂z 2 ∂z (2. that is.9. ψ are harmonic functions. without loss of generality. (2.25) . in (2.6.19) and then taking a Fourier transform in x. we can choose 2 ∂φ − (1 − 2ν )ψ = 0 ∂z (2.51) we take Ψ = 0. φ = φ(r. z ) T . z ). The normal traction is thus τzz = ∂ψ ∂2φ λ ∂ ∂uz (rur ) + (λ + 2µ) = 2(1 − ν ) −2 2 r ∂r ∂z ∂z ∂z ∂ψ . 0.9 Singular solutions in elastostatics 87 This may be solved by subtracting oﬀ the full-space solution (2. We can also quite quickly ﬁnd the response to a point force at the boundary of a half-space by using the Papkovich–Neuber representation (2.9. so that τrz = 0 and τzz = −P δ (x)δ (y ).9.11). (2.9. the vanishing of the shear stress requires that ∂ur ∂uz + =0 on z = 0.11.9.8. z ).2.20) where φ. (2. The half-space is z > 0 and we suppose the tractions on z = 0 consist purely of a normal point force P at the origin.9. ψ (r. R2 (log R − 1) + L 8π (1 − ν ) R2 = x2 + (y − h)2 .22) ∂z ∂r so that 2 ∂ψ ∂2φ − (1 − 2ν ) = 0. Because these conditions are imposed on z = 0.

one needs to deﬁne a Green’s tensor G (x) such that (λ + µ) grad div G + µ∇2 G = −δ (x)I .9.9.13.32) .9.88 Linear elastostatics Our problem has been reduced to ﬁnding a harmonic function ψ whose z -derivative is equal to −P δ (x)δ (y ) on z = 0. (2.9.9.31) where I = (δij ) is the identity matrix. which is proportional to ψ on z = 0. Equation (2. ∂xj ∂xk ∂xk ∂xk (2.27) is to use a Green’s function. 2.27).3 The Green’s tensor The solutions we have presented above concern the response of an elastic body to a body force concentrated at a point.9.9.e. for example gravity. we would deﬁne the Green’s function G(x) to be the solution of LG = −δ (x). For a scalar equation of the form Lu = −f (x).9. (2.5) of the delta-function and formal diﬀerentiation under the integral to deduce that u(x) = R3 G(x − ξ)f (ξ ) dξ (2.9. (2.9.31) is shorthand for the scalar equations (λ + µ) ∂ 2 Gij ∂ 2 Gki +µ = −δij δ (x). one in which x does not appear explicitly. The standard mathematical approach to linear diﬀerential equations like (2.9.27) to an arbitrary forcing function f .30) is a solution of the inhomogeneous equation (2.29) subject to suitable boundary conditions.26) ψ= √ 2π r2 + z 2 and uz . does not display the nonmonotonicity of Figure 2.28). (2. We can then use the key property (2. It can readily be veriﬁed that the solution is P . To model a distributed body force. To adapt the above procedure to the vector equation (2.9. we must consider the response of the Navier equations (λ + µ) grad div u + µ∇2 u = −f (x) (2.28) where L is an autonomous linear diﬀerential operator.9. i.

9.9.9.9.9.9.9.30) to u(x) = R3 G (x − ξ )f (ξ ) dξ . 2 − x2 xy y 8πµ(1 − ν ) − (3 − 4 ν ) log r r2 2r2 (2. by symmetry. Finding the Green’s tensor explicitly in a body with ﬁnite boundaries is usually impossible unless there is suﬃcient symmetry to allow some trick to be employed.34a) (2. y ) = .9 Singular solutions in elastostatics 89 in which the summation convention is invoked. In plane strain. we are not at liberty to move the delta-function to the origin.33) From a practical viewpoint. ξ) = −δ (x − ξ).9. we must now solve (2.9.34b) and. Hence we can no longer assume that G is a function only of x − ξ .9. In the case where the elastic medium occupies the whole space. we deduce that the Green’s tensor is given by 2 xy x − y2 − (3 − 4 ν ) log r 1 2r2 r2 G (x.33) shows that the response to an arbitrary body force f (x) may be written as a superposition of point force responses like those constructed above in Section 2. we can infer the Green’s tensor directly from the point force solutions found in Section 2.2.2. Assuming that there are no boundaries and that the stress decays suﬃciently rapidly at large distances. Gij may be interpreted physically as the displacement in the j -direction at x in response to a unit point force in the i-direction at ξ.29) as LG (x.9. 8πµ(1 − ν ) 2r2 xy 1 = .9.2.12) with f = 1: G11 = G12 x2 − y 2 1 − (3 − 4ν ) log r . In other words.33) satisﬁes the required boundary conditions).9. with bounded stress at inﬁnity. (2.31). and we must rewrite (2. (2.36) . as we did in (2. Since the problem is not translation invariant.31) along with boundary conditions for G corresponding to those that are imposed on u (so that (2. In general. that is Gij ≡ Gji . the displacement caused by a unit point force in the x-direction is given by (2. 8πµ(1 − ν ) r2 (2. and it is easy to see that G should be symmetric. it is intuitively reasonable to generalise (2. (2.9.18.35) The corresponding three-dimensional result is derived in Exercise 2.

the matrices resulting from the discretisation are usually full. In this case. we do not expect both u and τ n to be given simultaneously on the boundary.90 Linear elastostatics We note that the full-space Green’s tensor. (2. it also brings its own share of diﬃculties. rather than the whole body. (2. given the traction and displacement on the boundary ∂D.39) (2. Gi2 . we know that (λ + µ) grad div Gij + µ∇2 Gij = −δ (x − ξ) δij .37) and {u · (grad div v ) − v · (grad div u)} dx D = ∂D {(div v ) u · n − (div u) v · n} dS. we have an explicit representation of u everywhere in D.41) where G i = (Gi1 .9.9. This approach may prove advantageous compared to the more commonly used ﬁnite element method. (2. . (λ + µ) (grad div u)j + µ∇2 uj = ∂xk (2. However. multiplying (2. On the other hand.9. Gi3 )T and τ i is the stress ﬁeld associated with the displacement G i . so let us assume for example that the surface traction τ n is prescribed. Hence. we begin by recalling the identities u · ∇2 v − v · ∇2 u dx = D ∂D u· ∂u ∂v −v· ∂n ∂n dS (2.38) for any pair of vector ﬁelds u and v . ∂τjk = 0.40) by Gij . which is (2.39) by ui .40) where we have neglected the body force for simplicity. reluctantly reverting to suﬃx notation. To illustrate the basic ideas behind this method. and forms the basis of the boundary element method.35) in plane strain.9. To solve this integral equation rather than the Navier equation numerically is the basic idea behind the boundary element method. (2. and care must be taken with the singularities that occur in G i as ξ approaches ∂D.41) becomes an integral equation for u(ξ ) as ξ tends to the boundary of the elastic solid. Now.9. can be used to reduce the Navier equation on an arbitrary domain D to an integral equation satisﬁed on the boundary of D. we ﬁnd that ui (ξ ) = ∂D G i (x − ξ ) · (τ n (x)) − u(x) · τ i n(x − ξ ) dS.9. For example. then subtracting and integrating. This reduction in dimension can facilitate an eﬃcient numerical solution.9. Hence.9. since only the boundary of the solid needs to be discretised.9.

5 and. Since the vanishing of ∇4 A is the condition for compatibility.16. We then found that the singular solutions so produced are very useful.42).4 Point incompatibility We have shown above how a point force may be described mathematically by incorporating a delta-function into the Navier equation. 2.9. it is more illuminating to consider the incompatibility of the displacement ﬁeld (2.9. we ﬁnd that the radial displacement is given by ur = P a2 .16 Four point forces. We could use physical motivations other than point forces to suggest useful new singular solutions.42) The same displacement ﬁeld may also be produced by superimposing four point forces. 2µr (2. as indicated in Figure 2.26). Two further avenues for investigation now suggest themselves. This is a limiting case of the gun barrel problem solved in Section 2. since they may be superimposed to describe the response to an arbitrary body force. It is .6. As an example of the former.6. and letting the distance between them tend to zero (Exercise 2.9. 2.9. or we could ask ourselves whether the introduction of delta-functions elsewhere in the formulation of linear elasticity might have interesting physical interpretations. we begin by trying to compute this quantity for (2.9 Singular solutions in elastostatics 91 y f f f x a f Fig.41). when we let b → ∞ and a → 0 in (2.2. suppose we consider the stress ﬁeld in plane strain when a cavity of small radius a is maintained by a pressure P in an otherwise traction-free material.42). However.

46).5a) and shows explicitly how ∇4 A is related to compatibility. for example.7.43) Thus the incompatibility associated with the displacement ﬁeld (2.44) where.9. Thus the right-hand side of (2. in Exercise 2. .9.5) are the six components of the symmetric tensor equation ηij = ikl jmn ∂ 2 emk ≡ 0. the derivative of a delta-function can be deﬁned by ∞ −∞ δ (x − ξ )ψ (ξ ) dξ = ψ (x) (2.9. by analogy with (2.9.9. l.42) satisﬁes the compatibility relations everywhere except at the origin. that ∇2 A = −2πa2 P δ (x)δ (y ). 1944. ∂xn ∂xl (2. Note that no traction need be applied away from the origin to maintain the stress ﬁeld associated with (2. where the localised source of incompatibility is known as a nucleus of strain (Love. the physical interpretation of solutions of ∂ 2 eyy ∂ 2 exy ∂ 2 exx + − 2 = δ (x)δ (y ) (2.9.44) can be thought of as a point singularity in the incompatibility tensor. Hence (2.9. We therefore deﬁne ηij as the incompatibility tensor. the zz -component of (2.42) is given by ∇4 A = −2πa2 P δ (x)δ (y ) + δ (x)δ (y ) . In plane strain.9.48) ∂y 2 ∂x∂y ∂x2 has fundamental implications for the theory of metal plasticity.46) where ijk is the alternating symbol and we sum over k . (2.3).45) for any suitably smooth test function ψ . − 2 = ∂y 2 ∂x∂y ∂x2 2µ (2. Article 132). (2.9.92 Exercises easy to see that A = −a2 P log r and hence. More generally.9.9.21 it is shown that the compatibility conditions (2. m and n.7).42). and this prompts us to wonder what the physical signiﬁcance might be of introducing other point singularities on the right-hand side of (2. For example. to which we will return in Chapter 8.7.9. and the material is therefore said to be in a state of self-stress.47) which reproduces (2.46) is ∂ 2 eyy ∂ 2 exy 1−ν 4 ∂ 2 exx + ∇ A = 0. using (2.9.9.

. show that the solution of (2. in which the displacement varies rapidly with time.12).10 Concluding remark 93 2. as we will see in the following chapter.3(b). A uniform cylindrical bar is held with its axis along the z -axis and its boundary pinned. Exercises 2. y ) satisﬁes ∇2 w = ρg µ 2. It therefore has negative Poisson’s ratio. For example. with w = 0 on ∂D. y ).1 Use strips of stiﬀ paper and sticky tape to construct the model shown in Figure 2. Hence show that the torsional rigidity of a bar with uniform elliptical cross-section is πµa3 b3 T = 2 . they also apply to unsteady problems that evolve on a suﬃciently long time-scale.13) is φ= a2 b2 (a2 + b2 ) 1− x2 y2 − a2 b2 . If D is the ellipse x2 /a2 + y 2 /b2 < 1.3 2. In such quasi-static situations. show that the vertical displacement w(x.4. show that T must be spatially uniform and that w must satisfy Laplace’s equation. Now when you pull it in the direction shown. to describe elastic waves.4 in the cross-section D of the bar.3(a). in fact.2. An elastic membrane is stretched to an isotropic tension T such that its height is given by z = w(x. If the gravitational acceleration g acts in the −z direction. a + b2 Deduce that a circular bar has a higher rigidity than an elliptical bar with the same cross-sectional area. Assuming that the membrane is nearly horizontal (so that |∇w| 1). as indicated by Figure 2.4. it expands in the transverse direction. the analysis of a statically loaded torsion bar carried out in Section 2.2 2. time appears in the solution only as a parameter. however. This approach fails. and the temporal and spatial dependence of the solution are coupled.4 applies equally well when the applied twist Ω is a slowly varying function of t.10 Concluding remark All the solutions in this chapter were derived for purely static situations but. (2.

5.5. If ψ takes only real values. By contour deformation show that. show that R= 2π 4 3 µa ε 1 − 3 1 93ζ (5) + 2 π6 ε + ··· .5.2). Section 23.4.14) for a cut tubular bar has the solution φ= b2 − a2 log (r/b) b2 − r 2 + 2 2 log (b/a) ∞ + n =1 Cn cosh kn (θ − π ) sin kn log (b/r) .5 2.7 where ζ is the Riemann zeta function (Abramowitz & Stegun. show that ∂2ψ ∇2 ψ = 4 . where kn = nπ . where ε By expanding the above expression for small ε. log (b/a) Cn = − 4 b2 − (−1)n a2 log2 (b/a) nπ cosh(kn π ) n2 π 2 + 4 log2 (b/a) . if (2.15) to determine the torsional rigidity R= πµ b2 − a2 2 log (b/a) a2 + b2 log (b/a) − b2 − a2 ∞ n =1 16µ log4 (b/a) − π b2 − (−1)n a2 tanh nπ 2 / log (b/a) n2 π 2 + 4 log2 (b/a) 2 . show that the problem (2. 1972. then it holds for all simple closed paths C contained in D. 2 where f and h are arbitrary analytic functions. If z = x + iy and z ¯ = x − iy are regarded as independent variables. By separating the variables in polar coordinates. 1.94 Linear elastostatics 2. so that b/a = 1 + ε.6 Derive the expression (2. Use (2. . ∂z∂ z ¯ Deduce that the general solution of Laplace’s equation may be written in the form 1 ψ = {f (z ) + h(¯ z )}. Now suppose that the tube is thin. 2.3) holds when C is ∂Di . show that h(¯ z ) = f (z ) and hence that ψ = Re f (z ) .2) for the torsional rigidity of a tubular bar.

Suppose that in some basis the stress tensor is diagonal: τ = diag (τk ).) satisfy ∇4 Ai = λi Ai 1 2 2 2 m2 1 = m2 = n1 = n2 = . 2. 2 τ3 − τ1 S=± . If the functions Ai (x) and constants λi (i = 1. or m1 = n1 = 0.6. Hence show that the maximum shear stress S satisﬁes the constrained optimisation problem 3 max S = i=1 3 3 τi mi ni . r2 . 3. 2 1 2 2 2 m2 3 = m1 = n3 = n1 = . . Show that.Exercises 95 Now solve the biharmonic equation by writing ∇2 A = ψ in the form 4 ∂2A 1 ¯ (¯ = F (z ) + F z) ∂z∂ z ¯ 2 2. . Show that the stress in the direction of the unit vector m on a surface with unit normal n is i τi mi ni . 1. and r2 log r. 2. i=1 n2 i = 1.12).8 2. 3 subject to i=1 m2 i = 1. In each case. Now ﬁnd all separable solutions of the biharmonic equation in polar coordinates of the form A = f (r) cos(mθ). 2. A is generally a constant plus a combination of log r. use the method of Lagrange multipliers to show that the extreme values occur when m3 = n3 = 0.6. Show how the same conclusion may be reached from the Goursat representation (2. i=1 mi ni = 0. Assuming that the principal stresses τi are distinct. 2 τ2 − τ3 S=± . or A = f (r)θ cos θ. with m = 0. for radially symmetric problems in two dimensions. or m2 = n3 = 0. .12).9 and integrating with respect to z and z ¯ to obtain (2.10 Prove the identity u∇4 v − v ∇4 u ≡ div u∇ ∇2 v − v ∇ ∇2 u + ∇2 u∇v − ∇2 v ∇u . 2 S=± . ﬁnd the restrictions on f (r) for the stress ﬁeld to vanish at inﬁnity. 2 τ1 − τ2 . 2 1 2 2 2 2 m2 = m3 = n2 = n3 = .

96 Linear elastostatics in some bounded region V . ∂x ∞ −∞ f (x − s)g (s) ds. + y2 ) e−ikx sign(k )e−|k |y dk = π (x2 respectively. Using the fact that the inverse Fourier transform of a product f (k )g (k ) is the convolution of f and g . ∂n ∂ ∂A ∂ = or (iii) ∇2 A . Deduce that the biharmonic operator has real eigenvalues and orthogonal eigenfunctions when the boundary conditions are ∂A = 0. y ). ∂x ∂ = −P (k ) 1 − y ∂y f1 (k. y ).11 1 2π ∞ −∞ e−ikx e−|k |y dk = π (x2 y . + y2 ) x .79) may be written as τxx = −P (k ) 1 + y τxy = P (k )y τyy ∂ ∂y f1 (k.83). y ) = i 2π ∞ −∞ 2. show that (λi − λj ) V Ai Aj dx = ∂ Aj ∂ Ai − ∇2 Ai ∂n ∂n ∂V ∂ ∂ + Aj ∇2 Ai − Ai ∇2 Aj ∂n ∂n ∇2 Aj dS. that is (f ∗ g )(x) = deduce (2. y ) = and f2 (x.6. ∂n ∂n ∂n (a) Assuming y > 0. y ). or (iv) ∇2 A = ∇2 A = 0. or (ii) A = ∇2 A = 0. ∂f1 (k. show that the inverse Fourier transforms of e−|k |y and i sign(k )e−y |k | are given by (i) A= f1 (x. (b) Hence show that (2.82) that 2µ ∂v = P (k ) ∂x y ∂f1 (k ) − 2(1 − ν )f2 (k ) . (c) Show from (2.6. .6.6.80). and hence deduce (2.

Show that the middle integral is approximately equal to − (1 − ν )P (x) π ε/y −ε/y t3 dt (1 + t2 )2 . 0) = g (x) and φ → 0 at inﬁnity. then φ= 1 2π ∞ −∞ g (s) log (s − x)2 + y 2 ds. 0) = −f (x). provided P (x) is bounded. where the Hilbert transform is deﬁned by H[P ](x) = 2.83) as − (2 − ν )y 2 π ∞ −∞ P (x − s)s ds (s2 + y 2 )2 =− 2−ν π ∞ −∞ P (x − yt)t dt (1 + t2 )2 .6.6.7. and hence that ∇2 φ = const. Deduce that f (x) = ∂φ/∂x(x. write the second term in the integral (2. if ∇2 φ = 0 in the half-space y > 0 with φ(x.Exercises 97 2. 0) = −H[g ]. as y → 0. Reconsider the torsion problem of Section 2.10).13 1 1 ∞ P (s) ds − = lim π −∞ s − x π ε↓0 −ε ∞ + −∞ ε P (s) ds .85).6.] .12 By making a suitable substitution. s−x Show that. Using two of the compatibility relations (2.4. that ∇2 φ = g (x). [This illustrates that two compatibility conditions that are not independent may nevertheless both be necessary to determine the stress. 0) = f (x). deduce successively that ∇2 φ = f (y ). Finally deduce that.4 and the stress function φ deﬁned by (2..5). Show further that the ﬁrst term in (2. this term tends to zero as y → 0.83) may be written as − 1−ν π −ε ε ∞ + −∞ −ε + ε P (s)(x − s)3 ds ((x − s)2 + y 2 )2 . Show further that ∂ 2 φ/∂y 2 (x.6.83) tends to (2. so that 1 ∂φ =− ∂y 2π ∞ −∞ f (s) log (s − x)2 + y 2 ds. 2. ∂φ/∂y (x. Deduce that. and explain why this integral tends to zero as y tends to zero with y ε 1. (2.14 Hence deduce that g (x) = H[f ].

92) becomes τrr = ρg sin2 θ (r sin θ − H ) + τrθ ˜ ˜ 1 ∂2A 1 ∂A . Deduce that the coeﬃcients of sin θ and cos θ on the right-hand side must be zero if ur is to be a 2π -periodic function of θ.98).6. this time assuming a far-ﬁeld stress distribution given by τxx = τxy = 0. show that the right-hand side of (E2.6. 2 ∂r r ∂θ ˜ ∂2A . show that (2. a a . Return to the tunnel example of Section 2.97) for the modiﬁed Airy stress function outside a circular underground tunnel.6. θ). ˜ ∂A ρga a (a.9. (c) With the stress components given by (2. [This might correspond to a cylindrical hole in a vertical column. ∂r2 τθθ = ρg cos2 θ (r sin θ − H ) + and that the boundary conditions on r = a are 2 ˜ (a.15 (a) Derive the expression (2.1) is − ρgh a2 8(1 − ν )A + (1 − 2ν )r + cos θ r 1 + 2 log a 8(1 − ν )B − ρg (1 − 2ν )a2 sin θ.6.98 Linear elastostatics 2.6. θ) = ρga A 2 H + aθ cos θ + H a cos 2θ − sin 3θ 2 12 + A cos θ + B sin θ. θ) = H + aθ cos θ + H cos 2θ − sin 3θ ∂r 2 4 A B + cos θ + sin θ.1) relating the strain components to the radial displacement ur in plane polar coordinates (r.92). τyy = ρg (y − H ). (b) Prove the identity ∂eθθ ∂erθ ∂ 2 ur + rerr + 2r + ur = −r2 2 ∂θ ∂r ∂θ (E2. + r2 ∂θ2 r ∂r ˜ sin 2θ ∂ 1 ∂A = ρg (r sin θ − H ) − . + 1 + 2 log a 2.] In this case.16 and hence obtain the expressions (2.

1+ν E = 1 + 2ν E.1) and the fact that ur is single-valued to show that A = 0. (E2. µ|k|2 µ (λ + 2µ) |k|4 and. Show that the Fourier transform of the Green’s tensor in three dimensions is given by G = Gij = 1 λ + µ kkT I − . . where k = (k.6. so that 2 ˜ = ρga A 2 B = −νρga3 /4. deduce that Gij = λ+µ 1 8πµ (λ + 2µ) |x| xi xj λ + 3µ δij + λ+µ |x|2 . z )ei(kx+ y + mz ) dxdy dz = R3 f (x)ei(k·x) dx. H 1 + log 1 2 + r a2 + rθ cos θ + H 1 − 2 cos 2θ a 2r 2 4 a2 r a a − r(1 − 2ν ) log − sin θ + sin 3θ . by inverting the transform. Use (E2. y. show that z -averaged plane stress is mathematically equivalent to plane strain with new elastic constants ν and E given by ν = ν .2) .8. a r 6r3 4r and deduce that the hoop stress is given by τθθ = −ρgH (1 + 2 cos 2θ) + ρga 1 − 2ν sin θ + sin 3θ 2 2. (1 + ν )2 2.Exercises 99 where A and B are arbitrary constants.17 on r = a.18 We deﬁne the three-dimensional Fourier transform of a function f (x. Note the contrast with the stress distribution (2. y.22). m).100) caused by a hydrostatic far-ﬁeld stress. z ) by ∞ ∞ −∞ ∞ −∞ f= −∞ f (x.9) and (2.6. By comparing (2.

+ ∂x2 ∂y 2 ν ∂2 + Tr (τ ). . where mjk is the usual alternating symbol. ψ2 (x. 1 + ν ∂y∂z the other relations being obtained by permuting x. Show that the compatibility conditions (2. . 2.7. G32 .100 Linear elastostatics 2. Hence obtain the compatibility conditions (2.19 Show that the axisymmetric Love stress function corresponding to a unit vertical point force at the origin is given by L= |x| . y ).21 Prove the identity mjk ∂ 2 ui ≡0 ∂xk ∂xj for all i and m. Ψ = (ψ1 (x.5) can be written in terms of the stress components as ∂ 2 τyy ∂ 2 τxy ν ∂ 2 τxx + − 2 = ∂y 2 ∂x∂y ∂x2 1+ν ∂τxy ∂τyz ∂ 2 τxx ∂ ∂τxz = + − ∂y∂z ∂x ∂y ∂z ∂x ∂2 ∂2 Tr (τ ). Show that the two-dimensional Papkovich–Neuber potentials φ = φ(x.6). G33 ) = 1 16πµ |x| (1 − ν ) xz yz z2 .7. y ). 0)T generate the stress ﬁeld τxx = (1 − ν ) τyy τxy ∂ψ2 ∂ψ1 +ν − ∂x ∂y ∂ψ1 ∂ψ2 +ν − = (1 − ν ) ∂y ∂x ∂ψ2 ∂ψ1 1 −ν + = 2 ∂y ∂x ∂ 2 φ x ∂ 2 ψ1 y ∂ 2 ψ2 − − . ∂x2 2 ∂x2 2 ∂x2 ∂ 2 φ x ∂ 2 ψ1 y ∂ 2 ψ2 − − .22 for all m and n.7. 8π (1 − ν ) Hence. y and z . where eij is the linearised strain tensor. and show that this is equivalent to ∇×(∇ui ) ≡ 0. 2 2 ∂y 2 ∂y 2 ∂y 2 ∂2φ x ∂ 2 ψ1 y ∂ 2 ψ2 − − − . ∂x∂y 2 ∂x∂y 2 ∂x∂y 2. 3 − 4 ν + |x|2 |x|2 |x|2 .5) and show that they are equivalent to (2. Deduce that mjk nil ∂ 2 eij ≡0 ∂xl ∂xk 2. show that the corresponding displacement is (G31 .2) by symmetry.20 and deduce (E2. y ).

23 Verify (2.13).Exercises 2. 2 − τxx + 2k τxy − k τyy + ν k + Hence obtain τxx = τxy = τyy = ikf 1−ν i f 1−ν −ikf 1−ν ν 2 k + ν 2 k + k2 ν + 2 (τxx + τyy ) = 0.9. . x2 + ε2 = ε2 (x2 + ε2 )3/2 ds (1 + s2 )3/2 ε2 dx (x2 + ε2 ) 3 / 2 ∞ = −∞ = 2. 2 2 2 ∂τxy ∂τyy + =0 ∂x ∂y k τxy + τyy = 0. 2 (k 2 + 2 2 (k 2 + the inverse Fourier transform of which is (2.7a) by writing |x| = limε→0 d2 dx2 and ∞ −∞ √ 101 x2 + ε2 and noting that .18) to show that k τxx + τxy = −if. Show that ∂2 ∂2 + ∂x2 ∂y 2 x2 + y 2 log x2 + y 2 = 8 + 4 log x2 + y 2 and deduce that. ∂x ∂y plus the compatibility condition ∂ 2 τyy ∂ 2 τxy ∂ 2 τxx + − 2 − ν ∇2 (τxx + τyy ) = 0. 2.9. . 2. if A = (1/8π ) x2 + y 2 log x2 + y 2 .7c).9. ∂y 2 ∂x∂y ∂x2 Take a two-dimensional Fourier transform (deﬁned as in Exercise 2.24 Repeat this procedure with log x2 + y 2 + ε2 to derive (2. then A satisﬁes ∇4 A = δ (x)δ (y ).7b) and ﬁnd a similar derivation of (2. 2 − − − k2 + 2 (k 2 + 2 2 )2 2 )2 2 )2 .9.25 The stress components due to a point force f in the x-direction satisfy ∂τxy ∂τxx + = −f δ (x)δ (y ). .

16. Let a → 0 and show that the displacement tends to u= 1 − 2ν af er .42) if f = πa(1 − ν )/(1 − 2ν ).9.102 Linear elastostatics 2.26 Write down the displacement ﬁeld for the four point forces depicted in Figure 2. 1 − ν 2πµ r which agrees with (2. .

1 Introduction This chapter concerns simple unsteady problems in linear elasticity. We therefore start by reviewing the main properties of this equation and some useful solution techniques.9).4 we will ﬁnd that the same approach often works even for unsteady problems. important concepts such as normal modes.and S -waves behave very much like waves as modelled by the scalar wave equation (1. The ﬁrst that we will encounter is that the Navier equation in an inﬁnite medium supports two distinct kinds of plane waves which propagate at two diﬀerent speeds. both P .7. In two-dimensional and axisymmetric problems. and correspond to compressional and shearing oscillations of the medium respectively.3 and 3. plane waves and characteristics that underpin most problems in linear elastodynamics. though. the unsteady Navier equation (1. As noted in Section 1. This allows us to introduce.10.5 by considering the reﬂection of waves at a plane boundary. in a simple context. Considered individually. and pays dividends when we come to analyse normal modes in cylinders and spheres. we found in Chapter 2 that the steady Navier equation may be transformed into a single biharmonic equation by introducing a suitable stress function. In Sections 3. and this introduces many interesting new properties. they very rarely exist in isolation since any boundaries present inevitably convert P -waves into S -waves and vice versa . In contrast with the classical scalar wave equation. We will illustrate this phenomenon of mode conversion in Section 3.2.10. the Navier equation is a vector wave equation.8) bears some similarity to the familiar scalar wave equation governing small transverse displacements of an elastic string or membrane.3 Linear elastodynamics 3. In practice. These are known as P -waves and S -waves. 103 .

2.1.1) ∂t2 ∂x2 known as the one-dimensional wave equation. The threedimensional version of (3.1. ∂t2 (3.1) and (3.2 Normal modes and plane waves 3. We can seek normal modes of an elastic .1. we will discuss the interesting phenomena that can occur when elastic waves are generated by moving sources.1) and (3.2). However. We therefore begin the next section by discussing some elementary solutions of (3. Finally. It is well known that the transverse displacement w (x.1) is ς ∂2w = T ∇2 w. we can attempt to describe the solution as a linear combination of elementary solutions.2) mathematically. There are two ways in which we can approach (3.1. as in the method of normal modes in classical mechanics. Alternatively. then the appropriate generalisation of (3.1.1. y )-plane under a uniform tension T .1. let us brieﬂy recall some familiar wave propagation models for elastic strings and membranes.2) governs many familiar wave propagation problems including acoustic waves and light waves. 3. where we will show that it also describes longitudinal waves in an elastic bar.5. The derivation and validity of this equation will be discussed in Chapter 4. we consider some initial-value problems for elastic wave propagation using the ideas of characteristics and fundamental solutions. The simplest such model describes small oscillations of an elastic string of line density under a tension T . One possibility is to try to construct a general solution that will apply whatever mechanism is driving the waves. Before we begin. If we instead consider an elastic membrane with surface density ς stretched across the (x.1 Normal modes A normal mode of a dynamical system is a motion in which the whole system oscillates at a single frequency ω . (3. this strategy is only useful in practice when the general solution can be found explicitly and also takes a suﬃciently simple form for realistic boundary conditions to be imposed. t) satisﬁes the partial diﬀerential equation ∂2w ∂2w = T .2) where ∇2 = ∂ 2 /∂x2 + ∂ 2 /∂y 2 is the two-dimensional Laplacian.1. This second approach can always be applied in principle and ties in with the ﬁrst when we view the general solution as a superposition of elementary solutions.104 Linear elastodynamics In Section 3.

1) are called waves in the frequency domain. where k=ω T . with f (x) given by (3. t) = Re f (x)e−iωt . which is often written in the compact form w(x. many people will also recognise the properties predicted by .4) and by applying these to (3.3). (3.1) reveals that f (x) must satisfy the ordinary diﬀerential equation ω2 d2 f f = 0.2.2. + dx2 T whose general solution is f (x) = A cos(kx) + B sin(kx).1a) where f (x) = f1 (x) + if2 (x).2. (3.2. t) = f1 (x) cos(ωt) + f2 (x) sin(ωt). These are known as the natural frequencies of the system.2.1. (3.2. Clearly f must likewise satisfy f (0) = f (a) = 0. they represent the frequencies at which the string will oscillate in the absence of any external forcing.2.1) in the form w(x. so we require w to satisfy w(0. namely ωn = nπ a T . As a simple example. The corresponding displacements wn (x.2. Solutions of the form (3. (3. t) = Re Bn sin nπx −iωn t e a (3.1) into (3.2. and we can see that there is a countably inﬁnite number of them. t) = w(a. Substitution of (3.1b) (3.2. Particular values of ω may be selected by applying suitable boundary conditions.3) (3.3) we discover that nonzero solutions for f exist only if ω takes speciﬁc values. is a solution of the wave equation for any value of the frequency ω . t) = 0.5) where n is any integer.2.1b).1. consider a string ﬁxed at its two ends x = 0 and x = a.2) Thus (3.6) are called the normal modes.3. For waves on a string these modes are manifested as the harmonics that are familiar to anyone who plays a stringed musical instrument.2 Normal modes and plane waves 105 string by trying solutions of (3.2.

2. in this chapter. illustrates the following important points that will be useful in analysing more complex models later in this chapter.8a) where the coeﬃcients are found by Fourier analysis of the initial data: An = 2 a a w0 (x) sin 0 nπx a dx. that is ∞ w(x. Bn = 2 ωn a a v (x) sin 0 nπx a dx.5).2. when there is no explicit dependence on t. (3. Now suppose we are additionally given the initial displacement and velocity of the string. 0) = w0 (x).1b) whenever the problem we are solving is both linear and autonomous in t: in other words. it may be shown that (3. may be written uniquely as a superposition of normal modes. 0) = v (x).1b). (iv) When a → ∞. such as diﬀerentiation with respect to x or t or multiplication by a real constant. and then taken the real part right at the end.2. This approach works because all the usual linear operations. (i) We will always be able to look for time-harmonic solutions of the form (3.2. we might as well have ignored the “Re” in (3.8) generalises to the half-range Fourier transform representation ∞ w(x. t) = 0 sin (kx) {A(k ) cos(kct) + B (k ) sin(kct)} dk. performed all the calculations. a (3.9a) . Henceforth. although very straightforward.2. t) = n =1 sin nπx {An cos(ωn t) + Bn sin(ωn t)} . namely that the frequency increases as the tension increases and as the density decreases.2). ∂t (3. subject to simple homogeneous boundary conditions.1.2. though.8b) This analysis. (ii) When looking for normal modes. that this would be a very dangerous procedure were we to be considering a nonlinear model! (iii) Although normal modes may at ﬁrst glance appear to be rather special solutions of the wave equation (3. We note.7) These may be satisﬁed by trying a linear combination of normal modes. say w(x. we will therefore for simplicity follow the convention of assuming the real part.106 Linear elastodynamics (3. commute with taking the real part. it can be shown that the general solution. (3.2.2. ∂w (x.

Thus there is a doubly inﬁnite set of normal modes in this case. 0 < y < b} are mπx nπy −iωm .2) by seeking solutions of the form w(x. to ﬁnd the normal modes and frequencies of a drum whose skin occupies a region D in the (x.13) will be approximately in balance. t) = sin a b π 2 T m2 n2 2 ωm.1. (3.13b) This is Bessel’s equation of order zero. This is another eigenvalue problem: A ≡ 0 is always a possible solution and special values of k must be sought such that A may be nonzero.3. (3.2. y )-plane.12a) sin e wm. (3. In general. and we ﬁnd that A must satisfy the Helmholtz equation ∇2 A + k 2 A = 0. Next we consider radially-symmetric vibrations of a circular drum.13a) to be solved subject to A(a) = 0. y. For example. y. For many simple shapes. If we set ξ = kr.2.10) where k = ω ς/T . n t .2 Normal modes and plane waves 107 where c2 = T / and A(k ) = 2 π ∞ w0 (x) sin(kx) dx. then the problem for A becomes d2 A 1 dA +A=0 + dξ 2 ξ dξ with A(ka) = 0.11) reads d2 A 1 dA + k 2 A = 0.11) in D subject to A = 0 on the boundary ∂D.2.12b) ς a2 b2 where m and n are arbitrary integers. for small ξ .2.n = + . For example.2. + dr2 r dr (3. y )e−iωt . 0 (3. so that A is a function of the plane polar distance r and (3. we can see at a glance that the normal modes and natural frequencies of the rectangular membrane {0 < x < a.2.9b) We can extend these ideas to the two-dimensional wave equation (3. we must solve (3. (3. these can be found by separating the variables. we can spot that the ﬁrst and .11) (3.2.n (x. and it is easy to see that A(ξ ) oscillates for large ξ . Moreover.2.2. 0 B (k ) = 2 πkc ∞ v (x) sin(kx) dx. because the ﬁrst and last terms in (3. there is one inﬁnite set of frequencies for each spatial dimension in the problem.2. t) = A(x.

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Linear elastodynamics

Jn (ξ )

1

0.8

0.6

n=0 1 2

5

10

15

20

25

30 ξ

0.4

0.2

-0.2

-0.4

Yn (ξ )

0.4

0.2

n=0 1 2

5

10

15

20

25

30 ξ

-0.2

-0.4

-0.6

-0.8

Fig. 3.1 Plots of the ﬁrst three Bessel functions Jn (ξ ) and Yn (ξ ) for n = 0 (solid), n = 1 (dashed), n = 2 (dot-dashed).

second terms in (3.2.13) both balance and dominate the third term when A = log ξ . This suggests that the solution is either well-behaved or logarithmically singular as ξ → 0, and this conclusion may easily be conﬁrmed using Frobenius’ method. The bounded solution with A(0) = 1 is denoted by J0 (ξ ) while the singular solution with A ∼ (2/π ) log ξ is called Y0 (ξ ), and these important functions are plotted in Figure 3.1. Here, we require the amplitude A to be bounded at the centre of the drum r = 0 and must therefore choose A = const. J0 (ξ ). The condition at r = a is then satisﬁed if ka = ξ0,i (i = 1, 2, . . .), (3.2.14a)

where ξ0,1 < ξ0,2 < · · · are the zeros of J0 (ξ ). As indicated in Figure 3.1, there are an inﬁnite number of these zeros and ξ0,n → ∞ as n → ∞. The natural frequencies of the drum for radially-symmetric modes are thus given

3.2 Normal modes and plane waves

109

by ωi = ξ0,i a T ς (n = 1, 2, . . .). (3.2.14b)

Unlike the modes on a string, the natural frequencies here are irrational multiples of each other. In musical terms, the harmonics are out of tune with each other, and this gives rise to the characteristic sound of a drum, which is quite diﬀerent from that of a piano or a violin, for example. If we drop the assumption of radial symmetry, then the Helmholtz equation becomes 1 ∂2A ∂ 2 A 1 ∂A + + + k 2 A = 0, (3.2.15) ∂r2 r ∂r r2 ∂θ2 in plane polar coordinates (r, θ). Again we impose A = 0 on r = a, and now we insist also that A must be a 2π -periodic function of θ. This restricts us to seeking separable solutions of the form A(r, θ) = f (r) C1 cos(nθ) + C2 sin(nθ) , where n is an integer, and it follows that f satisﬁes r2 df d2 f +r + k 2 r 2 − n2 f = 0 dr2 dr with f (a) = 0. (3.2.17a) (3.2.16)

Setting ξ = kr as before, we ﬁnd that (3.2.17a) becomes ξ2 df d2 f + ξ 2 − n2 f = 0 +ξ 2 dξ dξ with f (ka) = 0. (3.2.17b)

This is Bessel’s equation of order n, whose two linearly dependent solutions are denoted Jn (ξ ) and Yn (ξ ); the cases n = 0, 1, 2 are plotted in Figure 3.1. For any integer n, Yn (ξ ) is singular as ξ → 0, so we must choose f = const. Jn (ξ ). The condition at r = a is then satisﬁed if ka = ξn,i (i = 1, 2, . . .), (3.2.18)

where ξn,1 < ξn,2 < · · · are the zeros of Jn (ξ ). There are an inﬁnite number of these zeros and ξn,i → ∞ as i → ∞. The natural frequencies of the drum are thus given by

2 ωn,i = 2 T ξn,i , a2 ς

(3.2.19)

where n and i are arbitrary integers, so there is a doubly-inﬁnite family of normal modes that depend on the two spatial coordinates (r, θ).

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Linear elastodynamics

3.2.2 Plane waves As suggested by (3.2.9), when looking for solutions of (3.1.1) on an inﬁnite domain, it is appropriate to seek travelling waves of the form w(x, t) = A exp i(kx − ωt) , (3.2.20)

rather than seeking a discrete set of normal modes. The real constants |A|, k and ω represent the amplitude, wave-number and frequency, respectively, of the wave (3.2.20). The wave-number is related to the wave-length λ by k = 2π/λ, so large values of k correspond to short waves and vice versa . We can alternatively write (3.2.20) in the form ω (3.2.21) w(x, t) = A exp ik (x − ct) , where c = ; k the quantity c is known as the phase velocity. From (3.2.21) we can easily see that c represents the speed at which wave crests propagate. We can also see that the minus sign included by convention in (3.2.20) ensures that the wave propagates in the positive x-direction when ω and k are both positive. We can generalise this approach to the two-dimensional wave equation (3.1.2) by looking for a plane wave solution of the form w(x, y, t) = A exp i(k1 x + k2 y − ωt) = A exp i k · x − ωt , (3.2.22)

where we deﬁne the wave-vector k = (k1 , k2 )T . By writing (3.2.22) in the form k·x w = A exp i |k|X − ωt , where X = , (3.2.23) |k| we observe that it represents a harmonic wave travelling in the direction of k at speed ω/|k|. The phase velocity, at which the wave crests propagate, is thus given by ωk . (3.2.24) c= |k | 2 When we substitute (3.2.20) into (3.1.1), we ﬁnd that the amplitude can be nonzero only if ω2 = k2 T / . (3.2.25a)

This dispersion relation tells us how the frequency of any given wave depends on its wave-length. We can also view (3.2.25a) as an equation for the phase velocity, namely c = ± T/ , (3.2.25b)

3.2 Normal modes and plane waves

111

which tells us that all waves move at the same speed, irrespective of their wave-length. Waves with this property are called non-dispersive, to distinguish them from dispersive waves in which c varies with k . Similarly, substitution of (3.2.22) into the two-dimensional wave equation (3.1.2) leads to the dispersion relation ω 2 = |k|2 T /ς. The phase speed |c| = c = T /ς (3.2.27) (3.2.26)

is still independent of the wave-vector k, so these two-dimensional waves are also non-dispersive. As in (3.2.9), the general solution of the wave equation on an inﬁnite domain may be written as a linear superposition of harmonic waves, travelling in both directions, in the form of a Fourier integral. In other words, we can write

∞ ∞ −∞

w(x, y, t) =

−∞

A(k1 , k2 ) exp i (k1 x + k2 y − ω (k1 , k2 )t)

**+ B (k1 , k2 ) exp i (k1 x + k2 y + ω (k1 , k2 )t) dk1 dk2 , (3.2.28a) or w(x, t) =
**

R2

A(k) exp i (k · x − ω (k)t) + B (k) exp i (k · x + ω (k)t) dk, (3.2.28b)

where ω (k) is given by the dispersion relation (3.2.26) and the amplitude functions A(k) and B (k) can be found from the Fourier transform of the initial conditions. By writing the displacement in the form (3.2.28b), we indicate that this and all the other results in this section apply also to the wave equation in three space dimensions.

3.2.3 Scattering Scattering refers generally to the problem of irradiating a target with a known incoming wave-ﬁeld and trying to determine the resultant scattered ﬁeld that is the result of the presence of the target. This idea is important, for example, in tomography, seismology and ultrasonic testing, where we try to infer, non-invasively, the properties of some inhomogeneities in a bulk elastic medium by measuring the scattered wave-ﬁelds that they produce.

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Linear elastodynamics

The basic idea is illustrated by the problem of an elastic string, modelled by (3.1.1), stretched along the x-axis with a point mass m attached at the origin. The equation of motion for the mass leads to the boundary conditions w(0−, t) = w(0+, t), ∂w ∂w m ∂2w (0+, t) − (0−, t) = ∂x ∂x T ∂t2 (3.2.29)

at x = 0, where T is the tension in the string. Now suppose we send in a known incident wave of the form w = ei(kx−ωt) from x = −∞, where we assume that ω > 0 and k > 0 so that the wave is travelling in the positive x-direction. We can work in the frequency domain to write the resulting displacement ﬁeld in the form w(x, t) = A(x)e−iωt , where A(x) = eikx + cR e−ikx cT eikx x < 0, x > 0. (3.2.30)

Thus, apart from the prescribed incoming wave, the scattered wave-ﬁeld is outgoing from the target, with reﬂection and transmission coeﬃcients cR and cT that can be determined from the boundary conditions (3.2.29), as shown in Exercise 3.1. As a very simple example of a tomography problem we could, for instance, work out the size of the mass by measuring the amplitude |cR | of the reﬂected waves. The extension to higher-dimensional problems present us with a serious mathematical challenge. Indeed, even the solution of Helmholtz’ equation (3.2.11) to model plane wave incidence at a scatterer on which A = 0, say, is beyond the scope of this book. The two principal diﬃculties are the following. (i) Assuming an incident wave eikx , as in (3.2.30), we have to solve the ˜ = A − eikx , subject to Helmholtz equation for the scattered wave A i kx ˜ on the scatterer. This means that there is no simple solution A = e by separation of variables, even when the scatterer is a circle. ˜ → 0 as we (ii) In the far ﬁeld, it is not good enough simply to say that A did in many of the elastostatic problems of Chapter 2. We now need to ˜ be outgoing from the scatterer, capture the physical requirement that A again as in (3.2.30). It can be shown (see Exercise 3.3 and Bleistein, 1984, Section 6.4) that, as the radial coordinate r tends to inﬁnity, all possible ˜ must ˜→A ˜± (θ)r−1/2 e±ikr and, since A solutions of (3.2.11) take the form A − i ωt to ﬁnd the scattered wave, only the positive sign be multiplied by e is appropriate to describe outward-travelling waves. This is equivalent to ˜ satisﬁes the Sommerfeld radiation condition saying that A r1/2 ˜ ∂A ˜ − ik A ∂r →0 as r → ∞. (3.2.31)

3.2 Normal modes and plane waves

113

Then the canonical tomography problem for (3.2.11) is to reconstruct the ˜+ (θ). shape of the scatterer given the directivity function A We note that, in the absence of any incident ﬁeld, a circular boundary can radiate waves in which, from (3.2.16), A depends only on r and is a linear combination of J0 (kr) and Y0 (kr). Using the fact that 2 ±i(kr −(π/4)) e as r → ∞, (3.2.32) πkr we see that, to describe outward-propagating waves, A must tend to a mul(1) tiple of the Hankel function H0 (kr) = J0 (kr) + i Y0 (kr) as r → ∞. J0 (kr) ± i Y0 (kr) → 3.2.4 P-waves and S-waves Now we examine how the ideas developed above for scalar wave equations may be applied to the unsteady Navier equation (1.7.8). We begin by seeking travelling-wave solutions in the form u = a exp i (k · x − ωt) , (3.2.33)

where the complex amplitude a, the wave-vector k and frequency ω are all constant. It is very helpful to use a little hindsight, or Exercise 3.4, to notice that, for any vector a and nonzero k, there is a unique vector B and a scalar A satisfying a = Ak + B ×k, Using this decomposition, we ﬁnd that ∇2 u = − |k|2 (Ak + B ×k) exp i (k · x − ωt) , grad div u = −A |k|2 k exp i (k · x − ωt) , ∂2u = −ω 2 (Ak + B ×k) exp i (k · x − ωt) . ∂t2 Hence the Navier equation (1.7.8) reduces to ρω 2 − µ|k|2 (B ×k) + ρω 2 − (λ + 2µ)|k|2 Ak = 0, which we can only satisfy for nonzero k if either B=0 or A=0 and ρω 2 = µ |k|2 . (3.2.37b) and ρω 2 = (λ + 2µ) |k|2 (3.2.37a) (3.2.35a) (3.2.35b) (3.2.35c) k · B = 0. (3.2.34)

(3.2.36)

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Linear elastodynamics

The vectorial nature of the Navier equation has thus led to the existence of two dispersion relations, corresponding to two distinct types of waves. (i) P -waves, also known as Primary or Pressure waves, take the form u = Ak exp i (k · x − ωt) , (3.2.38a)

where ω 2 = (λ +2µ)|k|2 /ρ. We recall from Section 1.9 that µ and λ +2µ/3 are both positive, so ω is real. The phase speed is thus given by cp = λ + 2µ ρ (3.2.38b)

and, since cp is independent of k, the waves are non-dispersive. The phase velocity cp k (3.2.38c) c= |k | is parallel to the displacement u, so P -waves are said to be longitudinal. They are also sometimes described as irrotational since they satisfy curl u = 0, as is readily veriﬁed by direct diﬀerentiation of (3.2.38a). (ii) S -waves, also known as Secondary or Shear waves, take the form u = (B ×k) exp i (k · x − ωt) , (3.2.39a)

where ω 2 = µ|k|2 /ρ. S -waves are also non-dispersive, with constant phase speed µ . (3.2.39b) cs = ρ This time, though, the phase velocity is perpendicular to the displacement, so S -waves are said to be transverse. Since (3.2.39a) satisﬁes div u = 0, we deduce that S -waves conserve volume, and they may thus be referred to as equivoluminal. Evidently cp > cs , so that P -waves always propagate faster than S -waves. This fact is familiar to seismologists: following an earthquake, two distinct initial signals can usually be observed, corresponding to the arrival of the P -waves followed by the S -waves, with propagation speeds in rock given approximately by cp ≈ 5 km s−1 and cs ≈ 3 km s−1 respectively. P - and S -waves are prototypical examples of polarised waves, which are deﬁned to be solutions to general wave equations in which u = u0 f (k · x − ωt) . (3.2.40)

3.2 Normal modes and plane waves

115

When u0 is not parallel to k , this is called a plane polarised wave, with u0 and k deﬁning the plane of polarisation. As in the expression (3.2.28) for the general solution of the scalar wave equation, the general solution of the Navier equation may also be expressed as a linear superposition of harmonic waves. In this case, the displacement ﬁeld reads u(x, t) =

R3

kA1 (k) exp i (k · x − |k|cp t) + kA2 (k) exp i (k · x + |k|cp t) + k×B 1 (k) exp i (k · x − |k|cs t) + k×B 2 (k) exp i (k · x + |k|cs t) dk, (3.2.41)

which represents an arbitrary combination of P - and S -waves travelling in all possible directions. Again the amplitude functions Ai (k) and B i (k) can in principle be determined from the Fourier transform of the initial data, although carrying this out in practice when boundary conditions are imposed is far from easy.

3.2.5 Mode conversion in plane strain The explicit solution (3.2.41) suggests that the response of an elastic medium to arbitrary initial conditions will nearly always involve coupled P - and S waves. This coupling lies at the heart of elastic wave propagation in more than one space dimension. An indication of the unexpected phenomena that can result comes when we reconsider the familiar rules of reﬂection and refraction of plane waves of the form (3.2.33) at a planar interface. Here we will initially consider the plane strain problem of reﬂection of a P -wave that is incident from x < 0 on a rigid barrier at x = 0, so that u = 0 there. We recall that P -waves are longitudinal and so, by choosing the coordinate axes appropriately, we may write the incident wave in the form of a plane strain displacement, u = ui n c = cos α exp i kp (x cos α + y sin α) − ωt sin α , (3.2.42)

where kp = ω/cp and α is the angle between the incoming wave and the x-axis. Our task now is to ﬁnd a reﬂected wave ﬁeld ur e f such that the net displacement u = ui n c + ur e f is zero on the boundary x = 0. We soon realise that

116

Linear elastodynamics

y P S

α β α

P

1 0 Rigid 0 1 0 1 boundary 0 1 0 1 0 x 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1

Fig. 3.2 A P -wave reﬂecting from a rigid boundary.

this is impossible unless we allow for two reﬂected waves: one P -wave and one S -wave. Otherwise, there are not enough degrees of freedom to make both displacement components zero on x = 0. We therefore seek a reﬂected wave ﬁeld of the form u r e f = rp − cos γ exp i kp (−x cos γ + y sin γ ) − ωt sin γ + rs sin β exp i ks (−x cos β + y sin β ) − ωt cos β , (3.2.43)

where ks = ω/cs . Recall that S -waves are transverse so the amplitude is orthogonal to the wave-vector. From the condition u = 0 on x = 0, we ﬁnd that the P -wave reﬂection is specular, meaning that the angle of reﬂection γ is equal to the angle of incidence α. However, the S -wave reﬂection angle satisﬁes sin β = cs sin α cp (3.2.44)

and, since cp > cs , it follows that β < α, as illustrated in Figure 3.2. The reﬂection coeﬃcients are given by rp = cos(α + β ) , cos(α − β ) rs = − sin(2α) . cos(α − β ) (3.2.45)

This is our ﬁrst encounter with the phenomenon of mode conversion. A boundary will usually turn a pure P -wave (or a pure S -wave) into a combination of P - and S -waves. As shown in Exercise 3.6, the same happens in

If the displacement ﬁeld takes the form T u = 0. with wave speed cs . We now describe an example that illustrates how P . 0. with the displacement depending only on the transverse variables.2. with constant thickness 2h.2. w(x. This is to be expected. encased inside an inﬁnite expanse of a second material. which are antiplane strain waves guided through a particular type of layered medium.46) which is just the familiar two-dimensional scalar wave equation (3. then w satisﬁes µ∇2 w = µ ∂2w ∂2w + ∂x2 ∂y 2 =ρ ∂2w .3.1. 3. with the displacement in the horizontal z -direction. Here we will illustrate them by describing Love waves.3. As illustrated in Figure 3. t) . the static case of which was introduced in Section 2.3 A layered elastic medium. ρ2 ρ1 x “rock” −h µ2 . This set-up might model. and the phenomenon of total internal reﬂection becomes correspondingly more complicated. for example.2 Normal modes and plane waves 117 y “rock” h “coal” µ2 . This is in contrast with .3. ρ2 Fig. the case of refracted waves.6 Love waves Let us consider the dynamic version of antiplane strain. since antiplane strain is volumepreserving. 3. a coal seam in a rock stratum. the geometry is that of a uniform layer of one material.2. µ1 .and S -waves can interact in a practical situation.46). ∂t2 (3. y. The solution strategies presented above for two-dimensional waves on a membrane are all directly applicable to the solution of (3.2).

10.51) into (3. as shown in Section 1.49) Substituting (3. if we identify the rigid boundary with a horizontal rock stratum.54) . In such modes. Now (3.2. while the antiplane S -waves described by (3.2. 2).3.47).118 Linear elastodynamics the situation depicted in Figure 3.2. (3.47) where csi = µi /ρi (i = 1. the S -waves considered in Section 3.52) In the coal seam. 2) are the S -wave speeds. (3.2.2.46) are referred to as SH -waves.2. Substitution of (3.2. while those of the “rock” are labelled ρ2 and µ2 . ∂y ∂y on y = ±h. (3.2.49) into (3. the seam acts as a wave-guide. we ﬁnd that the functions fi (y ) satisfy fi + ω2 − k 2 fi = 0 c2 si (3. y. the displacement is in the vertical direction.2.2.2.2.48) We seek travelling-wave solutions propagating in the x-direction in which the displacements take the form wi = fi (y ) exp i (kx − ωt) .50) leads to 2 2 2 ω 2 = c2 s 1 k + cs 1 m .2 where. On the boundaries of the seam. are either exponential or sinusoidal.5 are referred to as SV -waves. the displacements and tractions must be continuous. so that w1 = w 2 .50) reveals that k and ω must be such that 2 2 2 c2 s 2 k − ω = cs 2 2 > 0.2.50) and. (3.2. (3. propagating waves in the x-direction without any energy radiating or “leaking out” to y → ±∞ as discussed in Section 3. (3. t) in either medium satisﬁes c2 si ∂ 2 wi ∂ 2 wi + ∂x2 ∂y 2 = ∂ 2 wi ∂t2 (i = 1. we try a solution f1 = A1 cos(my ) + B1 sin(my ) (3. µ1 ∂w1 ∂w2 = µ2 . hence. For this reason.2.53) which may be sinusoidal if m is real or exponential if m is pure imaginary.2.51) where is real and positive. The density and shear modulus of the “coal” are denoted by ρ1 and µ1 respectively. The transverse displacement wi (x. f2 = B2 e y in y < −h. We suppose that the amplitude of the waves decays at inﬁnity so that f2 = A2 e− y in y > h.

52) and (3. . We then see that there are two inﬁnite families of solutions. with long waves travelling faster than short ones. For each ﬁxed allowable value of m.7 leads to µ1 m cot mh = −µ2 . (3. with mh = (2n + 1)π/2 for symmetric waves or mh = nπ for antisymmetric waves.55) shows that the wave-speed cL varies with wavenumber.7.2. which is typically true in practice.2. where n is an integer.55). with A1 = 0 and B2 = −A2 .2. These are easiest to analyse in the extreme case where the rock is rigid so that µ2 /µ1 → ∞. that is if the wave speed in the coal is slower than that in the rock. and this gives us the condition µ1 m tan mh = µ2 . the dispersion relations (3.2.57) For antisymmetric waves.57) or (3. From (3. and it seems to be at odds with our knowledge that S -waves are non-dispersive.37) were obtained only for plane P . (3.2.2. The phase speed of the waves is then bounded between cs1 and cs2 and the resulting wave-ﬁelds in the rock decay exponentially as we move away from the seam.59) which show that the waves can only exist if cs1 < cs2 . leaving the general case to Exercise 3. (3.48) reduce to A2 e − h = A1 cos(mh). µ2 lA2 e− h = µ1 mA1 sin(mh). we deduce the inequalities c2 s1 < ω k 2 < c2 s2 . (3.2. and (3. However.2.55) illustrates how the presence of boundaries can often give rise to dispersion. This is our ﬁrst encounter with dispersive waves.55) Let us ﬁrst consider symmetric modes in which B1 = 0 and B2 = A2 .3.2. so the boundary conditions (3.2.2 Normal modes and plane waves 119 so the Love waves propagate at a speed cL given by c2 L = m2 ω2 2 1 + = c s 1 k2 k2 . and we will focus on this limit henceforth.2. A nonzero solution can only exist if the determinant of the system is zero.58). (3.2. (3.2.58) It remains to determine m from either of the transcendental equations (3. whose solution is in general A1 = A2 = 0.or S -waves in an inﬁnite medium. the analogous calculation in Exercise 3.56) We can view this as a system of simultaneous equations for A1 and A2 .

both symmetric and antisymmetric.7. decaying exponentially away from the boundary but suﬀering no decay at all in the direction of propagation.7 Rayleigh waves Rayleigh discovered perhaps the most famous of all elastic waves. The phase speed ω/k is bounded between cs 1 and cs 2 .2.4. as shown in Exercise 3.2. 3. the phase speed ω/k is bounded between cs1 and cs2 . As shown in Figure 3.58) with > 0 are all real. 3.60) Hence.2. in each case.52).58).57) or (3. and.2. (3. the values of m satisfying (3. there is an inﬁnite family of waves. We can model these waves using plane strain in y < 0 below a stress-free . We see that the lowest-frequency mode is a symmetric wave with mh = π/2 and therefore ω 2 = c2 s1 π2 + k2 . The existence of a cut-oﬀ frequency below which waves cannot propagate without attenuation is a characteristic of all waveguides.2.54) and either (3. If we do not take the limit µ2 /µ1 → ∞.59) continue to hold and there is still a cut-oﬀ frequency.2.57) or (3. m between (3. real values of k can only exist if ω exceeds a critical cut-oﬀ frequency πcs1 /2h.2.120 Linear elastodynamics ω ω = cs2 k k ω = cs1 k Fig.2. 4h2 (3.4 Dispersion relation between frequency ω and wavenumber k for symmetric (solid) and antisymmetric (dotted) Love waves. Crucially. so the inequalities (3.2. then the dispersion relation between ω and k must be obtained by eliminating . which can propagate close to a planar free boundary.

64) so that Rayleigh waves inevitably travel more slowly than either P -waves or S -waves. if a P . so that the waves propagate without attenuation in the x-direction while decaying exponentially as y → −∞. in y < 0. Rayleigh waves are therefore non-dispersive.63) We assume as usual that k and ω are real and positive. with a constant propagation speed c. (3.2. (3.2. ω2 . After the rather tortuous manipulations of Exercise 3.2. The propagation speed c = ω/k must therefore satisfy c < cs < cp .64).2.2.and S -waves tell us that 2 κ2 p =k − 2 κ2 s =k − (3. and that Re(κp ) > 0 and Re(κs ) > 0.65) It can be shown that this leads to a sextic equation for c but that only one positive real value for c2 exists and satisﬁes (3. 3.2.37) for P . c2 p ω2 . (3. where the zero-traction condition is µ ∂u ∂v + ∂y ∂x = 2µ ∂v +λ ∂y ∂u ∂v + ∂x ∂y =0 at y = 0. These results led Rayleigh to suggest that. c2 s (3.61) to be a good approximation and many earthquake records reveal the arrival of a large Rayleigh wave after ﬁrst the P .2. By taking the divergence and the curl of the dynamic Navier equation .and then the S -waves have been detected.or S -wave originated at some source.61) Now we seek frequency-domain solutions of the form u = (up eκp y + us eκs y ) exp i (kx − ωt) .62) where the dispersion relations (3.3 Dynamic stress functions 121 boundary at y = 0. for example an earthquake.2.8. mode conversion would cause such a wave to propagate indeﬁnitely in the x-direction near y = 0.3 Dynamic stress functions We now describe some of the ways in which elastic wave propagation can be reduced to the study of scalar wave equations by the use of stress functions. Evidently such waves can only exist if the wavenumber k in the x-direction is greater than both ω/cs and ω/cp . This hypothesis is born out by seismological observation: the radius of the earth is large enough for (3.3. we ﬁnd an equation for c in the form 2− c2 c2 s 2 =4 1− c2 c2 p 1/2 1− c2 c2 s 1/2 .

− c2 s∇ ∂t2 (3.4) can be rewritten as ∂2u 1 ∂2v + (1 − 2ν ) ∇2 v − 2 2 ∂x∂y cs ∂t This is satisﬁed identically if we set u= 1 2µ (1 − 2ν ) ∇2 L − 1 ∂2L 2 c2 s ∂t + ∂2L ∂y 2 .3.3. Now we show brieﬂy how the same idea may be applied to dynamic problems.7. This reminds us that irrotational waves (with curl u = 0) propagate at speed cp while equivoluminal waves (with div u = 0) move at speed cs .2) for the displacement u.8). the problem can be reduced to a single scalar biharmonic equation by using a suitable stress function. v=− 1 ∂2L .6) + ∂2v = 0.3. when there is two-dimensional or cylindrical symmetry.3. It .8).1a) for div u and then the inhomogeneous wave equation ∂2 2 2 u = c2 − c2 s∇ p − cs ∇ (div u) ∂t2 (3.3. we obtain ∂2 2 (div u) = 0 − c2 p∇ ∂t2 and ∂2 2 (curl u) = 0 − c2 s∇ ∂t2 (3.1) respectively.7. in which the second component of the Navier equation (1. ∂y 2 (3.5) for some function L(x. namely ρ ∂2v = (λ + µ) ∂t2 ∂2u ∂2v + 2 ∂x∂y ∂y + µ∇2 v. We can ﬁrst solve the scalar wave equation (3. t).8.122 Linear elastodynamics (1. (3. We recall that in Chapter 2 we showed that.1).3.3. This generalises the result that each component of the displacement u satisﬁes the biharmonic equation under static conditions. we obtain ∂2 2 − c2 p∇ ∂t2 ∂2 2 u = 0. It also provides a route for ﬁnding solutions of the Navier equation that often proves handy. which is called the dynamic Love function by analogy with the static Love stress function introduced in Section 2.3. Moreover.3) which we can interpret as a factorisation of the the Navier wave operator into two scalar operators corresponding to P -waves and S -waves respectively.2. by cross-diﬀerentiating (3. First we consider plane strain. y. 2µ ∂x∂y (3.

3 Dynamic stress functions 123 is then readily veriﬁed that the ﬁrst Navier equation is satisﬁed if and only if L satisﬁes the scalar wave equation ∂2 2 − c2 p∇ ∂t2 ∂2 2 L = 0.10b) (3.10a) . r + (1 − ν ) ∇2 L − 2 2 r ∂r ∂r cs ∂t 1 ∂L 1 ∂2L .rather than the y -component of the momentum equation.9) and again L satisﬁes (3.3. (3.10c) (3. − + ν ∇2 L − 2 2 r ∂r cs ∂t (3.8a) .3. − ν ∇2 L − 2 2 2 ∂r cs ∂t 1 ∂2L 1 ∂2L 1 ∂ ∂L r − ν ∇2 L − 2 2 − 2 2 r ∂r ∂r cs ∂t 2cs ∂t 2 1 ∂ L 1 ∂ ∂L . 2 ∂y 2 c2 s ∂t 1 ∂2L ∂2L 1 ∂2L 2 − − ν ∇ L − 2 2 ∂y 2 c2 2c2 s ∂t s ∂t 2 2 ∂ L 1 ∂ L .8b) (3. − c2 s∇ ∂t2 (3. With u and v given by (3. the stress components are given by τrr = − τrz = τzz τθθ ∂ ∂z 1 ∂2L ∂2L . z ) and t.3.3. the stress components may be evaluated from L using τxx = τxy τyy ∂ ∂x ∂ = ∂y ∂ =− ∂x ∂2L 1 ∂2L 2 + (1 − ν ) ∇ L − . in which the displacement takes the form u = ur er + uz ez and is dependent only on the cylindrical polar coordinates (r.10d) ∂ ∂r ∂ = ∂z ∂ = ∂z We will now use the ideas of Sections 3.8c) For radially symmetric problems.3. uz = 2µ ∂r∂z 2µ (1 − 2ν ) ∇2 L − 1 ∂2L 2 c2 s ∂t + 1 ∂ r ∂r r ∂L .3.3.3.2–3.3.3. ∂r (3.6). In this case.3 to enumerate some of the rare conﬁgurations for which explicit solutions of the multidimensional elastic wave equations can be written down. (3.7) As in the static case.3.7). . it is again possible to deﬁne a Love function L(r. or indeed any linear combination of the two. t) such that ur = − 1 ∂2L 1 . we could have started from the x.3. Thus one can deﬁne a one-parameter family of stress functions analogous to L. − ν ∇2 L − 2 2 2 ∂y cs ∂t (3. z.

4.4.4.11.4.4 Waves in cylinders and spheres 3.4.5) where J1 and Y1 again denote Bessel functions.4. To describe waves in a circular cylinder 0 r < a. If the curved boundary of the cylinder. Substituting (3. 1994.1) This scalar equation supports S -waves. we require τrθ = µ on r = a. we ﬁnd that f (r) satisﬁes 1 1 f + f + m2 − 2 r r where m2 = ω2 − k2 .1 Waves in a circular cylinder The simplest cylindrically symmetric waves are torsional waves in which ur = uz = 0 and uθ is independent of θ. 2 ∂r2 r ∂r r2 ∂z 2 c2 s ∂t (3.124 Linear elastodynamics 3.4) f = 0.4.4.2) and we will only consider cases in which m is real. The general solution of (3. a (3.4). while A and B are arbitrary constants.4. we must set B = 0 to eliminate the solution Y1 which is unbounded as r → 0. is free of traction. In this case. (3.8) simpliﬁes to ∂ 2 uθ uθ 1 ∂uθ ∂ 2 uθ 1 ∂ 2 uθ − + + = . Section 8.7) the latter equality following from known properties of Bessel functions (Gradshteyn & Ryzhik. We seek waves travelling in the z -direction with wavenumber k and frequency ω by separation of variables: uθ = f (r) ei(kz −ωt) . r = a.4. as expected for a displacement ﬁeld satisfying ∇ · u = 0.3) is f (r) = A J1 (mr) + B Y1 (mr) .2) into (3. c2 s (3. we do not need any stress function representation because the cylindrical Navier equation (1.3) (3. (3. which implies that d dr 1 J1 (mr) r =− r=a uθ ∂uθ − ∂r r =0 (3. We deduce that ma must equal one of .1).4.6) m J2 (ma) = 0.

4.4.4. in which uθ = 0 and ur and uz are independent of θ. C and D are arbitrary constants. then τrr and τrz are zero on r = a.9) The partial diﬀerential equation (3. Torsional waves are therefore dispersive. in which the frequency must exceed the cut-oﬀ value ξ2. To describe waves in the solid cylinder r < a. where now we deﬁne m2 p = ω2 − k2 .10) as shorthand.10) is f (r) = A J0 (mp r) + B J0 (ms r) + C Y0 (mp r) + D Y0 (ms r) .8) to ﬁnd the normal frequencies. c2 s (3. (3.12) where A.4.1 cs /a.4.4. we can use (3.3. There is thus one family of waves corresponding to each integer value of n.2. If the boundary is stress-free.n of J2 as deﬁned in Section 3.13b) f − νm2 sf = 0 r on r = a. We look for harmonic waves propagating in the z -direction by setting L(r.4. 2 dr r dr (3. The dispersion relation ω= cs a 2 + k 2 a2 ξ2 . For cylindrically symmetric longitudinal waves. t) = f (r)ei(kz −ωt) .4. (3. and this leads to the two boundary conditions d dr (1 − ν ) f + f r + νk 2 + (2 − ν ) (1 − ν )f − ν ω2 2c2 s f = 0.11) d2 1 d + m2 + s f (r ) = 0. but is bounded below by cs .8) tells us that the bar acts as a wave-guide. Also. and always travel faster than S -waves. the Love stress function L introduced in Section 3. The general solution of (3.3. These give us a homogeneous linear system for the two remaining .3 is especially useful.4 Waves in cylinders and spheres 125 the zeros ξ2.7) satisﬁed by L leads to the ordinary diﬀerential equation d2 1 d + m2 + p 2 dr r dr for f .1. (3. for a cylinder that is ﬁnite in the z -direction. while the phase velocity ω/k is not constant. B .13a) (3. z.4. c2 p m2 s = ω2 − k2 . we must choose C = D = 0 so that f (r) is well-deﬁned as r → 0.n (3.

4. r dr r (3.19) Having found div u.4. (3.14a) 2 mp J1 (mp a) − νm2 s + (1 − ν )mp a J0 (mp a) A + ms (J1 (ms a) − ms a J0 (ms a)) B = 0. we can use (3.4.3. when we recall from (3. (3. namely u(r. z. There is no Love stress function available in this case. Notice that the wave-ﬁeld inevitably involves a combination of P waves and S -waves. (3. where all three displacement components are nonzero. An even more complicated wave motion is that of ﬂexural waves.11) and .126 Linear elastodynamics constants A and B .17) Assuming that f (r) is bounded as r → 0. we must therefore take f (r) = A J1 (mp r).18) (3. (3.15) It follows that div u takes the form div u = f (r) cos θei(kz −ωt) . θ.7.4.4.16) Hence.2) to determine the displacement components.4. namely 2 2 (1 − ν )m2 p − (1 − 2ν )ms − k mp J1 (mp a) A + 2 m2 s − k ms J1 (ms a) B = 0. (3. but we can try a particularly simple θ-dependence of the displacement ﬁeld.1) that ∂2 2 (div u) = 0.4. we have to use (1. To calculate ∇2 u in polar coordinates. where f (r) = 1 d Uθ (rUr ) + ikUz + .14b) These admit nonzero solutions for A and B only if the determinant of the system is zero.3. illustrating the intimate coupling between these waves in practical situations. − c2 p∇ ∂t2 we ﬁnd that f (r) again satisﬁes Bessel’s equation 1 1 f + f + m2 p− 2 r r f = 0. t) = Ur (r) cos θer + Uθ (r) sin θeθ + Uz (r) cos θez ei(kz −ωt) . and this gives us a complicated dispersion relation between ω and k .

4. the er -component of (3. (3.24) Finally.4. (3.2).4. (3.16) and (3.26) . The bounded solution of this inhomogeneous Bessel equation is ikA Uz = − 2 J1 (mp r) + B J1 (ms r).23) to determine Uθ as Uθ = m2 pA r J1 (mp r) − ikBr J1 (ms r) − rUr − Ur .4. grad and curl given in Appendix A7.22) with f given by (3.4. r r2 Ur + (3.4. namely 3 J1 (ms r) Ur + Ur + m2 s Ur = −2ikB r r A 2 2 2 J1 (mp r ) mp (m2 + 2 p − ms ) J0 (mp r ) + (mp + ms ) 2 k + mp r .25) By substituting for Uθ . we ﬁnd that Uz must satisfy 1 1 Uz + Uz + m2 s − 2 r r Uz = c2 p 1− 2 cs ikf.19).3. we ﬁnd that grad div u = f (r) cos θer − f (r) sin θeθ + ikf (r) cos θez r ei(kx−ωt) . 2 k + m2 p (3. Uz and f into this expression.4.4.16) in polar coordinates.4.3. Next we can use (3.1 to obtain ∇2 u = 2 Ur 2Uθ − + k 2 Ur − 2 cos θer 2 r r r U 2 2Ur + Uθ + θ − + k 2 Uθ − 2 sin θeθ r r2 r U 1 + Uz + z − + k 2 Uz cos θez ei(kz −ωt) .20) Similarly. we obtain a single diﬀerential equation for Ur . by taking the grad of (3.23) k + m2 p where B is an arbitrary constant.3.2) implies that rUθ + Uθ + ikr Uz + 1 − 2 2 m2 sr Ur = c2 p c2 s r2 f .21) Just considering the ez -component of (3.4. (3.4 Waves in cylinders and spheres 127 the polar coordinate formulae for div. (3.4.

4.28) Now we can look for waves in a traction-free cylinder r < a by setting τrr = τrθ = τrz = 0 on r = a.4.24) as J1 (ms r) − ms J0 (ms r) . t)er .4.4. we can ﬁnally obtain Uθ from (3. (3. This leads to a system of three homogeneous linear equations for the three constants A. (3. 3. that is u = ur (r. For nontrivial solutions to exist.26) is Ur = ikB J0 (ms r) − J2 (ms r) 2ms mp A J1 (ms r) − J0 (mp r) − J2 (mp r) + C . or ﬂexing. Uθ = k2 J1 (mp r) ikB J1 (ms r) A − 2 +C 2 + mp r ms r 3.29) .4.27) 2 2 2(k + mp ) r where C is a further arbitrary constant.2 Waves in a sphere The simplest waves in a sphere are spherically symmetric with a purely radial displacement. the determinant of the system must be zero as usual and this condition leads to the dispersion relation for ﬂexural waves.4.128 Linear elastodynamics z t=0 2π/5ω 4π/5ω 6π/5ω 8π/5ω Fig. r (3.5 which shows typical waves corresponding to bending.5 Illustration of ﬂexural waves. We illustrate a typical displacement in Figure 3. Since the general bounded solution of (3. of the cylinder propagating in the z -direction. B and C .

29) satisﬁes ∇×u = 0.35) where A and B are two arbitrary constants.4.4. However. which is why (3. r (3. that is ur = ∂φ .33) for some function F (t).36) ω2 c2 p (rf ) = 0.34) Thus the combination (rφ) satisﬁes the standard one-dimensional wave equation.4.32) and integration with respect to r leads to 1 ∂ 2 φ ∂ 2 φ 2 ∂φ = F (t). we deduce that F may be set to zero without any loss of generality.4.4.30) One can easily check that the displacement ﬁeld (3. (3. This in turn implies that we can write u = ∇φ for some potential function φ(r.4.30) takes the form ∂ ∂r 1 ∂ 2 φ ∂ 2 φ 2 ∂φ − 2 − 2 c2 ∂r r ∂r p ∂t = 0.33) yields 2 ∂2 2 ∂ ( rφ ) − c (rφ) = 0. since an arbitrary function of t may be added to φ without aﬀecting the displacement ﬁeld. = + 2 2 c2 ∂t ∂r r ∂r r p (3. t).17) in spherical polar coordinates thus reduces to the scalar equation ur 1 ∂ 2 ur ∂ 2 ur 2 ∂ur −2 2. − 2 − 2 c2 ∂r r ∂r p ∂t (3. ∂r (3. Then a simple rearrangement of (3.11.3.30) describes only P -waves. then (3.4.4 Waves in cylinders and spheres 129 The Navier equation (1. p ∂t2 ∂r2 (3.4.4. t) = f (r)e−iωt .34) becomes d2 (rf ) + dr2 whose general solution is f= A sin(ωr/cp ) + B cos(ωr/cp ) . (3.4. with wave-speed cp . . If we seek normal modes in which φ(r.31) If we do so.4. then (3.4.

3.4. t) = f (r)g (θ)e−iωt . Crucially. with f (r) given by (3.40) By separating the variables in the usual way. (3.11.130 Linear elastodynamics To describe normal modes in a sphere r < a. These involve so-called spherical harmonics. Using (1. where n is a . in which the displacement consists of just a rotation about the z -axis. one can easily deduce that this transcendental equation admits a countably inﬁnite set of real solutions for ω . The Navier equation (1. Using the formula given in Section 1. We will only discuss torsional waves.4.41a) c2 s g + cot θg + κ − cosec2 θ g = 0.11. we ﬁnd that the zero-stress condition on r = a reduces to −1 tan(ωa/cp ) ω 2 a2 = 1− . π . we obtain τrr = (λ + 2µ) ur ∂ur + 2λ = ρe−iωt ∂r r c2 pf + 2 2(c2 p − 2cs ) f r (3. (3.4. then τrr must be zero there.4. If the surface r = a is traction-free. Chapter 12). we ﬁnd that the functions f and g must satisfy ω2 r2 r2 f + 2rf + − κ f = 0.36). one can easily show that this is only possible if uφ is independent of φ.11.41b) where κ is an arbitrary separation constant. θ. More complicated formulae for solutions that are not radially symmetric may be found in Love (1944. (3. which inevitably arise when one attempts to separate the variables in spherical polar coordinates.4.4. the boundedness of φ at r = 0 implies that B = 0. we require uφ to be a 2π -periodic function of θ and to be wellbehaved at θ = 0.37) and.38) ωa/cp 4c2 s By plotting the left. (3. so that u = uφ eφ . We can now use a well-known result from quantum mechanics to assert that this is possible only if κ = n(n + 1).4. (3.and right-hand sides versus ω .17).39) sin2 θ and we seek a separable normal mode in which uφ (r. corresponding to the natural frequencies for radial oscillations of the sphere. and it follows that div u is identically zero and we have pure S -waves.17) reduces to 1 ∂ 2 uφ 1 ∂ = 2 2 2 cs ∂t r ∂r r2 ∂uφ ∂r + r2 1 ∂ sin θ ∂θ sin θ ∂uφ ∂θ − r2 uφ .

4.47c) 2 n +1/2 z π 1 d z dz n sin z z .46) 3(5 − 2z 2 ) sin z (z 2 − 15) cos z + z3 z2 Now.4.4. the relevant solution of (3. the appropriate boundary condition is ∂uφ uφ τrφ = µ − = 0. a (3. z (3 − z 2 ) sin z 3 cos z − z2 z . Fortunately.43) Pn (z ) = n 2 n! dz n and the ﬁrst few cases are g (θ) = A P1 (z ) = z. the Bessel function Jn +1/2 takes a relatively simple form when n is an integer.44) With κ = n(n + 1). (3. These polynomials are deﬁned by 1 dn (z 2 − 1)n . .41b) is d Pn (cos θ) . namely Jn +1/2 (z ) = (−1)n and the ﬁrst few cases are J3/2 (z ) = J5/2 (z ) = J7/2 (z ) = 2 πz 2 πz 2 πz sin z − cos z .4. 2 (3.4.48) ∂r r and the corresponding condition for f is f (a) − † f (a) = 0. (3.42) dθ where A is an arbitrary constant and Pn is the Legendre polynomial of degree n (Gradshteyn & Ryzhik.† In this case. 1994. (3.4.4. (3. .3.4.49) This may be established by writing g (θ ) as a power series in cos θ and then requiring the series to converge as cos θ → ±1.4.47b) (3.4 Waves in cylinders and spheres 131 positive integer.91).4.4.45) r where B is an arbitrary constant. P2 (z ) = 3z 2 − 1 .4. 2 P3 (z ) = 5z 3 − 3z . Section 8. the general solution of (3.47a) (3. (3. (3.41a) that is bounded as r → 0 is B Jn +1/2 (ωr/cs ) √ f (r) = . for a stress-free spherical boundary at r = a.

θ). both of which correspond to frequency-domain solutions that are harmonic in time with a single frequency ω .1) where F and G are arbitrary functions. ∂w = g (x) ∂t at t = 0. Thus there is a doubly inﬁnite set of natural frequencies corresponding to all possible values of m and n.1. x−ct (3.132 Linear elastodynamics By substituting for f from (3.5. (3. (3.1). The simplest example is the one-dimensional wave equation (3. . we have to solve an initial-value problem in the time domain.4. ) (see Exercise 3. say ωn. Typically this will comprise a given initial displacement and velocity and our task will be to determine how the medium subsequently evolves. However.2. . 2. By this we mean that any solution of (3. (3.50) for the natural frequencies ω . For each integer value of n. we can easily evaluate the corresponding F and G to obtain the d’Alembert solution w(x.1 Solutions in the time domain Thus far in this chapter.5. If. we will ignore the eﬀects of boundaries in the medium.5.4. for example.5. and c = T / is again the constant wave-speed. and simplifying.1. in which all frequencies will be excited.3) .5 Initial-value problems 3.4. we have focused on normal modes and monochromatic waves. whose general solution is w(x. To keep the discussion as simple as possible.50) has a countably inﬁnite family of solutions. if we wish to model situations like the plucking of a string or the initiation of elastic waves by an earthquake. and this is readily veriﬁed for all the simple solutions given in Section 3.12.m (m = 1.2) then.5.1). t) = 1 1 f (x − ct) + f (x + ct) + 2 2c x+ ct g (s) ds. as in Exercise 3. t) = F (x − ct) + G(x + ct). . with C = 0. we arrive at the equation (n − 1) Jn +1/2 (ωa/c) = (ωa/c) Jn +3/2 (ωa/c) (3.11). as we would expect for a problem in two spatial dimensions (r.45). 3.1) may be expressed in the form (3. we are given the initial conditions w = f (x).

which is also known as the Riemann function for the one-dimensional wave equation.4) indicates that there is a jump in ∂w/∂t at t = 0.5.5. (3. (3.9.2 Fundamental solutions Suppose we were to force the one-dimensional wave equation (3.6b) .5. even fewer explicit solutions can be found in the time domain using this approach. t) = 2c 0 otherwise.4) ∂t2 ∂x2 where δ is the Dirac delta-function deﬁned in Section 2. in t > 0. there is usually no general solution akin to (3.5.5 Initial-value problems 133 In more than one space dimension. 3.6a) w = R(x.5.5. We have already seen examples of this approach in Section 3. It may conveniently be recast as R(x.5) into the d’Alembert solution (3. w satisﬁes 2 ∂2w 2∂ w − c = δ (x)δ (t). The second possibility is to use singular solutions of the wave equation. In such a situation.5.5. the ﬁrst of which is to try and superimpose normal modes or harmonic waves in such a way as to satisfy the initial conditions. we will see that they demonstrate the key role played by dimensionality in wave propagation.5. ∂t Substitution of (3. However.3.5b) w = 0.9 and w is assumed to be zero for t < 0.2.5. 2c (3.5a) ∂t2 ∂x2 ∂w = δ (x) at t = 0. given the scarcity of elastic wave problems that can be solved explicitly in the frequency domain. (3. and we can therefore restate (3.1) with an impulse at time t = 0 that is localised at x = 0.1. There are two main approaches. Although there are very few geometries for which these fundamental solutions can be constructed explicitly. The right-hand side of (3.5.3) leads to the fundamental solution 1 −ct < x < ct. t) = 1 H(x + ct) − H(x − ct) . (3.4) as the initial-value problem 2 ∂2w 2∂ w − c = 0. analogous to the Green’s functions introduced in Section 2.1) and initial-value problems are consequently much more diﬃcult to solve. which in principle allow us to write down the solutions of initial-value problems.

6 The one-dimensional fundamental solution R(x.5. t) in Figure 3. 0) = 0. while the fundamental solution R(x.5.1). 0) = δ (x). Since formal diﬀerentiation† gives H (s) = δ (s).10) The Riemann function thus plays an analogous rˆ ole to that performed by the Green’s function in elastostatic problems.5. t) ds. t) x t Fig. 2 (3. Notice that the initial disturbance is felt everywhere inside the region |x| < ct. t).134 Linear elastodynamics R(x.5. 1 s > 0.7) is the so-called Heaviside function or step function. if w starts from rest with the initial displacement a localised singularity of the form w(x. where H(s) = 0 s < 0. (3. 3. namely w(x. which is explicitly in the form of (3. On the other hand. but nowhere † for example noting that d(|s|)/ d s = H(s) + 1 and using Exercise 2. t) = ∂ ∂t ∞ ∞ f (s)R(x − s. (3.3) as a superposition of fundamental solutions. ∂t (3.23 .5. t) ds + ∞ −∞ g (s)R(x − s.9) ∂w (x.5. We plot the fundamental solution R(x. t) models a string being struck at a point.6. it follows that w = ∂R/∂t. then we easily ﬁnd that w= 1 δ (x + ct) + δ (x − ct) .8) This solution might represent the behaviour of a string that is plucked at a single point. and we can thus write the general d’Alembert solution (3.

5. the wave equation (3.5. y.5. w = f (x. although the the leading edge of the disturbance at r = ct is sharp.12) w = R(x.12) is plotted in Figure 3. t) is zero outside the cone r2 = c2 t2 .2) can still be solved subject to singular initial data analogous to (3. say a < x < b.3).1) to guide us. we can write the general solution of the two-dimensional wave equation.5. t) versus radial distance r = x2 + y 2 . like the onedimensional fundamental solution. y. Using (3. and ∂R/∂t is nonzero everywhere inside the cone.5. R(r. Now let us consider two-dimensional elastic waves in a membrane or in antiplane strain.5).5. (3.11) w = 0.1. ∂w = g (x. We see that. as in Exercise 3. Nevertheless.13) .1. In this case. t) deﬁned by (3. t) = 2πc c2 t2 − r2 where r2 = x2 + y 2 and H again denotes the Heaviside function.7 The two-dimensional fundamental solution R(x.5 Initial-value problems 135 R(r.2) with ∂w = δ (x)δ (y ) at t = 0. then for all time ∂w/∂t is zero except on the two intervals a − ct < x < b − ct and a + ct < x < b + ct. 3.3.7. and that ∂w/∂t is zero everywhere except on the the lines x = ±ct. As in the one-dimensional case.13. subject to the initial conditions. ∂t is H (ct − r) √ . the retreating edge or “tail” is not. outside. The function R(r. it is straightforward to generalise this observation to arbitrary localised initial data: if f (x) and g (x) are zero outside some interval. t) r t Fig. when there is no general solution like (3. for example by seeking a solution in plane polar coordinates. This reveals that the solution of (3. y ). y ) ∂t at t = 0.5. (3. (3.

15) where now r2 = x2 + y 2 + z 2 . This illustrates that. (3. = ∇ w = + c2 ∂t2 ∂r2 r ∂r (3. t) = δ (r − ct) .4.136 Linear elastodynamics as a linear superposition of fundamental solutions. Remarkably. one can infer that the properties of R noted above also apply to arbitrary localised disturbances.17) This enables us to write the general solution to the three-dimensional initialvalue problem in a form analogous to (3.34) leads to the general solution w(r. and the presence of any boundaries usually makes it impossible to construct a Riemann function. a localised radially-symmetric disturbance propagates outwards with a sharp leading edge and a sharp tail. z. t) dξ dη ∂ ∂t ∞ −∞ ∞ −∞ + f (ξ.16) where F and G are two arbitrary scalar functions.14) From this. 4πcr (3. y. then for all time w is zero outside the cone r = a + ct. we emphasise that these solutions only apply in an inﬁnite medium.5. as typiﬁed by (3.5. In three dimensions. y − η.5.4. namely ∞ ∞ −∞ w(x. . y − η.5. η )R(x − ξ. t) = F (r − ct) + G(r + ct) . However. the smooth tail of R implies that the disturbance persists inside the cone for all time.33). 121). known as the retarded potential solution (Ockendon et al. t) dξ dη. as in one-dimensional waves. Section 211). If the initial data f and g are zero outside some region.. and the transformation in (3. r (3.5. 2003. p. Huygens’ principle states that this happens for radially-symmetric waves in any odd number of space dimensions. y.14). say r < a. the radially-symmetric wave equation takes the form ∂ 2 w 2 ∂w 1 ∂2w 2 . a retarded potential solution can also be written down for the full three-dimensional Navier equation.16) to construct the three-dimensional Riemann function R(x. We can use the general radially-symmetric solution (3.5. but not the two-dimensional case considered above. However. as shown in Love (1944. η )R(x − ξ. t) = −∞ g (ξ.

admit only one wave-speed. For example.19) has normal (k.2. As in (3. ω ) in (x. This is in stark contrast with. although also vectorial. namely the speed of light.3 Characteristics The concept of characteristics for hyperbolic partial diﬀerential equations gives fundamental insight into wave propagation. t0 ).4 shows that (3.5.3. where Maxwell’s equations. t)-space and is hence the envelope of (3. st (3. such a forcing will excite a superposition of plane waves of the form u = aei(k·x−ω (k)t) . for our purposes.18) As k varies.5.1.5. For the unsteady Navier equation. The intersections of the characteristic cone through (x0 .5.5. t)-space through x = x0 .28b). where k · x − ωt = k · x0 − ωt0 .20) (3.5. we can notice that the cone |x − x0 |2 = c2 (t − t0 )2 (3. for example. and geometric intuition suggests that they will envelop a cone whose vertex is at this point (see Exercise 3.19) gener2 2 = 0 and hence the characteristic surface ω 2 − c2 alises to ω 2 − c2 s |k| p |k| through x = y = z = t = 0 is a two-sheeted cone 2 x2 + y 2 + z 2 − c2 pt 2 x2 + y 2 + z 2 − c2 = 0.1). t = t0 . these cones are called the characteristic cones of the system of partial diﬀerential equations. T > t0 are called the wave-fronts of the disturbance originating at (x0 . for the one-dimensional wave equation (3.9 for just two spatial dimensions. and they coincide with the characteristics. t0 .2. it is most convenient to generalise (3.5 Initial-value problems 137 3. t = t0 . For diﬀerent values of x0 . the planes (3.5. (3. this is a family of planes in (x.18) as k varies. (3. The wave-fronts are circles or spheres in two or three dimensions respectively. For higher-dimensional scalar wave equations for which ω (k) = ±ck.14 gives a derivation of this result. Section 3. the three-dimensional scalar wave equation or with electromagnetic waves in isotropic media. . This is illustrated in two dimensions in Figure 3.5.18) are simply x ± ct = x0 ± ct0 . t0 ) with the planes t = T .9) and base our deﬁnition on the solution of the equations that is zero for t < t0 and driven by a localised forcing at x = x0 .5.8 and Exercise 3. There are several ways of thinking about characteristics mathematically but.8).21) as illustrated in Figure 3.14 for an analytical explanation of this fact).5.

In such situations. 3.9 The two-sheeted characteristic cone for the Navier equation. in an overhead cable above the pantograph on an electric train or in an ice sheet underneath a moving vehicle.6 Moving singularities We end this chapter by considering the interesting class of problems in which elastic waves are initiated by a moving source. 3. t 2 x2 + y 2 = c2 st 2 x2 + y 2 = c 2 pt y x Fig.138 Linear elastodynamics x2 + y 2 = c2 t2 t k1 x + k2 y = ωt y x Fig. This can happen.8 The cone x2 + y 2 = c2 t2 tangent to the plane k1 x + k2 y = ωt. we might anticipate . 3. for example.

15 and Figure 3.1b) This problem may be solved. (3. for example. the gradient ∂w/∂x ahead of the force increases as the propagation speed V increases.2) − V 2) which is a single-valued function of x when c > V . The assumption of small slope that underpins the model (3. for V > c. (d) V > c. the only continuous solution w ceases to be single-valued. w= 4T (c2 Pc (c + V )|x − ct| + (c − V )|x + ct| − 2c|x − V t| . no matter . where the speed of sound is c = T / . a dramatic change in behaviour when the source velocity passes through one of the speeds of sound in the material.6. to obtain. becoming inﬁnite as V approaches the speed of sound c. consider the one-dimensional problem of an elastic string on which a point force of magnitude P is imposed at the moving point x = V t.15. As illustrated in Figure 3.10 The response of a string to a point force moving at speed V : (a) V = 0. 2 ∂t ∂x (3.6. δ is the Dirac delta-function. as usual.6. we note that. As a ﬁrst illustration.3. (3.6 Moving singularities 139 w (a) increasing t x (c) w (d) (b) w x w x x Fig. we impose the initial conditions w= ∂w =0 ∂t at t = 0. as in Exercise 3. 3.1a) clearly breaks down when V is close to c and.6. Assuming that the string starts from rest with zero displacement.1a) where.10(d). This situation is modelled by the equation ∂2w ∂2w − T 2 = P δ (x − V t). by changing dependent variables to ξ = x − ct and η = x + ct. In addition. (b) 0 < V < c. as shown in Exercise 3. (c) V = c.10.

6. so the force is moving subsonically.7) . y ) approaches inﬁnity. the solution never settles down to a travelling wave in which w is just a function of x − V t. so the force is moving supersonically.9. eventually invading the whole membrane. an elastic membrane subject to a moving point force is modelled by the equation ς ∂2w − T ∇2 w = P δ (x − V t)δ (y ). we ﬁnd that it must satisfy 1 − M2 where c = P ∂2w ∂2w + = − δ (ξ )δ (y ).. it is analogous to the one-dimensional wave equation (3.5. (3. 2 2 ∂ξ ∂y T (3.6.4) is transformed to Poisson’s equation (see Exercise 3. ξ < 0. 0) is approached.3) If we suppose that w is a function only of ξ = x − V t and y . so that (3.11(a). Had we tried to solve an initial-value problem. 2 2 M −1 M2 − 1 w = 2T M − 1 0. ∂t2 (3. By changing variables again to X = ξ/ 1 − M 2 and y . and w is thus just a multiple of the √ Green’s function. the solution is easily found to be w=− P log 2T 1 − M 2 √ (x − V t)2 + y2 1 − M2 + const. For example. and we can infer the solution directly from (3. it is more diﬃcult to obtain solutions to initial-value problems analogous to (3. (3.6) as ξ ξ √P H y−√ −H y+ √ .1).4) is a hyperbolic partial diﬀerential equation. In two or three space dimensions.6.140 Linear elastodynamics how long we wait.6.6. and that the entire membrane is disturbed by the force.6) Notice that the displacement is singular (as expected) as the point force (V t. as shown schematically in Figure 3. In fact. If M > 1. ξ > 0. as in Section 2.16).5) When M < 1. we would have found that the inﬂuence of the point force spreads out at speed c.6. but it is now sometimes possible to ﬁnd travelling wave solutions.6. (3. then (3.6.4) T /ς and the Mach number is deﬁned by M= V .4) is an elliptic partial diﬀerential equation.4). a feature typical of two-dimensional elliptic problems.6. Indeed the displacement grows in amplitude as (x. c (3.5.

6.6) and supersonic (3. 3. This clearly violates the assumption of small displacements under which the model (3.6. (3.8) solutions both grow without bound as the Mach number approaches unity. Notice that we have made the “causality” assumption that w = 0 ahead of the point force.8) and the inﬂuence of the force is thus conﬁned to a Mach cone.3). as in Figure 3.6. In terms of physical variables. As was the case with (3. A similar wave pattern occurs behind a supersonic aircraft and is responsible for the notorious “sonic boom”. the subsonic (3. This may again be visualised by plotting wave-fronts caused by the moving force.6.6 Moving singularities 141 (a) y increasing t x (b) y x Fig. (3.6.11 Wave-fronts generated by a moving force on an elastic membrane with (a) M < 1.2).3) for an elastic membrane is valid.6. x−Vt Vt−x √ <y< √ . 2 M −1 M2 − 1 otherwise.7) may be written as √ P . To describe the behaviour as M passes through unity it is therefore necessary to incorporate nonlinear eﬀects into (3.3. . it overtakes the wave-fronts generated by itself. whose apex √ angle is tan−1 1/ M 2 − 1 ≡ sin−1 (1/M ). (b) M > 1.6. w = T M2 − 1 0. Since the force moves supersonically.11(b).

which must now satisfy ∇2 − 1 ∂2 2 c2 p ∂t ∇2 − 1 ∂2 2 c2 s ∂t L=− P δ (x − V t)δ (y ). (c) V > cp . (3.6).10) We again seek a travelling wave solution in which L is a function of ξ = x − V t and y . (3.9a) ρ + −µ + = 0.6. 1−ν (3. in which case L must satisfy 2 ) (1 − Mp ∂2 ∂2 + ∂ξ 2 ∂y 2 2 (1 − Ms ) ∂2 ∂2 + ∂ξ 2 ∂y 2 L=− P δ (ξ )δ (y ).6.6.11) where we now deﬁne two Mach numbers Mp = V . .11) is quite complicated mathematically. cp Ms = V .12 P -wave. (b) cs < V < cp . by analogy with Figure 3. which is described by the equations ρ ∂2u − (λ + µ) ∂t2 ∂2v ∂t2 − (λ + µ) ∂2u ∂2v + ∂x2 ∂x∂y ∂2u ∂x∂y ∂2v ∂y 2 −µ ∂2u ∂2u + 2 ∂x2 ∂y ∂2v ∂x2 ∂2v ∂y 2 = P δ (x − V t)δ (y ).11.142 Linear elastodynamics (a) y (b) (c) x Fig.(solid) fronts generated by a point force moving at speed V in plane strain with (a) 0 < V < cs . 1−ν (3.6.(dashed) and S -wave. the qualitative behaviour may be understood by considering the wave-fronts generated by the moving force.9b) These may be conveniently cast in terms of the Love stress function L deﬁned by (3. cs (3.6. 3.3. Now let us apply the same ideas to plane strain driven by a moving point force in the x-direction.12) Although the solution of (3.6.

Exercises 3.9. as shown in Figure 3. which therefore propagate to inﬁnity. can one hear the shape of a drum? . refraction and diﬀraction.7 Concluding remarks The ideas expounded in this chapter describe the fundamentals of many models that are regularly used to simulate elastic waves in situations ranging from tomography to oil exploration.2. show The answer is now known to be no. all waves propagate out to inﬁnity. Many of the problems analysed in this chapter are simpliﬁed signiﬁcantly if we consider incompressible materials (cf Section 1. and wave propagation through inhomogeneous media. in which cp → ∞ and div u = 0.11) is of mixed hyperbolic-elliptic type. If Ms > Mp > 1. There are many other fascinating and practically important problems in the theory of elastic waves that fall beyond the scope of this chapter.12(b).1 † Let a mass m be attached to a string with line density and tension T . In this transonic case.8). Using the boundary conditions (3. Notice the analogy with the twosheeted characteristic cone shown in Figure 3. These include ﬁnite-amplitude waves.11) is an elliptic equation similar to the biharmonic equation. so that A = 0 in (3. to be discussed in Chapter 5. can we determine its boundary?† The main complication that arises when considering the Navier equation as opposed to the scalar wave equation is the existence of two distinct wavespeeds cp and cs . it is often the parameters λ and µ (which will usually be functions of position) that have to be determined from the response of a material to elastic waves. . in other words. to which we will return brieﬂy in Chapter 9. which are thus conﬁned to a Mach cone. and hence they are called inverse problems. as illustrated in Figure 3. and (3. but supersonic with respect to S waves. if we know all the natural frequencies of a membrane.29) at this point.Exercises 143 If Mp < Ms < 1. ﬁrst posed by Kac (1966). (3.34) and only S -waves propagate at ﬁnite speed.2.6.12(a). non-destructive testing of solid structures is frequently carried out by examining elastic wave reﬂection.6. then the motion is subsonic with respect to P -waves. In particular. If Mp < 1 < Ms . 3. In these studies. so both P -waves and S -waves are conﬁned to Mach cones. A classic example is the question. then the motion is subsonic with respect to both P and S -waves. then the motion is entirely supersonic. In this case.

Show that du dR 2 = 1. 3. for any vector a and nonzero vector k.144 Linear elastodynamics that the reﬂection and transmission coeﬃcients for an incoming wave ei(kx−ωt) are cR = 3. where 0 < ε 1.5 Show that.3 Consider a wave with unit amplitude travelling in the positive xdirection on a string under tension T . sin α . and 2 A0 ∂A0 + = 0. The Helmholtz equation in plane polar coordinates is 1 ∂2A ∂ 2 A 1 ∂A + + + k 2 A = 0. show that this jump in density transmits a wave with amplitude cT = 2/ 1 + − / + and reﬂects a wave with amplitude cR = cT − 1. From continuity of the displacement and the force at x = 0. 1 − imk/2 3.] Suppose that an elastic medium occupies the half-space x < 0 and that the face x = 0 is held ﬁxed.2 imk/2 . [Hint: calculate a · k and a×k. 1 − imk/2 cT = 1 . ∂r2 r ∂r r2 ∂θ2 To study the far ﬁeld scattered from a localised obstacle. there exists a unique vector B and scalar A such that a = Ak + B ×k and k · B = 0. A plane S -wave is incident from x → −∞ with uinc = sin β exp{iks (x cos β + y sin β ) − iωt}.4 as r → ∞. ∂R R and deduce that outward-propagating waves take the form A ∼ A+ (θ)r−1/2 eikr 3. and use the ansatz A ∼ A0 eiku (R )/ε . − cos β where ks = ω/cs . write r = R/ε. whose density changes from − to + at x = 0. Show that the reﬂected wave takes the form uref = rs +rp sin β exp{iks (−x cos β + y sin β ) − iωt} cos β − cos α exp{ikp (−x cos α + y sin α) − iωt}. where A0 and u are independent of ε.

α = cs1 /cs2 . (cos α+ .2. (3. (− cos α− . sin α− ) and (cos β+ . cp cs Show also that the reﬂection coeﬃcients are given by rs = cos(β + α) . generates reﬂected and transmitted S . sin β− ).Exercises 145 where kp = ω/cp and the reﬂection angle α of the P -wave satisﬁes sin β sin α = .2. µ− in x < 0 and λ+ . show that sin α− sin β− sin α+ sin β+ = = = . cos(β − α) 3. sin β+ ). Derive the jump conditions µ ∂u ∂v + ∂y ∂x + = 2µ − ∂u +λ ∂x ∂u ∂v + ∂x ∂y + =0 − to be satisﬁed across x = 0. . sin β− ). c2 s2 3.7 2 Write s = h ω 2 /c2 s1 − k .2. β = µ1 /µ2 to obtain the parametric representation α s hω =√ s 1 + β 2 tan2 s. kh = 2 cs 2 1−α α2 + β 2 tan2 s √ . (b) Show that antisymmetric Love waves satisfy the condition (3.52).58) and deduce that their dispersion relation is given parametrically by (E3.2. If an incident S -wave as in Exercise 3.57) that the dispersion relation for symmetric Love waves is given implicitly by µ1 ω2 − k 2 tan h c2 s1 ω2 − k2 c2 s1 = µ2 k2 − ω2 .1) with tan s replaced by cot s and (n − 1/2)π s < nπ . cp − cs − cp + cs + How does the number of transmitted waves vary as β− increases from zero? (a) Show from (3. 1 − α2 (E3.and P -waves with wave-vectors (− cos β− .5.6 What happens when β > sin−1 (cs /cp )? Suppose that the face x = 0 separates elastic media characterised by Lam´ e constants λ− .1) where nπ s < (n + 1/2)π and n is an integer. cos(β − α) rp = sin(2β ) . with wave-vector (cos β− . sin α+ ) respectively.55) and (3. µ+ in x > 0.

(d) The group velocity cg of linear waves with dispersion relation ω = ω (k ) is deﬁned by dω .] Show that up = ap (k. derive the dispersion relation (3. 3.s are unknown. Deduce that. Using the deﬁnitions of κp. Show also that the boundary conditions (3. 2002.4.61) lead to 2kκp ap + (k 2 + κ2 s )as = 0.1) to ﬁnd cg as a function of s for Love waves.13 Group velocity cg = dω/dk versus wave-number k for symmetric (solid) and antisymmetric (dotted) modes of Love waves. and hence plot cg versus k .2. as shown in Figure 3.146 Linear elastodynamics cs2 cg cs1 k Fig. the group velocity is bounded above by cs2 but attains a local minimum before tending to cs1 as k → ∞. 3. where the amplitudes ap.s . −ik )T for plane P waves and S -waves of the form (3. (c) Hence reproduce the dispersion graphs shown in Figure 3. −iκp )T and us = as (κs . [This minimum in the group velocity allows an obstruction in a coal seam to be detected by studying the travel times of reﬂected waves (see Tayler. .2. dk Use (E3. Chapter 2).8 and deduce that nonzero amplitudes exist only if the determinant 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 k 4 (c2 p − 2cs ) + k 2cs (2κp − κs )κs + cp (κs − κp ) − cp κp κs vanishes.62).2.65) for Rayleigh waves. Show graphically that there is only one real solution to this equation for the propagation speed c.13. cg (k ) = 2 2 2 2 2 c2 p (κp − k ) + 2cs k ap + 2cs kκs as = 0.

∼ (m + 1/2)π − mπ 8 + ··· . t) and φ(x.50) for torsional waves in a sphere reduces to tan η 3 = η 3 − η2 tan η 12 − η 2 = η 12 − 5η 2 tan η 75 − 8η 2 = η 75 − 33η 2 + η 4 when n = 1.10 ∂2 2 − c2 p∇ ∂t2 ∂2 2 U = 0.Exercises 147 3. y.9 In dynamic plane strain. t). suppose that the stress components are given by τxx = 1 ∂2φ ∂2U 1 ∂2U ∂2U + − . xy 2 2 ∂y 2 2c2 ∂x∂y 2c2 s ∂t s ∂t ∂2U 1 ∂2U τyy = − . 3 + ··· . mπ 5 + ··· . ∼ mπ − mπ . Gs are arbitrary scalar functions. By sketching the left.m in each case. 2 ∂x2 2c2 s ∂t for two functions U(x. 3. Show that the dispersion relation (3. Fs . τ = − . where η = ωa/cs . − c2 s∇ ∂t2 Show that the general solution of the scalar wave equation 2 ∂2 2 ∂ − c p ∂t2 ∂x2 2 ∂2 2 ∂ − c s ∂t2 ∂x2 U=0 is U = Fp (x − cp t) + Gp (x + cp t) + Fs (x − cs t) + Gs (x + cs t) .m as m → ∞. By letting η → ∞.4.11 where Fp . show that there is a countably inﬁnite set of solutions ηn. when n = 3. Deduce from the twodimensional Navier equation and constitutive relations that U and φ may be chosen to satisfy ∂2 2 φ= − c2 s∇ ∂t2 3. Gp .m η3. deduce that the highest modes are given approximately by η1.and right-hand sides as functions of η . y. when n = 2.m ∼ mπ − η2.

Show that it is equivalent to the envelope of the planes w = 0. y.2) (b) Assuming that f is well-deﬁned as η → 0.1) can be written as ∂2w = 0. r > ct. [The envelope of a one-parameter family of surfaces F (x. t) = 2πc c t2 − r2 0. (a) Show that the axially symmetric wave equation 1 ∂2w ∂ 2 w 1 ∂w 2 = ∇ w = + c2 ∂t2 ∂r2 r ∂r admits similarity solutions of the form r 1 w(r.1). where A is an arbitrary constant. 0 r < ct. 0 η < c.18) subject to the dispersion relation (3.] 3. the onedimensional wave equation (3.148 Linear elastodynamics 3.19).2) is deﬁned to be the envelope of the planes (3.5.12 3. t.2) subject to ∂w = δ (x)δ (y ) at t = 0. show that f (η ) = A c2 − η2 . after a suitable change of independent variables.13 Show that.14 . ∂η∂ξ Hence obtain the d’Alembert solution (3.1. (x − x0 ) cos θ + (y − y0 ) sin θ = c(t − t0 ) over all values of θ.5. and deduce that this is the characteristic cone (x − x0 )2 + (y − y0 )2 = c2 (t − t0 )2 . ∂t The characteristic surface through the origin for the two-dimensional wave equation (3. (E3.1. 2 w(r. satisﬁes (E3. t t where f (η ) satisﬁes d dη η c2 − η 2 df − η2 f dη = 0. (c) Show that ct r dr √ = ct 2 c t2 − r 2 0 and deduce that 1 √ .5. t) = f . θ) may be found from the simultaneous equations F = ∂F/∂θ = 0.

dz 2 deduce that the general solution of (E3. When V > c.6.6. 4T (c2 − V 2 ) (E3. the one-dimensional wave equation (3..7a). from (2. in terms of X = ξ/ 1 − M 2 and y .5. write x − V t = X and show that (3.3) where F and G are arbitrary functions. δ (ax) ≡ |a| where δ √is the Dirac delta-function.9.16 Deduce that ∂w/∂X suﬀers a jump of P c2 /T (V 2 − c2 ) across x = V t and hence obtain (3. − 2 V = ∂X 2 ∂X∂t ∂t2 T 3.20). Transform back to (x.18).Exercises 149 In higher dimensions.15 on the envelope of (3.5. Show that. d2 |z | = 2δ (z ). 2T 1 − M 2 .2) when c>V.1a) becomes V 2 − c2 ∂2w ∂2w P c2 ∂2w + δ (X ).4) reads ∂2w ∂2w P + =− √ δ (X )δ (y ) 2 2 ∂X ∂y T 1 − M2 and deduce that w=− P log X 2 + y 2 √ + const. ∂ξ∂η 2T (c + V ) c+V Using the fact that.3) is w= Pc (c + V )ξ + (c − V )η + F (ξ ) + G(η ).6.6. Hence show that.2). show that xi − x0i = cki (t − t0 ) |k | 3. Prove the identity 1 δ (x). (3. t) and apply the initial conditions to obtain the solution (3. and deduce (3.6.1a) subject to a moving point source is transformed to Pc c−V ∂2w = δ ξ+ η . in terms of the variables ξ = x − ct and η = x + ct.

a shell is a thin. is a nearly one-dimensional solid that can be subject to either tension or compression. A string is characterised by its inability to withstand any appreciable shear stress. In this chapter. for example a pane of glass or a stiﬀ piece of paper.1 Introduction So far in this book we have been considering linear elasticity only for very simple geometries such as cylinders. a membrane is a thin. which clearly resists bending while deforming transversely in two dimensions. Finally. we will consider more general solids under the restriction that they are thin and the equations of elasticity can consequently be simpliﬁed. such as a curtain rod or a strand of hair. that it is diﬃcult to enunciate 150 . However. so its only internal force is a tension acting in the tangential direction.4 Approximate theories 4. nearly two-dimensional elastic body which is not initially planar. Similarly. we will show how models for all these structures can be derived using net force and moment balances combined with plausible constitutive relations. A thin. On the other hand. In this chapter. spheres and half-spaces. nearly two-dimensional structure. and is known as a beam. will be referred to as a rod. for example a ping-pong ball or the curved panel of a car. many thin elastic bodies also have an appreciable bending stiﬀness and therefore admit internal shear stress as well as tension. which supports only in-plane tensions. A familiar example is a ﬂexible ruler. such as the skin of a drum. on the other hand. however. A familiar example that we have already encountered is the wave equation governing the transverse displacements of a thin elastic string. A bar. We will soon ﬁnd. and we will revisit this model below in Section 4. a nearly planar elastic structure with signiﬁcant bending stiﬀness.3. is called a plate. nearly one-dimensional object which can bend in both transverse directions.

as illustrated in Figure 4. when the displacements are large but the strain is small. t) x Fig. Denoting the longitudinal displacement by u(x. The mass of this segment is ρAδx. we will ﬁnd that the physically-based approach also allows us to look at the eﬀect of geometric nonlinearity.2. we now need a constitutive relation between T and u.1. t). let us consider longitudinal waves propagating along a thin bar with uniform cross-section area A. 4. as explained in Section 1. we can think of x as an Eulerian or Lagrangian coordinate since.2 Longitudinal displacement of a bar As a ﬁrst illustrative example. and the dominant force it experiences consists of the tensions T exerted on each of its faces by the sections of the bar on either side.4. we might expect T to be proportional to the stretch .7.2) To close the problem. Here we will focus initially on small displacements and hence obtain linear governing equations. they are indistinguishable in linear elasticity. this reduces to the partial diﬀerential equation ∂2u ∂T = ρA 2 .2. t) T (x + δx. However.1) T (x + δx. On physical grounds. ∂t In the limit δx → 0. t) − T (x. We consider a short segment of the bar between some arbitrary point x and x + δx. and it will be deferred to Chapter 6. ∂x ∂t (4. t). we thus obtain Newton’s second law in the form ∂2u (4. To do this requires a more systematic asymptotic analysis. The nonlinear models that result exhibit interesting non-uniqueness properties that help us to understand important physical phenomena such as buckling. where ρ is the volume density of the bar. where x measures longitudinal distance along the bar. all the physical assumptions that are needed.2 Longitudinal displacement of a bar 151 δx T (x. 4.1 The forces acting on a small length δx of a uniform bar. t) = ρAδx 2 (x.

Intuitively. speciﬁcally if |u| ever. Assuming that gravity g acts transversely to the string.2.2. Typical boundary conditions are that u or the axial force EA∂u/∂x should be prescribed at each end of the bar and. although its derivation in Section 2. we postulate the constitutive relation ∂u .4) to be a good approximate model √ when the bar is thin and the displacement is A L. by analogy with Hooke’s law. where L is the length of the bar. We will show in Chapter 6 how such models can be derived from the underlying continuum equations in a more rigorous manner that allows the accuracy to be carefully estimated. we expect (4. reﬂecting the fact that solutions of (4.152 Approximate theories ∂u/∂x. (4.2. t) satisﬁes the wave equation T = EA E ∂2u ∂2u = ρ .2.4) are not exact solutions of the Navier equations. We should point out that various implicit assumptions underly the derivation given above. we ﬁnd that u(x. and that the constitutive relation (4.2. the net force experienced by a small segment of undisturbed length δx is T where cos θ sin θ x+ δx + x 0 δx.2). these waves travel slower than the longitudinal P-waves of Section 3.4) which says that longitudinal waves in the bar travel with speed E/ρ.2. . 4. that the longitudinal displacement u is uniform in each cross-section of the bar.2. Neither of these assumptions is exactly true in practice. Motivated by the exact static solution obtained in Section 2. We have assumed.3) holds. this simple example illustrates the diﬃculty of assessing the validity of such an ad hoc model. ∂x2 ∂t2 (4. as illustrated in Figure 4.3 Transverse displacements of a string Before deriving a model for the transverse displacements of a beam.2. Howsmall.3 was performed only under static conditions. let us remind ourselves brieﬂy of the corresponding derivation for an elastic string. Since E < λ + 2µ.2.3) ∂x where E again denotes Young’s modulus. u and ∂u/∂t need to be given at t = 0. of course.3.3) into (4.2. which is characterised by the fact that the only internal force that it can support is a tension T acting in the tangential direction.4. for example. By substituting (4. − g denotes the line density.2.

4.4 Transverse displacements of a beam

153

T (x + δx, t) θ T (x, t) w g

x δx

Fig. 4.2 The forces acting on a small length δx of an elastic string.

Under the assumption that the transverse displacement w(x, t) is small compared to the length of the string, we can approximate the angle θ between the string and the x-axis by θ ∼ ∂w/∂x 1 and hence use the leading-order approximations ∂w , cos θ ∼ 1. (4.3.1) sin θ ∼ ∂x At the same time, we suppose that there is no longitudinal displacement so that the acceleration is just ∂ 2 w/∂t2 in the vertical direction. By applying Newton’s second law to the segment and letting δx → 0, we thus obtain the equations ∂2w ∂2w ∂T = 0, T 2 − g= . (4.3.2) ∂x ∂x ∂t2 Hence we ﬁnd again that the displacement satisﬁes the wave equation and that the tension T must be spatially uniform. Usually T is assumed to be a known constant although, in principle, it may be a function of time, for example while a guitar string is being tuned. Common experience suggests that a string is unable to withstand a compressive longitudinal force and hence that T should be positive. We can make the same observation on mathematical grounds by noting that (4.3.2b) would change type from hyperbolic to elliptic if T were negative, and hence cease to be well-posed as an initial-value problem (Ockendon et al., 2003, p. 41). 4.4 Transverse displacements of a beam 4.4.1 Derivation of the beam equation Now let us consider how to extend the model derived above to describe an elastic beam. In contrast with a string, a beam can support an appreciable transverse shear force N as well as the tension T , as illustrated in Figure 4.3;

154

Approximate theories

N (x + δx, t) T (x + δx, t) M (x, t) M (x + δx, t) T (x, t) N (x, t) g

Fig. 4.3 The forces and moments acting on a small segment of an elastic beam.

for convenience N is deﬁned to act perpendicular to the x-axis. Again considering small, purely transverse displacements, we obtain the equations ∂ 2 w ∂N ∂2w ∂T = 0, T 2 + − g= . (4.4.1) ∂x ∂x ∂x ∂t2 Now our task is to relate N to w, and we start by performing a moment balance on the segment shown in Figure 4.3. When doing so, we recall the suggestion from Section 2.6.7 that each section of the beam exerts on its neighbours a bending moment M about the y -axis, as well as the tangential and normal force components T and N . Conservation of angular momentum about the point x leads to the equation −M (x + δx, t) + M (x, t) + δxN (x + δx, t) = g

2 δx2 ˆ∂ θ , +I 2 ∂t2

(4.4.2)

where θ ≈ ∂w/∂x is once again the small slope of the beam and the moment ˆ = (δx)3 /3. When we let of inertia of the segment about its end is given by I δx → 0, the right-hand side of (4.4.2) is thus negligible and we are left with ∂M + N = 0. (4.4.3) ∂x Finally, we need a constitutive relation for M . It is a practical experience, for example when bending a ﬂexible ruler, that applying an increasing moment to a beam results in an increasing curvature. For small displacements, this suggests a constitutive relation of the form − M = −B ∂2w , ∂x2 (4.4.4)

where B is a constant known as the bending stiﬀness. We note that (4.4.3) and (4.4.4) are consistent with the semi-inﬁnite strip results (2.6.70) and (2.6.73) respectively.

4.4 Transverse displacements of a beam

155

(a) x

(b) x

(c) x

Fig. 4.4 The end of a beam under (a) clamped, (b) simply supported and (c) free conditions.

As in (4.2.3), we can use a simple exact solution of the Navier equations from Chapter 2 to derive an equation for B . In this case we consider the plane stress solution (2.8.30) in which the displacement ﬁeld and the only nonzero stress component are −2xz u κ , (4.4.5) u = v = τxx = −κEz. 2νyz 2 2 2 2 x − νy + νz w We identify the transverse displacement of the beam with κx2 /2, neglecting the small νy 2 and νz 2 on account of the slenderness of the beam. The net moment generated by this stress ﬁeld on the cross-section A is given by M=

A

zτxx dy dz = −Eκ

A

z 2 dy dz,

(4.4.6)

**which corresponds to (4.4.4) with B = EI, where I=
**

A

z 2 dy dz

(4.4.7)

is the moment of inertia of the cross-section A about the y -axis. Postulating that the constitutive relation (4.4.4) still holds under dynamic conditions, we combine (4.4.1)–(4.4.7), to obtain the beam equation −EI ∂2w ∂2w ∂4w + T − g = . ∂x4 ∂x2 ∂t2 (4.4.8)

Evidently, (4.4.8) reduces to (4.3.2) as the bending stiﬀness EI tends to zero. Unlike the wave equation, though, (4.4.8) is not immediately classiﬁable as elliptic or hyperbolic.†

†

It is interesting to note that the real and imaginary parts of the solution ψ of the Schr¨ odinger equation i satisfy (4.4.8) with T = g = 0, / 2 m = ∂2 ψ ∂ψ =− ∂t 2 m ∂x2 EI/ .

156

Approximate theories

4.4.2 Boundary conditions On physical grounds we expect to need to specify w and ∂w/∂t at t = 0, as for a string. However, since (4.4.8) has four x-derivatives rather than two, we might anticipate that it requires two boundary conditions at each end of the beam, in contrast with a string. If, for example, a beam is clamped as shown in Figure 4.4(a), then both w and ∂w/∂x would be prescribed at the clamp; in the case illustrated ∂w w= = 0. (4.4.9) ∂x Alternatively, we could envisage a simply supported beam end, as shown in Figure 4.4(b), where the displacement is ﬁxed without applying any moment, so that w = M = 0 and thus ∂2w = 0. (4.4.10) w= ∂x2 In the ﬁnal example shown in Figure 4.4(c), the end of the beam is free. It therefore experiences no shear force or bending moment, and from (4.4.3) and (4.4.4) we deduce the boundary conditions ∂3w ∂2w = = 0, (4.4.11) ∂x2 ∂x3 and in this case we must also have T ≡ 0. If we specify distributed tractions on the end of a beam, then the only information about them required for our model is the net force and moment that they exert. Speciﬁcally, if the longitudinal and tangential stress components applied to the section x = 0 are σx (y, z ) and σz (y, z ) respectively, then the boundary conditions to be imposed on the beam equation are T =

A

σx (y, z ) dy dz, zσx (y, z ) dy dz.

A

N=

A

σz (y, z ) dy dz, (4.4.12)

M=

Here we are eﬀectively invoking Saint-Venant’s principle: all details of the edge tractions apart from the three numbers T , N and M are lost outside a neighbourhood of the edge where they are applied. We showed in Section 2.6.7 that this is true in plane strain, and here we assume that it applies more generally. 4.4.3 Compression of a beam One of the most dramatic new features of (4.4.8) compared with (4.3.2) is that we can now consider situations in which T < 0. We illustrate an

**4.4 Transverse displacements of a beam
**

w

1

157

n=3

n=1

w

1

n=2

w

1

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.2

-0.5

0.4

0.6

0.8

1

x

-0.5

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1

x

-0.5

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1

x

-1

-1

-1

Fig. 4.5 The ﬁrst three buckling modes of a clamped elastic beam (with a = 1 and L = 1).

unexpected new possibility that arises in such cases by considering steady displacements of a beam of length L subject to negligible gravity. We suppose that the ends are clamped and subject to a compressive force P = −T and zero transverse force. In this case (4.4.8) reduces to the ordinary diﬀerential equation EI d4 w d2 w + P = 0, dx4 dx2 (4.4.13a)

subject to the boundary conditions d3 w dw = =0 dx dx3 at x = 0, L. (4.4.13b)

We can consider (4.4.13) as an eigenvalue problem. One possibility is always that the beam remains straight with w ≡ const. but, if the applied force takes one of the discrete values n2 π 2 P = , EI L2 (4.4.14)

where n is an integer, then (4.4.13) admits the eigenfunction solution w = A cos nπx , L (4.4.15)

where A is a constant. The ﬁrst three such eigenfunctions are shown in Figure 4.5; these are the shapes that a beam can adopt as it buckles under a suﬃciently large compressive force. The amplitude A appears to be indeterminate, although we might expect it to be a smoothly increasing function of the applied force. This is a deﬁciency of the model that will be addressed in Section 4.9.

158

Approximate theories

4.4.4 Waves on a beam Concerning the dynamic equation (4.4.8) with g = 0 and adopting the philosophy of Section 3.2.2, we can seek travelling-wave solutions of the form u = A exp i(kx − ωt) , (4.4.16)

where the real part is assumed as usual, and hence obtain the dispersion relation ω 2 = EIk 4 + T k 2 . (4.4.17)

Elastic waves on a beam are therefore dispersive, unlike P -waves, S -waves or waves on a string. This should not come as too much of a surprise, since we have already discovered in Chapter 3 that elastic waves are usually dispersive in bounded domains. For a beam under positive tension T > 0, waves with frequency ω can thus propagate with wave-length 2π/k provided ω = k T 1+ EIk 2 T

1/2

.

(4.4.18)

Evidently this reduces to the dispersion relation for a string if the waves are long, with k T /EI . However, the bending stiﬀness becomes increasingly important, and the waves become increasingly dispersive, as the wave-length decreases. This observation can be used to explain, for example, why the harmonics of a piano string with small but nonzero bending stiﬀness are slightly sharp compared with the fundamental (see Exercise 4.1). For a beam under compression, with P = −T > 0, wave-like solutions of (4.4.8) exist only if k 2 > P/EI . For smaller values of k , (4.4.17) leads to complex values of ω , corresponding to solutions that grow exponentially in time. It follows that the beam is unstable to waves with wave-length greater than 2π EI/P , and we will investigate this further in Section 4.9.3.

4.5 Linear rod theory We next consider the motion of a nearly straight uniform elastic rod that can bend in two transverse directions, so that the displacement is T w(x, t) = v (x, t), w(x, t) . Now, in addition to the tension T , there are two shear force components Ny and Nz in the y - and z -directions respectively, as illustrated in Figure 4.6. By applying Newton’s second law and assuming small displacements as above, we again ﬁnd that T is spatially

4.5 Linear rod theory

159

z y

Nz Ny T x

Fig. 4.6 The internal force components T , Ny and Nz in a thin elastic rod.

z Mz

y My

Mx

x

Fig. 4.7 Cross-section through a rod showing the bending moment components.

**uniform and obtain the following generalisation of (4.4.8): T
**

T

∂2w ∂2w ∂N + , + f = ∂x2 ∂x ∂t2

(4.5.1)

where N = Ny , Nz and f is the body force per unit length. In general we must now allow for three components of the bending moment M = (Mx , My , Mz )T . As shown in Figure 4.7, My is the moment about the y -axis previously referred to simply as M in Section 4.4, while Mz represents bending in the (x, y )-plane. We will begin by neglecting the ﬁrst component Mx , which corresponds to twisting of the rod about its axis. A balance of moments in the y - and z -directions analogous to (4.4.3) then leads to ∂My − Nz = 0, ∂x ∂Mz + Ny = 0. ∂x (4.5.2)

Finally, we need to generalise the constitutive relation (4.4.4), and we will again use the plane stress solution (4.4.5) as a guide. By combining (4.4.5) with an analogous expression representing bending in the y -direction, we

160

Approximate theories

obtain the following exact solution of the Navier equations: −2xz −2xy κz + κy x2 + νy 2 − νz 2 , u= 2νyz 2 2 2νyz x2 − νy 2 + νz 2 τxx = −κz Ez − κy Ey.

(4.5.3a) (4.5.3b)

The two constants κy and κz represent bending in the (x, y )-plane and the (x, z )-plane respectively. The moments about the y - and z -axes generated over the cross-section A by this stress ﬁeld are given by My =

A

zτxx dy dz,

Mz = −

A

yτxx dy dz.

(4.5.4)

By substituting (4.5.3) into (4.5.4) we obtain the relations Mz −My where the “inertia tensor” I= Iyy Iyz Iyz Izz =

A

= EI

∂2w , ∂x2 y 2 yz yz z 2

(4.5.5)

dy dz

(4.5.6)

characterises the bending stiﬀness in each direction. Hence the generalisation of (4.4.8) is the coupled system ∂4w ∂2w ∂2w − E I + f = . (4.5.7) ∂x2 ∂x4 ∂t2 Note that we can choose the y - and z -axes such that the symmetric positive deﬁnite matrix I is diagonal; these correspond to the directions in which the resistance to bending is maximised and minimised. It follows that the y - and z -components of (4.5.7) are simply two decoupled beam equations for v and w; note, though, that this decoupling does not occur if the rod cross-section is non-uniform in x. By analogy with (4.4.8), we therefore expect to have to impose initial conditions on w and ∂ w/∂t as well as two boundary conditions each on v and w at either end of the rod. The conditions corresponding to clamped, simply supported and free ends are obvious generalisations of (4.4.9), (4.4.10) and (4.4.11). Examples of values of Iyy and Izz for various cross-section shapes with respect to principal axes are given in Figure 4.8. These are crucial pieces of information to bear in mind when designing beams or rods in practice. By considering (4.5.4), we observe that Iyy measures resistance to bending about the z -axis, while Izz represents resistance to bending about the y -axis. For example, if one considers the bending of a long strip of paper with T

4.5 Linear rod theory

161

(b) (a) a b (c) Iyy = ab3 /12 Iyy = Izz = πab(a2 + 4b2 )/4 Izz Iyy < Izz Izz = a3 b/12 a b

Fig. 4.8 Examples of cross-sections in the (y, z )-plane and their bending stiﬀnesses.

transverse dimensions a and b in the z - and y -directions respectively, where Iyy . This explains b a, it is then easy to see as in Figure 4.8(a) that Izz why it is so much easier to bend such a strip about the y -axis than about the z -axis. On the other hand, if we roll the same paper strip into a long cylinder, it will become become much stiﬀer in all bending directions as illustrated in Figure 4.8(b). This situation can be seen as a limiting case of a cylindrical shell, and it gives us a hint as to why curved shells are generally much stiﬀer than ﬂat rods or plates. Meanwhile, the “I-beam” in Figure 4.8(c) strongly resists bending about the y -axis. Proceeding along the same lines as for longitudinal waves, we now consider torsion, i.e. twisting a rod about its longitudinal axis. As illustrated in Figure 4.7, we denote by Mx the moment about the x-axis exerted on each cross-section through the rod. By balancing the net torque with the rate of change of angular momentum of a small segment of length δx and then letting δx tend to zero, we obtain ∂Mx ∂2θ = (Iyy + Izz ) 2 , ∂x ∂t (4.5.8)

where θ(x, t) denotes the angle of twist about the x-axis. Now we refer to the exact steady solution of Section 2.4 to motivate the constitutive relation ∂θ (4.5.9) Mx = R ∂x

10) 2 2 and hence that the wave speed is equal to cs .9.6. then Newton’s second law gives ∂Txy ∂Txx + = 0. † For consistency with the notation of this chapter.6 Linear plate theory 4. we discover that Tyx ≡ Txy .2) − ςg = ς ∂2w . By balancing moments around the z -axis.4. This reproduces the wave speed of the ﬁrst family of torsional waves found in Section 3. with wave speed R/ρ (Iyy + Izz ). so that T is symmetric. x should be substituted for z in the results of Section 2.6.6.3) ∂t2 where ς is now the mass of the plate per unit area.8) with n = 0 and ξ2.6.4. (4.5.162 Approximate theories between the torque and the twisting gradient.4. ∂x ∂y and ∂ ∂x Nx + Txx ∂w ∂w + Txy ∂x ∂y ∂ ∂w ∂w + Ny + Txy + Tyy ∂y ∂x ∂y ∂Txy ∂Tyy + =0 ∂x ∂y (4. Iyy + Izz = 4. We also denote the transverse shear force on a section with normal in the j -direction by Nj . Tyx Tyy (4. y.1) where Tij is the i-component of the force per unit length on a section of the plate with outward normal in the j -direction.0 = 0: the theory presented here assumes each section deforms uniformly and thus fails to discern the higher modes. it is easy to show that πa4 µ πa4 .1 Derivation of the plate equation Now we derive the equation governing the small transverse displacement w(x. as in Section 1.5. The forces acting on a small rectangular section of the plate are illustrated in Figure 4. We describe the in-plane forces using a two-dimensional stress tensor T = Txx Txy .† We thus ﬁnd that θ satisﬁes the wave equation. (3. where R again denotes the torsional rigidity. .and y -directions and that the only body force is gravity acting in the negative z -direction. If we assume that there is no acceleration in the x. t) of an elastic plate that is bent out of the plane z = 0. R= (4. For the simple case of a circular cross-section.1. that is.

Again we can use exact plane stress solutions to evaluate the appropriate coeﬃcients. By balancing moments on the segment shown in Figure 4.10.6. y ) to denote the i-component of the moment per unit length acting on a section with outward normal in the j -direction. we obtain the relations ∂Mxy ∂Mxx + + Ny = 0. 4. we expect to be linear functions of the second derivatives of w.5) . Nx Tyx Nx δx Txx Considering the bending moments.9 The forces acting on a small section of an elastic plate. ∂x ∂y (4.4. We note that Mij is not in general symmetric. we can construct a solution with displacement ﬁeld −2(ax + by )z 1 u= −2(bx + cy )z 2 2 2 2 ax + 2bxy + cy + ν (a + c)z /(1 − ν ) (4. although it is a two-dimensional tensor. as will shortly become apparent. In this case. j = x.4.8. as illustrated schematically in Figure 4.28).10.6 Linear plate theory 163 Ny Tyy Txy Txx δy Tyx z y Txy x Tyy Ny Fig.6. by analogy with Section 4.4) Next we seek constitutive equations for the bending moments which. ∂x ∂y ∂Myy ∂Myx + − Nx = 0. we use an analogous notation Mij (i. by choosing χ0 = φ = 0 and χ1 a suitable quadratic function of x and y in (2.

zτxy dz.6. and y = const. τxy τyy By substituting (4.8b) (4. 1 − ν2 (4.10 The bending moments acting on a section of an elastic plate.6. Hence. 1+ν τyy = − E (νa + c)z . (4. respectively.6.6) into (4. 1 − ν2 τxy = − Ebz .5) and (4.6.7a) (4. Myx = Myy = −h/ 2 h/ 2 −h/ 2 zτxx dz.6. zτyy dz.6. Mij are the components of the tensor 0 −1 1 0 h/ 2 −h/ 2 τxx τxy z dz. 4. y and nonzero stress components τxx = − E (a + νc)z . 12(1 + ν ) ∂x∂y Eh3 12 (1 − ν 2 ) ν ∂2w ∂2w + ν ∂x2 ∂y 2 ∂2w ∂2w + ∂x2 ∂y 2 .8a) (4.6) Now by considering the moments exerted on surfaces x = const.7b) where h is the plate thickness. . we obtain the expressions Mxx = − Mxy = − h/ 2 −h/ 2 h/ 2 −h/ 2 h/ 2 zτxy dz.7) we obtain the relations Mxx = −Myy = ∂2w Eh3 .164 Approximate theories z Mxy Myx Myy Mxx x Fig.6.6.8c) Myx = − Mxy = Eh3 12 (1 − ν 2 ) .6. (4.

4.6.4.7).2) gives us only two equations in the three stress components.8b).8b) when w = w(x).4.6.6. if we were to bend a plate about the y -axis while applying no moment about the x-axis.6 Linear plate theory 165 It is reassuring that. We leave this calculation to Section 4.9) which is consistent with (4.6. A membrane is a plate with negligible bending stiﬀness. On the other hand. it is diﬃcult to observe this eﬀect using a piece of paper because Poisson’s ratio is close to zero. 12 ∂x2 (4. Unfortunately. without the imposition of a transverse bending moment. To close the problem.11) which is consistent with (4. the plane strain result (2.10) Thus.3). we also need constitutive relations for Txx .6. Unfortunately. the problem is still under-determined since (4.6. Hence we see that the constant of proportionality between curvature and bending moment in one dimension depends on whether the transverse curvature or the transverse moment are set to zero. here . since h3 /12 is the moment of inertia per unit length in the y -direction.6. then we would have Mxy = 0 and therefore ∂2w ∂2w = − ν . Txy and Tyy in terms of the in-plane displacements of the plate. ∂y 2 ∂x2 (4. and is described by (4. This is analogous to the biaxial strain examples considered in Section 2. we ﬁnd in this case that Myx = Eh3 ∂ 2 w .5. where the eﬀective one-dimensional elastic modulus depends on whether zero stress or zero strain is imposed in the transverse direction.6.4.2.12) where ∇2 = ∂ 2 /∂x2 + ∂ 2 /∂y 2 and D= Eh3 12 (1 − ν 2 ) (4. When we use the constitutive relations (4. xy yy ∂x2 ∂x∂y ∂y 2 ∂t2 (4. in the notation of this section. we are left with the plate equation Txx ∂2w ∂2w ∂2w ∂2w 4 + T + 2 T − D ∇ w − ςg = ς .8) in (4.73) implies that Myx = − µh3 ∂ 2 w .12) with D = 0.6.10) into (4.4) and (4.6.6.6.6. By substituting (4. the plate will automatically bend upwards in the y -direction when we attempt to bend it downwards in the x-direction.13) is the bending stiﬀness of the plate. 6(1 − ν ) ∂x2 (4.6.

17) where κ is the curvature of the boundary (see Exercise 4. Article 297).6. the boundary conditions are analogous to those for a beam. then.8).6.2 Boundary conditions As initial conditions for (4. + νκ 2 ∂n ∂n (4. Finally we consider the boundary conditions to be imposed at a free edge.14).6.6.14)! This conceptual diﬃculty caused great consternation to the pioneers of plate theory (see Love.15) w= ∂n where ∂/∂n is the normal derivative.6. (4.4. The latter may be written in the form Msn = (−ny .10) in which w and its second normal derivative are zero.8) reveals the diﬀerence in bending stiﬀness between a beam undergoing planar displacements and a plate deforming in two dimensions. 4. we require the displacement and the bending moment about an axis tangential to the boundary to be zero. For a clamped plate. we can reduce (4. can we apply the obvious generalisation of (4.16) where n = (nx .2) in which Txx = Tyy = T and Txy = 0. By substituting for the moments from (4.166 Approximate theories concentrating on the simple case where the plate is subjected to a known isotropic tension T . ∂t2 (4.14) Comparison with (4.6.6.16) to w= ∂w ∂2w = 0.4. where a horizontal force balance evidently requires that T = 0. If. it is to impossible to impose three boundary conditions on the biharmonic problem (4.6. for the sake of argument. and reduces (4. nx ) Mxx Mxy Myx Myy nx ny = 0.6. (4.12) to T ∇2 w − D∇4 w − ςg = ς ∂2w . the boundary is at x = 0. then. However.8) and using the fact that w is zero on the boundary. ny )T is the outward-pointing unit normal to the boundary.6. This corresponds to the trivial exact solution of (4.6. For a simply supported plate. we should specify w and ∂w/∂t. for there to be zero applied stress. namely ∂w = 0. and . 1944. Only for a straight boundary. we are apparently led to the conditions Nx = Mxx = Myx = 0.

6.6.4 shows that the correct conditions at a free edge x = 0 are Myx = 0. we note that.6. or.6.6.6. (4. ∂2w ∂2w + ν = 0. However.6. we ﬁnd that the stored energy per unit plate area is h/ 2 −h/ 2 W dz = = h/ 2 −h/ 2 1 τij 2 ij dz D 2 a + 2νac + c2 + 2(1 − ν )b2 2 D = (a + c)2 + 2(1 − ν ) b2 − ac 2 .6 Linear plate theory 167 a version of Saint-Venant’s principle is commonly invoked to reduce the number of boundary conditions to two. ∂x2 ∂y 2 ∂3w ∂3w + (2 − ν ) = 0. the nonzero stress components are given by (4. in the exact solution (4.6) and the corresponding strain components by exx = −az.18) as Nx = ∂Mxx . eyy = −cz. ∂x3 ∂x∂y 2 (4.22) .4) and (4.18) as the natural boundary conditions associated with minimising the strain energy in the plate.19) ∂Myx ∂Mxx −2 =0 ∂x ∂y (4. (4.5) where tension is neglected. The careful analysis of this layer carried out in Section 6. corresponding to a point force in the transverse direction (see Timoshenko & Woinowsky-Krieger. 1959).8). This suggests the existence of a three-dimensional “Saint-Venant” region in the vicinity of the corner.6. in terms of the displacement.21) Recalling the deﬁnition (1. we may also rewrite the second of (4.4. exy = −bz.20) which shows that the shear stress Nx as calculated from plate theory does not in general vanish at a free edge! Note also that a discontinuity in the bending moment at a corner in the boundary results in a delta-function in the shear stress.9. a systematic resolution of the diﬃculty requires us to acknowledge that there is a narrow region near the free edge where the assumptions that gave rise to the plate equation fail.18) By using (4. Although it is beyond the scope of this chapter to derive this systematically. ∂y (4.6. It is also possible to obtain (4.6.6.5) of the strain energy density W .

25) where κ1 and κ2 are the principal curvatures of the surface z = w(x.6.26) ∇4 w = − .6.17) at r = a lead to the solution 5+ν 2 ςg a − r2 . it is impossible to solve (4. the simply supported boundary conditions (4.23) using the calculus of variations.26) with entirely free boundaries since some boundary tractions are needed to balance gravity.6.6. D Solutions of (4. which agrees with the steady version of (4.6.6.10 demonstrates that. Exercise 4.6. when tension and gravity are neglected. (4. the net strain energy due to bending will take the form U= D 2 ∇2 w Ω 2 − 2(1 − ν ) ∂2w ∂2w − ∂x2 ∂y 2 ∂2w ∂x∂y 2 dxdy. to describe the sagging of an elastic disc r < a. For example.19) are the natural boundary conditions for the minimisation.6. we can easily solve (4. With clamped boundary conditions w = dw/dr = 0 at r = a. we ﬁnd that ςg 2 w=− (4. (4.24) = κ1 κ2 .28) a2 − r2 w=− 64D 1+ν . 64D Alternatively.23) where the integral is taken over the region Ω in the (x.6.6.6. (4.6. In addition.26) in cylindrical polar coordinates.6.6.168 Approximate theories This suggests that. more generally. then w must satisfy the biharmonic equation.3 Simple solutions of the plate equation Let us start by considering steady solutions of (4.14) with T = 0. Exercise 4. We will consider both clamped and simply supported boundary conditions. The integrand in (4. if we minimise (4. y )-plane occupied by the plate.14).10 shows that (4.6. We will soon discover that these geometric quantities are fundamental to all theories of plates and shells. 4.26) describe the sagging of a plate under gravity. y ). that is ςg (4.27) a2 − r2 .23) shows that the total energy depends on a combination of the mean curvature ∇2 w = κ1 + κ2 and the Gaussian curvature ∂2w ∂2w − ∂x2 ∂y 2 ∂2w ∂x∂y 2 (4.6.

with a = 1.0006 0.6.and hence position-dependent. 4. For clamped boundary conditions. and the in-plane tension is .29) of a simply supported rectangular plate sagging under gravity.11.6.6. ςg/D = 1.2 0. 0 < y < b. (4.4 x 0.0002 -0. b = 1/2. namely −16ςg sin (mπx/a) sin (nπy/b) w= 6 . Note in particular that the reduced rigidity aﬀorded by the simple support compared with the clamped plate means that (4. by suitably distributing the heating. we encounter exactly the same diﬃculty as in Section 2. Next let us consider the sag of a rectangle 0 < x < a.6. If D is temperature.2 0.6. However.4 An inverse plate problem Here we describe a novel version of the plate equation that is relevant to the manufacture of curved windscreens by heating horizontal glass plates simply supported on a frame. The non-orthogonality of the functions encountered in separating the variables in the biharmonic equation with boundary conditions on w and ∂w/∂n makes any analytical solution impractical.n odd A typical solution is shown in Figure 4.0004 w -0.28) gives a larger displacement at the centre of the disc by a factor of (5 + ν )/(1 + ν ) compared with (4. 4. the simply supported boundary conditions w = ∂ 2 w/∂n2 = 0 are now physically realistic and it is straightforward to separate the variables and obtain the solution as a sum of mutually orthogonal trigonometric functions.6 0.3 0. The heating decreases the bending stiﬀness D and hence enhances the sag of the glass under gravity and.29) π D mn (m2 /a2 + n2 /b2 )2 m.8 0 -0.4.5 0.4 0.6.6.1 y 10 Fig. any desired sag can be achieved in principle.6 Linear plate theory 169 0 0.11 The displacement (4.27).

5 More general in-plane stresses If we do not make the simplifying assumption that the in-plane stress is isotropic and known.6.31c) shows that ∆ < 0 wherever the Gaussian curvature is positive. Since the terms involving the highest derivatives of D in (4.6.6. to determine the required distribution of the bending stiﬀness D(x.30) are ∂2w ∂2w + ν ∂x2 ∂y 2 ∂2D ∂2w ∂2D + + 2(1 − ν ) ∂x2 ∂x∂y ∂x∂y ∂2w ∂2w + ν ∂y 2 ∂x2 ∂2D . (4.30) is a second-order linear partial diﬀerential equation. When viewed as a problem for D.6.31a) and simple rearrangements of the right-hand side yield M 2 + Mxy Myx ∆ = xx D2 2 ∂2w ∂2w ∂2w ∂2w ∂2w − + − ν = −(1 − ν )2 ∂x2 ∂y 2 ∂x∂y ∂x2 ∂y 2 (4.6. which we expect to be the case nearly everywhere in a typical windscreen.31b) 2 . at least numerically.6.170 Approximate theories negligible. 4.31b) that ∆ > 0 and (4. and it is an interesting open question as to whether smooth solutions to this mixed type partial diﬀerential equation exist (see Salazar & Westbrook.30) is therefore hyperbolic.6. y ). (4.6. y ). and two immediate questions arise: “what boundary conditions should be imposed?” and “will D be positive?”. then the displacement satisﬁes ∂2 ∂x2 D ∂2w ∂2w + ν ∂x2 ∂y 2 + + 2(1 − ν ) ∂2 ∂y 2 D ∂2w ∂2 D ∂x∂y ∂x∂y 2 2 ∂ w ∂ w + ςg = 0. if there is a simply supported edge at x = 0.31c) Now.6. 2004).6. (4. the right-hand side of (4. It follows that (4.6. The corresponding inverse problem is. y ). then we must have Myx = 0 there and we deduce from (4.30) is a simple generalisation of the biharmonic equation which is straightforward in principle to solve for w(x. then we need to obtain constitutive relations for the . given a desired sag proﬁle w(x. (4. ∂y 2 we can read oﬀ the discriminant 2 ∂2w ∂2w ∂2w − + ν ∆ = (1 − ν )2 ∂x∂y ∂x2 ∂y 2 ∂2w ∂2w + ν ∂y 2 ∂x2 . y ).30) +ν 2 ∂y 2 ∂x Given D(x. On the other hand.30) must change type somewhere between the simply supported boundary and the interior.6. (4.

6 Linear plate theory 171 components Txx .35).2) we infer the existence of an Airy stress function A such that Txx = ∂2A . We appeal to the exact biaxial strain solution (2.2. The transverse displacement of the plate is therefore governed by ∂2A ∂2w ∂2A ∂2w ∂2w ∂2A ∂2w 4 + − 2 − D ∇ w − ςg = ς .35) where A satisﬁes (4. Equally.4. From (4. eyy = ∂v .32c) where the linearised strain components are related to in-plane displacements by exx = ∂u . ∂x exy = 1 2 ∂u ∂v + ∂y ∂x . 1 − ν2 Eh exy . = 1+ν Eh = (νexx + eyy ) .6. however.32b) (4.6.6.17) needed to determine w given A. ∂y (4.6.14) corresponds to the particular solution of (4.6.33) We therefore have a plane strain problem to solve for the two-dimensional displacement ﬁeld (u. (4.6. Txy and Tyy . ∂x∂y Tyy = ∂2A .6. an anisotropically stretched membrane corresponds to D = 0.34) Then elimination of u and v from (4.6.6.6. (4. in addition to the displacement and/or bending conditions (4. In general. v )T .35) in which A = T x2 + y 2 /2. y ).19) to pose the constitutive relations Txx = Txy = Tyx Tyy Eh (exx + νeyy ) .32) reveals that A satisﬁes the twodimensional biharmonic equation ∇4 A = 0. that is u v = ub (x. ∂x2 (4.37) where n is the unit normal to the edge of the plate. where T1 and T2 are constant.6. . y ) or Txx Txy Txy Tyy n = σ (x.6.6. ∂y 2 Txy = − ∂2A .6. we would need to specify two further boundary conditions around the edge of the plate to determine A.32a) (4. These would typically consist of speciﬁed in-plane displacements or tractions. 1 − ν2 (4.36) (4. A = T1 x2 + T2 y 2 /2. The uniform tension T assumed in (4. ∂y 2 ∂x2 ∂x∂y ∂x∂y ∂x2 ∂y 2 ∂t2 (4.15).6.

although we will have to wait until Chapter 6 for a systematic exposition on the range of applicability of the theory.7.6.7 Von K´ arm´ an plate theory 4. Nevertheless.6.12) requires both the in-plane displacements (u. The von K´ arm´ an theory emerges when we make a speciﬁc choice about exactly how small they must be.7.2 The strain components A point that starts on the centre-surface of the plate with Lagrangian position vector X will be displaced to a new Eulerian position x. where X X + u(X. v ) and the transverse displacement w to be suﬃciently small. so we also assume that the constitutive relations (4.6.32).1) for the transverse displacement. A systematic justiﬁcation of this step requires us to render the equations dimensionless and take a careful asymptotic limit. as we will discover below. as we will demonstrate in Chapter 6. ∂x ∂y for the in-plane tensions and Txx ∂2w ∂2w ∂2w ∂2w 4 + T + 2 T − D ∇ w − ςg = ς xy yy ∂x2 ∂x∂y ∂y 2 ∂t2 (4. Any small segment of the plate will be locally approximately planar.7.32) still hold. We note with concern that in (4. 4. is on obtaining improved approximations for the strain components eij . yet it also allows us to retain the linear constitutive relations (4. it is apparent that our model (4.1) by neglecting the in-plane acceleration.3) 0 w(X.32) we are including the in-plane displacement.7.6. and it will transpire that the in-plane displacements must be an order of magnitude smaller than the transverse displacement. then. although we derived (4.7.7. Y ) . Our focus. Y ) .2) ∂Txy ∂Tyy + =0 ∂x ∂y (4.1 Assumptions underlying the theory There is an interesting geometrically nonlinear generalisation of plate theory which can be derived plausibly using the ideas of Section 4. (4. This choice means that all the displacement components contribute to the leading-order strain of the plate. x(X ) = Y + v (X. We follow the derivations used in the previous section to obtain the governing equations ∂Txy ∂Txx + = 0. Y ) X = Y .6.172 Approximate theories 4.

6c) eyy = . 0)T will arrive at X + δX + u(X + δX. so we can replace (X. (4.5) by assuming that w is an order of magnitude larger than u and v . Y + δY ) 1 + ∂u/∂X ∂u/∂Y (4.5) gives us the lowest-order change in length of a line element in the form |δx|2 − |δX |2 = 2exx δX 2 + 4exy δXδY + 2eyy δY 2 .7) Notice that (4. Then (4. Y + δY ) w(X + δX.7.6) may also be obtained from (1.7. (4. y ) without incurring any additional errors. although small. By including the nonlinear terms in (4.7. namely that the strain may be approximated as a linear function of the displacement gradients.7.7.4) = x(X ) + δX ∂v/∂X + δY 1 + ∂v/∂Y + O |δ X |2 ∂w/∂X ∂w/∂Y after the deformation. greatly exceeds u and v . we retain only the leading terms in u. Y + δY ) x(X + δ X ) = Y + δY + v (X + δX. Y + δY.32) between stress and strain. when calculating the change in length of the small line element δ X . means that the terms on the right-hand side of (4.4. The von K´ arm´ an theory is our ﬁrst example of a theory that is .7.7.4.7. v and w to obtain |δ x|2 − |δ X |2 = δX 2 2 + 2δXδY ∂u + ∂X ∂w ∂X 2 ∂v ∂w ∂w ∂v ∂u + + + δY 2 2 + ∂Y ∂X ∂X ∂Y ∂Y ∂w ∂Y 2 .6b) (4. However.6. Y ) with (x.7 Von K´ arm´ an plate theory 173 A nearby point with initial position (X + δX. We therefore take the in-plane strain components to be exx = exy ∂u 1 + ∂x 2 1 ∂u = + 2 ∂y ∂v 1 + ∂y 2 ∂w 2 . It also means that the Lagrangian and Eulerian coordinates are identical to leading order.6) we are abandoning one of the principal assumptions of linear elasticity.7. ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂w ∂y 2 (4.5) Our assumption that w.6a) (4. we still plan to use the linear constitutive relations (4. Now. ∂x ∂v ∂w ∂w + .5) are all of the same order.7.

2 that the Gaussian curvature is deﬁned to be K = κ1 κ2 . y ) can be isometrically deformed from a plane if and only if w satisﬁes (4.7. let us pause to contrast them with the corresponding plane strain components (4. p. v and w.33) where w ≡ 0. in plane strain.7.6) does give us the interesting result that − ∂ 2 exy ∂ 2 eyy ∂2w ∂2w ∂ 2 exx + 2 = − − ∂y 2 ∂x∂y ∂x2 ∂x2 ∂y 2 ∂2w ∂x∂y 2 . Kreyszig. 1959. Equation (4. and.6. Here.9). When we have zero in-plane strain. Before proceeding to incorporate (4. We recall from Section 4. .7.8) Second. (4.7.5a) is satisﬁed. so there is no compatibility condition. the only isometries are rigid-body motions.6. The elimination of u and v that led to (4. corresponding to bending of the plate.7.174 Approximate theories mechanically linear but geometrically nonlinear.7. Roughly speaking. When we allow the additional freedom of transverse as well as in-plane displacements. we recall that in plane strain (4.9) also states that the plate has zero Gaussian curvature.. Such length-preserving transformations are known as isometries.7) that such deformations will preserve the lengths of all line elements in the plate: |δ x| and |δ X | will be equal for all δX and δY . a distinction that we will discuss in more detail in Chapter 5. a developable surface is any shape into which a piece of paper may be bent without creasing or tearing.33) are only soluble for u and v if the compatibility condition (2.7.7. easy to bend this page without signiﬁcantly changing the lengths of any lines printed upon it. there is another class of isometries. but (4.7. (4. y ). and familiar examples include cylinders and cones (see. 380).6) gives us three equations in the three displacements. 2003.6. First.6) into the governing equations for the plate.9) Thus a surface z = w(x. for example. let us pose the question: “which displacement ﬁelds give rise to zero in-plane strain?” We see from (4.8) reduces the system to a single equation for w. the equations exx = exy = eyy = 0 form three coupled partial diﬀerential equations for u. (4. A surface possessing this property is known as developable.7. Section 58). It is.7. A developable surface therefore has either κ1 = 0 or κ2 = 0 everywhere. (4. which is a version of the Monge–Amp` ere equation (Ockendon et al. for example.10) where κ1 and κ2 are the principal curvatures of the surface z = w(x. namely ∂2w ∂2w − ∂x2 ∂y 2 ∂2w ∂x∂y 2 = 0.

embedded in the surface. To be clear: every developable surface is ruled but most ruled surfaces are not developable. as illustrated in Figure 4. However.12(a) and (b).12(d) contains two families of straight lines. although its Gaussian curvature is negative everywhere.7.12 (a) A cylinder. 4. Simple examples of developable surfaces include cylinders (not necessarily circular) and cones.7. Indeed. It is convenient to use (4. (b) a cone. 4.3 The von K´ arm´ an equations Now we just have to assemble the ingredients collected above to derive the governing equations for the plate.12(c). there are many less familiar cases.4. For example. (c) another developable surface. known as generators. that is. surfaces containing a straight line through any point. so at each point there is one principal direction in which the surface has zero curvature.1) to introduce . the hyperboloid shown in Figure 4. We also caution that there are also nondevelopable ruled surfaces. which is ruled but not developable.7 Von K´ arm´ an plate theory 175 (a) (b) (c) (d) Fig. we can say that the surface is generated by moving a straight line through a given trajectory. such as that shown in Figure 4. (d) a hyperboloid. where the generators are shown as black lines. These directions deﬁne a family of straight lines.

22) for linear bending of a plate.6.7.7.12) that makes the von K´ arm´ an equations so much more diﬃcult to solve than the linear plate equations. .8) to eliminate the strain components and hence obtain ∇4 A = −Eh ∂2w ∂2w − ∂x2 ∂y 2 ∂2w ∂x∂y 2 .3 for plane strain problems.36).7.6.12). so that (4.32) and (4.32) and the strain components are again deﬁned by (4.7.6.11) reproduces the linear plate equation (4. where the integrated stress components are given by (4. where in-plane and transverse deformations are decoupled.7. Concerning boundary conditions.6. which is zero only if the deformed plate is developable. we have to impose two conditions on w. deﬁned in the usual way. (4.6.12).12) The coupled partial diﬀerential equations (4.7.11) and (4.6. we may use (4. and two conditions on A. we do retrieve (4.7. (4.6.2) becomes ∂2A ∂2w ∂2w ∂2A ∂2w ∂2A ∂2w 4 − 2 − D ∇ w − ςg = ς . + ∂y 2 ∂x2 ∂x∂y ∂x∂y ∂x2 ∂y 2 ∂t2 (4. w) that minimise the net strain energy in the plate. to suggest that the energy per unit area in a von K´ arm´ an plate is D 2 ∇2 w 2 − 2(1 − ν ) + ∂2w ∂2w − ∂x2 ∂y 2 ∂2w ∂x∂y 2 1 2 (Txx + Tyy )2 − 2(1 + ν ) Txx Tyy − Txy 2Eh .7. as described in Section 4.11) Next. In the same way that we were led to the strain energy (4.7.6). Evidently (4. v. so the improved approximation for the strain has led to the introduction of just one new term: the right-hand side of (4. any transverse displacement that does not consist of a pure bending of the plate inevitably causes in-plane stress.7.11). A lengthy exercise in the calculus of variations shows that when we consider virtual displacements (u.2. analogous to those described in Section 2. generalised to include linear stretching.12) for w and A comprise the von K´ arm´ an model.7. we use (4. It is the nonlinear coupling provided by the right-hand side of (4. Hence.176 Approximate theories an Airy stress function A. We recognise the expression in braces as the Gaussian curvature.23). in contrast with linear plate theory.7.

1 Strain in a weakly curved shell It is relatively straightforward to generalise the von K´ arm´ an model to describe the deformation of a pre-cast elastic shell whose curvature is small. Y ).2) |δx|2 − |δX |2 = δX 2 2 + 2δXδY ∂v ∂W ∂w ∂W ∂w ∂w ∂w ∂u + + + + ∂Y ∂X ∂X ∂Y ∂y ∂X ∂X ∂Y + δY 2 2 ∂v ∂W ∂w +2 + ∂Y ∂Y ∂Y ∂w ∂Y 2 . where ∂u/∂Y 1 + ∂u/∂X + δY 1 + ∂v/∂Y + O |δ X |2 . Suppose that the centre-surface of the shell is given in the initial unstressed state by Z = W (X. (4. we ﬁnd to leading order that ∂u ∂W ∂w +2 + ∂X ∂X ∂X ∂w ∂X 2 (4. Y ) .8. x(X ) = Y + v (X. Y + δY ) 1 0 + δY 1 + O |δ X |2 = X + δX 0 ∂W/∂X ∂W/∂Y is deformed to x + δ x. (4.4) . Y ) to (4. We follow the same procedure as in Section 4.3) δ x = δX ∂v/∂X ∂ (W + w)/∂Y ∂ (W + w)/∂X Now when we calculate the change in the square of the length of the small line element δ X .8. Y ) + w(X.8. Y ) X + u(X.8 Weakly curved shell theory 4.8.8 Weakly curved shell theory 177 4.4.8. considering the displacement of a point on the centre-surface from X X= Y W (X.7.1) Now a nearby point on the centre-surface with initial position X + δX X + δX = Y + δY W (X + δX. Y ) W (X.2.

9). y ) = W (x.8.6) may be written as ∂ 2 (W + w) ∂ 2 (W + w) ∂ 2 (W + w) − ∂X 2 ∂Y 2 ∂X∂Y ∂2W ∂2W − − ∂X 2 ∂Y 2 ∂2W ∂X∂Y .7. The isometries of our initially curved shell are therefore those deformations that preserve the Gaussian curvature. ∂y ∂y ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂w ∂y 2 (4. If K0 = 0 then the initial shell shape is developable. derived previously for an initially ﬂat plate. In this case. (4.5b) (4. y ) (4. as illustrated in Figure 4. This evidently generalises the deformation of a ﬂat plate. Y ).8.8) is parabolic. with one repeated set of real characteristics corresponding to the generators of the initial developable surface.8. ∂x ∂w ∂W ∂w ∂w ∂w + + .8.5a) (4.178 Approximate theories which leads us to deﬁne the strain components as exx = exy ∂u ∂W ∂w 1 + + ∂x ∂x ∂x 2 ∂W 1 ∂u ∂v + + = 2 ∂y ∂x ∂x ∂v ∂W ∂w 1 + + ∂y ∂y ∂y 2 ∂w 2 .5c) eyy = . y ). we can eliminate the horizontal displacement (u.8. then. as shown in Exercise 4.6) − 2 ∂x2 ∂x∂y ∂x∂y 2 2 Notice that the right-hand side of (4.8. (4. Again following Section 4. (4. This reﬂects the fact that the shell can be arbitrarily bent about the generators without causing any in-plane stress. y ) + w(x.7.8. so at each point it resembles a cylinder. f must satisfy the inhomogeneous Monge–Amp` ere equation ∂2f ∂2f − ∂X 2 ∂Y 2 ∂2f ∂X∂Y 2 = K0 (X.5) to obtain − ∂ 2 eyy ∂ 2 exy ∂2w ∂2w ∂ 2 exx − + 2 = − ∂y 2 ∂x∂y ∂x2 ∂x2 ∂y 2 ∂2W ∂2w ∂2W + + ∂x2 ∂y 2 ∂y 2 2 ∂2w ∂x∂y ∂2w ∂2W ∂2w .7) and the initial Gaussian curvature by K0 (x. v ) from (4.8) This famous nonlinear partial diﬀerential equation has the unusual property that its type is determined by the right-hand side.8.13(a). and we recover (4.12. . which is the change in the Gaussian curvature compared to that of the initial shape of the plate.2. If we denote the current shape of the shell by z = f (x. for the strain to be zero.8. which can be bent without stretching only into a surface with zero Gaussian curvature.

Finally.8. we ﬁnd that the transverse displacement satisﬁes ∂2A ∂2f ∂2A ∂2f ∂2A ∂2f ∂2w 4 + − 2 − D ∇ w − ςg = ς .8. Such a shell will be stronger still because any local bending causes deformations throughout the entire shell.8) is elliptic. for there to be no in-plane strain. As shown in Exercise 4.2) and (4. if K0 > 0 then the initial shell shape is synclastic. If K0 < 0 then the initial shell shape is anticlastic.3).13 Typical surface shapes with (a) zero.10c) . like the saddle point shown in Figure 4. and (4. any localised bending of the shell will cause non-local displacements in the region of inﬂuence spanned by these characteristics. − ∂x∂y 1+ν ∂2A Eh = Tyy = (νexx + eyy ) .10a) (4. Hence there are two distinct families of real characteristics and.10b) (4. as in Figure 4. and (4.8.8 Weakly curved shell theory (a) (b) (c) 179 Fig.6. The Airy stress function is deﬁned as usual by Eh ∂2A = Txx = (exx + νeyy ) . 2 ∂y 1 − ν2 Eh ∂2A = Txy = exy . let us generalise the force balances (4. 4. (b) negative and (c) positive Gaussian curvature.11.13(c).8.8. 4.6. Such a shell is therefore somewhat stronger than a developable surface. ∂y 2 ∂x2 ∂x∂y ∂x∂y ∂x2 ∂y 2 ∂t2 (4.2 Linearised equations for a weakly curved shell Having obtained expressions for the in-plane strains.8.8.9) where f is again used as shorthand for W + w.13(b). 2 ∂x 1 − ν2 (4.8) is hyperbolic.4.

8. W0 (4. To make the model more tractable.11) we have two equations for A and w. let us now suppose that the transverse displacement is much smaller than the initial deﬂection of the centre-surface.8. (4.180 Approximate theories with the strain components now given by (4. By eliminating the in-plane displacement (u.8. which may be recovered by setting W ≡ 0. y ) is of order W0 . after suppressing primes.8.14) where L is a typical lateral dimension.8.8.12).8. f ≡ w. ∂x2 ∂x∂y ∂x∂y ∂x2 ∂y 2 (4. we therefore have a coupled system of linear partial diﬀerential equations governing the small transverse displacement w and the Airy stress function A.12) (4.15) (4.8.3 Solutions for a thin shell Let us consider a shell whose initial shape W (x.16) . y ). generalising the von K´ arm´ an equations. 2 ∂x ∂x∂y ∂x∂y ∂x2 ∂y 2 ∂2W ∂2w ∂2W ∂2w ∂2w + − 2 = −(Eh)−1 ∇4 A.8. A= Dw0 A. W = W0 W .9) and (4.8.13) as follows: x = Lx . (4. we ﬁnd that A now satisﬁes ∇ A = Eh 4 ∂2W ∂2W − ∂x2 ∂y 2 ∂2W ∂x∂y 2 ∂2f ∂2f − + ∂x2 ∂y 2 ∂2f ∂x∂y 2 . v ) between these.8. w = w0 w . so that w W . Given the initial shell proﬁle W (x. Then. (4.8. ∂x2 ∂x∂y ∂x∂y ∂x2 ∂y 2 (4. 12(1 − ν 2 )W0 (4.8. We ﬁrst try making the variables dimensionless in (4. y = Ly .17) ∂2W ∂2A ∂2A ∂2W ∂2A + − 2 = ∇4 w. if we keep only the lowest order terms in w.11) In (4.13) where. 4.9) and (4. and w0 a typical boundary displacement.8.5).8. We obtain. ∂2W ∂y 2 ∂2W ∂y 2 where δ= h2 2.11) reduce to ∂2W ∂y 2 ∂2W ∂y 2 ∂2W ∂2A ∂2W ∂2A ∂2A + −2 = D∇4 w. for additional simplicity. we have also neglected the body force and time dependence. ∂x2 ∂x∂y ∂x∂y ∂x2 ∂y 2 ∂2W ∂2w ∂2W ∂2w ∂2w + − 2 = −δ ∇4 A.

8. we would apparently need to impose both w and ∂w/∂n on a second-order elliptic equation. our strategy would be to solve ∂2W ∂2w ∂2W ∂2w ∂2W ∂2w + − 2 =0 ∂y 2 ∂x2 ∂x∂y ∂x∂y ∂x2 ∂y 2 (4.18) is a necessary condition for there to be no in-plane stretching.8. when w is small enough for quadratic terms to be neglected.18).8.19) The problem is therefore parabolic. Then (4. Hence. Substituting (4. y ) = ∂x2 ∂y 2 ∂2W ∂x∂y 2 .8.18) when we realise from (4.e. and there would probably be no solution at all.8.8. if the stresses applied to the shell are violent enough to produce in-plane stretching. This immediately casts doubt on the model (4.18) is equal to the initial Gaussian curvature of the shell. that is ∂2W ∂2W − ∆ = K0 (x. It is easy to verify that the discriminant ∆ which determines the type of (4.16) before neglecting δ . (4. We therefore have to solve two linear second-order partial diﬀerential equations in succession. suppose we wished to prescribe w around the perimeter of an anticlastic shell. then we must reconsider our use of (4. Fortunately we can understand the deﬁciencies in (4. anticlastic or synclastic. only bending is allowed.8. to apply clamped boundary conditions on a synclastic shell.8.8.15) to obtain an equation for A.16) so that the equations decouple: given suitable boundary conditions. On the other hand.4.18) would present us with an ill-posed Dirichlet problem for a hyperbolic partial diﬀerential equation.20) which models deformations other than pure bending which increase the inplane stress by an order of magnitude.15) and (4.18) for. hyperbolic or elliptic.8. according to whether the shell is developable.8 Weakly curved shell theory 181 For a suﬃciently thin shell. we ﬁnd that the equations again decouple.8.8. A (4.8. ˜ now determined by with A ˜ ˜ ˜ ∂2W ∂2A ∂2W ∂2A ∂2W ∂2A + − 2 =0 ∂y 2 ∂x2 ∂x∂y ∂x∂y ∂x2 ∂y 2 (4. One possibility is to rescale A such that ˜ = δ A = O (1).20) into (4. which again leads to an ill-posed problem.21) .18) for w and then substitute the result into (4. i.6) that.14) to render the problem dimensionless. we may therefore neglect the right-hand side of (4.8. each involving the diﬀerential operator on the lefthand side of (4.8.8.8. (4.

16) into ∂2W ∂y 2 ∂2W ∂y 2 ∂2W ∂2A ∂2A ∂2W ∂2A ˆ 4 w.23) Recalling that W is a prescribed function of x and y .18) is an isometry. + − 2 = −∇ ∂ξ 2 ∂x∂y ∂ξ∂η ∂x2 ∂η 2 (4.8.20) allows us to describe in-plane stretching. η )-scale. it does not alter the limitations on the boundary conditions that we may be able to impose.25) ˆ 2 = ∂ 2 /∂ξ 2 + ∂ 2 /∂η 2 . where ∇ except that the coeﬃcients are constant to lowest order on the (ξ.22) Hence we again ﬁnd a reduction from fourth to second order.8. In cases (i) or (ii). + − 2 = −∇4 A ∂y 2 ∂x2 ∂x∂y ∂x∂y ∂x2 ∂y 2 (4. (ii) When large in-plane stresses are applied. (4. or they may take the form of creases that are remote from the boundary. y ) = δ 1/4 (ξ. The in-plane stretching caused by these stresses then drives the equation (4. in which both stretching and bending are important.8.8. However. We have therefore identiﬁed the following three alternative classes of deformation that a thin shell may suﬀer.15).21). A = δ −1 / 2 A (x. A.22) for the transverse displacement. and the types of the equations (4.8. so that A pled equation (4. (i) If relatively small stresses are applied at the boundaries. then the deformation described by (4.8. Therefore. To explore the behaviour in such regions. (iii) Both eﬀects of bending stiﬀness and in-plane stretching can balance in narrow regions of width O δ 1/4 .8. then the bending stiﬀness of ˜ satisﬁes the decouthe shell becomes negligible in comparison.8. we see that this transforms (4. although the rescaling (4. These regions may be close to the boundary of the shell. one possibility is to rescale (x.19). and the in-plane stress that it produces may be determined a posteriori from (4.182 Approximate theories and w then found from ∂2W ∂2w ∂2W ∂2w ∂2W ∂2w ˜.22) are again determined by (4.8. This is eﬀectively the full problem for w. any incompatibilities that may arise with the imposed boundary conditions will be resolved over narrow boundary layers. + − 2 =∇ ∂ξ 2 ∂x∂y ∂ξ∂η ∂x2 ∂η 2 ∂2W ∂2w ∂2W ∂2w ∂2w ˆ 4 A.8.15) and (4. the reduction of order means that it will in general be impossible to ﬁnd solutions that are everywhere compatible with any .8. η ).24) (4.8.21) and (4.8. setting ˆ. y ) as well as A.8.

(4. to the bending of the shell about its generators and to the rotation of the generators. However.8. made dimensionless with Dw0 /W0 L2 . may be visualised by simply crumpling a piece of paper: the resultant shape will consist of developable regions.8. The full solution of the problem as δ → 0 will thus comprise regions described by (i) or (ii). patched together across narrow layers described by (iii). (4.31) . cylindrical and anticlastic shells are described in Vaziri & Mahadevan (2008). Some beautiful experiments illustrating the corresponding behaviour of synclastic. (4. y ) = xb(y ). and the construction described above. One can easily verify using a section cut from a cardboard tube that such deformations require very small stresses. we will simply ask ourselves what kinds of displacements w will be possible for any prescribed shell shape W . which have undergone pure bending.8. α = −δ ∇4 A.8. To avoid the complication of solving a boundary-value problem each time. a uniform bending βx2 w= . 2δ Txy = 0. is much more diﬃcult.16) is well posed given any physically reasonable boundary conditions. (4.27) ∂x2 ∂x2 Now.8.8. joined together by thin creases.8. We will now illustrate these scenarios with some simple examples.4.8. Tyy = 0. the full system (4. as shown schematically in Figure 4.29) 2 inevitably causes a large in-plane stress.28) where a and b are arbitrary functions. These displacement ﬁelds correspond. A=− Txx = − αβy 2 . (4.16) become W = α (4. while bending about an axis perpendicular to the generators. we see that w can only be a combination of two forms: w(x.15). y ) = a(y ) and w(x. as in Figure 4.26) ∂2w ∂2A 4 = ∇ w. (4. respectively.15) and (4. Indeed.8 Weakly curved shell theory 183 boundary conditions imposed on w and A. 2 for which (4. letting δ → 0.30) 24δ corresponding to the stress ﬁeld. Let us ﬁrst consider deformations of the initially cylindrical shell αy 2 .14(d).8. These creases in the shell.8. with αβy 4 + O (1).14(b) and (c).

or y = const.16) take the form −2α ∂2A = ∇4 w.8. (4. and y = const. As illustrated in Figure 4.15) and (4. and one can try these in practice using a section cut from the neck of a plastic bottle. y ) = b(y ).33) When δ is negligible.34) where a and b are again arbitrary functions.8.184 (a) Approximate theories (b) z y x (c) (d) Fig. (b) bending about the generators.8. these displacements correspond to bending along either of the characteristic lines x = const. (d) bending along the generators. ∂x∂y (4.8. the displacement ﬁeld must be a linear combination of w(x. let us consider the anticlastic shell W = αxy. ∂x∂y 2α ∂2w = δ ∇4 A. 4.32) depicted in Figure 4. We can associate this stress in the x-direction with compression of the generators.14 Deformations of a cylindrical shell. y ) = a(x) and w(x. Next. (c) rotating the generators.15. This time the governing equations (4. (4.. which contains two families of straight lines x = const. (a) original shape.8.15(a). Large stresses result from any .

respectively. For example. 24δ (4.37) shows that both the normal stresses increase quadratically. Tyy = αβx2 2δ (4. other transverse displacement.8. 2δ Txy = 0.. as shown in Figure 4. leads to a stress function A= αβ 4 x + y 4 + O (1). and y = const. Finally. 4. 2 (4.15(d). (b) bending along the lines x = const. (a) original shape. (c) bending along the lines y = const.. 2 (4.36) The corresponding dimensionless stress ﬁeld Txx = αβy 2 . due to stretching of the straight lines x = const. (d) bending along the lines x − y = const. let us consider the synclastic shell W = α x2 + y 2 .4.15 Deformations of an anticlastic shell.38) .8.8. w= β (x + y )2 .8.35) which represents bending at an angle of π/4 to the coordinate axes.8 Weakly curved shell theory (a) (b) 185 z y x (c) (d) Fig.

As may be seen in Figure 4.13) read α∇2 A = ∇4 w.16(a). the corners are bent upwards and the edges downwards. we ﬁnd that ˜ satisﬁes Laplace’s equation and thus A ˜ = 0.15) and (4. (a) original shape.16.16 Deformations of a synclastic shell.8. in the second. (d) one-dimensional bending. The governing equations (4. does not just give rise to large in-plane stress but is actually impossible.8. 4 (4. In the ﬁrst. (4. (b) and (c) two possible deformations. if we perform the rescaling (4. for example the one-dimensional bending w = βx2 illustrated in Figure 4. any non-harmonic displacement ﬁeld. α∇2 w = −∇4 A (4. 4. y ) = − β x4 − 6x2 y 2 + y 4 .8. These can easily be realised using a segment from a ping-pong ball. when δ is small. the shell is bent upwards in the x-direction and downwards in the y -direction. only harmonic displacement ﬁelds are possible.41) Hence. On the other hand.20) before letting δ → 0.8.39) so that.8. If we tried to impose boundary . y ) = β x2 − y 2 and w(x. Some examples are w(x.186 (a) Approximate theories (b) z y x (c) (d) Fig.16(b) and (c) respectively. α∇2 w = −δ ∇4 A.8.40) which are illustrated in Figure 4. there are no straight lines embedded in this surface.

Diving boards undergo large displacement without any of the damaging eﬀects that are associated with large strains.17(c): the net eﬀect is to stretch the outer surface of the beam and compress the inner surface. The internal displacement ﬁeld in such a beam is shown schematically in Figure 4.9 Nonlinear beam theory 4. consider nearly one-dimensional elastic bodies with arbitrary curvature.4. while the length of the centre-line is virtually unchanged. This is possible because a thin elastic beam can be bent without signiﬁcantly stretching its centre-line.4. Although the above theory only applies to very small transverse displacements of shells whose built-in curvature is already small.17 A beam (a) before and (b) after bending. as illustrated in Figure 4. we would inevitably cause a crease to be formed. It is an elementary exercise in trigonometry to show that the (a) h (b) (c) R Fig. We can.9 Nonlinear beam theory 187 conditions that force such a one-dimensional bending response.1 Derivation of the model We now return to the beam conﬁguration considered in Section 4. . Any theory for more general shells demands more diﬀerential geometry than we can conveniently introduce in this chapter.9.17(a. and we will return to this topic in Chapter 6. and this we do in the next section. now generalising the model to make it applicable to commonly observed phenomena such as the deﬂection of a diving board.b). (c) a close-up of the displacement ﬁeld. 4. 4. it illustrates many of the key diﬀerences between the elastic responses of shells and plates. however.

9. a developable shell has the same property when bent about its generators. where dx dw = cos θ. it is surprisingly easy to generalise our derivation of linear beam theory in Section 4.18(a). As noted above in Section 4.4 to model large two-dimensional transverse displacements. As discussed above. linear elasticity is no longer valid: the Eulerian and Lagrangian coordinates are far from interchangeable. so that arc-length is conserved by the deformation and we can thus view s as a Lagrangian coordinate that is ﬁxed in the deforming beam. The transverse displacement is given parametrically by x = x(s). when the displacement is large. We describe the deformation of the beam using arc-length s along the centre-line and the angle θ(s) between the centre-line and the x-axis. In equilibrium.8.18 (a) The forces and moments acting on a small segment of a beam. and it is not legitimate to linearise the relationship between strain and displacement. w = w(s).1) ds ds Now we balance forces and moments on a small segment of the beam as shown in Figure 4. it can therefore suﬀer large displacements while the internal strain remains small. If the strain is small. where h is the thickness of the beam and R the radius of curvature through which it is bent. Provided the beam is suﬃciently thin. We therefore seek a geometrically nonlinear but mechanically linear theory. 4. However. We neglect inertia and body forces for the moment . we assume the centre-line to be inextensible to leading order. in a similar vein to the von K´ arm´ an plate theory from Section 4.188 Approximate theories N0 (a) N (s + δs) T (s + δs) M (s) θ T (s) N (s) Fig. (b) The sign convention for the forces at the ends of the beam. then we can still assume that the stress is a linear function of the strain. (b) T0 T0 M (s + δs) N0 strain associated with such a displacement is of order h/R. = sin θ.7. (4.

1) the conditions L L X= 0 cos θ(s) ds.4) By collecting (4. since θ is no longer assumed to be small this is a signiﬁcant distinction.4).9. Typical examples are clamped conditions. we assume that the constant of proportionality is the same as in the linear case.9.9.and z directions are conserved. ds dM − N = 0. as in Section 4.5) If we are given the applied force components T0 and N0 . (4. where there is zero bending moment and hence dθ/ds = 0.2) the ﬁrst two of which simply show that the internal forces in the x. ds2 (4. Suppose. instead. for a nonlinear deﬂection.5).2c). rather than transverse. (4.9. where L is the length of the beam. It is reassuring to conﬁrm that the theory above reduces to the linear beam theory derived in Section 4. Without loss of generality. We thus obtain the equations d (T cos θ − N sin θ) = 0.9. ds d (N cos θ + T sin θ) = 0. Since we are considering small strains.3) As a constitutive relation we expect.9. that is M = −EI dθ . Z ) the position of the other end s = L.9. we obtain the Euler–Bernoulli beam equation EI d2 θ + N0 cos θ − T0 sin θ = 0.4 for cases where the deﬂection is small. it follows that T = T0 cos θ + N0 sin θ. where we specify the angle θ. ds (4. ds (4. is given by dθ/ds. or simple support. If a force (T0 .3) and (4. with an equal and opposite force at the left-hand end. and denote by (X. the bending moment to be proportional to the curvature which. N = N0 cos θ − T0 sin θ. force.9. . then we expect to impose two further boundary conditions (one at each end) on the secondorder diﬀerential equation (4. Z= 0 sin θ(s) ds.9. we can take the end s = 0 to be ﬁxed at the origin.9 Nonlinear beam theory 189 and note that N is now deﬁned to be the normal.6) from which we can in principle recover T0 and N0 . as in Figure 4.18(b). that we are told the positions of the ends of the beam.9. N0 ) is applied at the right-hand end. (4.4.4. We then deduce from (4.

of the steady deformation of a diving board. and the typical boundary conditions discussed above are quite diﬀerent from the sort of initial conditions we would expect to apply to a pendulum.5) thus becomes d3 w dw = 0.9. alluded to previously.5) becomes d2 θ (4.9.9. which is otherwise free.9.190 Approximate theories For small θ. we note that we expect dθ/ds to be negative and thus obtain the solution in parametric form as −θ dφ 2F √ =s . (4.9.8) + N 0 − T0 3 dx dx One further x-derivative reproduces the linear beam equation (4. Let us ﬁrst consider the example.5) is equivalent to the equation for a 2 + N 2 /EI . dθ ds 2 dw = θ.9. (4. ds subject to dθ (L) = 0. However.9. dx (4.9. When taking the square root. If the board is clamped horizontally at s = 0 and a downward load F is applied to the other end.9.1) to lowest order to give x = s.9. s is far from being a time-like variable. in (4.9.5). N0 = −F and (4. we obtain θ(0) = 0. we can simplify the geometric relations (4.5).4. EI (4. (4.9.11) where α is shorthand for −θ(L). pendulum whose small-amplitude frequency of oscillation is T0 0 However. and (4.9. (4.9) through by dθ/ds and integrating once with respect to s. we can use techniques that are familiar from the study of pendulums to construct solutions of (4. then we have T0 = 0.12) EI sin α − sin φ 0 .8) in the absence of inertia and gravity.9. EI 4.9) EI 2 = F cos θ. with gravity neglected for simplicity.10) ds Multiplying (4.2 Example: deﬂection of a diving board Under a shift in the origin of θ.7) = 2F (sin θ − sin α) .

4 0.15) 6EI In Figure 4.19(b). It just remains to determine the angle α from the transcendental equation α 0 √ dφ =L sin α − sin φ 2F .4 -0.9.19(a). Given the applied force F .9.8 3 2F/EI = 4 2 L Fig. = F. we show the diving board proﬁle corresponding to diﬀerent applied forces.19(b). dx2 (4.5 -0. subject to a compressive force . and the deﬂection may then be reconstructed using (4.9. see Exercise 4. (4.9.15.9.7 -1. In Figure 4. tending towards −π/2.1).4.5 −α -0.9.8 1 2F/EI 3 4 5 6 0. which we discussed previously in the linear case in Section 4. the dashed lines show the linearised solution when L 2F/EI = 1 and 2.19 (a) Final angle −α of a diving board versus applied force parameter L 2F/EI . we have to solve (4.9.15) is plotted as dashed curves. We focus on the model problem of a beam of length L.1 2 -0. we plot the ﬁnal angle −α as a function of the force parameter L 2F/EI .3 w -0. clamped at both ends. w(0) = 3 dx dx and the solution is readily found to be EI w=− d2 w (L) = 0.8) to be applicable.14) F 2 x (3L − x).3 Weakly nonlinear theory and buckling Now let us return to the compression of an elastic beam.5 -1.9. The linear model that describes our diving board is dw d3 w (0) = 0. 4.25 191 x 0.6 -0. In Figure 4. and we see that there is excellent agreement with the full nonlinear model provided the deﬂections are reasonably small. and we can see clearly how the force causes the deﬂection to increase.9 Nonlinear beam theory L 1 -0. the angle decreases.9.4.2 -0. 4.13) which can be written in terms of elliptic integrals.13) for α (numerically).25 -0.2 1 -0. EI (4. For small applied forces.75 -1 -0. (4. (b) Deﬂection of a diving board for various values of the force parameter.12) and (4. As the applied force increases. we would expect the linear equation (4.6 0.

9.18) We can try to visualise this behaviour by plotting a response diagram of the magnitude of the solution θ = max |θ| = |A| 0 <s<L (4.9. Such solutions. correspond to buckling of the beam. Also.13) studied previously. Thus the amplitude A of the solution is zero.9. We therefore have to solve the Euler strut equation P d2 θ sin θ = 0. .9. There are several problems with the solution (4.15) the solution L2 P nπs = n2 . A sin (4. When λ = n2 .19).20) The response diagram corresponding to (4. If θ is small.20(a).17) is shown in Figure 4.9. if the applied force slightly exceeds one of the critical values.9.9.192 Approximate theories P = −T0 and zero transverse force. π 2 EI (4. unless P takes one of a discrete set of critical values.9.9.17).16) reduces to the linear eigenvalue problem (4. where n is any integer. if they exist. L2 (4.19) versus the control parameter λ= L2 P . in which case it is arbitrary. and we can read oﬀ from (4.4. exactly the same diagram would have resulted had we used any other sensible norm θ instead of (4. we would expect on physical grounds that the buckling would continue. (4. otherwise. it is easy to show that (4. while .17) θ= L π 2 EI 0. where n is an integer. the solution is not unique.4.16a) This is a nonlinear eigenvalue problem: θ ≡ 0 is always a possibility. + ds2 EI subject to the boundary conditions θ (0) = θ (L) = 0. since its amplitude is indeterminate.9.16b) (4.9. and we are seeking values of the applied force P for which (4.16) admits nonzero solutions. Hence buckling can only occur when P = n2 π 2 EI .

We focus on a neighbourhood of λ = n2 by writing λ = n2 + ελ1 .5 5 7.6 0.9.20). The angle θ is already dimensionless. We therefore need to reintroduce the nonlinearity to resolve the behaviour when λ is close to n2 .9.8 0.21) where Θ is order unity and δ is a small positive parameter that characterises the smallness of θ.5 10 12.9 Nonlinear beam theory 193 |A| (a) |A| 1. 4.2 5 10 15 20 2. if we follow one of the branches λ = n2 .20 (a) Response diagram of the amplitude θ of the linearised solution (4. We also set s = Lξ and thus obtain the non-dimensional model d2 Θ sin(δ Θ) = 0.9. (4.2 1 0. (4. Figure 4.5 15 17.4 (b) 1.22) where λ is again the dimensionless parameter deﬁned by (4. then θ will eventually increase to the point where the linearisation of (4.9.20(a) indicates that the solution instantly reverts to θ ≡ 0.16) is no longer valid. and we must ﬁrst non-dimensionalise the model. the exact nonlinear solution is shown using dashed lines.4 0. To do this systematically requires the use of asymptotic analysis. (4. The vital step is to ﬁnd a relation between these two parameters which yields a balance .9. (b) Corresponding response of the weakly nonlinear solution. We thus have two small parameters in the problem: the amplitude δ of the solution and the deviation ε of λ from its critical value.4.9.23) where ε is a ﬁxed small positive number and λ1 is a control parameter which parametrises the diﬀerence between λ and n2 . + π2 λ 2 dξ δ θ (0) = θ (1) = 0.17) for a buckling beam versus the force parameter λ. These criticisms can be answered by noting that.5 20 λ λ Fig. but it is convenient to deﬁne θ = δ Θ.

However.9.9.27a) is Θ0 = A0 sin (nπξ ) . the only real solution of (4. (4. there are three such solutions: A0 = 0. If we use the assumed smallness of δ to expand the sine in (4.26) By substituting (4.9.9. for example.27b) has no solutions unless the right-hand side satisﬁes a solvability condition. for the deﬁnition of an asymptotic expansion. namely 1 0 λ1 Θ0 − n2 Θ3 0 6 sin (nπξ ) dξ = 0.194 Approximate theories between the compressive loading.29) By substituting for Θ0 from (4. we obtain the following equation for the leading-order amplitude: A0 A2 0− 8λ1 n2 = 0. when we examine the problem for Θ1 .9. characterised by δ . we ﬁnd that d2 Θ0 + n2 π 2 Θ0 = 0.9.9. we can interpret ∼ as meaning approximates increasingly well as ε → 0 . we can already infer from this that the amplitude of the solution will vary as the square root of the excess loading.28) and we seem to have made very little progress from (4. characterised by ε. (4. for √ positive values of λ1 . and the nonlinearity. † see Hinch (1991).25). (4. (4.9.17).9.27a) dξ 2 3 d2 Θ1 2 2 2 2 2 Θ0 .24) and equating successive powers of ε.9. (4. (4. we obtain the Duﬃng equation d2 Θ + π 2 n2 + ελ1 dξ 2 Θ − δ2 Θ3 + ··· 6 = 0.9.30) is A0 = 0 but.22). Θ1 (0) = Θ1 (1) = 0.9. After making the choice (4. for the purposes of this chapter. Θ0 (0) = Θ0 (1) = 0. we ﬁnd that (4.9. we write Θ as an asymptotic expansion of the form† Θ ∼ Θ0 (ξ ) + εΘ1 (ξ ) + · · · . ±(2/n) 2λ1 .9. (4.9.26) into (4.9.9.28).27b) + n π Θ = − π λ Θ + n π 1 1 0 dξ 2 6 The general solution of (4. (4. and the correct choice leads to a so-called weakly nonlinear theory.24) and we clearly see that the required balance is obtained by choosing √ δ = ε.25) Before doing any further calculation.30) When λ1 is negative.

21(a) is the symmetry that we have assumed in our strut model. 4.9.30) into an equation for the amplitude of θ. We can use the argument after (4.16. Working backwards. (b) The corresponding diagram when asymmetry is introduced.10 Nonlinear rod theory 195 (a) A0 stable stable unstable λ1 stable (b) A0 λ1 Fig.9.10 Nonlinear rod theory We are now in a position to generalise and combine the linear rod theory of Section 4. This gives the physically expected result that the amplitude of each buckled solution increases with the excess applied force. We can also see how Figure 4.5 with the nonlinear beam theory of Section 4.21(a).16).4. that is.18. (4. depicted in Figure 4.21 (a) Pitchfork bifurcation diagram of leading-order amplitude A0 versus forcing parameter λ1 .9. see Exercise 4. in which there is a smooth dependence of the solution on the control parameter.20(b). |A| |A|2 − 8 λ −1 n2 = 0. as in Exercise 4.21(a) and can also be explained on the basis of an energy argument. we can easily turn (4. is characteristic of a so-called pitchfork bifurcation. This is exempliﬁed by the re-introduction of gravity in the model as in Exercise 4.31) and this weakly nonlinear response is plotted in Figure 4. This justiﬁes the labelling in Figure 4. 4. For comparison.9 to derive a model for the equilibrium of a rod that can both twist about its tangent vector .20(a) approximates this response for very small |A|.14. This behaviour of A0 as a function of λ1 . Any imperfection or asymmetry in the model would deform the response diagram into something like Figure 4.4. Another key ingredient of bifurcation pictures like Figure 4.18) to show that the solution θ = 0 is stable for λ1 < 0 but loses stability to the nonzero solution as λ1 crosses zero. we also show the response of the full nonlinear solution of (4.21(b).

9.. this system will have rotated by diﬀerent amounts.10. a force balance gives dF = 0.10.1) This equation generalises the ﬁrst two equations of (4.5) agrees with (4. At diﬀerent s-stations.2). e2 . T In linear rod theory. and this is what poses the most interesting modelling challenge. M and r now need to be closed by a constitutive law for M .4) in the appropriate limits.9. ds so that F = F 0 = const. if r (s) parametrises the centre-line of the rod. we will assume that the rod is inextensible so that s is eﬀectively a Lagrangian variable. 2.196 Approximate theories and bend in two perpendicular directions. where x = s to lowest order. Ω3 )T represents the “angular velocity” of the orthonormal system {e1 . we write r = x. ds (4. Ω3 to bending.10. we consider what happens to a Lagrangian orthonormal system ei (s) (i = 1.1). 3) as the rod deforms.. (4.10. the orthonormal vectors ei may be . This leads us to propose a linear constitutive relation between M and Ω. so that M = BΩ (4. of the rod.10.2) The equations (4. v (x). the vector Ω = (Ω1 .9.2) gives dM + ds dr ×F ds = 0. (4.2) for the vectors F . (4.3) with e2 and e3 deﬁning the normal plane.5. (4. Neglecting body forces for simplicity.10.5.4) Thinking of s as time for the moment. This system is ﬁxed in the rod and we choose e1 (s) = dr .10. then a moment balance analogous to the ﬁnal equation of (4. s being arc-length along the centre-line. with Ω1 corresponding to twisting of the rod about its axis and Ω2 . ds (4. Instead of adopting the usual diﬀerential geometry deﬁnition of curvature.10. Also. so that M + r ×F 0 = M 0 = const. We let F and M denote the force and moment exerted on any cross-section s = const. e3 }.5) for some 3 × 3 matrix B .5). w(x) . Ω2 . As in Section 4. whose elements we will choose to ensure that (4. and we infer that there exists a vector Ω(s) such that dei = Ω(s)×ei (s).9. When we neglect quadratic terms.9) and (4.

10. M .4) and correspond to Ω= dθ d2 w d2 v .5) comprise a formidable system of 15 equations for F . Consider a rigid body rotating about a ﬁxed origin 0 such that one principal axis e1 at 0 passes through the centre of gravity which is a distance h from 0. dt dt where ω is the angular velocity. e2 .5). θ dx T .10) Provided the beam is symmetric so that Iyz = 0. s with t. It is easy to check that these are consistent with (4. so that (4. these equations are simply (4. e3 = − T dw .10. e2 = − dv . 1. (4.8) 0 −E Iyz E Izz in the notation of Section 4.4). r .9) . (4.10.10. e1 = 0 .10.5. e3 are the other principal axes.5) with B given by (4.2) and (4.10. H is the angular momentum.10. W is the weight and I the inertia tensor. ei and Ω.10. (4. H with M . 0. When we identify ω with Ω. dv dw . dx (4.− 2 . The equations of motion for such a body are dei dH H = Iω . Hence our knowledge .8) thus reduces to the constitutive relation (4.10 Nonlinear rod theory 197 written in the form e1 = 1.9. there is a wonderful analogy that relieves us of the task of discussing the behaviour of this system.6) where θ measures the twist of the rod about the x-axis. sin θ 0 cos θ and we easily ﬁnd that Ω= 0. (4. −θ. dx dx T .10. (4. we write r = x(s).1)–(4.9) by choosing R 0 0 B = 0 E Iyy −E Iyz .7) Now we see that we can reproduce (4.10. = he1 ×W . 2 dx dx dx T . dθ . 1 .11) = ω ×ei .10.4) for a nonlinear beam.5.10. e2 = 1 . w(s) cos θ 0 − sin θ e1 = 0 .4.10. crucially. The relations (4.5. Fortunately. To retrieve nonlinear beam theory.5) and (4. (4.0 ds T T .10. hW with F and.

11.1) replaced by ρ ∂F ∂2r .22. as illustrated in Figure 4. Now we identify the moment δM with b∂M/∂x. We therefore ﬁnd that θ satisﬁes ∂2θ ∂2θ (4. gyroscopes and “inertia coupling” in classical mechanics can be used to explain the often infuriating coupling between torsion and bending that is only too familiar to those who have to wind cables and garden hoses. 4. the model for which is precisely as above with d/ds replaced by ∂/∂s and (4. we will simply describe a few nonlinear models that are relatively easy to derive and posess interesting exact solutions. such a conﬁguration can be realised by attaching paper clips to a taut segment of a rubber band. This Kirchhoﬀ analogy disappears when we consider the dynamics of a rod subject to a body force g . A net moment balance.† To model this situation.10. leads to .22(b).8) for torsional waves in a rod.11 Geometrically nonlinear wave propagation When we include nonlinear eﬀects in models for elastic wave propagation.11.5.10.12) 4. Brooke Benjamin for drawing this experiment to our attention. In practice.5.1 Gravity-torsional waves Our ﬁrst example of nonlinear wave propagation is a generalisation to include gravity in the model (4. as shown in Figure 4. we will try to model the waves that can propagate when a series of rigid pendulums is attached to a rod which is stiﬀ but has negligible mass. T. .11. we suppose that each pendulum is acted upon by a moment δM at its point of support. we will rarely be able to ﬁnd explicit solutions. In particular. where b is the spacing between the pendulums and ∂M/∂x is given by the constitutive relation (4.2) bR 2 = mg sin θ + m 2 2 . = ρg + 2 ∂t ∂s (4. Hence. in this section.1) ∂t2 where θ(x.9).198 Approximate theories about spinning tops. t) is the angle between the pendulum and the downward vertical while m and are the mass and length of the pendulum respectively. (4. ∂x ∂t δM = mg sin θ + m † 2∂ 2θ We are grateful to the late Prof. where the paper clips are drawn as pendulums.

4. even though their speed depends on their amplitude.11.6) Since (4. we can ﬁnd them by setting θ to be a function only of η = x − vt.11.11 Geometrically nonlinear wave propagation 199 (a) b z (b) δM z y x mg Fig. (4. it is not physically realisable and only . localised travelling waves exist that exhibit strong stability properties. (b) Transverse view deﬁning the angle θ(x. in which θ → const.5) approaches the unstable solutions θ = ±π .11.3). in which the paper clips are upright. (4.11.5) when (4.11. where the wave speed v is constant.3) is reduced to the nonlinear ordinary diﬀerential equation d2 θ + sin θ = 0. y θ which can easily be rescaled to the sine–Gordon equation ∂2θ ∂2θ − + sin θ = 0. Such localised waves are called solitons and.11.4.11. Then (4. t). Moreover. see for instance Drazin & Johnson (1989).This means that it can be solved explicitly for any given initial data on −∞ < x < ∞ by using inverse scattering theory .4) v2 − 1 dη 2 If we seek an isolated soliton solution. (4.11. they can pass through each other virtually unscathed.4) are θ = 4 tan−1 tanh or θ = 4 tan−1 exp η − η0 √ 2 v2 − 1 η −η √0 1 − v2 when |v | > 1 |v | < 1. then the only possible solutions of (4.3) ∂t2 ∂x2 This is one of the most famous completely integrable nonlinear partial diﬀerential equations.22 (a) A system of pendulums attached to a twisting rubber band. as η → ±∞. for (4. as η → ±∞.

(4. The displacement of the beam is now given parametrically by x = x(s. ∂s2 (4. as in (4. where.11. As in Section 4. When we include acceleration.9.9. the force balances (4. In these so-called kink solutions.3). 4. = sin θ. as shown in Figure 4.11.1. with all the paper clips dangling vertically.200 Approximate theories t=0 z y t=1 t=2 x Fig.7) ∂s ∂s and θ(s. for example.22 by holding the rubber band tight and horizontal.2) become ∂ ∂2x (T cos θ − N sin θ) = .8) to nonlinear ordinary diﬀerential equations.6) can be observed in practice. t) is the angle made by the beam with the x-axis. with θ = 0 ahead of the wave (η → +∞) and θ = 2π behind (η → −∞). t).11. which may be . We also postulate the boundary conditions T → T∞ .11. the subsonic waves (4. we reduce (4. N → 0. we can still seek a travelling wave solution in which x. t). They can easily be realised in the system illustrated in Figure 4.2 Travelling waves on a beam Our second example concerns the unsteady generalisation of the geometrically nonlinear beam theory derived in Section 4. θ → 0. the rod undergoes one complete twist. to a long taut rope that had been shaken brieﬂy at one end. 4.11. ∂s ∂t2 where N = −EI ∂2w ∂ (N cos θ + T sin θ) = . w→0 as s → ∞.11. and then quickly twisting one end through 2π . w = w(x.9) Although this is a more complicated model than (4. (4.11.23. x ∼ s.8) ∂s ∂t2 ∂2θ .23 A kink propagating along a series of pendulums attached to a rod.1).10) which would apply.11. (4.9. T . N and θ are functions only of η = s − vt. by looking for a travelling wave.11. ∂w ∂x = cos θ. w.

11.11. there is a solution connecting θ → 0 as η → +∞ to θ → 2π as η → −∞. on the amplitude. where k= T∞ (1 − M 2 ).11.14).11. we see that. The multivaluedness of w(x) is only physically realistic if the rope is allowed to deform slightly out of the (x. T∞ dη 2 (4.11.11. As shown in Figure 4.24 Travelling wave solution of the nonlinear beam equations (with k = 1).15) for the shape of the rope. EI (4.11.13) N= v 2 − T∞ sin θ.14). as long as M < 1. namely θ = 4 tan−1 ek (η0 −η ) .11. and (4. we can integrate (4.11 Geometrically nonlinear wave propagation 201 w -2 -1 -0. where ξ = k (η − η0 ).4. T sin θ + N cos θ = v 2 sin θ. and M is the Mach number of the wave. (4. propagating at speed v which depends. .12) where M = |v | /T∞ .5 1 2 x -1 -1. (4. With θ given by (4. By analogy with (4.9) therefore becomes EI d2 θ + M 2 − 1 sin θ = 0. z )-plane. through (4.24. integrated to obtain T cos θ − N sin θ = v 2 (cos θ − 1) + T∞ .11) Hence the tension and shear force are given by T = v 2 + T∞ − v 2 cos θ. this represents a single loop.5 -2 v Fig. in which the rope turns through 2π . 4.14) where the constant η0 represents an arbitrary translation.4).7) to obtain the parametric description x w = 1 k ξ − 2 tanh ξ −2 sech ξ (4.11. We recall from Chapter 3 that T∞ / is the phase velocity of small-amplitude transverse waves on a string.11.

where T∞ is the tension applied at inﬁnity as before.11. we will now show that. by transforming from (s.7)–(4.11. To analyse this limit. it will transpire that this equation is closely related to one of the most famous of all soliton equations. we appear to be confronted with the full system (4.11.11.17) with the normal stress on the left-hand side.11. ζ ξ T = T∞ T . ∂ζ ∂w = sin θ.9) become ∂x = cos θ. ∂ξ ∂W = sin θ.11.20) . (4. T . We observe that (4. N and θ. However.13) is degenerate when EI = 0 and M 2 = 1: when the beam has zero bending stiﬀness.11. This motivates us to seek a “distinguished limit” in which the bending stiﬀness is small but nonzero and the wave is approximately moving at speed c = T∞ / . Moreover.16).11. We denote by a typical amplitude of the wave and obtain a suitable scaling for N from (4. dispersion and nonlinearity.18) become ∂X = cos θ. ∂ξ (4.17) (4.11.7)–(4. The relevant time-scale is then found by balancing the ﬁnal term in (4. t). ∂ζ N = −EI ∂2θ . t) to (ζ.202 Approximate theories 4.11.19) so that (4.18) ∂ (T − T∞ ) cos θ − N sin θ = ∂ζ ∂ N cos θ + (T − T∞ ) sin θ = ∂ζ ∂2x ∂2x . so that (4. ∂ζ 2 (4.3 Weakly nonlinear waves on a beam If we wish to analyse general unsteady deformations of a beam.11. our ﬁrst step is to express the equations in a moving reference frame. we can obtain a single partial diﬀerential equation incorporating all the ingredients of unsteadiness. where ζ = s − ct.11. when the solution is close to a travelling wave.11.9) of nonlinear equations for x.16) (4. θ can be an arbitrary function of s − ct.11. − 2c 2 ∂t ∂ζ∂t ∂2w ∂2w . − 2 c ∂t2 ∂ζ∂t Now we have to non-dimensionalise the equations before we can take a systematic asymptotic limit. w.11. EI 2 N= N. We thus deﬁne the dimensionless variables as x X w = W .16)–(4. t= 2c 3 EI τ.

θ → 0. to ∂W 1 ∂X cos θ + sin θ = ∂τ ∂τ 2 ∂θ ∂ξ 2 .11. (4.27) We solve these simultaneously for T1 and N and substitute into (4. + ∂ξ 2 ∂τ ∂τ (4.2.11. and this motivates the ansatz T ∼ 1 + εT1 + · · · . we ﬁnd that the leading-order equations may be integrated once with respect to ξ . ∂τ T1 sin θ + N cos θ + ∂W = 0.11. N → 0.26) into (4. − ε 4 ∂τ 2 ∂ξ∂τ N =− (4.11.11.11. ∂ξ 2 ∂2X ε2 ∂ 2 X . When ε = 0.22) and (4.11. as in Section 4. (4.21) to obtain ∂W ∂ 2 θ ∂X sin θ − cos θ = 0.11. X ∼ ξ.11. from (4.23) and let ε → 0.25) Now we take the limit ε → 0. which corresponds to the bending stiﬀness of the beam being small.20) for θ(ξ. τ ) and W (ξ.21) (4.11.11. so that T → 1. (4.11. When we multiply (4.23) are satisﬁed identically by T = 1. τ ).11. (4.22) (4.11 Geometrically nonlinear wave propagation 203 ∂ ∂ξ ∂ ∂ξ ∂2θ .24) We suppose. T∞ 2 (4.25). ∂τ (4.11.20) that it may be integrated with respect to ξ . to obtain T1 cos θ − N sin θ + ∂X = 0. τ ).26) When we substitute (4.11. that the beam is held straight and horizontal. X (ξ.28) which is to be solved along with (4. − ε (T − 1) cos θ − εN sin θ = 4 ∂τ 2 ∂ξ∂τ ε2 ∂ 2 W ∂2W εN cos θ + (T − 1) sin θ = .11.23) where the only remaining dimensionless parameter in the problem is ε= EI .11.25).11.11. W →0 as ξ → ∞.29) . using the boundary conditions (4. under a uniform tension at inﬁnity.4.22) and (4.11. A remarkable ﬁrst integration is now possible which allows us to eliminate X and W to obtain a single equation for θ.28) by ∂θ/∂ξ we discover by virtue of (4. leading.11.

By reversing the scalings (4.11.204 Approximate theories On the other hand.30) ∂θ 1 ∂θ 3 ∂ 3 θ − − 3 = 0. in which θ is again a function only of η = s − V t.3.21.32) EI c ∂t ∂s 2 ∂s ∂s Now if we seek a travelling wave.11. we have emphasised phenomena that can occur when there is some strong geometric constraint of “thinness”. EI dη (4. This challenge is exempliﬁed by the fact that. 4.11. we will see in Chapter 6 that it can only be derived systematically .11.11. we obtain the dimensional version of (4.11.11. (4. then we obtain the ordinary diﬀerential equation d3 θ 1 + dη 3 2 dθ dη 3 − dθ 2T∞ (1 − M ) = 0. and hence the possibility of geometric nonlinearity. namely 1 ∂θ 3 ∂ 3 θ 2T∞ 1 ∂θ ∂θ + − − 3 = 0.2) is an apparently “physically obvious” paradigm for linear wave propagation.12 Concluding remarks In this chapter.11.31) with respect to ξ . we ﬁnd that the equation satisﬁed by ∂θ/∂ξ is a version of the modiﬁed KdV equation. we ﬁnd that ∂W ∂θ ∂ 3 θ ∂θ ∂X cos θ + sin θ = − 3. although (4. comparing (4.11.30).20).29) and (4.11. ∂ξ ∂τ ∂τ ∂τ ∂ξ Finally. The KdV equation was originally used to model large-amplitude water waves. what is more remarkable than the phenomena themselves is the mathematical challenge posed by passing from a fully three-dimensional model to simpler models for nearly one. As shown in Exercise 4. and its study provided a key stimulus for the theory of solitons. noting that κ is the leading-order approximation to k as M → 1. where κ= 2T∞ (1 − M ) . However.or twodimensional solids. which can itself be transformed into the celebrated KdV equation (see Exercise 4. the solution of this equation satisfying θ → 0 as η → +∞ and θ → 2π as η → −∞ is θ = 4 tan−1 eκ(η0 −η ) . we obtain (4. EI (4.33) where M = V /c again. (4.19).11.28) with respect to ξ .31).11. again using (4. if we instead diﬀerentiate (4.11.34) We thus reproduce the travelling wave solution (4.14) found previously.31) ∂τ 2 ∂ξ ∂ξ If we diﬀerentiate (4.20).

rather than itself being thin. We will discuss such geometries in Chapter 7 and use them to model cracks and contact problems between elastic bodies that are pressed together. Justify the following model for the lateral displacement w(x) of a strut of length L.3. tension T and suﬃciently small bending stiﬀness EI are. ωn ∼ 4. which we will present in Chapters 5 and 6. as shown in Figure 4. with line density .2) implicitly relied on the string being extensible. L3 T A beam of length L is simply supported at its two ends x = 0 and x = L and subject to zero tensile force. yet no mention was made of Young’s modulus. dx w(L) = dw (L) = 0. Assuming that the weight of the beam itself .2) for beams relied on the “physically obvious” assumption that the centre line was inextensible. Why is this value diﬀerent from that found in Section 4. clamped at a distance < L from the edge of a horizontal table. we note that there is another class of problems where the geometry suggests that a mathematical simpliﬁcation may be possible. simply supported at either end. Finally. approximately.9.10? Consider a beam of length L. clamped at its two ends and compressed by a force P : P dw d3 w = 0. Exercises 4. equally (4. our model (4. This is when the elastic body contains a thin void. which it clearly could not be were Young’s modulus suﬃciently small.25. Geometric nonlinearity and inextensibility are both concepts that can be properly understood only by a more thorough mathematical approach. with a weight F hung from the other end. Similarly. + 3 dx EI dx w(0) = dw (0) = 0.1 Show that the natural frequencies of a piano string of length L.4 Find the minimum force P required for w to be nonzero.2 nπ L T + n3 π 3 EI √ . dx 4.3 and deduce that the maximum transverse deﬂection is 5 g/384EI . Show that its displacement as it sags under gravity is given by w=− g x(L − x) L2 + Lx − x2 24EI 4.Exercises 205 from the equations of nonlinear three-dimensional elasticity.

Show that the reaction force is given by R = (3L − )F/2 and that the displacement is w(x) = F 24EI 6(L − )x2 ( − x). Show that the dimensionless reaction force R is equal to 1/2 and .26. 4. 3 dx EI where δ is the Dirac delta-function and the reaction force R is to be determined from the contact condition w( ) = 0. is negligible compared with F and that the transverse displacement w(x) is small.206 Approximate theories z R x 111111111 000000000 000000000 111111111 000000000 111111111 000000000 111111111 F Fig. 2 x< . Consider a beam of length L that is simply supported at two points and allowed to sag under its own weight. ( − x) 3(L − )(3L − ) − (2x − 3L + ) . dx4 d3 w dw d2 w d3 w (0) = (0) = (1 / 2) = (1/2) = w(β/2) = 0. dx2 w(0) = dw (0) = 0. dx d3 w F (L) = . as shown in Figure 4. Derive the following dimensionless model for the vertical displacement w(x) of the beam: d4 w = Rδ (x − β ). 4. The supports are assumed to be a distance < L apart and to be symmetric about the middle of the beam. justify the following model: d4 w R δ (x − ). dx dx3 dx2 dx3 where β = /L and δ is the Dirac delta-function.5 Find the maximum magnitude of the slope |dw/dx| and deduce that these results are valid provided F L(L − )/EI 1. x> . = 4 dx EI d2 w (L) = 0.25 A beam clamped near the edge of a table.

where the maximum displacement at x = 0 is given by U = JcT /EA. 4. u ct − x = . where H is the Heaviside function deﬁned in (3. x − ct < −cT. Using the approach of Section 4. Longitudinal waves in a bar of section A. the fracture strength of a metal bar is determined by the impulse that must be applied for a piece to be ejected from x = L. [This is the basis of the Hopkinson bar test. as T → 0 with U kept ﬁxed.7 . Deduce that.Exercises 207 g z x L Fig. Solve for w(x) and plot the solution as β is varied.6 explain this result physically. where T < L/c.4. 0 < x − ct. U cT 0. Hence show that the compressive incident wave reﬂects as a tensile wave.4.2.7). Show that an incident wave u = f (x − ct) impinging on the stressfree boundary at x = L gives rise to a reﬂected wave f (2L − x − ct). Show that 1. −cT < x − ct < 0.26 A beam supported at two points. then it sags down in the middle and its ends move upwards. for 0 < t < L/c. 4. the resulting displacement after the ﬁrst reﬂection from x = L is u = U H(ct − x) + H(x + ct − 2L) . if β is small.] An elastic beam of bending stiﬀness EI and line density is subject to a large compressive force P . Explore how the behaviour varies between these two limits. The ends x = 0 and x = L are stress-free except for an impulsive compressive force J applied at x = 0 for 0 < t < T . Young’s modulus E and length L are modelled by (4. The bar is initially unstressed and at rest. Show that.5. 4.4). if β is close to 1. then the beam sags down at its ends and goes up in the middle while.

6. show that Msn .1) For the special case in which we wish w to be given by w = − a2 − r2 r2 − 7+ν 2 a 1+ν 2 + 12a4 (1 + ν )2 . 24(7 − ν ) (5 + ν )a2 − (1 + ν )r2 . − cos θ).16) and (4.208 Approximate theories 4.] Writing (nx . Suppose a strand of unand grow over a time-scale t ∼ cooked spaghetti is held vertically while a 1 kg weight is placed on the upper end. [Typical parameter values for spaghetti are ≈ 2 × 10−3 kg m−1 . show that the only solution D(r) of (E4.6. 2 (E4.8 show that the most unstable waves have wave-length 2π 2EI/P √ EI/P . ∂y 1 + κn ∂s ∂n where the curvature of the boundary is κ = dθ/ds. 4. Now use the chain rules cos θ ∂ ∂ ∂ = + sin θ . may be written as Msn = ∂2w Eh3 2(1 − ν ) sin θ cos θ 12 (1 − ν 2 ) ∂x∂y 2 2 ∂ w ∂2w ∂2w ∂ w 2 sin + ν θ − ν + − ∂x2 ∂y 2 ∂x2 ∂y 2 cos2 θ . as given by (4. ny ) = (sin θ.8).6. EI ≈ 1.9 Hence obtain the conditions (4.5 × 10−4 N m2 . ∂x 1 + κn ∂s ∂n ∂ sin θ ∂ ∂ = − cos θ .17) that apply on a simply supported boundary.1) that is bounded as r → a is D= (1 + ν )ςg . Explain why it will shatter into fragments roughly 1 cm long. Show that the steady sag of a cylindrically symmetric plate with non-uniform bending stiﬀness D(r) is governed by the equation dD dr r d2 w dw +ν 2 dr dr + Dr d dr d2 w 1 dw + dr2 r dr =− ςgr2 . to show that Msn = − Eh3 12 (1 − ν 2 ) ∂2w ∂2w ∂w + ν + νκ ∂n2 ∂n ∂s2 .

xy yy ∂x2 ∂x∂y ∂y 2 ∂t2 ∂Txy ∂Txy ∂Tyy ∂Txx + = + = 0. ∞ −∞ ∂η ∂x ∂2w ∂2w + ν ∂x2 ∂y 2 −η ∂3w ∂3w + (2 − ν ) ∂x3 ∂x∂y 2 dy = 0.23) is δU = D Ω |w|.6. 4.1. y ). y ) + w(x. ∂x ∂y ∂x ∂y 4.6. y ) = W (x.8. ∂K0 /∂y . Deduce that ∇4 w = 0 when U is minimised with respect to variations in w. when Ω is the half-space x > 0 and all variables are assumed to decay at inﬁnity.Exercises 209 4.11 Deduce that (4.19) are the natural boundary conditions for the minimisation. show that the transverse displacement and in-plane stress resultants satisfy Txx ∂2w ∂2f ∂2f ∂2f 4 + T + 2 T − D ∇ w − ςg = ς .8) successively with respect to x and y . so that it is deformed to z = f (x. y ). the change ∇2 w ∇2 η ∂2w ∂2η ∂2w ∂2η ∂2w ∂2η + − 2 ∂x2 ∂y 2 ∂y 2 ∂x2 ∂x∂y ∂x∂y dxdy. − ∂y 2 ∂x ∂x∂y ∂y ∂x2 ∂y ∂x∂y ∂x T − (1 − ν ) div dxdy. initially given by z = W (x. when w is changed to w + η . Following the approach adopted in Section 4.12 where the surface density ς is assumed to be constant. Show that.6.10 Show that. where |η | in the net strain energy given by (4. show that it can be transformed into the quasi-linear system q p 0 −2s ∂ ∂x −2s 0 p + q p q ∂ ∂y p q = ∂K0 /∂x . By diﬀerentiating (4. − (1 − ν ) and show this can be written as δU = D Ω η ∇4 w + div ∇2 w∇η − η ∇(∇2 w) ∂ 2 w ∂η ∂ 2 w ∂η ∂ 2 w ∂η ∂ 2 w ∂η − . undergoes a transverse displacement w(x. y ). Suppose the centre-surface of a weakly-curved shell.

16a). where s is arc-length. the tension T and the shear force N in the beam: d (T cos θ − N sin θ) = 0. subject to a body force − g k per unit length. q = ∂ 2 f /∂y 2 and s = ∂ 2 f /∂x∂y . .13 and deduce that the system is hyperbolic if and only if K0 is negative. leads to the Euler strut equation (4. w) = (d. Suppose the centre-line of the beam makes an angle θ(s) with the x-axis. with bending stiﬀness EI . show that the string is a catenary.210 Approximate theories where p = ∂ 2 f /∂x2 . sagging under gravity and pinned at (x. Hence show that the characteristics are given by −s ± s2 − pq dy = . 0). L and deduce an equation for tan θ0 . ds EI d (T sin θ + N cos θ) = g. 0) and (x. ds d2 θ = N. Show further that 2x − d tan θ0 = sinh−1 (tan θ) .9. where θ0 is the angle made by the string with the horizontal line at s = 0. Show that tan θ(s) = tan θ0 1 − 2s L . Finally. Use the calculus of variations to show that minimisation of the functional L U [θ] = 0 EI 2 dθ ds 2 − (1 − cos θ)P ds. Derive the following equations for θ. Give physical interpretations of the terms in the integrand. given by w= 4. ds2 Consider the special case of a string of length L with zero bending stiﬀness. w) = (0. subject to the boundary conditions θ(0) = θ(L) = 0. dx q 4. Consider a thin two-dimensional elastic beam.14 L 2 tan θ0 cosh 2x − d tan θ0 L − cosh d tan θ0 L .

16 and θ varies between −α and 0. y = y (θ). Compare these exact solutions with the small-ε approximation. Deduce that θ = 0 is a local minimiser of U . the solution may be approximated asymptotically by θ ∼ ε ξ2 −ξ 2 + ε2 Θ1 + O ε4 . Hence ﬁnd and plot the leading-order shape of the board.17) is approximately U [θ ] ≈ π 2 EIA2 2 n −λ . ds Non-dimensionalise the problem and show that it depends on a single dimensionless parameter ε = F L2 /EI . Consider a beam of length L and mass per unit length. y (θ) = − √ sin α − sin φ 2ε 0 4. show that θ is related to ξ by −θ √ dφ √ = ξ 2ε. where x(θ) = √ 2 √ sin α − sin α + sin θ . and Θ1 (ξ ) is to be found. dθ (L) = 0. θ(0) = 0.9. sin α − sin φ 0 Deduce that the dimensionless shape of the board is given parametrically by x = x(θ). where ξ = s/L. Show that. Derive the following model for the deﬂection θ(s) of a diving board clamped horizontally at one end while a downward force F is applied on the other: d2 θ = ds2 F EI cos θ. If ε is not assumed to be small. sin α − sin φ 0 where α is to be determined from α √ dφ √ = 2ε. and hence stable. only if λ < 1. when ε is small.15 where λ = L2 P/π 2 EI . clamped horizontally at each end and sagging under gravity. If a horizontal . ε −θ 1 sin φ dφ √ .Exercises 211 Show that the value of U [θ] corresponding to the solution (4. 4L 4. Hence plot the shape of the board for various values of ε.

17 By following the non-dimensionalisation of Section 4. EI show that the orthogonality condition (4. so that θ = π/2 + φ.3 and assuming that gL3 β= = O ε3 / 2 . dξ 2 The solutions of Airy’s equation with zero slope at ξ = 0 are √ φ=a 3 Ai(ξ ) + Bi(ξ ) .16) becomes. Show that the beam can buckle upwards only if λ 4 + 3β 3/2 /2π 2 . 4. (L) = 0. .212 Approximate theories compressive force P and equal vertical forces are applied at either end. EI d2 θ L + P sin θ + g s − 2 ds 2 cos θ = 0. θ(0) = θ(L) = 0. ξ = (s − L) EI EI show that φ satisﬁes Airy’s equation d2 φ − ξφ = 0. β=L . where Ai and Bi are Airy functions (Abramowitz & Stegun.30) becomes nπ 16β 8λ1 = − 3/2 2 2 cos2 . 1972. −N (0) = N (L) = 2 and deduce that the Euler strut equation (4. for nontrivial solutions.9. draw the resulting response diagram and compare it with the case β = 0. A0 A2 0− 2 n 2 ε n π For n = 2. Show that the shear force in the beam is N = g (s − L) cos θ and hence obtain the model dθ d2 θ EI (s − L) cos θ = 0. Deduce that.9. T (0) = T (L) = −P. A beam of length L and line density is clamped vertically upwards at one end (s = 0) and free at the other (s = L). + 2 ds g ds Now suppose the beam is only slightly perturbed from the vertical. Section 10. Deﬁning 1 / 3 g 1/3 g .4) and a is an arbitrary constant.9. θ(0) = π/2. derive the boundary conditions gL . β must satisfy √ 3 Ai(−β ) + Bi(−β ) = 0. where |φ| 1.

25 0.986. Derive the model −EI ∂2w ∂4w + F ( t ) δ ( x ) = . 4.6 0.05 0. w(x.16) satisﬁes θ 0 ˆ 2) sin2 (θ/ 1− sin2 ( θ /2) −1 / 2 ˆ= dθ 2πs L √ λ sin( θ /2) and deduce that the nth branch of the response diagram is given implicitly by λ= 4n2 K sin2 ( θ /2) π2 2 . for example by taking a Fourier transform in x. 4.2 0.27 The ﬁrst three buckling modes of a vertically clamped beam.4 0. 4.] Show that the exact solution of the buckling problem (4. [See Figure 4. Section 8.27 for a plot of the ﬁrst three buckling modes. 0) = 0.15 0.8 0.Exercises 213 2 z 1 3 n=1 0. 1994. Thus ﬁnd the maximum height of a column (or a rebellious hair) before it buckles under its own weight. 0) = ∂t w→0 as x → ±∞ and. show that the . ∂x4 ∂t2 ∂w (x.1 0.3 x Fig.19 where K denotes an elliptic integral (Gradshteyn & Ryzhik.1). An inﬁnite beam initially lying at rest along the x-axis is subject to a transverse point force F (t) acting at the origin.2 0.9.18 and show (numerically) that the minimum value of β satisfying this condition is βc ≈ 1.

] Start from the equation (4.31) for weakly nonlinear waves on a beam. τ ) = u2 − i 4.20 [This is a simple model for the action of a lawn-mower blade on a grass stalk. If the origin is forced to move at speed V . ∂τ ∂z ∂z 3 v (ζ.11. 2T∞ (1 − M ) .11.214 Approximate theories displacement of the origin is related to the applied force by w(0.33) by d2 θ/dη 2 . . obtain the general solution θ = const. obtain the ﬁrst integral d2 θ dη 2 where κ= By using the substitution dθ = ±2κ sech φ(η ) . t) = √ 1 2π (EI 3 )1 / 4 0 t √ F (τ ) t − τ dτ. show that the required force is F (t) = 2V EI 3 1/4 2 . t) = V t.21 By multiplying (4. τ ). EI 2 + 1 4 dθ dη 4 − κ2 dθ dη 2 = 0. πt 4. If ∂θ/∂ξ = 2u(z. where z = −ξ . ∂τ ∂z ∂z Show that the Miura transform ∂u ∂z converts the mKdV equation into the Korteweg–de Vries (KdV) equation ∂v ∂ 3 v ∂v + 6v + = 0. so w(0. ± 4 tan−1 eκ(η0 −η ) . show that u satisﬁes the modiﬁed KdV (mKdV) equation ∂u ∂ 3 u ∂u + 6u2 + 3 = 0. or of a razor blade on a bristle. dη or otherwise.

As a ﬁrst step in addressing this diﬃculty. so the strain is a nonlinear function of the displacement gradients. 2005). in which the stress is a nonlinear function of the strain. Models for such materials require mechanically nonlinear elasticity. For mechanically nonlinear materials.6). can be greatly simpliﬁed for hyperelastic materials for which the stress is related to 215 .4.1 Introduction In Chapters 2 and 3.6.5 Nonlinear elasticity 5. which can suﬀer large strain and still remain elastic (see Treloar. such laws are far less easy to specify than (1. As indicated in Section 1. which were derived in Chapter 1 under the two assumptions that underpin linear elasticity. The second assumption behind linear elasticity is that the stress is a linear function of the strain. This inevitably leads to the further complication that the Lagrangian and Eulerian variables may no longer be approximated as equal. allowing a self-consistent constitutive law to be imposed between them. This is a reasonable approximation for small strains.7. we will revisit the concepts of stress and strain. we assumed that we could discard the nonlinear terms in the relation (1. First.5) between strain and displacement. Finally we will show how the nonlinear theory. we have analysed solutions of the steady and unsteady Navier equations. but it does not work well for materials such as rubber. the fundamental diﬃculty to be confronted is that the balance of stresses is performed in the deformed state. and we will see that great care has to be taken to avoid models that allow unphysical behaviour. while the constitutive relation must be imposed relative to the reference conﬁguration. We will show how they may both be expressed in a Lagrangian frame of reference. be it mechanical or geometric or both. Geometrically nonlinear elasticity concerns large deformations in which these terms are not negligible.

4).9.2. it therefore follows that C = F T ∂xi = Pik Fkj ∂Xj (5.2.216 Nonlinear elasticity the strain via the partial derivatives of an appropriate strain energy density. 5. is called the Green deformation tensor. F = P F.8) . in matrix notation.2.1 Deformation and strain We begin by recalling the analysis of strain from Section 1.2) (5.2.2. where C = F T F.2. so that each point x is further displaced to x = c + P x. and these are related by the chain rule dxi = Fij dXj .2) and thus obtain the new deformation gradient as Fij = or.3) (5. The change in the length of the small element dX is thus given by |dx|2 = dX T C dX . Now suppose that a rigid-body motion is superimposed. An inﬁnitesimal line element dX is transformed to dx under the deformation.4) and C . It is a straightforward matter to substitute for x into (5.4. thereby generalising (1. (5. which will shortly be shown to be a tensor.2 Stress and strain revisited 5. using the same notation that a particle at position X in the undeformed reference state is displaced to a new position x(X ) in the deformed state.1) where the vector c and orthogonal matrix P are constant. where the deformation gradient tensor is deﬁned by F = (Fij ) = (∂xi /∂Xj ) . From the orthogonality of P . (5.2. Recall that X and x are referred to as Lagrangian and Eulerian variables respectively.2.2.6) (5.2.7) F = F T F = C.5) (5. (5.

namely |dx|2 − |dX |2 = 2dX T E dX . (5.2. We will ﬁnd that B is more natural than C as a measure of deformation for an observer using Eulerian coordinates x. (5. . more commonly.2.13) shows how the stretch of line elements in the continuum depends on E . Nonetheless. 2 2 By construction.2. E is a symmetric tensor which is objective. the Finger tensor.9) where the vector c and orthogonal matrix Q are constant.2.2. by which we mean that it has the same deﬁnition after arbitrary rotation of the axes. We are therefore led to deﬁne the strain tensor E = (Eij ). is invariant under any superimposed rigid-body motion of the material.5.3). Now the chain rule gives F = ∂xi ∂Xj = F QT (5.14) This is called the left Green deformation tensor or. suppose we perform a rigid-body motion on the material before applying the deformation.2. To connect with Chapter 1. let us note that if the displacement from X to x is a rigid-body motion.2 Stress and strain revisited 217 so that C .10) and the corresponding Green deformation tensor is thus C = F T F = QC QT . C is equal to the identity matrix I . hence. written in the form (1.12) F TF − I . We do not want the reader to drown under a deluge of new notations in this introduction. where 1 1 E = (C − I ) = (5.2. (5.4.11) This demonstrates that C transforms as a tensor under transformations of the reference conﬁguration. namely B = F F T. (5. where X = c + QX . In other words we consider the transformation X → x(X ). and is zero for a rigid-body displacement. Also (5.4). we note for future reference that another deformation tensor can also be used. then F is orthogonal and. On the other hand. unlike F .

5.2. these must be related by dv = J dV .1). since the Jacobian J = det (()F ) measures the local volume change at any point. let us ﬁnd how the surface element da is related to the area dA that it occupied in the reference state.7. (5.18) . (5. with base da and axis dx.17) When we apply this result to the expression (5. we obtain df = det (F ) τ F T −1 dA.218 dX N Nonlinear elasticity dx n dA da Fig.2. As a ﬁrst step. (5.2.2.2.1 The deformation of a small scalene cylinder. is given by df = τ n da. as deﬁned in Chapter 1.1. One way to do this is to consider a small scalene cylinder in the reference state. we will need to impose a constitutive relation between the stress and the strain tensor E .16) in which the vector element dX is arbitrary.2.15) where τ = (τij ) is the Cauchy stress tensor. with area da and normal n. 5. The volumes of the two cylinders are given by dV = dX · dA and dv = dx · da respectively and.15) for the force on a small area element. As in Section 1. (5. As shown in Figure 5. this will be deformed to a new cylinder.2 The Piola–Kirchhoﬀ stress tensors The elastic force exerted on a surface element da = n da in the deformed medium. We therefore obtain dx · da = dX · F T da = J dX · dA. so the area elements are related by da = det (F ) F T −1 dA. with base dA and axis dX . which is related to dX by (5. and this requires us to express τ relative to a Lagrangian frame.2.

5. We start. in the reference conﬁguration. 2 ∂t ∂xj (5. the Cauchy stress tensor τ is symmetric. was given by dA.25) . (5.22) which must apply to any continuum for which a Cauchy stress tensor (τij ) can be deﬁned.2. but T in general is not. as in Section 1. deﬁned by S = F −1 T = det (F ) F −1 τ F T so that S is symmetric.17) to convert the ﬁnal surface integral: d dt ∂xi ρJ dX = ∂t gi ρJ dX + V (0) ∂V (0) −1 Jτik Fjk Nj dA. T = det (F )τ F T −1 .2.24) V (t) Now we change the integration variables to Lagrangian coordinates X . using (5. by applying Newton’s second law to a material volume V (t) whose boundary ∂V (t) has outward unit normal denoted by n = (ni ): d dt ∂xi ρ dx = ∂t gi ρ dx + V (t) ∂V (t) τij nj da.23) ρ Now let us derive the Lagrangian equivalent of (5.20) This motivates the introduction of the second Piola–Kirchhoﬀ stress tensor S . The quantity in braces.2.3 The momentum equation In Section 1. gi are the components of the applied body force and ρ is the density of the material. V (0) (5.22). (5. related to the initial density ρ0 by ρ0 = J = det (F ).19) is a second-rank tensor called the ﬁrst Piola–Kirchhoﬀ stress tensor.6 we derived Cauchy’s momentum equation ρ ∂τij ∂ 2 xi = ρgi + .6.4. We can.2.2. (5.2.22).2.2. though. As shown in Section 1.2.2. use the symmetry of τ to deduce the following identity satisﬁed by T : T F T = F T T. In (5. (5.2 Stress and strain revisited 219 This gives the stress in the deformed conﬁguration on an area element which. −1 .2.21) 5. (5.

13).2.26) Since this must hold for all reference volumes V (0) we deduce.30) is a cubic equation for ∂u/∂X with only one real root.2. From (5.2.27) may also be obtained directly by using (5.2. .2). the following Lagrangian form of Cauchy’s equation: ∂ Tij ∂ 2 xi . ∂Xj (5.30) If we suppose that the material is mechanically linear.27) ρ0 2 = ρ0 gi + ∂t ∂Xj Although it is not immediately obvious.29) In equilibrium under a constant stress Txx . the integration domain V (0) is timeindependent. we obtain the one-dimensional strain Exx = and hence Txx = (F S )xx ∂x = φ ∂X ∂u 1 + ∂X 2 ∂u ∂X 2 1 ∂u + ∂X 2 ∂u ∂X 2 (5. using the fact that ρJ = ρ0 (X ) is independent of t.2. t) in the X -direction. (5. In this very special situation.2. S and E just involve scalars Sxx and Exx and the most general constitutive law is simply a functional relationship between them. so that φ is the linear function φ (Exx ) = (λ + 2µ) Exx .2. In the ﬁnal integral. assuming that the integrand is continuous. we recognise the term in braces as the ﬁrst Piola–Kirchhoﬀ tensor Tij and apply the divergence theorem to obtain ∂ 2 xi ρ0 dX = ∂t2 gi ρ0 dX + V (0) V (0) V (0) ∂ Tij dX .2.2. that is Sxx = φ (Exx ).2. the displacement is such that 1+ ∂u ∂X φ ∂u 1 + ∂X 2 ∂u ∂X 2 = Txx .220 Nonlinear elasticity With respect to Lagrangian variables. (5. so we may diﬀerentiate through the ﬁrst integral. (5. 5.28) .31) then (5.2. (5.4 Example: one-dimensional nonlinear elasticity The simplest example that illustrates both mechanical and geometric nonlinearity is a unidirectional displacement u(X.22) and applying the chain rule (Exercise 5. (5.2.19) to replace τ with T in (5.

1). 1988) tells us that any nonsingular matrix F may be written as the product of an orthogonal matrix M T and a positive deﬁnite symmetric matrix U : F = M T U. 1988.3 The constitutive relation 5.1) Hence.3. We recall that one-dimensional linear P -waves propagate information along the two families of characteristics X ± cp t = const. if the real. 5.31). Section 10.3. there exists an orthogonal matrix R such that U = RT ΛR.2) .2. λ1 0 0 Λ = 0 λ2 0 . and it can be shown that characteristics of the same family will almost always eventually cross.1 Polar decomposition The polar decomposition theorem (Strang. for (5. This is a nonlinear generalisation of the P -wave equation that we encountered in Chapter 3. Even more importantly. they depend on the solution ∂u/∂X itself.2. the pieces of information carried by each of these two characteristics are usually incompatible. we ﬁnd that the momentum equation (5.2. (5. the characteristics are given by the equation dX = ± cp dt 3 ∂u + 1+3 ∂X 2 ∂u ∂X 2 1/2 .2. However. 0 0 λ3 where (5. λ2 and λ3 . This results in the formation of a shock. which is a curve in the (X. Again assuming the linear constitutive relation (5. so that u becomes multi-valued.32). When this happens.3 The constitutive relation 221 More exciting possibilities occur when we examine longitudinal waves propagating in the X -direction. t)-plane. ∂X (5.33) and they are generally not straight lines.3.5.2. in the (X. positive eigenvalues of U are denoted λ1 .32) where c2 p = (λ + 2µ)/ρ0 . (5. t)-plane across which the ﬁrst derivatives of u are discontinuous (Bland.27) in one spatial dimension reads ∂2u ∂ = c2 p 2 ∂t ∂X 1+ ∂u ∂X 1+ 1 ∂u 2 ∂X ∂u .

3.3.3.6) It follows that C shares the same eigenvectors ei as U . by a positive factor λi .2. (5.2. (5. Moreover. given by det (ζ I − C ) = ζ − λ2 1 ζ − λ2 2 2 2 I1 (C ) = λ2 1 + λ2 + λ3 . followed by a rotation via the orthogonal matrix M . (5. ei · ej = δij .3).8) where Ij (C ) are the isotropic invariants of C .3. are related to λi by λi = 1 + 2Ei .5.3.4).3.3. we can decompose dX into its components along each of the eigenvectors ei : dx = M T i λi ei (ei · dX ) . in general.222 Nonlinear elasticity The rows of R are the eigenvectors of U .2.12).7) 5. 2 T e3 (5. since C is related to the strain tensor E by (5. it follows that M .3. Using (5.5) The eﬀect of the transformation may thus be understood as a stretch.4) between line elements dX and dx in the reference and deformed conﬁgurations respectively. 2 2 I3 (C ) = λ2 1 λ2 λ3 .3) Since F is a function of X .2 Strain invariants We may expand out the characteristic polynomial of C as 3 2 ζ − λ2 3 = ζ − I1 (C )ζ + I2 (C )ζ − I3 (C ). R and Λ likewise vary with X . that is T e1 .2. U . Substitution of (5. vary with position.9) . 2 2 2 2 2 I2 (C ) = λ2 1 λ2 + λ2 λ3 + λ3 λ1 . both will.1) into (5. the principal strains Ei . while the eigenvalues 2 2 of C are λ2 1 . R = eT where U ei = λi ei .2) into (5.3. λ2 and λ3 . We therefore deﬁne the eigenvalues λi to be the principal stretches and corresponding eigenvectors ei to be the principal directions corresponding to the deformation.1) leads to the relation dx = M T RT ΛR dX (5.1) and (5. By substituting (5. (5.3. (5. we see that U is related to C by C = U 2 = RT Λ2 R.3. along each of the eigenvectors ei .3. introduced in Section 2.

10) It is also clear that I1 (C ). the orthogonal matrix that diagonalises C .3.14) also has eigenvalues λ2 i and invariants Ii . so the invariance required of φ may be stated as φ QC QT ≡ φ (C ) (5. φ must be invariant under permutation of the λi .11) for all orthogonal matrices Q. λ2 and λ3 .14) This can be used to express any power of C in terms of just I . transformation of the axes by an orthogonal matrix Q converts C to C = QC QT . Hence the equations given in (5. (5. are invariant under orthogonal transformations of the axes. We also recall from the Cayley– Hamilton theorem that C satisﬁes its own characteristic polynomial.10) are identities. additional rotations of the axes can further permute the diagonal elements of Λ2 and.5.3.3. λ2 .2. then it is clear that the three invariants may be written as I1 (C ) = Tr (C ). like the eigenvalues and characteristic polynomial of C .11) must hold if Q is equal to R. I2 . (5. I2 (C ) and I3 (C ).13) which represents a considerable restriction of all possible functions of the six independent components of the symmetric tensor C . Now suppose a scalar function φ(C ) of the Green deformation tensor is known to be invariant under rigid-body motions of the reference state. hence.3. so φ (C ) ≡ φ Λ2 . and similarly for B . I3 ) . It follows that φ must be a function of the strain invariants Ij . Moreover.3 The constitutive relation 223 2 2 If C is diagonal (with entries λ2 1 . λ3 ). that is φ = φ (I1 . (5.3. .1.12) 2 2 and φ can therefore depend only on λ2 1 .2.3. I2 (C ) = 1 Tr (C )2 − Tr C 2 2 . although generally not the same eigenvectors as C . namely C 3 − I1 C 2 + I2 C − I3 I = 0. As shown in Section 5. (5. Note that B in (5.3. Henceforth we will suppress the argument of Ik to avoid cluttering the equations. (5. C and C 2 . whether or not C is diagonal. In particular. I3 (C ) = det (C ).

as in Exercise 5. (5. (5.17) is more speciﬁc than (5.224 Nonlinear elasticity 5. the way a material responds to stress should not depend on the frame in which it is observed. but we will ignore this possibility here. Suppose we take the undeformed material and rotate it about an arbitrary origin X 0 via an orthogonal matrix Q such that X = X 0 + Q (X − X 0 ) .16) for all orthogonal matrices P . Notice that (5.3.3 Frame indiﬀerence and isotropy Now we are at last in a position to relate stress and strain in the Lagrangian reference frame.3. (5. in other words. As demonstrated in Section 5. (5.1.2.3.19) As shown in Section 5.20) .15) since C has only six distinct elements. (5.3.3.2. (5. meaning it has no preferred directions.3.17) and it may be shown. while F has nine.15) be invariant under rigidbody motions.3. S = S (F ). and the corresponding stress tensor at the point X 0 is therefore S (C ) = S QC QT .15) S could also depend on X if the elastic properties were spatially nonuniform.3. so this frame indiﬀerence leads to the restriction S (F ) ≡ S (P F ) (5.3.16) is certainly satisﬁed if the constitutive relation takes the form S = S (C ).3. rotation of the Eulerian coordinate axes through an orthogonal matrix P transforms F to F = P F .18) Then. Further simpliﬁcation may be achieved by assuming that the material is isotropic. if we take the rotated material and apply exactly the same deformation as before. the net deformation is given by X → x(X ) = x X 0 + Q (X − X 0 ) .19) is C = QC QT .3.3. that is. The key requirement is that the relation (5. Since the Green deformation tensor C is invariant under rigid-body motions. that this condition is necessary as well as suﬃcient.3. the Green deformation tensor corresponding to (5. A material is called elastic if the second Piola–Kirchhoﬀ stress is a function only of the deformation gradient.1.

while C is more natural for the Piola–Kirchhoﬀ stress.7. An isotropic constitutive relation thus amounts to a speciﬁcation of these three scalar functions.25) This demonstrates how the Cauchy stress is more elegantly expressed in terms of B .2.24) so that the principal axes of τ coincide with those of B . then S should be zero in the reference conﬁguration.23) that in an isotropic material. φ1 and φ2 are functions of the three invariants of C . that is S (I ) = 0.3. We will return to the small displacement limit in Section 5. albeit related to the new coordinates X rather than to X . which leads to the condition φ0 (3. using (5. S has the same eigenvectors as C . τ = I3 −1 / 2 φ0 B + φ1 B 2 + φ2 B 3 .23) where φ0 .4) that S has the symmetry property (5.3. at any point X at which the material is isotropic. By applying the usual rule for the rotation of a tensor.21) which must apply identically for any ﬁxed point X 0 and any rotation matrix Q. On the other hand. I3 ) C 2 . the only relevant strain invariant is the trace ekk . 3.19). Furthermore.3. If the material is not pre-stressed.3. We may directly infer from (5. I2 .3. I3 ) I + φ1 (I1 .3.3.6. 1) = 0.3 The constitutive relation 225 If the material is isotropic. (5. (5. 1) + φ1 (3. we deduce that S (C ) = QS (C )QT .3.26) . Hence the right-hand side of (5. I3 ) C + φ2 (I1 .23) reduces to a linear combination of ekk δij from the ﬁrst term and eij from the second and third terms.22) if and only if it can be written in the form S (C ) = φ0 (I1 .5. We note that.3. equation (5.3.6).3. for the Cauchy stress. then this should be identical to the stress which we would have obtained without the original rotation.3. thereby retrieving (1. (5. I2 . using (5. The constitutive relation (5. 3.3.17) between S and C must therefore satisfy the symmetry condition S (QC QT ) ≡ QS (C )QT (5.23) gives. (5. when Cij → δij + 2eij in the notation of Chapter 1.14). one can eliminate B 3 and obtain τ = I3 −1 / 2 I3 φ2 I + (φ0 − I2 φ2 ) B + (φ1 + I1 φ2 ) B 2 . 1) + φ2 (3.22) for all orthogonal matrices Q. (5. I2 . 3. It may be shown (Exercise 5. in the limit of small strain.

(5. for example. (5.23) to lead to a physically acceptable theory of mechanically nonlinear elasticity.26) is far from suﬃcient for the constitutive relation (5. a material with the isotropic constitutive relation 2 2 S = λ2 1 λ2 λ3 − 1 I .3. We start by multiplying the momentum equation (5.3. Finally. we found that the work done on any region of a linear elastic solid is balanced by the change in both the kinetic energy and the strain energy stored by the material as it deforms. the boundary integral is the rate at which work is done by stress on ∂V . while the ﬁrst term on the right-hand side is the rate at which work is done by the body force.4 The energy equation In Chapter 1.3.27) ∂t ∂Xj The time derivative may be taken outside the ﬁrst integral.3.27) by the velocity ∂xi /∂t and integrating over a control material volume V0 : ρ0 V0 ∂xi ∂ 2 xi dX = ∂t ∂t2 ρ0 gi V0 ∂xi dX + ∂t V0 ∂xi ∂ Tij dX .3.3. Now let us try to repeat this analysis for a nonlinear elastic material.3.3. 0 0 1 (5. (5. Let us consider.30) .3. Unfortunately.28) ∂t Recalling that ρ0 dX ≡ ρ dx.29) subject to a deformation in which 0 0 λ1 (t) F = 0 λ2 (t) 0 . we see that the ﬁrst term on the left-hand side of (5. We can therefore interpret the second term on the left-hand side of (5. 5. we will see in the next section that the requirement (5. while the ﬁnal integral can be manipulated using the divergence theorem to obtain d dt ρ0 2 ∂xi ∂t 2 dX + V0 Tij ρ0 gi V0 ∂Fij dX ∂t ∂V 0 = V0 ∂xi dX + ∂t ∂xi Tij Nj dA.226 Nonlinear elasticity However.28) is the rate of change of kinetic energy.2. this implies that apparently legitimate nonlinear constitutive relations may allow a net extraction of energy from an elastic material under periodic loading cycles.28) as the rate at which elastic energy is stored by the medium.

3. then we can write Tij V0 (5. if an elastic material were to exist that satisﬁed (5.3. the mere existence of W is not suﬃcient to guarantee wellposedness of the resulting elastic model. the integral of (5. λ2 = 1 + b sin(ωt).29). We will now explore this happy circumstance in more detail. one automatically avoids thermodynamically unfeasible situations like that described above.3. ∂F (5. λ2 are periodic functions of t. then it could be used as a limitless energy source! This behaviour is clearly unacceptable and a suﬃcient condition to preclude it is the existence of a strain energy density W (Fij ) such that Tij = ∂W . for example. and inferring from (5.33) the corresponding stress–strain relation. ∂Fij ∂W .33).3. (5. introducing the convenient notation for diﬀerentiation by a tensor. However. The theory of hyperelasticity has proved to be by far the most commonly-used and convenient way to construct constitutive relations for materials like rubber.2. When λ1 = 1 + a cos(ωt). At the moment all we can say is . By posing a functional form for W .21) to calculate the ﬁrst Piola–Kirchhoﬀ stress as λ1 (t) 0 0 2 0 T = F S = λ2 (5.33a) or.5.32) which is a function whose time integral over a period may be positive or negative. V0 (5. We use (5.3.34) and interpret the right-hand side as the strain energy stored in the medium. Hence. the change in this energy automatically integrates to zero over a periodic loading cycle. 5.3.32) over a period 2π/ω is 3πab b2 − a2 /2.3.31) λ2 (t) 0 1 λ2 − 1 0 0 1 and hence ﬁnd that ∂Fij 2 dX = V0 λ2 Tij 1 λ2 − 1 ∂t V0 dλ1 dλ2 + λ2 dt dt λ1 .5 Hyperelasticity A material is called hyperelastic if there is a strain energy density W (Fij ) satisfying (5.3 The constitutive relation 227 where λ1 . T = If so.3.3.3.33b) ∂Fij d dX ≡ ∂t dt W dX .

∂I3 (5. ∂Ik ∂ C (5. φ0 + I1 (φ1 + I1 φ2 ) − I2 φ2 = 2 . we note from Exercise 5.3. after a bit of algebra (see Exercise 5. As in Section 5. we ﬁnd that ∂W 2 C . Henceforth we limit our attention to isotropic materials.3.3.40) ∂W ∂W + I1 ∂I2 ∂I3 .36) ∂ W ∂Ik .38) where I is the identity. ∂C (5.23). Since the φi satisfy S=2 ∂W ∂W ∂W + I1 + I2 ∂I1 ∂I2 ∂I3 I− C+ φ2 = 2 ∂W ∂W ∂W .11). ∂C (5.2 to assert that W = W (I1 .3. In the hyperelastic framework. I2 . The second Piola–Kirchhoﬀ stress tensor is therefore given by S=2 k (5.3. I3 ) . for which W is invariant under rigid-body rotation of the reference state.37) To ﬁnd the circumstances under which such a strain energy function can exist.8. and the second Piola–Kirchhoﬀ stress is then given by S=2 ∂W . ∂C ∂I3 = I3 C −1 . this implies that W can depend only on the six components of C .3. Hence.35) as shown in Exercise 5. ∂I3 ∂I2 ∂I1 (5.3.3. and we can follow Section 5.3.3.9 that ∂I1 = I.39) which gives us explicit forms for the functions φi in (5. φ1 + I1 φ2 = −2 . we must insist that the constitutive relation be invariant under rigid-body motions of the reference state.228 Nonlinear elasticity that our experience with linear elasticity in Chapter 1 suggests that W (Fij ) should have a minimum (taken to be zero without loss of generality) at Fij = δij . ∂C ∂I2 = I1 I − C .

2.41a) (5. (5. 2001.43) (no summation) for the Cauchy principal stresses.41c) ∂φ0 ∂I3 ∂φ1 ∂φ0 + I1 ∂I2 ∂I2 Any choice of the functions φi that does not satisfy (5. Crucially.44) now poses a typically diﬃcult challenge in the calculus of variations.2. It is also diﬃcult to compare this result with the condition that. in .44) is generally easier computationally than solving the nonlinear partial diﬀerential equation (5. Chapter 18).3. which demands that the level surfaces of W are convex in a suitable function space. In particular.27) is a necessary condition for U to be minimised with respect to the displacement. hyperelasticity also often simpliﬁes the mathematical and numerical analysis of nonlinear elastic problems.3. as shown in Exercise 5. this leads to the useful expression τi = I3 −1 / 2 λi ∂W ∂λi (5. for a nonlinear material. As well as clarifying the characterisation of elastic materials.7.2. the minimisation of a functional like (5.3 The constitutive relation 229 cross-diﬀerentiation reveals that ∂φ1 ∂φ2 ∂φ2 + + I1 = 0.42) and.8 implies that the steady version of the gravity-free momentum equation (5. We note from (5.5.41b) (5. ﬁnding the uniqueness and smoothness of a minimum of (5. assuming of course that W is suﬃciently smooth. However.27).41) will lead to behaviour such as that exhibited in (5. ∂I3 ∂I2 ∂I3 ∂φ2 ∂φ2 ∂φ1 2 + I1 + I1 − I2 − = 0.3.44) By virtue of (5. indeed it was these integrability conditions that suggested the counter-example (5.33). It transpires that not only do we require W to be strictly positive except at F = I . minimisation problems of this type are naturally suited to the ﬁnite element method (see Fung & Tong.3. but also that it should be quasi-convex.3.29).21) that the Cauchy stress is given in terms of W as τ = I3 −1 / 2 ∂ W ∂F FT (5.3. ∂I1 ∂I2 ∂I1 (5. ∂I3 ∂I3 ∂I1 ∂φ1 ∂φ2 ∂φ2 2 + + I1 − I2 + I1 = 0.3.3.32).3.3. a calculation analogous to Exercise 1.3.3. The net elastic energy stored in a material volume V0 is given by U= V0 W dX .

(5. λ3 }.3.3. (5.3.35) implies that 1 ∂W .2. as λ1 . In addition.27) should comprise. If the displacement is small.48). λ2 .45) 1.3. when |Ei | Also we recall that W is a function of the principal stretches {λ1 . λ2 . (5.49) and. both the Piola–Kirchhoﬀ stress tensors and the Cauchy stress tensor are all approximately equal. (5.46) to be positive deﬁnite.j =1 (5. We recall from (5.and right-hand sides both transform as tensors.3. the local behaviour of W near its minimum must take the form 3 W∼µ i=1 λ (λi − 1) + 2 2 3 (λi − 1) (λj − 1) .48) as the strain tends to zero.3.3. must satisfy µ > 0 and 3λ +2µ > 0 for (5. for isotropic materials.47) Si = λi ∂λi Substitution from (5. since the left. Hence.7) that the principal strains are related to the principal stretches by λi = 1 + 2Ei ∼ 1 + Ei (5. The stress and strain tensors are thus related by S ∼ λ Tr (E ) I + 2µE .2. λ3 } with a unique global minimum at λj ≡ 1.19) and (5. from (5.230 Nonlinear elasticity equilibrium.45) and (5. 5.3. in principal axes. i. W = W (λi ) and C = diag λ2 i .49) holds with respect to any chosen axes. Moreover.3. λ3 → 1. which we will shortly identify with the Lam´ e constants of Chapter 1.3. λ2 . the quadratic . then the deformation gradient F is approximately equal to the identity and hence.3. Since.6 Linear elasticity Now we brieﬂy verify that the hyperelastic formulation of elasticity outlined above reduces to the linear elastic constitutive relation introduced in Chapter 1 when the strains are small.46) where the scalar constants λ and µ. a well-posed system for xi .3. W is invariant under permutations of {λ1 . (5.3.46) thus leads to Si ∼ λ (λ1 + λ2 + λ3 − 3) + 2µ (λi − 1) ∼ λ (E1 + E2 + E3 ) + 2µEi (5. relative to any other length-scale. with suitable boundary conditions.

3. +W 2ε (5.3.6). for example W (I1 . I2 .3. We can follow the ﬁrst strategy by constructing a strain energy density that heavily penalises departures of I3 from unity.51) where ε 1.3.6).7 Incompressibility Many rubber-like materials are observed to be almost incompressible. 5. and it is common to employ constitutive relations that impose this.50) As we found in Section 1.5. the imposition of this constraint on the problem can be achieved at the expense of introducing an additional unknown scalar function p which can be interpreted as an isotropic pressure. in terms of the strain invariants. and (5.3 The constitutive relation 231 terms in the strain tensor may be neglected to leading order. Now we will consider how to introduce p into nonlinear elasticity in a self-consistent way. Substituting (5. (5. µ (5. I3 ) = µ (I3 − 1)2 ˜ (I1 .3. the condition of incompressibility is J = ρ0 /ρ = 1 or. we could have examined the variational formulation of the problem in terms of the strain energy density W and then identiﬁed p as a Lagrange multiplier associated with the constraint (5.49).3. while retaining the geometrically nonlinear relation between x and X .3. (5. I3 ≡ 1. The actual functional form of W is unimportant provided it has a very strong minimum at I3 = 1. We anticipate that this strain energy function will force I3 to remain close to unity.50). but the particular example (5. and there are two ways to go about this. From (1.7. and therefore set I3 = 1 − 2ε p.8.51) will help to ﬁx ideas. so the displacement need not be small provided it is close to a rigid-body motion.51) into . as in Exercise 1.3. which holds for nonlinear deformations. However.49) holds just as long as the strain is small.52) where the scalar function p is to be determined.3. we can thus justify the use of the mechanically linear constitutive equation (5. Alternatively. Indeed we have already done this several times in Chapter 4. In such situations. I2 ) . The approach followed in Section 1.49) thus reproduces the linear elastic constitutive relation (1.8.8 was to characterise the compressibility by a small but nonzero parameter ε and then carefully take the limit ε → 0.3.3.

we deduce that T is only determined up to an unknown scalar −1 .3.3.58d) Ogden: W = 2µ 1 α where µ. (5.58a) neo-Hookean: W = (I1 − 3) .3. ∂I2 (5. (5.3. considering only virtual deformations satisfying the constraint (5.53) follows immediately.3. Varga: . so the constitutive relation is supplemented by the constraint I3 ≡ 1.3.56) We also note from (5.53) S=2 ∂I1 ∂I2 ∂I2 The status of p as a hydrostatic pressure is clearer in the corresponding expression for the Cauchy stress.3.58b) Mooney–Rivlin: W = c1 (I1 − 3) + c2 (I2 − 3) . ∂Fij In Exercise 5.3. c1 .56). 5.3.14).39) and using (5. c2 and α are positive constants. we show that this is equivalent to −1 δFij = 0.8 Examples of constitutive relations Some commonly used examples of constitutive relations for the strain energy density are µ (5.58c) α α α λ + λ2 + λ3 − 3 . (5.232 Nonlinear elasticity (5. the material is also assumed to be incompressible.3.28) that no additional work is done by the increment provided Tij δFij = 0.55) (5.54) To arrive at the same conclusion from a purely variational viewpoint. An arbitrary scalar multiple of C −1 may be thus added multiple of F T to S . 2 (5.6. In each case. Fji (5.3.3. we note that incompressibility is satisﬁed in a small virtual displacement by adding to Fij an increment δFij such that ∂ (det F ) δFij = 0. W = 2µ (λ1 + λ2 + λ3 − 3) .3. and (5.3. (5.3. namely τ = −pI + 2 ∂W ∂W + I1 ∂I1 ∂I2 B−2 ∂W 2 B .57) Hence. we ﬁnd that our desired constitutive relation becomes ∂W ∂W ∂W I −2 + I1 C − pC − 1 .

4.5. the behaviour depends on α: when α < 1. we will assume incompressibility of the medium.4 Examples 5. which leads to the relations 2 2 I3 = λ2 1 λ2 λ3 = 1. For α between 1 and 2.4.1) . the response is qualitatively similar to that for a Mooney–Rivlin material.2 Typical force–strain graphs for uniaxial tests on various materials: (a) neoHookean. we show typical force-versus-strain response curves for uniaxial stress tests on materials described by each of the above constitutive relations (see Exercise 5. while for α > 2 the stiﬀness always increases with increasing strain. 5. (d) Ogden (α < 1). 5. the force reaches a maximum before decaying towards zero at large strain. For Ogden materials. In Figure 5. thus once again only a ﬁnite force is needed for the material to fail completely.2.1 Principal stresses and strains We conclude with some simple examples which have suﬃcient symmetry for analytical progress to be made. (e) Ogden (1 < α < 2). (5. followed by transition to a less stiﬀ linear behaviour. (b) Mooney–Rivlin. 2 2 I1 = λ2 1 + λ2 + λ3 .4 Examples 233 F (a) F (b) F (c) λ1 F (d) F λ1 (e) F λ1 (f) λ1 λ1 λ1 Fig. (f) Ogden (α > 2). The neo-Hookean and Mooney–Rivlin materials are characterised by an initial linear response.10). In all cases. (c) Varga. Varga materials fail at a ﬁnite value of the applied force. 2 −2 −2 I2 = λ− 1 + λ2 + λ3 .

3. ∂λ3 (5.4) and elimination of p leads to ∂W λ3 ∂ W ∂W λ3 ∂ W F = − = − .4. In all the examples considered below.4. This leads to the uniform displacement ﬁeld xi = λi Xi .2 Biaxial loading of a square membrane In this example. Using the Mooney–Rivlin model (5. the stress and strain tensors are diagonal.54) to be τi = λi ∂W − p.4.4. the λi are treated as independent variables while performing the derivatives. in which case the stresses are also uniform and given by (5.3 A square membrane subject to an isotropic tensile force F .4. 5. (5. By relating these to the applied force F .5) To proceed further.4.58b).3).6) . as shown in Figure 5.4.4.234 Nonlinear elasticity F h F Fig.3.3. for which (5. we consider a thin square membrane of initial thickness h and side length loaded on its edges by a tensile force F . we now have to choose a constitutive relation. λ2 i (5.2) reads τi = 2c1 λ2 i − 2c2 − p.4. 5. −p= ∂λ1 λ2 λ3 h λ2 F ∂W . We focus on the Mooney–Rivlin constitutive relation (5. −p= ∂λ2 λ1 λ3 h λ3 ∂W − p = 0. we obtain the equations λ1 F ∂W . ∂λi (5.2).2) Here. for the strain invariants. and the principal stresses are found from (5.3) 2 2 where we have made use of the incompressibility condition λ2 1 λ2 λ3 ≡ 1. h ∂λ1 λ1 ∂λ3 ∂λ2 λ2 ∂λ3 (5. we ﬁnd that the stretch ratios satisfy 3 2 2 4 4 ( λ1 − λ 2 ) c1 1 + λ 3 1 λ 2 + c2 λ 1 + λ 1 λ 2 + λ 2 − λ 1 λ 2 = 0.

there is a critical value λc of the stretches at which symmetric response bifurcates to an asymmetric one (see Exercise 5. in Figure 5. we show how the applied force varies with the stretch. As shown in Figure 5.4 Response diagrams for a biaxially-loaded incompressible sheet of Mooney– Rivlin material with c2 /c1 = 0. spherical. (b) Strain energy density as a function of one of the stretches.4 Examples 235 λ2 5 4 (a) W 30 25 (b) F 15 12. the stiﬀness of the sheet suddenly reduces as it switches to an asymmetric response.5. (a) Locus of compatible stretches with a symmetric square loading. (5.3 Blowing up a balloon It is a common experience that blowing up a balloon is more diﬃcult in the early stages than it is later on. and we note that in both cases the symmetry is broken in the bifurcation. (c) Applied force as a function of one of the stretches.5 (c) 20 3 15 7. This phenomenon can be understood by considering a thin.5. the two tangential stretches λθ and λφ (where θ and φ are the usual spherical polar coordinates) will be equal and related . and the arrows indicate the evolution of the stable solution as F increases. so the asymmetric solution becomes energetically favourable. Finally.4(c). We see that as λ crosses λc . the thick lines an asymmetric one. We have already encountered non-uniqueness as the result of geometrical nonlinearity in Chapter 4 for the Euler strut. 5.6) also admits asymmetric solutions in which λ1 = λ2 . whenever c2 = 0.4(a). 5. This example illustrates one of the most dramatic consequences of mechanical nonlinearity: the strain response to a given load is generally not unique. We also show in Figure 5. This always has the solution λ1 = λ2 but. The thin lines represent a symmetric elastic response.4. the strain energy is reduced by breaking the symmetry.5 2 10 λc 1 1 2 3 4 5 10 5 2.4. Assuming the spherical symmetry is preserved as the balloon inﬂates. when λ1 > λc .5 5 1 1 2 3 4 5 2 3 4 5 λ1 λ1 λ1 Fig.12 for the details).4(b) that. incompressible rubber membrane of initial radius R and thickness h R.

3 0. For small positive values of c . The ﬁnal observation is that a normal force balance relates the tension to the internal pressure P and the curvature of the membrane via P = 2T . Again using the Mooney– Rivlin model (5.1 2 1 0 2 3 4 5 6 λθ Fig.7) and the normal stretch λr is determined by incompressibility.2 5 4 3 0. R (5. the behaviour is more complicated. we see in Figure 5.4. r (5. we ﬁnd 4 1 + c λ2 λ6 RP θ θ −1 = P (say) = . 5. T = Tθ = Tφ = hλr τθ = hλr λθ ∂W ∂W − λr ∂λθ ∂λr . Since the balloon is assumed to be thin. however.4.4. 7 hc1 λθ (5.8) noting that the thickness of the balloon is hλr following the deformation. (5. to the stretched radius r by λθ = λφ = r . With c = 0.4.4.5 Scaled pressure inside a balloon as a function of the stretch λθ = R/r for various values of the Mooney–Rivlin parameter c = c2 /c1 .10) where c is the dimensionless ratio c2 /c1 .3).5 that the pressure required to inﬂate the balloon initially increases before decreasing when the radius is suﬃciently large. we can use the biaxial result above to calculate the tension.236 Nonlinear elasticity P 6 c = 0.9) It is now a simple matter to assemble these ingredients and thus relate the inﬂation pressure to the radius of the balloon. for example. successfully reproducing the familiar behaviour described above. with .

dR λφ = λ θ = r . for example. If c exceeds a critical value √ 11 11 − 34 25 2/3 ≈ 0. (5. we write the solution of (5.11) and the incompressibility condition λR λθ λφ = 1 gives us a diﬀerential equation for r(R).13) is the only incompressible purely radial deformation. A displacement of the form (5.4.4. Such a situation could be achieved by dissolving a gas in a rubber matrix.12) as 3 3 r = R 3 + λ3 0a − a 1/3 . namely dr R2 = 2. decreasing. In an experiment where a controlled pressure is imposed (not generally possible using one’s lungs!). so that θ and φ are preserved while each radial position R expands to a new radius r(R).4. dR r (5.4. this increased stiﬀness removes the maximum in the pressure completely and the behaviour becomes monotonic.4.12) Denoting by a the initial radius of the sphere. We can read oﬀ from . then ﬁnally increasing again for very large strains.4 Cavitation Suppose a spherical cavity embedded in a rubber continuum expands as a result of an increasing internal pressure P . reﬂecting the fact that polymer molecules can only withstand a ﬁnite extension without breaking. the radius would jump as indicated by the arrow when the pressure reaches its maximum value.4. θ. We can hence write down the principal stretches λR = dr . φ) in the rest state and again assume the displacement is purely radial. R (5.4.4 Examples 237 the pressure reaching a maximum.13) where λ0 = λθ (0) = r(a) a (5. 5. Now we use spherical polar coordinates (R. Increasing c corresponds to making the material stiﬀer at large strains.5.21446.14) is the expansion ratio of the cavity.

2 0.18) yields an expression for the internal pressure P in terms of the inﬂation coeﬃcient λ0 .4. 2 R dR ∂λθ ∂λR (5. (5.4.13) to transform to Lagrangian coordinates and substitute for the stress components from (5. 5. and we see that only a ﬁnite pressure P = 5c1 is needed to inﬂate the cavity to inﬁnity. τrr → 0 as R → ∞. (5. (5.4.4.4. dr r (5.4.16) We can use (5.17) Now solving the ﬁrst-order diﬀerential equation (5. for example.16): 2τrr − τθθ − τφφ dτrr + = 0. 2/3 λφ = λ θ = 3 3 R 3 + λ3 0a − a R 1/3 .4.2). When c2 = 0. the material is neo-Hookean.6 Gas pressure inside a cavity as a function of inﬂation coeﬃcient for various values of the Mooney–Rivlin parameter c = c2 /c1 .15) We next turn to the familiar radial momentum equation from (1. For Mooney–Rivlin materials. this gives rise to the relation P = c1 5 − 4 1 − 4 λ0 λ0 − 2c2 1 − 2λ0 + 1 λ2 0 .17) subject to the two boundary conditions τrr (a) = −P.6 for various values of the ratio c2 /c1 .4. This unlikely behaviour reﬂects the failure of the neo-Hookean model to capture the inability of materials .238 P/c1 10 Nonlinear elasticity 0.4.11) the principal stretches λR = R2 3 3 R 3 + λ3 0a − a .11.1 c =0 8 6 4 2 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 λ0 Fig. (5. thus obtaining R3 + a3 λ2 ∂W ∂W 0 − 1 dτrr = 2λθ − 2λR .19) which we plot in Figure 5.

even here we have to select from a wide range of functions relating the strain energy density to the strain invariants. In principle. Nonetheless. t) = a(t) + P (t)x.44). but there are now many more physically acceptable relations between S and F than there were for linear elasticity. If we conﬁne ourselves to statics. 5.27).1) is not.12) is identically zero for this displacement ﬁeld.5 Concluding remarks This chapter has provided an introduction to what is probably the most mathematically challenging branch of elasticity theory. where the vector a and orthogonal matrix P are spatially uniform. and. our basic task is to solve for xi from (5. bearing in mind that the stress is now a much more complicated function of the strain than it was for mechanically linear elasticity. when we have done this.Exercises 239 to withstand unbounded strains.7. (a) Prove the identity ∂ ∂xj ∂xj ∂Xk ≡ 1 ∂J . then it is conceptually appealing to work with hyperelastic materials for which we have the apparently much simpler task of minimising the net strain energy (5. Show that the strain E deﬁned by (5. Exercises 5.1 Show that the displacement corresponding to a rigid-body motion is given by X (x. Having at last faced up to the theoretical challenges of nonlinear elasticity.2 (assuming the summation convention). J ∂Xk (E5. but that the linearised strain (1. we are now in a position to discuss the implications for some of the practically important geometric conﬁgurations that we encountered in Chapter 4. and the situation is remedied whenever c2 is positive.2. Concerning the constitutive law. [Hint: integrate both . any selection of this relation must ultimately lead to a well-posed system of partial diﬀerential equations for xi before we can have conﬁdence that we have a good model for the nonlinear evolution of an elastic solid. However. it is convenient to work with the second Piola–Kirchhoﬀ tensor S .3.2. we still have to confront the daunting problem of the well-posedness of the relevant minimisation problem in the calculus of variations.1) 5.

4 or otherwise. α. Noll (1958). where P is any orthogonal matrix.] (b) Substitute the Piola–Kirchhoﬀ stress tensor for the Cauchy stress tensor in the momentum equation (5.2) and apply the identity (E5.27).2. B. β ) ≡ g (A. B. Deduce that f = f (C ). α − β ) for some function h of three independent variables. Explain why g (A. show that S must be diagonal whenever C is. see. deduce that S must take the form S= 2 0 s1 (λ2 1 .3. B.] (a) Suppose that two 2 × 2 symmetric matrices S and C satisfy a functional relation S = S (C ) which enjoys the symmetry (5. α − θ.2.3 (c) Expand out the right-hand side of (E5. 0 −1 cos θ sin θ . Let f (F ) = g (A. for example. B. = ρ0 gi + JFkj 2 ∂t ∂Xk (E5. B. α. α. By considering Q= 1 0 .2) 5. [A conceptually equivalent argument works in three dimensions.22) for all orthogonal matrices Q. − sin θ cos θ 5. β − θ) for all θ. λ2 ) .22) and use the chain rule to obtain ρ0 ∂ 2 xi −1 ∂ J −1 Til Fjl . λ2 ) . F = F21 F22 A sin α B sin β By expressing P as the rotation matrix P = show that g must satisfy g (A. Spencer (1970). 2 0 s2 (λ2 1 .1) to obtain the Lagrangian momentum equation (5. where C = F TF . (b) With respect to coordinates in which C (and hence also S ) is diagonal.240 Nonlinear elasticity sides over an arbitrary material volume V (t) and use the divergence theorem. Suppose the scalar function f of the two-dimensional matrix F is invariant under the transformation F → P F . β ) ≡ h(A. β ). where F is written in the form A cos α B cos β F11 F12 = .

] Recall from Section 5. where Λ = diag (λi ). α) . I2 )C . Show that this expression may be manipulated to S = φ0 (I1 .3. where α is a constant. S22 ) = µ λ2 1 + λ2 (1.3) is invariant with respect to orthogonal transformations and. over a periodic cycle in which λ1 = 1 + ε cos(ωt). (d) Generalise the above argument to three dimensions. I2 )I + φ1 (I1 . (E5.5 where φ0 and φ1 are two arbitrary functions of the invariants I1 and I2 of C (note that there are only two such invariants in two dimensions). 5. Considering only two-dimensional spatially linear displacements. hence. the net energy consumption per unit volume is 2 π/ω 0 q dt = 2πε2 (α − 1)µ. λ2 (t)X2 ) so that F and S are both diagonal. T = ∂F ∂Λ . Use the chain rule to show that ∂W ∂W = M T RT R. is true whether or not C is diagonal. (c) Show that (E5. ∂Fij 5. show that energy is consumed at a rate dλ1 dλ2 + λ2 S22 dt dt per unit volume.6 Show that ∂ det (F ) −1 = det (F )Fji . Deduce that the medium conserves energy if and only if the stress components satisfy q = λ1 S11 λ1 ∂ S11 ∂ S22 ≡ λ2 .1 the existence of two orthogonal matrices R and M such that F = M T RT ΛR. λ2 = 1 + ε sin(ωt). ∂λ2 ∂λ1 For the anisotropic constitutive relation 2 (S11 .Exercises 241 where s1 and s2 are arbitrary functions of the eigenvalues λ2 1 and λ2 2 of C . with (x1 . show that.7 −1 [Hint: recall the inversion formula Fij = cofactor (Fji ) / det(F ). x2 ) = (λ1 (t)X1 .3) 5.

4).14).10 Consider uniaxial stretching.12 Using (5. Use the results from Exercise 5. show that ∂W ∂W = Fik . ∂ Cij 5. deduce (5.4) −1 / 2 5.4.11 5.9 to write out equation (5.8 Since Λ is diagonal. ∂ Cij (b) ∂I2 = I1 δij − Cij . deduce (5. c1 λc (λc − 3) .9 Use Exercise 5. If the strain energy density W is a function only of the symmetric Green deformation tensor Cij . at which bifurcation from symmetric to asymmetric stretching occurs.43).39). deduce that the principal Cauchy stresses are given by (5. ∂I2 ∂I3 (E5. Show that the critical stretch λc .3.2. Hence justify the response diagrams shown in Figure 5. ∂Fij ∂ Ckj and deduce that the second Piola–Kirchhoﬀ stress tensor is given by S=2 ∂W .3. Show that F is related to the axial stretch λ1 by F λ2 ∂ W ∂W − .4.19) between the Cauchy and Piola– Kirchhoﬀ stresses to show that RM τ M T RT = I3 −1 / 2 ∂ W ∂Λ Λ −1 .3. ∂ Cij (c) ∂I3 −1 = I3 Cij . is given implicitly by 1 + λ6 c2 =c = 2 6 c .242 Nonlinear elasticity Now use the relationship (5.6 to prove the identities (a) ∂I1 = δij .2. ∂C 5.3.6). Assuming the Mooney–Rivlin form for the strain energy in (5.37) as S=2 ∂W ∂W + I1 ∂I1 ∂I2 I− ∂ W −1 ∂W C + I3 C . in which a bar of initial cross-sectional area A is subject to an axial force F . = A ∂λ1 λ1 ∂λ2 where λ2 = λ3 = λ1 . 5.

of initial radius R and thickness h R.Exercises 243 where λc > 31/6 . show that the differential equation (5.3. so that Tz = 0. show that the internal pressure P and the axial tension Tz are related to the tangential stretches by P = 2 λ4 2 1 + c λ2 RP z θ λz − 1 = .13 −P (Θ) ± P (Θ) + 4c 2 Θ2 2c . show that the asymmetric solution satisﬁes λ1 = λ± . where λ2 ± = 5.4.663. 3 hc1 λ4 θ λz 4 2 1 + c λ2 λ2 Tz θ θ λz − 1 = . instead suppose that the tube is free to contract in the z -direction. Show that in this case P → ∞ as λθ → ∞. (a) Assuming the Mooney–Rivlin model and following the same methodology as in Section 5. 3 hc1 λ3 θ λz where c = c2 /c1 .4. λ± Consider a thin cylindrical tube.17) for the stress outside a spherical cavity may be written in the form −λθ λ3 θ −1 dτrr ∂W ∂W = 2λθ − 2λR dλθ ∂λθ ∂λR . (c) Now.14 √ 34 + 11 11 7 2/3 ≈ 4. show that only a ﬁnite pressure P = 2 (1 + c ) is needed to inﬂate the tube to inﬁnity. (b) If the tube is constrained in the z -direction so that λz = 1. inﬂated by an internal air pressure P . By introducing Θ = λ1 λ2 . Show also that the axial tension needed to maintain zero displacement in the z -direction tends to inﬁnity as λθ does. although the behaviour is non-monotonic if c > 5. λ2 = Θ . (a) By changing independent variables to λθ . P (Θ) = 1 + Θ3 + c Θ − Θ4 .

10) in the limit h/a → 0. (b) For a spherical cavity in an inﬁnite medium.244 Nonlinear elasticity and.19) between the internal pressure P and the inﬂation parameter λ0 . (c) For a sphere with initial internal radius a and ﬁnite thickness h. .4.4. Hence recover the balloon result (5. derive the equation 4 c1 + c2 λ 2 dτrr θ =− dλθ λ5 θ λ3 + 1 . for the Mooney–Rivlin model. show that the appropriate boundary conditions are τrr = −P at λθ = λ0 . τrr → 0 as λθ → 1. (a + h)3 . show that P = c1 where λ = 1+ 3 λ3 0 −1 a 1/3 4 1 4 1 1 1 + 4 − − 4 −2c2 2λ − 2 − 2λ0 + 2 λ λ λ0 λ λ0 λ0 . and hence obtain the relation (5.

This process is made systematic by ﬁrst non-dimensionalising the equations. so that all the variables are dimensionless and of order one.5. We will use this example in Section 6. where h is a typical thickness and L a typical length of the elastic body. In fact we have already encountered an example of this approach when discussing the torsion of a thin-walled tube in Section 2. and their derivation illustrates the tools that are widely useful for analysing more general thin structures. we show how such models may be derived systematically from the underlying continuum equations and boundary conditions. rods and shells. the solution is sought as an asymptotic expansion in powers of the small parameter ε. Their systematic nature oﬀers 245 . Each of these models is important in its own right. Kevorkian & Cole (1981). Typically. and an even simpler paradigm is the dimensionless model for antiplane strain of a thin plate.2 to introduce the asymptotic arguments that form the basis of this chapter. beams.1 Introduction In Chapter 4. These models were obtained using net force and moment balances combined with ad hoc constitutive relations. We concentrate on a few canonical models for plates. for example between the bending moments and the curvatures. and the techniques demonstrated here fall within the general theories of asymptotic expansions and perturbation methods. we derived various approximate models for thin or slender elastic conﬁgurations such as rods and plates. This highlights the small slenderness parameter ε = h/L. In this chapter. A simpliﬁed system of equations is then obtained by carefully taking the limit ε → 0. Hinch (1991) and Bender & Orszag (1978) provide very good general expositions of these methods.6 Asymptotic analysis 6. The basic idea is to exploit the slenderness of the geometry so as to simplify the equations of elasticity asymptotically.

since we start from the general continuum equations of elasticity. we analyse a boundary layer near an edge of the plate and re-establish the correct boundary conditions for this model. incorporating geometrically nonlinear terms. resulting in increasingly accurate models. we extend the analysis to describe large two-dimensional deﬂections of a plate and thus derive the Euler strut equation. For example. we recall that the beam and plate theories developed in Chapter 4 are unable to resolve the details of the tractions applied to the edges. such as the Lam´ e constants. although the asymptotic approach is otherwise analogous to that used in Section 6. This requires us to start from the equations of nonlinear elasticity.2) . Finally. In Section 6. The slenderness parameter in this case is h . we re-derive the improved von K´ arm´ an plate equations. in Sections 6. (6.1) L Suppose the lateral boundaries of this plate are traction-free and that w is prescribed on the ends x = 0. Finally.246 Asymptotic analysis many advantages compared to the less rigorous derivations of Chapter 4. As it describes inﬁnitesimal transverse displacements of a plate. thus allowing us to estimate the error incurred in making an approximation and to determine when that approximation may become invalid.3.5.3 we re-derive the linear plate equation.8. it makes explicit the assumptions behind a simpliﬁed model. (6. In this regard. such as the bending stiﬀness. y = hy . A boundary layer analysis in the neighbourhood of these edges will allow us to explain how such tractions can eﬀectively be replaced by an equivalent point force/moment system. L. In Section 6.7–6. in terms of the underlying elastic parameters. The ﬁrst step towards an asymptotic analysis is to non-dimensionalise the spatial coordinates and w by writing ε= x = Lx . Furthermore.2. our asymptotic approach will lead to explicit formulae for practically useful parameters.5 is the rectangle 0 < y < h.2 Antiplane strain in a thin plate We ﬁrst introduce our asymptotic methodology by modelling small antiplane displacements in a thin plate such that the region D in Figure 2. Next. we illustrate the geometrical generalisations needed to obtain the equations governing inﬁnitesimal displacements of rods and shells. 6.4.2. without having to assume Saint-Venant’s principle. 0 < x < L. we can obtain it starting from linear elasticity.6. in Section 6. w = Ww . In Section 6. in principle the process allows further corrections to be calculated.

y ) = w ˆ (ˆ x. ∂y (6.2.2.2. to lowest order in ε. To avoid clutter in the equations. using . Collecting all O ε2 terms.2 Antiplane strain in a thin plate 247 where W is a typical displacement at the boundary. This gives.2) and (2. 0 (6. 1 ∂y (6. but this function is not determined at this stage and we must proceed further in the asymptotic expansion.3) we ﬁnd that the dimensionless displacement w satisﬁes ε2 ∂2w ∂2w + =0 ∂x 2 ∂y 2 with ∂w = 0 on y = 0. ∂y (6.2.8) and w ˆ = f (y ) prescribed on x ˆ = 0.4) Hence w0 = w0 (x).2.7). We do this by subjecting the ends of the plate to a mathematical magnifying glass. ∂ 2 w0 =0 ∂y 2 with ∂w0 = 0 on y = 0. ∂y (6.2. 1. where both f and g are prescribed functions.2. Away from the ends of the plate.3. From (2. y ). we ﬁnd that d2 w0 ∂ 2 w2 = − ∂y 2 dx2 with ∂w2 = 0 on y = 0.3) along with w = f (y ) at x = 0 and w = g (y ) at x = 1. 1. 1. To complete the model.2. we need to derive boundary conditions for (6. we expand w in an asymptotic expansion in which w ∼ w0 + ε2 w2 + · · · as ε → 0. We ﬁrst focus on the end x = 0 by setting x = εx ˆ and letting the displacement in this boundary layer near the edge be given by the function w(x.3. we drop the primes henceforth. This gives the semi-inﬁnite strip model ˆ ∂2w ˆ ∂2w + =0 2 2 ∂x ˆ ∂y with ∂w ˆ = 0 on y = 0.6) This solvability condition for w2 gives rise to the “thin sheet” equation d2 w0 =0 dx2 (6.6.7) for w0 .9) (6. Letting now w ˆ∼w ˆ 0 + εw ˆ1 + · · · .5) The solution w2 can only satisfy both boundary conditions if 1 0 ∂w2 ∂ 2 w2 dy = ∂y 2 ∂y 1 .

we require that x→0 ˆ0 . and the components of the Cauchy stress tensor are given by (1. As for the antiplane strain problem just analysed.3. Now we undertake the more challenging task of extending this asymptotic argument to the bending of elastic plates. w0 joins smoothly with w More speciﬁcally.3 The linear plate equation 6.11. so we can use the momentum equation given in component form by (1.11) and we thus obtain w0 (0) = 0 f (y ) dy. and we impose the stress-free boundary conditions τxz = τyz = τzz = 0 on z = ±h/2.13) These are the crucial boundary conditions for the thin sheet model (6. we assume that the displacements are small enough for linear elasticity to apply. (6. lim w0 = lim w x ˆ →∞ 1 (6. as x → 0. (6.1).1 Non-dimensionalisation and scaling We now turn to small displacements in a horizontal elastic plate subject to a transverse gravitational acceleration g . so the boundaries of the plate eﬀectively remain ﬁxed at .3). If the plate has uniform thickness h and its centre-surface initially occupies the plane z = 0. Finally. in the sense that. we require that the functions w ˆ0 and w0 match. then its free surfaces are at z = ±h/2.2.248 Asymptotic analysis separation of variables and making the assumption that w ˆ0 does not grow as x ˆ → ∞.1) In linear elasticity we do not distinguish between Eulerian and Lagrangian coordinates. ˆ0 when the latter is evaluated for large x ˆ.3.11. we ﬁnd w ˆ0 = a0 + 2 ∞ n =1 ˆ an e−nπ x cos nπy. (6.10) where the ai are the Fourier cosine coeﬃcients of f (y ). (6. 6.12) and similarly 1 w0 (1) = 0 g (y ) dy.7): the only information that w0 has about f and g is their average values.2.2.2.2.

choosing the right scalings for the dependent variables is a matter of trial-and-error guided by experience. h (6.3. Moreover. making the important assumption that λ and µ are held ﬁxed. Denoting by L a typical dimension in the x. we know that.4c) τzz = ε τ τzz . and we will now construct an approximate theory for the deformations of the plate based on the assumption that ε is small. τxz . on the free surface. will be deferred to Section 6. (6. (6.3) The appropriate non-dimensionalisation for the stress components is slightly less clear. we have the order-of-magnitude estimates ∂u/∂z ∼ u/h and ∂w/∂x ∼ w/L. comparable to h.3 The linear plate equation 249 z = ±h/2. we again non-dimensionalise the equations before taking the asymptotic limit ε → 0. where τ is to be determined. τyy ) = τ (τxz .6. Now. (6.3. ∂u/∂z = −∂w/∂x.4b) (6.1). The spatial coordinates are again scaled with their typical values as x = Lx . Finally.11. z = hz . Here.3).3.3. A suitable choice may then be obtained by balancing the in-plane stresses and strains in the constitutive relation (1.and y -directions. simple geometry implies that a transverse displacement of magnitude O (W ) is associated with in-plane displacements of O (εW ). y = Ly . To exploit this fact. τyy . say. Our best strategy is to seek a scaling that balances as many terms as possible in the Navier equations (1. τyz . τxy .4a) (6.3. by looking for a balance in the . from (6.2) As always happens in asymptotic simpliﬁcations. v = εW v . and we give ourselves the freedom to do this by writing (τxx .11.1). w = Ww .5. τxy .3. The treatment of larger transverse displacements. and balancing the two yields the non-dimensionalisation u = εW u . the slenderness parameter is again ε = h/L. which leads to τ = ε2 EW .3. τyz ) = ετ 2 τxx .5) where E is Young’s modulus.

∂x ∂y ∂z ∂τyy ∂τyz ∂τxy + + .3c).10b) ∂Txy ∂Txx + . We will now derive the leading-order model that results from these scalings.3. 0= ∂x ∂y ∂z ∂τyz ∂2w ∂τzz ∂τxz + + − G. the geometry of the plate has driven our non-dimensionalisation (6. ∂x ∂y 0= ∂Txy ∂Tyy + ∂x ∂y (6. and henceforth. This yields 0= and ∂Ny ∂2w ∂Nx + − G. thereafter.7c) is a dimensionless constant measuring the importance of gravity.3.3.3.3.3. (6. Our scalings (6.3.10a) .7b) (6.1) on the upper and lower surfaces simply become τxz = τyz = τzz = 0 on z = ±1/2.7a) (6.3.3) of the displacements amount to assumptions about how big the transverse and in-plane deﬂections are.3.3.2) of the spatial variables.6) To summarise.8) (6.3.3.7) with respect to z and applying (6. Here.3.2) and (6. = 2 ∂t ∂x ∂y ∂z 0= where G= ρgh2 ε4 EW (6.3. stress components are rescaled so as to balance as many terms as possible in the momentum equations. namely t= h ε2 ρ E t.9) It is helpful to average the momentum equations by integrating (6.3. (6.3) and neglecting terms of order ε2 we obtain the dimensionless momentum equations ∂τxy ∂τxx ∂τxz + + .11.3.4) into (1.250 Asymptotic analysis transverse Navier equation (1. 6.9). The stressfree conditions (6. = 2 ∂t ∂x ∂y (6.2 Dimensionless equations Substituting (6. we infer a suitable time-scale. we drop the primes to avoid cluttering the equations.11.

(1 + ν )(1 − 2ν ) u z + wx . ∂x ∂y 1/2 0= ∂Mxy ∂Mxx + + Ny .3 The linear plate equation 251 where w denotes the average of w across the plate.6 by 1/2 1/2 Tij = −1 / 2 τij dz. (1 + ν )(1 − 2ν ) u y + vx .3. We may now use (6.3. we will occasionally use subscripts as shorthand for partial derivatives of the displacements.3.15a) (6.15e) (6.6 by Myx = zτxx dz. Nj = −1 / 2 τjz dz.3. (6. and the net in-plane and transverse stresses are deﬁned as in Section 4.3. (6. We must now relate the averaged stresses and moments to the displacements by using the dimensionless constitutive equations.14) Hence the deformation of the plate is governed by the averaged equations (6. in this chapter only.12) where the bending moments are deﬁned as in Section 4. When we take the limit ε → 0 in (6.15b) (6.3.3.3.10a) and (6.3.3. Mxy = − 1/2 −1 / 2 −1 / 2 zτyy dz.11) Similarly.10b) to give ∂ 2 Myx ∂ 2 Mxy ∂2w ∂2 (Myy − Mxx ) − = + − G.3.14).13b) Myy = −Mxx = zτxy dz.15f) where ν is Poisson’s ratio and.15c) (6.3. 2(1 + ν ) vz + w y . 2(1 + ν ) ε2 νux + ε2 (1 − ν )vy + νwz . These take the form ε2 τxx = τxy = ε2 τyy = ε2 τxz = ε2 τyz = ε4 τzz = ε2 (1 − ν )ux + ε2 νvy + νwz . ∂x ∂y 1/2 −1 / 2 (6. (1 + ν )(1 − 2ν ) (6.15).13a) (6. 2 2 ∂t ∂x ∂x∂y ∂y 2 (6.3.3. 2(1 + ν ) ε2 νux + ε2 νvy + (1 − ν )wz .3. multiplication through by z before integrating leads to the moment balance equations 0= ∂Myy ∂Myx + − Nx .15d) (6.12) to eliminate Nx and Ny from (6.3.6. we treat all the other parameters as .

1−ν 1 − ν2 (6. =− 12(1 + ν ) (6. 1−ν 1 − ν2 τyy − νux + vy ε2 ν τzz = . y. 2(1 + ν ) Mxy = Tyy = νux + v y . In particular.16) This allows us simply to let ε tend to zero in the above equations without having to write the dependent variables as explicit asymptotic expansions. The ﬁrst terms on the right-hand sides give purely in-plane displacements.3.18) Myx = − wxx + νwyy . y. we assume that ν is not too close to either −1 or 1/2. It is therefore expedient ﬁrst to eliminate wz between the equations to obtain τxx − ux + νvy ε2 ν τzz = .3. so that we preclude situations such as that described in Section 1. t) − zwx (x. we get the same equation wz = 0 three times. y ) . Recalling that Txx . we may integrate (6.3.15d) and (6.15e) to obtain u(x.15). t) − zwy (x.3. y. 12(1 − ν 2 ) wxy . 6. y.3. As explained in Section 2.19a) (6.17a) (6.15) and integrating. y. we ﬁnd that the averaged stresses and moments satisfy Txx = ux + νv y . t) = v (x. With w independent of z (to leading order). we see that the in-plane displacements satisfy a plane strain problem.3. one approach to this problem is to introduce an Airy stress function A(x. t) (6.3.17b) as ε → 0.19b) We are reassured by the fact that the expressions (6.3. t).6. the relations between the bending moments and the second derivatives of w reproduce those found in (4.3. Txy and Tyy satisfy (6.3.19).6.3 Leading-order equations If we immediately set ε = 0 in (6.10a).17) back into (6. y.3.3.8) by ad hoc comparison with exact plane stress solutions.252 Asymptotic analysis being O (1).3. 12(1 − ν 2 ) Myy = −Mxx νwxx + wyy .2. By substituting (6.3.18) for the in-plane tensions agree with the exact biaxial straining solutions (2. 1 − ν2 (6. Equally. 1 − ν2 Txy = uy + v x . t) = u(x. z. z.8. while the terms proportional to z correspond to bending of the plate. v (x.

12(1 − ν 2 ) (6.6. ∂x2 (6.20) and elimination of u and v shows that A satisﬁes the biharmonic equation ∇4 A = 0. Since the tension T is proportional to the plane strain components ux .6.3. (6. In other words. ∂y 2 Txy = − ∂2A . starting from the linear Navier equations (1.5 how they arise from a geometrically nonlinear model.1). that is the displacements and stress components. by substituting (6.2 concerning the boundary conditions for plate models. In the light of Section 6.3. it is impossible.3.6.3. this product of T with ∇2 w is nonlinear in the displacements.11.2. transverse bending completely decouples from inplane deformation of the plate. In this boundary layer we will ﬁnd a model that is fully three-dimensional.3. it will come as no surprise that we must proceed by addressing a boundary layer region near the edge of the plate. we ﬁnd that the transverse displacement w satisﬁes the linear plate equation wtt = − ∇4 w − G.19) into (6. In summary. We will show below in Section 6. 6. but fortunately we will not need to solve it in detail to obtain the sought-after boundary conditions. without invoking any other assumptions than the scalings in Section 6.1 Boundary layer scalings We are now poised to resolve systematically the diﬃculties encountered in Section 4.22) Notice that the equation (6..14).3) and constitutive relations (1. vy .11. our model consists of the linear partial diﬀerential equation (6.3. ∂x∂y Tyy = ∂2A .1. to obtain any such nonlinear terms.4 Boundary conditions and Saint-Venant’s principle 253 such that Txx = ∂2A .6.22) for w can be solved independently of u and v . As hinted at in Section 4.21) Also.4 Boundary conditions and Saint-Venant’s principle 6.3.3.22) does not contain the “membrane” term T ∇2 w obtained from a momentum balance argument in Section 4.4. Equation (6.3. We have derived these equations systematically. . Our derivation is constructive and yields explicit formulae for the other quantities of interest.22) for w and a decoupled biharmonic equation for A. etc.

τxz = σz at x = 0.254 Asymptotic analysis z y σx σy σz x Fig. the in-plane stress components are linear functions of z of the form τxx = Txx + 12zMyx . Moreover.1) directly. unless the applied tractions have exactly the same dependence on z .2a) and the transverse shear stresses are found from (6.4. see Figure 6. (6. 4 τzz = −2 τyz = 6Ny ∂2w +G z ∂t2 1 − z2 .4. we consider only a straight edge x = 0 which is subject to a given traction.1) can be imposed.2). (6.4.2b) 1 − z2 . τyy = Tyy − 12zMxy . 6.3.4. In the plate solutions constructed in Section 6. 4 (6.7) to be τxz = 6Nx 1 − z2 .1 The edge of a plate subject to tractions.3.1) on the dimensionless stress components. τxy = Txy − 12zMxx . so we impose the boundary conditions τxx = σx . 4 (6.4. τxy = σy . we can see that there is still a boundary layer to be negotiated before the conditions (6. To illustrate the . it will be impossible to apply the boundary conditions (6.4. For simplicity. even if the boundary tractions do by chance have a z -dependence consistent with (6.4.2c) Hence.1 for the sign convention. σy and σz may in general be any functions of y and z . The tractions σx .

3.2). ε τyz = τ ˆyz . the Navier equations become 0= ∂τ ˆxy ∂τ ˆxz ∂τ ˆxx +ε + . ∂x ˆ ∂y ∂z (6. (6. (6.4. ε2 (6.3. ε τzz = τ ˆzz .5) eﬀectively reduces to a set of partial diﬀerential equations with only x ˆ and z as dependent variables. we apparently obtain ﬁve conditions.6.4. namely Txx = Txy = Myx = Mxx = Nx = 0. The boundary conditions on the edge and the upper and lower surfaces read ˆyz = τ ˆzz = 0 τ ˆxz = τ τ ˆxx = σx . 6. (6.4. where x ˆ is O (1).4.6b) . τ ˆxy = σy . we also ﬁnd it necessary to rescale some of the stress components as follows: τxz = τ ˆxz . as in Section 6.6a) (6.4) and neglect terms of order ε2 .4. consider a traction-free edge. In particular. y being simply a parameter.2 Equations and boundary conditions After we apply the rescaling (6.4).4. all stress components are now of the same order of magnitude. ∂x ˆ ∂y ∂z ∂τ ˆyy ∂τ ˆyz ∂τ ˆxy +ε + . As ε → 0.5b) (6.3) However.2 we now focus our attention on a thin boundary layer in which x = εx ˆ. so that σx = σy = σz = 0.4. 0= ∂x ˆ ∂y ∂z ∂τ ˆyz ∂τ ˆxz ∂τ ˆzz 0= +ε + . This gives us a strong clue that the boundary layer may have an unexpected inﬂuence on the rest of the plate.5c) Here we have used hats to distinguish dependent variables (even unscaled ones) evaluated in the boundary layer from those in the interior.7).1) to (6.4. only four boundary conditions can be imposed on our model for the plate. To get a nontrivial balance in the Navier equations (6.5a) (6. so at least one of these must be neglected. τ ˆxz = εσz on z = ±1/2.4.4.4.4 Boundary conditions and Saint-Venant’s principle 255 diﬃculty.4. By naively applying (6. the transverse stress is two orders of magnitude larger near the edge of the plate than it is in the interior. on x ˆ = 0. To address this issue.4) In view of (6.

y ) + εx ˆ τ ˆxx ∂w (0.7f) As in the antiplane strain example of Section 6. y ) − z ∂w (0. y ) + · · · .4. we impose that u ˆ ∼ u(0.7b) (6.4. ∂z ∂y ∂w ˆ ∂u ˆ ∂v ˆ ε2 (1 + ν )(1 − 2ν )ˆ + ε2 ν + (1 − ν ) .3. y ) − z (0.8c) (6.2.8b) ∂x ∂x∂y (6. y ) − z v ˆ ∼ v (0.4.7c) (6.4. y ) + · · · . y ) − z 2 (0. . In other words. y ) τ ˆzz ∼ O ε2 as x ˆ → ∞. τ ˆxz ∼ 6εNx (0. + ··· . + ··· .8e) (6. τxz = ε ∂z ∂x ˆ ˆ ∂v ˆ ∂w 2ε(1 + ν )ˆ τyz = + .4.7d) (6. (6.4. y ) + · · · . we must match the two solutions: the asymptotic behaviour of the inner solution as x ˆ → ∞ must be the same as that of the outer solution as x → 0.8h) w ˆ ∼ w(0.4.8d) (6. y ) − 12zMxx (0.15) take the form ε2 (1 + ν )(1 − 2ν )ˆ τxx = ε(1 − ν ) ∂w ˆ ∂u ˆ ∂v ˆ + ε2 ν +ν .7a) (6.8g) (6.4.8f) (6. ∂x ∂x (6. ∂x ˆ ∂y ∂z ˆ ∂u ˆ ∂v 2ε(1 + ν )ˆ τxy = ε + . τyy = εν ∂x ˆ ∂y ∂z ˆ ∂u ˆ ∂w 2ε2 (1 + ν )ˆ + .4.256 Asymptotic analysis The rescaled constitutive relations (6. ∂x ∼ Txx (0. y ) + εx ˆ ∂y ∂2w ∂u (0.4. y ) + · · · . y ) + εx ˆ ∂x ∂w (0. y ) + 12zMyx (0. τzz = εν ∂x ˆ ∂y ∂z (6.4.7e) (6.8a) ∂2w ∂v (0. 1 − z2 4 1 − z2 4 τ ˆxy ∼ Txy (0. y ) τ ˆyz ∼ 6εNy (0.4. ∂y ∂x ˆ ∂w ˆ ∂u ˆ ∂v ˆ ε2 (1 + ν )(1 − 2ν )ˆ + ε2 (1 − ν ) +ν . y ) + · · · .4.4.

simply. (6. (6.9) To leading order in ε.21) are 1/2 Txx (0.3.8d).5) becomes ∂τ ˆxx ∂τ ˆxz ∂τ ˆxy ∂τ ˆyz ∂τ ˆxz ∂τ ˆzz 0= + .4.15) .4. y ) = −1 / 2 zσx (y.4.12b) In the same way.12a) (6. 0= ∂ ∂x ˆ 1/2 −1 / 2 (0) τ ˆxx dz = (0) (0) (0) (0) (0) (0) (6.3.4 Boundary conditions and Saint-Venant’s principle 257 6.22).4.8d).10a) by z and averaging over the thickness of the plate.19a).4.14). (6. in view of (6.3. 0= + .4.4.4. z ) dz. Equation (6.10) ∂ ∂x ˆ 1/2 −1 / 2 (0) τ ˆxy dz = ∂ ∂x ˆ 1/2 −1 / 2 (0) τ ˆxz dz. τ ˆxx ∼ τ (6.4. z ) dz.4. y ) = Txy (0.8e). we obtain 0= ∂ ∂x ˆ 1/2 −1 / 2 (0) zτ ˆxx dz (6.4.4. y ) = −1 / 2 1/2 −1 / 2 σx (y.4. where (6.4. and (6.4.4.6) with (6. multiplying (6.11) Hence the average leading-order stresses are constant over the entire boundary layer and.5c) yields 0= ∂τ ˆyz ∂τ ˆzz ∂τ ˆxz + + . and to obtain it we must proceed to the next order in ε. combining (6. One further boundary condition is needed. provides one boundary condition for the outer plate equation (6. ∂x ˆ ∂y ∂z (1) (0) (1) (6.3 Asymptotic expansions Unlike the situation encountered in Section 6. 1/2 Myx (0.6).12) and (6. for example (0) (1) (2) ˆxx + ετ ˆxx + ε2 τ ˆxx + ··· .4. together with (6.4.3. (6. as we might have expected physically. there is now no way to avoid writing the dependent variables in asymptotic expansions in powers of ε. σy (y. (6. ∂x ˆ ∂z ∂x ˆ ∂z ∂x ˆ ∂z and the integrated versions of these equations are.14) show that the net in-plane tractions and their moment along the edges are balanced by the corresponding stresses on the other side of the boundary layer. z ) dz.3.6. 0= + .14) Equations (6.4.13) and therefore.4. we immediately deduce that the two boundary conditions to be applied to (6.

Expanding u ˆ. y ). is that Nx (0. ∂z ∂x ˆ (6.4.17) Hence we cannot entirely escape from resolving the details of the displacements and stresses in the boundary layer if we wish to establish this last boundary condition for the model in the interior of the plate.4. ∇ 2 ∂x ˆ ∂z 2 (6.4. ∂z ∂y (6.4. z ) dz = − 1/2 −1 / 2 0 ∞ ∂τ ˆyz dˆ xdz.8e) that ∂w ˆ (1) = 0.16) but all we can say thus far.22) Hence v ˆ(1) satisﬁes the two-dimensional Laplace equation ∂2v ∂2v ˆ(1) ˆ(1) ˆ 2v ˆ(1) = + = 0.4.4. y ) − z ∂x ∂y (6. using (6.9).4.20) ∂u ˆ(0) ∂w ˆ (1) + = 0. w ˆ (0) = w(0.4.6) and (6. y ) − 1/2 −1 / 2 σz (y. The matching conditions (6.4.4. y ). v ˆ(0) = v (0.7). we obtain the antiplane strain problem ∂τ ˆyz ∂τ ˆxy + = 0.8) then give ¯(0.23) .5b). y ).4.8f) and (6. ∂y (0) (6.4. we now ﬁnd that 0= ∂ ∂x ˆ 1/2 −1 / 2 (1) τ ˆxz dz + 1/2 −1 / 2 ∂τ ˆyz dz.4. ∂x ∂z where. ∂x (6.18) We further deduce from (6. ¯(0.4. we ﬁnd from the constitutive relations (6. from (6.258 Asymptotic analysis Integrating with respect to z . ∂y (0) (6. ∂y ∂x ˆ (0) 2(1 + ν )ˆ τyz = ∂w ˆ (1) ∂v ˆ(1) + . y ). v ˆ and w ˆ as in (6.4. y ) − z u ˆ(0) = u ∂w ∂w (0.7) that the leading-order displacements are all independent of x ˆ.4.21) ∂v ˆ(1) ∂u ˆ(0) + . ∂z from which it follows that ˆ w ˆ (1) = x ∂w (0. (0) = 2(1 + ν )ˆ τxy (0) (0) (6. from the second Navier equation (6.19) Now.8f).4.

2 x ˆ = 0.4. ∞] × [−1/2. z ) − Txy (0. y ) = 12(1 + ν )Mxx (0.4. y ) − 12zMxx (0. 1 at z = ± .3.4. 2 (6.8a) and (6.30) where the integration region is the strip [0.29a) 1 z=± .4.4.29d) The solvability of this Neumann problem for φ is ensured since 0= ˆ 2 φ dˆ xdz = ∇ ∂φ ds = Txy (0.26) By cross-diﬀerentiation.8b) leads to ∂2w ∂v ˆ(1) ∼ −x ˆ (0. ∇ ∂φ = 0. y ) − ∂n 1/2 −1 / 2 σy (y. (6. y ). 1/2]. x ˆ → ∞.27) ∂x∂y and this reassuringly reproduces the outer constitutive relation (6. y ) x ˆ ∂y (6.8e) yields ∂u ∂2w ∂v ˆ(1) ∼ − (0.4.4. y ). ∂z ∂φ = 12Mxx (0. (6. while combining (6. we see that these two conditions are consistent only if ∂2w (0.19b).4 Boundary conditions and Saint-Venant’s principle 259 subject to the boundary conditions ∂u ˆ(0) ∂v ˆ(1) = 2(1 + ν )σy − ∂x ∂y (1) (1) ∂w ˆ ∂v ˆ =− ∂z ∂y The matching condition (6. ∂x ˆ ∂y ∂x∂y (6. ∂z ∂x∂y as x ˆ → ∞.25) at x ˆ = 0. z ) dz. y ).29c) (6.4. (6.24b) − 12(1 + ν )Mxx (0.4. y ) + z (0.6. (6. After using this relation.28) where φ satisﬁes ˆ 2 φ = 0. y ) .24a) (6.4. y ) + 2(1 + ν ) Txy (0.29b) (6. y ) − ∂u (0.4. y )ˆ xz + 2(1 + ν )φ.4. we can write v ˆ(1) in the form v ˆ(1) = 2(1 + ν )Txy (0.4. ∂x ˆ φ → 0.4. y )z + σy (y. (6. and we have .

32a) The stress components are then given in terms of φ as (0) τ ˆxy = Txy (0. Only the net force and moment exerted by the edge traction are transmitted to the interior of the plate.4.31) where an (y ) = − and Fy (y. we get ∞ 0 1/2 ∞ ∞ φ(ˆ x.4. Hence we can solve for φ by separating the variables: ∞ φ= n =1 ˆ an (y ) cos nπ (z + 1/2) e−nπ x . y ) − 1/2 −1 / 2 σz (y. (6. z ) = 12Mxx (0.260 Asymptotic analysis already established that the right-hand side above vanishes. y.4. (6. y.32b) 2 nπ 1/2 −1 / 2 Fy (y. (6. y )z + σy (y. z ). y. y )z + (0) ∂φ .4. . z ) dz = − ∂ ∂y ∞ 0 φ(ˆ x. This therefore illustrates the antiplane strain version of Saint-Venant’s principle: the details of the traction applied to the edge are lost outside the narrow boundary layer.33) ˆ = 0 to the giving the transition of τ ˆxy from the prescribed function σy on x expected linear z -dependence in the outer region. ∂z (6.4.4. y ) − 12Mxx (0. −1/2) dˆ x=− n =1 1 − (−1)n an (y ) nπ dz (6.32). −1/2) dˆ x. z ) n =1 1 − (−1)n cos nπ (z + 1/2) n2 π 2 =− 1/2 −1 / 2 Fy (y. z ) cos nπ (z + 1/2) dz.17) as Nx (0. we are in a position to evaluate (6. 1/2) − φ(ˆ x.4.35) =2 −1 / 2 Fy (y. At last. ∂x ˆ (0) τ ˆyz = ∂φ . 1/2) − φ(ˆ x.4.34) Substituting for φ from (6. z )z dz. y. (6.

(6.20).12).22) is that both contributions balance.6.4.4.36) that apply at a straight edge of a plate when speciﬁed tractions are imposed. namely that the plate is geometrically thin. All that matters for the plate model (6. 6.5 The von K´ arm´ an plate equations 261 and (6. ∂y (6.14) and (6. We then used another assumption. we have obtained the four boundary conditions (6. It has revealed how much more complicated is the derivation of the boundary conditions compared to that of the ﬁeld equations.37) in agreement with (4.3.3. for example.36) are statically equivalent in the interior of the plate. z )z dz . Neither the transverse stress nor the twisting moment is conserved across the boundary layer.21). z ) dz = ∂ ∂y 1/2 Mxx (0.6.3.4. Indeed the boundary layer near the plate edge is crucial in determining the global response of the plate and the asymptotic approach leading to (6. The righthand side represents the rate of change of the net bending moment about the x-axis that is produced by the outer moment and the edge traction. to reduce the three-dimensional Navier equations to the linear plate equation (6. For .3. At a stress-free edge. To summarise. (6. the tractions and displacements applied at the edge may well cause coupling between in-plane stretching and transverse bending. instead (6. however. In practice. we modelled the deformation of a plate using linear elasticity.36) represents a playoﬀ between the two eﬀects. (6. In other words.4.4.4. we assumed that the strains are suﬃciently small for all nonlinear terms to be neglected a priori.1 Background In Section 6.4.3.34) therefore becomes Nx (0.3.5. Both sides of (6. y ) + −1 / 2 σy (y. (6.4.4.21) for the horizontal displacements.4. This concludes our systematic derivation of linear plate theory. this is akin to the angular momentum balance (4.5 The von K´ arm´ an plate equations 6.22) and a decoupled plane strain problem (6.18).4) reveals that the normal stresses there can exceed the shear stresses by two orders of magnitude. y ) − 1/2 −1 / 2 σz (y.3) that arises in linear beam theory. these take the form Txx = Txy = Myx = Nx − ∂Mxx = 0.36) We easily recognise in the left-hand side of (6.4.36) the diﬀerence between the vertical shear forces on either side of the boundary layer.

so that the transverse displacement is roughly equal to the plate thickness. this is a distinguished limit.7. The crucial coupling terms are nonlinear and hence could not possibly have been obtained from linear elasticity. we will see that bending a plate in two orthogonal directions can induce net in-plane stress. Although the details are more complicated. y.3. namely the slenderness parameter ε = h/L and δ = W/L. which is similar in spirit to the Euler strut analysis of Section 4. z ). with thickness h and longitudinal dimensions of order L. although we had to consider corrections of order ε2 during our derivation. Y. rather than setting δ to zero ﬁrst and only subsequently using the fact that ε is small. By following this approach. although small.3.3. Equally. in which there is strong coupling between bending and stretching. In Section 6. and the strains. To generalise the theory of Section 6.1) . undergoing a transverse displacement of order W . is characterised by two small parameters.5. Y = LY . Z = hZ .262 Asymptotic analysis example.9.5. the asymptotic techniques involved are analogous to those used in Section 6. by using linear elasticity we were implicitly neglecting all terms of order δ 2 .3. which is the size of a typical transverse strain. we begin by realising that a plate. The coordinates are scaled with their typical values as follows: X = LX . This suggests that there is a r´ egime in which the small parameters δ and ε are roughly equal. and so we omit many of the details. 6. Z ) are Lagrangian coordinates which must be distinguished from Eulerian coordinates (x. (6. In the language of perturbation methods.2 Scalings We consider a uniform plate of thickness h whose centre-surface lies in the plane Z = 0. are not negligible. encountered previously in Section 4. in which we let δ and ε tend to zero simultaneously. where now (X. The choice of an appropriate coupling between two small parameters will lead us to a weakly nonlinear model. putting a membrane under increasing tension through in-plane stretching certainly aﬀects its response to transverse oscillations. where the small parameters were the excess applied force above the buckling force and the amplitude of the induced perturbation. The analysis carried out below therefore serves as an illustration of the need for geometrically nonlinear elasticity even in situations where the strains are small. we will now systematically derive the von K´ arm´ an plate model.

5. We therefore non-dimensionalise the displacements as follows: u = εhu . T21 . we reduce the the nonlinear momentum equation (5. T23 .4) in non-dimensionalising the ﬁrst Piola–Kirchhoﬀ stress tensor as (T11 .3c) T33 = ε E T33 . T22 .5. in other words. we set W = h.3.4c) The dimensionless boundary conditions on the stress-free surfaces of the plate are T13 = T23 = T33 = 0 on Z = ±1/2.6. 6.5. w = h w (x. (6.5. Henceforth we drop the primes to avoid clutter.6) to obtain the averaged stress and moment equations 0= ∂ T 12 ∂ T 11 + . T23 . T32 .3a) (6.5 The von K´ arm´ an plate equations 263 As suggested above.5. (T13 .3. and the dimensionless time is again deﬁned by (6. ∂X ∂Y ∂Z ∂2w ∂ T32 ∂ T33 ∂ T31 + + − G.3) that the leading-order transverse displacement is uniform across the plate.3 Leading-order equations After non-dimensionalising and neglecting terms of order ε2 . ∂X ∂Y ∂Z ∂ T21 ∂ T22 ∂ T23 0= + + . = ∂t2 ∂X ∂Y ∂Z 0= where now G= ρ0 gh .2) We follow (6. The analysis to follow is simpliﬁed by anticipating the fact (demonstrated in Section 6. ∂X ∂Y (6.5) (6.5. T21 .5. (6.3b) (6.6). T12 .5. y. 3 4 (6.27) to ∂ T11 ∂ T12 ∂ T13 + + .4) with respect to Z and apply (6. ε4 E (6.7) .5.5. T31 .6) As in Section 6. t) + ε2 w ˜ .4b) (6. T32 ) = ε E T13 . it is helpful to integrate (6.5. T12 . T22 ) = ε2 E T11 .3. T31 . we will suppose that the transverse displacement is of the same order as the plate thickness h.5.2.4a) (6.5. v = εhv . ∂X ∂Y 0= ∂ T 21 ∂ T 22 + .

Y ) such that T 11 = ∂2A .5. 2 2 (6. as in Section 6.5.5.9) Tij dZ.5.5.2 that the ﬁrst Piola–Kirchhoﬀ stress tensor is not symmetric.5. and.3. may be reduced to T21 = T12 + O ε2 .5.14c) and (6.10) (6. we can deduce from (6.14c) T32 − T23 = wX T21 + wY T22 + O ε .5.14b).16) 2 2 ∂Y ∂X ∂X∂Y ∂X∂Y ∂X 2 ∂Y 2 . −T21 −T22 Z dZ.14a) (6.5. but satisﬁes T F T = F T T.8) (6. We can also use (6. the deformation gradient tensor is given by ε2 u Y εuZ ε2 u X F =I + (6.15) up to order ε2 . using (6.5.5.12) ε2 vX ε2 vY εvZ .5.5.3) and (6. (6.11) In terms of dimensionless variables.5.13) This provides three independent scalar equations which. T31 − T13 = wX T11 + wY T12 + O ε . 0= ∂X ∂Y ∂X ∂Y where the averaged stresses and bending moments are deﬁned by 0= T ij = M11 M12 M21 M22 = −1 / 2 1/2 −1 / 2 1/2 (6.14) as ∂ 2 M11 ∂ 2 M12 ∂ 2 M21 ∂ 2 M22 ∂2w − − +G= + 2 2 ∂t ∂X ∂X∂Y ∂X∂Y ∂Y 2 ∂2w ∂2A ∂2w ∂2A ∂2w ∂2A + + −2 . 2 ∂t ∂X ∂Y ∂M22 ∂M12 ∂M11 ∂M21 + − T 13 .12).5.3.7) the existence of an Airy stress function A(X. ∂X∂Y T 22 = ∂2A ∂X 2 (6.8) and hence obtain the generalisation of (6. The in-plane averaged stress tensor is therefore symmetric to leading order. + + T 23 .5.5.5. 3 3 εwX + ε w ˜X εwY + ε w ˜ Y ε2 w ˜Z Recall from Section 5.2. ∂Y 2 T 21 = T 12 = − ∂2A . T11 T12 (6. (6.9) to eliminate T 31 and T 32 from (6.264 Asymptotic analysis ∂ T 31 ∂2w ∂ T 32 = + − G. (6.14b) (6.

v = v (X. arguing as in Section 5.5.22) 2 + w 2 + 2ν (u + v ) wX X Y Y . (6. we must now impose a constitutive relation.5.5 The von K´ arm´ an plate equations 265 To close the problem.5.5. (6. T = F S . expanded in powers of ε.5. We note that the strain tensor.5.5.18) (6.23) had we used a nonlinear relation of the form (5. ε2 S12 S22 εS23 = (1 + ν )(1 − 2 ν ) 1 + ν εS13 εS23 ε2 S33 (6. we then ﬁnd that. namely ε2 T13 = wX + u Z + O ε2 .17) The smallness of ε justiﬁes assuming that the second Piola–Kirchhoﬀ stress tensor S is linear† and. The dimensionless form of (6.3.20) we deduce. takes the form 0 0 u Z + wX ε 1 E= F TF − I = 0 0 vZ + wY 2 2 u Z + wX vZ + wY 0 2 u Y + vX + wX wY 0 2uX + wX 2 ε 2 + u Y + vX + wX wY 2vY + wY 0 2 2 2 0 0 2w ˜ Z + u Z + vZ + O ε3 . S = λTr (E )I + 2µE . 2(1 + ν ) (6.3. Y.5. t) − ZwX . hence. by deﬁnition.3.21) Making use of these expressions for u and v . the correction to the stress-strain relation would be at most of O ε2 .2. ε2 T33 = and.18) is S11 S12 εS13 1 ν Tr (E )I + E.19) On the other hand.17). 2(1 + ν ) ε2 T23 = wY + vZ + O ε2 .4. as in (6.23). we write.6. the smallness of ε would have led to a similar theory in which some of the coeﬃcients in the lowest-order model were modiﬁed as in the example of Section 5. Y. to lowest order. w ˜Z = − † 2 + w 2 + 2ν (u + v ) + 2(1 − ν )w ˜Z wX X Y Y + O ε2 2(1 + ν )(1 − 2ν ) (6. t) − ZwY . in dimensional variables. and considering ﬁrst just the lowest-order expressions for T13 and T23 .6. 2(1 − ν ) (6. that u = u(X.

5.5.5. we obtain T 11 = T 12 = − 2 + ν (2v + w 2 ) 2uX + wX ∂2A Y Y = .5.25a) (6. 2 2(1 − ν ) u Y + vX + wX wY . We now have all the ingredients we need to construct the von K´ arm´ an equations.21) and (6. 2 ∂X 2 ∂Y 2 (6.5. 12(1 + ν ) ∂X∂Y 1 12(1 − ν 2 ) ν ∂2w ∂2w + ∂X 2 ∂Y 2 .5.26) Thus u and v may be eliminated by diﬀerentiating (6.5.25c) reveals that uX + 2 wX ∂2A ∂2A = − ν . (6.26).28b) .5. = 2(1 + ν ) 2 ) + 2v + w 2 ν (2uX + wX Y Y .28c) ∂2w 1 .24b) (6.25b) (6.5.24) with respect to Z and then integrating: M21 = − M11 = −M22 = M12 = 1 12(1 − ν 2 ) ∂2w ∂2w + ν ∂X 2 ∂Y 2 .5. ∂X∂Y 2(1 + ν ) 2 ) + 2v + w 2 ν (2uX + wX ∂2A Y Y .28a) (6.5.24c) T22 = up to order ε2 .5.5.266 Asymptotic analysis We can now use (6. (6.24a) (6.5. 2(1 − ν 2 ) (6.5.27) Expressions for the bending moments are found by multiplying (6. 2 ∂Y 2 ∂X 2 vY + 2 wY ∂2A ∂2A = − ν . ∂Y 2 2(1 − ν 2 ) (6.5.25a) and (6.5. = ∂X 2 2(1 − ν 2 ) T 22 = and the simultaneous solution of (6.24).25c) ∂2A u Y + v X + wX wY = .25b) with respect to X and Y and using (6.5.23) to evaluate the remaining stress components as T11 = T21 = T12 2 + ν (2v + w 2 ) 2uX + wX Y Y . giving ∇4 A + ∂2w ∂2w − ∂X 2 ∂Y 2 ∂2w ∂X∂Y 2 = 0. By averaging (6. (6.5.

11). as in Section 4. the only practical diﬀerence between the two is a scalar factor in the bending stiﬀness. 6. the corresponding Eulerian coordinates (x.9. Z ). where −h/2 < Z < h/2. However. (4.12) for transverse motions of a thin elastic plate. where our derivation was based on plane stress.5. (6. since the strain in any boundary layer region will be small. with just a rigid-body translation and rotation superimposed. (6. Z. (6.6 The Euler–Bernoulli plate equations 6. Z = hZ . we can anticipate that the results of such an analysis would be analogous to those found in Section 6. As usual.7. z ) being such that a material point initially at (X.6 The Euler–Bernoulli plate equations 267 Thus (6. We non-dimensionalise X and Z with their typical values.6. The resulting model will diﬀer slightly from the beam theory derived in Section 4. Z. we will instead consider the simpler problem of bending a thin elastic plate whose thickness h is much smaller than its length L.1 Dimensionless equations Next we would like to give an asymptotic derivation of the Euler–Bernoulli beam model of Section 4.6. z (X. are the von K´ arm´ an equations (4. a two-dimensional plate is described using the Lagrangian coordinates (X. This allows us to make the simplifying assumption that the deformation is purely plane strain in the (x.5. t).5.6.27) and (6.1.29) when speciﬁed edge tractions are given. x = Lx .6.5.9.6.5. z )-plane.4 can be adapted to determine the boundary conditions to be applied to (6.29) = + ∂t2 12(1 − ν 2 ) ∂Y 2 ∂X 2 ∂X∂Y ∂X∂Y ∂X 2 ∂Y 2 With a suitable change of notation. In principle the approach of Section 6. while allowing for large displacements as follows: X = LX . t) at any subsequent time t.1. 0 < X < L. Z ) occupies the position x(X. in the light of the analogy made at the end of Section 4.7.1) .27) and (6. We will discover that. However. z = Lz .5.4.16) reduces to ∇4 w ∂2w ∂2A ∂2w ∂2A ∂2w ∂2A ∂2w + G + − 2 .29).

6.6.268 Asymptotic analysis In contrast to (6.6.6.4) using the symmetry property (6.6.6. A balance of moments is obtained by subtracting x×(6.3) The two-dimensional momentum equations become ε ∂ T13 ∂ T11 ∂2x + .6.5.5. where we again use suﬃces to denote partial derivatives. Using the boundary conditions T13 = T33 = 0 on Z = ±1/2.3). (6. Using the symmetry condition (6.5) We can relate the stress components in (6. ε3 E (6. E (6.6. T31 ) = εE T11 .9) which represents net conservation of angular momentum.4). reduces to zX T11 + zZ T13 = xX T31 + xZ T33 .4a) (6.6. = 2 ∂t ∂X ∂Z ∂2z ∂ T33 ∂ T31 ε 2 = + − εG . in two dimensions.7) (6. = 2 ∂t ∂X ε ∂2z ∂ T 31 − εG .4a).5. (6. (T13 .6. where t= h ε2 ρ0 t.4b) where the relevant dimensionless gravity parameter is now G= ρ0 gh = εG.6.4b) from z ×(6. before integrating with respect to Z .8) where over-bars denote transverse averages as in Section 6.7). T33 ) = ε2 E T13 .6) we may again obtain integrated versions of (6.6. we ﬁnd ε ∂ ∂t 1/2 −1 / 2 (zxt − xzt ) dZ = ∂ ∂X 1/2 −1 / 2 (z T11 − xT31 ) dZ + εG x.6. (6. = 2 ∂t ∂X (6. that is by taking the cross product between x and the momentum equation. T33 . namely ε ∂ T 11 ∂2x .6. . the ﬁrst Piola–Kirchhoﬀ stress components are nondimensionalised using (T11 .2) and the time-scale is chosen to make t of O (1).6) and again applying the boundary conditions (6. T31 .6. ∂t ∂X ∂Z (6.13) which.

. uniform across the plate.2 Asymptotic structure of the solution Now. As in Section 6.6. t) is the angle between the centre-line of the plate and the xaxis. t) = z (0) (X. (6. t) = x(0) (X. Z.10) is consistent with the stress scalings in (6.6 The Euler–Bernoulli plate equations 269 z Z X θ x Fig. to leading order. so that x(1) = −Z sin θ. Here we suppose that the displacement is.5. we suppose that each transverse section through the plate is to leading order simply rotated through the angle θ. so that x(X. we must calculate the deformation and strain tensors. so we can write ∂x(0) = cos θ. (6.6. Z.6.6. Z.12) These physically plausible assumptions are justiﬁed in Exercise 6. we assume as in Chapter 4 that the plate is inextensible to leading order. z (1) = Z cos θ. t) + +ε2 z (2) (X. 6. It follows that. to impose a constitutive relation. so that the distance between any two material points on the centre-line Z = 0 is approximately conserved. this is simpliﬁed by anticipating the structure of the solution and then justifying our assumptions a posteriori.2). t) + εz (1) (X. ∂X ∂z (0) = sin θ. Finally. as shown in Figure 6. t) + O ε3 . and they ensure that the O (1) displacement (6. t) + O ε3 . Z.6.10b) In addition. (6.10a) z (X. to leading order. t) + +ε2 x(2) (X. Z.2. Z.4.6. ∂X (6. t) + εx(1) (X.6. X measures arc-length along the deformed plate.6. 6.11) where θ(X.2 The geometry of a deformed two-dimensional plate.

6. the strain tensor is given by E= ε 1 F TF − I ∼ 2 2 −2ZθX xZ cos θ + zZ sin θ (2) (2) (2) (2) xZ cos θ + zZ sin θ −2xZ sin θ + 2zZ cos θ + O ε2 .6. (6.3 Leading-order equations The deformation gradient tensor takes the form F = ∂xi ∂Xj ∼ cos θ − sin θ −ZθX cos θ xZ 2 +ε (2) +O ε . (6.2) and expand the stress components in powers of ε. 1 − ν2 (6.18) .6.6.15) using (6. Hence.6.16) cos θ + (0) T31 sin θ = −(1 − ν )ZθX + ν zZ cos θ − xZ sin θ (1 + ν )(1 − 2ν ) (2) xZ (2) (2) (2) . (6.13) sin θ cos θ −ZθX sin θ zZ (2) in which the leading-order term is simply a rotation through the angle θ.14) Since the strain is small.6.270 Asymptotic analysis 6. we can again limit our attention to the mechanically linear dimensional constitutive relation S = F −1 T = λTr (E )I + 2µE .6. 1 − ν2 T31 = − (0) ZθX sin θ . 2(1 + ν ) (2) −νZθX + (1 − ν ) zZ cos θ − xZ sin θ (1 + ν )(1 − 2ν ) .6. writing T11 = T11 + εT11 + O ε2 . (0) (1) (6.6.6. 2(1 + ν ) (2) (2) zZ (6.17d) from which it follows that T11 = − (0) ZθX cos θ .17c) (2) xZ cos θ + zZ sin θ .6.6.17a) 0= T31 cos θ − T11 sin θ = 0= (0) (0) cos θ + sin θ .17b) (6. to obtain (0) T11 (0) (1) T31 = T31 + εT31 + O ε2 .15) (2) (2) We non-dimensionalise (6. (6. (6.

25) .6.10) and (6. ∂X where the bending moment is given by 1/2 (6.6. 2(1 − ν ) (6.8).6.6. 12(1 − ν 2 ) (6.4 Longitudinal stretching By substituting (6. z and the stress components in the angular momentum equation (6. we ﬁnd that the other two leading-order stress components are given by T13 = (0) (θX cos θ)X 2(1 − ν 2 ) Z2 − (2) 1 4 .and z -directions respectively.9).22) Equations (6.6. we will now show brieﬂy how the longitudinal stretching of the plate can be found.6. t) + νZ 2 θX cos θ . 6.8) thus give us (now dropping the superscripts) ∂Tx ∂2x .23) However.6.20) Next we use (6. (6. As an illustration. The averaged momentum equations (6.6.6.6.6.6.21) M= −1 / 2 T11 cos θ + T31 sin θ Z dZ = − (0) (0) θX .6. = ∂t2 ∂X (6. (1) (6. since we have modelled the bending of a plate rather than a beam.20) and (6. T33 = (2) (0) (θX sin θ)X 2(1 − ν 2 ) Z2 − 1 4 .6.6.4).18) into the momentum equations (6.19) in the x.11. 2(1 − ν ) z (2) = b(x. t) − νZ 2 θX sin θ .6.17) and integrate to obtain x(2) = a(x. N = Tz cos θ − Tx sin θ.21) are equivalent to the dynamic beam model (4.9. One advantage of our systematic approach is that we can determine the details of the internal stresses and strains which are not predicted by the ad hoc theory of Section 4. (6. (1) (0) (0) Tz = T 31 .6. so the lowest-order averaged stresses are Tx = T 11 .6.11.24) We can also determine xZ and zZ from (6.6.16) to expand x.6 The Euler–Bernoulli plate equations 271 Thus T 11 = T 31 = 0.9) and simplify the result to obtain ∂M + Tx sin θ − Tz cos θ = 0. = ∂t2 ∂X ∂2z ∂Tz − G. rather than (4.22) between bending moment and curvature. when we identify the tangential and normal internal stresses with T = Tx cos θ + Tz sin θ. we have obtained the constitutive relation (6.

t) = so that ∂ xc ∼ ∂X aX cos θ + ε2 sin θ bX + ··· .6. which may be determined by analysing the constitutive relation (6.6.28). (6.28) Arc-length is therefore conserved up to order ε2 : this is consistent with our assumption that the plate is approximately inextensible.6.6. The small longitudinal stretching that does occur is described by the O ε2 correction on the right-hand side of (6. t) ∼ x(0) (X.27) x(X. Note that the centre-line of the plate is deformed to xc (X.26) and arc-length s along the centre-line is thus related to X by ∂ xc ∂s = ∼ 1 + ε2 (aX cos θ + bX sin θ) + · · · . 0. t) + · · · (6. 0.29a) and 0= 2 1 − 2ν + 4Z 2 (1 − 3ν + ν 2 ) θX 8(1 − ν 2 )(1 − 2ν ) ν (aX cos θ + bX sin θ) + (1 + ν )(1 − 2ν ) (1 − ν ) (3) (3) z cos θ − xZ sin θ . z (0) (X.29b) + (1 + ν )(1 − 2ν ) Z respectively. t) + · · · . (1 + ν )(1 − 2ν ) (6.272 Asymptotic analysis where a and b are as yet arbitrary. t) z (X.6. Considering the expressions for S11 and S33 at O ε2 . ∂X ∂X (6. t) + ε2 a(X. t) + ε2 b(X.15) in more detail as follows. we ﬁnd T11 cos θ + T31 sin θ = (1) (1) 2 3 − 10ν + 9ν 2 − ν 3 Z 2 θX 2(1 − ν 2 )(1 − ν )(1 − 2ν ) (1 − ν ) (aX cos θ + bX sin θ) + (1 + ν )(1 − 2ν ) ν (3) (3) + zZ cos θ − xZ sin θ . By eliminating the ﬁnal terms involving the third-order strains.6.30) .6.6. (6. we ﬁnd aX cos θ + bX sin θ = 1 − ν 2 T11 cos θ + T31 sin θ + 2 ν − 12(1 − ν )Z 2 θX 8(1 − ν ) (1) (1) (6.

3c) . 6. ετyz . This time. (6.7. (6. τxz . w ).2c) (u.1) ε= L where L is the rod length and A denotes the area of the cross-section.6. εz ). τyz . y. ετzz . τxy . ετyy .2b) (x. namely t= L ε ρ E t. Recall that T = (Tx cos θ + Tz sin θ) is the tension in the plate.7. = ε2 2 ∂t ∂x ∂y ∂z ∂τyy ∂τyz ∂τxy ∂2v + + .2d) L so that the dimensionless Navier equations (with primes dropped) take the form ∂τxy ∂τxz ∂2u ∂τxx + + .7.3b) (6.7. we use as slenderness parameter √ A .3. v.31) Equation (6.7 The linear rod equations 273 and integration with respect to Z over (−1/2. Perhaps less intuitive is the ﬁnal term which is quadratic in the curvature and tells us that bending the plate inevitably causes it to shrink. τxz . εy .7. (6.7. The scalings that apply to the present situation are analogous to those employed in Section 6.6. (6.31) tells us how much the plate stretches along its centreline.7. z ) = L(x . so we should not be surprised that the stretch increases linearly with T .7.7. EW (τxx . ∂t ∂x ∂y ∂z ε4 where G is deﬁned by (6. 1/2) leads to aX cos θ + bX sin θ = 1 − ν 2 T − 2 (1 − 2ν )θX . As with the linear plate equation. we suppose that the rod undergoes transverse displacements of order W . τzz ) = ετxx . w) = W (εu .1 Dimensionless equations We now consider the deﬂection of a straight rod whose centre-line initially lies along the x-axis.3a) (6.2a) (6.8) and represents downwards gravity.7 The linear rod equations 6. small enough for the linear Navier equations to be valid. v . 8(1 − ν ) (6. τxy .3. ε2 2 = ∂t ∂x ∂y ∂z ∂τyz ∂τzz ∂τxz ∂2w ε2 2 = + + − ε2 G. τyy .6. (6.

Finally. that is n = (0.7.3) with respect to y and z .7.274 Asymptotic analysis Recall that the rod is assumed to be uniform. that is f= D f dy dz (6.7.10) ∂2 ∂Mx . Nz = τ xz . (yw − zv ) = ∂t2 ∂x (6. These choices lead to the conditions dy dz = 1.7) and the tension and shear stresses are deﬁned by T = τ xx .4) The unit normal n to the boundary ∂D lies entirely in the (y.6) where bars now denote the average over the cross-section.9) is the torque about the centre-line.7. Ny = τ xy .7.7. If no surface tractions are applied to the rod. nz )T . D z dy dz = 0. so its cross-section occupies a ﬁxed two-dimensional region D in the (y. (6. using the divergence theorem and applying the boundary conditions (6. we deﬁne the x-axis to lie along the centre-line of the rod. we obtain the averaged equations ε2 ∂T ∂2u . Again using the divergence theorem and applying (6. = 2 ∂t ∂x ε2 ∂Ny ∂2v . (6.3b) before integrating over the cross-section.5) By integrating (6. (yu) = −ε2 ∂t2 ∂x ε4 ∂My ∂2 − Nz . z )-plane.7. D D y dy dz = 0. by multiplying (6. = 2 ∂t ∂x (6.3a) by y and z before integrating over the cross-section.7. we ﬁnd ε2 where Mx = yτxz − zτxy (6.7.7.11) . that is the centroid of D.7. we deduce ε4 ∂2 ∂Mz − Ny . z )-plane. (zu) = ε2 ∂t2 ∂x (6.3c)−z ×(6. we therefore have the boundary conditions ny τxy + nz τxz = ny τyy + nz τyz = ny τyz + nz τzz = 0 on ∂D. (6.7. In addition. Our scalings for y and z imply that D has unit area in terms of dimensional variables.7.7.8) An equation representing net conservation of angular momentum about the centre-line of the rod is found by taking y ×(6.5).5). = 2 ∂t ∂x ε2 ∂Nz ∂2w − ε2 G. ny .

1) and (4. neglecting terms of order ε2 . After using the scalings (6. we ﬁnd that the non-dimensionalised linear constitutive equations read ε2 τxx = ε2 τyy ε2 τzz ε2 (1 − ν )ux + νvy + νwz .7 The linear rod equations 275 where My = zτxx .15) that the transverse displacements satisfy ∂w(0) ∂v (0) ∂w(0) ∂v (0) = = + =0 ∂y ∂z ∂z ∂y (6.7.7.13) combined with the axial stress balance (6.15b) (6.7.2).7.2 Constitutive relations We must now use constitutive equations to relate the axial tension T .16) At leading order.7.2).5.7. ∂t2 ∂x2 (6. these reduce to ∂Mx ∂T = = 0.6.7.6a) and the axial angular momentum balance (6. with O ε2 corrections neglected. 2(1 + ν ) u z + wx .7.14) 6. (1 + ν )(1 − 2ν ) ε2 νux + (1 − ν )vy + νwz .7.6).17) . typically u ∼ u(0) + ε2 u(1) + · · · . ∂x ∂x (6. = (1 + ν )(1 − 2ν ) τxy = τxz ε2 τyz u y + vx . ∂t2 ∂x2 ∂ 2 My ¯ ∂2w = − G.7.7.7.12) are the bending moments about the y . to obtain the equations ¯ ∂ 2 Mz ∂2v = − .15a) (6.11) to eliminate Ny and Nz from (6. the axial torque Mx and the transverse bending moments My and Mz to the deformation of the beam.5. these equations are equivalent to (4. the dependent variables are all written as asymptotic expansions in powers of the small parameter ε2 . we deduce from (6.7.7.7.15c) As usual. (6.9). = (1 + ν )(1 − 2ν ) ε2 νux + νvy + (1 − ν )wz .13) governing transverse bending. Our equations of motion will be (6.7. = 2(1 + ν ) vz + w y . Now we use (6.and z -axes respectively. = 2(1 + ν ) (6. Mz = −yτxx (6.

y.7. z ) uniquely up to the addition of an arbitrary constant.19b) The boundary-value problem (6.22) is the dimensionless torsional rigidity of the rod. (6. it follows that the .7. (6. More importantly. + =− 2 2 ∂y ∂z ∂x∂y ∂x∂z subject to the Neumann boundary condition ny ∂a ∂c ∂u(0) + −z ∂y ∂x ∂x + nz ∂b ∂c ∂u(0) + +y ∂z ∂x ∂x =0 on ∂D. z. t) − zc(x. ∂x where R= φ (1 + ν ) (6.21b) ny ∂ψ −z ∂y The canonical boundary-value problem (6. t) = b(x. t).4. while c corresponds to rotation of the cross-section.21) is identical to that obtained in Section 2. t) + yc(x. t) − y ∂b ∂c ∂a −z + ψ (y.7.7.7.4 for the axial displacement in a bar undergoing pure torsion. A simple extension of the argument in Section 2. t) = U (x.3a) and (6. y. (6.18) where the arbitrary functions a and b represent uniform translations in the y .7.7. ∂ 2 w(0) ∂ 2 u(0) ∂ 2 v (0) ∂ 2 u(0) − = 0. z. ∂x ∂x ∂x (6.7.7.7. on ∂D. w(0) (x. z.7.5).20) where U is the mean axial displacement.7.19a) (6. as in Section 2.7. By substituting for τxy and τxz from (6. as yet unknown. For a given cross-sectional shape.4 now reveals that the axial torque is related to the twist c by Mx = R ∂c . t) = a(x.14). y.21a) (6.276 Asymptotic analysis and must therefore take the form v (0) (x.15) into (6.19) may be simpliﬁed by writing u(0) in the form u(0) (x. we ﬁnd that the leading-order axial displacement satisﬁes the two-dimensional Laplace equation. (6.and z -directions.21) determines ψ (y.7. t). since we are considering a uniform rod and Mx has already been shown to be spatially uniform from (6. z ) . and where ψ satisﬁes ∂2ψ ∂2ψ + =0 ∂y 2 ∂z 2 ∂ψ + nz +y =0 ∂z in D.

27) through by y and z before integrating over D. =0= (1 + ν )(1 − 2ν ) νux + νvy + (1 − ν )wz . ∂y ∂z (0) (0) (6. T = ∂U .7. ∂x ∂x ∂x ∂x (6. Finally.7 The linear rod equations 277 twist c must be a linear function of x.23) so the transverse components of the Navier equation (6.29b) . ∂x ∂x (0) (0) (6. (1 + ν )(1 − 2ν ) (0) (1) (1) (0) τzz =0= from which we can eliminate v (1) and w(1) to obtain (0) τxx = ∂U ∂2a ∂u(0) ∂2b = −y 2 −z 2.7. 2 ∂x ∂x 2 ∂ a ∂2b = −My = −Iyz 2 − Izz 2 .27) By integrating over D and recalling that y and z are zero. τyy (6. ∂x ∂x (6.7. Hence ∂τxz ∂τxy = = 0.29a) (6.7.7. subject to the zerotraction boundary conditions (6.5).26c) νux + (1 − ν )vy + νwz .2. ∂x (6.7. as in the exact theory of Chapter 2.7.7.7. (1 + ν )(1 − 2ν ) (0) (1) (1) (0) (1) (1) (6. ∂y ∂z (0) (0) ∂τyz ∂τzz + = 0.7.26b) (6.24) These are just the steady plane strain equations and.7.28) exactly as in the uniaxial stretching discussed in Section 2.25) Next we determine the axial tension T = τ xx .3. The constitutive relation (6. This results in yτxx = Mz = −Iyy zτxx (0) (0) ∂2a ∂2b − Iyz 2 .15) at order ε2 gives (0) = τxx (0) τyy (1 − ν )ux + νvy + νwz .7. we ﬁnd the bending moments My and Mz by multiplying (6.7.7.3) reduce to ∂τyz ∂τyy + = 0.26a) (6. we deduce that the tension is equal to the axial stretch. imply that the leading-order transverse stress components are all zero: (0) (0) (0) = τyz = τzz = 0.6.

278 Asymptotic analysis where I again denotes the tensor I= Iyy Iyz Iyz Izz = D y 2 yz yz z 2 dy dz. We will use curvilinear coordinates (ξ1 .8. ξ2 ) + nn.9.2) where n is the unit normal to the centre-surface oriented as described below.7. as distinct from the weakly curved shell of Section 4. with respect to which the ﬁrst and second fundamental forms of the centre-surface are both diagonal. 6. (6.1 Geometry of the shell Our ﬁnal asymptotic model deals with the generalisation of Section 6.7. ξ2 . This can be achieved by choosing coordinates ξ1 and ξ2 that parametrise lines of curvature. n) to describe any point in the plate whose position vector is r = r c (ξ1 .3) . and thereby validate Section 4.13) therefore reduce to ∂4a ∂4b ∂2a = − I − I . yz zz ∂t2 ∂x4 ∂x4 (6.31) which. ξ2 .30) The transverse bending equations (6.7. As described in Appendix 1. yy yz ∂t2 ∂x4 ∂x4 ∂2b ∂4a ∂4b = − I − I − G. the task of writing down the Navier equations is relatively straightforward if the coordinate system (ξ1 . there is no need to distinguish between Lagrangian and Eulerian coordinates. ∂ξ1 ∂ξ2 ∂ 2 rc ·n=0 ∂ξ1 ∂ξ2 (6.3 to cover inﬁnitesimal deformations of a fully ﬂedged elastic shell. (6.1) in which ξ1 and ξ2 are two spatial parameters. ξ2 ). that is ∂ rc ∂ rc · = 0.8. we will conclude this chapter with a brief discussion of linear shell theory. Rather than performing this by-nowroutine exercise.7). Since we restrict our attention to linear elasticity. with a suitable change of notation. The initial centre-surface of the shell is parametrised by r = r c (ξ1 . The ideas expounded in this section could now be combined with those of Euler–Bernoulli plate theory to construct a systematic nonlinear rod theory.8.8. (6. is the rod model (4.8 Linear shell theory 6.8. n) is orthogonal.5.

6b) (6. say n = hn . As usual we assume here that h is constant.6a) (6. ξ2 ) = L(ξ1 .4) a1 (ξ1 .8. ∂ξ1 a2 ∂ξ2 1 ∂a2 ∂ e2 =− e1 + κ2 a2 n. a2 (ξ1 . ∂ξ1 ∂ e1 1 ∂a2 = e2 ∂ξ2 a1 ∂ξ1 ∂ e2 1 ∂a1 = e1 .8. ξ2 ).8 Linear shell theory 279 (see for example Kreyszig. ∂n (6.6. so its surfaces (assumed stress-free) are given by n = ±h/2. ξ2 ) = ∂ξ1 ∂ξ2 and hence deﬁne an orthonormal basis {e1 .8.9a) L 1 2 We denote the displacement ﬁeld by u = u1 e1 + u2 e2 + wn.8. with scaling factors h3 = 1. (6. ∂ξ2 a1 ∂ξ1 ∂n = −κ1 a1 e1 . we must expect the in-plane and transverse displacements to be of the same order.8) 6.8.7) so this coordinate system is indeed orthogonal. Because the shell is assumed not to be nearly ﬂat. a2 ∂ξ2 n = e1 ×e2 . (6. 1959). ∂ξ2 (6. We set ∂ rc ∂ rc . u2 .6c) where κ1 and κ2 are the principal curvatures of the centre-surface. κ2 ) = (u1 . (κ1 . so the lengths in the problem are non-dimensionalised via 1 (κ . since we will ﬁnd that the ﬁnal equations may readily be expressed in any other convenient coordinate system. ∂r = a2 (1 − κ2 n)e2 .5) The derivatives of these basis vectors are given by 1 ∂a1 ∂ e1 =− e2 + κ1 a1 n.8. ∂r = n.9b) . ∂ξ1 a2 ∂ξ2 ∂n = −κ2 a2 e2 . (6. a1 ∂ξ1 e2 = 1 ∂ rc . This choice simpliﬁes the derivations but does not involve any loss of generality. w ). e2 . (ξ1 .2 Dimensionless equations We denote the shell thickness by h. ∂ξ2 h2 = a2 (1 − κ2 n). (6. κ ). where e1 = 1 ∂ rc . ∂ξ1 h1 = a1 (1 − κ1 n). u2 . n}. w) = W (u1 .8. ξ2 ) = .8. although it is straightforward to apply the same methods to a shell with non-uniform thickness.2). (6. Applying these identities to the parametrisation (6. We also deﬁne L to be a typical radius of curvature. we ﬁnd that ∂r = a1 (1 − κ1 n)e1 .8.8.8.

3. the dimensionless constitutive relation for τ33 reads νe11 + νe22 + (1 − ν )e33 = ε2 τ33 . (a2 τ12 ) + (a1 τ22 ) + τ12 − τ11 ∂ξ1 ∂ξ2 ∂ξ1 ∂ξ2 (6.8. τ22 ) = EW ε2 EW τ11 . τ12 .10) To avoid clutter.8.11b) ∂2w − g3 = κ1 τ11 + κ2 τ22 .11a) ∂ ∂ ∂a2 ∂a1 . (1 + ν )(1 − 2ν ) (6. τ12 . L L (6.11) will give us three equations for u1 . τ23 . τ33 ) = τ13 .8.12) . is now scaled using (τ11 . τ22 . u2 and w. (6. and the appropriate time-scale is now t=L ρ t.9d) Gravity is assumed to act in the direction −k and is represented by its dimensionless components along each of the basis vectors. EW (6.8.280 Asymptotic analysis where W is small enough for linear elasticity to apply. The Cauchy stress tensor. The constitutive relations imply that the displacement components are all independent of n to leading order. deﬁned as g1 = − ρgL2 (k · e1 ) .8. τ12 and τ22 in terms of the displacements. Once we have used the constitutive relations to express τ11 .11c) ∂t2 at leading order. relative to the curvilinear coordinate system.3 Leading-order equations The Navier equations and linear constitutive relations in an arbitrary orthogonal coordinate system may be found in the Appendix. (a2 τ11 ) + (a1 τ12 ) + τ12 − τ22 ∂ξ1 ∂ξ2 ∂ξ2 ∂ξ1 (6. As in the previous sections. 6.9c) as distinct from (6.8.4). τ23 . EW g2 = − ρgL2 (k · e2 ) .8. EW g3 = − ρgL2 (k · n) . we simplify the dimensionless equations by letting ε → 0 to obtain 1 ∂ 2 u1 − g1 = ∂t2 a1 a2 1 ∂ 2 u2 − g2 = 2 ∂t a1 a2 ∂ ∂ ∂a1 ∂a2 . Furthermore. we henceforth drop the primes on the dimensionless variables. E (6.8. (τ13 . (6. τ33 .8.

8. if we let the shell tend to a ﬂat sheet so that κ1 = κ2 = 0. In the same notation.8. (6. the in-plane stress satisﬁes the constitutive relation τ ˆ= ν 1 ˆ ˆ I. ˆ + (∇ (6. it may be cast in an invariant form that is independent of the parametrisation chosen.15) ∂u1 ∂a1 ∂u2 ∂a2 − u1 + a2 − u2 ∂ξ2 ∂ξ2 ∂ξ1 ∂ξ1 Space does not permit a detailed discussion of the system (6.8. −g 2 ∂t where the surface strain tensor is given by ˆu ˆu ˆ= 1 ∇ ˆ )T − wK.15) for u1 .11) may be written as ∂2w − g3 = K : τ ˆ.8.18) E 2 The theory just derived describes deformations in which the in-plane tensions dominate and the bending stiﬀness is negligible.8.7. For example.17) ˆ ∂2u ˆ ·τ ˆ=∇ ˆ.11)–(6.8. a cylinder bent about .8.14a) (6. our model allows for nontrivial displacements that cause zero leading-order stress. then the normal displacement w decouples entirely from the in-plane stresses and is arbitrary in the absence of bending stiﬀness. 1 − ν2 (6.16) ∂t2 ˆ is the surface gradient ˆ = u − wn is the in-plane displacement. and hence obtain τ11 = e11 + νe22 .6 and 6.8.13) The relevant leading-order strain components are 1 ∂u1 + a1 ∂ξ1 1 ∂u2 e22 = + a2 ∂ξ2 1 ∂w . − κ2 w. However.8. although some indication of the richness of its solutions may be discerned in Exercises 6. (6. Similarly. (6. τ ˆ is in-plane stress and K is the curvature tensor.8.14c) stress reads . ∇ where u operator. E+ Tr E 1+ν 1 − ν2 (6. Although we have derived our leading-order model using the speciﬁc coordinate system deﬁned by (6.8 Linear shell theory 281 which we can use to express e33 in terms of e11 and e22 . The momentum equations (6.6.14b) (6. 1 − ν2 τ22 = νe11 + e22 . Here we will merely add a few general observations. e33 = ε ∂n while the leading-order in-plane shear e11 = τ12 = 1 2(1 + ν )a1 a2 a1 u2 a2 u1 a1 ∂a1 ∂ξ2 ∂a2 ∂ξ1 − κ1 w.2).8.8. u2 and w.

however.20) dξ1 a2 κ2 Hence (6. More generally. and can only be derived.5. provides us with a much more detailed picture of the stress ﬁeld than the approximate theories alone. 6. Additionally. which were derived on the basis of intuition and plausibility. the displacement ﬁeld is not uniquely determined by our model.6. but this is beyond the scope of this book.9 Concluding remarks It is comforting to see that some of the approximate models in Chapter 4. from geometrically nonlinear elasticity.8. elimination of w from (6. Perhaps the biggest surprise is that the familiar membrane terms in equations like (4. parabolic or hyperbolic. can be recovered by systematic perturbation procedures. In cases where the imposed boundary conditions are compatible with (6. the geometry of the solid suggests particular scalings for the displacement . in which the in-plane stresses and bending stiﬀness balance.19) is elliptic.4.8. (6.19) u1 ∂a1 /∂ξ2 + u2 ∂a2 /∂ξ1 It is easy to calculate that the characteristic curves for this system are given by a1 κ1 dξ2 =± − .15) shows that zero stress results from in-plane displacement ﬁelds satisfying the system of partial diﬀerential equations a2 κ2 0 0 a2 ∂ ∂ξ1 u1 u2 + 0 −a1 κ1 a1 0 = ∂ ∂ξ2 u1 u2 κ1 u1 ∂a2 /∂ξ1 − κ2 u2 ∂a1 /∂ξ2 . we have seen the fascinating challenges posed by geometric nonlinearity. (6. For instance. exactly as in Section 4.8. The asymptotic approach outlined here. The resolution of the indeterminacy would require us to consider a geometrically nonlinear limit similar to that which led to the von K´ arm´ an theory in Section 6. depending on the sign of the Gaussian curvature.282 Asymptotic analysis its generators oﬀers no resistance to a large class of displacements.14) and (6.8.8.8. as shown in Exercise 6. and we can expect the existence of a zero-stress mode compatible with given boundary conditions to depend strongly on this type. This would describe weakly nonlinear deformations of a shell. we have been able to resolve its three-dimensional structure in the vicinity of the boundaries and elucidate the Saint-Venant principle.19).8.8) actually arise. A recurrent pattern in the asymptotic methodology has emerged: ﬁrst.

We have only been concerned with plates.7 using the fast timescale ρ t. derive the solvability condition σ+ − σ− = O ε2 . Exercises 6.7. there is no reason to expect that the limits ε → 0 and µ/λ → 0 would commute. letting σ+ = σ− + ε2 σ . this time assuming that the bottom and top of the sheet are subjected to tractions τyz = σ− (x) and τyz = σ+ (x) on y = 0 and y = h. c and U satisfy the equations ∂2a = 0. these equations are analysed asymptotically. (b) Hence. namely ε. ν is close to 1/2). /L. by suitable global averaging over boundary layers. if we are lucky. ﬁnally. b. t = εL E Show that the decompositions (6. we would have to state precisely what are the relative orders of magnitude of the various small parameters involved.Exercises 283 ﬁeld. In such cases. a quite new theory would be needed.2. Rescaling the surface tractions as σ± (x) = (µW/h) σ± (x). and µ/λ. ∂t2 ∂2b = 0.] . where the functions a. dx2 6. ∂t2 ∂x2 ∂2U ∂2U = .7.18).7. shells and rods with uniform thickness or cross-section and comparable elastic moduli. or. The same would be true if µ/λ 1 (i. If the thickness of the plate were to vary rapidly with a typical length-scale L. ∂t2 ∂x2 [This shows that longitudinal and torsional waves occur over a much shorter time-scale than the ﬂexural waves considered in Section 6. ∂t2 (Iyy + Izz ) ∂2c ∂2c = R . deduce from the solvability condition at O ε2 that d2 w0 + σ = 0. respectively. the stress components are rescaled so as to balance as many terms as possible in the Navier equations. then. (a) Non-dimensionalise using the same perturbation scheme as in Section 6. In particular.2 Repeat the linear rod derivation from Section 6.20) still apply.1 Reconsider the antiplane strain example of Section 6.e. (6.2 away from the edges.

2 so that H (X. show that T is O ε−2 E unless (6.6.10) is assumed. Use the asymptotic approach of Section 6.9) and (4.6.284 Asymptotic analysis 6.8. Y ) represents the undeformed centre-surface.12). ∂X∂Y ∂X∂Y ∂X 2 ∂Y 2 6. 2 ε−1 (xX xZ + zX zZ ) ε−2 x2 Z + zZ − 1 Hence. Suppose the upper and lower surfaces of the shell are given in dimensionless variables by 1 Z = H (X. Y ) ± . .6 is given by E= 1 2 |H |.2) to hold and therefore that ∂x(0) ∂X 2 + ∂z (0) ∂X 2 = 1. T21 + T22 . justify (6. ∂x(1) ∂Z 2 + ∂z (1) ∂Z 2 = 1. 2 x2 ε−1 (xX xZ + zX zZ ) X + zX − 1 .6. ∂X ∂Z ∂X ∂Z From this. show that the components of S must be at most O (εE ) for the scaling (6.3 Derive the governing equations for a weakly curved shell as follows.11) when |w| Show that the strain tensor in Section 6. T33 = ∂X ∂Y on Z = H ± 1/2. ∂z (0) ∂z (1) ∂x(0) ∂x(1) + = 0. and the stress-free boundary conditions read T13 = ∂H ∂H ∂H ∂H T11 + T12 .6.5 to derive the equations − ∇4 A = ∂2w ∂2w − ∂X 2 ∂Y 2 ∂2w ∂X∂Y ∂2H ∂2w ∂2H ∂2w ∂2H ∂2w + + − 2 ∂Y 2 ∂X 2 ∂X∂Y ∂X∂Y ∂X 2 ∂Y 2 2 and ∂ 2 (H + w) ∂ 2 A ∂2w ∇4 w = + G + ∂t2 12(1 − ν 2 ) ∂Y 2 ∂X 2 ∂ 2 (H + w) ∂ 2 A ∂ 2 (H + w) ∂ 2 A + −2 . T23 = ∂X ∂Y ∂X ∂Y ∂H ∂H T31 + T32 .4 Show that these reduce to (4.11) and (6. Further.8.

7 (a) Taking (ξ1 . u2 . ur ) in cylindrical polar coordinates. eliminate v and w to show that τxx − ν (τyy + τzz ) = ux . − gr = 2 ∂t r ∂ 2 uθ ∂τθz 1 ∂τθθ + . [This shows that a cylinder can undergo deformations that are one order of magnitude larger if bent along a generator than otherwise.8.18). κ1 = 1/r and κ2 = 0. uz . w) = (uθ .Exercises 285 6.] 6. (1 + ν )(1 − 2ν ) ε2 νux + (1 − ν )vy + νwz = . 2(1 + ν ) u z + wx = . − gθ = 2 ∂t r ∂θ ∂z ∂ 2 uz ∂τzz 1 ∂τθz + . in the notation of Section 6. ur = f (θ). show that a1 = r. a2 = 1. = 2(1 + ν ) and deduce (6. n) = (θ. (c) Show that displacements of the form uθ = f (θ).6 (a) Taking (ξ1 . n) = (θ. φ. (d) Show also that such a displacement exists for a cylindrical shell with any cross-section. z. a2 = r sin θ and κ1 = κ2 = 1/r. r) and (u1 . w) = (uθ . 6. r) and (u1 . (b) Hence derive the equations of motion τθθ ∂ 2 ur . (b) Deduce that the equations of motion for a spherical shell of . − gz = 2 ∂t r ∂θ ∂z for a circular cylindrical shell of radius r. ξ2 . ξ2 .7. uz = 0 generate no strain and hence no stress in the leadingorder shell theory. Furthermore. ur ) in spherical polar coordinates. uφ . show that a1 = r. u2 . (1 + ν )(1 − 2ν ) ε2 νux + νvy + (1 − ν )wz .5 Show that the stress–strain relations for the scalings appropriate to linear rod theory are ε2 τxx = ε2 τyy ε2 τzz ε2 (1 − ν )ux + νvy + νwz . 2(1 + ν ) vz + w y . = (1 + ν )(1 − 2ν ) τxy = τxz ε2 τyz u y + vx .

To which physical situation could it correspond? . (iii) uφ = sin(kφ) sin θ tank (θ/2). By seeking separable solutions that are periodic in φ.286 Asymptotic analysis radius r are τθθ + τφφ ∂ 2 ur . − gθ = 2 ∂t r sin θ ∂θ ∂φ ∂τφφ ∂ 2 uφ 1 ∂ (sin θτθφ ) + + τθφ cos θ . Eliminate ur and uθ (or use (6. Show that (ii) gives rise to a multi-valued displacement. (ii) uφ = sin θ log tan(θ/2) . [Hint: show that sin θ ∂/∂θ = ∂/∂ξ with ξ = log tan(θ/2).19) directly) to show that uφ satisﬁes the equation ∂ 2 uφ ∂ + sin2 θ ∂φ2 ∂θ while ∂ ∂uθ = − sin2 θ ∂φ ∂θ uφ . − gφ = 2 ∂t r sin θ ∂θ ∂φ (c) Suppose that the strain is identically identically zero. show that possible solutions for uφ are (i) uφ = sin θ.8. Show that the remaining solutions are physically unacceptable if the shell is a complete sphere. − gr = 2 ∂t r ∂τθφ ∂ 2 uθ ∂ 1 (sin θτθθ ) + − τφφ cos θ .] (d) Note that (i) is simply a rigid body motion. Discuss solutions (ii) and (iii) for hemispherical shells. sin θ and ur = ∂uθ . ∂θ sin θ ∂ ∂θ uφ sin θ = 0. and ﬁnd the corresponding expressions for uθ and ur .

7 Fracture and contact 7. The mathematical setup of such problems does therefore have some similarity with fracture.1. Whereas much of the study of fracture concerns cracks of prescribed length. although several cracks emanate from many rivets in an airliner. with voids now outside the contact set. as illustrated in Figure 7. that is problems whose geometry must be determined along with the solution. becoming singular if the tip is sharp.† On the other hand. we will ﬁnd that the stress is localised near the crack tip. which depends on the size of the crack and on the applied stress. like the one illustrated in Figure 7. in the steady state.1 Introduction Fracture describes the behaviour of thin cracks. in an otherwise elastic material. We will see that the strength of the singularity can be characterised by a stress intensity factor. An example of such a problem is to determine how the contact area between a car tyre and the road depends on the inﬂation pressure. contact refers to the class of problems in which two elastic solid bodies are brought into contact with each other.2. the set of points at which the two solids are in contact. there is one crucial diﬀerence. This factor determines the likelihood that a crack will grow and. they are carefully monitored to ensure that none of them is dangerous. but. When the material properties are the same in the two bodies. that the solid will fail. in contact problems the contact set itself is often unknown in advance. The crack itself is a thin void. 287 . therefore. † The reader may be reassured to know that. They are thus known as free boundary problems. whose faces are usually assumed to be stress-free. that is. When a solid containing a crack is stressed. the geometrical conﬁguration near the edge of the contact region is apparently similar to that of fracture.

288

**Fracture and contact
**

crack tip

crack faces

Fig. 7.1 Deﬁnition sketch of a thin crack.

contact set

Fig. 7.2 Deﬁnition sketch for contact between two solids.

7.2 Static brittle fracture 7.2.1 Physical background In Section 2.2.5, we proposed the idea that the theory of linear elasticity may fail when some stress components in a solid reach a critical value at some point. While this statement is generally true, the way in which failure occurs can be very diﬀerent for diﬀerent solids, or even for the same solid under diﬀerent loading conditions. This section will focus on the simplest mathematical model for one type of failure, namely brittle fracture. The adjective “fractured” is usually used to describe conﬁgurations where a continuum solid has developed cracks, which are very thin stress-free voids. These voids are characterised by being thin in only one direction so that they are nearly slits in a two-dimensional solid (see Figure 7.1). Thus a crack has two faces with a common perimeter which is called the crack tip, and the tip is just two points in the two-dimensional case. Cracks are often initiated

7.2 Static brittle fracture

289

at the surface of the material, which is usually the only place where they can be discerned by the naked eye. Brittle fracture covers that class of fractures, such as windscreen shattering, where the initiation and growth of the crack do not aﬀect the material modelling, which is still governed by the Navier equations. Such a situation might not be true for a metal, where quite a large region near the crack tip may have to be modelled using plasticity rather than elasticity equations; then the fracture is called ductile, and we will discuss this further in Chapter 8. We can say little more here about the physical background of this vast and important subject. However, we urge the reader to think intuitively that fracturing, i.e. crack growth, is basically a local stress-relieving mechanism. As a crack grows, the strain energy in the evolving fractured conﬁguration is less than the value it would have taken had the crack not evolved. This argument suggests that the criterion for a crack to evolve under a small increase of loading is that the release, −δ W , of strain energy resulting from a small growth δA in the crack face area is such that

−δ W dx > δS,

V

(7.2.1)

where V denotes the region excluding the crack and δS is the surface energy of the area δA. In principle, δS could be estimated from molecular considerations but, in the theory of Griﬃth cracks (see, for example, Sneddon & Lowengrub, 1969, Chapter 1; Freund, 1989, Chapter 1) δS is thought of as resulting from an eﬀective surface tension γ ; in this case, δS = γδA. It is interesting to compare fracture with the more familiar failure of a liquid, which cavitates when the pressure is too low, so that the molecular bonds weaken and allow the molecules to form a vapour. This often results in the appearance of a spherical bubble, whereas a crack morphology is usually the one preferred by solids. The diﬀerence in behaviour arises because it is easier to create new interface between a liquid and a vapour than it is to create new interface between a solid and a void. Hence a crack can grow most easily by creating new surface energy just in the vicinity of the crack tip. It is also instructive to contrast fracture, which often occurs as a result of some remote loading process, with the drilling of a thin hole through the solid (for example using a shaped charge; see Section 3.6). It is an everyday observation that the energy required to drill a hole per unit surface area generated is greater than that required to cleave the material using an axe.

290

(a)

**Fracture and contact
**

(b) τyz → σIII y σIII −c τyz = 0 x y τyz → σIII c x

σIII

Fig. 7.3 (a) A Mode III crack. (b) A cross-section in the (x, y )-plane.

7.2.2 Mode III cracks Let us now investigate the predictions of the Navier model for linear elasticity in the presence of a crack. The very simplest conﬁguration is that of a crack in antiplane strain, which is called a Mode III crack, as illustrated in Figure 7.3. Although this conﬁguration is not so important in practice, it is much simpler mathematically than Mode I and II cracks, which will be introduced later. We will consider a planar crack whose faces lie close to the (x, z )-plane between the crack tips x = ±c, y = 0. The physical set-up is that of a large cracked slab being sheared at inﬁnity in the (y, z )-plane with a shear stress σIII . Assuming that the faces of the crack are stress free, we ﬁnd that the mathematical model for the displacement w(x, y ) in the z -direction is ∇2 w = 0 everywhere except on y = 0, |x| < c, with µ ∂w → σIII ∂y ∂w =0 µ ∂y as on x2 + y 2 → ∞, y = 0, |x| < c. (7.2.2b) (7.2.2c) (7.2.2a)

There is a fundamental diﬀerence between (7.2.2) and most of the boundary value problems we have thus far considered for elastostatics, namely that the boundary on which the Neumann data (7.2.2c) are prescribed is not smooth at the crack tip. To see the kind of diﬃculty that this can cause, suppose we were to shift the origin to (−c, 0) and concentrate on the region near the crack tip. Then we would need to ﬁnd a displacement ﬁeld in which ∇2 w = 0 everywhere except on y = 0, x > 0, with µ ∂w =0 ∂y on y = 0, x > 0. (7.2.3)

7.2 Static brittle fracture

291

By separating the variables in polar coordinates (r, θ), we immediately see that w can be any function of the form w = Arn/2 cos(nθ/2) = A Re z n/2 , (7.2.4)

where z = reiθ , A is a constant and n is an integer. The corresponding stress components are given by τrz = µnA n/2−1 r cos(nθ/2), 2 τθz = − µnA n/2−1 r sin(nθ/2). 2 (7.2.5)

This plethora of solutions gives us the strong hint that we will not be able to solve (7.2.2) uniquely unless we supply some extra information about the behaviour of w near (±c, 0). We also note that, whenever n is not an even positive integer, the stress is non-analytic at the crack tip r = 0, and, if n < 2, the stress is not even bounded. From a mathematical point of view it is natural to ask whether the solution of (7.2.2) must be singular at (±c, 0) and, if so, what is the mildest singularity which we have to endure. To answer these questions, one possibility is to round oﬀ the crack, that is, to replace it with a thin but smooth boundary. A particularly convenient shape is the ellipse y2 x2 + = 1, c2 cosh2 ε c2 sinh2 ε (7.2.6)

which is smooth for all positive ε but approaches the slit geometry of Figure 7.3(b) in the limit ε → 0. Now we can easily solve Laplace’s equation by introducing elliptic coordinates deﬁned by z = x + iy = c cosh ζ, so that x = c cosh ξ cos η, y = c sinh ξ sin η. (7.2.7b) where ζ = ξ + iη, (7.2.7a)

Since the map (7.2.7) from z to ζ is conformal except on y = 0, |x| < c, Laplace’s equation is preserved and the model (7.2.2) becomes ∂2w ∂2w + =0 ∂ξ 2 ∂η 2 with ∂w =0 ∂ξ on ξ = ε, (7.2.8b) in ξ > ε (7.2.8a)

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Fracture and contact

Im z

z

r2 θ2 −c θ

r

r1 θ1 c

√ z 2 − c2 .

Re z

Fig. 7.4 Deﬁnition sketch for the function

and, since y ∼ (c/2)eξ sin η as ξ → ∞, w∼ cσIII ξ e sin η 2µ as ξ → ∞. (7.2.8c)

By separating the variables, we easily ﬁnd the solution w= cσIII sin η eξ + e2ε−ξ . 2µ (7.2.9)

We thus have a unique displacement ﬁeld for any positive value of ε and, when we let ε → 0, we obtain the solution of the crack problem as cσIII Im (sinh ζ ) . (7.2.10) w= µ Using (7.2.7), this can be written as w= σIII Im µ z 2 − c2 , (7.2.11)

where the square root is deﬁned to be √ z 2 − c2 ≡ r 1 r 2 e i ( θ 1 + θ 2 ) / 2 ,

(7.2.12)

with r1 , r2 , θ1 and θ2 deﬁned as shown in Figure 7.4. The angles are taken to lie in the ranges −π < θj < π , so that a branch cut lies along the crack between z = −c and z = c (see, for example, Priestley, 2003, Chapter 9). As shown in Figure 7.5, the displacement w is discontinuous across this branch cut.

7.2 Static brittle fracture

293

w

y x

Fig. 7.5 Displacement ﬁeld for a Mode III crack.

Despite its simplicity, the formula (7.2.11) lies at the very heart of the theory of brittle fracture. It reveals the famous square root singularity in which the elastic displacement varies as the square root of the distance from the crack tip.† By rounding oﬀ the crack before taking the limit ε → 0, we have managed to select one of the many possible singular solutions suggested by (7.2.4). This dependence immediately implies that the stress tensor, whose non-zero components are τxz = µ ∂w ∂x and τyz = µ ∂w , ∂y (7.2.13)

diverges as the inverse square root of the distance from the tip. This physically unacceptable consequence renders the Navier model invalid suﬃciently close to the tip, but there are several ways of recovering from this setback, including the following. (i) Rounding the tip This is the approach adopted above when considering the elliptical crack (7.2.6), and it is easily shown, using this example, that the stress at the crack tip is given approximately by τyz ∼ 2σIII c r0 (7.2.14)

when r0 , the tip radius of curvature, is small (Exercise 7.1). (ii) Plastic zone Even if the tip is rounded, (7.2.14) shows that the stress may still become

†

A similarly fundamental square root singularity arises in the mathematically analogous theory of aerofoils; (see, for example, Batchelor, 2000, p. 467).

294

Fracture and contact

large enough for the material to yield plastically if r0 is suﬃciently small. This suggests the introduction of a plastic zone near the tip, and this also has the eﬀect of preventing the stress from growing without bound. We will discuss plasticity further in Chapter 8. (iii) Tip cohesion In (7.2.2), we assumed that the two faces of the crack exert no traction on each other. Instead we might suppose that there is an eﬀective cohesion between the faces, so that (7.2.2c) is replaced by µ ∂w = f (x) ∂y on y = 0, |x| < c, (7.2.15)

where f (x) models the cohesive eﬀect of intermolecular bonding, which will be strongest near the crack tip. As shown in Exercise 7.3, a suitable choice of f can be made to ensure that the stress remains ﬁnite everywhere. Rather than pursue any of these possibilities for “regularising” our model near the crack tip, we will show how the existence of the square root in (7.2.11) can be exploited to great practical eﬀect. The result (7.2.11) predicts that any critical stress, no matter how large, will always be attained suﬃciently close to the crack tip. Hence, let us return to the discussion of (7.2.1) and consider whether or not the crack is dangerous, that is, whether or not it will propagate. This poses the question: “is the local stress large enough for it to do suﬃcient work to create new surface energy at the crack tip when σIII is increased slightly?” The following answer to this question has formed the basis of the theory of fracture for many decades. We note that, in the material ahead of the crack tip (c, 0), the only nonzero stress component at the crack plane y = 0 is τyz and that √ lim τyz (x, 0) x − c = σIII c/2. (7.2.16)

x↓c

Hence, no matter which of the mechanisms such as (i)–(iii) above prevents the stress from becoming inﬁnite in practice, it will have to be triggered by a local stress intensiﬁcation that is proportional to the inverse square root of distance from the tip. It turns out that the selection of the value n = 1 in (7.2.4) is generic for all Mode III cracks. Every such crack tip is characterised by the limit deﬁned in (7.2.16) and, conventionally, this limit is written as √ KIII (7.2.17) lim τyz (x, 0) x − c = √ . x↓c 2π

7.2 Static brittle fracture

295

The stress intensity factor KIII is the parameter that characterises the propensity of the crack to propagate. For the crack modelled by (7.2.2), √ for example, we ﬁnd that KIII = πcσIII . We postulate that the crack will propagate if KIII exceeds a critical value, which must be determined either from (i)–(iii) above or from experiment, and which we expect to be proportional to the surface energy γ . Under this postulate, (7.2.16) immediately reveals that a Mode III crack is more likely to grow if it is longer or subject to greater stress. We emphasise that a consequence of this postulate is that KIII is the only piece of information concerning the global stress ﬁeld that is relevant for deciding whether or not the crack propagates. We will shortly ﬁnd that the concept of a stress intensity factor applies to many other crack conﬁgurations, but ﬁrst let us review the mathematical challenges posed by problems like (7.2.2).

7.2.3 Mathematical methodologies for crack problems Now let us quickly review some diﬀerent approaches that we might have adopted to obtain (7.2.11) had we not been able to utilise elliptic coordinates and take the limit as ε → 0. Four possibilities are the following. (i) We could conformally map the region outside the cut y = 0, |x| < c onto the exterior of a circle and solve Laplace’s equation in polar coordinates. This is eﬀectively what we have done to obtain (7.2.11), but in principle the method applies to any antiplane strain crack problem where the relevant conformal map can be found by inspection. However, it crucially relies on the fact that Laplace’s equation is invariant under conformal mapping; as we will see below, considerably more eﬀort is required to generalise this approach to the biharmonic equation. (ii) We could represent w(x, y ) as a suitable distribution of functions that are singular on the slit. This approach allows most scope for physical intuition. Noting that tan−1 (y/x) is a solution of Laplace’s equation except at the origin and on a branch cut from the origin, we can directly compute that σIII c ξ tan−1 (x − ξ )/y µw = σIII y − dξ (7.2.18) π −c c2 − ξ 2 is equivalent to (7.2.11), as shown in Exercise 7.2. Thus w can be thought of as resulting from the imposed stress together with a distribution of what are called virtual dislocations, and we will return to this idea in

296

Fracture and contact

**Chapter 8. This observation suggests that we could have proceeded ab initio by trying
**

c

µw = σIII y +

−c

f (ξ ) tan−1 (x − ξ )/y dξ,

(7.2.19)

and then the boundary condition (7.2.2c) would have led to a singular integral equation for the function f (ξ ). (iii) Since w is an odd function of y , the problem may be formulated in the half-plane y 0 with the boundary conditions w(x, 0) = 0, |x| > c, ∂w (x, 0) = 0, ∂y |x| < c. (7.2.20)

Such problems in which the boundary data switches from Dirichlet to Neumann are called mixed boundary value problems and they can easily pose serious mathematical challenges. Nonetheless, the theory of such mixed problems provides the basis for the most powerful methodology for solving crack problems. The basic idea is to take a Fourier transform in x, which is a simple matter for many planar crack problems until it comes to applying the boundary conditions. However, to take the transform of (7.2.20), we would have to introduce the transforms of both w(x, 0) and ∂w/∂y (x, 0), neither of which do we know explicitly. Nonetheless, if we were bold enough to do this, we would ﬁnd that it is possible to use analytic continuation in the complex Fourier plane to ﬁnd w. This is the basis of the Wiener–Hopf method, but we have no space to describe it further here; we simply remark that it is equivalent to the singular integral equation theory that emerges from (ii) above (Carrier, Krook & Pearson, 1983, Chapter 8). (iv) We can exploit the fact that the Papkovich–Neuber representation (2.8.51) may take a particularly simple form when boundary conditions are applied on y = 0. This can give us a very useful shortcut, as we will explain shortly.

7.2.4 Mode II cracks We now move on to study cracks in plane strain. This is inevitably more complicated than antiplane strain since we have to solve the biharmonic equation rather than Laplace’s equation. As pointed out above, there are several approaches to constructing solutions, and we will consider two of

22) We recall from Section 2.6. which is analogous to that employed in Section 7. This is evidently a plane strain problem.24) . (b) The regularised problem of a thin elliptical crack.6 that the general solution of the two-dimensional biharmonic equation may be written in the form A = Re z ¯f (z ) + g (z ) .2 for Laplace’s equation. we can without loss of generality impose the boundary conditions ∇A = 0 on ∂ Ω.2.2. As before. we will see how Papkovich–Neuber potentials provide an alternative shortcut to the solution. (7.2. (7. as shown in Figure 7. with a small but ﬁnite diameter of order ε. If the crack is stress-free then.2. 2 (7. a far-ﬁeld shear stress σII (not to be confused with σ11 ) parallel to the plane of the crack is applied. We denote the two-dimensional region outside the crack by Ω and the elliptical boundary of the crack by ∂ Ω.3.6. Then. as usual. We will start by using a conformal mapping technique.23) in the form A= 1 ¯(¯ z ¯f (z ) + g (z ) + z f z) + g ¯(¯ z) .6 (a) A planar Mode II crack. In a planar Mode II crack. them in detail.2. To transform the boundary conditions for A into conditions on f and g . and then letting ε → 0. so we employ an Airy stress function which. we will regularise the problem by considering an elliptical crack.21) The imposed uniform shear stress far from the crack implies that A has the asymptotic behaviour A ∼ −σII xy as x2 + y 2 → ∞. satisﬁes the biharmonic equation in Ω. 7.23) where f and g are any two analytic functions of z = x + iy .7. it is helpful to write (7.2. (7. as shown in Section 2.2 Static brittle fracture 297 (a) y σII (b) Ω x y σII x σII ∂Ω σII Fig.

27) 2 Amazingly. g (z ) ∼ b z = ω (ζ ) = aζ + . (7. where G(ζ ) ∼ iσII b2 2ζ 2 as ζ → 0.27).2. G(ζ ) = g ω (ζ ) (7. it is not immediately obvious how to do this. (7.2.28) where a and b are real constants with b > a > 0. we obtain the condition ¯(¯ z ) + g (z ) = 0 z ¯f (z ) + f on ∂ Ω. so that ce − ε ce ε .2.2.2.2. and the task is greatly simpliﬁed by conformally mapping Ω onto a region that is easier to manipulate. The principal radii of the ellipse are (a + b) and (a − b).29) 2 2 in the terminology of Section 7.2.24).33) ω ¯ (1/ζ )F (ζ ) G (ζ ) + ω (ζ ) ω (ζ ) at |ζ | = 1.2.22) implies that f and g satisfy iσII 2 z as z → ∞. (7.31) The boundary condition (7.26) and (7. From (7. Thus F is analytic in the unit disc |ζ | 1. (7.26) is transformed to ¯ (1/ζ ) = −F where ω ¯ (1/ζ ) = a + bζ 2 .2.2.30) for the transformed versions of f and g .298 Fracture and contact ¯ is the conjugate function to f . ζ ω (ζ ) = aζ 2 − b . the far-ﬁeld behaviour (7.2. Here we note that the region outside our elliptical crack is the image of the unit disc under the conformal mapping f (z ) → 0.21).2. b= . However.2. (7. that is f ¯(¯ where f z ) ≡ f (z ). hence.2. and G is analytic apart from a double pole at the origin. we deduce that 1 ∂A ∂A ∂A = −i =0 (7.2. ζ2 (7. We also introduce the notation a= F (ζ ) = f ω (ζ ) .2. the two functions f and g can be determined using only the fact that they are both analytic in Ω and the conditions (7.2.25) ∂z 2 ∂x ∂y on ∂ Ω and. by using (7.32) .26) In addition. ζ (7.

Krook & Pearson.35) Now we arrive at the crux of the argument. Carrier. The left-hand side of (7.2. where we ﬁnd that G (ζ ) iσII b ∼ ω (ζ ) ζ as ζ → 0.and the right-hand sides of (7. tends to zero as ζ → ∞ (see.2.37) By integrating with respect to ζ and ignoring an irrelevant constant of integration. the and we use the fact that ζ map z = ω (ζ ) is conformal and hence ω (ζ ) is nonzero in the unit disc.2.2. ζ= 2a (7. ζ2 (7. The only singularity in the right-hand side of (7.35) to analytically continue the left-hand side into |ζ | < 1 and hence obtain a function that is analytic on the entire complex plane and.2.2. We can therefore use (7. (7. (7.2. Section 2. by using this expression in the right-hand side of (7. while the right-hand side is analytic in |ζ | 1. we thus obtain G(ζ ) = iσII b2 2 1 − ζ2 . 1983.2.2.32) to remove the singularity from the right-hand side and thus obtain ¯ (1/ζ ) − −F ζ 2 G (ζ ) + ζ a + bζ 2 F (ζ ) iσII b iσII b = − ζ aζ 2 − b ζ at |ζ | = 1.36) and. and we deduce that the left. for example.38) Finally. Provided b > a > 0.7.35) is analytic in |ζ | 1. (7.2. We can therefore evaluate the function F (ζ ) as F (ζ ) = iσII bζ (7.2. According to Liouville’s theorem.2.32) therefore arises from the pole in G(ζ ) at the origin.39) .35) must both be identically zero.35).34) Let us subtract this from both sides of (7. the only function that has these properties is the zero function. we obtain G (ζ ) = −iσII b2 ζ + 1 ζ3 .27). by using the inverse mapping √ z − z 2 − 4ab . because of (7.8).2.2 Static brittle fracture 299 ¯ = 1/ζ on the unit circle.

2.42) as shown in Exercise 7.2. (7.23) for A. ∂z ∂ z ¯ (7. we ﬁnd that √ θ1 5θ1 σII c τxx ∼ − √ + 7 sin .4.41) Im (¯ z − z ) z 2 − c2 . 2a √ iσII g (z ) = 2 (a2 − b2 )(z 2 − 2ab) + (a2 + b2 )z z − 4ab .2. so that a and b both tend to c/2.40a) (7. (7. (7.44a) sin 2 2 4 2r1 √ θ1 5θ1 σII c + 3 cos .2. (7.43a) ¯f (z ) + g (z ) τxy = Im z = σII Re 2 . Hence.2. A= 2 By using the chain rules ∂ ∂ ∂ = + .2.40b) When substituting these into the formula (7. as in Mode III cracks.44c) sin θ1 cos 2 2 2r1 as r1 → 0. we can recover the stress components as ¯f (z ) − g (z ) + 2f (z ) τxx = Re −z = σII Im 2 4z 3 + c2 (¯ z − 5z ) (z 2 − c2 )3/2 2z 3 + c2 (¯ z − 3z ) (z 2 − c2 )3/2 z−z ¯ (z 2 − c2 )3/2 .44b) cos τxy ∼ √ 2 2 4 2r1 √ σII c 3θ1 τyy ∼ √ .300 Fracture and contact where the square root is again deﬁned by (7. 4a (7.4.43c) By approximating these in the neighbourhood of the crack tip z = c.2. (7. and thus obtain σII (7. where r1 and θ1 are deﬁned as in Figure 7. we evaluate the functions f and g in terms of the original variable z as f (z ) = iσII b z − z 2 − 4ab .2.2. we simplify the resulting expression by letting the crack thickness tend to zero.12).2.2. (7.43b) ¯f (z ) + g (z ) + 2f (z ) τyy = Re z = σII c2 Im 2 . ∂x ∂z ∂ z ¯ ∂ =i ∂y ∂ ∂ − . the stress diverges like the inverse square root of the distance from .2.

the crack tip. we postulate that the crack tip will propagate if KII exceeds some critical value.6 0. 0) = σII πc.46) KII = lim 2π (x − c)τxy (x. 0) ∼ 2(x − c) We therefore deﬁne the stress intensity factor for Mode II cracks by √ (7. (7. by setting θ1 = 0. an alternative and somewhat simpler way to proceed is to pose the problem in the half-space y > 0. This conformal mapping approach can in principle be applied to more complicated crack geometries. 7.51).2. with crack half-length c = 1.8.7 by plotting the contours of the maximum shear stress |τ 1 − τ 2 | = S= 2 ∂2A ∂x∂y 2 1 + 4 ∂2A ∂2A − ∂x2 ∂y 2 2 = z ¯f (z ) + g (z ) .2.47) As expected.2. Ahead of the crack.2 Static brittle fracture 2 301 S/σII 1 1 0.8 y0 -1 0.7. The boundary conditions on the Airy stress .4 0. We visualise the stress ﬁeld in Figure 7. and then solve it using the Papkovich–Neuber potentials deﬁned in (2. for the special case of a planar crack. However.7 Contour plot of the maximum shear stress S around a Mode II crack. x↓c As in Mode III cracks. to be √ σII c as x ↓ c. the stress is concentrated near the crack tips and minimised along the crack faces.45) τxy (x. the only nonzero stress component on the plane y = 0 is found.2 0 -2 -2 -1 0 1 2 x Fig. (7.

∂y ∂y 2 ∂y (7.56) Since this holds for all x and since (1 − ν ) ψ − ∂φ/∂y is a harmonic function. v→0 as y → ∞.2. 2 (7. |x| < c but the second boundary condition on y = 0. the displacement is still determined only up to an arbitrary rigid-body motion. (7.55) By construction.2.2.2. We can either argue on physical grounds that τxx = 0 or use symmetry arguments to say that ∂2A =0 ∂y 2 on y = 0.8.2. (7.54) while A satisﬁes ∂φ 1 ∂ ∂A = −σII x − (1 − ν ) ψ + + (yψ ) . y ).49) on y = 0. 1 yψ . |x| > c is less obvious.52) at inﬁnity so that the displacements are given by 2µu = 2σII y − 1 φ + yψ 2 ∂ φ+ 2µv = 2 (1 − ν ) ψ − ∂y ∂ ∂x . To specify the solution uniquely. we require both ψ and ∇φ to tend to zero as y → ∞.48) (7. |x| > c. On y = 0. (7. we focus on the case of a pure shear parallel to the crack face. we use the fact that φ is a harmonic function to deduce that 0 = τyy = 2µ ∂v +λ ∂y ∂u ∂v + ∂x ∂y = (1 − ν ) ∂ψ ∂ 2 φ − 2.58) by employing a Papkovich–Neuber potential of the form Ψ = (0. ∂y ∂y (7. (7. ψ (x. so that µu ∼ σII y.2.2. |x| > c.302 Fracture and contact function are clearly A ∼ −σII xy ∂A =0 A= ∂y and A=0 on y = 0. 0)T .2.53) (7. It is convenient to subtract oﬀ the behaviour (7. (7.51) Once we have solved this problem for A.2.2.2.50) as y → ∞.52) We now follow (2.57) ∂y . we conclude that ∂φ ≡ (1 − ν ) ψ.

11) the solution ψ = 2σII x − 2σII Re z 2 − c2 .2.2 2 (1 − ν ) σII /µ = 0 -1 -0.1 0.8 The displacement of a Mode II crack of half-length c = 1 under increasing shear stress σII .63) .5 0. Finally.25 0.50) give that A = −σII xy + ∂ψ (x.59) with ψ → 0 at inﬁnity. using (7.58) 2 The remaining boundary conditions (7.60) |x| < c (7.55) to obtain the Airy stress function in the form yψ .49) and (7. 2 (7.2.61).2. we can write φ = Im{h(z )} and.2. |x| < c. ∂y |x| > c.7. as µu = ±(1 − ν )σII c2 − x2 . (7.61) Substitution of this into (7. and we can deduce from (7.1 1 x 0.58) reproduces the expression (7. Thus our problem eﬀectively reduces to the harmonic conjugate of the Mode III crack problem (7.2.2. since ∂φ/∂x = Im {h (z )}. (7.57) and (7.41) for A obtained above using conformal mapping.2.5 -0. We can then integrate (7. ∂x and ∂ψ (x.2.2. (7.2.2 Fig. (7.2.2). 0) = 2σII .62) Hence. 0) = 0. we ﬁnd that h (z ) = 2(1 − ν )σII z − z 2 − c2 .5 -0.2 Static brittle fracture 303 y 0.2. we can directly evaluate the displacement on the crack faces y = 0±. µv = 1 − ν σII x.2. 7.2.2.

(7. This is arguably a more realistic conﬁguration than that of either Mode II or Mode III but. 7.4.5.65b) . As depicted in Figure 7. the solution turns out to be slightly more diﬃcult to derive in this case.9.65a) (7. 7. although the condition at inﬁnity is now A∼ σI 2 x 2 as x2 + y 2 → ∞. following the steps used in Section 7.5 Mode I cracks We now move onto the problem of a crack in plane strain under a tension σI . This time the Goursat functions f and g take the form f (z ) = σI −z + 2 z 2 − c2 . 2 4 (7.304 Fracture and contact σI y x σI Fig. using an Airy stress function A that satisﬁes the biharmonic equation in the region Ω outside an elliptical stress-free crack.2. as shown in Figure 7.2. the crack is deformed into an ellipse that grows and rotates as the applied shear stress is increased.2.2.2. 4 σI c2 σ I g (z ) = − log z + z 2 − c2 + z 2 .9 A Mode I crack. unfortunately. may be found in Exercise 7.8. We ﬁrst follow the same approach as in Section 7.4.2.64) The details of the calculation.

2. again subtracting the linear far-ﬁeld displacement.10. Ahead of the crack.66c) as r1 → 0.66a) τxy = σ I c2 z−z ¯ Im 4 ( z 2 − c2 ) 3 / 2 √ σI c √ ∼ cos(3θ1 /2) sin θ1 .2.2. 2 1 φ + yψ .2.69b) 2µv = (1 − ν )σI y + 2(1 − ν )ψ − and the Airy stress function satisﬁes ∂ ∂A = −(1 − ν )ψ + ∂y ∂y (7.2. 2 2r1 (7.2. so that 2µu = −νσI x − ∂ ∂x 1 φ + yψ . while symmetry implies that ∂A =v=0 ∂y on y = 0. 0) = σI πc.2. the stress is again concentrated near the crack and minimised along the crack faces. (7. ∼√ 2r1 (7.2 Static brittle fracture 305 and the stress components are therefore τxx = −σI + σI Re 2z 3 + c2 (¯ z − 3z ) 2 (z 2 − c2 )3/2 √ σI c ∼ √ 3 cos(θ1 /2) + cos(5θ1 /2) . 2 ∂ ∂y 1 φ + yψ . (7. τyy ∼ √ 2r1 so we deﬁne the Mode I stress intensity factor as KI = lim x↓c √ 2π (x − c)τyy (x.66b) τyy = 2z 3 − c2 (z + z σI ¯) Re 3 / 2 2 ( z 2 − c2 ) √ σI c cos3 (θ1 /2) (3 − 2 cos θ1 ) .2.2.7.68) As shown in Figure 7.69a) (7. |x| > c.67) τxx . we can instead adopt the Papkovich–Neuber representation.71) .2.2. As in Section 7. 2 (7. (7. the nonzero stress components are therefore √ σI c as r1 → 0.4. on θ1 = 0.70) We still have the stress-free boundary conditions (7.49) on the crack faces. 4 2r1 (7.

and. on y = 0.2.75) To complete the solution. We can then use this identity to integrate (7. Notice that ∂ A/∂y is equal to zero on the entire x-axis. using (7.2.73) and.72) holds everywhere.10 Contour plot of the maximum shear stress S around a Mode I crack.2.70) with respect to y and thus obtain 1 φ σI x2 A = yψ − + .2.11). |x| < c. again by analogy with the Mode III solution (7.2. we let φ = Re{h(z )} for some analytic function h and. 2 1 − 2ν 2 In terms of ψ .4. with crack half-length c = 1.70) leads to the boundary condition ∂φ = ∂y 1 −ν ψ 2 (7. 7.4 0.74b) (7. (7.75).72) and (7. the remaining boundary conditions read ∂ψ = −2σI ∂y ψ=0 on y = 0.2.8 y0 -1 0.6 0.76) . we deduce that (7.2. (7.72) on y = 0.2.306 2 Fracture and contact S/σI 1 1 0.2. following the same argument as in Section 7.2. we ﬁnd that h (z ) = (1 − 2ν )σI z − z 2 − c2 . (7. Thus (7. we deduce that ψ = −2σI y + 2σI Im z 2 − c2 .2.2 0 -2 -2 -1 0 1 2 x Fig.2.74a) (7.2. |x| > c.

(7.1 1 x 0. This may be integrated to give h(z ) = 1 − ν σI z 2 − z 2 z 2 − c2 + c2 log z + z 2 − c2 .2. (7.25 0.2. Both these conﬁgurations. with a great deal of eﬀort.7. 7.11 The displacement of a Mode I crack of half-length c = 1 under increasing normal stress σI .2.77). (7. . we obtain a solution for the Airy stress function analogous to the Goursat representation (7.1 0. are lucidly described in Sneddon & Lowengrub (1969).5 -0. we note that a general planar crack in two space dimensions will be a linear superposition of Modes I.2.2. growing wider and shorter as the applied normal stress increases.2.78b) Figure 7.75) and (7. The calculations carried out above suggest that all three will scale with the square root of the crack length. II and III.2. but unfortunately there are no general rules about the factors to which a crack will be most vulnerable.69) on y = 0±. |x| < c as 2µu = −νσI x − Re h (z ) = −(1 − ν )σI x.2.77) By combining (7.2. 2µv = (1 − ν )ψ = ±2(1 − ν )σI c2 − x2 .5 0.2 Static brittle fracture 307 y 0. We conclude this discussion with two remarks. Second.11 shows that the crack becomes elliptical. The displacement of the crack may now be found by evaluating (7. the most famous three-dimensional crack conﬁguration is the penny-shaped crack which is the radially symmetric version of our earlier Mode I crack and it can be solved explicitly.2.78a) (7. First.65). along with many others.5 -0.2 Fig. by transforming to spheroidal coordinates and taking a limit as in Section 7.2 2 (1 − ν ) σI /µ = 0 -1 -0.73). and hence the stress near its tip will be characterised by three intensity factors.

308 Fracture and contact 7. for a helpful account). so its tip is at x = −V t.4) with n = 1. 1989. but this would require us to solve for the stress away from the crack. ξ > 0. and this task is beyond the scope of this book (see Freund.2.2.2.81) . The corresponding solution of (7. We therefore restrict our attention to the simplest possible model for a semi-inﬁnite Mode III crack propagating at constant speed −V along the x-axis. c2 s (7. at least on suﬃciently short time-scales. we wish to describe structural failure or the response of tectonic plates to earthquakes. Even without precise knowledge of this far ﬁeld.2. it is reasonable to assume that the local stress ﬁeld may be approximated by a travelling wave moving with speed −V . we should impose some conditions at inﬁnity.2. (7.79). we need to be able to predict the speed of penetration of a growing crack.80) and it is only through the constant A that the global stress ﬁeld is felt. with µ ∂w =0 ∂y on y = 0.2. ξ > 0. Although the global stress ﬁeld away from the crack will be a complicated history-dependent function of the crack geometry. 0) ∂y = µA πB = µA 2 π 2 1− V2 c2 s 1/4 . (7.2.79b) where ξ = x + V t and cs is the shear wave speed.2. the local displacement will satisfy 1− V2 c2 s ∂2w ∂2w + =0 ∂ξ 2 ∂y 2 (7.6 Dynamic fracture All the discussion hitherto refers to models of cracks that are static or just about to grow. however. Notice that this problem generalises the static semi-inﬁnite Mode III crack problem considered in (7.79) is w = A Re ξ + iy . To close the model (7.79a) everywhere except on y = 0. Now the dynamic stress intensity factor is √ KIII = µ 2π lim ξ ↑0 −ξ ∂w (ξ.2. B where B2 = 1 − V2 . Unfortunately this involves synthesising the theories of elastic wave propagation from Chapter 3 with those of mixed boundary value problems from this chapter. If. we expect the physically relevant solution to have a square root singularity analogous to (7.3). Hence. for example.

which reveals that T and T dw/dx must both be continuous. subject to the boundary .1 Contact of elastic strings We start by considering the simplest elastic contact problem. they are always observed to propagate subsonically. namely an elastic string making steady contact under a prescribed body force p(x) against a smooth. Thus. df dw = dx dx (7. This is comforting because. with quite a diﬀerent stress concentration nearby as compared to the subsonic case.7. then we can solve (7. Now we must consider how to join the solutions in the contact and noncontact sets.3. where w is simply equal to the prescribed obstacle height f (x) above the x-axis. and non-contact set for those points where it does not.7. If the transverse displacement w(x) is assumed to be small. 7. subject to speciﬁed boundary conditions at the ends of the string and w = f. Let us illustrate the procedure for a string whose ends x = ±1 are ﬁxed a unit distance above a ﬂat surface z = f (x) = 0. which leads us to the question of the smoothness of the solution at points where contact is lost. provided A is bounded.1) where the string tension T is spatially uniform. we would expect a shock wave to be generated at the tip.3. nearly ﬂat.3.3 Contact 309 Hence. Provided friction is negligible.3. unless cracks are boosted by internal pressures or other local driving mechanisms. rigid obstacle Γ.2) at the points where the string meets the obstacle. a question we also had to address in our discussion of crack tips.1). our task is to solve (7. dx2 (7.3. Here this problem is resolved immediately by a local force balance. If the applied pressure p is spatially uniform. Were a crack tip forced to propagate supersonically.3 Contact 7.12. which is zero in Figure 7. T is also constant throughout the contact set. then a force balance on a small element of the string in the non-contact set yields the familiar equation T d2 w = p(x).1) in the non-contact set. we see that the stress intensity factor tends to zero as the tip speed tends to the shear wave speed. We use the terminology contact set to denote the set of points at which the string makes contact with the obstacle. as in the example of Exercise 7.

0 0. 3. 4. subject to w(1) = 1 and the continuity conditions w(s) = to obtain w =1− in x > s. .3) w =1− 1 − x2 . Let us denote the boundaries of this region by x = ±s. 1.3. where s is to be determined as part of the solution. conditions w(−1) = w(1) = 1.8 0. 7. with applied pressure p/T = 0.5) dw (s) = 0 dx (7. 2T As the applied pressure p is increased. the downward displacement at the centre of the string increases. makes contact with the surface beneath.6) p (1 − x)(1 + x − 2s) 2T (7. p (7. This simple example shows how the solution of the contact problem hinges on locating the free boundary between the contact and non-contact sets.3.0 x Fig.2 1. In this simple problem.4) In Figure 7. the string is pushed downward.5 0.4 0.3.0 increasing p 0. as increasing pressure is applied. where s=1− 2T . we only need to solve for positive x.3.12 we see how. then a contact set forms near the middle of the string. We therefore solve (7. If the pressure is increased further. the solution in x < 0 may then be inferred by symmetry. 2. to obtain p (7.6 0. 5.1) in x > s.3.12 Solution for the contact between a string and a level surface. until it ﬁrst makes contact with z = 0 when p = 2T .310 Fracture and contact w 1.5 1. and the contact set then gradually spreads outwards.

30 0.5 1.30 0.20 0. shown in Figure 7. (7. as in (7.30 0. − x .05 z (c) z 0.05 (b) 0.13(c).3.5 x 0. subject to zero body force.0 0. To illustrate some of the possible pitfalls.0 1.0 0.10 0. the governing equation is itself linear. This means that the solutions of contact problems can exhibit phenomena such as non-uniqueness that are impossible for linear problems.25 0.5 1.0 Fig.0 0. Recalling that the string must meet the obstacle tangentially. 3 3 2 8 (1 − x). 9 3 2 2 (7. as can be seen in Figure 7.5 x 0.3.7) with its ends ﬁxed at w(−1) = w(1) = 0.10 0.15 0. stretched over the curved surface z = f (x) = 2x2 − 3x4 (7. consider now a string. 7. Such free boundary problems are inevitably nonlinear even when. in which the string loses contact with the middle of the obstacle.25 0.5 1.20 0. x 1. however.15 0.05 1. construct a third solution. We must therefore allow the string to make contact with the obstacle.0 1. 9 3 We can. With p = 0.25 0. The most obvious linear function satisfying both boundary conditions is simply w ≡ 0 but.3.10 0.3 Contact 311 (a) z 0. as illustrated in Figure 7.3. which is impossible.1) implies that the string must be straight wherever it is out of contact.13(b). the solution in this case is easily constructed as 2 8 (1 + x). this would imply that the string penetrates the obstacle.1). −1 x − .7.5 x 0. Again noting that the string is linear when out of contact and must always make contact .20 0.13(a).13 Three candidate solutions for the contact problem between a stress-free string and the surface z = 2x2 − 3x4 .15 0.8) w = 2x2 − 3x4 .

9). and w > f.13(b) has negative values of R and is therefore unphysical. To summarise. 9 3 1 2 x −√ . Although it is slightly less obvious. The solution shown in Figure 7. The situation shown in Figure 7. − 3 3 1 1 1 w= x √ . then (7. (7. Figure 7. dx2 (7. 9 3 (7. . .312 Fracture and contact tangentially. −√ 3 3 3 2 1 2 4 2x − 3x .1) is modiﬁed to T d2 w = p − R. 2x2 − 3x4 . √ x . if R(x) denotes the normal reaction force exerted on the string by the obstacle.3. with w f.3. The two conditions (7. T d2 w −p dx2 0.10) The reaction force R must be zero outside the contact set. In general. we ﬁnd that this solution takes the form 2 8 (1 + x).11a) with continuity of w and dw/dx at the boundaries between the contact and non-contact sets. T d2 w −p=0 dx2 in the non-contact set.3.9) We would like to have a mathematical formulation that chooses between possible candidate solutions like those shown in Figure 7. 3 3 2 8 (1 − x). x 1. since there is a tensile normal stress between the string and the obstacle.13.3. −1 x − .11) may usefully be combined to (w − f ) T d2 w −p dx2 = 0.3. we can select a physically relevant solution of the contact problem by insisting that w = f.3. the correct solution is therefore (7. (7.3.12) and this so-called linear complementarity problem can be written in another way which is very convenient computationally.3.13(b) is also physically unrealistic. (7.11b) T d2 w −p<0 dx2 in the contact set.13(a) can be avoided by incorporating the requirement w f into our model.

This has the obvious physical interpretation of minimising the elastic energy minus the work done by pressure over the virtual displacements v which prevent inter-penetration of the string and the obstacle.14) reduces to p d4 w .13) if and only if it is the minimiser of the functional 1 −1 T 2 dv dx 2 + pv dx over all v f . 7. Evidently (7.3. p.3.13) is called a variational inequality. we expect to need additional boundary conditions to specify a unique solution.3. dw/dx and d2 w/dx2 must all be continuous there. 103).3. (7.15) . and we will see that the inclusion of bending stiﬀness leads to interesting new behaviour.3.1.3.12).14) is fourth-order.1) as the bending stiﬀness tends to zero. (7.13) with v and w satisfying the same ﬁxed boundary conditions.3. Now. This is the equivalent for a beam of the string sagging problem analysed in Section 7.3. Moreover. as shown in Elliott & Ockendon (1982. (7. Let us illustrate the solution procedure in this case by considering a beam that is simply supported at its two ends x = ±1 at a unit height above the horizontal surface z = 0.14) is simply replaced by the condition w = f . =− dx4 EI (7.14) reduces to (7. as in Chapter 4. The statement (7. as shown in Exercise 7. by balancing forces and moments at the boundary between the contact and non-contact sets.2 Other thin solids It is seemingly straightforward to extend the model derived above to describe smooth contact between an elastic beam and a rigid substrate.14) where. the displacement w of the beam is governed by the equation T d4 w d2 w − EI − p = 0. then. and. (7.7. w satisﬁes (7.3. EI denotes the bending stiﬀness.1). dx2 dx4 (7. w satisﬁes (7.3 Contact 313 If w satisﬁes 1 T −1 dw dx dv dw − dx dx 1 dx −1 p(w − v ) dx for all v f. we deduce that w.3.3. In the noncontact set. In the contact set.3. Since (7.3.2). Assuming no tension is applied. this constrained optimisation problem is very much easier to solve numerically than the free boundary problem (7.3.3.8.

We need only solve the problem in x > 0.0 0. compared with (7.3. we have introduced one more boundary condition to compensate for not knowing the location of the free boundary a priori.5 1.4 0.5 0. 24. (b) The beam makes contact at just one point: p/EI = 24/5.3.3.0 0.5 1. let us instead seek a solution in which the beam makes contact with z = 0 over a region −s x s.16a) (7.14(a). where s is related to the applied .0 0.5 0.0 1.8 0.6 0.17) cannot remain valid for p/EI > 24/5.16a) with the free boundary conditions w(s) = 0.18a) s.3.16a).14 The contact between a beam and a horizontal surface under a uniform pressure p.2 1.2 0. dw (s) = 0. w(1) = 1.8 0.8 (b) w 1. 12/5.3.3.16b) and this problem is easily solved to give the displacement p 1 − x2 5 − x2 . 384. since we can then infer the solution for negative values of x by symmetry. dx d2 w (s) = 0. We therefore replace (7.17) As shown in Figure 7.5 0. So.2 0.4 0.314 Fracture and contact (a) w 1.0 0.3. 7.16c) Notice again that. dx2 (7. dx2 (7. with w ≡ 0 in 0 (x − s)3 (2 − s − x) (1 − s)4 x (7.6 0. Again. subject to the boundary conditions w(−1) = 1. w =1− 24EI (7. dx2 d2 w (1) = 0.6 (c) w 1.3. because it predicts negative values of w. 24/5.0 x x x Fig. (a) The beam sags towards the surface: p/EI = 0.0 1.4 0. (c) The contact set grows: p/EI = 24.0 0. d2 w (−1) = 0. the beam sags under increasing applied pressure until it ﬁrst makes contact with the surface z = 0 when p/EI = 24/5. the problem is easy to solve and we ﬁnd that w= in x s.5 1.0 0. The solution (7. 2048/27.

The ﬁnal surprise comes when we consider the reaction force R exerted by the surface z = 0 on the beam. then ﬂattens as p increases.19) in x 0. with the even extension of (7.14(c) we show how the contact set grows as p increases.3. namely the origin.23) .19) in which the contact set is the point x = 0.19) matches (7.3.20) then implies that there is a delta-function in the reaction force: R= 5p − 6EI δ (x). 1/2 when p/EI = 24.3.20) Consider ﬁrst the solution (7.3.3. until its curvature matches the curvature of the obstacle. the beam initially meets z = 0 at one point.16c) with w(0) = 0. then we ﬁnd w= x2 (3 − x) p − x2 (1 − x)(3 − 2x). we ﬁnd that d3 w 5p d3 w (0+) = − 3 (0−) = − 3.22) Similarly. 1/4. dx4 (7. It is easy to verify that (7.21) 3 dx dx 8EI Hence the third derivative of w is discontinuous across x = 0 and (7.3 Contact 315 pressure by 24 p = EI (1 − s)4 or s=1− 24EI p 1/4 . This begs the question: “what happens for values of p/EI between 24/5 and 24?” The answer is that the beam makes contact at just one point. since s must lie between 0 and 1.19) dw (0) = 0. given by R = p + EI d4 w . 384 respectively.3.3.16d) in x 0. However.18) reveals that 12 d3 w (s+) = = 3 dx (1 − s)3 3 2 1/4 p EI 3/4 .18) is only valid when p/EI 24. By diﬀerentiating (7. 2 48EI (7.3.18b) In Figure 7.14(b). As shown in Figure 7. with s = 0.3.3. diﬀerentiation of (7. (7. (7.18) when p/EI = 24/5 and 24 respectively.3.3. 2048/27. (7.3. the solution (7. Only then does the contact set start to grow.17) and (7.7.3. dx (7.3.3. 4 (7.19) and using the symmetry about x = 0. If we replace (7.3.

28) .26) where T is the uniform tension in the membrane.316 Fracture and contact so. As shown below in Section 7.3.1) is Poisson’s equation T ∇2 w = p(x.14). y ).3.3. (7.3. To generalise the above theories into three dimensions. The additional dimension makes analytical progress diﬃcult except in simple cases such as axisymmetric problems (see Exercise 7. y ).3. However. y ) under an applied body force p(x. y ) making contact with a smooth obstacle z = f (x. We can obtain a variational formulation of the contact problem for a beam by incorporating the elastic bending energy into the integrand of (7. These point forces acting at the boundary of the contact set do not occur in the contact of strings.24) agrees with (7. w and ∇w must be continuous everywhere. the numerical solution is straightforward in principle using a variational formulation analogous to (7. min w f D T |∇w|2 + pw 2 dxdy. this gives rise to a reaction force that.27) ∂n ∂n In other words. They are a consequence of the idealisations inherent in beam theory. there is a delta-function in the reaction force at x = s with. that is 1 min w f −1 T 2 dw dx 2 + EI 2 d2 w dx2 2 + pw dx. A force balance at the boundary of the contact set now reveals that w and its normal derivative must be continuous there. again.3. (7. then beam theory would no longer be valid and we would need to consider contact between a linear elastic solid and a rigid boundary.3. Clearly the two-dimensional analogue of (7. (7. that is ∂f ∂w = on the boundary of the contact set.3. (7. by symmetry. that is w = f.3.3.24) We can readily verify that (7. is ﬁnite.25) in the absence of any contact.3.22) when p/EI = 24. (7. If we were to focus on a suﬃciently small region near the boundary of the contact set.10). although concentrated near the edge of the contact set.3.14) is the Euler–Lagrange equation associated with (7.3. an equal delta-function at x = −s: R=p+ 3EIp3 2 1/4 δ (x − s) + δ (x + s) (x s).25) It is easy to show that (7. we now consider an elastic membrane with transverse displacement w(x.3.1).

typically zero stress.30) on y = 0 and given behaviour. we will now make some elementary observations about contact in plane strain.3. τyy < 0 on y = 0. we limit our attention to the problem of a rigid body. 7.15 Contact between a rigid body and an elastic half-space.15. is to solve plane strain subject to the mixed boundary conditions (7. at . then. For simplicity. |x| < c. as shown in Figure 7. (7. (7. that is τxy = τyy = 0.3. pushed a distance δ into the elastic half-space y > 0.3. and we can additionally incorporate bending stiﬀness as follows: min w f D T EI |∇w|2 + ∇2 w 2 2 2 + pw dxdy. In addition. |x| > c. v > δ − f (x) on y = 0.3. known as a punch.30a) Outside the contact set. the normal displacement is given in terms of the shape f (x) of the punch and. Inside this region.7.30b) Our task. there must be a positive reaction force. so that v = δ − f (x). the tangential stress is zero. Let us suppose the geometry is symmetric about x = 0 so that the contact set is −c < x < c for some positive c.29) 7. the surface traction is zero and there must be no inter-penetration. τxy = 0. (7.3 Smooth contact in plane strain As an intermediate case between the thin contact problems described above and general three-dimensional elastic contact.3. assuming smooth contact.3 Contact 317 y f (x) x c punch δ Fig.

exerted by the punch.31) We can now use the solution obtained in (2.3.30) relies crucially on the fact that the boundary conditions together with the inequalities in (7.30) with τxy = 0. enlightened by (7. where P (x) = p(x). Such problems are almost always so complicated that they must be solved computationally but.3.14). (7.3.85) to calculate the displacement v0 (x) of the boundary y = 0.34) where F is constant. 0. |x| < c.3. As an example (guided by hindsight).9.3. 0) f (x) − δ .32) τyy = −P (x) on y = 0. over all displacement ﬁelds satisfying the constraint v (x. By calculating the integral in (7.318 Fracture and contact inﬁnity. let us consider the pressure proﬁle p(x) = F c2 − x2 . (7. given by v0 (x) = − 1−ν πµ c −c p(s) log |s − x| ds. One must devise a code that minimises the integral W dxdy. this allows us to recover the shape of the punch that corresponds to the assumed pressure proﬁle p(x).3. y> 0 where W is the strain energy density deﬁned in Section 1. One cunning way to construct analytic solutions of the contact problem described above is to suppose that we know in advance both the size c of the contact set and the contact pressure.33) In |x| < c. The proof of the equivalence of this proposed algorithm to ﬁnding a displacement ﬁeld satisfying the Navier equation and the boundary conditions (7. We thus replace the boundary conditions (7.30) determine a unique solution with bounded stress everywhere. (7.33) for this particular .3.3. It only remains to check for consistency that there is no inter-penetration in |x| > c.3. say p(x).6. |x| > c. (7. we can see that this is not as fearsome a task as might be supposed.

it is readily veriﬁed from (7.35) |x| x2 − c2 − c2 cosh−1 (x/c). 7.36) This reﬂects the weakness in the theory of plane strain noted in Section 2. has √ p ∼ 2c c − x as x ↑ c.16 that both v0 and its ﬁrst derivative are continuous across x = ±c.3.3. while the above example. We can observe in Figure 7. We note that the displacement is not bounded at inﬁnity. . in the theory of brittle fracture without cohesion. as illustrated in Figure 7.3.8. In contrast. the crack thickness typically varies as the square root of the distance from the crack tip.6. and the same diﬃculty does not occur for more realistic three-dimensional conﬁgurations (see Barber. by construction.3.16.35) that the thickness of the void between the punch and the elastic body varies like √ c2 4 2c c 2µv0 (x) 2 − (x − c)3/2 (7.34) therefore corresponds to a quadratic punch.16 The penetration of a quadratic punch into an elastic half-space y > 0. The suggested pressure proﬁle (7. (7. − x2 |x| < c.37) 1 − 2 log +x ∼ (1 − ν )F 2 2 3 as x ↓ c. |x| > c.3 Contact 319 v0 1 -10 -5 -1 5 10 x -2 -3 -4 Fig. Recall also that the stress grows like (x − c)−1/2 as a √ crack tip is approached. it can be shown that the displacement of the boundary is given by 2µ (1 − ν )F v0 (x) = + c c2 1 − 2 log 2 2 0. we recall that. 1993). choice. Indeed. instead growing like v0 (x) ∼ − (1 − ν )c2 F log |x| 2µ as |x| → ∞. (7.3.7.

µc . one component separates the non-contact set from the contact set. without this assumption. If we assume Coulomb friction. This considerable extra complexity destroys any hope of applying the standard theory of variational inequalities. This is because of the serious mathematical complications to which it leads. and the only way forward is to consider the geometry of the ends of the ladder in detail.3. as shown in Exercise 7. then the shear stress |τxy | at the contact set never exceeds the normal stress |τyy | multiplied by the coeﬃcient of friction. but thus far we have not mentioned it. the ladder problem should be solved as an evolution contact problem starting from the time at which the ladder was erected. Such dynamic contact problems are of greatest applicability in the theory of . Notice also that the introduction of cohesion into the tip region of a brittle crack.37). This is a nontrivial problem unless limiting friction is assumed at both ends of the ladder. In the former there is no slip. and only the normal displacement is continuous. Suppose for example we introduce frictional eﬀects into the smooth contact problems of Section 7. The ladder will be ready to slip when the slipping subset of the contact region is found to occupy almost the whole of the contact region. so the displacement is continuous.3. As is usual in frictional contact. However the boundary of a smooth contact set is free to decide its location.4 Concluding remarks The role of friction is of great importance in most real contact problems. Strictly speaking. it is perfectly sensible to seek the stress distributions around a crack with arbitrary faces and an arbitrary crack tip surrounding these faces. slip is possible. but in the latter.3. theoretical challenges of this sort have to be confronted if we are addressing even the apparently simple problem of ﬁnding the forces exerted on the ends of a rigid ladder resting against a wall. and the other divides the contact set into regions where |τxy | < µc |τyy | and |τxy | = µc |τyy | respectively. can also reduce the strength of the singularity to a 3/2-power as in (7.320 Fracture and contact These observations prompt the question: “why should the stress singularity in the smooth contact problem be weaker than that in the fracture problem?” The answer lies in the fact that the crack geometry is prescribed a priori. the reaction forces are indeterminate. and it does so in such a way as to prevent the stress intensiﬁcation that is characteristic of fracture. and solve a frictional contact problem along the lines just described. 7. Unfortunately. This immediately introduces a second component into the free boundary. when we regard the cohesion length as a free parameter.

2.1 For the elliptical Mode III crack solution (7. even in the non-frictional case. (7. x > c cosh ε are given by τxz = 0. we suppose that the tension in the rope is T (θ) and that the cylinder is given by r = a. ones!).1) implies that the normal reaction of the capstan is T (θ)/a. as y ↓ 0. τyz = 2τ0 eε x cosh ε √ − sinh ε .2. √ Show that the right-hand side of (7.9). say.3. To carry this out. Exercises 7. and a force balance equation along the rope gives dT /dθ = µc T . The resulting exponential dependence of T on θ explains the eﬀectiveness of capstans. ∂ ∂y c −c f (ξ ) tan−1 x−ξ y dξ → − c −c f (ξ ) dξ . in which a rope is wound around a rough circular cylinder. requires a combination of the modelling in this chapter and of the elastic waves in Chapter 3. Show also that the radius of curvature r0 of the tip is given by cosh ε 1 1 = 2 ∼ ε2 c r0 c sinh ε and hence that the shear stress at the tip is approximately τyz ∼ 2τ0 c r0 7. this kind of conﬁguration can be used as a building block in a theory of knots (real.2 when r0 is small. Moreover. Making the assumption of limiting Coulomb friction everywhere. One frictional contact problem of great practical importance which can be solved exactly is the capstan problem. coeﬃcients of restitution between various diﬀerent solids.Exercises 321 impact. where predictions are to be made of.18) tends to σIII c2 − x2 as y ↓ 0 when |x| < c. not mathematical. show that the stress components on y = 0. In polar coordinates. Show also that. where µc is again the coeﬃcient of friction. ξ−x . x2 − c2 Deduce that the stress at the crack tip is τyz = 2τ0 eε cosech ε ∼ 2τ0 ε as ε → 0.

0 < x < δ. 0. Show that the coordinate transformation (x + iy ) = (ξ + iη )2 leads to the chain rule 1 ∂ = 2 ∂y 2 (ξ + η 2 ) η ∂ ∂ +ξ ∂ξ ∂η . . subject to the boundary conditions w(x.3 is f (ξ ) = ξ/ π c2 − ξ 2 . |ξ | > δ. Deduce that w is a harmonic function of (ξ. η ) in η > 0 satisfying √ 2Cξ. y ) satisﬁes Laplace’s equation outside the crack.12. ∂w √ (ξ.322 Fracture and contact where − denotes the principal value integral deﬁned in Exercise 2. and deduce that 2C ∂w = Re ζ log ∂ξ πµ √ ζ+ δ √ ζ− δ √ −2 δ + 2 K . and the far-ﬁeld condition w∼ √ 2 K Re z π µ as x2 + y 2 → ∞. The antiplane displacement w(x. Deduce that a solution of the singular integral equation − c −c f (ξ ) dξ =1 ξ−x (|x| < c) 7. µ ∂w (x. Verify that the solution for ∂w/∂η is ∂w 2C = Im ζ log ∂η πµ where ζ = ξ + iη . and w∼ 2 K ξ π µ as η → ∞. π µ √ ζ− δ √ ζ+ δ . |ξ | < δ. x < 0. 0) = ∂y C. 0) = 0. x > δ. where z = x + iy and K is a constant determined by the external stress imposed on the crack. 0) = µ ∂η 0. Are there any others? Consider a semi-inﬁnite planar Mode III crack along the positive x-axis with a cohesive stress C in a neighbourhood of the crack tip.

4 to a Mode I crack.24) and using the chain rules (7.64) corresponds to f ∼ σI z/4 and g ∼ σI z 2 /4 as z → ∞.2. ∂y 2 ∂2A = Im z ¯f (z ) + g (z ) . b → c/2. obtain (7.2.4 πK 2 . deduce that F and G are given up to arbitrary integration constants by cσI 1 − 3ζ .42).2. 8 ζ 1 c2 σ I c2 σ I ζ+ − log G(ζ ) = 16 ζ 2 F (ζ ) = 7. and deduce that the stress at the crack tip is ﬁnite if δ= 7.2.6 c ζ .65).35) becomes ¯ (1/ζ ) − −F σI (a + 2b) σI bζ + 4ζ 4 2 ζ G (ζ ) + ζ a + bζ 2 F (ζ ) σI (a + 2b) σI bζ − + . By inverting the conformal mapping. = aζ 2 − b 4ζ 4 In the limit a.2. ∂x2 ∂2A = Re −z ¯f (z ) + 2f (z ) − g (z ) . and that (7.Exercises 323 Hence show that the stress ahead of the crack is given by √ 2C δ 2 K 1 ∂w √ + C 1 − tan−1 (x.2. Show that the far-ﬁeld condition (7. 8C 2 By writing the Airy stress function in the form (7. Show that the displacement components and the Airy stress function in plane strain are related by 2(λ + µ) ∂u ∂v + ∂x ∂y = ∇2 A.5 Apply the conformal mapping technique from Section 7. show that the stress components in plane strain are given in terms of the Goursat functions by ∂2A = Re z ¯f (z ) + 2f (z ) + g (z ) . . 0) = √ − µ ∂y π π −x 2π −x δ in x < 0. − ∂x∂y 7.

use the expression (7. Suppose a semi-inﬁnite Mode III crack propagates at constant speed −V along the x-axis in a channel |y | < h.65a) for f (z ) to reproduce the displacement (7. show that A and ψ satisfy 2µ ∂ 2 ψ ∂2A ∂2A . and hence that A− µ iψ = z ¯f (z ) + g (z ). so that the displacement w satisﬁes (7. 2(λ + µ) ∂y ∂x By eliminating u and v from the constitutive relations.78) of a Mode I crack.2. y ) such that u= ∂ A ∂ψ 1 + .7 Finally. 1−ν where f and g are arbitrary analytic functions. −∞ < x < ∞. − = − ∂x2 ∂y 2 1 − ν ∂x∂y ∂2A µ ∂2ψ ∂2ψ 2 = − ∂x∂y 1 − ν ∂x2 ∂y 2 Deduce that ∂2 ∂z ¯2 A− µ iψ 1−ν = 0. Suppose also that antiplane shear displacements are applied on the walls of the channel such that w = ±b on y = ±h. 2(λ + µ) ∂x ∂y v= 1 ∂ A ∂ψ − . show that the displacement of such a boundary is given by u + iv = 2 (1 − ν ) f (z ). . Hence show that the displacement components are given in terms of f and g by u + iv = 1 ¯ (¯ z) − g ¯ (¯ z) .26) satisﬁed by f and g on a stress-free boundary.2. + 2 ∂X ∂y .2. where z = x + iy and z ¯ = x − iy . µ 7.79). (3 − 4ν )f (z ) − z f 2µ Recalling the boundary condition (7. respectively. Deduce that ∂2w ∂w = 0.2.324 Fracture and contact and deduce that there exists a function ψ (x.

then U [w] − U [v ] = −T 1 −1 1 −1 p (w − v ) dx dx − T 2 1 −1 dw dx dv dw − dx dx dw dv − dx dx 2 dx and deduce that. Show that if w minimises U .13). then U [w] for all v 0 −1 U [αv + (1 − α)w] f . then it minimises U .3. 0) ∼ √ ∂y 2 πh −X as X ↑ 0. 1)}. (a) Show that. while a bending moment M is applied at the other end. 7. if v1 and v2 belong to the set {v : v f on (−1.9 Consider the problem of a ﬂexible ruler of unit length being pressed against a horizontal table. obtain this result by using conformal mapping. which is held at a . [Alternatively.Exercises 1/2 325 where x + V t = ξ = 1 − V 2 /c2 X . Expand this inequality for small α to show that 1 T dw dx dv dw − dx dx − p(w − v ) dx. as shown in Figure 7.] Hence show that b 1 ∂w √ (x.17. then so does αv1 + (1 − α)v2 for 0 < α < 1 [this means that the set is convex]. and deduce that the propagation speed is given by V = cs 1− 4 h2 KIII . µ4 b4 7. Suppose the end x = 0 is simply supported by the table with w = 0. if 1 U [w ] = −1 T 2 dw dx 2 + pw dx. (b) Note that. x = 1. and verify that the solution s is by b w= − Im log 1 + 1 − eπz/h . h π where z = X +iy .8 where KIII is the Mode III stress intensity factor. if w satisﬁes (7.

10 .4 0. the membrane ﬁrst makes contact with the table when p = 4T . Show also that. 9. By ﬂicking one end. 7.5 0.5 η 2 Fig.5 1 1.02 0. it is possible to send a wave of length 2 7.01 0.5 -1 -0. 7.2 0. and sags under a uniform applied pressure p. 12. 6EI for M/EI 6.005 -1. as p is increased from zero. height w = 1 above the table. The membrane is ﬁxed with w = 1 at the circular boundary r = 1.025 0.326 Fracture and contact w 1 0. where r2 = x2 + y 2 . Show also that.11 A rope with line density and bending stiﬀness EI lies on the ground. w 0.8 0.035 w 0.002 0.03 V 0.006 0. where w =x− 4T = 1 − s2 + 2s2 log s. when M/EI > 6. Show that the vertical displacement of the ruler is given by M x 1 − x2 . when p > 4T .01 0.004 0.2 0. the contact set is given by r < s.4 0. Show that. 15. (b) Some higher travelling modes.17 A ﬂexible ruler ﬂattened against a table with applied bending moment M/EI = 0.5 1 η 1.18 (a) A wave travelling along a rope on the ground.008 0. 3.5 -1. p 7.6 Increasing M/EI 0.6 0.8 1 x Fig.5 -1 -0. Consider an elastic membrane stretched to a tension T above the horizontal table z = 0.015 0. the ruler makes contact with the table over a region of length s = 1 − 6EI/M .5 0. 6.

18(b). show that the small transverse displacement w(η ) of the rope satisﬁes EI 2 d4 w 2d w + V + g = 0. Deﬁning the travelling wave coordinate η = x − V t.18(a) and the next three are shown in Figure 7. and show that the speed is given by V = k EI . [This equation has a countably inﬁnite set of solutions.Exercises 327 travelling along the rope at speed V . where k satisﬁes the transcendental equation tan k = k. deduce that ﬂicking one end of the rope up and down over a time τ will produce a wave travelling at speed V ≈3 EI τ2 1/4 . dη 4 dη 2 subject to the contact conditions w= Derive the equation w= g 4 2EIk 4 2 + k2 − k2 η2 2 d2 w dw = =0 dη dη 2 at η=± . . the displacement corresponding to the ﬁrst is shown in Figure 7.18(a). − 2 sec k cos kη for the shape of the hump in the rope. as illustrated in Figure 7.] Given that the lowest positive root is given by k1 ≈ 9/2.

If a stress lower than τY is applied. which has proved extremely useful in practical models of plastic behaviour. and the material can thus exist in one of two distinct states. and the second is to predict the irreversible behaviour that occurs at a stress equal to or greater than this critical value. A limiting case of the behaviour depicted in Figure 8. a nonzero permanent strain remains. Below the yield stress. above which a solid ceases to behave elastically.1. at and only at the yield 328 . is known as perfect plasticity.1. Macroscopic plasticity modelling thus poses two key challenges.1 Introduction It is unfortunate that what are colloquially called “plastics” are polymeric solids that usually behave elastically at room temperature and viscoelastically when hot. which means that it has become inelastic. returning to its original state when the loading is removed. the stress is never allowed to exceed the yield stress. hence the word plasticity should not be thought of as applying just to such materials.1(b) above the dotted line is where the material is said to be undergoing work hardening. In perfectly plastic theories. the material responds elastically (although possibly nonlinearly). There is always a critical bending moment above which the clip fails to revert to its initial state. some of the most important examples of plastic behaviour occur in metals.8 Plasticity 8. A convenient way to gain some intuition about this phenomenon is to apply an increasing bending moment to a paper clip. which shows the qualitative stress/strain curve for a metal that yields when some norm of the stress tensor reaches the yield stress τY . This observation is encapsulated in Figure 8. when a stress greater than τY is applied and then removed. The part of the loading curve in Figure 8. Indeed. The ﬁrst is to explain the existence of a critical yield stress. However. it behaves as an elastic solid and is described by the models presented previously in this book.

The situation is further complicated by the existence of viscoelastic materials which behave like elastic solids in some situations and like viscous liquids in others. “visco-plastic”. It is natural to use the word “ﬂow” to describe the permanent deformation that occurs at the yield stress. 8. in which the behaviour at any time depends on the entire strain history that it has so far experienced. although. “elasto-visco-plastic” and so forth. we speciﬁcally stated that a solid does not ﬂow in response to a stress.8. We therefore . stress.2 can only be discerned using very-high magniﬁcation microscopes. a typical stress–strain trajectory is shown schematically in Figure 8. (b) when the yield stress is exceeded. we will see that the small-scale behaviour underlying Figure 8. the material becomes plastic and starts to ﬂow irreversibly. In fact. plastic and viscoelastic materials all exhibit historydependence. The mathematical models that emerge in each case may be quite diﬀerent from each other. in Chapter 1. Hence the stress–strain relationship of a perfectly plastic material is as sketched in Figure 8. as we will describe in Section 9. We will spend most of this chapter describing plastic behaviour in metals. and they all diﬀer markedly from those used in classical ﬂuid mechanics in one crucial respect. However. This can be anticipated by returning to your paper clip and cycling the stress so that it loads and unloads above and below τY until it eventually fractures.1 A typical stress–strain relationship for a plastic material: (a) below the yield stress τY .1 Introduction 329 (a) stress τY loading unloading stress τY (b) loading unloading strain strain Fig. We will see below that such models arise naturally in describing granular materials and metal plasticity.1(a). A yielding plastic material therefore ceases to be a solid according to the deﬁnitions given in Chapter 1.2(b).2. While the behaviour of a classical inviscid or Newtonian ﬂuid is determined completely by its instantaneous velocity ﬁeld. there exist materials with ever more complicated mechanical properties that may be characterised as “elastic-plastic”.2(a): we can view this as an idealised version of Figure 8.

it is an everyday observation that dry granular material cannot withstand any tensile stress (in the absence of any additional physical eﬀects. whose smallscale behaviour is more familiar from everyday experience. where the material parameter φ is called the angle of friction.330 Plasticity stress τY (a) stress τY un load loa din ing g (b) strain strain Fig. (b) under periodic loading/unloading. the particle experiences a normal reaction force R and tangential frictional force F exerted by the pile underneath.3. Coulomb’s law of friction is an empirical law which states that |F | R tan φ. This indeed agrees with experimental observations that granular materials possess an angle of repose. for example in the transport of powders. where θ is the angle that the surface makes with the horizontal. tan φ = µc . A force balance on the particle illustrated in Figure 8.2.) In addition. as illustrated in Figure 8. We recall from Chapter 7 that R must be non-negative. we therefore deduce that the surface slope is bounded by tan φ and that slippage will occur when θ = φ.2 Models for granular material 8. Let us ﬁrst consider a single particle at the surface of a granular solid. In addition to its own weight W . indeed. 8. (In the notation of Section 7. for example a pile of sugar on a spoon. From Coulomb’s law. Coulomb’s law implies that the particle is held in place by friction if |F | < R tan φ and can slide only when |F | = R tan φ. 8. foodstuﬀs and coal and in understanding the behaviour of sand dunes. start with a brief discussion of plastic ﬂow in granular solids.3 gives R = W cos θ and F = W sin θ. such as moisture-induced cohesion or electrostatic charges).1 Static behaviour The mechanics of granular solids is of wide importance.4. where µc is the coeﬃcient of friction.2 The stress–strain relationship for a perfectly plastic material: (a) under a single loading. that is a maximal surface slope un load loa din ing g .

2 Granular ﬂow The above discussion gives us conﬁdence that Coulomb’s law provides a good model for a maximally piled granular material. When the material is piled maximally. etc. via a series of avalanches.3 The forces acting on a particle at the surface of a granular material.). 8. we must apply Coulomb’s law to particles in the interior..2. (8. Assuming that the internal stress can be described using a stress tensor τ . we ﬁnd that the .4. under static conditions at least. notably in geometrical optics (see Ockendon et al. sand. It is also characteristic of the perfectly plastic behaviour described in Section 8. see Exercise 8. and the pile height z = h(x. sin θ)T . which can be sustained without the particles giving way and ﬂowing.8. 359). 8. Let us then consider the forces acting on a two-dimensional surface element inside a granular medium whose unit normal is n = (cos θ. and it is much easier to implement this in two dimensions rather than three. 2003.1) This is called the eikonal equation for h and it arises in many other contexts. p.2 Models for granular material 331 y R 11111111111111 00000000000000 00000000000000 11111111111111 00000000000000 11111111111111 00000000000000 11111111111111 W 00000000000000 11111111111111 θ 00000000000000 11111111111111 F x Fig.2. Single-valued solutions of (8.1) predict shapes that are reminiscent of our everyday experience of piles of granular materials (for example sugar. for example.1.1. as depicted in Figure 8.2. To model a ﬂowing granular material. y ) therefore satisﬁes the equation |∇h|2 = ∂h ∂x 2 + ∂h ∂y 2 = tan2 φ. it follows that the surface slope must equal tan φ everywhere.

for all θ.2. for all choices of the angle θ. (8. If so. the eigenvalues of τ ) can be positive. normal traction exerted on the particles below the element by those above is given by (cos θ.e. this direction deﬁnes a slip surface along which we expect ﬂow to occur.3) 2 Now Coulomb’s law implies that |F | must be bounded by N tan φ. ﬂow can occur only if there is some value of θ for which |F | is equal to N tan φ.4 The normal force N and frictional force F acting on a surface element inside a granular material. the tangential (frictional) shear stress on our surface element is given by (− sin θ.2. and N must therefore be non-positive.332 Plasticity y F N 1111111111 0000000000 0000000000 1111111111 0000000000 1111111111 0000000000 1111111111 θ 0000000000 1111111111 0000000000 1111111111 0000000000 1111111111 0000000000 1111111111 0000000000 1111111111 x Fig. sin θ) cos θ sin θ 1 1 = (τxx + τyy ) + (τxx − τyy ) cos(2θ) + τxy sin(2θ). cos θ) τxx τxy τxy τyy cos θ sin θ F = 1 = (τyy − τxx ) sin(2θ) + τxy cos(2θ).2. It follows that none of the principal stress components (i. but never a tensile one. .1. 8. we expect the particles to exert a compressive force on each other. (8. Similarly. In addition.2) 2 2 τxx τxy τxy τyy N= As pointed out in Section 8.

8.5) When the material is ﬂowing and equality holds. we see that. and the Mohr circle must therefore be tangent to the lines |F | = |N | tan φ.2. if the material is ﬂowing.2. since it implies that the condition for the material to yield is independent of our choice of coordinate system.5 The Mohr circle in the (N.5. as θ varies. then there must be one value of θ such that |F | = |N | tan φ. From (8. given by 1 F 2 + N − (τxx + τyy ) 2 2 = (τxx − τyy )2 2 + τxy . the tractions lie on the so-called Mohr circle in the (N.2 Models for granular material 333 F 1 4 (τxx 2 − τyy )2 + τxy φ N − τxx + τyy 2 Fig.5) is a relation between the two stress invariants Tr (τ ) and det (τ ). F ) plane. as shown in Figure 8. Finally.2. and the lines where |F | = |N | tan φ. Elementary trigonometry now tells us that the stress components in a granular material must satisfy 2 2 τxx τyy − τxy 1/2 −(τxx + τyy ) cos φ.5) is called the Coulomb yield criterion.2. Coulomb’s law then tells us that |F | |N | tan φ for all θ. (8. as shown in Figure 8. (8.5. F )-plane. the Mohr circle must lie in the half-plane N 0. 4 (8. This is reassuring. 8.3).2) and (8.2. Notice that (8. Since we require N to be non-positive for all θ. and the Mohr circle must therefore lie in the sector N tan φ F −N tan φ. We can only make signiﬁcant analytical progress if we assume that the ﬂow is slow enough for the inertia of the particles to be negligible in .2.4) where diﬀerent points on the circle correspond to diﬀerent choices of the angle θ.

to solve for the stress tensor in a ﬂowing granular material in two dimensions without specifying any particular constitutive relation.6) and the yield criterion (8.5).5) give us three equations in the three stress components τxx .5) is strict.2. when the material is ﬂowing. The key to solving such models is to locate the free boundary that separates the ﬂowing and non-ﬂowing regions. When φ ∈ (0.3. we obtain a perfectly plastic theory.2. unexpectedly.2. namely 2 ∂2A cos2 φ ∂2A ∂2A 2 ∇2 A . the system (8.† To model † Had we included a depth-dependent hydrostatic pressure at inﬁnity. subject to a uniform isotropic pressure p∞ at inﬁnity and a positive pressure P at r = a to simulate the tunnel bracing. in principle. but there are a handful of symmetric situations where we can ﬁnd an explicit solution.1. π/2). By combining these two regimes. This assumption is often valid in practice and allows us to neglect the acceleration term in Cauchy’s momentum equation. Outside these regions. we see that (8.5) implies a nonlinear partial diﬀerential equation for A. which thus reduces to ∂τxy ∂τxy ∂τyy ∂τxx + = 0.6) is likewise hyperbolic.2. (8.6) ∂x ∂y ∂x ∂y Given our restriction to two dimensions.2.2. the inequality in (8. gravity. This is in stark contrast with all theories of elasticity that we have encountered thus far. This means that the stress ﬁeld in the ﬂowing material is conﬁned to certain regions of inﬂuence bounded by the relevant characteristics of (8. − = (8.2. (8.6. (8.7) 2 2 ∂x ∂y ∂x∂y 4 When φ = π/2. It is therefore possible. The switch in behaviour from hyperbolic to elliptic makes these problems very diﬃcult in general. as in Section 2. .334 Plasticity comparison with the frictional forces between them and.2. analytical progress would have been considerably more diﬃcult.9.7) is. this reduces to the Monge–Amp` ere equation encountered previously in Chapter 4. as described in Section 8.2.6) to introduce an Airy stress function A. 8.2. in which the yield stress is never exceeded.3 Example: a tunnel in granular rock One such conﬁguration is the problem of a circular tunnel of radius a bored through granular rock. equality in (8. Even with the body force included. The easiest case to analyse occurs when gravity is negligible so we can use (8. as shown in Exercise 8. τxy and τyy . a hyperbolic partial diﬀerential equation. perhaps. Then. + + ρg = 0.2.2. so the granular material does not ﬂow but behaves like an elastic solid and hence satisﬁes elliptic equations.7).

2. r2 (8.2.12) (8.8) The boundary conditions on the tunnel wall and in the far ﬁeld read on r = a.2.11) − cos φ (τrr + τθθ ) .13) Then it is straightforward to solve (8.2. (8. and the only nonzero in-plane stress components are τrr (r) and τθθ (r).8) and (8. 2(λ + µ) 2µr (8. dr r (8. (8.5) in the form 2 (τrr τθθ )1/2 Hence yield occurs when kτrr = τθθ .6.8.41).16) .6. we seek an axisymmetric solution in which the displacement is purely radial. dr r τθθ = λ ur dur + (λ + 2µ) .2. we can write (8.9a) (8.2.5.14) and the stress components are then given by τrr = −p∞ + (p∞ − P ) a2 . and it is more convenient to work directly with the plane polar Navier equation τrr − τθθ dτrr + = 0. As in Section 2.15) Notice the analogy between (8. with u = ur (r)er . At the tunnel wall r = a.10) While the rock remains elastic.2.2 Models for granular material 335 this situation.9) to ﬁnd ur = − (P − p∞ )a2 p∞ r + .2.5): τrr = (λ + 2µ) ur dur +λ .2.9b) By rotating the axes.2.2.2.11. as r → ∞. we can use the usual constitutive relations (1. (8. r2 τθθ = −p∞ − (p∞ − P ) a2 . τθθ → −p∞ (8. with the outer radius b tending to inﬁnity and a superimposed isotropic pressure. where the so-called triaxial stress factor k satisﬁes 2k 1/2 = (1 + k ) cos φ.14) and the gun barrel solution (2. dr r τrr = −P τrr → −p∞ . = τrr P (8.2.2. the use of an Airy stress function is somewhat awkward in this multiply connected domain. we have 2p∞ τθθ − 1.

6 0. The resulting equation 1−k dτrr + τrr = 0.2. namely k= 1 + sin φ . with kτrr = τθθ on r = s.19) Meanwhile.17) implies that. Once P drops below the value given by (8.8) is now supplemented by the yield condition (8.4 φ Fig.4 0. dr r (8. again at r = a.18) As shown in Figure 8.17) Since.2.2. 8. 1+k (8. we have τθθ − τrr = 2(P − p∞ ). Hence (8.6 The triaxial stress factor k deﬁned by (8.20) . 1 − sin φ (8.18) versus angle of friction φ. This means that we must choose the root of (8. the stronger will be the tunnel.2.2 1. in the plastic region r < s. with k → ∞ as φ → π/2.2. as the angle of friction increases. the quasistatic balance (8. a smaller internal pressurisation is needed to prevent yield: the closer φ is to π/2. yield will ﬁrst occur when P = 2p∞ . k is an increasing function of φ. as P is lowered below p∞ .2. so. we expect |τrr | = −τrr to be less than |τθθ | = −τθθ .8 1.12) that exceeds unity.2 0. r2 τθθ = −p∞ − p∞ k−1 k+1 s2 .6. Hence. we simply replace P by 2p∞ /(1 + k ) and a by s in (8.15) to give τrr = −p∞ + p∞ k−1 k+1 s2 . to obtain the elastic solution in r > s. we can seek a composite elastic-plastic solution in which there is a free boundary r = s separating an elastic region in r > s from a perfectly plastic region in a < r < s. r2 (8.2.2.2.0 1.2.2.17).336 Plasticity k 20 15 10 5 0.11).

21) at r = s gives the radius of the plastic region as τrr = −P s=a 2p∞ (k + 1)P 1 / (k −1) .19) and (8. (8.2.2.2.6). Moreover. it is far more diﬃcult to extend the analysis to three dimensions. and all we have to do is to replace N by (N + c) in (8. From the point of view of plasticity.22) The above calculation leaves open the role played by the out-of-plane stress tensor τzz . along with the momentum equations (8.2.2. the ﬁrst task is to generalise the yield criterion (8. (8. Of course.2. and we will return to this issue shortly.8. We have suggested that the ﬂow might occur along slip surfaces. depending how they have been solidiﬁed and whether there are alloying components. It is remarkable that the theory that we have presented can successfully be applied to situations ranging from the ﬂow of powders to the design of industrial-scale coal hoppers. for which the microscopic mathematical theory is somewhat better developed. and the crucial scale is one small enough for the atom . 8.9a). the basic microstructure is that of a periodic lattice of atoms. However. However. this condition.3 Dislocation theory 337 along with the boundary condition (8. in which case the stress and velocity components would satisfy a fundamentally coupled problem. but.4. To do this.4). equating (8. perhaps as a result of moisture. it is relatively simple to generalise our elastic-plastic theory to granular materials in which cohesive forces act.21) a Finally. even with that assumption. Then a tensile stress can be sustained.6). gives us only four scalar equations in the six stress components.3 Dislocation theory Metals can exhibit microstructure at several scales. and we shall not attempt to review them here.2. so the three-dimensional problem is inevitably underdetermined without the imposition of a constitutive relation. we have given no way of predicting the ﬂow velocity itself in the yielded region. some additional information is needed to determine the magnitude of the velocity.2. gives r k −1 .2.3. and we will discuss this situation further in Section 8. Moreover. where c is a positive cohesive force.2. matters would be even worse if the velocity were large enough to invalidate our neglecting the acceleration term in (8. There are many empirical theories for this. as shown in Exercise 8.5). We now turn our attention to metal plasticity.

7. we ﬁnd that the stress components in cylindrical polar coordinates are all zero except for τθz = bµ .338 Plasticity spacing to be noticeable but large enough for the atoms to be thought of as points so that quantum eﬀects are assumed to be largely negligible. these observations were anticipated several decades earlier using. and it acted as a key stimulus for the development of the theory of metal plasticity. Weertman & Weertman. Although the behaviour of atomistic lattices during plastic deformation has only been observable since the introduction of the electron microscope. surprisingly. across which there is a jump of magnitude b in the value of w. This discrepancy implies that the mechanism for yield in metals is quite diﬀerent from that in granular ﬂow. However. (8. . the continuum theory of linear elastostatics. We have already seen several solutions of this model. The displacement ﬁeld (8.3. the branch cut would be along the positive x-axis.3. including some with singularities in Chapter 7. where (r. Chapter 1). the same calculations predict that the stress which must be overcome to make a row of atoms push one by one past a neighbouring row should be of the same order as the shear modulus µ. 2πr (8. such as the elastic constants λ and µ. w(x. which is vastly greater than experimentally measured values of the yield stress. θ) are the usual plane polar coordinates with the restriction 0 θ < 2π . Now we ask ourselves what the physical interpretation might be of the displacement ﬁeld y b tan−1 . 1992.2) which is deﬁned everywhere except at the origin.1) w= 2π x This is a function whose Laplacian is zero except at the origin and on some branch cut emanating from the origin.2. cut it along a diametral plane from the exterior to the axis. Many of the macroscopic properties of the material.11. for example. by using the formulae of Section 1.1) could in principle be realized by a so-called cut-and-weld operation as shown in Figure 8. 0. However. can be predicted from geometric symmetries of the lattice and knowledge of the inter-atomic forces. whatever branch cut is chosen. The simplest conﬁguration in which we can understand the basic ideas is antiplane strain. If we took tan−1 (y/x) = θ.3. where T the displacement takes the form u = 0. by a factor of up to 105 (see. We simply take a circular cylindrical bar. y ) and ∇2 w = 0.

in Exercise 8. as in Section 2. Indeed. We recall from Section 2.1) in terms of incompatibility.7 An antiplane cut-and-weld operation leading to the displacement ﬁeld (8.1). we would expect these relations to be violated. We can also interpret (8.1) is not single-valued. Clearly there will be a region of very large strain close to the axis. 8. displace one side of the cut by a distance b relative to the other side. It is also instructive to introduce an antiplane stress function φ.3.8.3.7 that the assumption of a single-valued displacement ﬁeld gives rise to compatibility relations between the strain components. Since (8.3. ∂x ∂y ∂w ∂φ =− .3. We can interpret (8. We will thus have created a bar that is in a state of self-stress. deﬁned to be the harmonic conjugate of w so that w and φ satisfy the Cauchy–Riemann equations ∂φ ∂w = . yet there is a nonzero stress distribution in the interior. in accordance with (8. so that it is in equilibrium under the action of no external forces.4) .4 we show that w satisﬁes ∂2w ∂2w − = bδ (x)δ (y ).3 Dislocation theory z 339 x y Fig.9. and ﬁnally weld the two cut faces together again.3.4.2).3) where δ denotes the Dirac delta-function deﬁned in Section 2.3) as a “failure of single-valuedness” or a line of incompatibility along the z -axis.3. ∂y∂x ∂x∂y (8. ∂y ∂x (8.1.3.

as we know from Section 2. Now. namely ψ1 xψ1 + yψ2 2µu = 2(1 − ν ) ψ2 − grad φ + . as shown in Figure 8.8. (8. This conﬁguration can be described using a plain strain displacement ﬁeld T u = u(x. We can ﬁnd such a displacement by using the Papkovich–Neuber representation used in Section 2.6) 2 0 where ψ1 .3. Similar behaviour occurs if we displace one cut face radially relative to the other before welding them back together.3).7) which is depicted in Figure 8.3. y ).3.5) and we can easily verify that (8. y ). which. 0 . ψ2 and φ are all harmonic functions of x and y . (b) after the cut-and-weld operation.5. Now the required discontinuity in u may be obtained by choosing φ = 0. where a ﬁnite circulation is concentrated on a line in an otherwise irrotational ﬂow.8. 8. ψ1 proportional to θ and ψ2 equal to a constant.5) is consistent with (8. The singularity in (8.3. the harmonic conjugate of (8. As shown in Exercise 8. satisﬁes ∇2 φ = −bδ (x)δ (y ).9. this approach leads us to the displacement ﬁeld u v = b 2π b sin θ θ + 0 2π (3 − 4ν ) cos θ sin θ (8.1) at x = y = 0 is thus analogous to the singularity at the core of a line vortex in inviscid ﬂuid dynamics. The associated stress ﬁeld is given in .8.8 The displacement ﬁeld in an edge dislocation: (a) pristine material. (8.1) is φ = −(b/2π ) log r.6.1.340 Plasticity (a) y (b) y x x Fig.3.3. v (x.3. in which u is discontinuous across the positive x-axis.

while the biharmonic equation for A was obtained by assuming compatibility between the strain components.7). For example.3. Far from the crystal misﬁt.3. cylindrical polar coordinates by τrr τrθ τrz τrθ τθθ τθz τrz τθz τzz −ν sin(θ) (1 − ν ) cos(θ) 0 2µb (1 − ν ) cos(θ) −(1 − ν ) sin(θ) .3 Dislocation theory (a) (b) 341 Fig.8) corresponds to an Airy stress function A= −µb {(1 − 2ν )rθ cos θ + 2(1 − ν )r log r sin θ} . as depicted in Figure 8.9(b). π (3 − 4ν ) 4µb (3 − 4ν ) (8.9) which satisﬁes the equation ∇4 A = δ (x)δ (y ).8(b) after the “ledge” below the positive x-axis has been removed.3).48).3. Now we recall from Section 2.10) which is eﬀectively (2.3.8.8.2 that the existence of A ensures that the plane strain Navier equations are satisﬁed.6 shows that (8. Exercise 8. with b equal to a single atomic spacing. .9. we can achieve this by inserting an extra column of atoms.10) as describing a line of incompatibility along the z -axis. A key insight into the physical mechanism for plastic ﬂow in metals comes when we imagine executing the cut-and-weld operation shown in Figure 8. Hence.3.8) = 0 π (3 − 4ν )r 0 0 −ν sin(θ) so we again have a state of self-stress which is inﬁnite on the line r = 0. This ﬁgure is eﬀectively the same as Figure 8. (b) insertion of an extra row of atoms.8 at an atomic scale.3.9 An edge dislocation in a square crystal lattice: (a) pristine crystal.3. 8. it simply seems that the atoms below the positive x-axis have been displaced one atom spacing to the right.9(a). (8. as in (8. as in the displacement ﬁeld (8. on the square lattice shown in Figure 8. We are thus led to conjecture that. we can interpret (8. (8.

depending on the symmetries of the crystal structure. Anything other than an absolutely perfect crystal must contain many dislocations like that shown in Figure 8.† The region near the z -axis within a few atomic spacings of the crystal misﬁt is called the core of an edge dislocation. p. The dislocation itself. In contrast with granular ﬂow. 0. † Of course we are not really justiﬁed in using the atomic scale b in a macroscopic model like (8. In our examples. it is quite easy to take linear combinations of these to generate a mixed dislocation along the z -axis which is part edge and part screw.342 Plasticity (a) (b) (c) (d) Fig. where there is just one direction of slip at any point.7) on a scale large compared to b. where a dislocation moves to the left. In addition. In practice. is the z -axis and the displacement jump as we move around any curve enclosing the dislocation is called the Burgers vector.10. whereas the slip planes in a granular material depend on the stress state. the corresponding region in the antiplane conﬁguration analogous to Figure 8. we can envisage dislocations on a macroscopic scale which lie on curved rather than straight lines. (b) and (c) the dislocation moves to the left as the atoms realign themselves.9(b) would tend to (8. by identifying the z -axis with the tangent to the dislocation at any point. known as slip planes.3. Now the key observation is that just a small realignment of the atoms near the core is needed for such a dislocation to move irreversibly through the lattice. 0. However. 8. These are set in the metal. 0)T for the edge dislocation. in either case. Indeed the key challenge in the theoretical modelling of dislocations is to make the connection between atomic and macroscopic scales.10 A moving edge dislocation: (a) initial conﬁguration. 1991. the symmetries of the crystal lattice usually force any dislocations to lie in certain planes. to which the Burgers vector is tangent (Hirth & Lothe. there may be many slip planes. b)T for the screw dislocation and (b. thereby moving the lower block of atoms bodily with respect to the upper block. the Burgers vector is (0. .9(b). 271).3. an atomistic calculation of the displacement based on Figure 8.7 being the core of a screw dislocation.1). This is illustrated schematically in Figure 8. eventually (d) leading to a net displacement of the upper block of atoms relative to the lower.

These conjectures can be tested experimentally or by performing atomistic computations on a discrete lattice. Moreover.† that characterises the direction and Burgers vector averaged over a large number of dislocations. but are generally impervious to any isotropic pressure. the more black lines were observed. The critical yield stress is a constant for any given metal. All these observations led theoreticians in the 1930s and earlier to suggest that macroscopic metal plasticity could be explained by the motion of dislocations. the more the metal had been deformed plastically. which is in fact a tensor.8.46) vanishes . They revealed countless (up to 1012 cm−2 ) black curves in regions which would have been invisible had the crystal been perfect. two decades later. Rather than delving further into this fascinating open problem. it would need a rule for how dislocations move. such a density tensor would have to vanish in regions in which the incompatibility tensor (2.10 take place with no appreciable change in volume of the crystal.9. † furthermore. which results from collective dislocation motion. is essentially incompressible. we will simply use microscopic thought-experiments like Figure 8. (i) Dislocations may move under the action of an applied shear stress. and a deﬁnitive macroscopic model does not yet exist. Instead. (iii) Plastic ﬂow. We also note for future reference that the conﬁgurational changes illustrated in Figure 8. (ii) Collective motion of many dislocations can only occur when a suﬃciently high shear stress exists at every point. Since any realistic sample contains so many dislocations. it has proved much harder to carry this out in practice for dislocations. and it was a great day when. analogous to that used to obtain a model for collective motion of vortices in an inviscid ﬂuid or of superconducting vortices in a type-II superconductor. and this explains the huge discrepancy noted above between predictions of the yield stress based on inter-atomic forces and experimentally measured values. it is impractical to track each one individually. Unfortunately. electron micrographs of metal crystals that had undergone plastic deformation were able to conﬁrm the theory.10 to suggest the following guidelines that will be employed below to obtain a closed macroscopic model for metal plasticity. Each of these curves represented a dislocation bounding a plane region of slip in the crystal and. any macroscopic theory must use a density.3 Dislocation theory 343 This can be achieved without forcing large numbers of atoms to slide over each other.

4 Perfect plasticity theory for metals 8. However. or the stress is suﬃcient to cause bulk dislocation motion and ﬂow. the stress intensiﬁcation near the tips of a crack in the theory of brittle fracture implies the existence of plastic regions near these tips. dislocations. Of course. and these will contain real. as explained at the end of Section 8. 8.3. This gives a theoretical explanation of work hardening.11) near a Mode III crack can be represented as a distribution of virtual screw dislocations along the crack.2.4.1) τn = 0 0 τyz sin θ = (τxz cos θ + τyz sin θ) 0 τxz τyz 0 0 1 . The ﬁrst question we must address is thus the yield criterion that distinguishes elastic from plastic behaviour.2) to see that the displacement ﬁeld (7. in which a thin aerofoil can be regarded as a distribution of vortices in an otherwise irrotational ﬂuid. instead of involving a limiting friction concept. in which the only stresses are shear stresses which give rise to a traction 0 cos θ 0 0 τxz (8.1 Torsion problems The observed. all these displacements having closely related Papkovich– Neuber representations. These impede further movement. the displacement ﬁelds near a Mode I or Mode II crack can be thought of as being caused by a distribution of edge dislocations. This concerns the modelling of brittle fracture when no plastic eﬀects are taken into consideration. and simulated. We begin as we did for granular plasticity by considering the tractions on all small surface elements through a point P in the metal. One concerns what happens when a metal is repeatedly deformed so strongly that many new families of dislocations are created on diﬀerent slip planes. it is more natural to associate dislocation motion with the existence of a critical shear stress independent of the normal stress. whereby a metal becomes more resistant to yield if it has already gone through several stress cycles. not virtual.344 Plasticity We conclude by mentioning two further beneﬁts that accrue from dislocation theory. Similarly.4. There is one other interesting macroscopic interpretation of dislocations which is purely of theoretical interest. We ﬁrst consider the simplest case of antiplane shear. in which case the metal is elastic. This situation is reminiscent of the theory of ﬂight. behaviour of dislocations suggests that metals can be well described using a perfectly plastic theory: either some measure of the stress is below a critical value. It is a simple matter (see Exercise 7. since dislocations cannot easily pass through each other.

the condition (8.6) 2 but for this solution to be valid.8) is violated.4. (2.2. if the cross-section is circular.4. For example. as in the tunnel problem of Section 8.4 Perfect plasticity theory for metals 345 on a surface element normal to n = (cos θ. so our solution (8.4.3. xz.6) is no longer valid. with (8.2) reads φ= µΩ |∇φ| which.4.4) where φ satisﬁes Poisson’s equation (8. with radius a. (8.2) with equality when the material is ﬂowing. there will be a plastic region near the boundary of the bar where the metal has yielded. ψ (x. y ))T .5) subject to φ = 0 on the boundary of the bar. (8. although we expect the material at the centre still to be elastic. (8.19) gives a2 − r2 .7) The left-hand side is maximised when r = a.8) τY .6).4. ∂y ∇2 φ = −2. let us return to the elastic torsion bar problem from Section 2.4.4.3) where Ω represents the twist of the bar about its axis. sin θ. Instead. To illustrate the mathematical structure in this relatively simple case.4. and we deduce that the bar will ﬁrst yield at its surface when the twist Ω reaches a critical value τY . 0)T . requires µΩr τY . We require the amplitude of the shear stress to be bounded by a critical yield stress τY for all such surface elements. (8.8. and this leads to the inequality 2 + τ2 τxz yz τY . say r = s. ∂x (8. τyz = −µΩ ∂φ . (8.4. We also recall the elastic stress function φ deﬁned such that τxz = µΩ ∂φ . We recall that the displacement ﬁeld is given by u = Ω (−yz.4.4.9) Ωc = µa When Ω > Ωc . we must check that the shear stress does not exceed the critical value τY . that separates the yielded and unyielded material.4.4. We therefore again have to introduce a free boundary. The inequality (8. where s is to be determined as part of . (8.4.

10) in s < r < a. We soon ﬁnd that s2 + r2 . even when the material has yielded.346 Plasticity the solution. and we observe that only a ﬁnite torque 2πa3 τY /3 is required for the bar to fail completely. satisfying (8. ΩM µ ΩM (8.4.4.11) φ= 2 s(a − r).13) to calculate the torque M applied to the bar as a function of the twist M= cross-section (xτyz − yτxz ) dxdy πa3 τY 2 = 3τ πa Y 6 Ω . We note that as τY tends to zero.5) in 0 r < s and the yield condition µΩ |∇φ| = τY (8. it ﬂows slowly enough for the inertia terms to be neglected. µΩxs/r. and repeat the key assumption that.4. −µΩys/r. Ω > Ωc . 0 r < s. so the bar has yielded down to some radius r = sM = Ωc a τY = .4. where s= τY . s < r < a. the introduction of even a small amount of elasticity removes the singularity. Ωµ (8. Now suppose that.14) Ω3 4− c . and the nonzero stress components are easily found to be τxz = −µΩy. 0 r < s. again subject to φ = 0 on r = a.15) .13) s < r < a. Thereafter. Ω3 Figure 8. (8. s < r < a. which reﬂects the fact that (8. we can use (8. As in Section 2. it tails oﬀ rapidly.4.4.4.4.4. 0 r < s. Ωc Ω Ωc . We can thus employ a stress function φ throughout the bar. τyz = µΩx. a stress singularity develops at r = 0. once a maximum twist ΩM has been applied.4. as − (8.12) We thus see how the plastic region grows as Ω increases past its critical value Ωc . Continuity of traction requires φ and its normal derivative to be continuous across r = s. (8.10) is a hyperbolic equation for φ.11 shows how the torque increases linearly with the twist until Ω reaches its critical value Ωc .

2 that ψ ≡ 0 for a circular bar.17) τyz x ˜ + ΩM sM /r .11 The normalised torque M versus twist Ω applied to an elastic-plastic cylindrical bar. 0 r < sM .4. However. (8. ˜ =Ω (8. as soon as the torque is decreased. The total stress consists of the elastic stress corresponding to (8. Consistent with our assumption of perfect plasticity is the further assumption that. it will now ˜ is zero.4 1. We denote this subsequent displacement ˜ . 8. that is ˜ + ΩM .4.13) reached at the end of the plastic phase. 0)T . We would expect the bar to recover and twist back towards its starting conﬁguration.4 Perfect plasticity theory for metals 347 2M/πa3 τY 1. and then fall to negative values as the bar is unloaded.16) added to the initial stress (8. Ω τxz −y =µ × (8.13) when u ˜ Let us suppose that u has the same structure (8. all the once-yielded material instantly returns to being elastic. Ω A calculation analogous to (8.4. start with the nonzero stress (8.6 0.2 1.4.18) The ﬁnal resultant twist Ω0 when the torque has been completely released .4. The net twist ˜ so we expect Ω ˜ to start at zero when Ω = ΩM of the bar is given by ΩM + Ω. in other words. sM < r < a.8. that is ˜ (−yz. u ˜ is the displacement relative to the state just before by u we released the torque.4 0.4.3) as the original displacement.14) leads to the following formula for the applied torque during the recovery phase: 2M ˜ + Ωc =Ω 4 πµa 3 4− Ω3 c Ω3 M .4. the applied torque is then removed suﬃciently slowly that we can still use a quasistatic model.2 0 1 2 3 4 Ω/Ωc Fig. xz.4.0 0.8 0.16) u since we recall from Section 8.

This is bound to happen because the recovery phase starts with an initial stress ﬁeld (8.4.0 1. and the bar is said to contain residual stress.4.2 plastic ΩM /Ωc elastic 0.4. The bar behaves elastically until Ω = Ωc and then starts to yield.13) that does not satisfy the compatibility conditions. a nonzero twist remains. we see that Ω0 = 0. 8.0 Ω/Ωc Ω0 /Ωc Fig.0 0. When M returns to zero. Without the assumption of radial symmetry. in which the general scenario is sketched in Figure 8.4.19) When ΩM = Ωc (so the bar has never yielded). φ still satisﬁes Poisson’s equation. the internal stress components (8. even when the bar has recovered and there is no net torque on it. This equation is hyperbolic and. and this qualitative behaviour is typical of elasticplastic systems.2 1. as illustrated in Figure 8. The ﬁnal crucial observation is that.0 2.5 3.348 Plasticity 2M/πa3 τY 1. There is a plastic region near the boundary in which we have to solve the eikonal equation (8. the problem must in general be solved numerically. In the elastic region. so the bar returns to its original conﬁguration upon unloading. showing the recovery phase when the torque is released.18) and recalling that Ω = ΩM + Ω: ΩM Ω3 4 Ω0 = + c − .5 1.6 0. This means that there is no elastic deformation that the material can adopt that will completely relieve the stress. ˜ is thus found by setting M = 0 in (8.13.0 0.4. a decreasing fraction of it is recovered when the torque is released. can in principle be solved for φ throughout the plastic region.12 The normalised torque M versus twist Ω applied to an elastic-plastic cylindrical bar. given φ = 0 on the surface of the bar.8 0. subject to . However.4 0. but it still possesses a very helpful mathematical structure. as the maximum twist ΩM is increased.5 recovery 2.17) are nonzero.10). 3 Ωc Ωc 3 3ΩM (8.12.

We also note that. although the yield condition enables us to determine the stress. it tells us nothing about the displacement in the bar once it has yielded.13 may be cast as a variational inequality and hence proved to be well posed. two boundary conditions. this problem determines both φ and the position of the free boundary between the elastic and plastic regions.10. Indeed. despite the nonlinearity and the change of type from hyperbolic to elliptic.13 The free-boundary problem for an elastic-perfectly plastic torsion bar.8. This switch in behaviour across the free boundary is reminiscent of the complementarity conditions encountered when modelling contact problems in Chapter 7. We will return to this point in Section 8.4 Perfect plasticity theory for metals 349 Plastic τ2 |∇φ|2 = 2Y 2 µΩ Elastic ∇2 φ = −2 y φ = ∂φ =0 ∂n x φ=0 Fig. in most practical cases it can be proved to be equivalent to the problem of minimising |∇φ|2 − 4φ dxdy D over all suﬃciently smooth functions that vanish on the outer boundary and are such that |∇φ| τY /µΩ. 8. namely that both φ and its normal derivative are continuous. In principle. . as in our models for granular materials. the free-boundary problem depicted in Figure 8. Moreover.

we obtain ∇4 A = 0.4.4.350 Plasticity 8.12 shows that it is hyperbolic.5. a traction balance shows that A and its ﬁrst and second partial derivatives must all be continuous across such a boundary.4.4. Hence.20) is strict). and closely resembles the equation (8. but the method of Exercise 4. where we can follow the approach of Section 8.21) as in Section 2.2 Plane strain The next simplest situation is that of plane strain. with two families of real characteristics satisfying dy =2 dx ∂2A ± τY ∂x∂y ∂2A ∂2A − ∂x2 ∂y 2 . It is not immediately classiﬁable using the standard theory of secondorder partial diﬀerential equations.7) for granular ﬂow in plane strain.4. sin θ.22) As always the key aspect of the problem is to locate the boundary where the switch from (8. we can conveniently use an Airy stress function A throughout the material.4.6. As in Section 8. 0)T .21) to (8.4. (8.22) satisﬁed by A when the material has yielded is another generalisation of the Monge–Amp` ere equation.4. our task is very much easier if we assume that any plastic ﬂow occurs suﬃciently slowly for the momentum terms in the Navier equation to be negligible. and A satisﬁes ∇2 A 2 +4 ∂2A ∂x∂y 2 − ∂2A ∂2A ∂x2 ∂y 2 2 = 4τY . we can read oﬀ the maximum tangential traction F by inspecting the Mohr circle in Figure 8.22) are the slip surfaces. and hence the characteristics of (8. Where the material has not yielded (so the inequality in (8.4. (8.22) occurs.2. along which we might expect the material to ﬂow.4. we have equality in (8. (8.20) with equality when the material has yielded. The nonlinear partial diﬀerential equation (8.23) These correspond to the directions in which the shear stress is maximal (see Exercise 8. (8.4. when yield occurs.8).20). and hence deduce the inequality 1 4 (τxx 2 − τyy )2 + τxy τY .2. Indeed.2 to calculate the shear stress on a surface element with unit normal n = (cos θ.2. . However.4. Here.1.

by letting the outer radius b tend to inﬁnity while the inner radius a stays ﬁnite.3. In the plastic region. As in the case of granular ﬂow. Also. r2 τθθ = τY s2 .6. (8.26) simultaneously. for simplicity.4. In the elastic region r > s. dr r (8. analytic solutions of this nonlinear free-boundary problem are unlikely to be available unless the geometry is very simple. which is consistent with (2. where the radius s of the free boundary is to be determined. and (8.28) and the yield condition (8. When the applied pressure exceeds τY . the material becomes plastic in some region a < r < s. a τθθ = −P + 2τY + 2τY log r .24) as long as the material remains fully elastic (recall that P is the pressure applied to the inner surface r = a).25) with equality when the material has yielded.42) gives τrr = − P a2 .4.20) reduces to (τrr − τθθ )2 2 4τY . a (8.4.26) This ﬁrst occurs at r = a when P = τY .45) in the limit b → ∞.6.6. the yield condition simpliﬁes considerably when there is radial symmetry.4. which we will only sketch brieﬂy because of its similarity to the tunnel problem of Section 8.2.8. Hence (2. with the boundary condition τrr = −P on r = a.4. we solve the radial Navier equation τrr − τθθ dτrr + = 0.4. we will only treat thick gun barrels. (8.29) . A famous example is the gun barrel problem of Section 2.27) where we have applied the yield condition (8. (8.26) on r = s.24) generalises to τrr = − τY s2 .4.4.4. r2 (8.4. to obtain τrr = −P + 2τY log r .4 Perfect plasticity theory for metals 351 As in Section 8. r2 τθθ = P a2 r2 (8.4.4.1.24) and hence the material yields when τθθ − τrr = 2τY . The choice of square root is dictated by (8.5.

0 2.5 2.5 PM = 2τY 2. As shown in Figure 8.4. Suppose P increases to a value PM greater than τY .1. will be large enough to cause the metal to yield again as it recovers! τrr = −PM + 2τY log .0 Fig.32b) a r2 in a < r < sM .5 0. there remains a residual stress ﬁeld when the loading P has returned to zero. The subsequent response is purely elastic so that τrr = − τY s2 a2 (PM − P ) M + . 1.14 Residual shear stress τθ θ − τr r in a gun barrel versus radial distance r for diﬀerent values of the maximum internal pressurisation: PM /τY = 1.0 1.0 r/a 0.17). As in the torsion bar problem of Section 8. the free boundary remains stuck at its maximum value sM = a exp (PM /2τY − 1/2).4.4. 1. 2. The boundary r = a ends up in a state of negative shear stress which. r2 r2 τθθ = τY s2 a2 (PM − P ) M − r2 r2 (8. Hence.4. We can now perform an unloading analysis similar to that in Section 8. Our assumption that the material instantaneously becomes elastic when P < PM means that.1.75. before decreasing to zero.25.30) This shows how the plastic region grows rapidly as P increases through τY .4.14. while a2 (PM − P ) r + . 1. if PM > 2τY .4.352 Plasticity (τθθ − τrr ) /τY 0. when we balance the normal traction τrr at r = s. (8.4.0 1.32a) a r2 a2 (PM − P ) r τθθ = −PM + 2τY + 2τY log − (8.5 3. as in (8. the residual shear stress τθθ − τrr increases in magnitude as PM is increased past τY .5 PM = τ Y 1. we ﬁnd that s = a exp 1 P − 2τY 2 . (8.5. 8.31) in r > sM .

† Hence we expect that our yield function f should not vary if τij is replaced by τij + cδij . we expect to impose an inequality of the form f (τij ) τY . We also caution that the above calculation completely ignores the rˆ ole of τzz . (8. then f must be invariant under rotation of the axes. Now we ask ourselves what restrictions need to be imposed on the function f to ensure that (8.33) where the yield function f is some appropriate measure of the stress. . that is I1 (τ ) = Tr (τ ). the τij comprise only ﬁve independent variables and they † Other materials.2) 1 Tr (τ )2 − Tr τ 2 .2.3 Three-dimensional yield conditions As we will soon discover.5) for granular material in two dimensions depends only on I1 (τ ) and I3 (τ ). indeed it is intuitively reasonable that a pressure could not cause a dislocation like that sketched in Figure 8. and not just for metals. (8.4. for which τij = −pδij .3. I2 (τ ) = f (τij + cδij ) ≡ f (τij ) . In general. 8. Recall. further simpliﬁcation can be achieved by recalling the experimental evidence that they do not deform plastically under an isotopic stress. It follows that f can be written as a function of the three stress invariants (cf Section 5.34) 2 and we have therefore reduced f from six degrees of freedom (the elements of the symmetric tensor τij ) to three.36) τij = τij − (τkk )δij 3 3 Since τkk = 0. ﬂow under suﬃcient hydrostatic pressure. If we assume that our metal is isotropic.33) is physically realistic. say. For metals.9 to move. where c is any scalar. generalising the yield condition to three dimensions introduces new complications not encountered in the antiplane and plane strain examples considered above. and we will address this issue next.4. that the Coulomb yield criterion (8.4.8. for example glass. I3 (τ ) = det (τ ). for example. however.4.4.35) We can understand the implications of this constraint on f if we regard it not as a function of the six independent variables τij but as a function of the variables 1 1 and p = − τkk . can.4. (8. (8.4 Perfect plasticity theory for metals 353 We have still given no procedure to calculate the displacements in the plastic region.

9 (see also Exercise 8. where p=− τ1 + τ 2 + τ 3 . |τ3 − τ1 | .4.354 Plasticity deﬁne a symmetric trace-free tensor known as the deviatoric part of τij or the stress deviator. with the stress tensor given in (8. |τ2 − τ3 |. τ2 . τ3 . the principal deviatoric stresses are easily found to be 2 + τ2 .4. there are only two independent degrees of freedom remaining in the function f . 3 (8. τ1 = − τxz yz τ2 = 2 + τ2 .40) Since τ1 + τ2 + τ3 = 0. (8. this leads to f τ 1 . while p may be identiﬁed with the net isotropic pressure.43) .41) is symmetric with respect to permutation of its arguments. hopefully without causing too much confusion. (8.38) (8. p . τ3 = 1 max |τ1 − τ2 |. (8.4.4.4. and.39) where τk are the eigenvalues of τij .4. 2. In antiplane strain. One physically plausible possibility is again to deﬁne f as the maximum shear stress acting on all possible surface elements. and that τk are related to the principal stresses τk (k = 1.4.41) and the corresponding yield condition max |τ1 − τ2 |. Now we can impose invariance under both rigid-body rotation and isotropic pressure by writing f τij = f τ 1 . in terms of f . Notice that the function (8. so that there are no preferred directions.35) is transformed to f τij . p .4. (8. say. |τ2 − τ3 |. 2 (8. As shown in Exercise 2. p − c ≡ f τij .2). τ2 .37) Since this holds for all c.4. |τ3 − τ1 | = 2τY .42) is called the Tresca condition. τxz yz τ3 = 0. the constraint (8.1). we deduce that f is independent of p and therefore just a function of τij . It is easy to see that the principal axes of τij and τij coincide. 3) by τk = τk + p. We can thus write f (τij ) ≡ f τij . Henceforth we will simply write f (τk ) to mean f (τk ).4.

we have τ3 = 0 and hence τ1 + τ2 = 0.2).4.4. known as the yield surface. τ2 ) = (±τY .0 τ1 −2 −4 −4 −2 τ2 0 2 −1. (8.0 2 0. This explains the role played by τzz in the examples in Section 8. 1.4. we can represent (8. (8.44a) (8. so the yield surface degenerates to just two points .4 Perfect plasticity theory for metals 355 (a) 4 4 2 0 −2 −4 (b) τ2 1.15(b) at the two points (τ1 .15(b).5 1.2.44b) (8.0 −0.4.8.45) depicted in Figure 8.4. showing the intersection with the π -plane τ1 + τ2 + τ3 = 0.44c) so the Tresca condition is consistent with (8.5 −0. This straight line intersects the polygon shown in Figure 8.4. we ﬁnd that τxx + τyy − 2τzz − 6 τxx + τyy − 2τzz + τ2 = 6 2τzz − τxx − τyy .15 (a) The Tresca yield surface (8. As shown in Figure 8. τ2 )-plane. and Exercise 8. In antiplane strain.0 τ1 4 Fig.4. so that the Tresca condition reproduces (8.5 0. τ2 .42) as a surface.4. 2 −τ τ (τxx + τyy )2 + τxy xx yy .9 gives the basis for how τzz should be incorporated into these examples.1 and Section 8. τ2 )-plane as the polygon max |τ1 − τ2 |. 8. In three-dimensional problems. |2τ2 + τ1 |.20) provided τ3 lies between τ1 and τ2 . |2τ1 + τ2 | = 2τY . By also using the constraint τ1 + τ2 + τ3 = 0. (b) The projection in the (τ1 .15(a). τ3 )-space.5 τ3 0 −1. 1)T and whose cross-section viewed along the axis in the π -plane τ1 + τ2 + τ3 = 0 is a hexagon. τ3 ) (normalised with τY ). we can project this surface onto (for example) the (τ1 .4. ∓τY ). in (τ1 .42) plotted in the space of principal stress deviators (τ1 . In plane strain. the Tresca yield surface is a cylinder whose axis is in the direction (1. τ3 = 3 τ1 = 1 4 1 4 2 −τ τ (τxx + τyy )2 + τxy xx yy .4. τ2 .

the whole hexagon comes into play in general (see Exercise 8.46). since it implies non-smooth dependence of the solution on the stress components. shown in Figure 8.356 Plasticity (a) 4 4 2 0 −2 −4 (b) τ2 1.46). we have deﬁned f such that τY is still the critical yield stress τ3 = 0. with τ2 = √ the von Mises criterion predicts that yield will occur when τ1 = 3τY . In (8. elementary geometry implies that its cross-section is circular so. 8.5 −4 −4 −2 0 τ2 −1.5 τ3 0 −1. under a uniaxial stress. The yield surface corresponding to (8. It also makes the Tresca condition awkward to implement in general. τ2 )-plane. However. (b) The projection in the (τ1 . in antiplane strain. is still a cylinder whose axis points in the direction (1.46) By construction. unlike the Tresca yield function.4. it has no immediate interpretation in terms of a maximal shear stress.0 2 4 τ1 Fig.9).5 1. this is a valid measure of the stress with all the required properties of invariance although.0 −0. However. τ3 = . and the situation is even worse in three dimensions. Again we can use the constraint τ1 + τ2 + τ3 to project the surface onto the (τ1 .16 (a) The von Mises yield surface plotted in the space of principal stress deviators (τ1 . in contrast with Figure 8. 1)T . The presence of the corners in the yield surface is worrying. and this has led to the adoption of the von Mises yield function (τ1 − τ2 )2 + (τ2 − τ3 )2 + (τ3 − τ1 )2 6 1/2 f τ 1 .16(a). 1. τ3 ) (normalised with τY ). the von Mises yield surface is smooth.0 τ1 −2 −0. even in plane strain. τ2 )-plane. where . (8.4. τ2 . in contrast with the value 2τY predicted by the Tresca condition.5 0.4. However. showing the intersection with the π -plane τ1 + τ2 + τ3 = 0.0 2 0. τ2 . under pure shear.15.

4 Perfect plasticity theory for metals 357 it takes the form of an ellipse. invariance with respect to permutation of the principal stresses implies that the yield surface in any isotropic medium must share the six-fold symmetry evident in Figures 8. the analogue of the hexagonal cylinder of Figure 8. τ3 )-space. Exercise 8. 2 2 (8. the resulting system is under-determined even in two dimensions. the yield criterion and the steady Navier equations form a closed system of equations for the stress components.49) This represents a segment of a plane through the origin in (τ1 . Second.46) is often easier to implement.48) The assumed indiﬀerence of f to isotropic stress means that the yield surface corresponding to any valid choice of yield function must always be a cylinder pointing in the direction (1. . in both antiplane and plane strain.4. provided the principal stresses are numbered in order.17. especially when we notice that it may be written in terms of the non-principal stress components as 2 f τ = 1 1 Tr (τ )2 = τij τij .16(b). the same is not true of genuinely threedimensional problems. The corresponding picture in granular ﬂow is quite diﬀerent. the yield criterion for a granular material depends explicitly on the normal as well as the shear stress.4.15 and 8. 1. We have seen above that. but in higher dimensions (8. and six other segments are obtained by switching the orders of the principal stress components. since we now have just one yield criterion and three Navier equations for the six stress components. (8. Indeed. the Tresca and von Mises yield criteria coincide.4. However. the Coulomb yield condition is equivalent to τ1 − τ3 = (τ1 + τ3 ) sin φ when τ1 τ2 τ3 0. As in granular ﬂow. τ2 .49). the problem must be closed by incorporating a ﬂow rule that determines how the material responds to stress once it has yielded.4. the faces of the pyramid corresponding to the six permutations of the indices in (8.47) as shown in Figure 8. so no advantage is gained by introducing the stress deviator. Hence.4. In antiplane strain. Moreover if the plastic ﬂow is suﬃciently strong for the material inertia to be comparable to the yield stress. First. 4 4 (8.15 is a six-sided pyramid.2 shows that. we recall that none of the principal stresses in a granular material may be positive.8. namely τ1 + τ1 τ2 + τ2 = 2 2 3 (τ1 + τ2 )2 (τ1 − τ2 )2 + = τY . 1)T .

We therefore introduce the velocity vector v (x. namely ∂ D = Dt ∂t ≡ X ∂ ∂t + (v · ∇) . X (8. we obtain a kinematic relationship. It is convenient to introduce a shorthand for this convective or material derivative.3) between the displacement and velocity. v= ∂u + (v · ∇) u.5. 8. rather than the displacement. We can rearrange this to an explicit .2) the latter identity following from the chain rule. ∂t (8. τ3 ) (with φ = π/6).17 The Coulomb yield surface plotted in the space of principal stresses (τ1 . as opposed to elastic strain. By applying the convective derivative to u.1) where the time derivative is taken with the Lagrangian coordinate X held ﬁxed.358 −2 −4 0 Plasticity 0 τ3 −2 −4 −4 τ2 τ1 −2 0 Fig.5.5. τ2 . x (8.5 Kinematics This is the ﬁrst time in this book that we have tried to write down a mathematical model for irreversible ﬂow. Such models are inevitably more readily stated in terms of the velocity of the medium. 8. t) deﬁned as v= ∂x ∂t = X ∂u ∂t .

the density of each material element is conserved. and leads to the theory of linear elasticity as we have seen.5.5 Kinematics 359 equation for v . δx3 )T takes the form d |δ x|2 = 2δ xT Dδ x. However. This is not a book about ﬂuid mechanics. then Dij is simply the time derivative of the linear strain tensor eij .5. so it no longer makes sense to use the initial length as a benchmark. it is more natural to examine the instantaneous variation in a line element over a small time increment. it starts to “forget” its initial rest state.11). we would need to retain the nonlinear terms in (8. and the velocity must therefore satisfy div v = 0. This assumption is usually ﬁne for small displacements of elastic materials. Hence we can linearise. dt where the rate-of-strain tensor is deﬁned by† Dij = 1 2 ∂vj ∂vi + ∂xj ∂xi or D = 1 ∇v + ∇v T .5) Dt In an incompressible medium. a characteristic of plastic behaviour is the ability to suﬀer large permanent displacement without breaking. we introduce the concept of rate-of-strain. to describe the deformation of a ﬂowing material.3). provided the displacement gradients are small. namely ∂u .5. as in Chapter 5. so we will not spell out all the details here (but see Exercise 8. δx2 .5. We recall that the strain tensor describes the change in length of a small line element in the material.10. Suﬃce it to say that the rate of change of the length of a line element δ x = (δx1 . To describe such situations as the bending of a paper clip. † Note that ﬂuid mechanics textbooks often omit the factor of 1/ 2 in the deﬁnition of Di j .5. (8. Once a material is ﬂowing. Instead. As shown in Exercise 8.7) (8.3) and distinguish carefully between Lagrangian and Eulerian time derivatives. Otherwise.6) If the strains are small enough for us to neglect the nonlinear terms in (8. conservation of mass in a material ﬂowing with velocity v and density ρ leads to the equation v = I − ∇uT −1 Dρ + ρ div v = 0. Next.5. 2 (8. compared with its initial length. the relationship between strain and rate-of-strain is complicated. (8.8.4) ∂t recalling that ∇u denotes the displacement gradient tensor with entries ∂uj /∂xi . approximating v as simply the Eulerian time derivative of u.

we ﬁnd that the acceleration of the medium is given by ∂v Dv = + (v · ∇) v .6.9). Dt ∂t ∂v + (v · ∇) v ∂t (8.e.6 Conservation of momentum By applying the convective derivative to the velocity vector. one can get it to warm up appreciably. 8.7 Conservation of energy In Chapter 1. However. we showed that the net mechanical energy. Before doing so. (8. as we will see in Section 9. In Chapter 5. Now our task is to obtain a constitutive relation for the stress ﬁeld associated with a given ﬂow velocity v .3) this gives us four scalar equations so far for the nine unknowns τij and vi .360 Plasticity but it is of fundamental importance in describing large strains of viscoelastic materials. 8. is conserved in a linear elastic solid. the sum of the kinetic and strain energies.6. We now make the important assumption that no elastic strain energy is stored once the material has yielded (this assumption will be revisited in Section 8. irreversible plastic ﬂow involves a loss of mechanical energy. (8.1) where the terms in the integrand correspond respectively to the kinetic energy and the thermal energy associated with the absolute temperature T .1) and we can therefore write Cauchy’s momentum equation in the form ρ = ∇ · τ + ρg .2) Along with the yield condition f (τ ) = τY .7. we found that the same is true in a nonlinear elastic material provided we use a hyperelastic constitutive law. The net energy in V (t) is therefore given by U= V (t) 1 ρ|v |2 + ρcT 2 dx.2.6. We can quantify this heating by performing an energy balance on a material volume V (t) that moves with the deforming medium. (8. which is dissipated as heat: by ﬂexing a large paper clip a few times. . i. we will ﬁrst derive an equation representing conservation of energy.

it is helpful to transform the integral in (8.7.6. with a strain energy density W (C ). we obtain dU = dt = V (t) v · (τ n) dS + ∂V (t) V (t) v · (ρg ) dx + ∂V (t) k ∇T · n dS (8. In diﬀerentiating U . where k is the thermal conductivity. In accordance with the ﬁrst law of thermodynamics.7.7. the energy inside V will change because of (i) work done by stress on the boundary ∂V .3) noting that the integration variable X must be held constant when diﬀerentiating through the integral.7. where C is the Green deformation tensor.2) to obtain the energy equation in the form ρc ∂T + v · ∇T ∂t − div (k ∇T ) = Φ. The resulting equation may be simpliﬁed using (8. Since (8. called the speciﬁc heat capacity (at constant volume).2) {div (τ v ) + ρv · g + div (k ∇T )} dx. (ii) work done by the body force g on the interior of V and (iii) heat conduction through ∂V . direct diﬀerentiation reveals that W d dx. after using the divergence theorem.8. (8.4) where the dissipation function is deﬁned by Φ = Dij τij .7.4) is the familiar equation describing the conduction and convection of heat in a material moving with velocity v .7.5) If Φ = 0. Combining these eﬀects together. The dissipation acts as a source term.7 Conservation of energy 361 We will assume that the parameter c. is constant. (8.7. representing the rate at which mechanical energy is lost and heat is produced.2) and (8. we deduce that the integrands (if continuous) must be equal.1) to Lagrangian variables. In a hyperelastic material.7.6) Φ dx = dt V (t) V (t) J . (8.7. (8. (8.3) are equal for all material volumes V (t). so that d dU = dt dt = V (0) V (0) 1 ρ0 |v |2 + ρ0 cT 2 ∂v ∂t + ρ0 c X dX ∂T ∂t dX X ρ0 v · ρv · V (t) = DT Dv + ρc Dt Dt dx.

8.7. there are several alternative non-associated ﬂow rules which are not derived from the yield function. then we gain six scalar equations and one further unknown.16. and the net mechanical energy is conserved. in general.2) is generally found to agree well with experiment and guarantees that the ﬂow shares all the same symmetry properties that we have † Note that this would not be true if W depended explicitly on T .8. can be a scalar function of x and t. Hence any physically acceptable constitutive relation must be such that Φ 0 for any possible ﬂow. namely maximise whose solution is Dij = Λ ∂f . we might expect the material to ﬂow in such a way as to maximise the rate at which it dissipates energy. The second law of thermodynamics tells us that dissipation can only heat the material up and not cool it down.2) comprise ten scalar equations. and we will return to this point in Section 8. Indeed. A geometrical interpretation of (8. . However.9. (8.6. 8. would give rise to the maximum value of Φ? This is a straightforward constrained optimisation problem.1) where Λ is a Lagrange multiplier which. ∂τij (8.2).8.8 The ﬂow rule We are at last in a position to pose a constitutive relation for the stress τ associated with a given velocity v . vi and Λ. Equation (8. Indeed.2) Dij τij subject to f (τij ) = τY . satisfying the yield condition f (τij ) = τY . the yield condition (8. so that the conversion of mechanical energy to thermal energy is irreversible. see Exercise 9. therefore.2) is the associated ﬂow rule to the yield function f .8.8. when viewed in stress-space as in Figure 8.3) and the ﬂow rule (8.† The production of heat is thus a consequence of our assumption that a ﬂowing plastic material (like a viscous ﬂuid) does not store any elastic energy.362 Plasticity so the dissipation is exactly balanced by the change in W . (8.8. This hypothesis prompts us to pose the question: what value of the stress components τij .6.2) is that the rate-of-strain is perpendicular to the yield surface. If we adopt this rule to relate the stress to the rate-of-strain. We should point out that it is by no means necessary for the stress to be such as to maximise the dissipation. so we ﬁnally have a closed system for τij . In total. namely Λ. the momentum equation (8.

D1 = − .8. that is Λ τij . and it again implies that the principal axes of stress and strain-rate coincide. As we noted in Section 8.4.8. We could therefore think of (8. deﬁned by (8. atomistic simulations suggest both that dislocations do not respond to isotropic stress and that.2) implies that Dkk = div v = 0. This is in encouraging agreement with the experimental evidence that plastic deformation does not appreciably change the density of a metal.4) (8. (8.8. In three-dimensional problems.2) to the Tresca yield function. (8. an isotropic yield function will lead to an isotropic ﬂow rule. For example. (8. 2000).6) D3 = .2) suggests that these two properties of insensitivity to isotropic stress and incompressibility are actually linked at a macroscopic level.3) and hence that the ﬂow is incompressible.7) Dij = 2τY as shown in Exercise 8. This is called the Levy–von Mises ﬂow rule. and then (8.2) that D shares the same principal axes as τ and has principal components f (τ ) = Λ Λ D2 = 0.8.2) simply tells us that the rate-of-strain tensor is proportional to the stress deviator.8.8. We therefore deduce from (8.41).3. In this case. they do so with no appreciable volume change. which takes the form τ3 − τ 1 .8. The ﬂow rule (8. this is often awkward to implement in practice because of the corners that occur in the yield surface when the principal stresses cross each other (see Calladine. We begin by applying (8.8.5) 2 provided the principal stresses are ordered such that τ1 τ2 τ3 .4. our insistence that the yield criterion be insensitive to isotropic stress means that f must satisfy ∂f =0 ∂τkk (summing over k ).8.48) is therefore usually preferred. (8. (8. In addition. the von Mises yield function (8.2) as a hypothesis that the yielding of a plastic material and the way it subsequently ﬂows are essentially controlled by same underlying mechanism.8 The ﬂow rule 363 already imposed on the yield criterion. when dislocations do ﬂow.13. 2 2 However. .8.8.8.

we can write the dissipation (8. (8.8.364 Plasticity The ﬂow rule (8. the eﬀective viscosity is unknown in advance and must be determined as part of the solution.8. This is a signiﬁcant challenge.7) respectively.7.6. Unfortunately. However. when we adopt the von Mises yield function. using the fact that the stress is bounded by τY . by using (8.2). 8. (8. In summary. with τY /Λ playing the rˆ (see. say p eij = ee ij + eij . It is straightforward to reach the same conclusion for the Tresca ﬂow rule (8.7) closely resembles the constitutive relation for an inole of viscosity compressible Newtonian viscous ﬂuid.8. (8.9.7). Thus Eee ij = (1 + ν ) τij − ντkk δij .8.6). Chapter 1). Unlike the situation in a Newtonian ﬂuid. Careful experiments reveal that the heat dissipated during plastic ﬂow may be signiﬁcantly less than that predicted by (8. the situation in practice is somewhat more complicated.6.9. and we will limit our attention here to small displacements so that we can use the linearised strain tensor eij and approximate the strain rate as simply the Eulerian time derivative of eij .7. so that the plastic ﬂow dissipates mechanical energy rather than gaining it. relating τ and v and the seven algebraic relations (8. The interpretation of these observations is that the material continues to store elastic energy even after it has yielded.2) . which also involve the unknown scalar Λ.8) Φ= 2τY ij ij We must therefore ensure that Λ is non-negative. (8.6) and the plastic ﬂow rule (8.7.7). We must therefore construct a theory that combines both elastic and plastic displacements simultaneously. We decompose the strain into an elastic component and a plastic component.5) in the form Λ τ τ . for example.3).8.9 Simultaneous elasticity and plasticity The theory of plasticity described above assumes that there is an instantaneous transition from a purely elastic material to a purely plastic one. Ockendon & Ockendon.1) We assume that these are related to the stress τij by the usual isotropic linear elastic relation (1. the mathematical model comprises the three ﬁrst-order diﬀerential equations (8. ∂ep ij ∂t = Λ 2τY τij .8.5). 1995.

3) gives us the equation ∂τθz + ∂t µ τY Λτθz = µr dΩ dt (8. the three displacement components ui and the scalar Λ. If we limit our attention to circular bars. The problem thus boils down to the system (8. (8.6). as does (8.3).10.2) for τθz (r. the only nonzero strain component is Ωr .10 Examples 365 and the net strain-rate components are therefore given by E ∂τij ∂eij ∂τkk = (1 + ν ) −ν δij + ∂t ∂t ∂t EΛ 2τY τij . (8. the strain and displacement must both be continuous across the free boundary separating the elastic and plastic regions.6. 0) = 0.3) provided we set Λ = 0 when the material is elastic.8.4) and (8. Λ 0. but. The initial condition is τθz (r. 8.10.2) and the yield condition (8. when the material is plastic. we know that Λ must be positive and the yield condition (8. we obtain a closed system of ten equations for the six stress components τij .9. (8.2).5) To solve this problem.9.1) eθz = 2 so that (8.9.10.9. (8.9. seeking a solution in which the displacement takes the form u = Ω(t)rz eθ . we can conveniently use cylindrical polar coordinates.9. we need a further condition to determine Λ. To ﬁx ideas. let us suppose that inertia and gravity are negligible so that the momentum equation (8.6. We will now illustrate the procedure using three simple examples. f (τij ) τY .3).10. On the other hand.9. before we can solve (8.6. This automatically enforces continuity of strain and displacement throughout the bar.9.4.1 Torsion revisited First we return to the torsion bar example from Section 8.11.6. t). According to (1. along with the complementarity conditions f (τij ) − τY Λ = 0.2) reduces to ∂τij = 0. we would need to specify the initial displacement (typically zero) and three boundary conditions on either the displacement or the stress. In addition.10 Examples 8.3) with the momentum equation (8.4) ∂xj This holds in both elastic and plastic regions. .1.3) Combining (8.3) must be satisﬁed.

366 Plasticity While the material remains elastic.2 Gun barrel revisited Next we turn our attention to the behaviour of an elastic-plastic material occupying the region r > a and subject to a pressure P (t) on r = a.10. = . where s = Ωc /Ω.10.2 suggest that the stress components should satisfy τrr p τzz τθθ .3) Yield ﬁrst occurs when τθz = τY at r = a.1. In r > s. If the twist reaches a maximum and then starts to decrease. We will now calculate the associated displacement and. so Λ is no longer zero but we instead impose the yield condition τθz = τY . we used the Tresca yield condition to solve for the stresses in the elastic and plastic regions. Hence we see that Λ is positive as long as Ω is an increasing function of t. we will also base our ﬂow rule on the Tresca yield function. that is when Ω = Ωc = τY /µa.4) in s < r < a.6) ∂t 2 ∂t 2 ∂t By combining the elastic and plastic strain components as in Section 8.10.3) only applies in r < s.8. 8.2) leads to τθz = µrΩ. 2 (8.10. E ∂t ∂t ∂t ∂t E EΛ .10. (8.5) in which case (8. In Section 8. (8. The results of Section 8.10.7a) (8. and integration of (8. we thus obtain the equations ∂err ∂τrr ∂τθθ ∂τzz = −ν −ν − ∂t ∂t ∂t ∂t ∂τθθ ∂τzz ∂τrr ∂eθθ = −ν −ν + E ∂t ∂t ∂t ∂t ∂τzz ∂τrr ∂τθθ ∂ezz = −ν −ν . Hence it is because of the imposed non-negativity of Λ that the bar must revert to being entirely elastic as it unloads.10. (8. which is thermodynamically unacceptable. For larger values of Ω. as was assumed in Section 8.10. then (8.6) gives the plastic strain rate as ∂eθθ Λ Λ ∂ep ∂ep rr zz =− .2) enables us to determine Λ as Λ=r dΩ dt (8. the material has become plastic.7b) (8.4) gives us a negative value of Λ.2. = 0. Then (8.10.10.7c) .10. 2 EΛ . we have Λ = 0.4.10.4.9.4. for consistency. (8.

by subtracting (8. the displacement associated with the stress ﬁeld (8. ∂t (8.8. Λ is no longer zero. by adding (8. we obtain the identity E ur ∂ur + ∂r r = (1 − ν ) (τrr + τθθ ) − 2ντzz = (1 + ν )(1 − 2ν ) (τrr + τθθ ) . (8.4.10) (8.7a) and (8. E E (8.10.10) leads to E ur ∂ur − r ∂r = (1 + ν ) (τθθ − τrr ) .41).10.6. Finally. ezz = 0. and integration of (8. we ﬁnd that E ∂ ∂t ∂ur ur − r ∂r = (1 + ν ) ∂ (τθθ − τrr ) + E Λ.10.27) in the elastic region r > s is similarly found to be ur = τY s2 .10.15) where s is given by (8.10.10. so that Λ is zero. conveniently written in the form r r . ∂r r Hence.10.10.30). In the plastic region a < r < s.14) in agreement with (2. by integrating (8.10. t)er .7b). When P > τY .4.10.13) ∂r r and the pure elastic stress ﬁeld (8.12) We therefore ﬁnd that ∂ur ur = τrr − ντθθ = τθθ − ντrr .10.24) gives us the displacement ur = P a2 .9) While P τY . τθθ = τY + 2τY log .7a) from (8.10 Examples 367 We consider a plane radial displacement of the form u = ur (r.10.11) (8.10.7b).7c) with respect to t we deduce that the axial stress is given by err = τzz = ν (τrr + τθθ ) .16) τrr = −τY + 2τY log s s .2. eθθ = .4. the material remains elastic. 2µr (8. so that the principal strains are given by ∂ur ur (8.4.10. 2µr (8. (8.10. Similarly.8) . but we can use the stress components already calculated in Section 8.

9) to verify that the inequalities in (8. Thomas.2.10.11) leads to Λ= 4(1 − ν )τY µr2 s ds .17) We determine the integration function C (t) by requiring ur to be continuous across the boundary r = s.10.10.368 Plasticity (Incidentally.20) Hence Λ 0 as long as the plastic region is growing.10. we can use these and (8. surface roughness associated with plastic strain is observed in bands inclined at a well-deﬁned angle φ to the direction in which the tension is applied. 8. substitution of (8.4. as was assumed in Section 8. − µ s 2 r (8. then the yielded material must instantaneously return to being elastic.19) Finally.) Hence (8. We therefore focus on the simpliﬁed model problem of an inﬁnite plate lying in the (x. and the plastic displacement is thus found to be ur = τY µ (1 − 2ν )r log r 1 (1 − ν )s2 − + s 2 r . As illustrated in Figure 8. we have a plane stress ﬁeld of the form τxx τxy 0 τ = τxy τyy 0 . dt (8.19) into (8. p.10.10. To describe this situation fully necessitates the solution of a diﬃcult two-dimensional free-boundary problem.10. (8.18. if the applied pressure is ever a decreasing function of t. for example. which must be equal to 3τY under the von Mises criterion.10. ∂r r µ s which is easily integrated with respect to r to give ur = r C (t) (1 − ν )τY r 1 log + . with a straight line separating an elastic region in y < mx from a plastic region in y > mx.18) (8. y )plane.10) takes the form ur 2(1 − 2ν )τY r ∂ur + = log . In the plastic region.10. The √ elastic region is subject to a uniaxial stress T .10. (8.5) are indeed satisﬁed. 1961.21) 0 0 0 .10. 100).3 L¨ uders bands One of the most famous manifestations of metal plasticity is the formation of L¨ uders bands in polished bars or sheets placed under a suﬃciently large tensile stress to cause plastic ﬂow (see.

10. The last piece of information comes from the zz -component of (8.26) Although Λ is as yet undetermined. τxy . by continuity of strain at the elastic–plastic interface. Continuity of traction across y = mx implies that τxx − mτxy = −mT. namely E ∂ EΛ ∂ezz = −ν (τxx + τyy ) − (τxx + τyy ) . ezz is constant and given by −νT /E .10.10.10. Hence. (8.3).25) In the elastic region. τxy − mτyy = 0. which would clearly be inadequate to describe a ﬁnite plate with stress-free edges.10.8.10. ∂t ∂t 6τY (8. τ = 3τxy 2τyy − τxx 0 3 0 0 −τxx − τyy (8. ∂ezz /∂t = 0 and (8.25) becomes ∂ (τxx + τyy ) + ∂t EΛ 6ντY (τxx + τyy ) = 0. (8.18 L¨ uders bands in a thin sheet of metal.48) takes the form 2 2 2 2 + τyy − τxx τyy + 3τxy = 3τY = T 2.23) while the von Mises criterion (8. τxx (8.22) We assume that these stress components are spatially uniform.4.10 Examples 369 y T φ T x T T Fig. τyy and m. 8.9.24) This gives only three equations for the four unknowns τxx . we know that it must be positive whenever plastic ﬂow is taking place. so that the deviatoric stress tensor is 2τxx − τyy 3τxy 0 1 . so that (τxx + τyy ) necessarily tends .

but they generally rest on somewhat less ﬁrm theoretical ground.10. Another practically important issue that we have not addressed is work hardening.10. Thus. τxy = .9.27) . be solved analytically.9 is nonlinear because of the free boundary that separates the elastic and plastic regions. The solution scheme involves choosing physically acceptwhere dΛ able paths for the stress deviator and the elastic and plastic strains. this is known to result from accumulation of dislocations.3) was required to get this result.9. −τxx = τyy = ± 3 3 2 and the elastic-plastic boundary therefore makes an angle of √ φ = cot−1 2 ≈ 35◦ (8. typically increasing as a function of the plastic strain. it can be described by allowing the yield stress τY to vary. as described in Hill (1998.23) and (8. Notice that only one component of (8.10. At a microscopic level. Chapter II.28) with the x-axis. From a modelling perspective. This is an experimentally observed phenomenon whereby plastic deformation of a material causes it to become stronger. m = ±√ .3) is discretised as E deij = Eτij 2τY ˜ + (1 + ν ) dτij − νδij dτkk . Despite our restriction to small strains.11.9. in which (8.24) is thus found to be √ 1 T 2T (8.3) numerically.7) leads to successful mathematical models for many practical problems in metal plasticity which can. in simple situations. It is often convenient to do so by iterating through several small time-steps dt and calculating the stress and strain increments dτij and deij that occur in each step. the elastic-plastic evolution model constructed in Section 8. and we have therefore not attempted to describe them here.11 Concluding remarks We have just seen how a ﬂow rule such as the Levy–von Mises relation (8. dΛ (8. the others may be used subsequently to calculate the plastic strain and the ﬂow parameter Λ.370 Plasticity to zero as time progresses. in more realistic geometries than the simple symmetric examples considered here. These are related by the Prandtl–Reuss model. The large-time solution of (8.8.10.1) ˜ = Λdt.5). it will usually be necessary to solve (8. 8. Time does not appear explicitly in . Numerous analogous ﬂow rules have been posed for granular plasticity.

the density and yield stress of low-strength steel are approximately 8000 kg m−3 and 5 × 108 N m−2 respectively. and inertia is certainly negligible.2) If the material is ﬂowing plastically at a typical speed V over a region of typical length-scale L. for example.8. if we bend a paper clip at about 10 cm s−1 .11. in which a metal cone is compressed by an explosive to such an extent that its vertex emits a plastic metal jet moving at enormous speed (up to 14 kilometres per second). . Fortunately they are often negligible in practice.2) is dominant. We can determine when this is true by calculating the appropriate dimensionless parameter as follows. ρ (8.6. able to penetrate over a metre of steel. to the violent metal plasticity caused by a device called a shaped charge.8. then the corresponding value of Re is roughly 10−7 . analytical progress is almost always impossible if the inertial terms are included on the left-hand side of the momentum equation (8. We note. When Re is very large. we can see that the left-hand side is of order ρV 2 /L.6.4) reduce to the Euler equations of incompressible inviscid ﬂuid dynamics: the target ﬂows like an incompressible inviscid liquid to lowest order.2) and (8. and the plastic stress is negligible in comparison. Hence. Thus shaped charge penetration is relatively simple to model compared with plastic penetration at lower stresses. which can therefore only predict the sequence of conﬁgurations and hence any ultimate steady state.2) in terms of the deviatoric stress as ∂v + (v · ∇) v ∂t = −∇p + ∇ · τ + ρg . The relative importance of the inertial terms is thus determined by the dimensionless parameter Re = ρV 2 .2).11.3) For example. that there is also a high-Re regime in which the plastic ﬂow is so fast that the inertia term in (8. First we write (8. Shaped charges are chillingly eﬀective. and the target therefore gives way plastically as the jet forces its way through. (8. In all the plastic models that we have considered. τY (8. This limit applies.11 Concluding remarks 371 the iteration.11. while the stress term on the right-hand side may be estimated as τY /L.11. however. This exerts a pressure on the target that can be orders of magnitude larger than its yield stress.

then the sand pile takes the shape of a roof with ridge line y = 0. deduce that the Coulomb yield criterion is equivalent to τ3 − τ1 = − (τ3 + τ1 ) sin φ. 4 (τ3 − τ1 )2 + (τ3 − τ2 ) (τ1 − τ2 ) n2 2.4. if the table is bounded by the ellipse {(a cos s. (b) Show that if the table is instead the rectangle |x| a. where τk are the principal stresses.12 to show that the equation (8. . Recall that.3 Follow the approach of Exercise 4. τ2 . |x| < a − b. (b) Assuming (without loss of generality) that the stresses are ordered such that τ1 τ2 τ3 0. as illustrated in Figure 8. (c) Show that.2. 8. in Figure 8.19. 8.372 Plasticity Exercises 8.7) governing two-dimensional granular ﬂow with no body force is hyperbolic. τ3 ).2 then the ridge line is y = 0. (a) Deduce that N and F = |F | satisfy the relations 1 F + N − ( τ1 + τ2 ) 2 2 2 = 2 (τ1 − τ2 )2 + (τ1 − τ3 ) (τ2 − τ3 ) n2 3. F = τ n − N n. when a > b. F )-plane bounded by three semicircular arcs. 2π )} . |y | b. 4 F2 + N − F2 + N − 1 ( τ2 + τ3 ) 2 1 ( τ3 + τ1 ) 2 = 2 = where nk are the components of n. |x| < a2 − b2 /a. the normal and tangential tractions on a surface element with unit normal n are given by N = n · (τ n) . Hence show that N and F lie on points in the (N. b sin s) : s ∈ [0. Consider a three-dimensional stress ﬁeld expressed with respect to principal axes so that τ = diag (τ1 . where φ is the angle of friction.1 (a) Show that the height of sand piled maximally on a horizontal circular table bounded by the circle r = a in plane polar coordinates is given by z = (a − r) tan φ. (c) Show also that the maximum value of F is given by (τ3 −τ1 )/2. 4 (τ2 − τ3 )2 + (τ2 − τ1 ) (τ3 − τ1 ) n2 1.

7).3. 8. y )-plane is traversed. observe that.5.6) including a body force. 8. calculate the jump in w as a simple closed contour C in the (x. Show that ∂2w ∂2w − ∂x∂y ∂y∂x dxdy = b if S contains the origin.2. (b) Alternatively.2.3). (8.3). Verify that the Papkovich–Neuber potentials φ = 0. (a) For the displacement ﬁeld (8.4 Reach the same conclusion for the system (8.3. . and. ∂w/∂x is continuous. The region where solutions exist is shaded. S where S is the interior of C . ψ1 = 2µbθ . 0 otherwise. Hence explain why −by ∂w = . Deduce that w satisﬁes (8. although w has a jump of magnitude b across the positive x-axis. and hence show that w C = C ∂w ∂w dx + dy ∂x ∂y = b if C encloses the origin. ∂x 2π (x2 + y 2 ) ∂w bx = − b H(x)δ (y ).Exercises 373 F φ τ1 τ2 τ3 N Fig. F )-plane for three-dimensional granular ﬂow.19 The Mohr surface in the (N.5 where H denotes the Heaviside function (3. and the line F = |N | tan φ.3. by crossdiﬀerentiating.1) corresponding to a screw dislocation.3. 0 otherwise. ∂y 2π (x2 + y 2 ) 8. obtain (8.5) (with equality).7). (3 − 4ν )π ψ2 = 2µb (3 − 4ν )2 π lead to the displacement ﬁeld (8.

3. sm < r < η.4. Use (8. after the bar has yielded in one direction.4.7 where θ is the usual polar angle.6. Ωc and hence evaluate the residual twist in the bar when M = 0. Ω Ω3 2M 2 c − = − > −1.20) for the polar stress components in terms of the Airy stress function A. Show that the net torque M exerted by the stress ﬁeld (8.] Show that the stress in the bar is then given by ˜ 0 r < sm . and determine the appropriate values of the constants c1 and c2 . This is known as the Bauschinger eﬀect.8) is consistent with A = c1 rθ cos θ + c2 r log r sin θ. Return to the calculation of elastic-plastic behaviour in a circular torsion bar from Section 8. so that M is negative.1. where the position of the new yield boundary is r=η=− Ωc a .374 Plasticity 8.4. ˜ Ω Hence show that the associated torque is given by 2M Ω3 4 16Ω3 c c − = − − 3 3 ˜ πa3 τY 3 3ΩM 3Ω . πa3 τY 3 3Ω3 M [Thus.6 Using the relations (2. τyz x η < r < a.17) is given by 1 2M = 3 πa τY 3 4− Ω3 c Ω3 M + ˜ Ω . −y τxz ˜ =µ × Ω + ΩM sm /r. a smaller torque is required to make it subsequently yield in the opposite direction. Ω + ΩM .4. Suppose we now twist the bar in the opposite direction.3. ∂x 8. show that (8. deduce that A satisﬁes (8. −τY /µr.10). Assuming that 0 θ < 2π . Hence show that A satisﬁes ∇2 A = Eb π (1 + ν )(3 − 4ν ) sin θ =− r Eb π (1 + ν )(3 − 4ν ) ∂θ .17) to show that the bar yields again at r = a when ˜ = −2Ωc . and using the results of Exercise 8.

sin α.Exercises 375 2M/πa3 τY 1.5 Ω/Ωc 4 5 6 1. Figure 8.5 3 2 1 0. Deduce that the normal deviatoric stress τ3 is related to the principal in-plane deviatoric stresses and the pressure p by τ3 = (1 − 2ν )p + ν τ1 + τ2 .8 ˜ < −2Ωc .3) that. The bar deforms elastically (1). the bar yields at a lower critical torque (5) and then deforms plastically.20 shows how the twist varies as for −2ΩM < Ω the torque cycles through positive and negative values. in plane strain. then yields (2). then recovers elastically (3) when the load is released. 0)T is 1 F = (τyy − τxx ) sin(2α) − τxy cos(2α). deduce that tan α = 2 (τxy ± τY ) .9 From the linear elastic constitutive relations in plane strain. 8. When a load is now applied in the opposite direction (4).0 Fig.0 2 1 1 2 3 3 0. the load is released (6) and a permanent negative twist remains. τxx − τyy 8. 2τxy If the maximum value of F is equal to τY . 2 Show that F takes its maximum and minimum values where τxx − τyy tan(2α) = .20 The normalised torque M versus twist Ω applied to an elastic-plastic cylindrical bar undergoing a loading cycle. show that the normal stress is given by τzz = ν (τxx + τyy ) . the shear stress on a surface element with unit tangent (cos α. 8.2. where ν is Poisson’s ratio. Finally. ˜ < −2ΩM ? What happens when Ω Deduce from (8.

10 [If this condition is violated. t) and any diﬀerentiable function F (x. Dt Consider a material ﬂowing with velocity ﬁeld v (x. τ2 )plane.11 F ρ dx = V (t) V (t) DF ρ dx. Show that a neighbouring point x + δ x is convected to a position with coordinates xi + δxi + vi (x. 3(1 − 2ν ) 8. t). Deduce that the density ρ satisﬁes the continuity equation ∂ρ + div(ρv ) = 0.15(b). this gives us a straight line in the (τ1 . t) + ∂vi (x. By considering the intersection of this line with the polygon in Figure 8. A material point occupying position x at time t is therefore convected to position x + v (x. For each ﬁxed value of p. Dt where D/Dt is the convective derivative. then the normal stress τzz that must be applied to prevent out-of-plane displacement will cause the material to yield in the z -direction.376 Plasticity and hence obtain the relation τ1 + τ2 = − 1 − 2ν 1+ν p. d dt 8. show that the plane strain Tresca yield condition is |τ1 − τ2 | = 2τY provided |p | 2(1 + ν )τY .] (a) Recall that J = det ∂xi ∂Xj is the Jacobian of the transformation from Lagrangian to Eulerian variables. ∂t (b) Hence prove Reynolds’ transport theorem : for any volume V (t) that is convected with velocity v (x. Prove Euler’s identity DJ = J div v . t). t)δxj ∂xj δt . t)δt after a small time δt.

4) becomes p τij . dt ∂xj ∂xi 8.7) is valid with respect to any chosen axes. The strain energy density W is a function of the elastic deformation e (see (5.8.2)) satisfying gradient tensor Fij ∂W e e = Jτik Fjk ∂Fij Show that −1 .6). (c) Deduce that (8.5.7) when we choose principal axes in which the stress tensor is diagonal.2) is invariant under rotations of the coordinate axes.12 Hence show that the length of the line element satisﬁes (8.7. Include elastic energy in (8.8. dt ∂xj and.13 p where Dij is the plastic rate-of-strain. (b) Show that the Levy–von Mises ﬂow rule leads to (8. by appropriate choice of the dummy summation indices. DW e = J Dij τij . is given by Dij = Dij ij (a) Show that the ﬂow rule (8. . Deduce that the dissiwhere Dij pation function in (8.Exercises 377 (using the summation convention).2. Φ = Dij 8.8. obtain the equations δxi ∂vj d ∂vi (δxi ) = δxi δxj = δxi δxj .7.1) by writing U= V (t) 1 W ρ|v |2 + ρcT + 2 J dx. Deduce that the rate of change of the line element δ x satisﬁes ∂vi d (δxi ) = δxj . Dt e is the elastic rate-of-strain tensor. so that the net rate-of-strain e + Dp .

for example when a ball of “silly putty” or suitably dilute custard impacts a wall. Here the molecular structure of the material is such that it ﬂows under any applied stress. where track can distort in high summer. Yet another attribute of solids is well-known to be of great practical importance in the kitchen. no matter how small.3 we will only present the simplest ad hoc model that can give useful realistic results. and in the railway industry. viscoelastic materials are quite unlike plastic materials.9 More general theories 9. As we will see in Section 9.2. when glass can be observed to break in hot water. Hence this book would certainly not be a fair introduction to the mathematics of solid mechanics without some discussion of the increasingly important properties of composites. and in Section 9. Even the above list of diverse phenomena only relates to solids that are fairly homogeneous on a macroscopic scale. it will slowly spread horizontally under the action of gravity. requires more thermodynamics than is appropriate for this text. This is thermoelasticity. which describes the response of elastic solids to temperature variations. To model this response ab initio . These are solids in which the elastic properties vary on a length-scale much smaller than any macroscopic length-scale of practical relevance but not so small as to render a continuum model inappropriate. if left on a table. A phenomenon of interest in industries ranging from food to glass is that of viscoelasticity. Their behaviour depends critically on the time-scale of the observer. They range from 378 . it rebounds almost elastically but.1 Introduction We will now mention a wide range of important solid mechanics phenomena that warrant discussion even in a mathematically-oriented book but have been ignored or scarcely mentioned so far. even at a macroscopic scale.

to ﬁbre-reinforced solids. quoted as saying “The mountains ﬂowed before the Lord” (Judges 5:5). to saturated rock or soil. We will then show how such a law may be used to construct a continuum model for a viscoelastic material. plastic ﬂow depends only on the magnitude of the stress. for example when mountains are formed by collision between tectonic plates. the elastic deformation and ﬂuid ﬂow are intimately coupled: compression of the matrix forces the ﬂuid to ﬂow (as in squeezing a wet sponge). Such materials exist all around us. fabrics and many other biomaterials. which was named after the Old Testament prophet Deborah. Second. as well as many biological tissues. we will discuss brieﬂy what can be said about anisotropy.4 we will brieﬂy introduce the mathematical technique of homogenisation. We note two important distinctions between viscoelastic and plastic behaviour. a viscoelastic material always exhibits a combination of elasticity and ﬂow: no yield stress needs be exceeded for ﬂow to occur. we based our elastic constitutive law between stress and strain on Hooke’s law.2 Viscoelasticity 379 ceramics to metallic foams. First. we will discover shortly that the key dimensionless parameter that characterises viscoelastic behaviour is the Deborah number. wood. in which voids may be distributed throughout the material. the response of a viscoelastic material to a given stress is crucially dependent on the time-scale over which that stress is applied.2 Viscoelasticity 9. In Section 9.1 Introduction Viscoelasticity concerns materials which respond to an applied stress by exhibiting a combination of an elastic displacement and a viscous ﬂow. In Chapter 1. which is often a consequence of homogenisation. We will therefore begin by considering how Hooke’s law can be generalised to describe viscoelastic behaviour. for example.2. . This is another vast area of the theoretical mechanics to which we can only provide an elementary introduction. In contrast.5. There are also many important materials consisting of a porous elastic matrix where the pores are ﬁlled with a viscous ﬂuid. we will derive a simple model for these poroelastic materials. and the ﬂowing ﬂuid in turn exerts a drag on the matrix. In Section 9. in Section 9. which allows the macroscopic properties of a composite to be determined from knowledge of the geometry of the microstructure. 9. which is elastic on human time-scales but ﬂows over geological time-scales. Indeed. for example. Finally.6. as the examples above demonstrate.9. In these materials. Consider rock. This description applies.

2.1 (a) A spring. arguing that each line element in the solid should behave in a manner analogous to a linear spring. Suppose we apply a time-dependent tension T (t) described by a ramp function.1(b). Dashpots are used. illustrated in Figure 9. In constructing the constitutive equation (1. the displacement is simply proportional to T .2. as well as the mechanisms that prevent doors from slamming.380 More general theories (a) T u T T (b) u T (c) Te Te T Tv u Tv (d) ue T uv Fig.2. (c) a spring and dashpot connected in parallel. (b) a dashpot. In .1) where k is the spring constant.1(a). we appealed to Hooke’s law. as illustrated in Figure 9. The two simple systems (9. For a spring. They are mechanical devices designed to oﬀer a resistance proportional to the velocity at which they are extended or compressed. The law corresponding to (9.2) encapsulate the contrast between solid and ﬂuid behaviour.2. 9. dt (9.2. as we now illustrate with a thought experiment. (9. the extension u of the spring is related to T by T = ku.2 Springs and dashpots Let us ﬁrst consider a spring subject to a tension T .2. as shown in Figure 9. for example. (d) a spring and dashpot connected in series.6) for a linear elastic solid. According to Hooke’s law. in shock absorbers in motor car suspensions. the corresponding fundamental element is the dashpot. 9. For a viscous ﬂuid.1) and (9.7.1) for a linear dashpot is T =Y du . so u will behave in exactly the same way as T .2.2) where Y is called the impedance of the dashpot.

where Te = ku. 9. which is a deﬁning characteristic of a viscous ﬂuid. which illustrates what is known as a Voigt element. k (9.1(c). however. The qualitative behaviour depends crucially on the size of the relaxation time compared with the characteristic time-scale te of any given experiment.1(c) and (d) respectively. and u returns to zero when T does so. and the tension is nonzero whenever the spring departs from this state. Heuristically. These are easily combined to give the Voigt constitutive equation T =Y du du + ku = k tr +u . We therefore obtain T = T e + Tv . we see that the displacements in the spring and the dashpot are equal. We can now construct model viscoelastic elements by sticking together springs and dashpots.2 (a) Applied tension T as a function of time t.2.2. dt (9. In contrast. The dashpot.4) and tr is known as the relaxation time of the Voigt element. (b) Resultant displacement of a linear elastic spring. (c) Resultant displacement of a linear dashpot. a constant tension causes a constant displacement. dt dt where tr = Y . by construction. Tv = Y du . like an elastic solid. has a ﬁxed rest state at u = 0 which it “remembers”. as shown in Figure 9. the spring. and we therefore deﬁne a dimensionless parameter.3) where the subscripts e and v stand for the elastic and viscous contributions respectively. In Figure 9. and the tension T is the sum of the tensions in the spring and in the dashpot. continues to extend as long as a positive tension is applied to it.2 Viscoelasticity 381 T (a) u (b) u (c) te t t t Fig.9. we might say that the dashpot has no memory of its initial state: the resistance it exerts depends only on its instantaneous velocity. and two obvious possibilities are to connect them in parallel or in series. and a nonzero residual displacement remains after the tension has been released. te is the characteristic time-scale of the experiment. particular. called the Deborah .

4) therefore describes the basic building block for a damped solid. In Figure 9. (b) Large Deborah number.1(d) illustrates what is known as a Maxwell element.2(a). the displacement will always decay to zero. T = Y u = u e + uv . the time derivative term is small.4) has a small inﬂuence.3(b). the time derivative in (9. the corresponding response of an elastic spring is shown as a dashed curve.2. (9. when De 1. when De is large. Now. (a) Small Deborah number.3(a) we show the response of such an element to the same applied tension as in Figure 9. and the element therefore behaves somewhat like an elastic spring.4). Figure 9. hence duv .2(a). dt Now diﬀerentiation with respect to t leads to the Maxwell constitutive equation d T dT du =Y + T = tr + T.2. over a time-scale tr .5) When De is small. number.6) where T = kue . by De = tr . 9. The response when .382 More general theories u (a) u (b) t t Fig. so (9. The Voigt constitutive relation (9. when the tension is released. On the other hand. if we wait long enough. as shown in Figure 9.2. te (9.7) is approximately that of a dashpot. where the time lag is of order tr . However. the corresponding response of a dashpot is shown as a dashed curve. in which the spring and dashpot experience the same tension T and the net displacement is the sum of the elastic and viscous contributions.2.7) Y dt dt k dt where tr = Y /k is again the relaxation time.3 Displacement of a Voigt element due to the applied tension shown in Figure 9. However.2. as shown in Figure 9.2.2.4(a). Here we see that the displacement lags slightly behind the corresponding elastic displacement (shown as a dashed curve). (9. so the Voigt element responds like a dashpot. the time derivative is the dominant term on the right-hand side of (9.

9. (a) Small Deborah number.8) where K (t). the Voigt and Maxwell constitutive laws may be cast in the form (9.9. for example.2(a). An example of such a response is a soft rubber toy which can initially be deformed like a ﬂuid but then slowly recovers its initial shape. is close to that of an elastic spring except in two crucial respects. However.3 and 9.2. the corresponding response of an elastic spring is shown as a dashed curve. a nonzero permanent displacement remains when the tension is released. Y (9. (b) Large Deborah number. The Voigt element exhibits viscous behaviour over short time-scales and elastic behaviour over long time-scales. The Maxwell element has the opposite response.7) as describing an elastic ﬂuid or a ﬂuid with memory. the element continues to extend slightly. the corresponding response of a dashpot is shown as a dashed curve. when the tension is held constant. By inspecting Figures 9.4. (9.8).2. shown in Figure 9. we can contrast the Voigt and Maxwell constitutive relations as follows. or creep. one can construct systems with ever more complicated responses. First.2 Viscoelasticity 383 u (a) u (b) t t Fig.9) respectively (see Exercise 9. characterises the viscoelastic response of the system. all such linear systems may be viewed as special cases of the general linear constitutive law t u(t) = −∞ K t−t dT t dt dt .1).2. behaving elastically over short time-scales but ﬂowing over long time-scales. By combining springs and dashpots in other conﬁgurations. . This might describe rock or silly putty. the Deborah number is large. known as the creep function. Second. We can therefore think of (9.4 Displacement of a Maxwell element due to the applied tension shown in Figure 9. with the creep function given by K (t) = 1 − e−t/tr k and K (t) = tr + t .2.4(b). For example.

There is no hard-and-fast rule for doing this: for any given material the choice of constitutive law must be based on its qualitative properties. e τij = λ (ekk ) δij + 2µeij .3 Three-dimensional linear viscoelasticity When constructing the constitutive relationship for a linear elastic medium in Chapter 1. . we can base a Maxwell model on the idea that the stress v at any point gives rise to both an elastic strain ee ij and a viscous strain eij . Now we can incorporate viscoelastic eﬀects by replacing Hooke’s law with a rate-dependent constitutive law such as (9.2. we obtain the constitutive relation τij = 1 + tr ∂ ∂t (λ (ekk ) δij + 2µeij ) .2. v τij = ξ (Dkk ) δij + 2η Dij . (9.2.10) where λ and µ are the usual Lam´ e constants. while ξ and η are called the dilatational viscosity and shear viscosity respectively.2. by collecting the terms in (9. (9.1(c). The Voigt element Figure 9.2.2.2.12) for small displacements of a Voigt solid.7). the rate-of-strain tensor Dij may be approximated as simply the time derivative of the strain tensor eij provided the displacement gradients are small enough for linear elasticity to be valid. for example whether it behaves like a ﬂuid or a solid over short and long time-scales. could be generalised to three dimensions as follows.8. Alternatively. then we can deﬁne a single relaxation time η ξ (9.10).384 More general theories We point out that one-dimensional linear viscoelasticity can be approached by generalising Exercise 1. We is provided by an elastic contribution τij ij then assume that these satisfy the standard linear elastic and Newtonian constitutive relations. 9.11) tr = = .2. Some of the diﬀerent possibilities are described in Exercise 9. If we make the simplifying assumption that the elastic and viscous components have the same Poisson’s ratio.4) or (9. for example. so that e v τij = τij + τij .3 and taking the continuum limit of a series of spring and dashpot elements. We imagine that the stress tensor τij at each point e and a viscous contribution τ v . and must then be veriﬁed experimentally. λ µ Then. As explained in Section 8. we supposed that each inﬁnitesimal line element in the material obeys a version of Hooke’s law.

The Voigt model (9. We recall from Section 4.17) incorporates the physically important eﬀect of damping.2. conserves energy.2 Viscoelasticity 385 Again we assume that these are both small enough to be described by linear theory and that the viscous and elastic components have the same Poisson’s ratio to obtain ∂ v e v λ (ev τij = λ (ee eij = ee ij + eij . so that any initial displacement will give rise to waves that propagate indeﬁnitely.2 that Newton’s second law leads to the equation tr ∂T ∂2u . (9. (9.2. so that any displacement of such a bar can give rise to permanent deformation.19) ∂2u ∂T + T = EA .2. To close the model we need to specify a constitutive relation between the tension T and the displacement u.14) + τij = tr (λ (ekk ) δij + 2µeij ) .2. which is retrieved when tr = 0. ∂t (9.15) leads to ρ tr ∂3u ∂2u + 2 ∂t3 ∂t =E ∂3u .2.15) = 2 ∂t ∂x where ρ and A are the density and cross-sectional area of the bar.2. The Voigt model (9. ∂t ∂x∂t (9.16) where E is Young’s modulus.2.13) Now these are easily combined to give the linear Maxwell model ∂τij ∂ (9.15) reads ρ ∂2u =E ∂t2 ∂2u ∂3u + t r ∂x2 ∂x2 ∂t .17) The standard wave equation. (9. the tension in a Maxwell material satisﬁes tr so that (9. . so that (9. so that all disturbances eventually decay to zero. On the other hand.2. kk ) δij + 2µeij = tr kk ) δij + 2µeij .2.2. ∂x2 ∂t (9.2.9. ∂t ∂t Let us illustrate the equations that result from a viscoelastic constitutive relation by returning to the model for compressional waves in a bar.18) This equation admits steady solutions in which u is an arbitrary function of x.12) leads to ρA T = EA ∂u ∂2u + tr ∂x ∂x∂t .

1995). we concentrate on the example of a Maxwell ﬂuid.2.20) where the creep function is now in general a fourth-rank tensor.2. the integral should really be performed with the Lagrangian variable X held ﬁxed.4 Large-strain viscoelasticity In viscoelastic ﬂuids. but for a ﬂuid that undergoes a substantial deformation.20) may be characterised using just two scalar creep functions L(t) and M (t) by writing t eij = (9. and we must emphasise once more that all these linear theories are only valid for small strains. their compressibility is nearly always small in comparison. . (9. (9.2.12) and (9. as in Section 8.3.386 More general theories More generally. Since we would not expect a Voigt solid to undergo particularly large displacements. as we will now brieﬂy explain. −∞ L t−t ∂τij ∂τkk x. and it is therefore usual to model them as incompressible.23) where Dij is the rate-of-strain tensor and η is again the shear viscosity. We therefore introduce a pressure p and a deviatoric stress τ . in which the deformation is decomposed into an elastic component and a viscous component.2.21) In either case. t δij + M t − t x. If the material is isotropic.22) where v is the velocity vector.2. the constitutive relation for a Newtonian viscous ﬂuid is simply τij = 2η Dij . as in Chapter 5. a more sophisticated approach is required. As described in any book on viscous ﬂow (for example Ockendon & Ockendon. we must resort to Lagrangian variables to deal with the geometric nonlinearity.14) as special cases of the general linear three-dimensional constitutive relation t eij = −∞ Kijk t−t ∂τk ∂t x.4. so that Cauchy’s momentum equation takes the form ρ ∂v + (v · ∇) v ∂t = −∇p + ∇ · τ + ρg . While such materials may undergo large deformations.2. then (9.2. the strains are frequently so large that. 9. We can expect them to work well for small displacements of a damped solid or for small creep of an elastic ﬂuid. t dt .2. (9. we can think of (9. t ∂t ∂t dt .

c2 = µ/2.27).24) therefore satisﬁes the equation τ = 2µD.26) Dt where D/Dt = ∂/∂t + (v · ∇) is the “usual” convective derivative.28). we discover that this stress tensor satisﬁes τ = 2µD. where the lower convected derivative of a tensor A is deﬁned by A= DA + ∇v A + A∇v T .2.2.23) and (9. we ﬁnd that ∂vj DBij ∂vi = Bkj + Bik . As another example of an elastic constitutive relation.2. (9.58a).3. (9.58b).28) Dt By combining (9. let us consider the Mooney–Rivlin strain energy density (5.25). (9. with strain energy density given by (5.2. The neo-Hookean stress tensor (9. Dt ∂xk ∂xk that is (9.2.2.14). .27) denotes the upper convected derivative. as shown in Exercise 9.2.2. By diﬀerentiating the Finger tensor with respect to t. (9. Dt (9. τij = µ δij − Bij (9. with c1 = 0.2 Viscoelasticity 387 On the other hand.2.31) We obtain the lower convected Maxwell model by using (9.24) where the Finger strain tensor Bij is deﬁned in (5.4.2.2. deﬁned for an arbitrary where tensor function A by DA − ∇v T A − A∇v .2.2.29) which is known as the upper convected Maxwell model.9.32) instead of in (9. which leads to −1 . a viscoelastic ﬂuid whose elastic component is neo-Hookean could be described by A= tr τ + τ = 2η D.3.2. (9.25) DB = ∇v T B + B ∇v . a neo-Hookean solid.2.30) Again using (9. obeys the constitutive relation τij = µ (Bij − δij ) .

2. Dt 1 2 ∂vj ∂vi − ∂xj ∂xi (9. the easiest way in which to fracture an ice cube is to put it into even lukewarm water. (9. in contrast with the usual convective derivative DA/Dt. This means that it is the same for all observers. deﬁned by A= DA − ΩA + AΩ − a (DA + AD) .34) The upper and lower convected derivatives are obtained when a = 1 and when a = −1 respectively.6) and (1. .2. corresponding to a = 0.2. a is a material parameter that must be determined from experiments. We will assume throughout that the displacement gradients are small enough for linear elasticity to be valid. and another common choice is the Jaumann or corotational derivative A.5. when we construct a constitutive relation using . and it is interesting that these derivatives have a geometrical interpretation.6) and then to include heat in the energy calculation from Section 1. ◦ 9.22) with an equally complicated nonlinear evolution equation for τ . even if we exclude the possibility of the solid melting into a liquid.7. By this we mean that it is invariant under rigid-body transformations. Nonetheless. the resulting large-strain viscoelastic model will couple (9.9. Hence. Hence analytical progress can usually only be made in the case of small strains.and momentum-conservation equations (1.2. we must mention that the identiﬁcation and classiﬁcation of convective derivatives of tensors is one that arises in many branches of mathematics.33) is objective. whichever member of (9. For any value of a. In any viscoelastic constitutive relation.5). we can be sure that the resulting mechanical behaviour will be independent of the frame in which it is measured. Hence it only remains for us to incorporate thermal eﬀects in the constitutive equation (1. that is Ωij = .6. For example.3.2. in which case is approximately ∂/∂t.33) we choose.3 Thermoelasticity Thermal eﬀects in solids can be dramatic. We note that density variations are already allowed for in the mass. and crucially this includes unsteady transformations. Finally. the derivative deﬁned by (9. as shown in Exercise 9.388 More general theories Both and are special cases of a one-parameter family of convected derivatives.33) where Ω is the rotation tensor.

1.2) as β 0 0 2µ τ = 2µ 0 −γ 0 + λ(β − 2γ ) − λ + 3 0 0 −γ (9.1) when τij = 0.2) will lead to nontrivial stress. There is ample experimental evidence that many common materials undergo a uniform isotropic volume change.2. so that α (9.3) so that the temperature gradient generates an eﬀective body force in the Navier equation. eij and T which reduces to (1. then the stress tensor is given by (9. 3 where α is called the coeﬃcient of thermal expansion.3. 2 ∂t 3 (9. By referring to Section 2. −γy.4) α(T − T0 ) I . with ∇T = 0. Here we examine the eﬀect of heating the bar uniformly to some temperature T . When we use (9.3.2) in the momentum equation (1. considered previously in Section 2. namely an expansion if T > T0 or a contraction if T < T0 .3. the Lam´ e constants are assumed not to vary signiﬁcantly over the temperature ranges of interest.9. 3 (9. and vice versa . we can interpret α as the relative volume expansion caused by a unit increase in temperature.5) .3. the thermal expansion is found to vary linearly with temperature.3. (9. whenever boundary conditions are speciﬁed on the displacement. −γz )T .2.3 Thermoelasticity 389 We begin to construct a linear thermoelastic constitutive relation by considering an unconstrained elastic solid whose absolute temperature is raised from T0 in the reference state to a new temperature T . We are therefore prompted to propose the constitutive relation 2 τij = 2µeij + λekk δij − λ + µ α(T − T0 )δij .3. we ﬁnd that the Navier equation generalises to ρ ∂2u 2 = ρg + (λ + µ) grad div u + µ∇2 u − λ + µ α∇T.7.3. the constitutive relation (9.3) that a uniform temperature change.2) This is the only linear relation between τij . In a linear theory.6.3. If we seek a displacement of the form u = (βx.1) eij = (T − T0 )δij .5). could not drive a displacement. We illustrate this by returning to the steady uniaxial loading of a bar.3.3. However. At ﬁrst glance.3. it might appear from (9. For moderate temperature variations.6) when T = T0 and to (9.

The net energy U in a control volume V is given by U= V 1 ∂u ρ 2 ∂t 2 + W + ρcT dx.7 and Exercise 8.3. we cannot assume that temperature is known.3. and hence the net compressive force is given by P = EA α(T − T0 ).3. but must determine it as part of the solution. gaps had to be left between sections of track to allow for thermal expansion to take place without stress generation.12. AL2 α (9.6) where ν is Poisson’s ratio.‡ a material parameter which we will assume to be constant. We now obtain an equation for T by performing an energy balance. then we must have β = 0. From Section 4. and (9. 3 (9.8) where A is the cross-sectional area. we know that the track will buckle if the compressive stress is too large. Note that heating the track will cause a compressive force and cooling a tensile force.3. we recognise the ﬁrst two terms in the integrand as the kinetic energy and the strain energy. These gaps caused track and wheels to wear and led to many accidents. We can use this result to calculate the thermal stress in a length of railway track. In general.9. As usual. as expected.10) where. with c denoting the speciﬁc heat capacity.9) where I is the moment of inertia of the cross-section. As in Section 8.390 More general theories By ensuring that the lateral stress components τyy and τzz are zero.7) where E is Young’s modulus.3. we ﬁnd that the transverse strain is given by γ= (3λ + 2µ)α(T − T0 ) 1+ν λβ − = νβ − α(T − T0 ). (9.8) tells us that the maximum temperature that can be sustained before buckling occurs is T − T0 = 3π 2 I . 3 (9.3.† If the two ends of the track are ﬁxed. 2(λ + µ) 6(λ + µ) 3 (9.3. this should be deﬁned “at constant volume” . The only remaining nonzero stress component is τxx = 1 β − α(T − T0 ) E. the ﬁrst law of thermodynamics tells us that all three forms of energy are † ‡ In the days before “continuously-welded” rails. The ﬁnal term is the thermal energy.4. referring to Section 1.

this leads to ∂T ρc + div q = 0. the heat ﬂux is given by Fourier’s law. For most materials.3. The energy inside V will change due to the work done by gravity. (9.3) to determine the resulting displacement.11) where n is the unit normal to ∂V and q is the heat ﬂux.1 One-dimensional homogenisation Many practically important materials have properties which vary over a very ﬁne scale.11) and simplify the resulting expression. ∂V (9. the work done by stress on the boundary ∂V .12) ∂t which is the standard equation for heat ﬂow in a rigid sample.3. as often happens in semi-transparent materials such as glass.7. in contrast with Section 8. As shown in Exercise 9. We will only consider conﬁgurations where the short scale greatly exceeds molecular length-scales. The word homogenisation is often used synonymously with “multi-scaling” or “coarse-graining”. Now we have to substitute (9.12) for T and then substitute the result into (9.13) ∂t where κ = k/ρc is called the thermal diﬀusivity.4. . (9.4 Composite materials and homogenisation 9. it is usually impractical to analyse each individual layer.7. Provided k is constant.3. for example composites consisting of alternating layers with two diﬀerent properties. In this section. (9.3.10) into (9. We note in passing that the situation is much more complicated when thermal radiation is signiﬁcant. Collecting these eﬀects together. there is no leading-order coupling between thermal expansion and heat ﬂow: we can solve (9. To describe deformations of such a material. for suﬃciently small temperature variations.3. In other words.3. we arrive at the energy conservation equation dU = dt ρg · V ∂u dx + ∂t (τ n) · ∂V ∂u da − ∂t q · n da.4 Composite materials and homogenisation 391 equivalent and mutually convertible. we brieﬂy outline a homogenisation technique that allows us to average over the ﬁne scale and hence determine eﬀective mechanical properties for largescale deformations of the material as a whole. However. and the ﬂux of heat through ∂V . 9. namely q = −k ∇T where k is the thermal conductivity.3.9.12) just becomes the linear heat equation ∂T = κ∇2 T. our solid now has a strain energy density W such that τij = ∂ W /∂eij .3.

4.5 (a) The variation of Young’s modulus with position in a bar. and the displacement appears to be approximately linear in x. Indeed. Our ﬁrst example concerns longitudinal displacement of an elastic bar.392 More general theories E E1 (a) u (b) E2 x x Fig.4. N N . . we plot a typical piecewise constant Young’s modulus proﬁle and the corresponding displacement u(x). whose Young’s modulus E is a rapidly varying function of position x. + − E2 N E1 E2 fraction of phase 1. (9. However.1) and ﬁnd (1 − φ)nL 1 1 x + − .3) In Figure 9.4. so that E (x) = E1 . We recall from Section 4. We can see that u(x) ﬂuctuates rapidly in response to the variations in E . (n + φ)L/N < x < (n + 1)L/N. N N (9. 9. it is easy to solve (9. we focus for the moment on a composite bar consisting of 2N alternating sections with moduli E1 and E2 . dx (9.2 that the displacement u(x) in such a bar satisﬁes AE (x) du = T.6) is shown as a dashed line. we where n = 0. the approximation (9. from the exact solution (9. 1. with uniform cross-sectional area A and length L.1) where the tension T is constant under static conditions. N E2 E1 T E1 u(x) = A φ(n + 1)L 1 1 x . . E2 . .4.4. To ﬁx ideas. these ﬂuctuations are barely noticeable.4.3).5. N − 1 and φ is the volume case. . (b) The corresponding longitudinal displacement u(x). on the scale of the whole bar. In this (n + φ)L nL <x< .2) (n + 1)L (n + φ)L <x< . nL/N < x < (n + φ)L/N.

dx (9. Here.4.4) very well.5 it is clear that (9. E with a typical value E1 and u with T L/E1 A to obtain E du = 1.4.4.4. . known as the method of multiple scales (see Kevorkian & Cole.5) is the average of 1/E over a periodic cell. As always.. it is necessary to non-dimensionalise the problem. but E varies over a much smaller length-scale. we scale x with the bar length L. before attempting any asymptotic analysis.8) Eeﬀ = (1/E ) This illustrates what the point of homogenisation theory is.4.4. on a scale large enough for these periodic ﬂuctuations to be negligible.6) as AEeﬀ du ∼ T. (9.3) do not exist. Tx (1/E ) + const.6) approximates the overall behaviour of the full solution (9. These techniques come into their own in more complicated problems where explicit solutions like (9.4. the complicated ﬁne-scale variations in E become irrelevant.4.4. and the bar behaves like a uniform medium whose modulus is given by (9.4.4) where (1/E ) = N L dx E (x) (9.4.9. dx (9.4. Now we show how a formal asymptotic method.4) we deduce that u(x) − (T x/A)(1/E ) is periodic over the ﬁne scale and hence. We can rewrite (9. 1981).7) where the eﬀective Young’s modulus of the composite bar is the harmonic average of E . From (9. When we consider the bar as a whole.4 Composite materials and homogenisation 393 can see that u(x) satisﬁes the condition u(x + L/n) − u(x) = φ (1 − φ) TL + N A E1 E2 TL (1/E ). = NA L/N 0 (9.6) u(x) ∼ A In Figure 9. (9.9) Now x lies between 0 and 1. that is 1 .8). may be used to reach the same conclusions in more general conﬁgurations.

(9.4. E (x.2).394 More general theories of order ε.9) becomes E (x.16) This is a very convenient assumption but. When we equate terms of O (1). (9. ξ ) ∂u ∂u +ε ∂ξ ∂x = ε.4. say. ξ ) 1 (1/E ) = 1. Here we allow E also to vary on the scale of the whole bar. as discussed in Kevorkian & Cole (1981).† Now we take the limit ε → 0 and seek the solution as an asymptotic expansion of the form u ∼ u0 + εu1 + · · · .4. like E .4. ξ ).4.4. and then. dx ∂x ε ∂ξ Hence (9.4. We therefore write E in the form E = E (x. this means that we have moved from a model that is one-dimensional in the variable x to one that is two-dimensional in the plane (x.4.11) To obtain a unique representation of u in terms of x and ξ . dx dξ E (x. ξ ) .15) Eeﬀ (x) = 1 0 † = . with respect to its second argument.4.4. at order ε. (9.14) The assumed periodicity of u with respect to ξ leads to the condition Eeﬀ (x) where 1 (9.12) (9.2) to vary slowly with x. with period one. ε = 1/N and E depends only on the ﬁne scale ξ . we discover that ∂u0 = 0. With E given by (9. . and on this line the chain rule implies that ∂u 1 ∂u du = + . we must now take u to be a function of the two length-scales x and ξ . and can be replaced by the condition that u not grow as |ξ | → ∞.13) ∂ξ so that u0 is a function of x alone. (9. ξ ) du0 ∂u1 + ∂ξ dx du0 = 1. it is not necessary for more general problems in which the micro-geometry is not known in advance.10).10) where ξ = x/ε and E is assumed to be periodic. physical space is just the line x = εξ in the (x. (9.4. ξ ) plane. In our example (9. However. we insist that u. must be periodic with respect to ξ . for example if we had allowed E1 and E2 in (9.

φ < ξ < 1.16) allows for E also to vary slowly with x.4.8) when E depends on ξ alone. We see in Figure 9. (9.4. 9.3.15). in suitable dimensionless variables.2). to see that. It is straightforward.6(a). In terms of dimensionless variables. E2 (x). but now allow E1 and E2 to be functions of x. (1 − φ)E1 (x) + φE2 (x) (9.2 Two-dimensional homogenisation Let us now consider a less trivial application of this method. is shown as a dashed curve. even though ε = 1/5 is not particularly small.4. 0 < ξ < φ. y ) satisﬁes ∇ · (µ∇w) = 0. we can therefore write E as a periodic function of ξ given by E (x. following the ideas of Section 2. (9. This is equivalent to (9.19) . let us return to the piecewise constant example (9. namely antiplane strain in a bar whose shear modulus µ varies over the cross-section.4.4. ξ ) = E1 (x).4.17) We show a typical example in Figure 9. but (9.6 (a) The variation of Young’s modulus with position in a bar with ε = 1/5. given by (9.9. ξ ) −1 = E1 (x)E2 (x) .4.6(b) that the displacement calculated using Eeﬀ (x) (dashed curve) provides an excellent approximation to the exact solution (solid curve).18) which averages out the ﬁne scale variations. the axial displacement w(x.4 Composite materials and homogenisation 395 E E1 (a) u (b) E2 x x Fig. the eﬀective Young’s modulus is shown as a dashed curve. the leading-order approximation. (b) The corresponding longitudinal displacement u(x). 9. along with the eﬀective modulus 1 Eeﬀ (x) = 0 dξ E (x. To illustrate this result.4.

∂/∂y ) . ξ. ξ + 1. y.21) We choose ε such that the period in ξ is equal to 1. y. η ) to vary over both length-scales. so that µ(x. η ). ξ. ∇ξ = (∂/∂ξ. 1]×[0.4. ξ.7. We also assume that µ is periodic in both directions over the ﬁne scale. y.7 A periodic microstructured shear modulus.4. Now. (9.4. where the modulus µ is piecewise constant on the ﬁne scale.396 More general theories b µ1 η µ2 ξ 1 Fig.21) as µ. The chain rule thus transforms (9. y. η ) = (x. y )/ε. as in Section 9. ξ.4. so that we can write µ = µ(x.4. η ) ≡ µ(x. y. and then deﬁne b to be the period in the η -direction. although µ1 (x. y ) might vary over the long scale. η ).19) into ∇ξ · (µ∇ξ w) + ε {∇ξ · (µ∇xw) + ∇x · (µ∇ξ w)} + ε2 ∇x · (µ∇xw) = 0. provided it shares the same periodicity (9. b] . (9. y. The assumed periodicity means that we need only solve (9. µ(x.22) on a single rectangular cell [0. (9. We suppose that µ varies both rapidly over a short length-scale ε and gradually across the whole cross-section. we allow the displacement ﬁeld w(x. η + b) ≡ µ(x. A typical setup is illustrated in Figure 9. ∂/∂η ) . 9. ξ.20) where (ξ.4. y ) and µ2 (x.1. η ).22) T T where ∇x = (∂/∂x.4.

we immediately discover that w0 satisﬁes ∇ξ · (µ∇ξ w0 ) = 0.4.10) that this is the only solution. 1. (9.4. ∂ξ ∂x ∂η ∂y (9. y. 0.4. ξ. As we might have hoped.4. η ).26) which is a linear elliptic partial diﬀerential equation for w1 driven by ∇xw0 . η ) . b) ≡ w(x.4. and it may be shown (see Exercise 9.4 Composite materials and homogenisation 397 and then apply the periodic boundary conditions w(x.4.30) µ ∂W (1) ∂ξ + ∂ ∂η µ ∂W (1) ∂η =− ∂µ ∂ξ (9.23a) ∂w ∂w (x. we obtain ∂µ ∂w0 ∂µ ∂w0 − = R1 (x.26) admits periodic solutions for w1 only if the right-hand side has zero mean.4. y. y. y. y. y. y. η ) + W (2) (x. η ) dξ dη = 0. y. As shown in Exercise 9. (9. 0). 0. ∂η (9. so that w0 = w0 (x. η ) ≡ (x. equation (9. ξ. ξ. y. ξ. and we can write the solution in the form ∂w0 ∂w0 w1 = W (1) (x. η ).9.4.4. say.24) This equation and the boundary conditions (9. 0). ξ. ∂w ∂w (x.25) (9.23). η ) ≡ w(x.29) with the periodic conditions (9. b) ≡ (x. so that ∂ ∂ξ µ + µ =− 1 0 0 b ∂w1 ∂ξ ∂ ∂η ∂w1 ∂η R1 (x. (9.23b) ∂η ∂η When we again seek the solution as an asymptotic expansion of the form w ∼ w0 + εw1 + ε2 w2 + · · · . .23) are identically satisﬁed if w0 is independent of ξ and η . the displacement therefore does not vary on the ﬁne length-scale to leading order.10.4.27) This requirement is satisﬁed identically here. η ). ξ. y.28) ∂x ∂y where W (1) and W (2) satisfy the equations ∂ ∂ξ and ∂ ∂ξ µ ∂W (2) ∂ξ + ∂ ∂η µ ∂W (2) ∂η =− ∂µ . ξ.4. Comparing the terms at O (ε). (9. ξ. 1. y ). y. (9. ∂ξ ∂ξ w(x. y.4.

∂ξ (9. µ21 = µ 0 0 ∂W (1) dξ dη. up to arbitrary additive functions of (x.4.4.26). y ). but with the right-hand side replaced by R2 (x. ξ. y.4.22). Finally. ξ. η ).4. we ﬁnd that 1 b 0= 0 0 R2 (x.30) have unique periodic solutions for W (1) and W (2) . (9. (9.4. when we substitute for w1 from (9. y.29) and (9.34b) b 1 b 1 µ22 = µ 1+ 0 0 dξ dη. it is straightforward in principle to compute them numerically for any given modulus function µ(x.32) + ∂W (1) ∂w0 ∂ µ +µ ∂y ∂η ∂x ∂W (1) +1 ∂η Thus our homogenised displacement w0 (x. η ) = − ∂ ∂ξ − ∂w1 ∂ ∂w1 + µ ∂x ∂η ∂y ∂w1 ∂ ∂w1 ∂ µ + µ ∂x ∂ξ ∂y ∂η ∂w0 ∂ ∂ µ + − ∂x ∂x ∂y µ µ ∂w0 ∂y .4. y ) satisﬁes the anisotropic model ∂ ∂x where b 1 µ11 ∂w0 ∂x + ∂ ∂x µ12 ∂w0 ∂y + ∂ ∂y µ21 ∂w0 ∂x + ∂ ∂y µ22 ∂w0 ∂y = 0. ∂η (9. η ).398 More general theories It can be shown that (9.4.31) and again we need this to have zero mean over our periodic cell in (ξ.33) µ11 = µ 1+ 0 0 ∂W (1) ∂ξ ∂W (2) ∂η b 1 dξ dη. y. The ﬁrst term satisﬁes this requirement identically. µ12 = µ 0 0 .4. and.4. ξ. Although it is usually not possible to obtain these solutions in closed form. proceeding to the terms of O ε2 in (9.28). η ) dξ dη =− 0 1 0 b ∂ µ ∂x ∂W (1) +1 ∂ξ ∂w0 ∂W (2) ∂w0 +µ ∂x ∂ξ ∂y ∂w0 ∂y dξ dη. (9. we ﬁnd that w2 satisﬁes an equation analogous to (9.34a) ∂W (2) dξ dη.4.

it is almost never possible to evaluate the eﬀective moduli explicitly. 0) = ∂η ∂φ(2) (0. (ξ. φ(2) = W (2) + η. One famous example where signiﬁcant progress can be made occurs when the shear modulus µ is piecewise constant. µ2 . and another value µ1 in the complementary region D1 = [0.29) and (9. η ) = 0.38) Hence φ(1) and φ(2) both satisfy Laplace’s equation in each of D1 and D2 . 0) = 0.4. Using this symmetry and the periodicity of W (j ) . η ) = 0.8(a). (ξ. φ(2) (ξ.41a) (9. b) = 0. Crucially.41b) as illustrated in Figure 9. (9. ∂η ∂φ(2) (1. we now assume that the geometry possesses reﬂectional symmetry in both the ξ .33) can be shown to be elliptic. b] \ D2 .37) the equations (9. (9. ∂φ(1) (ξ. η ) = ∂ξ ∂φ(1) (ξ. taking one value µ2 on some region D2 inside our rectangular cell. For truly two-dimensional geometries.4.4 Composite materials and homogenisation 399 Thankfully. where µ= µ1 .4.39) (9.30) for W (1) and W (2) are transformed to ∇ξ · µ∇ξ φ(1) = ∇ξ · µ∇ξ φ(2) = 0.4. 1] × [0.4.40) on the boundary ∂D2 between them.4.4. µ (9. (9. so that ∂W (2) = ∂η b b µ 0 dη µ − 1.4.16). ∂ξ (9.4. µ22 = b2 b 0 dη . b) = b.4. When we make the substitutions φ(1) = W (1) + ξ. φ(1) (1. when µ is independent of ξ .36) which is a generalisation of (9. (9. we can take W (1) = 0 and ∂W (2) /∂ξ = 0.and the η -direction.4.9. η ) ∈ D2 . along with the continuity conditions φ(j ) = µ ∂φ(j ) ∂n =0 (9. we deduce that φ(j ) must satisfy the boundary conditions φ(1) (0.4.35) Hence the eﬀective moduli are given by b µ11 = µdη. 0 µ21 = µ12 = 0. . η ) ∈ D1 . φ(2) (ξ. Equally reassuringly. η ) = 1.

4. the symmetry axes are shown as dot-dashed lines.4. because the continuity conditions (9.4. η ) = 0. η ) = α. (a) The boundary conditions satisﬁed by φ(1) and φ(2) .4. ∂η ∂ξ (9.43) where again denotes the jump across ∂D2 . ∂ξ ∂η ∂φ(j ) ∂ψ (j ) =− . (9. Now. 9.42) The continuity conditions (9. η ) = (1. The boundary conditions (9.44b) ∂η ∂η ψ (2) (0.40) for φ(j ) are transformed to µψ (j ) = ∂ψ (j ) ∂n = 0. ∂ψ (1) ∂ψ (1) (0. η ) = 0.4. It is straightforward to calculate the eﬀective elastic constants using ψ (j ) . since φ(j ) satisfy Laplace’s equation in each separate region. (9.41) become ψ (1) (ξ.43) allow us to integrate directly . 0) = (ξ.400 η b φ(1) =0 ∂φ(2) =0 ∂ξ D1 D2 µ2 µ1 ∂φ(1) =0 ∂η ∂D2 φ(2) =0 1 (a) ∂φ(1) =0 ∂η φ(2) =b More general theories η (b) ∂ψ (2) =0 ψ (1) =β ∂η ψ (2) =α ∂ψ (1) =0 ∂ξ ξ φ(1) =1 ∂φ(2) =0 ∂ξ ξ ψ (2) =0 ∂ψ (1) =0 ∂ξ ∂ψ (2) =0 ∂η ψ (1) =0 1 Fig.8(b). ψ (2) (1. b) = 0. as shown in Figure 9. (9.4. we can introduce the harmonic conjugates ψ (j ) which satisfy the Cauchy–Riemann equations ∂ψ (j ) ∂φ(j ) = . b) = β. piecewise constant shear modulus distribution. 0) = 0. ψ (1) (ξ.8 A symmetric.4.44a) ∂ξ ∂ξ ∂ψ (2) ∂ψ (2) (ξ. (b) The corresponding boundary conditions for the harmonic conjugate functions ψ (1) and ψ (2) . where the constants α and β are unknown in advance.

This has particularly startling implications if b = 1 and the geometry is anti-symmetric about a diagonal in the resulting square cell. In such conﬁgurations. α (9.4.4. µ21 = µ12 = 0. We can use the same technique as above to calculate the corresponding elastic constants.50) Eliminating α between (9.45) and analogous calculations yield µ22 = −µ1 bα.51) between the stiﬀness µ22 in the η -direction and the corresponding stiﬀness µ11 in the ξ -direction with µ1 and µ2 switched. αµ1 =− µ2 b . D2 (9. Now the key observation is that the problem satisﬁed by ψ (2) closely resembles that for φ(1) (and vice versa ).9.48) Hence φ(1) is what φ(1) would be if we switched the values of µ1 and µ2 .41a).4.4.4. noting that the harmonic conjugate of φ(1) is ψ (1) = − so that µ11 = µ2 ψ (1) η =b η =0 µ2 φ(2) .46) so the assumed symmetry of the geometry eliminates the oﬀ-diagonal terms.4. αµ1 (9. so . Indeed. (9. µ2 ∂ φ(1) ∂n = µ1 D1 D1 D2 ∂ φ(1) ∂n .4.47) then the boundary conditions for φ(1) are identical to (9.50). For example. although the continuity conditions on ∂D2 read φ(1) = φ(1) . b 1 µ11 = µ 0 0 ∂φ(1) dξ dη = ∂ξ b 0 0 1 µ ∂ψ (1) dξ dη ∂η 1 = 0 µψ (1) η =b η =0 dξ = µ1 β. (9.46) and (9.4.49) (9.4 Composite materials and homogenisation 401 across the cell.4.4. as in the examples shown in Figure 9.9. swapping µ1 and µ2 is equivalent to swapping ξ and η . we obtain the intriguing relation µ11 µ22 = b2 µ1 µ2 (9. if we deﬁne φ(1) = µ2 ψ (2) .

Hence a homogenised bar consisting of such cells is isotropic with √ µ11 = µ22 = µ1 µ2 .4.54) but it is more convenient here to persist for the moment with the more general case (9.4.2.53). As in Section 9. we can therefore write C = C (x. 9. we can derive the homogenised equations for a three-dimensional elastic matrix quite quickly starting from the equilibrium macroscopic model ∇ · τ = 0.9 Some modulus distributions that are antisymmetric about the diagonals of a square. As in Section 1. depending crucially on the ratio of the elastic wave-length to the length-scale of the microstructure.2 at our disposal.402 More general theories Fig.4. (9. which we can write symbolically as a tensor product: τ = C ∇u. We again assume .53).4. (9.4. where ξ = x/ε.4.4. we suppose that the elastic constants in C vary over two length-scales: a macroscopic scale and a micro-scale which is smaller by a factor of ε. In suitable dimensionless variables. and similarly for u and τ . but unsteady eﬀects can cause signiﬁcant complications.7. (9.55) We note that it is straightforward to incorporate a body force in (9. ξ ).4.3 Three-dimensional homogenisation Now that we have the ideas of Section 9. as we will describe below. τij = Cijk ek = Cijk ∂uk .52) Such results provide an invaluable check on the numerical methods to which one usually has to resort to calculate the eﬀective elastic constants.4.53) where C (x) is a symmetric tensor incorporating the elastic constants. ∂x (9. 9. for an isotropic material C is given by Cijk (x) = λ(x)δij δk + 2µ(x)δik δj . that µ11 ≡ µ22 .

4.53).4.4.65) . we obtain the equations ∇ξ · τ1 + ∇x · τ0 = 0. C ∇ξ u0 = 0. as in (9. This means that ∇ξ · τ1 dξ ≡ 0.60) (9. Backsubstitution into (9.57). ξ ) is related to u0 by τ0 = (C ∇ξ A) ∇xu0 + C ∇xu0 .4. (9. At order ε. ξ) + ετ1 (x. (9.25).62) which is driven by a term proportional to ∇xu0 .4. namely ∇ξ · (C ∇ξ u1 ) = − (∇ξ · C ) (∇xu0 ) .61) then.4.4. ξ ) + · · · .58) the second of which implies that u0 is a rigid body motion as a function of ξ. (9.4. ξ ) + εu1 (x. we obtain a linear problem for u1 .61). At leading order.4. and our assumed periodicity implies that u0 = u0 (x). in contrast with Section 9.4.59) If we operate with ∇ξ on (9. rather than the Navier equations.4. Hence. we can formally write u1 in the form u1 = A(x.4. is that when we expand u ∼ u0 (x. ξ )∇xu0 .4 Composite materials and homogenisation 403 that C . u and τ are all periodic on some representative cell D. ξ ) + · · · . D (9.56) we only need to consider terms up to O (ε). by virtue of (9. τ ∼ τ0 (x.62).4. in ξ-space. The advantage of working with the ﬁrst-order system (9.28). τ0 = C ∇ξ u1 + C ∇xu0 .64) As always. as demonstrated in Exercise 9.4.61) (9.9. usually this will have to be done numerically. we soon ﬁnd that ∇ξ · τ0 = 0.2 where we had to proceed to O ε2 .4.4. (9. for example a cuboid.57) (9. (9.4.12. (9. as in (9.4. gives that τ0 (x.63) where A = (Aijk ) is rank-three tensor which in principle is determined by solving (9. the ﬁnal step is to demand that τ be periodic on our unit cell D.

4. which underpins much of solid state physics.4. the leading-order displacement u0 satisﬁes the homogenised equation ∇x · (Ceﬀ ∇xu0 ) = 0. However.69) and Λ represents the typical wave-length of elastic waves in the bar. Unless the microstructure has a particular directionality.68) When we seek solutions in the frequency domain and non-dimensionalise as in (9.54).4. Another crucial observation is that.4 Waves in periodic media We conclude this section with a short discussion of waves in composite media. so we will illustrate the basic ideas by considering one-dimensional motion of an elastic bar. we obtain the ordinary diﬀerential equation d dx where k = ωεL εL ρ . . for any given microstructure. it is very similar to the theory of electromagnetic wave propagation through lattices.60) that ∇x · τ 0 = 0. even if the matrix is constructed from isotropic material. although.66) where τ 0 again denotes the average of τ0 over D.2. so that C is given by (9.4. we must view D as a representative cell that is characteristic of the medium as a whole. ε2 (9.4) to an inhomogeneous bar is ∂ ∂x E (x) ∂u ∂x =ρ ∂2u . = E1 Λ (9. refractions and diﬀractions that can occur make the theory much more complicated than in the static cases considered above. the multiple reﬂections. the averaging will in general lead to an anisotropic macroscopic constitutive law.4.4. (9.70) E (x.4. The generalisation of (4. 9.4. Hence. most natural heterogeneous media do not have a regular periodic microstructure.67) We remark again that the eﬀective elastic constants can rarely be evaluated explicitly. ∂t2 (9.404 More general theories and we therefore deduce from (9. x/ε) du dx + k2 u = 0. Unfortunately. (9. Of course.4. we might expect a random geometry to lead to isotropic macroscopic behaviour.10). where Ceﬀ (x) = (C ∇ξ A + C ). they can in principle be calculated numerically over a representative unit cell. For such materials. on the macroscopic scale.

We can write any other solution of (9. u2 (ξ + 1) = Cu1 (ξ ) + Du2 (ξ ). for example satisfying the initial conditions u1 (0) = 1.4.71) is to use Floquet theory. dξ (9.75) where A and B are arbitrary constants.69) may easily be analysed using the same approach as in Section 9.4 Composite materials and homogenisation 405 The character of the problem depends crucially on the size of k .4. and hence u1 (ξ + 1) = Au1 (ξ ) + Bu2 (ξ ). we neglect the dependence on the slow lengthscale.4.76) (9.71) We assume as before that E is periodic so that E (ξ + 1) ≡ E (ξ ).4.4. 0) = 0. for example.78) (9. Here we focus on the much more interesting case where the wave-length is comparable to the microstructure of the medium. we easily ﬁnd that the Wronskian du2 du1 − u2 (9.4. Chapter 3).74) if we choose our scaling for E such that E (0) = 1.1 (see Exercise 9. so that k = O (1).4. (9.73) W = u1 dξ dξ satisﬁes E (ξ )W (ξ ) ≡ const. and (9. One possible approach to the diﬀerential equation (9. 2004. in contrast with Section 9. (9.71). D= du2 (1). However.1.4.4. Let u1 (ξ ) and u2 (ξ ) be independent solutions of (9. (9. du1 (x. B= du1 (1). dξ (9.9.72) Using the standard theory of linear ordinary diﬀerential equations (see.4. 0) = 0.13). The ﬁrst key observation is that u(ξ + 1) also satisﬁes (9.4. For simplicity.4. If the wave-length is the same order as the length of the bar. dξ C = u2 (1). Boyce & DiPrima. = 1. du2 (0) = 1. dξ u2 (x.4.4. so that E is a function only of ξ = x/ε.71) in terms of u1 and u2 as u(ξ ) = Au1 (ξ ) + Bu2 (ξ ). then k = O (ε) and (9.71).4.77) .69) takes the form d dξ E (ξ ) du dξ + k 2 u = 0.4. u will in general be a nontrivial function of ξ that does not share the same periodicity. where A = u1 (1). as follows.

79) and we deduce from (9. It is easy to see that this can only happen if r is one of the eigenvalues r1 .4. dξ (9. 2 = where T = Tr(M ) = u1 (1) + du2 (1).10.4. When δ slightly exceeds zero.80) Given the periodic function E (ξ ). we can compute T (k ) for each value of k by solving (9. we have E ≡ 1 and all waves are transmitted through the medium without attenuation. As indicated by Figure 9.81) 1 T± 2 T2 − 4 . (9.4.1.82) The shaded region is the stop band in which |T | > 2. then u(ξ ) grows exponentially as |ξ | → ∞. and hence λ1.2 and P1. We infer that waves can propagate. the exponents λ1 and λ2 are either purely real. and grows as δ increases. Moreover. or of the form iπ ± log |r|. The parameter δ measures the non-uniformity in E : when δ = 0. The stop bands. although they will not in general be periodic. and the corresponding values of k are called the pass bands.4. purely imaginary. we expect the stop band to . it may prevent waves from propagating through the medium altogether. The eﬀect of the microscale is thus much more dramatic than in the static solutions considered in Section 9. occur where |T (k )| > 2. since r1 r2 = det(M ) = 1.71) and (9.10 we show the pass and stop bands when the Young’s modulus takes the form E (ξ ) = 1 + δ sin(2πξ ).406 More general theories These coeﬃcients form the elements of the monodromy matrix M= A C . where r is constant. a narrow stop band appears near k = π . In Figure 9. Hence we can write the general solution of (9.74) that det(M ) = 1. Whenever λ1. (9. Instead of simply altering the “eﬀective” wave-speed.80) are complex with unit magnitude.2 are pure imaginary.4.72) numerically.71) as a linear combination of eλ1 ξ P1 (ξ ) and eλ2 ξ P2 (ξ ). B D (9.4. r2 of M . where λ1. The eigenvalues of M are given by r1 . If |T (k )| < 2 then the roots (9.2 = log r1. We can conﬁrm this behaviour by analysing the problem asymptotically in the limit δ → 0.4.4.2 (ξ ) have period 1. Now we look for the possibility of waves by seeking solutions u(ξ ) such that u(ξ + 1) ≡ ru(ξ ).4.2 have nonzero real part. in which waves cannot be supported.4.

At leading order in δ . we ﬁnd the equation ∂ 2 u(0) + π 2 u(0) = 0. ξ ) + · · · .4.88) is shown using dashed lines. we must proceed to O (δ ) to obtain equations for the amplitude . this involves considerable tedious algebraic manipulation. we seek a solution of (9. Unfortunately.85) (9. 9. As in Section 9.9. The stop band is shaded and the asymptotic approximation (9.71) takes the form d dξ 1 + δ sin(2πξ ) du dξ + (π + δk1 )2 u = 0. which is obviated by the method of multiple scales.86) (9. where x = δξ .4.10 Dimensionless wave-number k versus non-uniformity parameter δ when the Young’s modulus is given by (9.4. ξ ) = A(x) cos(πξ ) + B (x) sin(πξ ).82).4.4.4. ξ ) + δu(1) (x.4.4 Composite materials and homogenisation 407 k/π δ Fig.83) in the form u(ξ. (9. δ ) as asymptotic expansions in powers of δ and thus obtain the leading-order behaviour of T as δ → 0.1. and we therefore let k = π + δk1 so that (9.83) Now we can write u1 (ξ.4.4. (9. be in a neighbourhood of k = π .84) As usual. δ ) ∼ u(0) (x. δ ) and u2 (ξ. ∂ξ 2 whose general solution is u(0) (x.

+ 2π dx 4 (9. to a solid that takes the form of a homogeneous elastic matrix in which are embedded many small-scale voids or pores. as in a liquid-ﬁlled sponge.87) The appearance of sin(πξ ) and cos(πξ ) on the right-hand side of (9. The situation is much more interesting. occurs when |k1 | < π/4. 2003). whose solutions are either exponential or sinusoidal.408 More general theories functions A and B .4. for example.10. For such a material. Nevertheless. This gives us two coupled linear diﬀerential equations for A(x) and B (x).4. for example. To ensure that u(1) remains bounded as |ξ | → ∞. in u(1) . and we discover that u(1) satisﬁes the equation 3π 2 3π 2 ∂ 2 u(1) 2 (1) + π u = − B cos(3 πξ ) + A sin(3πξ ) ∂ξ 2 2 2 π dB + k1 A + B cos(πξ ) − 2π dx 4 dA π − A − k1 B sin(πξ ). the need to couple the Navier equations for the solid . we show that this successfully predicts the behaviour of the stop band near δ = 0. Alas. However.3 may be applied. the elastic constants Cijk would be constant in the elastic matrix and zero in the voids. known as a Brillouin zone in the reciprocal lattice (see Brillouin.87) will give rise to secular terms. the same basic idea applies. in which A and B are exponential. namely that the ability of the medium to transmit a given wave can be characterised by analysing a single representative cell. 9. that is when δ k −1 < . Other important deformable porous media include oil reservoirs and biological tissue.4. In principle. when the pores are suﬃciently connected for a viscous ﬂuid to pass through them. one could follow a homogenisation procedure to derive an averaged macroscopic model governing the deformation of such a medium. though.4. the generalisation of Floquet theory to describe wave propagation through a periodic medium in higher dimensions poses signiﬁcant additional mathematical diﬃculties. π 4 (9. The stop band. depending on the value of k1 . we must therefore insist that the coeﬃcients in braces be zero.5 Poroelasticity The theory of Section 9. proportional to ξ sin(πξ ) and ξ cos(πξ ).88) In Figure 9.

5.9.5. on a scale of many pore sizes. (9. so we will bypass most of the diﬃculties associated with the ﬂuid dynamics. The net stress in the medium is thus given by τ = −P I + τe and the equilibrium Navier equation reads (λeﬀ + µeﬀ ) grad div u + µeﬀ ∇2 u = ∇P. Fowler.5.5.4) represents the drag exerted by the ﬂuid on the solid matrix. we can approximate the velocity of the solid matrix as the Eulerian time derivative of the displacement.2) although the eﬀective elastic constants λeﬀ and µeﬀ will be quite diﬀerent from the Lam´ e constants of the solid material from which the matrix is constructed. 1997. We know from (9.67) that we can express the elastic contribution to the stress in the form τe = Ceﬀ ∇u. we will assume the well-substantiated Terzaghi principle (see. The average velocity v at which the ﬂuid ﬂows through the pores is governed by Darcy’s law. and the permeability . This is the physically plausible statement that the diﬀerence between the ﬂuid and solid velocities should be proportional to the pressure gradient. A detailed analysis of the ﬂuid dynamics would require us to consider the shear and normal stresses set up in the ﬂuid as it moves through the complicated pore structure.4. If the medium is isotropic. 107) that. so that Darcy’s law reads v= ∂u k − ∇P. with the pore pressure playing the rˆ ole of the temperature. The pressure gradient term in (9. This law is conﬁrmed by experiments.5 Poroelasticity 409 matrix to the Navier–Stokes equations for the ﬂuid makes this task considerably more complicated than any of the examples encountered in Section 9.3) We therefore have a situation similar to thermoelasticity.1) where u is the displacement of the medium and Ceﬀ is the matrix of eﬀective elastic constants.5. the stress in the ﬂuid averages to an isotropic pore pressure P . (9. ∂t η (9.5) where η is the viscosity of the ﬂuid and k is known as the permeability of the medium. In the context of linear elasticity.4) (9. In order to avoid this complication.4. p.5. for example. then we can write τe = λeﬀ (∇ · u) I + µeﬀ ∇u + ∇uT . (9.

We can thus use the approach of Section 2. we must consider conservation of mass. it is quite possible to compress a sponge made out of incompressible rubber. as also shown in Exercise 9.5. Equations (9. 1 − α0 ∂ (∇ · u) . conservation of mass for the ﬂuid leads to the equation ∂α + α0 ∇ · v = 0. (9. though. Each representative cell of the ﬂuid will contain a volume fraction α.2. say. For an anisotropic medium. then a straightforward cross-diﬀerentiation reveals that div u satisﬁes the linear diﬀusion equation: ∂ (div u) = ∂t (λeﬀ + 2µeﬀ ) α0 k η ∇2 (div u) . the eﬀects of elasticity. (9. It is also possible to derive (9. To close the problem.5.10) D= η .6) On the other hand. where d is a typical pore radius. If we assume that the parameters λeﬀ .3.5) from the underlying Navier–Stokes equations via a homogenisation procedure analogous to that used in Section 9. for example. (9. k must be replaced by a positive deﬁnite permeability tensor.5. of ﬂuid.5.5.5.15. and the corresponding solid fraction is therefore 1 − α. We have also assumed that α is always close to its initial value α0 . (9. viscosity and permeability are all collected in the eﬀective diﬀusion coeﬃcient (λeﬀ + 2µeﬀ ) α0 k . µeﬀ . which is consistent with our assumption that linear elasticity is valid.4. It has the dimensions of (length)2 and is of order d2 .410 More general theories is empirically well characterised for many important porous media. that the matrix as a whole certainly will be compressible.7) thus comprise the very simplest model that couples elastic deformation to ﬂuid ﬂow. We emphasise.8) ∇·v =− α0 ∂t which shows how compression of the matrix forces the ﬂuid to ﬂow. k and η are all constant. we ﬁnd that.5. For simplicity.2)–(9.1 and the result of Exercise 9.9) Hence. and that the deformation is suﬃciently slow for the inertia terms in the Navier equations to be ignored.15 to calculate the relative volume change due to a displacement u and hence obtain α = α0 + (1 − α0 )∇ · u.7) ∂t By combining these two equations. (9. we have neglected the compressibility of the solid and ﬂuid phases.5.

0 and v = v (x.9) is negligible and the medium behaves like an elastic solid. As a simple illustration. where one end x = 0 of the sponge is held ﬁxed.5. Increasing the stiﬀness of the matrix thus has a similar overall eﬀect to decreasing the ﬂuid viscosity or increasing the permeability. We can use (9. 9.5. If D is large (in a suitable dimensionless sense).5.5.11 The one-dimensional squeezing of a sponge. let us consider one-dimensional squeezing of a T T sponge.12) to eliminate v from (9. It follows that q = −V . This implies the boundary conditions u = P = 0 at x = 0.11.5.5) to obtain (λeﬀ + 2µeﬀ ) η ∂2u ∂P = = ∂x2 ∂x k ∂u −v .5. To ﬁx ideas. and (9.8) may be integrated directly with respect to x. t).11) and thus ﬁnd that u satisﬁes a forced heat equation ∂2u ∂u − D 2 = q (t). t). 0.5.13) may then readily be solved by .9. (9.10).12) where q (t) represents the net volume ﬂux of both solid and ﬂuid phases. ∂t ∂x (9. although ﬂuid is free to ﬂow into a reservoir at zero pressure.14) noting that. leading to (1 − α0 ) ∂u + α0 v = q (t). ∂t (9.11) In one dimension. ∂u = v = −V ∂t at x = L. With u = u(x. the mass-conservation equation (9.5. then the left-hand side of (9. while the other end x = L is squeezed at a constant velocity −V by an impermeable plunger.5.5. ∂t (9. let us consider the situation shown in Figure 9.4) and Darcy’s law (9. the motion of the boundary x = L is neglected.5. 0 .5. we can combine the equilibrium equation (9. 0. in linear elasticity.13) where D is again deﬁned by (9.5 Poroelasticity 411 P =0 11111111 00000000 00000000 11111111 00000000 11111111 00000000 11111111 L V F x Fig.

12. the initial response is dominated by the need to force the ﬂuid through the matrix. for nonzero Pe.412 2. When Pe = 0.5. so the stress just increases linearly as the elastic matrix contracts.0 More general theories F/(λeﬀ + 2µeﬀ ) 1. the net compressive stress F that we would need to apply to the plunger to force it to move at constant speed.5.17) as indicated by the dotted lines in Figure 9. x=0 (9. the ﬂuid has an increasing inﬂuence. The behaviour depends on the key dimensionless parameter known as the P´ eclet number Pe = LV /D. the behaviour becomes linear again.2 0. (9.5.2)–(9.5 1.0 3 2 1 Pe = 0 0.5. separation of variables: if u = 0 initially.5.0 V t/L Fig. with V t Pe F − ∼ λeﬀ + 2µeﬀ L 3 as t → ∞. As the P´ eclet number increases.5.12 Dimensionless stress applied to a sponge versus dimensionless time for diﬀerent values of the P´ eclet number Pe.5.4). we ﬁnd that Vx u(x.16) and the result of substituting (9. then sin (nπx/L) −n 2 π 2 Dt/L 2 e .17). and a longer time is taken for the solution to settle down to (9. 9.15) We can use this to calculate. the eﬀect of the ﬂuid is negligible. From (9. the large-t limits are shown as dotted lines.8 1.12. . t) = − L F = P − (λeﬀ + 2µeﬀ ) ∂u ∂x = − (λeﬀ + 2µeﬀ ) x= L (L − x)(2L − x) 2V L2 t+ + 3 6D π D ∞ ∂u ∂x .5 0.4 0. However. n3 n =1 (9. for example.6 0. After some time.15) into this is plotted in Figure 9.

6 Anisotropy We conclude the chapter with a brief account of the eﬀects of anisotropy. which. to ensure that W is a positive deﬁnite function of the strain components. Moreover. . have strongly anisotropic response to stress. we could also write the relation above as τxx exx τ e yy yy τzz ezz = A (9. this can be summarised by the relations Cijk = Cjik = Cij k = Ck ij . (9. for example.6. and the factor of 2 multiplying the oﬀ-diagonal strain components accounts for the fact that they appear twice in (9.9.1) which deﬁnes Cijk as a tensor with 81 components. Since there are only six independent components in the symmetric tensors τij and eij . A13 = C1133 .1) becomes τij = Cijk ek . We are thus left with at most 21 independent elastic moduli.6 Anisotropy 413 9.3) The only other restriction we can impose in general is that A must be positive deﬁnite. . by cross-diﬀerentiation. For every such P .6. In terms of C . (9.7. where Cijk = Pim Pjn Pkr P s Cmnrs . as we have just seen.7. In the rotated frame. The existence of a strain energy density W such that τij = ∂ W /∂eij implies.6. A12 = C1122 . .6. (9.6.6. In Section 1.4) For the isotropic materials considered in Section 1. wood and ﬁbre-reinforced materials. . (9. Now we can only say that this is true for each orthogonal matrix P representing a material symmetry. we saw that the most general linear relation between elastic stress τij and linear strain eij is τij = Cijk ek .2) .1). we asserted that the relationship between τ and e is the same as that between τ and e for any orthogonal matrix P . τyz 2eyz τxz 2exz τxy 2exy where A = (Aij ) is a 6 × 6 matrix with entries A11 = C1111 . is an endemic property of macroscopic models of heterogeneous elastic media. Let us now consider a rotation of the coordinate axes by an orthogonal matrix P . that the matrix (Aij ) is symmetric.

y )-plane regularly enough to impose in addition reﬂectional symmetry with respect to the (x. In this case (9.6.5) should be satisﬁed with 1 0 0 P = 0 1 0 .5) must hold simultaneously with the three transy δi 2 z = (−1)δi 3 δ . C1112 = C2212 = C3312 = C2313 = 0. This leaves 13 nonzero entries in Aij .8) . formations Pij ij ij and Pij = (−1) ij following the same reasoning as in the monoclinic case. namely 0 0 A16 A11 A12 A13 A 0 0 A26 12 A22 A23 A A A 0 0 A 23 33 36 (9. in a more compact notation. z )-planes.6) 0 0 −1 or. Such a material with three orthogonal planes of symmetry is called orthotropic.414 More general theories we therefore have 21 independent equations of the form Cijk = Pim Pjn Pkr P s Cmnrs . but some of them may imply nontrivial relationships between the elastic constants Cijk . P x = (−1)δi 1 δ δij . z ). (9.6. y )-plane. 0 0 0 0 A44 0 0 0 0 0 0 A55 0 0 0 0 0 A66 . To ﬁx ideas. Pij = (−1)δi 3 δij .6. In this case.7) reduces to 0 0 0 A11 A12 A13 A 0 0 0 12 A22 A23 0 0 0 A13 A23 A33 A= (9. let us further assume that they are positioned in the (x. (9.6. The simplest symmetry that we can encounter is reﬂectional symmetry with respect to the (x.and (y. Hence.6.6.6. We must therefore have Cijk = (−1)δi 3 + δj 3 + δk 3 + δ 3 Cijk .5) Usually. 0 0 A44 A45 0 0 0 0 0 0 A45 A55 0 0 A66 A16 A26 A36 Continuing with our example of z -oriented ﬁbres. (9. most of these equations are satisﬁed trivially. we will focus on the example of a material containing ﬁbres oriented in the z -direction. Cijk vanishes whenever any of the indices 1. and hence Cijk vanishes if the index 3 appears an odd number of times. so that (9. 2 or 3 appears an odd number of times. Such materials are called homoclinic. In particular.7) A = 13 .

as in (1.9a) (9. there must exist two constants c1 and c2 such that τxx = c1 (exx + eyy ) + c2 exx . A11 = A22 .6. τyy = A12 exx + A11 eyy . and. in the absence of preferred direction in the (x. (9. let us generalise the analysis of Section 2. As a simple example.9. The resulting matrix (Aij ) will clearly be a special case of (9. on the other hand.6.8) gives us τxx = A11 exx + A12 eyy .5) with the family of orthogonal transformations cos θ sin θ 0 B = − sin θ cos θ 0 . 44 ∂x2 ∂y 2 (9. y )-plane only.9c) Hence. then.6).6. so that only ﬁve independent elastic constants remain: 0 0 0 A11 A12 A13 A 0 0 0 12 A11 A13 A A 0 0 0 A 13 33 A = 13 (9. according to (9.8). the only nonzero strain components are exz and eyz . ψ now satisﬁes A55 ∂2ψ ∂2ψ + A = 0. 0 0 A44 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 A44 0 0 0 0 0 0 (A11 − A12 )/ 2 Note that the same conclusion could be reached by a blind use of (9.8) and we ﬁrst note that. (9. y )-plane. the ﬁbres are randomly positioned in the xy -plane.11) .6.6. ∂x τyz = A44 Ω ∂ψ +x . the nonzero stress components are τxz = A55 Ω ∂ψ −y . ∂y (9.6. Furthermore if we restrict the displacements to be in the (x. A23 = A13 and A44 = A55 . τyy = c1 (exx + eyy ) + c2 eyy .13) (9.14) .6.12) 0 0 1 but with considerably more eﬀort. while (9. then we have an isotropic problem in plane strain.6.4. For a displacement ﬁeld of the form (2. on a macroscopic scale. Thus.9b) (9.6. τxy = 2A66 exy .6.7.6. instead of Laplace’s equation.4 to model the torsion of an orthotropic bar. τxy = c2 exy . the material is transversely isotropic.6.6 Anisotropy 415 If.1).10) This imposes the condition 2A66 = A11 − A12 .

(9. we can evaluate the torsional rigidity using R= = D 1 Ω (xτyz − yτxz ) dxdy D A44 x ∂ψ + x − A55 y ∂y ∂ψ −y ∂x dxdy.6. once we have solved for ψ (x.4.6.6. For an anisotropic material.6.18) (9.18)–(9.6. For example. (9.21) .4 that.16) is transformed to R= A44 A55 D (9.16) The most striking implication of this model is that the elastic constants A44 and A55 can be eliminated from the problem by rescaling x and y appropriately.416 More general theories where A44 and A55 are both positive.20) Equations (9. We conclude by mentioning an important consequence of anisotropy for the propagation of elastic waves. the timedependent momentum equation is ρ ∂τij ∂ 2 ui ∂ 2 um = = C .6. (9.6. ∂X 2 ∂Y 2 subject to dX ∂ψ 1 d dY ∂ψ − = X2 + Y 2 ds ∂X ds ∂Y 2 ds on the boundary of the bar.17). Hence an orthotropic bar behaves under torsion just like an isotropic bar whose transverse dimensions are stretched according to the rule (9. a circular orthotropic bar is mechanically equivalent to an elliptical isotropic bar. y= A44 A55 1/4 Y.6.20) are identical to those found for an isotropic bar in Section 2. If we deﬁne x= A55 A44 1/4 X. ψ satisﬁes ∂2ψ ∂2ψ + = 0. (9.19) X ∂ψ ∂ψ −Y + X2 + Y 2 ∂Y ∂X dxdy. We recall from Section 2.6. with respect to the new variables.6. y ). ijmn ∂t2 ∂xj ∂xj ∂xn (9.6. while (9.15) A55 ∂x ds ∂y ds on the boundary of the bar. and the no-stress boundary condition is dy dx ∂ψ ∂ψ −y − A44 +x = 0.17) then.

7 Concluding remarks 417 As in Section 3. but the issues confronted there now seem comparatively trivial. if nontrivial waves are to exist.4.2. A simple substitution into (9.6.4. Perhaps the most serious scientiﬁc issue that has emerged concerns nonlinear viscoelasticity. that the presence of boundaries can give rise to dispersion even in an isotropic medium.1 Show that the constitutive law for the linear Jeﬀreys viscoelastic element shown in Figure 9. in terms of the spring constants and impedance of the individual components.37) governing P -waves and S waves in an isotropic solid. we look for a solution in the form of a plane wave u = aei(k·x−ωt) . Love waves and waves in beams are both dispersive.2. they must therefore satisfy the dispersion relation det Cijmn kj kn − ρω 2 δim = 0.13 is tr T dT du + T = k tr u +u .7 Concluding remarks This chapter has revealed the amazing variety of mathematical models and challenges to which macroscopic solid mechanics can give rise when it is coupled with other physical mechanisms.2. Recall. and hence show that tru trT . though. especially when thermal eﬀects are also important. as discussed in Section 9. dt dt (E9. This is in contrast with waves in an inﬁnite isotropic solid. More will be said about this in the Epilogue.9. 9.22) and.6. (9.1) Find expressions for the modulus k and the relaxation times trT and tru . which propagate with phase speed equal to either cp or cs . so that the phase speed ω/ |k| of plane waves generally depends on the wave vector k.21) yields the system Cijmn kj kn am − ρω 2 ai = 0. One of the main consequences of (9. .6. Exercises 9. (9.6.23) is that the waves are dispersive.23) This generalises the dispersion relations (3. We saw in Chapter 5 that nonlinear elasticity demands much more sophisticated modelling and analytical techniques than does linear elasticity. for example.

2. 9.2.2.14 A system of masses connected by springs and dashpots in parallel along the x-axis. 9. in the notation of Section 9.14. (a) Suppose parallel spring/dashpot elements separate a linear array of masses m. Show that the creep function for this element is K (t) = 1 − (1 − trT /tru ) e−t/tr u . Tn−1 Tn−1 un Tn m Tn m un+1 m un−1 Fig.418 More general theories Fig.13 A Jeﬀreys viscoelastic element. k 9.9) by taking the limits trT → 0 and tru → ∞ respectively. each displaced a distance un (t) from its equilibrium position nL. . Tn = T n e Tn = k (un +1 − un ).17) as L → 0.2. Use the equation of motion for the nth mass to show that m d2 un d = Y (un +1 − 2un + un −1 ) dt2 dt + k (un +1 − 2un + un −1 ) and show that this is a discretisation of the one-dimensional Voigt model (9. as shown in Figure 9. Show that e v + Tn . v Tn =Y dun dun +1 − dt dt .2 Obtain the Voigt and Maxwell creep functions (9.

Dt 9. and we deﬁne the complex modulus G = T /u.3 (b) Repeat the above calculation for the series elements shown in Figure 9. 9. dt 2 For the Jeﬀreys model (E9.5 DB = ∇v T B + B ∇v .4 Deduce that the rate at which the Jeﬀreys element dissipates energy is a non-negative increasing function of ω . t) is conserved by a ﬂow v (x. Dt where ∇v is the velocity gradient tensor with components (∂vj /∂xi ). − 2 tr T tr T 1 + t2 rT ω G =− k (tru − trT ) ω . Show that the average work done in each period is ω 2π 2 π/ω T 0 1 du dt = − |a|2 G ω. Recall from Chapter 5 the deﬁnitions of deformation gradient and of the Green and Finger deformation tensors.Exercises m un−1 Tn−1 Tn−1 un Tn m Tn m un+1 419 Fig. where G is called the storage modulus and G the loss modulus. and measure the resulting force T (t). The complex modulus is then decomposed into its real and imaginary parts: G = G + iG . Recall that a scalar function f (x. For a linear material.2. say u = Re ae−iωt . t) if ∂f Df = + v · ∇f = 0. A standard rheological test is to impose an oscillatory displacement on a sample. Dt ∂t . namely Fij = ∂xi . ∂Xj C = F T F. 2 tr T 1 + t2 rT ω 9. 9. Prove the identities DC = F T ∇v + ∇v T F. show that G = ktru k ( tr u − tr T ) .15 and show that the result is a discretisation of the one-dimensional Maxwell model (9.1).15 A system of masses connected by springs and dashpots in series along the x-axis.19). T (t) will also be proportional to e−iωt . B = F F T.

Deduce that A must satisfy DA + A∇v T − ∇v T A = 0.33) with a = 0.] . show that α ∂W = − τkk .7. the linear thermoelastic constitutive relation (9. 3 3 Show that.2.3.7 α α (T − T0 )δij eij − (T − T0 )δij . t) is such that. t) and g (x.11) and (9. deduce that A = 0.2) is consistent with τij = ∂ W /∂eij (where the derivative is taken with T held ﬁxed). so that ∆T must be much less than 105 K for the estimate to be valid.6 9. Dt If A is symmetric. E ≈ 200 GPa and α ≈ 13 × 10−6 K−1 . where E is Young’s modulus. ature variations ∆T such that Eα2 ∆T /ρc [Steel. Following the procedure in Exercise 8. ∂T 3 We can use (9. c ≈ 500 J kg−1 K−1 .11. ∂t For the strain energy density calculated in Exercise 9. Deduce that ∂ W /∂T is negligible in comparison with ρc for temper1. suppose that the tensor ﬁeld A(x.3. the strain energy density is zero for a uniform isotropic expansion in which ekk = α(T − T0 ). t) that convects and rotates with the ﬂow. obtain the formula W= λ ekk − α(T − T0 ) 2 2 ◦ ◦ 9.10) that T satisﬁes + µ eij − ρc + ∂W ∂T ∂T + div q = 0. By referring to Exercise 1. if Af = g at time t.420 More general theories Now consider a vector ﬁeld f (x. then Af = g for all t.6. Dt Finally.3. whenever f (x. t) are both convected by the ﬂow in the above sense. has ρ ≈ 7800 kg m−3 . By using the divergence theorem and the momentum equation.2) to estimate the stress induced by a temperature variation ∆T as τkk = O (Eα∆T ). where A is the Jaumann derivative (9. with this deﬁnition of W .3. deduce from (9. In a linear thermoelastic solid. show that f must satisfy Df = (f · ∇) v . for example.

7) and (4.9 Following Exercise 9. = − 2 ∂t2 ∂x2 ∂x = Lc/κ. show that the longitudinal displacement u(x.2.8 Consider one-dimensional heat ﬂow in an inﬁnite uniform insulated thermoelastic bar of density ρ. t) = αT0 2|x| − |x − ct| − |x + ct| . ∂x ∂u = 0. at time t = 0. where H is the Heaviside function given by (3. ∂t ∂x where c = E/ρ. u = ∂t x = 0. 9. ∂x ∂T = 0. T = 1. x = 1. Also derive the initial and ∂u = 0.5. ∂t ∂x2 governing this situation. thermal diﬀusion is negligible and u approximately satisﬁes 1 ∂2u ∂2u 1 = − αT0 δ (x). t = 0.Exercises 421 9. Derive the dimensionless equations ∂2T ∂T = .2). t) satisfy ∂ 2 u α ∂T 1 ∂2u . Suppose the bar starts from rest at zero stress with a temperature proﬁle T (x. the temperature of the end x = 0 is suddenly decreased to a value T1 . 12 and deduce that the maximum tensile stress caused in the bar is given by αET0 /6. t) and temperature T (x. By combining (9.7). Suppose the bar is initially stationary and unstressed at uniform temperature T0 before. .3. Young’s modulus E .8. 1 ∂2u ∂ 2 u ∂T . 0) = T0 H(x). thermal expansion coeﬃcient α and thermal diﬀusivity κ. for x ∼ ct κ/c. = − c2 ∂t2 ∂x2 3 ∂x ∂T ∂2T =κ 2. t > 0. t > 0. u = 0. Obtain the solution u(x. now consider a ﬁnite bar of length L with one end (x = L) held ﬁxed and thermally insulated while the other end (x = 0) is unstressed. Show that. where boundary conditions T = 0. c2 ∂t2 ∂x2 3 where δ is the Dirac delta-function. 0 < x < 1.

9. η ) and periodic conditions on the boundary of the rectangle [0. If no symmetry is assumed. n + 1/2 cos (n + 1/2)πx 2 2 − e−(n +1/2) π t 2 2 2 2 (n + 1/2) ( + (n + 1/2) π ) .4. (b) Next suppose that w satisﬁes ∇ξ · (µ∇ξ w) = R(x. ∂φ(1) ∂φ(1) (1. b) − (ξ. 1] × [0. η ) = 0. Show that R must have zero mean. η )-plane. η ) = 1. 0) = 0.4. b) − φ(1) (ξ.4. that is 1 0 0 b R dξ dη = 0. as shown in Figure 9. 1] × [0. η ) − (0. Deduce that.4. ∂η ∂η and ﬁnd the corresponding boundary conditions for φ(2) and the harmonic conjugate functions ψ (1) and ψ (2) .10 (a) Prove the identity µw ∂D ∂w ds = ∂n w∇ξ · (µ∇ξ w) dξ dη D + D µ|∇ξ w|2 dξ dη. .37) satisﬁes the boundary conditions φ(1) (1. then w must be independent of ξ and η .422 More general theories and obtain the solution T = u= 2 π ∞ n =0 ∞ sin (n + 1/2)πx −(n +1/2)2 π 2 t e . ξ. 2 π2 n =0 + cos (n + 1/2)π t − (n + 1/2)π sin (n + 1/2)π t 9. ∂ξ ∂ξ ∂φ(1) ∂φ(1) (ξ.25) and periodic boundary conditions on a rectangular cell [0.11 Consider the solutions of (9. if w satisﬁes (9. φ(1) (ξ.30) with periodic boundary conditions on a rectangular cell in which the modulus µ is piecewise constant. b]. b].7. where w is twice continuously diﬀerentiable on the closed bounded region D of the (ξ. 0) = 0. y.29) and (9. show that the function φ(1) deﬁned by (9. η ) − φ(1) (0.

By substituting for u1 in (9. ξ ) and x = εξ .71) and (9.13 Cijk ∂Akmn + Cijmn ∂ξ ∂u0m .14 with Eeﬀ (x) given by (9. ∂ξi ∂u0j .4. . 1.4. dx dx where κ = k/ε. µ11 µ12 µ21 µ22 µ11 µ22 − µ21 µ12 9. ∂xk Verify that this gives us 18 independent equations for the 18 independent functions Aijk (x.61). show that τ0 is given by τ0ij = 9.4.62) may be written in component form as ∂ ∂ξi Cijk ∂u1k ∂ξ =− ∂Cijk ∂u0k . 3/4 ξ < 1. E (ξ ) = E2 . 9. ∂ξi ∂x Deduce that the solution may be written as u1i = Aijk where Aijk ≡ Aikj and ∂ ∂ξj Cijk ∂A mn ∂ξk =− ∂Cijmn . 1/4 ξ < 3/4. and show that the leading-order displacement u0 (x) satisﬁes the homogenised equation E (x. + κ2 u = 0. ξ ). Solve (9.4.72) for u1 (ξ ) and u2 (ξ ) when E (ξ ) is the piecewise constant function 0 ξ < 1/4.12 Using the symmetry properties of C .4.69) as the system dT du = T.4. 1. T = T (x.16). x/ε) d dx Eeﬀ (x) du0 dx + κ2 u0 = 0. Seek a multiple-scales solution.4.Exercises 423 Following the procedure used at the end of Section 9. ξ ). write (9. show that equation (9. ∂xn When k = O (ε).2. derive the following relations between the eﬀective elastic constants µij and the corresponding constants µij when µ1 and µ2 are swapped: µ11 µ21 µ12 µ22 b2 µ1 µ2 = = = = . with u = u(x.

16 Dimensionless wavenumber k versus Young’s modulus contrast E2 for a piecewise uniform bar. 9. Show that.16.] Show that the trace T of themonodromy matrix is given by T = 2 cos k 2 cos k √ 2 E2 1 + E2 − √ sin E2 k 2 sin k √ 2 E2 . or k ∼ 2nπ + 2 4 8 k ∼ (2n + 1)π + where n is an integer. and deduce that the solid fraction becomes 1−α= 1 − α0 ∼ (1 − α0 ) (1 − ∇ · u) . The stop bands where |T | > 2 are shown as shaded regions in Figure 9. with initial ﬂuid fraction equal to α0 . 1+∇·u . Show that. the boundaries of these bands are given asymptotically by (2n + 1)π 1 ± (E2 − 1) + · · · . The stop bands are shaded.15 (a) Consider a control volume V in a porous elastic solid. the same solid material occupies a volume V (1 + ∇ · u). when E2 is close to 1. [Hint: both u and E du/dξ must be continuous. 9. 4 2 nπ nπ nπ (E2 − 1) + − ± (E2 − 1)2 + · · · . after a small displacement u.424 More general theories k/π E2 Fig.

whose boundary ∂V has unit normal n. where v is the average ﬂuid velocity. .7) when the ﬂuid density is constant and α ≈ α0 . and suppose that ﬂuid with density ρf occupies a volume fraction α. and deduce that ∂ (ρf α) + ∇ · (ρf αv ) = 0. Use the principle ofconservation of mass to obtain the equation d dt ρf α dx = − V ∂V ρf αv · n da.Exercises 425 (b) Now consider a ﬁxed volume V .5. ∂t Show that this reduces to (9.

We have not touched at all upon the crucial phase changes that can occur in solids. we ﬁrmly believe that the techniques demonstrated there form an invaluable component of any applied mathematician’s armoury. the mathematical problems involved here become more challenging. widely used in ﬂuid dynamics. our aim was to show how formal perturbation methods. In Chapters 1–5. in Chapters 7–9.Epilogue There are three main themes to this book. we have given necessarily brief introductions to some of the important physical situations where classical solid mechanics fails. for example. models for thin structures and nonlinear elasticity. especially metals and their alloys. 2. elastodynamics. In each case. For example. Finally. namely linear elasticity. steel can have several diﬀerent crystalline microstructures which can depend crucially on its chemical composition. as a result of heat treatment and/or mechanical processing. 1. In Chapter 6. Fracture. and these diﬀerent phases have very diﬀerent mechanical 426 . are subjects of enormous practical importance. can be applied to many problems in solid mechanics involving bodies that are thin or slender. and there are many texts describing both the practical and the mathematical aspects in much greater detail than the contents of Chapters 7–9. we have focused on practical examples that highlight the most interesting modelling and mathematical issues. The diversity and open-endedness of the topics described in Chapter 9 reﬂect the fact that we have not done justice to many scientiﬁc ideas in theoretical solid mechanics. Inevitably. Although the remainder of the book does not rely on this chapter. plasticity and viscoelasticity. elastostatics. 3. and the elementary theories from Chapters 1–5 must be re-examined. we have provided an elementary exposition of the basic concepts in classical solid mechanics. and we have therefore limited our attention to idealised models that clearly illustrate the fundamental concepts.

Although the mechanics of materials such as rock can be perfectly well described by linear elasticity at suﬃciently small stress. The resulting relaxation phenomena associated with diﬀerent phases depend on thermal histories in the same way that viscoelastic relaxation depends on the stress or strain histories. such as piezoelectric or ferromagnetic materials. little of the theories expounded in Chapters 7 and 8 is helpful in understanding how a glass or piece of crockery shatters under impact.Epilogue 427 properties. with a strain energy density possessing multiple minima corresponding to the diﬀerent phases. easily our most glaring omission is our failure to discuss the many ingenious numerical schemes that have been speciﬁcally developed to solve the kinds of models we have been describing in this book. solid mechanics has provided one of the principal stimuli for the widely-used ﬁnite element method. Even more. whose mechanical properties depend on electromagnetic ﬁelds. plastic or any of the combinations mentioned in this book. which could in fact be deﬁned as any solids that are not metals. On the theoretical side. where the strain energy depends on temperature. we hope that readers will be attracted by the many topics that await mathematical attention in an area so important to modern natural science. Another fascinating mathematical challenge that we have not addressed is to ﬁnd self-contained theories of solids. the geometry of the phase boundaries can be elegantly described in terms of hyperelasticity. which is so appropriate for ﬁnding energy minima in complicated real-world conﬁgurations of elastic solids. say. This naturally opens up exciting new problems in the calculus of variations. Despite these qualiﬁcations. In certain circumstances. computers have now reached the stage where discrete “particlebased” algorithms can be tailored to simulate the mechanics of a solid. Finally from the modelling point of view. Indeed. be it elastic. Moreover. . although many ad hoc macroscale models have been proposed. At an even more fundamental level. A background in electromagnetism would be a prerequisite for any applied mathematician wishing to understand the modelling of such materials. “atomistic” computations are now routinely available to simulate many. many atoms as points of the solid interacting via suitable force potentials. Such simulations can give invaluable new insights into. we must also point out that we have avoided any serious discussion of ceramics. dislocation interactions and many other nanoscale phenomena. as does the related subject of “shape memory” alloys. we hope that this book has shown that a little systematic mathematical modelling and analysis can go a long way towards providing a ﬁrm theoretical formulation for the science of solid mechanics.

For this to form a sensible coordinate system. (A1. ξ2 and ξ3 . J = det ∂r ∂ξ = ∂r ∂r ∂r . in which the position vector r of any point is given by r = r (ξ1 .2) where [·. 428 (A1.4) . .Appendix Orthogonal curvilinear coordinates A1 Framework Consider a general parametrisation of three-dimensional space. A coordinate system is orthogonal if the three tangent vectors created by varying each of the coordinates in turn are mutually orthogonal. ξ2 . that J is positive. ξ2 . that is ∂r ∂r · =0 ∂xi ∂xj whenever i = j. ∂ξ1 ∂ξ2 ∂ξ3 (A1. ·. (A1. ·] denotes the triple scalar product between three vectors. ξ3 ) = ξ . By ordering the coordinates appropriately.5) ∂r . ξ3 ). we may assume that the tangent vectors form a right-handed system and.1) in terms of three spatial coordinates ξ1 . that is 0 < J < ∞. ∂ξi (A1. . there should be a one-to-one correspondence between the position vector r of any point and its coordinates (ξ1 . hence.3) In this case we deﬁne the scaling factors hi by hi = and the Jacobian is simply given by J = h1 h2 h3 . This is the case provided the Jacobian of the transformation from r to ξ is bounded away from zero.

our curvilinear coordinate basis is found by rotating the usual Cartesian basis. x3 )T . that is v = (v1 .A2 Vectors and tensors 429 We can then deﬁne a right-handed. It is natural to deﬁne its components ui in curvilinear coordinates as ui = v · ei .1) u = u2 = e2 · v . x2 . e3 } by ei = 1 ∂r hi ∂ξi (A1. It is straightforward to show that this coordinate system is also orthogonal. x3 ).6). A2 Vectors and tensors Consider a vector v with components vi in Cartesian coordinates. This system is clearly orthogonal. hz = 1. (A1. As another example. with respect to which r = (r cos θ. e2 . consider cylindrical polar coordinates (r.6) (here the summation convention is not invoked). v3 )T . x2 . so the Jacobian vanishes on the symmetry axis r = 0. v2 . e3 · v u3 or u = Pv where eT 1 P = eT . z ). with scale factors all equal to 1. then we have e1 · v u1 (A2. This reﬂects the fact that θ is indeterminate when r = 0 and leads to the possibility of singular behaviour as r → 0 when solutions of (say) Laplace’s equation are sought in cylindrical polar coordinates. mutually orthogonal set of unit vectors {e1 . .2) At each point in space. θ. the rotation being characterised by the orthogonal matrix P whose rows are the basis vectors. where ei are the basis vectors deﬁned by (A1. with respect to which the position vector is given by r = (x1 . u2 . If we denote the vector formed by these components by u = (u1 . with scaling factors hr = 1. z )T . u3 )T . The most straightforward and familiar coordinate system is Cartesian coordinates x = (x1 .7) It follows that J = r. r sin θ. hθ = r. 2 T e3 (A2. therefore.

including cylindrical polars and other familiar examples. .3) It is thus possible to write any tensor B in terms of its curvilinear components and the so-called outer products of the basis vectors: B= ij aij ei eT j . (A2. j and k . k (A3.1) so there are 27 constants cijk to be determined. In general. by analogy with Chapter 1.430 Orthogonal curvilinear coordinates Now consider a second-rank tensor with elements denoted by B = (bij ) in Cartesian coordinates and A = (aij ) in curvilinear coordinates. The further nine equations may be obtained by calculating ∂ r /∂ξi ∂ξj in two diﬀerent ways as follows: ∂ ∂ hj ej ≡ hi ei ∂ξi ∂ξj (A3.53. the basis vectors ej vary with position. we must have A = P BP T . If B is indeed a tensor then. This provides 18 independent equations (since it is invariant if i and j are swapped). hk ∂ξk (A3. we must have ∂ ej ∂ ei · ej + ei · ≡0 (A3. It will be useful for future reference to calculate the derivatives of the basis vectors as follows. see Aris (1962) Section 7. we can write ∂ ei = ∂ξj cijk ek .5) A3 Derivatives of basis vectors In most orthogonal coordinate systems. (A2. so the curvilinear components of B are given by aij = eT i B ej .4) These constants are related to the so-called Christoﬀel symbols . It is thus a straightforward but tedious exercise in algebraic manipulation to deduce the following: ej ∂hj ∂ ei = − δij ∂ξj hi ∂ξi † k ek ∂hi .4) (A2.† Since ei · ej = δij .2) ∂ξk ∂ξk for all i. and this is the property that really distinguishes them from Cartesian coordinates.3) for all i and j .

(A4. grad. ∂x1 ∂x2 ∂x3 T . hk ∂ξk (A4.4) ∇ξi = .7) .3) A useful special case occurs if f is one of the variables ξi .5) If we rewrite the gradient using (A4. where ui = u · ei . any vector ﬁeld may be written as u = u(ξ ). that is grad f = ∇f = The chain rule leads to ∂f ∂r = · ∇f = hi ei · ∇f ∂ξi ∂ξi and. u2 .3) and use the chain rule.4) to the ﬁnal term and rearrange to obtain ∇·u = 1 h1 h2 h3 ∂ ∂ ∂ h2 h3 u1 + h1 h3 u2 + h1 h2 u3 ∂ξ1 ∂ξ2 ∂ξ3 . since the ei are orthonormal. grad. when (A4.6) Now we apply (A3.A4 Scalar and vector ﬁelds. ∂xk (A4. . hi Now the divergence of a vector ﬁeld u may be written in terms of Cartesian coordinates as div u = ∇ · u = k ∂u · ∇xk . it follows that ∇f = k ∂f ∂f ∂f . div and curl We can think of any scalar ﬁeld f that varies with position r as being a function of our coordinate variables: f = f (ξ ).2) 1 ∂f ek .3) implies that ei (A4. u3 )T . (A4.1) (A4. div and curl 431 A4 Scalar and vector ﬁelds. Similarly. we ﬁnd ∇·u= k ek ∂ u · = hk ∂ξk k 1 ∂uk u ∂ ek − · hk ∂ξk hk ∂ξk . The gradient of a scalar ﬁeld is deﬁned in the usual way in Cartesian variables. and the components of u with respect to this system are now written as (u1 . (A4.

∂ξ1 ∂ξ2 ∂ξ3 h1 u1 h2 u2 h3 u3 ∇×u= 1 h1 h2 h3 (A4. we may now express the Laplacian operator ∇2 f = ∇ · (∇f ) in terms of arbitrary orthogonal coordinates: ∇2 f = 1 h1 h2 h3 ∂ ∂ξ1 h2 h3 ∂f h1 ∂ξ1 h1 h3 ∂f ∂ + ∂ξ2 h2 ∂ξ2 + ∂ ∂ξ3 h1 h2 ∂f h3 ∂ξ3 .10) hi hj ∂ξi which may be written conveniently as h1 e1 h2 e2 h3 e3 ∂ ∂ ∂ .432 Orthogonal curvilinear coordinates e3 h1δξ1 h2δξ2 h3δξ3 e1 e2 Fig. this may be transformed to ∇×u = k u ∂ ek 1 ∂ ek ×u + × = hk ∂ξk hk ∂ξk i.9) By rearranging the right-hand side and using (A3.8) Next. A1.1 A small reference box B .j ei ×ej ∂ hj uj . (A4.11) .4). we deﬁne the curl of a vector ﬁeld by curl u = ∇×u = k ∇xk × ∂u = ∂xk k ek ∂ u × . Having derived the gradient and divergence. hk ∂ξk (A4. (A4.

15) to the box B and letting δ ξ → 0 as above. we ﬁnd that ∂ ∂ ∂ (h2 h3 Ae1 ) + (h1 h3 Ae2 ) + (h1 h2 Ae3 ) .A4 Scalar and vector ﬁelds.4) to obtain ∇ · AT = 1 h1 h2 h3 ∇ · AT = i. and ξ3 = const. (A4. respectively. ∂ξ1 ∂ξ2 ∂ξ3 (A4.12) ξ3 + 2 + δξ 2 [u2 h1 h3 ]ξ dξ1 dξ3 + ξ2 where the integrals on the right-hand side are over the faces ξ1 = const.5). In the limit δ ξ → 0. (A4. grad. we therefore obtain (∇ · u)h1 h2 h3 dξ1 dξ2 dξ3 ∼ B B ∂ (h2 h3 u1 ) ∂ξ1 dξ1 dξ1 dξ3 (A4. By analogy with (A4.7) may be obtained by applying the divergence theorem to the small box B illustrated in Figure A1.13) ∂ ∂ (h1 h3 u2 ) + (h1 h2 u3 ) + ∂ξ2 ∂ξ3 and.17) where aij are the curvilinear components of A.7) follows. ∂xj (A4. since this must hold for all such boxes B . This approach is useful in ﬁnding the divergence of a tensor A in curvilinear coordinates.14) By applying the identity ∇ · AT dx = B ∂B An dS (A4..1: ∇ · u dx = B ∂B u · n dS = 1 + δξ 1 [u1 h2 h3 ]ξ dξ2 dξ3 ξ1 3 + δξ 3 [u3 h1 h2 ]ξ dξ1 dξ2 . Hence we ﬁnd the ei -component . (A4. ξ2 = const.j ei ∂ J ∂ξj aij J hi + aij hi ej ∂hj − δij hi ∂ξi k ek ∂hi hk ∂ξk . this is deﬁned in Cartesian coordinates to be div A = ∇ · A = k ∂AT ∇xk .16) Now we expand the derivatives and use (A3. div and curl 433 An instructive alternative derivation of (A4.

434 Orthogonal curvilinear coordinates of ∇ · A in the form ei · (∇ · A) = 1 h1 h2 h3 ∂ ∂ ∂ (h2 h3 a1i ) + (h1 h3 a2i ) + (h1 h2 a3i ) ∂ξ1 ∂ξ2 ∂ξ3 1 ∂hi ∂hk aik . (A5.6) . we see that δx = F δX .3) and the initial length L of the line element satisﬁes L2 = |δ X |2 = k 2 hk (X )2 δ Xk . that is X = r (X ). (A5. (A5. by repeated use of the chain rule. we must distinguish between their values at a particle’s initial position X and at its current position ξ . (A4. so that x = r ξ (X .4) At a later time t. (A5. ∂ Xk (A5. the line element is transformed to δ x. (A5. We deﬁne the Lagrangian coordinates X = (X1 . since ej and hj are not in general constant. ξ3 ). The initial Cartesian position vectors of the end points are thus X and X + δ X . X2 . By comparing (A5.5) Notice that.3) and (A5.2) Consider a small line element joining two points with Lagrangian coordinates X and X + δ X .1) At any subsequent time t. the same material point moves to a new position x parametrised by its Eulerian coordinates ξ = (ξ1 .5). where. t) .18) + − akk hi hk ∂ξk ∂ξi k A5 Strain in curvilinear coordinates Now we repeat the calculation from Section 1.4 to derive an expression for the strain tensor in an arbitary orthogonal coordinate system. X3 ) of a material point to be the parametrisation corresponding to its initial position X .k ∂xi ∂ξj δ Xk . δxi = j.k hj (ξ )ej (ξ ) ∂ξj δ Xk . where δX = k hk (X )ek (X )δ Xk . ∂ξj ∂ Xk or δ x = j. ξ2 .

12) into (A5.11) Further simpliﬁcation may be achieved if the strains are small enough for linear elasticity to be valid.10) and linearising.j Cij ei (X )eT j (X ).8) where the Green deformation tensor is deﬁned by C = F TF = i. 2 (A5.7) The length of the deformed line element is thus given by 2 = δ xT δ x = δ X T C δ X .12) ui ei + · · · (A5. we ﬁnd Cij ∼ δij + hi ∂ hj ∂ξj ui hi + hj ∂ hi ∂ξi uj hj + 2δij k uk ∂hj + · · · (A5. By substituting (A5.10) The nonlinear strain tensor is then found using 1 E = (C − I ). We may therefore write ξi = Xi + so that x∼X+ i ui (X .j hi (ξ ) ∂ξi ei (ξ )eT j (X ). hi (X )hj (X ) ∂ Xi ∂ Xj (A5. If each material point is only slightly disturbed from its initial position. then the Eulerian and Lagrangian coordinates are approximately equal.A5 Strain in curvilinear coordinates 435 where the deformation gradient tensor F is given by F = i.13) when the displacements ui are small. t) .9) and the curvilinear components of C are Cij = k ∂ξk ∂ξk hk (ξ )2 . (A5. (A5. hi (X ) (A5. hj (X ) ∂ Xj (A5.14) hj hk ∂ξk .

z )T .3) if the coordinate axes are rotated by an orthogonal matrix P . the curvilinear components τij of the stress tensor are found by simply rotating the Cartesian components through the orthogonal matrix P introduced in Section A2. In Section 1.436 Orthogonal curvilinear coordinates where it is no longer necessary to distinguish between ξ and X within the linear theory.2. The scaling factors are given by (A1. and therefore the formulae for the gradient.5. we deﬁne the Cauchy stress τij to be the component in the ei -direction of the stress acting on a surface element whose normal points along ej . they both obey the transformation rule (A2.1) was originally posed using ﬁxed Cartesian coordinates. θ.1 Cylindrical polar coordinates The Cartesian position vector is given in terms of the coordinate variables (r. r sin θ.1) which links the stress and linearised strain tensors in a linear elastic material. Although the basis vectors ei may now vary with position.15) A6 Stress in curvilinear coordinates As in Section 1. at any ﬁxed location.7). although the relation (A6.7. The linearised strain components in curvilinear coordinates therefore read eij = 1 2 uj ∂hj 1 ∂ui ui ∂hi 1 ∂uj − + − hj ∂ξj hi hj ∂ξj hi ∂ξi hi hj ∂ξi + δij k uk ∂hj . . which may be a function of position. A7 Examples of orthogonal coordinate systems A7. it actually holds in any orthogonal coordinate system. Note that. we introduced the constitutive relation τij = λ (ekk ) δij + 2µeij . It is easily shown that the symmetry of τij in Cartesian coordinates is maintained in an arbitrary orthogonal coordinate system. Hence. since τij and eij are tensors. z ) by r = (r cos θ. (A6. as illustrated in Figure A1. hj hk ∂ξk (A5.

Laplacian and curl in this coordinate system are 1 ∂f ∂f ∂f er + eθ + ez . (A7. divergence. r ∂θ ∂r r ∂uz ∂ur + .2a) (A7. = r ∂θ ∂uz .1b) ∇·u= r ∂r r ∂θ ∂z ∂f 1 ∂2f 1 ∂ ∂2f ∇2 f = r + 2 2 + 2.2b) (A7. = ∂z ∂uθ uθ 1 ∂ur + − . = ∂z ∂r 1 ∂uz ∂uθ + . ∂r 1 ∂uθ + ur .A7 Examples of orthogonal coordinate systems z 437 r z y θ x Fig. A1.1a) ∂r r ∂θ ∂z ∂uz 1 ∂ 1 ∂uθ (rur ) + + .1d) ∇f = ∇×u = where f is any scalar ﬁeld and u = ur er + uθ eθ + uz ez is any vector ﬁeld (both suitably diﬀerentiable). (A7. (A7. r ∂θ ∂z ∂z ∂r r ∂r ∂θ (A7. = ∂z r ∂θ err = eθθ ezz 2erθ = 2erz 2eθz (A7.2 Cylindrical polar coordinates.2c) . The components of the linearised strain tensor corresponding to a displacement ﬁeld u are given by ∂ur .1c) r ∂r ∂r r ∂θ ∂z ∂uθ ∂uz ∂ur 1 ∂ ∂ur 1 ∂uz − er + − eθ + (ruθ ) − ez .

θ. r sin θ sin φ.3.2 Spherical polar coordinates The position vector of any point is given in terms of the spherical polar coordinates (r.4) ez . r cos θ)T .5c) hθ = r. φ) by r = (r sin θ cos φ.3) . A1. The divergence of a tensor A with components aij (i. as illustrated in Figure A1. The scaling factors are hr = 1. r ∂r ∂r r sin θ ∂θ ∂θ r sin θ ∂φ2 ∇f = (A7. (A7. θ. z ) is given by ∇·A= ∂azr aθθ 1 ∂ (rarr ) 1 ∂aθr + + − er r ∂r r ∂θ ∂z r 1 ∂ (rarθ ) 1 ∂aθθ ∂azθ aθr + + + + eθ r ∂r r ∂θ ∂z r ∂azz 1 ∂ (rarz ) 1 ∂aθz + + + r ∂r r ∂θ ∂z A7. and it follows that 1 ∂f 1 ∂f ∂f er + eθ + eφ .3 Spherical polar coordinates.438 Orthogonal curvilinear coordinates z θ r y φ x Fig. hφ = r sin θ. ∂r r ∂θ r sin θ ∂φ 1 ∂uφ 1 ∂ 1 ∂ r 2 ur + (sin θuθ ) + . j = r. (A7. ∇·u= 2 r ∂r r sin θ ∂θ r sin θ ∂φ 1 ∂ ∂f 1 1 ∂ ∂f ∂2f r2 + 2 sin θ + 2 2 ∇2 f = 2 .5b) (A7.5a) (A7.

The components of the linear strain tensor in spherical polars read err = 2erθ = eθθ = 2erφ = eφφ = 2eθφ = ∂ur . (A7.6b) (A7. r ∂θ ∂uφ uφ 1 ∂ur + − .6c) (A7.6e) (A7. r sin θ ∂φ r ∂θ r (A7. ∂r ∂uθ uθ 1 ∂ur + − .6f) and the divergence of a tensor A is given by aθθ + aφφ 1 ∂ (sin θaθr ) 1 ∂aφr 1 ∂ (r2 arr ) + + − er r2 ∂r r sin θ ∂θ r sin θ ∂φ r aθr − cot θaφφ 1 ∂ (sin θaθθ ) 1 ∂aφθ 1 ∂ (r2 arθ ) + + + eθ + 2 r ∂r r sin θ ∂θ r sin θ ∂φ r aφr + cot θaφθ 1 ∂ (sin θaθφ ) 1 ∂aφφ 1 ∂ (r2 arφ ) + + + eφ .7) ∇·A= .6d) (A7. r sin θ ∂φ ∂r r ur cot θuθ 1 ∂uφ + + .6a) (A7.5d) for any suitably diﬀerentiable f and u = ur er +uθ eθ +uφ eφ . r sin θ ∂φ r r cot θuφ 1 ∂uφ 1 ∂uθ + − . r ∂θ ∂r r 1 ∂uθ + ur .A7 Examples of orthogonal coordinate systems 439 ∇×u = 1 r sin θ + ∂uθ ∂ (sin θuφ ) − er ∂θ ∂φ ∂uφ 1 ∂ur 1 − eθ + r sin θ ∂φ ∂r r ∂ ∂ur (ruθ ) − ∂r ∂θ eφ . + 2 r ∂r r sin θ ∂θ r sin θ ∂φ r (A7.

Krieger Publishing Company. & Johnson. R. L. Cambridge University Press. Gradshteyn. Krook. 2000 An Introduction to Fluid Dynamics (New Edition ). 1988 Wave Theory and Applications. M. P. 1997 Mathematical Models in the Applied Sciences. R. Dover. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge University Press. A. & Ockendon. 1994 Table of Integrals. & DiPrima. I. and Products (Fifth Edition ). J. Batchelor. Dover. Fung. R. Brillouin. C. R. Series. L. Clarendon Press. R. P. & Pearson. Calladine C. E. C. 2000 Plasticity for Engineers: Theory and Applications. E. J. A. P. Dover. R. Elliott. Drazin. I. 1983 Functions of a Complex Variable: Theory and Technique. J. Oxford University Press. I. Carrier. W. & Lothe. Barber. 1972 Handbook of Mathematical Functions (tenth printing). 1962 Vectors. C. 1991 Theory of Dislocations. Bland. 1989 Solitons: an Introduction. Boyce. Cambridge University Press. England. & Ryzhik. 1982 Weak and Variational Methods for Free and Moving Boundary Problems. & Stegun. R. 1984 Mathematical Methods for Wave Phenomena. World Scientiﬁc. Tensors. C. Bleistein. Pittman. R. G. C. G. Springer. 1993 Elasticity. 2004 Elementary Diﬀerential Equations and Boundary Value Problems (Eighth Edition ). 1989 Dynamic Fracture Mechanics. Hod Books. and the Basic Equations of Fluid Mechanics. D. Hooke. Hill. K.References Abramowitz.. J. 2003 Complex Variable Methods in Elasticity. Academic Press. A. A. M. Horwood Publishing Ltd. G. Academic Press. Wiley. 1991 Perturbation Methods. Freund. McGraw–Hill. & Orszag. Y. F. N. Aris. Cambridge University Press. Hinch. B. E. M. Dover. H. Bender. & Tong. 2001 Classical and Computational Solid Mechanics. J. Hirth. S. 1998 The Mathematical Theory of Plasticity. M. S. M. S. 2003 Wave Propagation in Periodic Structures. 1978 Advanced Mathematical Methods for Scientists and Engineers. 1678 De Potentia Restitutiva or of Spring Explaining the Power of 440 . C. Fowler. R.

McGraw–Hill. Howison. Timoshenko. Treloar. A. Love. Rational Mech. E. L. 1944 A Treatise on the Mathematical Theory of Elasticity. 619. P. 1999 Nonlinear Ordinary Diﬀerential Equations: an Introduction to Dynamical Systems. Wiley. Spencer. M. A. J. 1966 Can one hear the shape of a drum? Am. R. J. R. S. Arch. McGraw–Hill. 129–146. Proc. & Ockendon. Dover. Howison. Mindlin. Oxford University Press. John Martyn at The Bell in St Paul’s Churchyard. Oxford University Press. W. 1959 Theory of Plates and Shells. Strang. Springer-Verlag. 1995 Viscous Flow. J. A. 6. D. J. D. & Smith. S. Academic Press. J. 1992 Elementary Dislocation Theory (New Edition ). Sneddon. 2003 Introduction to Complex Analysis. R. H. G. N. & Westbrook. Oxford University Press. D. 2005 The Physics of Rubber Elasticity. 7913–7918. 1038–1040. & Weertman. T. I. & Cole. Euro. Monthly 73. & Movchan. 1959 Diﬀerential Geometry. Analysis. Tayler. ASCE 65. D. Maths Applics. A.. 164–200. . 197–226. R. & Woinowsky-Krieger. 2002 Mathematical Models in Applied Mechanics (New Edition ). 2000 Principles of Applied Mathematics. Y. Timoshenko. E. Vaziri. R. Weertman. B. Ockendon. 15. & Mahadevan. 1–23. Oxford University Press. 1970 Theory of Elasticity. P. Math. 1939 Stress distribution around a tunnel. Dover. & Goodier. M. S. Lakes. 1970 Crack Problems in the Classical Theory of Elasticity. D. M. Inst. Transformation and Approximation (Revised Edition ). 2003 Applied Partial Diﬀerential Equations (Revised Edition ).. 1987 Foam structures with a negative Poisson’s ratio. 1970 The static theory of ﬁnite elasticity. 1958 A mathematical theory of the mechanical behaviour of continuous media. Appl. J. J. J. P. A. Kac. 1988 Linear Algebra and its Applications (Third Edition ). 2005 Practical Applied Mathematics: Modelling. B. Jordan. D. S. Harcourt Brace Jovanovich College Publishers. L. H. Approximation. Thomas. A. Oxford University Press. 2008 Localized and extended deformations of elastic shells. S. 2004 Inverse problems of mixed type in linear plate theory. Kevorkian. Anal. Keener. J. Cambridge University Press. Science 235. PNAS 105(23). R. N. R. J. 1961 Plastic Flow and Fracture in Solids. & Lowengrub.References 441 Springing Bodies. Priestley. Oxford University Press. H. Math. Kreyszig. A. A. Westview Press. G. J. P. Noll. Ockendon. Cambridge University Press. W. 1981 Perturbation Methods in Applied Mathematics. 2. Lacey. Salazar.

410. 345 uniqueness. 49–51. 257. 404. 50 Airy’s equation. 48. 341 polar coordinates. 385 basis vectors. 374 boundary conditions. 158. 153–158. 344 airliner. 154. 51 uniqueness. 42. 299 angle of friction. 145 angle of reﬂection. 66. 235. 421 torsion. 135. 156 compression. 76. 116. 266. 168. 165. 76. 109. 392–395. 313. 268. 324 in a strip. 33. 245. 304. 251. 196. 194. 211 unsteady. 304. 159. 82. 404–408 constitutive relation. 297 modiﬁed. 350 axisymmetric. 37–39. 41. 330 angular momentum. 76 boundary conditions. 323. 374 beam. 413–417 annulus plane strain in. 258. 334. 189 composite. 407 atomistic model. 74. 154. 252. 389. 53–56 torsion in. 41 associated ﬂow rule. 372 angle of incidence. 65 442 . 398. 155 nonlinear. 47–68. 275. 264. 197 anisotropy. 196. 338. 61. 152 multiply-conected. 39. 74 polar coordinates. 246–248. 195. 403.Index aerofoil. 14. 429. 394. 1. 341. 235 biharmonic equation. 234 bicycle frame. 307. 145 angle of repose. 212 Airy stress function. 96 inhomogeneous. 427 alternating symbol. 113. 117. 150–152. 297. 127 biaxial strain. 247. 362 asymptotic expansion. 51 biomaterial. 154. 55. 131 Bessel’s equation. 379. 33–35. 78. 71. 104. 252. 430 Bauschinger eﬀect. 171. 160. 163–165. 86. 46 bifurcation. 197. 337–344. 179. 277 bending stiﬀness. 325 linear. 212 alloy. 156. 184 anticlastic surface. 189 bending. 336. 174. 187–195. 126 inhomogeneous. 179 antiplane strain. 150. 198 bending moment. 427 auxetic material. 247 yield criterion. 25. 93 axe. 189 contact. 82. 395 dynamic. 206. 205. 339. 183. 308. 66. 330. 42 thermoelastic. 350. 263. 191–195 constitutive relation. 71. 426 shape memory. 242 boundary conditions. 296. 281. 124. 189 linear. 109. 287 Airy function. 158. 345 antiplane stress function. 313 Bessel function. 10. 200–204 beam equation Euler–Bernoulli. 170. 213 nonlinear. 100 analytic continuation. 181. 150 bending. 208. 289 balloon. 48. 171. 253. 82. 93 viscoelastic. 379 body force. 189. 176. 171. 168. 98 plane stress. 296. 107. 77 boundary conditions. 108. 77. 27. 197. 283. 56. 62. 279. 80. 152. 219 conservative. 244 bar. 154. 116. 210. 275. 274 angular velocity. 271. 44 anticlastic shell. 397. 97. 293. 9.

287 Cartesian coordinates. 419 composite. 156. 13. 280 Cauchy’s momentum equation. 220 orthotropic. 387 nonlinear. 146. 276 for a shell. 65–68 boundary conditions. 10. 11 Cartesian coordinates. 65 constitutive relation. 118 Cauchy. 87 pressure. 144 cohesion. 156. 189. 256. 82. 213. 419 linear. 22 thermoelastic. 378. 255. 19 cylindrical polar coordinates. 182. 429 cartilage. 334. 291. 254 boundary element method. 100. 148. 148 Mach. 166 mixed. 170. 23. 26. 232. 18 clamped. 176. 221. 26. 237. 382. 62. 349. 389 transversely isotropic. 221–233 objective. 242. 210. 191–195. 312. 365. 263. 383. 220. 237. 253–261 on a rod. 131. 322. 275. 225. 238 Cauchy–Riemann equations. 391–408 compressibility. 154. 298 conservative body force. 408 brittle fracture. 289 cavity. 124. 145 of restitution. 32. 86. 274 ceramic. 427 characteristic. 19–20. 30 Burgers vector. 250. 337 compatibility. 31. 366 for a bar. 223 centroid. 117. 166–168. 270. 243 443 Cayley–Hamilton theorem. 189. 91. 137. 239. 209. 265. 210 Cauchy data. 273. 290 traction. 268 plane polar coordinates. 422 point force. 121. 101 three-dimensional. 143 conformal transformation. 247. 413 Maxwell. 321 car panel. 112. 348 in terms of stress. 430 coal. 410 cone. 228 Ogden. 168. 166. 97. 38. 414 spherical polar coordinates. 380 tyre. 18 free. 250. 415 . 248. 208 stress-free. 189. 68. 50. 21 Lagrangian form. 229. 176. 156. 49–51. 26. 234. 330 coarse-graining. 288. 208. 18 Cauchy stress tensor. 174. 263. 46. 402 Jeﬀreys. 40. 3. 152. 225. 51 Robin. 49. 101 plane strain. 320 of reﬂection. 210. 141. 137. 189 on a beam. 297 between two solids. 167. 236. 339. 44. 16–18 Airy stress function. 12. 148 characteristic polynomial. 209 Neumann. 171. 167. 292. 39. 223 Christoﬀel symbols. 391 coeﬃcient of friction. 68–70. 39. 27 simply supported. 334. 160. 385. 232 one-dimensional. 414 incompressible. 290 on a bar. 2. 171. 281 homoclinic. 321 of thermal expansion. 390 bulk modulus. 168. 232. 144. 20 elastic-plastic. 181 elliptic. 344 buckling. 298. 66. 219. 389 of transmission. 338 Brillouin zone. 137. 386 Cartesian coordinates. 116. 166. 175 characteristic. 205. 18. 128. 141 cavitation. 296. 259. 60 complex modulus. 17. 427 capstan. 196. 56. 39. 168. 238. 325 conjugate function. 222. 419 Mooney–Rivlin. 271 for a rod. 152 for a beam. 150 suspension. 198 calculus of variations. 276. 365 completeness. 66. 271 for a plate. 112. 400 causality. 143 two-sheeted. 156. 335 spherical polar coordinates. 317 natural. 295. 90 boundary layer. 18. 161. 219. 61 complex eigenvalues. 350 characteristic cone. 322. 191 Dirichlet. 100. 402. 156 on a plate. 417. 323. 342 cable. 274. 231. 241. 157. 9. 360. 168. 160 periodic. 137. 16. 13 catenary. 130. 54. 282. 379. 224. 212. 40. 51. 232. 54. 253–261 branch cut. 218. 164. 339.Index in plane strain. 41. 33. 20 cylindrical polar coordinates. 69. 39. 72. 39. 397. 58. 12. 69 complementarity conditions. 17. 387 neo-Hookean. 125. 294. 232 isotropic. 229.

150 curvature. 39. 70. 330. 154. 344 penny-shaped. 409 dashpot. 18 contact set. 282 lines of. 3. 3. 125 cylinder. 51–53 dislocation. 340 cut-oﬀ frequency. 309–320 bonded. 202. 410 diﬀusion equation. 98. 344 dispersion relation. 380 Deborah number. 437 spherical polar coordinates. 18 frictional. 387 convective derivative. 420 Coulomb friction. 382 deformable porous medium. 152 reference. 35. 11. 428–439 cylindrical polar. 209. 219. 13 delta-function. 324. 188. 178 deviatoric stress. 119 displacement. 339. 376. 278. 139. 313 displacement gradient. 82. 429. 364. 321 Griﬃth. 44. 358 linear. 287–309 elliptical. 408 deformation gradient. 436–438 elliptic. 170. 317 of a string. 344 Mode II. 320. 313. 388. 178. 304. 126. 111. 335. 387. 13 corotational derivative. 149. 146 developable shell. 176. 376 determinant. 188 developable surface. 315. 420 lower. 420 Jaumann. 181. 181 disc plane strain in. 83 density line. 13 curtain rod. 219 surface. 293. 281 curvilinear coordinates. 124–128 cylindrical polar coordinates. 290. 410 dilatational viscosity. 174. 110 anisotropic. 290–295. 378 cut-and-weld operation. 288. 357. 4. 323. 172. 337–344 edge. 174. 358 crack. 344 Mode III. 96 coordinates Cartesian. 365. 320 of a beam. 175. 183. 235. 100 curl curl. 196. 382 Darcy’s law. 132. 386 curl curvilinear coordinates. 308. 342. 321 Index curvature tensor. 1. 19–20. 365. 63. 438–439 copper. 287. 92 multidimensional. 289 Mode I. 167. 419 del squared. 326 of a plate. 344 crease. 278. 232. 321. 172. 224. 428 spherical polar. 11. 3 convected derivative corotational. 104. 158 of Love waves. 168. 417 for a beam. 369. 353. 166. 295. 264. 431. 321. 419 maximal.444 Varga. 387 upper. 181. 384 directivity function. 176. 133. 373 virtual. 358. 145 dispersive wave. 67. 383. 436–438 d’Alembert solution. 291. 432 cylindrical polar coordinates. 267. 428–439 custard. 288 crack tip. 362 distinguished limit. 11. 22–24. 375. 338. 342 screw. 206. 307 crack face. 278 mean. 376. 41. 381. 281 waves in. 4. 168 principal. 10 curvilinear coordinates. 168. 88. 44. 434 Lagrangian. 20–22. 316. 13 diﬀusion coeﬃcient. 182. 54. 100. 216. 322. 421 derivative of. 29–37 single-valued. 359 dissipation. 236. 113 Dirichlet problem. 429. 309–313 plane strain. 363. 16. 439 tensor. 188. 434 . 119. 332 Coulomb yield criterion. 162 volume. 291 Eulerian. 82–84. 24. 19. 267. 429 curvilinear. 262 distribution. 26. 376. 237. 216. 386 diamond. 216. 232 Voigt. 287. 18. 388. 297. 120. 287. 379. 279 radius of. 120. 361. 3. 219. 174. 128. 383 creep function. 315 Gaussian. 270. 178. 304–307. 148 damped solid. 83 divergence. 271. 388. 383–385. 317–320 smooth. 309 continuum. 325 of a membrane. 2. 354. 278. 333. 296–304. 183. 418 contact. 189. 221. 20–22. 342 mixed. 372 Coulomb yield surface. 187 creep. 99 virtual. 18. 218. 419 convolution. 165. 388. 377. 434 orthogonal.

224. 324 dynamic fracture. 390 elastic ﬂuid. 15. 387. 406 complex. 120. 248 Fourier transform. 222. 288. 384 electromagnetic wave. 52 Euler strut. 404 electromagnetism. 122 Euler diﬀerential equation. 183. 282 . 115. 174. 24. 53. 409. 50 antiplane stress function. 96. 78–79 garden hose. 150 ductile fracture. 96. 267. 313. 226. 426 brittle. 170. 387 viscous. 308. 316 conservation of. 423 elastic strain. 336. 213. 135. 360. 104. 413 Finger tensor. 133 three-dimensional. 390 energy equation. 3. 427 445 ﬁrst fundamental form. 147 in a half-space. 377. 361. 187. 439 diving board. 391. 364. 211 diving cylinder. 383 ﬂuid fraction. 188. 365 frequency. 137. 363. 175. 348 elastic energy. 123. 2. 210. 14–16. 377. 320. 105. 178. 344 ductile. 126. 379. 157 eigenvalue problem nonlinear. 364. 229. 390 surface. 278 second. 82. 391 elastic. 289 dynamic. 216. 291 elliptic integral. 419 ﬁnite element method. 320 Coulomb. 114. 377. 362–364 associated. 96. 114. 62. 366 ﬂuid elastic. 409 drill. 188. 308. 198 gauge invariance Airy stress function. 309. 377 non-associated. 330. 226. 136 two-dimensional. 437. 7. 32. 110 cut-oﬀ. 56. 106. 36. 350. 135 Galerkin representation. 168. 287–309. 226. 17. 189 Euler–Lagrange equation. 362 Levy–von Mises. 405 ﬂow rule. 408 with memory. 438 spherical polar coordinates. 283 Floquet theory. 390 kinetic. 192 not self-adjoint. 404 friction. 383 elastic modulus. 289 drum. 332 Frobenius’ method. 125 frequency domain. 39. 420 envelope. 157. 380. 101. 379. 212 Euler’s identity. 39. 125. 226–227. 121. 324 dynamic Love function. 401. 41 Love function. 133–136 one-dimensional. 413 eﬀective. 330 Fourier series. 107. 87. 330. 60 eigenvectors. 278 ﬁrst law of thermodynamics. 427 ﬁbre-reinforced material. 410. 142 dynamic plane strain. 128. 21. 343. 372 coeﬃcient of. 310. 15. 340. 107. 424 food. 379. 106. 111. 53 door slamming. 386 Newtonian. 39. 142. 387 Maxwell. 380 drag. 427 electron micrograph. 82. 383 inviscid. 404. 108. 131 fundamental form ﬁrst. 15. 61. 229. 360–362. 192. 225 eikonal equation. 289 thermal. 296 three-dimensional. 117. 221. 191. 229. 172. 308 edge dislocation. 342 eigenfunctions. 390 ﬂexural wave. 11. 176. 35. 278 fundamental solution. 107. 83 generator. 438. 225. 287. 334. 320 angle of. 376 Euler–Bernoulli beam equation. 213 energy bending. 178. 316 Eulerian coordinates. 148 equivoluminal wave. 330. 371 lower convected Maxwell. 24. 324 frame indiﬀerence. 57. 289 Duﬃng equation. 391 fracture. 122. 308. 349. 12. 81 Gaussian curvature. 399. 60 eigenvalues. 3. 362 Tresca. 99 Fourier’s law of conduction. 228 Fredholm Alternative. 120 earthquake. 386 upper convected Maxwell. 376. 363. 379 ferromagnetism. 190–191. 48. 331. 137. 361. 35. 343 elliptic boundary conditions. 194 dynamic antiplane strain. 18 elliptic coordinates. 181. 282 generalised function.Index cylindrical polar coordinates. 378 force balance. 74 Papkovich–Neuber potentials. 217. 17 free boundary problem. 223. 122. 434 fabric. 360.

410. 213 half-space dynamic plane strain in. 438 two-dimensional. 196. 26. 296. 414 homogenisation. 107 two-dimensional. 94 Laplacian curvilinear coordinates. 197. 204. 79. 391. 145 incident wave. 276. 333. 328. 198 knot. 378. 389. 113 harmonics. 188. 11. 362 Lagrangian coordinates. 122 isometry. 188. 428 Jaumann derivative. 196. 360. 379. 402–404 two-dimensional. 324 grad div. 12. 388 ice sheet. 70. 32. 391–408. 2. 335. 99 Hopkinson bar test. 399. 171 incidence angle of. 395–402 Hooke’s law. 71. 417. 215. 435 left. 269. 361. 91–92 tensor. 365. 160. 218. 12 L¨ u ders bands. 272 initial-value problem. 38. 361. 418 Jeﬀreys element. 90. 211 integral equation. 113 harmonic average. 346. 115. 82. 114. 174. 136 hydrostatic stress. 303. 49. 216. 99 hyperboloid. 231. 88. 216. 112 Helmholtz representation. 13 gradient curvilinear coordinates. 41. 200 Kirchhoﬀ analogy. 258. 198 hair. 80. 432 cylindrical polar coordinates. 217 Legendre polynomial. 419 Jeﬀreys creep function. 4. 386 glass. 217 Green’s function. 207 incompatibility. 150. 100 geometric nonlinearity. 376. 174. 138 impedance. 368–370 ladder. 222 isotropy. 150. 222. 338. 230. 152. 207. 30. 422 harmonic wave. 88–90 plane strain. 172. 12. 92. 226. 323. 376. 29. 434 Lam´ e constants. 219. 91. 86. 417. 389. 175 hyperelasticity. 278 inextensibility. 267. 2. 366–368 failure. 13 granular plasticity. 140 Green’s tensor. 289 group velocity. 13. 134. 215. 241. 262. 112. 231. 109 heat equation. 107 plane polar coordinates. 231. 24. 161 . 93. 420 Jeﬀreys constitutive relation. 205. 421 Helmholtz equation. 231–232. 363. 158 out of tune. 62–65. 48. 105. 131 Levi–Civita symbol. 437 spherical polar coordinates. 329 homoclinic material. 120 plane strain in. 132 instability. 13 Laplace’s equation. 391 Heaviside function. 169–170. 317–320 Hankel function. 339. 410 inertia tensor. 55 gyroscope. 362 irrotational wave. 373. 37. 68. 188. 359. 330–337 Green deformation tensor. 437 spherical polar coordinates. 13. 343. 384. 169. 178 isotropic expansion. 321 Kronecker delta. 353 Jacobian. 95. 380. 343 incompressibility. 391 Goursat representation. 104 lawn-mower. 113. 416 general solution. 143. 386 inertia. 427 I-beam. 419 KdV equation. 224. 15. 341 point. 99 Griﬃth crack. 144 radially symmetric. 230. 97 inverse. 350. 227–230. 97 history-dependence. 419. 172. 64. 380 hoop stress. 208 inverse scattering. 422–424 three-dimensional. 431 cylindrical polar coordinates. 45. 353. 420 isotropic invariant. 411 heat ﬂux. 207 Huygens’ principle. 297. 371. 116. 110. 351 elastic-plastic. 29. 89 three-dimensional. 438 granite. 78 Hilbert transform. 218. 95. 53.446 Index ice cube. 199 irreversibility. 388. 151. 72 line. 304. 417 in-plane strain. 158. 33. 146 guitar. 11. 11. 3. 55. 339. 290. 393 harmonic conjugate. 195. 322 inverse problem. 409 Lam´ e equation. 214 left Green deformation tensor. 34. 143. 30. 390 kink. 282. 21. 320 Lagrange multiplier. 13. 153 gun barrel. 214 kinetic energy. 12. 228. 400. 109. 26.

104–109 . 326 metal plasticity. 376. 389 unsteady. 248. 35. 219. 21 general solution. 26. 193. 162. 143 of a piano string. 12. 180. 344 modiﬁed KdV equation. 221. 424 orthogonal. 323. 165. 423 Miura transform. 283 loss modulus. 382. 16. 334. 39. 10–11. 20 cylindrical polar coordinates. 220. 145. 290 Newton’s second law. 61. 278 Liouville’s theorem. 56. 262. 360. 344 Mode II crack. 174. 230 lines of curvature. 115 incompressible. 403. 234. 214 mixed dislocation. 363. 321. 382. 105 natural boundary conditions. 255. 373 447 moment balance. 85. 387 Neumann problem. 103. 224. 324. 267. 40. 246. 413 maximal dissipation. 409 spherical polar coordinates. 205 of a sphere. 214 modulus of compression. 178 monodromy matrix. 322. 290–295. 141. 158. 81–82 Maxwell’s equations. 143 non-dimensionalisation. 26. 354 Maxwell constitutive relation. 219–220. 234. 142. 23 steady. 403. 362 non-contact set. 223. 125. 221. 270 membrane. 407. 419 Love function. 7 non-associated ﬂow rule. 393. 221. 114. 209. 163. 198–204. 10. 107. 236. 138–143. 306. 387 Mach cone. 383. 95. 140. 421 non-dispersive wave. 104. 383 Maxwell ﬂuid. 117–120. 149 multi-scaling. 417 lower convected derivative. 93. 26 poroelastic. 360 momentum equation. 265. 188. 21 Lagrangian form. 377 line density. 154. 419 Maxwell creep function. 410. 425 matching condition. 76–78. 18. 113 neo-Hookean constitutive relation. 418 Maxwell element. 235. 137 anisotropic. 188. 168. 238 Monge–Amp` e re equation. 296–304. 105 Navier equation. 304–307. 219 Newton’s third law. 217. 276. 386 Maxwell stress functions. 115–117 Mode I crack. 313 moment of inertia. 220–221 normal modes. 9. 29–37 linear elasticity. 39. 168 mechanical linearity. 413 positive deﬁnite. 151. 135. 308. 309 non-destructive testing. 152 linear displacement. 140. 215. 273. 216. 76 Cartesian coordinates. 393. 262 contact. 39. 209 natural frequencies of a drum. 37. 263. 387 Morera stress functions. 29 steady plane strain. 350 inhomogeneous. 130 of a string. 53–56. 279. 316. 406. 154. 232. 4. 249. 337–370 method of images. 115. 108 of a membrane. 241. 37. 20 cylindrical polar coordinates. 167. 162. 47 thermoelastic. 238. 86 method of multiple scales. 111 nonlinear beam equation. 273. 385. 204. 9. 207. 396. 73–74. 407. 387 lower convected Maxwell ﬂuid. 42–47. 17. 396. 342 mode conversion. 82 axisymmetric. 424 Mooney–Rivlin constitutive relation. 125. 159. 151.Index Levy–von Mises ﬂow rule. 198. 122. 362 maximum shear stress. 74 Love wave. 334. 142 plane strain. 174. 404. 202. 123. 406. 231. 78. 201 mass conservation of. 393. 413 matrix monodromy. 299 longitudinal wave. 150. 333. 10. 23. 268 plane polar coordinates. 86 uniqueness. 301. 67 musical instruments. 137 mean curvature. 359. 259. 240. 383. 24. 81–82 moving source. 344 Mode III crack. 6. 220. 386 Cartesian coordinates. 153. 391 multiple scales method of. 232. 30 Mohr circle. 335 spherical polar coordinates. 17. 100 dynamic. 55. 256 material symmetry. 13. 143 Mach number. 84. 350 Mohr surface. 423 multiply-connected domains. 8. 416 axisymmetric. 155 momentum conservation of. 189 nonlinear wave. 11–13. 250.

172–176. 6. 190. 317–320 . 222 π -plane. 373 antiplane strain. 301. 160. 19. 221. 80 plane strain. 241. 150. 330–337 metal. 218–219 ﬁrst. 37. 224. 388 obstacle. 160. 168. 289. 171. 165. 406 pendulum. 232 oil reservoir. 155. 374. 170. 91–92 Poisson’s equation. 375 contact. 253–261 circular. 328. 216. 328–377. 137 plastic bottle. 225. 36. 348. 142. 165. 84 Poisson’s ratio. 346. 334. 368 plane wave. 354. 403. 101 three-dimensional. 385 permeability. 331. 53–56 with a body force. 349 completely integrable. 328. 107 of a string. 14. 198. 87 plane strain. 224. 37. 178. 164. 372 mixed type. 168. 114 principal axes. 267 point force in a half-space. 334. 143. 33. 282. 56–58 in a strip. 195 plane polar coordinates. 332. 79–81. 159. 317 linear. 223. 35. 80. 375. 110 piano. 170 parabolic. 109. 55. 168. 138 paper. 137. 209 strain in. 171. 370 plastic yield. 208. 174. 228. 153. 176. 179. 414 outer product. 62–65. 115 P´ eclet number. 228. 330 normal stress. 248–253 nonlinear. 209 pass band. 106 normal reaction. 150. 316. 208 constitutive relation. 344. 181 elliptic. 102 objectivity. 261–267 plate equation linear. 165. 35. 268 second. 140. 51–53 in a half-space. 71–74. 227. 267–273 rectangular. 265 pitchfork bifurcation. 246–248. 360. 340. 413 orthotropic material. 408–412. 344–357 periodic cell. 344–357 plate. 110–111. 253 von K´ a rm´ a n. 163. 13 pore pressure. 92. 279 principal direction. 114. 345 singular solutions. 334. 412 pantograph. 103. 409 phase change. 99. 328.448 of a membrane. 278. 12 pressure. 205 piezoelectricity. 422 permanent strain. 384. 181. 93 Papkovich–Neuber potentials. 16. 307 perfect plasticity. 413 Prandtl–Reuss model. 309 Ogden constitutive relation. 114 polystyrene. 376 plane stress. 183 paper clip. 81 partial diﬀerential equation change of type. 355 P -wave. 74–76. 176. 393. 85. 379. 359. 283 boundary conditions. 372 nucleus of strain. 297. 317–320 in a rectangle. 166–168. 296. 2 plastic strain. 240. 171. 427 ping-pong ball. 162–171. 197 principal curvature. 170. 424–425 positive deﬁnite matrix. 2. 99. 9. 263. 331. 165. 105 superposition. 231. 181. 58–62 in an annulus. 100 point incompatibility. 80. 176. 221. 296. 337–370 perfect. 47–68. 340. 386 hydrostatic. 428 orthogonal matrix. 41. 86. 93 polar decomposition. 390 negative. 175. 85. 114 primary wave. 122. 186 Piola–Kirchhoﬀ stress tensor. 150. 241 polarised wave. 173 von K´ a rm´ a n. 350–353 in a disc. 264. 174. 86 on a half-space. 33. 350. 140. 282. 12. 221. 65–68 yield criterion. 294 plasticity. 430 Index dynamic. 350. 79. 426 phase velocity. 147 elastic-plastic. 242. 158. 408 orthogonal coordinates. 84. 334. 219. 232 pore. 199 discriminant. 305. 426 granular. 120. 271 contact. 84. 33–35. 397. 27 plane strain. 198 penny-shaped crack. 417 reﬂection. 364. 217. 409 pressure wave. 87. 32. 224. 35. 217. 409 poroelasticity. 184 plastic ﬂow. 171. 368 antiplane strain in. 100 uniquness. 371 paper model. 37. 140. 328. 143. 399 hyperbolic. 370 pre-stressed material. 304. 219. 155. 282 quasi-linear. 379. 221. 155. 30. 334. 170. 169 strain energy density. 179. 2. 35.

246. 153. 36.Index principal strain. 245. 291. 247. 363. 111–113. 144 specular. 179 shock absorber. 412 non-orthogonal. 189 in a plate. 85. 146 razor blade. 378. 183. 302 sine–Gordon equation. 219 reference state. 342. 95. 408 seismology. 158–162. 162. 284 shell equations. 61 shear modulus. 237. 184 constitutive relation. 322 punch. 17. 273 slip plane. 95. 403 small. 194. 378. 285 developable. 382. 206. 35. 112. 114. 145 reﬂection coeﬃcient. 144 Schr¨ o dinger equation. 95. 118 Saint-Venant’s principle. 326 rotation tensor. 352 response diagram. 27 rock. 362 secondary wave. 56–58 reference density. 321 railway track. 133 Riemann zeta function. 332. 315. 177–187. 94 rigid-body motion. 40. 114 secular term. 12. 301. 386 Rayleigh wave. 48. 224. 155 screw dislocation. 215. 383 simple shear. 103. 229. 230 principal value integral. 195–198 rod equation linear. 281 cylindrical. 312. 161. 321. 427 shaped charge. 417 reﬂection. 231. 57. 167. 12 unsteady. 377. 350. 199 solvability condition. 381. 124. 359. 199 slenderness parameter. 217. 293. 384. 161. 212. 417 residual stress. 174. 97. 348. 85. 192. 214 reaction force. 325 449 S -wave. 372 principal stretch. 116. 273–278. 116. 25. 52. 216. 150 boundary conditions. 116. 259. 302. 160 constitutive relation. 36. 109. 223. 179. 5 quantum mechanics. 160. 118 S V -wave. 169. 379 solid fraction. 209. 158. 53 scaling factors. 371 shear force in a beam. 330. 31. 278–282 anticlastic. 332. 150. 53. 55. 228. 61. 198 ruled surface. 248. 344. 117. 116 total internal. 306. 222. 332. 216. 144 S H -wave. 234. 279. 31 shear stress. 39. 342 slip surface. 169 shape memory alloy. 334 relaxation time. 428 cylindrical polar coordinates. 350 soil. 66 rate-of-strain tensor. 213. 180–187 weakly curved. 388 rubber. 221. 167. 227. 260. 1. 17. 120–121. 185 thin. 6. 175 ruler. 379 rod. 196. 289. 438 scattering. 372 sausage Belgian. 309 silly putty. 410 rubber band. 145 region of inﬂuence. 112 radius of curvature. 114 shell. 283. 222. 419 Riemann function. 410. 317 rectangle plane strain in. 251. 276 linear. 121 self-stress. 117. 64. 58. 160 rope. 390 underground. 283 Sommerfeld radiation condition. 196. 354. 262. 93 radiation condition. 375 maximum. 339. 200. 195. 274 in plane strain. 380 shock wave. 424 soliton. 341 separable solution. 317 quadratic form. 429 spherical polar coordinates. 145 of a P -wave. 334. 280 weakly nonlinear. 4. 35. 178 synclastic. 55. 136 Reynolds’ transport theorem. 372. 37. 242. 363. 389 reﬂected wave. 114. 92. 181. 373 second fundamental form. 12. 278 second law of thermodynamics. 30. 3. 154. 222. 188 spherical. 62. 14. 181. 253–261 sand. 37. 249. 285 nonlinear. 130 quasi-static problem. 271 in a rod. 112 . 156. 285 strain in. 111. 207 reﬂection angle of. 287 Robin problem. 354 shear viscosity. 181. 215. 235 retarded potential. 115 of an S -wave. 239. 150. 263. 144. 384 shear wave. 376 rheological test. 2. 13. 388 rivet. 230 principal stress.

356. 281 viscous. 229. 419 strain. 345. 411 spoon. 304. 105 strip antiplane strain in. 99. 239. 33. 47 stretch. 141 source moving. 78 Love. 47–68. 76 stress tensor. 217. 229 thermoelastic. 368 principal. 413. 242. 333 stress potential. 225. 49. 198 sponge. 317–320. 176. 230 in a plate. 82. 386 stress function. 334. 47–68. 26. 385 plane. 78–79 Goursat. 60 steel. 147 Galerkin. 222 of a plate. 140. 68. 348. 309 surface anticlastic. 295. 12. 386 . 338. 297. 235. 323. 354. 246–248. 218–219 plane strain. 344. 80. 304. 264. 304. 284. 227. 163. 37. 79–81. 408. 350–353. 171. 238 objective. 307. 76–78. 228. 395 biaxial. 369. 23. 296. 354. 434–436 cylindrical polar coordinates. 30–34. 24. 97. 273 principal. 175 synclastic. 309 subsonic wave. 71. 80. 222. 289. 5. 424 storage modulus. 13. 242. 230 spherical polar coordinates. 228 Ogden. 343. 363. 232. 296. 332. 174. 123. 178 ruled. 171 permanent. 318. 305. 384 strain energy density. 165. 208 speciﬁc heat capacity. 12 antiplane. 33–35. 380 spring constant. 50 quasi-convexity. 379 stress deviator. 134 stop band. 200 sugar. 9. 438–439 spinning top. 210 contact. 406. 363. 410. 352 shear. 73–74. 38 Cauchy. 7–10 deviatoric. 229. 179 sonic boom. 84. 270. 84. 95. 179. 408. 426 step function. 305 Mode II. 380. 339. 340. 375 thermal. 25. 2. 37. 228 Mooney–Rivlin. 325 stress invariant. 306. 436 Piola–Kirchhoﬀ. 112. 379. 173 in a shell. 171. 95. 232 neo-Hookean. 6. 374. 70–82 Airy. 252. 138–143. 247 plane strain in. 41. 26.450 Index hoop. 332. 55. 74–76. 85. 328. 71–74. 237. 2. 82. 372 plane. 121–123. 372. 330 summation convention. 330 spring. 390 specular reﬂection. 143. 209 isotropic. 150. 375. 139. 55. 171. 370 principal. 361. 375. 234 Cartesian coordinates. 277. 130 spherical polar coordinates. 369. 37. 99 maximum shear. 436 stream function. 391. 384 yield. 76. 39. 3–6. 390 uniaxial. 168. 35. 290. 58–62 subsonic motion. 328. 155. 34. 217. 15. 142 Maxwell. 377. 297. 37–39. 324 Helmholtz. 22–24. 104. 152–153. 420. 307 dynamic. 232 strain invariant. 134. 159. 350. 122. 301. 309–313 normal modes. 147 spherical harmonics. 116 sphere waves in. 95. 55. 82. 125. 85. 373 plane stress. 5 supersonic motion. 232 plane strain. 280 curvilinear coordinates. see stress potential stress intensity factor. 15. 341. 332. 234. 20. 218. 338. 287. 179 developable. 231. 234. 354. 80. 359 linear. 16. 340. 36. 12. 368. 216–217 antiplane. 323. 219. 143. 363. 233. 81–82 Papkovich–Neuber. 37. 35. 354 normal. 370. 178 in-plane. 301. 128–132. 222–223. 384 in a plate. 258. 19 curvilinear coordinates. 41 stress. 344. 345 dynamic. 71. 308 Mode I. 361. 283. 372 residual. 100. 417 St¨ u rm–Liouville problem. 149 spaghetti. 242 strain tensor. 439 surface. 242. 437 elastic. 15. 375 plastic. 389 viscous. 55. 86. 35 linearised. 377. 99. 81–82 Morera. 348. 301 Mode III. 35. 374 antiplane. 11. 297. 364. 230 string. 18. 222. 427 convexity. 140. 364. 24. 232. 420 Varga. 350. 176. 87.

26. 381. 376 volume ﬂux. 94 circular tube. 132 tomography. 36. 16–18. 40. 153. 409 test function. 409 velocity gradient. 369 von Mises yield function. 6 in curvilinear coordinates. 346. 384–386 viscosity. 419 violin. 111. 251. 98. 277 in a spring. 383 volume density. 171 tensor. 47 torque. 232 variational inequality. 143 transverse wave. 372 Taylor expansion. 404 equivoluminal. 42 orthotropic. 74 Papkovich–Neuber potentials. 152 in plane strain. 104 in a plate. 159. 66 uniaxial stress. 35 temperature. 289. 349 velocity. 374 torsion bar.Index surface density. 233. 39–42. 114. 356. 391 thermal energy. 386 viscous strain. 161. 83. 384 three-dimensional. 417–420. 2. 380 in a string. 116. 416 dispersive. 372 rectangular. 242. 344 virtual displacement. 154 transversely isotropic material. 185 synclastic surface. 2. 411 von K´ a rm´ a n plate. 94 elliptical bar. 276 elastic-plastic. 354 Tresca yield function. 426 large-strain. 147. 360. 209. 198–200. 386–388 linear. 46 torsional wave. 263. 50 antiplane stress function. 117. 391 thermal diﬀusivity. 418 Voigt creep function. 43 orthotropic bar. 1. 420 tension anisotropic. 124. 415 Tresca ﬂow rule. 130. 198. 384 one-dimensional. 261–267 von Mises yield criterion. 424 traction. 45 cut tube. 114. 37. 366 Tresca yield criterion. 266. 334 twist. 166. 171. 27 upper convected derivative. 122 . 276 circular bar. 281 surface strain. 183. 41. 291. 232. 172–176. 406. 383–385. 360. 219. 325. 295. 46. 81 plane strain. 378. 162. 32. 267 vortex. 61 isotropic. 281 surface tension. 42. 111 underground railway. 42. 389. 384. 384 shear. 7. 354. 189 in a membrane. 273 in a rod. 39 annular. 355 triaxial stress factor. 144 transonic motion. 418 Voigt element. 40. 93 mutliply-connected bar. 41 Love function. 179 table circular. 152. 50 Robin problem. 294 surface gradient. 389 uniqueness. 252. 390 thermal stress. 162. 104. 345 451 ultrasonic testing. 162. 329. 2. 161. 4. 343. 416 thin tube. 82. 311 Airy stress function. 387 Varga constitutive relation. 151 in a beam. 42. 430 Terzaghi principle. 383. 313 viscoelasticity. 44. 365–366. 143 topology. 171 in a bar. 340. 356 von K´ a rm´ a n plate equations. 162 surface energy. 368. 44 cut annular. 137. 363. 30–34. 138 transmission coeﬃcient. 18. 356. 94 elliptical. 358. 374 torsion. 381. 277. 104. 93 multiply-connected. 415 torsional rigidity. 112. 109 virtual dislocation. 92 thermal conductivity. 40. 111. 344–349. 93. 229. 66. 274. 271. 38 train. 55. 48. 378–388. 176. 47. 145 trace. 181. 34. 158. 283 total internal reﬂection. 390 thermoelasticity. 161. 364. 11. 387 upper convected Maxwell ﬂuid. 363 Tresca yield surface. 361. 417 electromagnetic. 243 tunnel. 386. 119. 409 dilatational. 176. 274. 372 elliptical. 104. 335 tube. 384 viscous stress. 313. 363 von Mises yield surface. 197. 289 synclastic shell. 420–422 time domain. 196. 384 Voigt constitutive relation. 344 wave anisotropic. 388–391.

118 S V -. 354. 114. 198–204. 169–170. 338. 114. 114 shear. 289 WKBJ method. 392. 395. 202. 110. 135 wave-front. 114 Rayleigh. 116. 110 wave-vector. 262 well-posedness. 103. 362 . 162. 111. 354 von Mises. 114 shock. 207 irrotational. 104. 343. 122 one-dimensional. 390 composite. 370. 328. 114.452 Index isotropic. 230. 137 wave-guide. 417 plane. 110 weakly nonlinear theory. 104 in a cylinder. 112. 417 P -. 363 yield stress. 104. 149. 110. 126. 220–221 on a beam. 335. 146 reﬂected. 239. 145. 198–200. 118. 104. 194. 132. 353–357 Tresca. 345 Coulomb. 152. 117–120. 144 wood. 120–121. 283 harmonic. 136. 117. 379 yield surface Coulomb. 104. 122 longitudinal. 353. 356 Young’s modulus. 413 work hardening. 350. 125 wave-length. 207. 104. 55. 147 inhomogeneous. 181. 103. 116. 111 two-dimensional. 363 von Mises. 154 wave equation axially symmetric. 107. 296 windscreen. 283 Love. 221. 18. 221. 128–132. 344. 132. 423 eﬀective. 369 yield function. 114 pressure. 376 three-dimensional. 349 Wiener–Hopf method. 355 von Mises. 110–111. 423–424 in a sphere. 328. 405 yield criterion antiplane strain. 205. 37. 32. 111 nonlinear. 147. 370 Wronskian. 333. 221. 130. 114. 147 incident. 136 three-dimensional. 110. 153. 55. 152. 115. 158. 151. 353. 12. 404 wave-number. 356. 133. 114. 113 in a bar. 404–408. 417 non-dispersive. 372 plane strain. 148 general solution. 128. 353 Tresca. 417 S H -. 152. 125. 200 torsional. 423 periodic. 124–128 in a periodic medium. 137 polarised. 379. 16–18. 115. 283 transverse. 114 primary. 309 subsonic. 358 Tresca. 162 radially symmetric. 357. 207 S -. 393. 345. 37. 406 ﬂexural. 124. 118 secondary.

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