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Sanskrit Introductory
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A Practical

Preface
This course of fteen lessons is intended to lift the English-speaking student who knows nothing of Sanskrit, to the level where he can intelligently apply MonierWilliams' dictionary1 and the Dh atu-P at . ha2 to the study of the scriptures.

The rst ve lessons cover the pronunciation of the basic Sanskrit alphabet, together with its written form in both Devan agar
and transliterated Roman: ash cards are included as an aid. The notes on pronunciation are largely descriptive, based on mouth position and e ort, with similar English Received Pronunciation sounds o ered where possible. The next four lessons describe vowel embellishments to the consonants, the principles of conjunct consonants, and additions to and variations in the Devan agar
alphabet. Lessons ten and eleven present sandhi in grid form and explain their principles in sound. The next three lessons penetrate Monier-Williams' dictionary through its four levels of alphabetical order, and suggest strategies for nding di cult words. The last lesson shows the extraction of the artha from the Dh atu-P at . ha, and the application of this and the dictionary to the study of the scriptures. In addition to the primary course, the rst eleven lessons include a `B' section which introduces the student to the principles of sentence structure in this fully in ected language. Six declension paradigms and class-1 conjugation in the present tense are used with a minimal vocabulary of nineteen words. In the `B' part of lessons ten and eleven the principles of compound words are introduced. The course aims at a practical understanding of the basic principles, at getting a `feel' for the language, and not a learning of rules by rote. To this end, each lesson concludes with exercises for the student to put that understanding into practice: answers to the exercises are presented in an appendix.
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1 Monier-Williams

Sanskrit-English Dictionary is currently published by both Motilal Banarsidass in India and Oxford University Press in England: although the two are printed from the same plates, the latter is far superior in the quality of printing, paper, and binding| and this is re ected in its much higher price. 2 The edition of the Dh atup a.tha referred to in these notes is that edited by J.L.Shastri and published by Motilal Banarsidass: it is a small book and quite inexpensive.

but neither is wrong.g.nac.iv A Practical Sanskrit Introductory The pronunciation o ered in these lessons is optimised for the English-speaking student to understand the underlying principles of sandhi sound changes. Charles Wikner.ac. :::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: Readers are invited to point out errors in the course. A or . . although this may confuse the mind trained to think in terms of opposites. There are several variations in the pronunciation of some of the Sanskrit sounds. an appendix of basic English grammatical terms is included. wikner@nacdh4. Where there is a variation in the form of a character e. that have been handed down over generations. and o er suggestions for its improvement. and many schools have ceased to teach it. ads. :::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: In the English-speaking world there is currently little appreciation of the value of studying formal grammar: as a result it has become unpopular. In view of this situation.za June. Consider the English spoken in Britain and America for example: they are certainly di erent. The common variations are illustrated in the ninth lesson. 1996. of right and wrong. these lessons standardize on the form that is most commonly used in currently available printed editions of the Bhagavad G t a and Upanis . None of these traditions are wrong.

A. A.1.1.1. The Compound Vowels: e ai o au Summary of All Vowels akti: am The Sixteen S .3.3. A.1. Summary of Verbs B. More on Verbs The Twenty-Five Stops: ka to ma B. A. Exercises 21 A.6.1. A. A. Devan agar Alphabet Lesson 5 ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 37 . a sa The Final Consonant: ha B. A. Devan agar Alphabet Lesson 4 ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 31 A. A.3. A.3. l.1.1.4. A.1. More on Noun Cases B. The Concept of Dh atu Introduction to Verbs Exercises Flash Cards Lesson 2 ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: The Five Mouth Positions B.2.3. A.6.2. A. More on Verbs The Three Sibilants: sa s B. Exercises Summary of the Consonants The Alphabetical Order Devan agar Alphabet B.2. B.2.4.5. Practicing the Alphabet B. A.1.2. :::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: Vowel Measures Sanskrit Pronunciation The Three Primary Vowels: a i u The Other Simple Vowels: r . A.8. Exercises B. A.4. B. Introduction to nouns .3. A. A.5.Contents Preface :::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: iii v ix 1 Contents ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: Invocation ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: Lesson 1 A.4.2.2. ah . B.7.1. Exercises Pronunciation of the Stops Devan agar Alphabet ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 13 Lesson 3 The Four Semi-Vowels: ya ra la va B.2. More on Noun Cases B.

A.1.3.3.2. B.5. B.1.1. Use of iti Variations in Sam B. A. B.2.vi A Practical Sanskrit Introductory ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: Lesson 6 A. B.4.3.2. Exercises .a :::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: B.2. More Noun Declensions Adjectives Adverbs Vocabulary Summary Exercises 63 Lesson 9 A. B.1. A. A.5.2.2. Verbal Pre xes B. a and Vr . Dvandva Sam asa Tatpurus asa . A.1. B.2. a and j~ Pronunciation of ks . A. A. Consonant Sandhi Grid A. Types of Words Variations in Devan agar Alphabet B. A. B.2. A. A.1.2. Vowels after Consonants A.3.2. A. ddhi Vowel Sandhi Exceptions to Vowel Sandhi :::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 71 Lesson 10 B. A. A.4. A. Visarga Sandhi A. yoga Revision Introduction to Sandhi Gun .1. Joining Words in Writing B. ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: Vowels Accents B. B.5. Introduction to Compound Words B.4.4. B. A.3.4. Exercises 77 A.4.1. B.1. B.4.1. a Sam Avyay bh ava Sam asa Bahuvr hi Sam asa Exercises 85 .1.3.3. A. A.2. Internal Sandhi Lesson 11 Sampras aran .3.1.3.a Nasal Substitution for Anusv ara Devan agar Numerals B.5.a Pronunciation of j~ na List of Conjunct Consonants Special Symbols B. History of Vowel Embellishment B. Sentence Structure: English and Sanskrit Noun Gender Summary of Case Information Exercises 45 Lesson 7 A.3.6.2. Halanta Consonants ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: Conjunct Consonants Special Conjuncts ks na . Exercises 53 Lesson 8 ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: Savarn .

6.Contents vii :::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: Lesson 12 1. 4. 2. 8. 7. Introduction to Dh atu-P at . 2. 5. 3. 4. 5. 2. 3. 3. 2. ha Use Study of the Scriptures Study Practice ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 109 Appendix 1: Suggestions for Further Study Appendix 2: Answers to Exercises Sanskrit Glossary and Index Appendix 3: English Grammatical Terms ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 121 123 135 141 :::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: :::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: . 4. 7. Tracing a Word to its Dh atu Dh atu Entry Information Numbered Entries Misleading Words Di cult Words Dictionary Practice ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 103 Lesson 15 1. 4. 3. Words beginning with SaStructure of Devan agar level Structure within non-Dh atu entries References and Abbreviations Special Symbols Signi cance of Hyphen and Caret Symbols Supplement to the Dictionary Dictionary Practice 97 Lesson 14 1. ha The Contents Page The Text Body The Index Dh atu Spelling Changes Illustrations of Dh atu-P at . 5. 6. 5. 6. Monier-Williams Dictionary Alphabet and Transliteration Fundamental Structure Page Heading Words Dictionary Practice :::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 91 Lesson 13 1. 8.

viii A Practical Sanskrit Introductory .

f .e.~tua :::::::: ::: :::::::::::::::::: :::::::::: ::::::::::::::::::::: ::::::::::::::::::::::::::: Invocation to Daks am urti Upanis . understand. May our study be full of light.ga..a.na.a.Da. ptij | mw 446a to be or become sharp. p A.!a.nd. `existing in this'.a.Ea gati | mw 347c f. A.tea:$a. a.a. get about.m. motion in general. well-read.ga.d.P.a.~tua . | I+. obtain. a | mw 1272b n.d. re. to ow.Za. sharpening.va.. ad. tejasvin | mw 454c mfn.a. . Sw Invocation to Kat am Gambh r ananda . | I+.P.d A. reminding. A.nea adhyayana | mw 22c n. having qualities of heat and light. A.ta. pi || to go. ini: ba. happen.sa 5 2 122 In the Veda the a x -vin is variously introduced in the sense of matup `belonging to this'.a A. studying. rather than the literal word-by-word translation.z . observing..Ea genitive dual of personal pronoun `I'. reach. Sw am Gambh r ananda First Lessons in Sanskrit. . .na.va bh u | mw 760c f.d. adh ta p|mw 22c mfn. tejas | sharp edge of a knife. `let it be'.tea:$a. | A. going. Bua.~va na. brilliance.Ea A. na. ha Upanis . Using poetic licence to convey the sense of the whole. the act of arising or becoming.a. live. | I+.sea.ma. whetting. Dh. to turn the mind towards.f . A.Na :pa:=+smEa.a.a.a. Let what we are studying be invigorating.m.Da.sea.tma. to advance.d. especially the Veda s.nea.a.a.P. to arrive at. . May our study be vigorous and e ective.a. i.1. glow.a. besides. Dh.pa. ga.ta:$a Bva.a. | .na.nea ni sa na | mw 561a n. over and above. P an .~va . walk.d .z .d.Da.a.ta.ta. this may be understood as the heat that burns o the dross of ignorance and allows the light of understanding to shine through.a. ad .1. Treating adh tam as a neuter noun and tejasvi its complement. the act of causing to remember.pa. or simply `our'. The past passive participle used in the sense of an abstract noun. to succeed. . adhi. `may it be'. deportment.a neuter nominative singular of adh tam. With reference to our study of Sanskrit. Dh.na .a. a. A.Dya. energetic. we have: May the Light Shine upon our Studies.tma. this gives a rather plodding translation of `Let our study be bright'." y y The light of understanding knowledge truth.d . .Na :pa:=+smEa. Sw arv Invocation to Taittir ya 2.k . studied.a.te!a:$!a. Dh. bright. in . .ix INVOCATION Translations: E ective may our study prove! May our study be thorough and fruitful. .f . .ta. exist. spread. . go on with.a.d.nea.ga. gait.na. brilliant. light.ya. to be employed in. calling to mind. point or top of ame or ray. moving.P. splendour.d A.d.lM C+. :pa.~va na. ad . read. reading.a.d.~tua person singular imperative of as to be.pa. . take place.hu.d. adhi mw 20b pre x expressing above. to blow. perceiving.Na A. observe. be present. a.ga.sa A. Let our study be brilliant.a. giving the meaning `of us both student and teacher'. ha Upanis . splendid. to go to or towards. attained. A.f . learned.f . glare. Comment: Tejas is a name given to the subtle element of re.Na :pa:=+smEa.Na A. or simply `be!' pas |rst mw 117a to be.M. continue in any condition or relation .d A. Dh.ga.sma:=+Nea smaran .d. come. Judith Tyberg neuter nominative singular of adjective tejasvin. Sw am S ananda Invocation to Taittir ya 2.P. to undertake anything.a.pa.i.a.pa.Sastry arv Invocation to Kat am S ananda .a.

x A Practical Sanskrit Introductory .

Sanskrit is written in devan agar script. and indeed throughout the systems of thought expressed in Sanskrit. two. accent. Having . The prolonged measure in both transliterated Roman script and devanagar is indicated by the short vowel followed by the numeral 3.A. the letter `a' for example. There are two fundamental divisions to the alphabet: the vowel svara and the consonant vya~ njana. tone. many. each letter represents one. sound. Without this. There are no capital letters. and only one. The prolonged measure occurs in Vedic Sanskrit but is rare in Classical Sanskrit. for it re ects the natural evolution of creation. In English. and then instead of simply moving the tongue we move the whole jaw | and what a great weight that is to move about. and the prolonged for three or more measures. the development of the alphabet and the euphonic combinations that occur in continuous speech. The word svara literally means sound. will not be understood. manifesting as a stop in the sound. You may also see it as the long vowel followed by 3.A 1. far. The short vowels are held for one measure m atr a.g. but not so in Sanskrit. It is essential to use the correct mouth position and not to merely imitate an approximation of the sound. By contrast.2 Sanskrit Pronunciation The pronunciation of Sanskrit is very simple: you open the mouth wide and move the tongue and lips as necessary: the tongue and lips are almost pure muscle and have little inertia or resistance to movement. and vya~ njana an adornment or decoration to the sound. where many means more than two manifests throughout the grammar. for we barely open the mouth which means that all sounds are indistinct or blurred. Lesson 1. This system of enumeration one. The alphabet is systematically arranged according to the structure of the mouth. fate.A.1 Vowel Measures Vowels can be short hrasva or long d rgha or prolonged pluta. may indicate many sounds e. the long vowels for two measures. In Sanskrit. the pronunciation of English requires much e ort. the prolonged measure as a full breath is useful in practising the vowels. The word devan agar means the `city n agar  of immortals deva'. fare. 1. fat.

and with tongue relaxed. and the long  like `peep' or `seat'. likewise the long  a is similar to the vowel in `harm' and not `ham'. To sound u3. there should be no tension in the lips or face muscles. that tension should not be there for the long  a or the prolonged a3. so pout rather than purse the lips. In producing this sound it will be noticed that there is a slight constriction or tensioning in the throat as compared with the relaxed throat when sounding a3. the whole alphabet is simply an embellishment of this sound. The short i sounds similar to the vowel in `pink' and not `pin'. In spite of this di erence between a and  a. The biggest single factor in practising the re ned sounds of Sanskrit. . As a very rough guide. open the mouth as for a3 and raise the back of the tongue the tip should be relaxed behind the bottom front teeth. the short a sounds similar to the vowel in `but' and de nitely not `bat'.2 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory become well practised in speaking with a moving jaw. To sound i3. 1. allow the lips to form a small circular opening of the mouth so that the moistened back of a pencil just slips in and out. There will be a similar tension in the throat as for i3. In producing the short a there is a slight tensioning in the throat. open the throat and mouth wide. indeed.A. like two ngers. and the long u  like `boot' or `suit'. The mouth needs to open a lot more than you think | so don't think! | use a measure. the mouth opens to a mere slit of about 6-mm a pencil thickness. the short u is similar to the vowel in `put' or `soot'. it does require some attention to break that habit and speak with a moving tongue. lling the opening. What could be more natural than that? This sound is central to all the vowel sounds. breathe out and simply desire that the vocal cords vibrate. they are treated as though the same in the rules of sandhi euphonic combination of the grammar.3 The Three Primary Vowels: a i u The sounding of a3 is simplicity itself: with body and mind relaxed but alert. for Sanskrit this needs to increase fourfold | literally! Try this out for yourself: with the mouth opened to a slit. sound a prolonged a3 and slowly open the mouth wide and listen to the change in the quality. to the richness and fulness that emerges. is to open the mouth! For English.

3. nor try to move it out of that position: simply have no concern with what is happening at the back of the tongue. In practice. 3 for a full breath. and the memory of how to pronounce them has faded.p. and  .A 3 To get to the correct pronunciation of r . These vowels appear to have vanished from popular speech. even more improbably as r . is still present in Eastern European languages and you may come across surnames like Przybylski.a should produce no i sound at all.5 The Compound Vowels: e ai o au a u r . . a vestigial i will emerge due to the bunching of the muscle at the back of the tongue when moving the tip downwards.Lesson 1. but a word like Kr .A. to manage. it of today tends to pronounce r . or indeed in the American `pr . Let's examine what we have so far. and then the i gave rise to r . 3. .d . Repeat the exercise a few times until comfortable with the sound of r . The long  l . each having its own unique mouth position. for example r . similarly l l . to be well ordered or regulated. begin by sounding a prolonged i3 and slowly raise the tip of the tongue so that it pointing to the top of the head. 3. In fact the vocalic r . as if it were ri. tend to be pronounced as lri and lr . and l .A. k tends to produce r . and l . and  r . is not used in the standard grammar. then practise directly sounding r . The pan . approaching but not touching the roof of the mouth. sting'. i l . l. dy' for `pretty'. it is also present in English in some pronunciations of the word `interesting' as `int0r0 sting' or `intr . Do not try to hold the back of the tongue in the i3 position. Continue the exercise as for r .3. ik.s . start sounding with a prolonged i3 and slowly raise the tip of the tongue to behind the upper front teeth without touching them. de ne the ve mouth positions used for the whole alphabet. 1. This accounts for the transliteration scheme found in the dictionary. when either of these vowels is followed by a consonant whose mouth position requires that the tip of the tongue be at a lower position.4 The Other Simple Vowels: r . Similarly for l . These ve basic vowels. We began with a and from this developed u and i to give the three primary vowels. just attend to the tip of the tongue and listen.n . 1. occurs only in one verb kl .

4

A Practical Sanskrit Introductory

Further vowels are derived by combining the a sound with i and u to form the four compound vowels sandhyaks . ara.

e a i

The e sound arises when a is sounded through the i mouth position. Remember that a has a relaxed throat and tongue, while i has the back of the tongue raised and the throat tense: so relaxing the throat while retaining the back of the tongue raised will produce e.

The vowel e sounds similar to that in `fair' or `eight'.

ai a e

The ai sound arises when e is further combined with a as it were. Now the only di erence between e and a is the raised back of the tongue, so to move from e towards the a sound, we need to drop the back of the tongue to a position half way between that used for i and e and the relaxed position used for a.

The ai sounds similar to the vowel in `aisle' or `pie'; there should be no glide or slide in the sound from a to i.

o a u

In a manner similar to the arising of e, when a is sounded through the u mouth position, i.e. with the lips in the position for u but the throat relaxed for sounding a, the sound o naturally arises.

The vowel o should sound between `awe' and `owe' or between the vowel sounds in `corn' and `cone'; the ideal is that point where the sound could be taken as either of the two English sounds.

au a o

And nally, the au sound arises when a is combined with o, so that the position of the lips is roughly half way between that used for u and a, and the throat is relaxed.

The au sounds similar to the vowel in `down' or `hound' but without the glide from a to u.

Lesson 1.A

5

1.A.6 Summary of All Vowels
au o u r . a i l . ai e
Combining the previous ve sketches illustrates the central role played by the a sound. Note that all these vowel sounds may be sounded continuously for a full breath: there is no glide from one sound to another. Also note that the four sounds e ai o au, being an addition of two sounds as it were, are naturally long d
rgha and may also be prolonged pluta, but have no short measure.

Vowel

Throat tense relaxed tense relaxed relaxed tense relaxed relaxed tense tense

Tongue relaxed relaxed raised back raised back half-raised back relaxed relaxed relaxed half-raised back, tip vertical half-raised back, tip upper teeth

Lips wide open wide open wide open wide open wide open small circle small circle large circle wide open wide open

Eng. Approx.y but, not bat harm, not ham pink peep fair or eight aisle or `pie' put boot between owe awe down or hound acre table

a  a i 
e ai u u  o au r . l .
y

The English approximations are only a very rough guide, especially considering the wide variety of accents around the world. Rather follow the instructions given earlier, or oral guidance given in person.

6

A Practical Sanskrit Introductory

Strictly speaking, the anusv ara and visarga are not part of the alphabet inasmuch as they arise only through the rules of sandhi euphonic combination. Since these both arise only after a vowel we shall precede them with a though they can occur with other vowels too when sounding the sixteen sakti, which form the start of the alphabetical order, i.e.:

To these fourteen vowels are added the anusv ara and visarga to form what are called the sixteen m atr a or sakti powers or energies. The anusv ara m . k .  is an `after sound', a nasal sound following a vowel. It is sounded through the nose only, and should be independent of mouth position. Later on we shall consider how it may be substituted by a nasal consonant depending on the following letter. The visarga h
ya, is an unvoiced breath following a vowel, and is . , or visarjan breathed through the mouth position of that vowel. Some traditions append an echo of the vowel after the breath, so that ah . may be sounded as ah . a, etc.

1.A.7 The Sixteen sakti: am . ah .

In the transliteration scheme shown above, the lines and dots, called `diacritical marks', are used because the Sanskrit alphabet has more letters than the English alphabet. Diacritics are combined with Roman letters to represent new sounds, for example the macron horizontal bar above the letter is used to indicate the long d
rgha version of the vowel.

a  a i 
u u  r r l .  . l .  . e ai o au am . ah .

1.A.8 Practising the Alphabet
One way of memorizing the script is by writing it: look at the form of the letter, sound it, and then write it. In this exercise it is important to associate the sound with the form. When you write the letter, write the whole letter without referring back to the original. If, half way through, you forget how to continue the letter, then start again: and do not continue with that half-completed letter. Remember that the exercise is not simply to copy the original form, but to associate a sound with a whole form, so do not practise half letters. When the shape has become familiar then time can be spent re ning the proportions of the letter. Another method of practising the alphabet is to use ash cards with the devan agar
letter on one side and the transliterated Roman letter on the other in case you forget you can turn over. These cards can also be used in the other direction: from the transliterated Roman letter, see if you can visualize the devan agar
form. In fact, there needs to be a three way association, namely between both the written forms and the sound, so that any one of these associates with the other two.

and one minute at a time 15 20 times throughout the day with the ash cards.5mm Pens with nibs pre-ground to the correct angle are not generally available. As a very rough guide the nib width should be 1 8 of the overall height of the A character. You will nd that a broad nib 2.5mm is best for practising the forms of the letters. and the third u u . the second i  .a I o IR  . 22 2. File across the nib in the sketch.Lesson 1. so start with an inexpensive calligraphy fountain pen Schae er. the nib about 6 Here are the rst six devan agar characters to practise. Platignum. and a much narrower nib 0.A 7 The ideal way of becoming familiar with these sounds and letters is to spend 15 20 minutes each day on the written exercise. and le the end of the nib to 22 as shown. A A. They are the short hrasva and long d rgha measures of the three primary vowels. etc. The transliteration of the rst row is a  a. into the paper and nally remove the sharp edges by `writing' on 1000-grit water paper on a rm at surface.6mm for normal writing. and the thickness of 1 of the width.

stow. indeed. and its grammar fully describes the development of words from the dh atu to its fully in ected form as found in sentences. stem. which is the sense of the meaning of the dh atu sth a given in the Dh atu-P at . be intent upon.B.Lesson 1. be left alone. endure. hesitate. static. such as `misunderstand'. which diverges into many speci c meanings. rely on. ha lit. tarry. stammer. persevere. Monier-Williams' dictionary gives several dozen English words that may be used in translating the verb: to stand. and thus the simple verb derived from the dh atu sth a may be translated as `to stand'. a host of words may be derived from `stand'. But a dh atu or root is even more fundamental than a verb. which is a list of roots about 2000 of them giving grammatical information about their in ection. Pre xes may be added to this to form further verbs. and may be likened to the universal idea of a verbal activity. desist. stagnant. which has the sense of `cessation or absence of movement'.B Note: Until you are familiar with the pronunciation of the consonants given in the next lesson. extant. last. adhere to. stand still. The dh atu itself is not found in general speech or writing.1 The Concept of Dh atu A dh atu is a rudimentary verbal element from which words are derived: it is the nucleus to which other word fragments are added to form a whole word. stop. each of which is an aspect of that common universal idea. halt. stand fast'. or su xes may be added to form nouns and adjectives. meaning `to stand. . such as constant. stay quiet. instant. together with a concise sense of their universal meaning. The situation is a lot simpler in Sanskrit. con de in. etc. remain stationary. and ultimately from its Proto-Indo. it would be necessary to study its etymological derivation from the Latin.  is allied to the Sanskrit dh The pie root sta atu sth a. wait. keep on. such as stay. ecstatic. stay. remain. etc. From this pie root sta  European pie root sta are derived other simple English verbs. To appreciate how `stand' changes to `state' for example. continue. `recitation of roots'. make a practice of. Consider the English verb `to stand'. linger. constitution. 1. estate. | all these express some sense of `cessation or absence of movement'. such as `standard'. do not attempt to pronounce the Sanskrit words included in the text: this will save the unnecessary labour of unlearning the incorrect pronunciation. for these fundamental roots are included in the language itself. stack.

or highest.2 Introduction to Verbs however. do not have endings. ha to stand kriy a verb tis .a uttama-purus . In forming the stem anga _ . uppermost. in a series of place or time or order. these are called indeclinables avyaya.t . last person uttama-purus . the dh atu does not necessarily undergo as great a p p change as with sth a. a. For example: p Note that the order is the reverse of that used in English. .t . A dh atu indicated with a surd or root symbol ` ' before it develops to form a stem anga _ . it means `last'.t . to give the singular eka-vacana forms: dh atu root p sth a sense of `cessation or absence of movement' anga _ stem tis . such as adverbs and conjunctions.Lesson 1.B. With this limited vocabulary. there are three persons purus . middle person madhyama-purus . or You stand and speak. a.B 9 1. and to the stem is added a personal ending tin-vibhakti _  to form a complete verb kriy a.t .up and -tama superlative su x to mean best. Some words. In Sanskrit the personal ending of the verb changes according to purus . hati tis . . hati vad tis . hati he she it stands As in English.t . a can also mean Supreme Spirit. for example vad remains clearly recognizable in the form vadati `he she it speaks'.a madhyama-purus .a tis . The word uttama derives from ud. a: the rst person prathamapurus . as we have here. so that uttama-purus . hasi tis ami . hasi vadasi ca You stand and you speak. simple sentences may be constructed: prathama-purus . a. a.t . An example of this is ca `and' which is placed after the last word of the series it links or after each word in the series.t . tis ami ca He stands and I speak. h he she it stands you stand I stand vad ami I speak or I am speaking.

With this aim in mind.t . .10 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory 1. tis ami vad ami ca . but it is not at all necessary to learn all this or the Sanskrit technical terms: indeed. The practical way to become familiar with the basics of Sanskrit is through practice: all the theory that is provided is simply so that the practice may be intelligent. and a further ten for the numerals. I stand and he speaks 6. hasi ca 6. You speak and I stand 5. k in Roman script. b Practise writing and recognizing the rst six vowels in devan agar .t . and lead to understanding. h 2. Flash cards for the rest of the alphabet will be provided at appropriate places in the course. hati vadasi ca 3. He stands and I speak 4. it is preferable not to learn them. c Look up the verb `stand' in a good English dictionary and observe its wide range of meanings.3 Exercises A wealth of information is presented in these notes. Cut these out and start using them. h e Translate the following sentences into Sanskrit: 1. hasi vad . at the end of each lesson a few simple exercises are presented. d Translate the following sentences into English: 1. You speak and he stands 2. tis ami ca 4. I speak and you stand 5. a Practise sounding the sixteen m atr a in their correct order.B. and writing them .4 Flash Cards The next sheet has the ash cards for the rst six vowels.t . You stand and he speaks 3.t .t . It would be useful to keep the ash cards in a box for example a cigarette box: there will be a total of forty-nine cards for the alphabet. tis . vadasi tis ami ca . tis ami vadati ca . vad ami tis .t . h 1.B.

in case you do not have access to a double-sided printer. * A A. please glue this sheet to the next before cutting. making use of the registration marks bottom and top of each page.a I + IR o  .

i  a a u  u  + .

and the teeth dantya used by l . Moving towards the front of the mouth. .t .A 2. the word `consonant' itself is derived from the the Latin cum together with and son are to sound. hya.t .t .ve consonants are calls stops spar sa because the complete contact spr . for example the consonants `b-c-d' are pronounced `bee-cee-dee'. The back of the mouth as it narrows to form the throat.. hat o and au use guttural and labial kan .The mouth positions sth ana used by the vowels svara are also used by the consonants vya~ njana. Within these ve mouth positions the consonants are further classi ed according to inner  abhyantara- and outer b ahya- methods of articulation or e ort prayatna.1 The Five Mouth Positions The ve mouth positions are considered from within the oral cavity itself. and the labials pa-varga are stops at the lips.t .t . The a is added for the sake of pronunciation only: being stops. hos . is called the guttural position kan .2 The Twenty-Five Stops: ka to ma The rst twenty.t . u 2. a vowel to stop or start. hya t . In fact. next is the palatal position t alavya used by the vowel i. for example the ve in the guttural column ka-varga are stops at the back of the mouth. Like the vowels. These are arranged in ve sets varga according to mouth position and named after the rst letter in the group. The same principle is used in English.s . The compound vowels make use of two mouth positions: e and ai use both guttural and palatal kan alavya. there are more consonants in Sanskrit than in English. a in the mouth fully stops the breath and hence the sound through the mouth. . hya used by u. this is followed by the cerebral position m urdhanya used by r .A. l .t .A. and . kan alavya m urdhanya dantya os . hya: this is associated with the vowel a. they need a sound i. and nally the two lips os . Lesson 2. hya guttural palatal cerebral dental labial a i r .e.t . and thus diacritical marks are used with the Roman consonants to represent further sounds.

i. The consonants in the fth row are nasalized anun asika. . whereas the voiced ghos . k ka-varga through pa-varga. a. The rst.A. . and pa. The unvoiced aghos . ha d . ah . whereas the rst two rows are unvoiced aghos .: . and the second and fourth rows with much breath mah apr an .a ta tha da dha na pa pha ba bha ma The table is also arranged horizontally by rows: the rst. .a t . i. a stops have an explosive quality to them. the following notes may assist with rst-time pronunciation. a.a d . pa pha ba bha ma . the vocal cords vibrate in producing the consonant. a gives the native English speaker the most problems.t . ka kha ga gha na 2. The aspiration pr an . . The nasal anun asika consonants continue to sound through the nose when the breath through the mouth has been stopped by the tongue or lips.e. ha n . In English there is a tendency to pronounce some consonants slightly aspirated before . ta. comprises ka. third and fth rows are pronounced with little breath alpapr an . a stops have a gentler quality to them as though releasing the stop more slowly: this can be observed by listening to the di erence between ka and ga when `sounded' without the following a. t . ca. The last three rows are voiced ghos . .e. these follow after the sixteen m atr a in order from . . for example.2 describes the sounds authoritatively.3 Pronunciation of the Stops While the previous section 2. the others not. am _ ca cha . . a. hya t . a. a.14 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory kan alavya m urdhanya dantya os . In terms of alphabetical order.A. hya guttural palatal cerebral dental labial ka kha ga gha na _ ca cha ja jha n ~a t .t .

canyon. give. chair. joy jh | hedgehog `hej-jhog' n ~ | enjoy. pinch t . imbibe bh | clubhouse `club-bhouse' m | amble. tap ph | uphill `up-phill' b | be. tongue c | cello.t . This di erence needs to be greatly increased to distinguish between the alpapr an . Because English pronunciation is acquired by imitating indistinct sounds which are not precisely described. cart t . and ja as `dza'. There is a tradition that pronounces pha as `fa'. makes use of both the teeth and lips dantos . however. One e ect is that `d' and `t' are pronounced somewhere between the dental dantya and cerebral m urdhanya positions. the previous section has the authoritative description. mumble When in doubt. pat. another e ect is that many speakers do not use the palatal t alavya position for the stops. ja a softer ga. god d . but the common error is to use so much breath that a vestigial vowel is inserted. n | gentle. as mentioned earlier. kiln. bha can be incorrectly pronounced as `baha'. hya: the rules of sound and grammar will be easier to understand if pronounced purely with the lips os . k | kiss. i. gain p | pick. and this may be used to illustrate the di erence between for example. d | day. English does not distinguish between dental dantya and cerebral m urdhanya. particularly for the ghos . problems occur with the centre three mouth positions. h dh | redhead `red-dhead' n . jolly. for example. church ch | coach-horse `coa-chhorse' j | just.t . . a consonants.A 15 a long vowel. and so on. t | tub. hya.Lesson 2.a and mah apr an . Some English consonants are similar to those in Sanskrit. It may help to consider the palatal stops as a modi cation or softening of the gutturals so that ca is a softer ka. long. and may be used to give a very rough guide to the Sanskrit pronunciation. cab. dog. tap. hand.e. a consonants. back kh | bunkhouse `bung-khouse' g | good. bug gh | loghouse `log-ghouse' n _ | sing. so that ca is pronounced as `tsha'. h th | anthill `an-thill' d . pa and pha: attend to the `p' breath when pronouncing the two English words `pick' and `peek' | hold the nger tips close to the mouth to feel the di erence.

ea A. The Roman transliteration of the four rows is: . e ai o au am .16 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory 2.Ea AM AH . A A. k a  a i  u u  r  r .A. Oe. ah . here are all sixteen letters of the m atr a to practise.4 Devan agar Alphabet The previous lesson gave the rst six devan agar characters.a I IR o   O. l l . A.  . .

whereas in Sanskrit these are all included in the form of the verb itself. stand Note that when the subject is dual.t . stand you two stand uttama. h purus .t . present. for example: eka-vacana prathama. benedictive. The conjugations given here are all in the present indicative simple present tense called lat .B 2. this classi cation is according to variations in the formation of the stem anga _  from the dh atu. hathah .tis tis . ought.t ..t . hatah . A dh atu belongs to one of ten classes gan . a verb may express time past. a. should. a he she it stands dvi-vacana tis . a you sing. etc. hatha tis amah .t .tis ami . a. . hati purus .t . while in Sanskrit there is singular eka-vacana. the dual form of the verb must be used.tis . a I stand tis avah . The verbs used to form simple sentences in this section are all from the rst class bhv adi-gan . hasi .t .B. stand you pl. dual dvi-vacana. conditional. As in English. and plural bahu-vacana. imperative. we pl.t . the verbs are divided into number vacana: in English there is singular and plural. h . stand madhyama. future tense and mood indicative.t .1 More on Verbs As well as the division into purus . etc. purus .Lesson 2. The personal endings are used to indicate both person and number. hanti they pl. There are ten tense mood classi cations in Sanskrit: these are called lak ara or l-a xes because their technical names all begin with the letter l. to express these. had. they two stand bahu-vacana tis . a person. we two stand tis .: English makes extensive use of auxiliaries might. h .

 stand and I speak 5. tis avah .t . tis . He stands and you pl.t . k devan agar .t . hasi vad . They pl. ca 3. ca 2. stand 3. hatah .t . vad amah . hati vadanti ca a Practise sounding the sixteen m atr a in their correct order.t . We pl.t . stand .2 Exercises b Practise reading and writing the sixteen m atr a in Roman script and .B.t . tis avah . stand and you two speak 8. speak 6. You two stand and speak 4. ca 4. We two stand and you pl.18 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory 2. tis . . h . You two speak and they pl. tis . hanti vadatah . ca 5. speak 2. vad . c Translate the following sentences into English: 1. ca 6. They two speak and he stands 7. tis .t . tis . You pl. hasi vadathah . hathah . ca d Translate the following sentences into Sanskrit: 1. vadatah amah . ca 7. speak and you sing. tis . k 8. hatha vadathah .

A. + Oe. O.Ea AM AH .ea A.

 r . ah am au o ai . . r . l . + .e  l .

t .A. the sound or letter ga is called gak ara. hya guttural | palatal cerebral dental labial ya ra la va In the alphabetical order. l . and are naturally voiced ghos s . We shall now consider the nal eight consonants vya~ njana. but do pay attention to the mouth position. similarly.t . stha `stand between'. . although transliterated as va. which only arise through the rules of sandhi euphonic combination and are thus not strictly part of the alphabet. there are only four semivowels. and u to a produces va.t .1 The Four Semi-Vowels: ya ra la va A semivowel antah . and `luck'. ya. Other traditions pronounce this as the English `va'. are always referred to by their own name and have no -k ara name. These are considered to be between vowels and consonants. . ak ara.e. including the vowels e. i. kan alava m urdhanya dantya os . a. are similar to the English sounds in `yum'. pa pha ba bha ma ya ra la va . The anusv ara and visarga or visarjan ya. The rst three of these. ya ra and la. This applies to all the sounds letters.g.. these follow after the twenty. except for ra which is traditionally called repha `snarl' or `burr' or simply ra.t . They are formed by slight contact  .. Lesson 3.s . and so are called antah . a. moving to a produces ra.The sound or letter ka is called kak ara `ka-action'. . making use of both teeth and lips is called dantos . in which case its mouth position. and so on. As a moving to a will not produce a new sound. stha. to a produces la. and thus allow a restricted ow of air through the mouth. but not rak ara. : . produces a sound akin to the English `wa': this latter pronunciation accords with the grammatical tradition and makes the rules of sandhi euphonic combination easier to grasp. hya t . `rum'.ve stops.A 3. atspr . r . stha arises when one of the basic vowels moves to the a sound: i moving to a gives rise to the sound ya. The derivation of the last semivowel antah .

and the mouth position in particular. In the alphabetical order this follows the sibilants and is the last letter of the alphabet: . a half-contact. which allows a restricted hissing ow of breath through the mouth. man `heated'. In theory. These sound analogies are given as a very rough guide: the description given above. ta slightly open or ardhaspr . . a and unvoiced aghos . and sa like the sibilant in the German `ich'.e. It is generally pronounced as unvoiced aghos .22 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory A sibilant hissing sound is called u s . hya t .t . there are two more sibilants. : . a. 3. a sa ha. They are considered to be  s .. The sibilants are aspirated mah apr an . i. man `heated'..t . s .s .A. a sa kan alavya m urdhanya dantya os . 3. a sa . are to be taken as authoritative. with similar qualities. hya guttural | palatal cerebral dental labial | sa s . which are described as a `half-visarga' before ka kha and pa pha respectively. a like the `sh' in `ship' or `wish'. called the jihv am ul ya and upadhm an ya.2 The Three Sibilants: sa s . These are so very rare that for all practical purposes they can be ignored.3 The Final Consonant: ha This aspirate sometimes considered a sibilant is also called u s . In the alphabetical order these follow the semivowels.a sa The sa sounds like the sibilant in the English words `seek' and `kiss'. . a. .A. sa s . . according to the grammatical tradition it is voiced ghos . advivr . . ya ra la va sa s . a. however.t .

hyat .a d . ka kha ga gha na _ ca cha ja jha n ~a t . The order is best memorized in groups as shown below: a  a i  u u  r r l .a ta tha da dha na pa pha ba bha ma ya ra la va sa s . e ai o au am .a ra s .a t .5 The Alphabetical Order Having now considered the whole alphabet in sound and Roman transliteration. l .a t .A 23 3.A.t . hya guttural palatal cerebral dental labial Qualities ka kha ga gha na _ ca cha ja jha n ~a ya sa ha t . ha d .A. ha n .4 Summary of the Consonants The de nitive qualities of the consonants are given in tabular form: kan alavyam urdhanyadantyaos .  .  .t . ha n .a ta pa unvoicedunaspirated full contact tha pha unvoiced aspirated full contact da ba voiced unaspirated full contact dha bha voiced aspirated full contact na ma voiced unaspirated full contact nasal la va voiced unaspiratedslight contact sa unvoiced aspirated slightly open voiced aspirated slightly open 3. ah . it would be useful to start becoming familiar with the alphabetical order. a sa ha .a d . ha d .Lesson 3.

$a Ja Va The loop on the kha and ga is written as follows: e write the down-stroke with the curl at the end.24 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory 3. continue the stroke.z .6 Devan agar Alphabet Here are the rst ten consonants in devan agar script. Each symbol includes the sound a. and for kha. ca C . h this portion of the symbol is written without lifting the pen! .Ga .A. the rst symbol is ka and not just k. g complete the loop. The transliteration of the two rows of devan agar characters is: ka kha ga gha na _ ca cha ja jha n ~a k Ka ga . for example. Note the similarity between the forms of i and jha. f then change direction to start the loop.

p n nayate he leads. . These are the normal endings for an active transitive verb.nayasi nayathah nayatha nayase nayethe nayadhve . use the  atmane-pada endings.a madhyama. or result of the action. they will be presented in the form: English translation of that form.nayati nayatah nayanti nayate nayete nayante . By way of illustration. nevertheless many verbs do retain the formal distinction between parasmai-pada active voice and  atmane-pada middle voice. and has come to be a matter of conventional usage. naye nay purus .1 More on Verbs The personal endings of verbs given thus far are called parasmai-pada `an expression for another' because the fruit. but within the limits of the simple sentences in the exercises. the sentence I married her" would be expressed in  atmane-pada or parasmai-pada when spoken by the husband or priest respectively. nay . The  atmanepada `an expression for oneself' personal endings used in the active form of the verb called the middle voice imply an action whose fruit reverts to oneself: this does not mean re exive. parasmai-pada ekadvivacana vacana bahuvacana  atmane-pada eka. please use the pada given: in the case of dh atu n for example. Some verbs are conjugated in one pada only.B. The division is not at all de nite. When verbs are presented for use in the exercises.B 3. a form.a uttamanay ami nay avah amah avahe nay amahe .Lesson 3.dvivacana vacana bahuvacana prathama. and the Many of the verbs in this course may be conjugated in either pada. purus . and some partly in one and partly in another. purus . is transmitted to another.a These are the only two forms of personal endings to verbs that will be used in this course. where the dh atu is followed by the eka-vacana prathama-purus . some in both.

and usually names the subject of a simple sentence or the agent initiator or instigator of the action of the verb.26 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory 3. The word nara the pr atipadika form. dvit y a naram narau nar an Other nouns that take this form of declension are a sva `horse'. a . When the subject of the sentence is explicitly stated. stand'. eka-vacana dvi-vacana bahu-vacana pratham a narah narau nar ah . ks . has its ultimate origin in a dh atu root. as listed in Monier-Williams' dictionary means `man'. a xes to the dh atu form the noun-stem pr atipadika which will have a particular grammatical gender linga _ : masculine pum _ . walk. for example `the men pl. like the verb.t . then the implied pronoun falls away. Since the noun endings de ne the relationship to the verb. like the verb. dual dvi-vacana.2 Introduction to Nouns A noun. feminine str -linga _ . the second dvit y a case ending generally indicates the immediate destination of the action expressed by the verb. hanti'. There are seven such grammatical relationships. and. am nayate the man leads the horse to the tree. i.B. in which case both are expressed in dvit y a. the verb is found at the end of the sentence. run. a `tree'. hanti' is translated as `they pl. to juggle the word order to t the rules of scansion. and the subject precedes the object and destination. each of these has a singular eka-vacana. the direct object of the sentence. the pronoun `they' is implied narah svam vr . sakalinga _ . -linga . stand'. Normally however. as in the above example. The rst pratham a of these is the nominative or naming case.t .e. and this is translated as `nar ah . the word order is not important as contrasted with English where it is. the destination is expressed in dvit y a. and allows the poet for example. ks . Where `tis . and plural bahu-vacana form. in the verb and it is not necessary to add an explicit Sanskrit pronoun. and vr . To the pr atipadika form are added case-endings sup-vibhakti which indicate the relationship of the noun to the verb. and with its sup-vibhakti endings appears as: For verbs having a sense of motion such as go. There are some verbs such as n  which have both a direct object and a destination. . and neuter napum . . tis .

The tree and the horse are standing. hati ca narah . 6. 3. a svah . d Translate the following sentences into Sanskrit: 1.B. as well as reading and writing them in Roman script and devan agar . ks . narah svah . 4. b Practise pronouncing the rst ten consonants vya~ njana. a svau naram vr an nayete .Lesson 3. a svah .A. hanti 3.t . The two horses lead the man. ca nayete . 6.B 27 3. vadati ca 5. ks . The horse leads the man to the tree.3 Exercises a Practise sounding the alphabetical order as summarized in 3. 5. lead the horses pl. The man leads the horse. naram nayate 2.5. a . 4. c Translate the following sentences into English: 1. are speaking and leading.. a . The men pl. 2. The men pl. tis . narau vr an nay amahe .t . narah svau ca tis .

so enjoy the rest while you can! .28 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory This page is intentionally blank: there aren't many of them.

ca C .Ga .$a Ja Va .k Ka ga .z + .

n _ a gha ga kha ka n ~a jha ja cha ca + .

ha n .a t .A. There may be a tendency to limit letters such as :Na and ta to the halfway point: this is a carry over from the Roman alphabet where it is appropriate.Lesson 4. a and not just t . The transliteration of the two rows of devan agar characters is: t . gha and dha.a ta tha da dha na f F . a na . for example with `P' and `h'. ha and da. the rst symbol is t . and this gives a bias of `blackness' at the top of the letters: this is 2 visually compensated for by using the 1 3 and 3 lines to `open' the form of the letter. Here are the next ten consonants in devan agar script. and d ..Da na 2 Note the form of the letters in relation to the 1 3 and 3 ruled lines.q Q :Na ta Ta d . for example. in devan agar the top horizontal bar is extended to join the letters in a word.1 Devan agar Alphabet Note the di erences between d _ and i. . ha d . Each symbol includes the sound a. As we shall see later.a d .A 4.

Thus three vibhakti cover one entire pada.dvivacana vacana bahuvacana prathama.B. Thus the pattern is: nayati-nayatah ami. It would be useful to practise sounding the full conjugation of dh atu n . which means that one vibhakti consists of the three vacana forms.nayasi nayathah nayatha nayase nayethe nayadhve .B 4. . longer pause nayate-nayete-nayante pause nayasenayethe-nayadhve pause naye-nay avahe-nay amahe. than ten times once a day.t . -nayanti pause nayasi-nayathah . As with practising the alphabet.a uttamanay ami nay avah amah avahe nay amahe . it is far more e ective to sound this once. he takes. -nay .1 Summary of Verbs The tin-vibhakti _ personal endings of verbs are grouped into three's. with a pause between each vibhakti and a longer pause between each pada. purus . For your convenience a reference sheet with the full conjugation of dh atu n is given below: this also has a list of all the verbs that will be used in the simple sentence exercises. purus . parasmai-pada ekadvivacana vacana bahuvacana  atmane-pada eka.a p gam p n p labh p vad p vah p sth a gacchati nayate labhate vadati vahati tis . he carries. nay . naye nay purus . he speaks. hati he goes.Lesson 4. -nayatha pause nay nay avah amah .a madhyama. he stands. ten times a day. he leads.nayati nayatah nayanti nayate nayete nayante .

dvit y a naram narau nar an tr y a naren abhy am naraih . for example. `he works for money'. `he cuts the wood with an axe': note that here `with' has the sense of `by means of'. the recipient or bene ciary or purpose of the action. For example.3.Lesson 4. en . `he walks from the river'. but for the time being accept that this change occurs after `r' or `s svena but vr . caturth nar aya nar abhy am narebhyah . a? nar . . but this changes to -en . `he gives the food to the dog'. t it is that `by means of which' the action is accomplished.2 More on Nouns Cases The third tr y a case ending indicates the `instrument' in relation to the verb: . ? the generic ending is -ena. but this does not convey the sense of instrumentality. The fourth caturth  case ending indicates the indirect object. ' in the same word. For example. but in English it may also be used in the sense of accompaniment. `he goes home by car'. ks . thus a .B.A. eka-vacana dvi-vacana bahu-vacana pratham a narah narau nar ah . will be given more fully in a later lesson 11. This . `he falls from the tree'. For example. a. pa~ ncam nar at nar abhy am narebhyah . The fth pa~ ncam  case ending indicates the place from which the action begins. t .B 33 4. a due to internal sandhi. `he goes home with an axe'. `he makes a kennel for the dog'. It may also express cause or motive: `out of anger he strikes the boy'.

B. in Roman script and devan agar . am vahati 2. a svah . 6. narah svena gacchati . am a 3.B. ks . vr an a sv at labhadhve . c Practise reading and writing the next ten consonants vya~ njana. We pl. He goes by horse. 3. ks . 6.1. with horses. a svam vr at nar aya nayate . e Translate the following sentences into Sanskrit: 1. narah svah at gacchatah . We two take the tree from the man by horse. . a .3 Exercises a Practise sounding the alphabetical order as summarized in 3. vr . ks . carry the trees pl. .5. d Translate the following sentences into English: 1. 5.34 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory 4. go from the tree to the horses. ca vr . a svah aya vahati . ks .A. naram vr . 4. b Practise sounding the full conjugation of dh atu n as given in 4. They pl. 2. vr .. ks . carry the man from the trees pl. The horses pl. 4. ks . You two are leading the horse for the man. am nar 5.

q Q :Na + ta Ta d .f F .Da na .

na dha da tha ta + . . . . .na dha da tha ta .

Lesson 5.A
5.A.1 Devan agar
Alphabet
Here is the rest of the alphabet in devan agar
script. Each symbol includes the sound a; for example, the rst symbol is pa and not just p. Note the di erences between ba and va; ya and tha; pa and s . a; la and l . ; bha ma and sa; and kha with ra and va. The transliteration of the three rows of devan agar
characters is:

pa pha ba bha ma ya ra la va sa s . a sa ha

:pa :P ba Ba ma ya .= l va Za :Sa .sa h

Lesson 5.B
5.B.1 More on Nouns Cases
Unlike the other case endings, the sixth s 
indicates a relationship to a word . as .t . h other than the verb, i.e. to another noun in the sentence. This is usually rendered in English by the preposition `of' or with an apostrophe, for example, `he talks to the son of John', `he drives John's car'. In both these examples John has no relation to the action of the verb: indeed John may be absent, even deceased. This case ending generally indicates a relationship of source or possession, for example, `John's book' may refer to the book that John purchased, or to the book that he wrote. The word in s
is usually placed immediately before the word to which it is related. . as .t . h

The seventh saptam 
case ending indicates the place or time where or when the action takes place, and may be rendered in English by the prepositions `in', `on', `at', `among', etc., for example, `he stands on the table', `it is hot in summer'. A word with saptam
case ending is often the rst in the sentence, setting the scene as it were.

Strictly speaking, Sanskrit has just seven case endings, however many publications give an eighth, sambodhana, which is used for addressing or calling, for example, `Oh Lord, hear my prayers', `John, where are you?'. In fact this is simply a special use of the pratham a  rst case ending. The strictly correct way of tabling the declension of nara is:

eka-vacana pratham a narah . sambodhana pratham a he nara dvit
y a naram tr
y a naren . t .a caturth
nar aya pa~ ncam
nar at s
narasya . as .t . h saptam
nare

dvi-vacana narau he narau narau nar abhy am nar abhy am nar abhy am narayoh . narayoh .

bahu-vacana nar ah . he nar ah . nar an naraih . narebhyah . narebhyah . nar an am . nares .u

Lesson 5.B

39

The vocative particle `he' is traditionally sounded in the paradigm; it is optional in a sentence and may be translated as `Oh'. Publications that list sambodhana as an eighth case ending, place that row at the bottom of the table, labelling it simply `sambodhana' and omit the vocative particle he. The sandhi change of n to n
y a, also occurs in . that occurs in eka-vacana tr . t bahu-vacana s
, thus a svan am but vr an am. . as .t . h . ks . . The vibhakti of the nouns are, like the verbs, grouped into three's, so that the pratham a vibhakti refers to the forms of all three vacana. In practising sounding the full declension of the noun, use the `correct' table given above, i.e.: narah ah ah . - narau - nar . pause he nara - he narau - he nar . pause naram narau - nar an pause etc.

5.B.2 Exercises 
a Practise sounding the alphabetical order as summarized in 3.A.5. b Practise sounding the full declension of nara as given in 5.B.1. c Practise reading and writing the last thirteen consonants vya~ njana, in Roman script and devan agar
. d Translate the following sentences into English: 1. nara a sve tis .t . hasi 2. nar an am a sv ah . . tis .t . hanti 3. narah sv at labhate . vr . ks . am a 4. vr sv ah . ks . es . u narasya a . tis .t . hanti 5. a svau vr an nar aya vahatah . ks . . 6. naram vr at a svaih . ks . . labhate 7. a svah at gacchati . naram vr . ks . 8. a sve tis .t . hati ca vadati ca

Continued overleaf . . .

40

A Practical Sanskrit Introductory 

e Translate the following sentences into Sanskrit: 1. He is standing on two horses, 2. The man and horse stand among the trees pl., 3. The trees pl. of the two men are standing, 4. The man's horse carries the man from the treespl., 5. The two horses carry the man to the tree, 6. Oh horse, you are carrying the tree for the man, 7. He takes the man's horses pl. from the tree, 8. You two are carrying the man from the tree to the horse.

= l va Za .:pa :P ba Ba ma + ya .

ma bha ba pha pa sa va la ra ya + .

sa h .+ :Sa .

ha sa s .a + .

ba.ea ba bi bu br . ru . Lesson 6.ba bua bxa bwa :bea ba. The forms indicating the various following vowels are: ba . occur only at the beginning of a word. Thus the word bala strength is written ba. Where the vowel following the consonant is other than a.A. be bo ba. like the Roman. and that the horizontal line links the letters together.a bUa bXa bWa .a ba.l bai bau These vowel signs are used with all consonants ka through ha. All the vowel forms given earlier. b . r u & hr . bl . this is indicated by an embellishment on the consonant itself. for example abala weakness is written A.The symbols for the consonants inherently include a following a vowel.1 Vowels after Consonants The short vowel a  A  is never written unless it begins a word. .l. Note that the characters are written left to right. maintaining the principle that a consonant can only be sounded together with a vowel.bEa ba.Ea b a b b u b r . but note these exceptions: . rather like the English `un-'.A 6.a.l. The written form thus resembles the oral form. The `a-' pre x to a noun usually means negation. for example ba ba is the symbol for the the consonant b together with a following short hrasva a.

a.k+:a va. For example: n .e devan agar m atr a . these should link to the character where it joins the top horizontal bar. To solve this problem. in a script read from left to right.ga:= +a ma.ta.k ki :Nea These syllables are connected together to form words: they are literally connected by the horizontal bar. but it does make a nice story ! .A. the downstroke was added for ki. so that ki ke kai were written as: ki i ke j kai k However. with the i-sign before the consonant.a.ma :vea.d ga. is debatable.d. Whether this is true or not. as personality tends to intrude into handwriting.a.a.va.k  for example.txa. For example: . k vad ami veda g t a guru :de . especially if the ` ag' was written somewhere between the two positions. to the rightmost junction.na. there should be the seeming anomaly that ki  . Originally the embellishment for i after a consonant had no down stroke at all. namely for i  e o ai au. it could prove di cult to distinguish between ki and ke.a.2 History of Vowel Embellishment It bothers some students that.a. and where the character meets the bar more than once.a. is written back to front as it were.a gua: 6.46 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory Where the embellishment is above the letter itself with or without the addition of a following vertical bar.

B. a word may be placed before or after the verb | but these are the only two possibilities. the information as to which is the limiter and which the limited. Now we can split up this sentence into its core subject-verb-object. that is. This is an important point: in a sentence. we make use of a phrase containing a preposition in our example `by' to indicate the relationship of the word `attachment' to the activity of limiting. in the waking state desire limits the mind from the universal to the particular by attachment.1 Sentence Structure: English and Sanskrit In English speech or writing. as for example. For example. The subject comes before an active verb.g. is given by the position of the words in relation to the verb. before or after. Using prepositional phrases we can thus enlarge our sentence.Lesson 6. re ects its subtle position the relationship or part that it plays. to indicate its relationship to the activity. desire limits the mind by attachment.B 6. e. . such as. in the simple sentence. a word's physical position in time or space. desire limits the mind. the mind is limited by desire. and a number of related phrases: in the waking state desire limits the mind from the universal to the particular by attachment . and the object after it. Now. the order of words shows their connection or relationship to the whole sentence. The order is reversed for a passive verb. But notice the operation of the preposition | `pre-position' | it is an element which is placed before `pre-' to give `position' to the word. and thus can indicate only two relationships. namely subject and object. In order to show the relationship in a more complete sentence.

our sentence would thus become something like: waking state IN desire SUBJECT limits VERB mind OBJECT universal FROM particular TO attachment BY . so let us be clear that the intended meaning of the other two phrases is that `attachment' is the instrument means method by which the mind is limited. the relationship to the verb is precisely de ned. but more importantly.48 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory We may now shu e these components around in any order and still retain the meaning: in doing so. In an in ected language one that uses case endings the relationship to the verb is shown by a su x appended to the word. other interpretations are possible: the phrases from the universal to the particular in the rst of the two split up sentences may be construed as qualifying the word `mind' and thus be understood as a range of separate minds `from gods to dogs'. All the words in the sentence are quite independent of their position order or arrangement which is one limitation in a non-in ected language like English. in the second of these split up sentences these phrases could be viewed as qualifying the word `desire' and mean a range of desires `from the general to the personal'. we may well lose some clarity. and thus minimizes the possibility of misunderstanding. however. There are two points to note here: rstly. and that the `waking state' is the circumstance where when the limitation takes place. The problem with these prepositional phrases is that it is not at all clear whether they are related to the activity of the whole sentence i. for example: from the universal to the particular desire limits the mind in the waking state by attachment .e. or are merely qualifying one of the nouns. and secondly. For example. the word endings indicate the relationship to the verb by de nition. The phrases can thus be re-arranged to produce all sorts of misunderstandings. the subject and object also have endings to show their relationship. and the other case endings indicate the relationship to the verb. In Sanskrit there are seven case endings: the sixth indicates a relation to another noun in the sentence. . to the verb. the intention was to indicate that the mind su ers limitation restriction reduction from its natural open state of universality to the con ned state when identi ed with the particular. or we may even sound poetic.

merely indicate that relationship. similarly the . However. colon. For example: Scripture says desire limits the mind. and numbers the actual phonic su x endings physical. for example. has no need of these embellishments.Lesson 6. this accords with the Sanskrit pratham a-vibhakti  rst case ending. Like the vibhakti adorning a word.B 49 It matters not whether we give these case endings names or numbers. when a verb changes from active to passive: desire 1 limits ACTIVE mind 2 desire limits the mind mind 1 limits PASSIVE desire 3 the mind is limited by desire. is expressed in pratham a. but with a passive verb kartr y a. Using the Sanskrit numerical system. is expressed by tr . The basic punctuation marks in English are the comma. person. English is also sensitive to pauses between phrases. as well as voice. having the power to bring about the action: with an active verb the kartr . t karman that most directly aimed at by the kartr y a and . so the clothing of a stage actor indicates his role: the crown is not the king. the vir ama   and p urn ama   to indicate respectively the halfway point and end of a stanza . the words marked with `1' in these two sentences are both called the subject of the sentence. which indicate pauses of increasing length. in Sanskrit the agent kartr . In English. Sanskrit uses only two punctuation marks. and these too can change the relationship and the whole meaning of the sentence. provided that the relationship is clearly de ned. limits the mind.  is the initiator. Thus kartr . Scripture. . our sentence becomes: waking state 7 desire 1 limits VERB mind 2 universal 5 particular 4 attachment 3 . being inherently clearer. semicolon. and number. and full stop. but is worn by the actor playing the role of king. and karman name the relationship. In prose they are used to indicate the end of a sentence and the end of a paragraph respectively.  is expressed in dvit pratham a respectively. whereas pratham a and English `subject' etc. and then associates the two according to circumstance. avir of verse. The a x to the verb indicates tense. A fully in ected language like Sanskrit. mood. In fact Sanskrit uses both names and numbers for these relationships: it names the relationships subtle when de ning them. says desire.

. pa~ ncam b al ay ah b al abhy am b al abhyah .2 Noun Gender The nouns considered thus far are all masculine pum _ . but in the declension of b as -su.50 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory 6. saptam b al ay am b alayoh b al asu . the paradigms below . t . s b al ay ah b alayoh b al an am . saka-linga linga _  noun b al a `girl'. as . h . -linga are for the neuter napum _  noun phala `fruit'. caturth b al ayai b al abhy am b al abhyah .t . There is another sandhi rule applicable within a word. s phalayoh phal an am . due to internal sandhi. eka-vacana phalam he phala phalam phalena phal aya phal at phalasya phale . 11.3. caturth phal abhy am phalebhyah . t . saptam phalayoh phales . u is the most common form.A. h . the napum _ bahu-vacana forms of . and the feminine str .t . dvit y a b al am b ale b al ah . This sandhi rule will be described more fully in a later lesson.u eka-vacana dvi-vacana bahu-vacana pratham a b al a b ale b al ah . Note that. sambodhana pratham a he b ale he b ale he b al ah . '. tr y a b alay a b al abhy am b al abhih . . . as .B. i if preceded by `r' or `s . saka-linga pratham a and dvit y a will also change from - ani to - an . u following any vowel except a or  a | thus -s al a it remains . that applies here: the saptam bahu-vacana ending -su changes to -s . pa~ ncam phal abhy am phalebhyah . dvi-vacana bahu-vacana pratham a phale phal ani sambodhana pratham a he phale he phal ani dvit y a phale phal ani tr y a phal abhy am phalaih .

pa~ ncam 6. dvit y a indicates immediate destination of action. 3. saptam 51 .t . purpose of action. caturth indirect object To for whom what? recipient.B. bene ciary. tr y a .3 Summary of Case Information 5. When? Where? place time where when action takes place. t 4. 6. as .Lesson 6. relation is not to verb. From whom what? place from which action begins.B Sanskrit case Relation to Verb nominative vocative accusative instrumental dative ablative genitive locative genitive By whom what? direct object Whom? What? calling addressing. also cause motive. h 7. pratham a names the agent subject of the verb. subject Who? What? Latinate name English grammar Answers question 1. s . the means by which action accomplished. sambodhana 2. Of whom? Whose? relation of source possession etc.

phale vr . am a . 10. 8. 3. ks . ca vr . nar 4. ks .52 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory 6. am phal 10. a svah al am ca vr . The man leads the horse by means of fruit. ks . . 3.t . 9. labhate 2. es .. 2. We two take the man and the girl from the tree to the horse. ca 5. vadatah . b ale phal ani narasya vr at labhete .B. ks . ks . narasya a svah al ay ah . am vahati . c Translate the following sentences into English: 1. 8. The man and the girl go among the trees by horse. The girls two stand on the horse and take the fruit s.. 6. naram ca b . by horse for fruit pl. ks . hatah . vr ami ca phal ani labhe . narah at b al ayai vahati . 9. 7. 4. from the tree. The man goes to the trees pl. u tis . You two lead the horse and I take the fruit. b al a narah svam vahatah . The horse carries the tree to the girl for the man. d Translate the following sentences into Sanskrit: 1. ks . to the girls for the man. b ale vr . The girl takes the fruit two from the tree for the horses pl. b Practise sounding the full declension of b al a and phala. phalam b . The man stands and the girl speaks. b al a a svam vr aya nayate . 7. au gacch 6. ks . The horse carries the fruit pl. 5. b al ah an phal ani a svena nayante . narau vr an am phal ani a svam labhete .4 Exercises a Practise reading and writing all the letters of the alphabet.

yoga. namely p. literally `yoked together' comprises two or more consonants with nothing separating them. ama should This is the form used when a word ends in a consonant. ya ntya n. and a di erent method is used. Where a word uses a non. it forms a consonant cluster. is called `halanta pa'.1 Halanta Consonants The adjective halanta is derived from hal a technical term referring to any consonant. Thereafter it is just a matter of applying the principles.a halanta ka k . for example the s in svara.A.a + ya tma :Nya tma n .A 7. For example: halanta pa :p. familiarity with them may seem like a daunting task.nal halanta letter.a f 7. and anta `end'.a + ya ntya . so halanta means `ending in a consonant'. or conjunct consonant.a + t. Simply read through the general principles and use the illustrative examples to understand the principle.  called vir ama `stop'. It is the general principles that are important: once you understand the principles. and you will nd that. In the devan agar script this is written as a short stroke  . without its following a sound. Lesson 7.2 Conjunct Consonants A conjunct consonant sam . however the vir ideally not be used within a word. in particular there is no vowel between them. At a rst glance through these sam . yoga.A. in practice. now we consider how to write a consonant that is followed by no vowel at all. it is a lot simpler than it looks. The symbols may be written continuously in the usual order from left to right with the rightmost vertical stroke dropped from all but the last letter: t.a + ma :N. but fortunately you don't have to learn them. below and to the right of the consonant.We have examined how to write a consonant that is followed by any vowel. halanta t . you can discard the notes. . Thus the letter pa for example.

a + ta h .t .54 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory Or they may be written one above the other.a This arrangement can be useful where the rst letter has no vertical stroke on the right: d .a Left to right and vertical arrangements may appear in the same compound: . + na d ._a *+.d R snya s .a + n.a f]a .s.t .z .Da k . hya nkya _ Most symbols retain their familiar shape in compounds.t . +k . + ma Va ` d. ya hma When symbols are modi ed.=+:ya : . + ya f .[ * *: dga t .a + ya :S.a + va :S. + ya .a nka _ . + ya d . +k .a + na b.a : :a mna bva s .. +d d .a + f +.a + F . + ya h . + ga f . but some are modi ed: dda ddha kma tta hna dya t . +f . + . in which case they are read from top to bottom: m. it is often only in combination with other particular symbols. for example: t.z . + ma Y .

or even further to M . For example: .=. c.A 55 The symbol k ka may be compressed to K . . and l .a or . for example: .a + va :p.Ra i.a + va Z. ca l. +k k .a or Zva a or a or Z. + R  R rr . ca *: P kka kta sva sca The symbol Za is often written as  or  in combination. or :pl Sa or . +  .Dva. for example: k .ca *.=.a + . rl . + . there are no obvious absolute rules.a + va. + l Q or tva :p.Lesson 7.e.: rdhv a This form is also used when ra is the only consonant before the vowels r .a + . + ta Z. + :pa :pRa rpa . + t. The symbol ra changes form in compounds. It always appears in a vertical arrangement and is read in the sequence top to bottom.a .a + l .=.a + . ca V. Ideas that familiar forms are right and others wrong should be avoided: both proportions and angles of the symbols may be varied.D. . When ra comes at the beginning of a compound it takes the form of a hook above the line the same as above the d rgha  : it is attached above the rightmost vertical of a compound.=.. cca or l While there may be di erent conventions and styles for making compounds.a or Vca The same group of symbols can be found in di erent forms: n ~ca ktva pla cca lla k .

but it is quite straightforward to pronounce halanta s .= + ya gya grya m. it is represented by a small diagonal stroke: :p.a + Va : a j~ na Although these two sam . + ya mya mrya Normally the symbols for a sam . re ect their sounds which are somewhat di erent from their components.a + . hya position as for the normal pronunciation of ka. yoga are constructed from their component symbols and are quite obvious to see. A practical method of approaching the pronunciation of these two sounds is o ered next. there are two which are quite di erent from their component parts: 7. a and j~ k .A.= Xa tra note the truncation of the ta  This form is retained when ra appears in the middle of a cluster of consonants: g. ks .a + .= f . a is that the tip of the tongue is raised to the m urdhanya position before sounding the halanta 7.= d .56 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory When ra is nal in a compound. ra t. Now.= :pra d f " pra dra t .a + .t .=. and their construction re ects their pronunciation. the prolonged halanta s .A.4 Pronunciation of ks .$. However. yoga may be separated into their component parts when. + . the alphabetical order is required in looking up a word in the dictionary.a + . the important point is that the tip of the tongue is in the m urdhanya position throughout.3 Special Conjunct Consonants ks na . a begins with halanta ka. The idea may be novel. sound halanta ka through the sound of halanta s .a .a prolonged: try it. + . + :Sa a for example. Before sounding the halanta ka the breath is fully cut o by the back of the tongue in the kan . the di erence for ks . the symbols being so di erent from their components.e.a .a | i.

Lesson 7.A

57

ka. This means that halanta ks . a may by sounded repeatedly without moving the tip of the tongue from the m urdhanya position. This sound is reminiscent of
ten-year-olds playing cops and robbers! Although the ks . a is originally formed by halanta ka joining with a following s .a i.e. k + s . a ks . a, and may be thus separated when, for example, the alphabetical order is required in looking up a word in the dictionary, the pronunciation, as re ected in the changed symbol, is in practice  k . + a. s . +s

7.A.5 Pronunciation of j~ na
The pronunciation of this is similar to the French `J' as in `Jean-Jacques', or as in the `z' sound in the English words `mirage', `rouge', `measure', or `vision'; but in all cases it is sounded through the t alavya mouth position, and is strongly nasalized. As a practical method of approaching this sound, begin by sounding the English `hiss' and holding the sibilant | this sibilant is much like the Sanskrit halanta sa. Now sound the English `his', again holding the sibilant: note that the di erence between these sibilants is that the vocal cords vibrate for `his' and not for `hiss'. Now with the tongue in the t alavya position, sound a prolonged halanta sa. And then repeat the sound but allowing the vocal cords to vibrate | with some imagination, this is beginning to sound like a prolonged halanta ja, which is of course, impossible to sound. Now repeat this voiced sound allowing it to be strongly nasalized. This is about as close as one can get to describing the sound of halanta j~ na. There are two common errors in sounding j~ na. Firstly, the halanta j~ na tends to be followed by an additional nasal consonant before the vowel i.e. j~ n+n ~ + a; the halanta j~ na is a single sound. Secondly, the nasalization is often carried over into the vowel: to correct this, practise sounding aj~ na, attending to both a sounds, which should be the same. Although the j~ na is originally formed by halanta ja joining with a following n ~a i.e. j + n ~a j~ na, and may be thus separated when, for example, the alphabetical order is required in looking up a word in the dictionary, the pronunciation, as j re ected in the changed symbol, is in practice  n ~  + a.

58

A Practical Sanskrit Introductory

7.A.6 List of Conjunct Consonants
The following is a standard list of conjunct consonants, arranged in alphabetical order: simply read through the list and you will nd that most of the symbols are easily recognizable.
*: kka P " ktra k^+.a kya a ks .a gya gya ;Gya ghya *: nks _ .a *: ngha _ z_a nya _ . cya cya : ya j~ nya *.a\a n ~cma f]a t . ya *" d . ghra :Nf n .t .a :NQ n .d . ha tk tkra Wa tna tya tya t=+:ya tsnya Y dda .;[ dbha d dva Ka kkha P " ^+.a ktrya k kra ma ks . ma ga gra ;Gra ghra *+. nks _ . va *+:a nghya _ Sa cca T chya .$ma jma *.a]a n ~cya F:_a t . hya *d .d . ha :NF n .t . ha :NNa n .n .a Va tta Wya tnya Xa tra Tya thya Y+a ddya .;d;a dbhya d;a dvya :ca kca Q ktva k^+.a krya ya ks . ya gya grya *: nka _ *; nkha _ *:" nghra _ . cC ccha C " chra .$ya jya VC n ~cha F " t . hra *;a d . ma :Nq n .d .a :Nma n . ma Vya ttya tpa tpa Xya trya .[ dga .;d ddha [+a dma :a dhna Na kn .a *: kna *: kla va ks . va *+ ghna *: nkta _ *+;a nkhya _ *: n _ na _ . cC " cchra *.a jja .$"a jra *+ n ~ja .* d . ga q:_a d . ya :Nq:_a n .d . ya :Nya n . ya +;Za ttra tpra tpra tva tva .[" dgra .;d;a ddhya d;a dya :a]a dhnya P kta *:^+.a knya *: kva K.ya khya *+]a ghnya *+:a nktya _ *: nga _ *: nna _ *.a c~ na jJa jjha .$va jva *+]a n ~jya .*+.a d . gya Q._a d . hya :Nq " n .d . ra :Nva n . va Vva ttva tma tma tsa tsa .[ dgha .[ dna d dra ;D .a dhma P^+.a ktya R kma *:^+.a kvya K.'a khra ;Gma ghma *+;a nkya _ *+.a ngya _ *+; nma _ . cma cma : a j~ na *.a n ~ca *t .t .a *d . gha Q " d . hra :Nq " ]a. n .d . rya tk tka tTa ttha t ya tmya t=+:a tsna .[" dghra d dba d;a drya ;Dya dhya

Lesson 7.A
;Dra dhra nd nda npra npra ya ptya :p; pla b.d bda b.ya bya Bva bhva mma mma yva yva va lva a sca ; sla :" s .t . ra :Spa s . pa .~Ka skha .=+:a sna .~ya sya ;Drya dhrya nd ndra n .a nma :pa pna :pva pva b.Da bdha b.ra bra :a mna ya mya k lka h lha ya scya ;a sva : " ]a. s .t . rya :Spra s . pra .~ta sta .=+:ya snya .~:a sra h:a hya ;Dva dhva nDa ndha nya nya :ppa ppa :psa psa +;a bna +;a bva .pa mpa ma mra pa lpa +;a vna a sna ;ya svya : s .t . va :Sma s . ma .~tya stya .~.pa spa .~va sva :h hra nta nta nDra ndhra na nra :pma pma :p~va psva +;a bba B.a bhna .pra mpra + mla ma lma v.ya vya Zya sya ZZa s sa : s .t . ha :Sya s . ya .~:Za stra .~.P spha .ssa ssa a hla ntya ntya a nna nsa nsa :pya pya b.Ga bgha b.Ba bbha Bya bhya ba mba va mva ya lya v.ra vra ra sra : s .t .a :SNa s .n .a :Sva s . va .~tva stva .sma sma ` hn .a ` hva n:Za ntra npa npa a pta :pra pra b.ia bja

59

b.Bya bbhya Bra bhra Ba mbha yya yya

lla +;a vva rya srya : ]a s .t . ya :SNya s .n . ya .~k ska .~Ta stha .s ya smya ` hna

hma

Just as a matter of interest, the greatest number of conjunct consonants in a real word is ve: the usual example quoted for this is k+:a;t=+:yRa k artsnya.

The table does not cover all possible combinations of consonants, but, on the other hand, it does contain many that are quite rare and which you may never come across in print. So, having worked through the table, you may be con dent that you will be able to decipher any sam . yoga that you may meet.

out of. the derivation of attention. in alphabetical order they are: . its meaning alters. this is also the case in English.1 Verbal Pre xes attend contend distend extend intend portend pretend subtend at-. and they carry the sense of this compound as though it were a separate dh atu. wholly dis-.B. it may prove di cult to arrive at the meanings of the particular verbs. towards. to stretch: when a pre x is appended to it. in por-. Again. before sub-. For example with pre x meanings given: p Assuming that the meaning of these verbs is already understood more or less. instead of pre-. Other words may be derived from that pre xed verb. at con-. attentive. then a grasp of their etymological derivation from the root and pre xes should contribute to enlarging that understanding.B 7. The situation is Sanskrit is similar: the meaning of a pre xed verb as a compound needs to be looked up in the dictionary. A pre x. away ex-. together. The grammarians list just twenty-two of these. when appended to a verb. which will also give its component parts of pre xes and dh atu. it can be appreciated that that the pre xes are instrumental in modifying the original root to give its particular meaning. as for example. under The English verb `to tend' derives from the pie root ten. given the meanings of these verbs. instead of. which may then be separately looked up. before. is called an upasarga in Sanskrit grammar. attendant. but the converse is not necessarily so: given the meanings of the root and pre xes only. apart. with. very in-.Lesson 7. to. attendance. towards. from the verb `attend'.

to. less. at near. a familiarity with the Sanskrit forms will be useful. along. forth back. and should not be learned. following away. away. to take away pra-hr . above. hard bad. forward. surpassing. about before. on. di cult. An upasarga may simply emphasize the original sense of the dh atu. at. but usually modi es the sense. to. forth over. implying separation or dispersion with. from. close. across. out. into away. upwards. from towards. conjoined with good. to hit  a-hr . like.B 61 beyond. for example: dh atu hr . forth. well The above list is included here for reference only. on. above towards. reversing up. into. o . fore against. backwards. near. from. di cult. to abandon atiadhianuapaapiabhiava audupadurdusninirnispar aparipraprativisamsu- . towards. onto after. to a distance around. forth. onward. into.Lesson 7. near. upon. towards. over. past. under. against. down. towards. back. to roam pari-hr . return. opposite down. reversing apart. sometimes the changes is so great as to make the sense of the original dh atu quite unrecognizable. next to. to eat sam-hr . out. together. along with. to excess over. o . proximate to. under bad. excellent. away. away. forth away. however. to. again. out. near. hard down. back. on. return. asunder. out. in. to destroy vi-hr .

1.Ba.a va.a .a.l+.a.vaH 2.ta 3. You pl. g Translate the following sentences into Sanskrit using Roman transliteration: 1. ca .l+.a. na:=.m.a.a A:. a. The man takes the tree from the horse for the girl. carry the trees pl.ta. in a good English dictionary.a.A.a na:=+~ya A:..a na. na:=+~ya vxa. . b By now the alphabet should be familiar: practise writing all the characters of the alphabet with particular attention to their proportions see the note at the end of 4.l+.m.a.l e ba. a. a. ba.a.a. e Write the following sentences in Roman transliteration: 1.a vxa.Ba. 6.a. to see how their meanings link to the given etymology.a. A:. 4.taH .a vxa.. +taH va.h.aH 5.ya.~ya :P+.n.ya va.aH :P+. The horses pl.l+.l+.a. given 7.a. of the tree.a.d.a. to the man.n.aH 6.tea f Now translate the sentences in e into English.na na:=+a.2 Exercises a Practise sounding the alphabetical order as summarized in 3.5.a. c Write out a fair copy of the devan agar sentences given in e below. 5. d Look up the words `attend' etc.l+.A. The girl and the horse go among the trees pl. for fruit pl.a.ntea ba.ByaH l+. ca vxa.m. na:=+aH 4.l+. 2.yEa l+.a.B.t.1.ya.tea A:.a. carry the fruit pl.h.~ya :P+.B. 3. You two lead the horse to the fruit pl. a. ba.62 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory 7. The girl's horses two take the fruit pl.a. for the men pl.a.H ba.l+. from the tree by horse. h Now write your answers to g in devan agar .a ba.

a .ea**: sabda. before an u s .pa. man or repha in the Vedas. which is just the bindu `dot' above the vowel.e. `moon-dot'. For grammatical purposes. a. ^ This symbol is rare. kh. gh. A is A sounded through both nose and mouth together.A.4 are called savarn . and is traditionally pronounced as a soft gna  gna . stha y l and v may also be nasalized.Y.a. it is pronounced like a half visarga. i. the measure of contact or openness | see section 3. a group of ve sounds. the rest of the word being provided from the context.A. This marks the end of a verse or paragraph.  and their mouth positions di er. a `same group'. te 0pi.1 Special Symbols The following symbols are not strictly part of the alphabet.e. .A. and upadhm an ya when before p or ph. 3. g.pa is pronounced . a.pa for .Lesson 8. Contrast this with AM .2 are savarn .a. and is called jihv am ul ya when before k or kh.m.tea A. This means that the ka-varga sounds k. and n _ | see section 2. even though 8. where the anusv ara. Y The elision of an A at the beginning of a word due to the rules of sandhi. placed above a vowel indicates that the vowel itself is nasalized. ava An abbreviation is indicated by this sign. called candrabindu lit. ? The mystical symbol Om ~ pronounced A. are also declared to be savarn .a and called the pran . For example. for example. Those sounds which are pronounced in the same mouth position and with the same e ort within the mouth itself i.2 Savarn .A. likewise ca-varga through to pa-varga each form a savarn . is indicated with this symbol called avagraha: it is not sounded.A 8.a. See section 3.tea.e.a. but constitute special symbols such as punctuation: This punctuation mark is used at the end of a half-verse or sentence.2. The antah . in transliteration it is represented by an apostrophe or prime mark. You may also nd it written as gM.A.tea. This symbol indicates a compulsory anusv ara i. This symbol. is a nasal sound following after the vowel.

but not before an antah .a nasal before a spar sa the twenty.sa.ea.z . The second tradition is much like the pronunciation of `n' in English: sound the words `wink'.ve from ka to ma.a -like further South.sMa. if the following consonant is a spar sa one of the twenty. follows the tradition of substituting the savarn .64 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory 8. in his dictionary. saptan as .a as . and so on.A.3 Nasal Substitution for Anusv ara The anusv ara see section 1. ordered 0 to 9: 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . and . an navan da signi cance. -like sound in Northern India.A. Before ya la or va the anusv ara may optionally be sounded as a nasalized version of that letter.t .*:+. Here are the ten numerals in devan agar script. and m. pa. stha.a. `winch'.ya.ea. It would be useful for these lessons at least to practise that method. as .ve from k to ma then the anusv ara is sounded as the nasal of the same mouth position as the following letter | thus .A.V a.ga may be pronounced as . a with the following consonant.4 Devan agar Numerals The numbers one to ten respectively are expressed in Sanskrit as eka dva tri catur pa~ ncan s san.7 arises through the rules of sandhi: primarily it is the replacement for a nal m before a consonant.sa.sa. Monier-Williams.sMa:: a. so that 1234 is written as 1234.e. The numerals use the familiar order of .yya. for example . i.k+: pa is pronounced . and `wind' | prolonging the nasal if necessary | and note that the mouth position is determined by the following letter. 8. There are two traditions for pronouncing the anusv ara: one tradition always pronounces it as an anusv ara a .ga.sMa. the other tradition substitutes the nasal that is savarn .

' indicates the str -linga _ form in declension. follows through all declensions in tr y a eka-vacana and s bahu-vacana. pum _ ending in . alpam naram alp alpa.B. beautiful. an .t . small sundara. a precedes the noun which it quali es. In Monier-Williams' dictionary a vi ses . The sandhi rule changing n to n . nar . . mf an. an . As may be seen from the above examples. the vi ses . For example: alp a sundar b al a tis . attractive The small men pl. .1 More Noun Declensions The pr atipadika form of nouns may end in letters other than those considered thus far: the table on the next page includes the three declension previously covered and adds agni  re. an . it may be declined in all three genders as required by a vi ses a' and ` ' inserted after the .2 Adjectives An adjective vi ses . guru teacher.t . -linga -u. Thus using alpa small. requiring the vi ses . but it would be useful to spend some time observing the di erences between the declensions. h 8.B 8. -linga . a quali es a noun: it is dependent the noun as an attribute. an . and the ` `f' of `mfn.B. carry the small man from the small man. i. in the feminine. and sundar like nad . an . This dependence manifests in the grammar.' stands form `masculine-feminine-neuter'. following r or s . These declensions need not be practised. a. and nad str -linga _ ending in - .e. we could have: alp ah ah at nar at vahanti . thus alp a declines like b al a. mf n. as . handsome. pum _ ending in -i. hati The small beautiful girl stands. a is listed in the form: where `mfn. t . case and number. a to agree with the noun in gender.Lesson 8.

phalayoh . he nadyah . agn n am agnis . b al abhih . he b al ah . he guravah . gurus . agnayah . b al abhyah . phalebhyah . nad bhih .u Masculine in -i agnih . agn n agnibhih .u phalam he phala phalam phalena phal aya phal at phalasya phale phale he phale phale phal abhy am phal abhy am phal abhy am phalayoh . he guro gurum gurun a . nad h . b al ay am b ale he b ale b ale b al abhy am b al abhy am b al abhy am b alayoh . agneh . b al ah . agnibhyah . b al abhyah . phalebhyah . nady ah . nar ah . gurau gur u he gur u gur u gurubhy am gurubhy am gurubhy am gurvoh . narayoh . agnyoh . phal an am phales . nadyah .u nad he nadi nad m nady a nadyai nady ah . gurvoh . agnibhyah . nad bhyah . he agne agnim agnin a agnaye agneh . nar an naraih . he nara nar am naren .u . nad bhyah . narebhyah . nares . b al ah .a nar aya nar ay at nar asya nare narau he narau narau nar abhy am nar abhy am nar abhy am narayoh . gur un a  m .u b al a he b ale b al am b alay a b al ayai b al ay ah . he agnayah . gurubhyah . b al ay ah . gurave guroh . nady am nadyau he nadyau nadyau nad bhy am nad bhy am nad bhy am nadyoh . nadyoh . guravah . b al an am b al asu Masculine in -u Feminine in - guruh . agnau agn he agn agn agnibhy am agnibhy am agnibhy am agnyoh . Feminine in - a phal ani he phal ani phal ani phalaih . narebhyah . b alayoh . gur un gurubhih . nar an a  m . gurubhyah . nad n am nad s .66 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory Declension Paradigms Masculine in -a Neuter in -a narah . he nar ah . guroh .

tea he takes p va.a f. beautiful.3 Adverbs An adverb kriy a-vi ses .a.d.ta he speaks p va. an .ta.ta .h va.tea he leads p l+..a. a.a.a ga. a m.B.B.l n.ya. small mf n.ta he carries .2 .a avyaya mf an. river na:= m. using the adverb s ghram quickly: narah s ghram gacchati .a ind. the man goes quickly.m. p . +a.d .Lesson 8.B.a.a.~Ta.B.Ba. re A:.sua.nd:= vi ses .cC+.a. man :P+.a na. pa . 8.a m. It is usually found immediately before the verb.ta he goes p na.h. thus lesson 9..4 Vocabulary Summary The following is a complete list of all the vocabulary used in this course: kriy a p ga. handsome ind. quickly I+. va.ta he stands A.a l+.d. a quali es a verb: it is indeclinable avyaya. girl vxa.a .gna n aman m. fruit ba. ca ind.B 67 8. tree A. and Za. horse gua: m.m.a. teacher na.Gra. an .a f. for example.l+.

ta.68 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory 8.a.a.cC+. 2.m.tea 2 .a ga.a. The girl of the teacher stands on the handsome horse.a.nd:=+a. The teacher of the girl stands in the small river.ta 1 na:=.a na.a.a.l+. 3.ta 6 d Now translate the sentences in c into English.m.a ba.A. pa.a l+.5 Exercises a Practise sounding the alphabetical order as summarized in 3. .Ea .sua.H A.gna.yea Za.l+.ya. 5. aH ..Gra.a.. +a.a vxa. a.m. paH vxa. 4.a A:.t.Bea. c Write the following sentences in Roman transliteration: ba.nd:= +a ba.sua. e Translate the following sentences into Sanskrit using Roman transliteration: 1.nd:=e A.tea 4 gua:=+vaH A.sua.m. The beautiful girl leads the man to the small teacher quickly.a na. pa.a l+.ya.a.ntea 5 A.a.d .d.a.Ba.a.Ea na.gna.sua. The girl carries the small fruit to the man's teacher.t.a.m.nd:=+a.m.sua.m.a . a.a. The teacher stands among the beautiful fruit of the small tree.a na:=+a.t. b Practise reading and writing the ten numerals in devan agar . The man's teacher goes to the river by horse.a A.gna. a.a vxa.t.a A.l+.5.Na :P+.na A.a .a na.a A:.nd:=+m.m. 6.a A. pa. f Now write your answers to e in devan agar .a.a.B.l+.m.m.a. pa.tea 3 na:=+Ea .

0 1 2 3 4 + 5 6 7 8 9 .

4 9 8 7 3 2 1 6 0 5 + .

in continuous speech the accent is a ected by the accents on adjacent syllables.tyMa : a. the accent system is not as simple as illustrated above: rstly.1 Vowels Accents Accent is the sounding of a vowel at a higher or lower pitch or tone svara. Where these are marked in the dictionary in Roman transliteration. the ud atta and svarita will be indicated by the acute and grave accent marks respectively. Sanskrit is either sounded with the pitch accent described above.ps* English has a stress accent system e. For a fuller treatment of the subject see ftp: ftp. or in eka sruti.za wikner accent.ntMa b.A The next three sections may be considered as informational only. the vertical line above the syllable indicates svarita. secondly.ac.!a. nally. the marking system may be simpli ed so that many anud atta are also not marked.s!a.Lesson 9. listen to the `to' syllable in `photograph' and `photographer'.  saty am n an am. the accent is not marked.g. Thus the above example in transliteration would be: In practice. and ud atta syllables are not marked. and a combination of the two or moving tone svarita. for example: The horizontal bar under the syllable indicates anud atta. but there is no stress system in Sanskrit indeed there should be no stress at all in the study of Sanskrit!.n!a. 9.nac. a neutral accentless tone. In classical Sanskrit texts. the notation system di ers among the various Vedas. not raised anud atta. .na.ma. There are three tones: raised ud atta. These are only marked in the Veda. they are provided for completeness.ra.A.

anant am ahm.

ea . and just as one has derivatives of the familiar form as A.Ea .2 Variations in Devan agar Alphabet Just as there are variations in the Roman alphabet e. a .A. so one has ..g. E . br 9.ea A. a and a. j~ . so there are variations in devan agar : some of the less obvious ones are illustrated below: This is an alternate form of A.a . This is a variation of the form O.Ea.a A.

a L h The following are variations in the numerals: =1=1 =6=6 =4=4 =8=8 = = =5=5 =9=9 As was mentioned in Lesson 7. a. yoga 9.A. Another form of the Vedic anusv ara see 8. O A variation of ` hna.A. An alternative form of : a j~ na. but far less common. A radically di erent form of :Na. Vedic form of Q. P An alternative of a hla. a a a gM. Q Another form of ` hva. similarly for . An alternative form of Ja. starting from Lesson 1: now that you are more familiar with the alphabet. A rarer form of the Vedic anusv ara. Another variant of Ja. This is a variation of the form for a ks .q. This would be a good time to lightly revise all the notes about the alphabet.1.3 Variations in Sam . 9. there are a few that are sometimes not obvious: D x dr This is a quite common form of d . you may nd that much of the information now is clearer. there are no hard and fast rules governing the formation of a sam .A.72 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory This is another form of . however. yoga. Vedic form of . J a . . Obviously the same as l. and the following page is a reference sheet of the character shapes of the alphabet.4 Revision The next page has a summary of the information about the alphabet. .

ea.d.a.nua.a.a I IR o   a  ta._a | A.a.nya z | l .pra.a.ya.a O.ya z | z k+:NF+. pa.gRa A A.v.pra. ah .na.  l .a.Na ma.tea :tEa o ta.ea.h.Ea AM AH  . Oe.ya mUa.a. .Ga : . ca C .z .sa :pa :P ba Ba ma va 9 = .ntya k+:NF+.Sa .a .a.Wa - : .sa.ZRa .a. tUa ._a z | r .na k+:NF:_a ta.vxa.Da na l .Sa A.l+.l+.ta Za h : 9 = +:Sma. .v. | z A.DRa.ea.~.v. twa R d.t~.Ga.ta.Sa.ea._a 8 k Ka .ea A.a.a tua .a.Sa.ntaH+~Ta IR +.DRa. .a. A.va.ea.P z a ta k+:NF:_a | ta.ta ta.ya.~. e ai tWa R .a.ntya A. ga .a.a:= .Ea tMa taH exceptions: Alphabetical Order v.Bya. ta.k A.sa.= :Sa 8 ta Ta d .h:a :pra.Lesson 9.$a Ja Va ya f F .ya z | z | A.nya d.Ga.pxa.a.ya:*+.q Q :Na .Na ba. 8 IR +.l+.pxa.ea au am .nua. txa  R mUa.nta:= :pra.Wa - A.n.pa.A 73 Za. A.r tXa R i  u u  .~va.

Da na l .sa o :pa :P ba Ba ma va .z I .= :Sa ta Ta d . ca C .q Q :Na .74 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory A k Ka ga .Ga .$a Ja Va ya h Za  f F .

t kriy a vadati. The kriy a type includes the basic kriy a verbs derived from a dh atu and the n ama-dh atu verbs derived from nouns. . and nip ata particle. n aman noun. from what follows: in the above example.A 75 9. even if the word `gacch ami' were omitted. so the above may equally be translated as: He says that he is going by horse. an . and the nominal quali er or adjective vi ses _ . The nip ata are avyaya indeclinable.B. The upasarga verbal pre x has been discussed in 7. The n aman type includes the basic n aman common noun etymologically derived from a dh atu. as well as the verbal quali er kriy a-vi ses . . the sarva-n aman pronoun.Lesson 9. Note that iti grammatically isolates the phrase or sentence before it. 9. and the nip ata particle is a catch-all for the remaining types of word. which conjugate according purus . personal name or technical term whose . j~ meaning cannot be etymologically determined. typically referring to something that has been said. and so on.1 Types of Words Sanskrit grammarians traditionally describe four types of words: kriy a verb.1. This isolating function of iti may also be used to separate a de nition from the word being de ned. There is no system of indirect or reported speech in Sanskrit. or a grammatical rule from an example of its application.B. the tr ya vibhakti of a svena is not related to the . an . a which is indeclinable avyaya. The n aman and kriy a have the fundamental notions of `being' and `becoming' respectively. and although they are separate words they are not used by themselves: words of this class are ca and and he vocative particle. a: all these decline according to linga vacana and vibhakti.a vacana and lak ara." he says. the sam n a proper noun. For example: a svena gacch ami iti vadati I am going by horse.2 Use of iti The nip ata iti means `thus': it lays stress on what precedes it. it is the Sanskrit equivalent of inverted commas.B. upasarga verbal pre x.

na na:=+a.Gra.a.a.m. a.a.gna.d.sua. e Translate the following sentences into Sanskrit using Roman transliteration: 1.~ya :P+.l e va. pa.a.ta 3 :P+.h.B.l+.m.l+. 2.EaH Za. once familiar with the relationship of the alphabetical order to the diagram.H :P+..d. for fruit pl.h. 4.a.tea I+.a .m.l+.yEa va. The beautiful girl leads the horse to the small trees pl.l+.Ba. You pl.3 Exercises a Practise sounding the alphabetical order which should be familiar by now following it through the diagram on page 73.a.ea.a. Associating the sound letter with its position on the chart provides a visual `short-cut' to where a sound letter is in relation to the alphabetical order as a whole: this will prove to be a very useful trick when using the dictionary." the girl says to the teacher. . in the form given in the chart on page 74 ideally h should be on a line by itself.a vxa. a.a.h.ta ba.na l+.Ea A.a.ta 2 A:.ya va.t.H va.a A.a.sea I+.a va. thereafter practice sounding the order while following the alphabet chart on page 74. I am taking the fruit pl.d .76 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory 9.ya.m.a A.ma 5 na.a A:.na ba.l+. 6.a.a.aH vxa. paH na:=.m.a A:. from the girl's tree.a.a vxa. c Write the following sentences in Roman transliteration: na:=.a ba. a.ta A.ya. are quickly taking the girl's fruit two to the man.nd:= +a.a.l e na.a. The man says to the girl that he is carrying the tree to the river. The man and girl go to the handsome teacher by river.a.m. to the horse.a.m.a. 3.taH 1 :he gua:=+ea ba. f Now write your answers to e in devan agar . pa. We two take the fruit pl. 5. a. b Write out the alphabet once per day.a.a va.a.h.ta 6 d Now translate the sentences in c into English.taH 4 vxa.

and the other a long measure. Why should that be? Looking at it doesn't help. the letters are symbols representing the sounds: in Sanskrit the notation changes when the sound changes.A 10. try swapping the sibilants around: `catz and dogs'. We shall examine external sandhi broadly and Sandhi applies whenever two sounds come together | and this is the point: it is . Have you heard why it is so? Well. a. but each has its own eld of special cases and exceptions. they are both replaced by a long IR .Lesson 10. So. you need to sound it. phrase `cats and dogs'. and this is one of the reasons that foreigners mutter darkly about English spelling! The rules of sandhi only make sense in sound and not in writing: thus it is important. inasmuch as it is not sounded. and for the various pronunciations of the English letter `n' mentioned in that section 8.A. The rules also apply between words as they come together to form a sentence: this is called external sandhi. This is the principle behind the nasal substitution for the anusv ara that was considered earlier. and to hear that sound. isn't it? So there is an English sandhi rule that a sibilant preceded by an unvoiced consonant is unvoiced. internal to an individual word. when reading the written word. and for the ease of pronunciation.1 Introduction to Sandhi Sandhi `placing together' is the principle of sounds coming together naturally and harmoniously.A. The apostrophe functions somewhat like the avagraha Y. which is to say without awkwardness or tongue-twisting. and preceded by a voiced consonant it is voiced ghos . the English script does not do this. Di cult. consider the English Sandhi applies to vowels too: consider how he is" becomes he's". sounded | and that's the key | you will hear that both vowels have the same sound: certainly one has a short measure. when a long IR meets a short I. to sound it aloud or in the mind at least. In the written form. The rules of internal and external sandhi are largely the same. external to the individual words. and thus it has an inherently phonetic script. which is pronounced as `cats and dogz'.3. When sounds coming together. The rules of sandhi apply within a word as it is being developed from its elemental components to its fully in ected form: this is called internal sandhi. Sandhi applies to other consonants besides nasals: for example. It is quite natural. but the sound is the same.

and A.78 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory only lightly touch on internal sandhi as it a ects the declension of formed words. a as the three vowels A O.l. namely A. There are only six principles that cover all cases: it is not necessary to learn these. a by the addition of a further measure of A. ar  ar l . 3 The vrddhi form of . and vr .a. Also V stands for any vowel.2 al  al 3 A useful way of considering gun . and A.5. ddhi gun .a Oe. . ddhi form 1 a a  a  a  a  a   1 e ai  u  o au   r . and also gives the means for deriving the strengthened forms of the other two simple vowels  and . arises when a word ending in a vowel is followed by a word beginning with a vowel. ddhi as A. simple vowel 10. and the macron    long measure only. a. the d rgha measure does not occur. a `secondary form' and vr . does not arise in the grammar. . unless explicitly restricted. P an . a and Vr . combined     they indicate a long or short vowel. the breve    above the vowel indicates a short measure only. in the same sentence or line of poetry: a vowel nal is not changed before a consonant or in pausa. 2 In the grammatical formation of words. The breve  and macron  diacritical marks. In these notes. a form vr .A. and vr . for example. ddhi as the strengthening of the gun .2 Gun .ea. at the end of a sentence.Ea. . as you would expect. This process has been described in Section 1. used together   indicate a long or short measure of the vowel. ini de nes gun .A. but what is important is to understand them.A.3 Vowel Sandhi Vowel sandhi. 10. is the strengthening of the ve simple vowels by the addition of a single measure of A so as to leave A itself unchanged. and that means to work through each principle | in sound | and understand that they are simply statements of the obvious. ddhi `increase' can be considered as degrees of strengthening of the three primary vowels. The grammatical terms gun .

  e  +u o  + r . the rst vowel is replaced by the antah . so that when  meets  or . the vr . stha of the same mouth position:   + V  yV  u  + V  vV   r . a or vr .  ar + l . the result is .A 79 1.2. long meet a vowel of the same kind hrasva or d rgha.  al 3. a replaces both. + V  rV . they are both replaced by the d rgha measure of that vowel.  a  u   r . 2. When A hrasva or d rgha is followed by a gun .A. When A hrasva or d rgha is followed by one of the ve simple vowels other than A hrasva or d rgha. ddhi sound replaces both. When a simple vowel hrasva or d rgha other than a is followed by a di erent vowel.l + V  lV where V stands for any di erent vowel.   a+   +  u +   r . Note that is not shown here. gun .4 and that  and are savarn . short or d rgha. a Section 8. +   a    u    r . When one of the ve simple vowels hrasva.Lesson 10. It was mentioned earlier that the d rgha measure of is not used in the grammar Section 1. +   a   a   a   a . ddhi sound.   a + e  ai   a + o  au   a + ai  ai   a + au  au 4.A.

 r .-a  r . -ra-r a-ri-r -ru-r u- r .- r . the A is elided and replaced by an avagraha. stha may then optionally be elided: generally it is only retained when the preceding vowel was au.l.- a l.- r .-ye-yai-yo-yau-  -u  -va-v a-vi-v - u- u-vr .- av r . e + a  e0 o + a  o0 - a1  - a- a-e-e-o-o-ar-2 -ar-al-ai-ai-au-au- -  -ya-y a- - -yu-y u-yr . is no substitute for understanding the principles in sound. stha of the same mouth position. All the information on vowel sandhi may be conveniently displayed in tabular form | called a sandhi grid | which. when O. -la-l a-li-l -lu-l u- r . e + V  a + i + V  ayV  a V ai + V   a+i +V ayV   aV o + V  a + u + V  avV  a V au + V   a+u+V avV where V stands for any vowel.-a l.-a e-a ai-a o-a au- -ai - a a- a a-a i- a - a i- au - ar .-yl.-a l. When a compound vowel e ai o au is followed by another vowel.-vl. and overriding it.- r .- a e- a ai- a o- a au- -o -o 0-a  a-a  -a  -a u-a u -a r . -2 -v r .-le-lai-lo-lau- -e -e 0 -a  a-a i-a  -a u-a u -a r . -2 -y r . or A. The antah . As a quite non-obvious exception to the above rule.-re-rai-ro-rau- Final Vowel -l.ea are followed by hrasva A.- av r . though useful in its own way.- r .-ve-vai-vo-vau- -  r .80 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory 5.eaioau- .-a  r . 6. and i or u and the second of those parts is replaced by the antah .-a e- a ai-a o-a au- -au - ava- av a- avi- av - avu- av u- avr .- ave- avai- avo- avau- Following Vowel aa i uu r . it splits into its component parts a or  a.- a r .

1 81 Note: l r . where sandhi rules do not operate. are included in the table for completeness.4 Exceptions to Vowel Sandhi There are some exceptions. a is the process whereby an antah . retained. This is the complement to rule 4 in 10. b. cch-ati from dh prach. .A. as a word initial.A The breve    above the vowel indicates a short measure only. the basic vowel may be replaced by its hrasva equivalent.a vowel of the same mouth position and the following vowel is elided. . . but they One thing that the table does illustrate. . or verbs ending in d rgha IR . called pragr .ea: these are usually interjections or exclamations. The terminations of duals whether nouns. c. rather like the English `Ah' and `Oh'. sthah . hya `to be taken separately'. combined     they indicate a long or short vowel. and pr atu .. 10.whether either or both of the original a's were long or not. easy and easily.A. the grid cannot determine from - a. is that resolving a given sandhi into its components is not at all straightforward: for example. Examples of this are ij-ya derived from dh atu yaj.A.. 10.. does not occur as a word nal. or ending in A.5 Sampras aran . uc-atha from dh atu vac. holy and holiness.3. Prolonged pluta vowels.  or O. as for example. Sampras aran . nor l . sup-ta from dh atu svap. 2 Optionally. is replaced by the simple A similar process occurs in English when a nal `y' is replaced by `i' before adding another su x. for example: mah a+r s i  mahars i or mahar s i . For external sandhi these are: a.Lesson 10. Particles consisting of a single vowel. and neither  . and the r . pronouns. while it is clear that -a + aproduces - a-. beauty and beautiful. and the macron    long measure only.

B 10. a etc.B. attentiveness the state of having the quality of attending. as it were. as: bread-winner full-grown light-weight roof-garden break-down ginger-beer old-fashioned single-minded double-decker heart-shaped pony-tail store-room far-fetched hot-house red-hot whole-hearted re. as in the following English examples: bedroom reside headache screwdriver blackbird gingerbread housekeeping sightseeing breakfast greenback newspaper songwriter daydream haircut paperback sunrise dressmaker handwriting rattlesnake wheelbarrow The compound word may simply be a conveniently brief way of expressing a longer phrase e.y lamp-post right-handed world-wide . these su xes may be concatenated. `inattentiveness'.1. reman. the process in English is similar. from the verb `attend' given in 8. to make it into an object that is manifest and knowable. and further pre xes may be added. When a compound is not yet fully accepted in English writing e. where it may cause one to stumble when reading it. This ` xing' of the meaning is accomplished by the addition of a su x pratyaya. attentive having the quality of attending. As shown by the last word in this list. attendance the action of attending.g. or express a speci c idea related to its parts e. Words thus ` xed' by a su x pratyaya may be joined together to form a compound word. pigtail : a plait of hair hanging down from the back of the head from its resemblance to the tail of a pig .1 Introduction to Compound Words The dh atu root is the basic form of a word denoting verbal activity: in order to form a noun n aman or adjective vi ses . gravestone : stone marking a grave. or may have a meaning quite di erent from its parts e.g.Lesson 10.g..B. for example. an . this activity needs to `freeze'. attention the quality of attending.g. it is hyphenated. are derived: attendant one who attends. as for example.

words are joined together in writing except after words ending in a vowel.a. pea. anusv ara or visarga. of these four main classes. then the four classes of sam asa may be indicated as: AB dvandva meaning `A and B' AB tatpurus . prathama. only the last member appears to decline.ea. a compound word sam asa is always written without a break. Sanskrit makes extensive use of the sam asa. that it is unusual to nd a sentence without a sam asa. a person = rst person. .a:.ea.na.cC+. or special cases. A sam asa is formed by simply placing the pr atipadika stem forms together and applying the sandhi rules at the junction.na ga. a A is in some case relationship to B AB avyay bh ava forms indeclinable avyaya functioning as an adverb AB bahuvr hi serves as an adjective qualifying an external principal Other types of sam asa are subdivisions. One exception to this should be noted: if the pr atipadika ends in -an.na ga.a. while earlier members retain their pr atipadika form.ma :pua: +:Sa - 10.  may only be used at the end of a sentence. Although a sam asa may comprise many words. a more complex sam asa is simply a case where A and or B is itself a sam asa. If the principal more important word of the compound is underlined.a A.n..2 Joining Words in Writing Sanskrit is spoken without any break between words. pea. all the principles are covered in considering the joining of just two words call them `A' and `B'. for example:  atman self + j~ n ana knowledge   atmaj~ n ana.a. i. for example: compound as a whole..na A:. the vibhakti ending is added to the end of the :pra.cC+. For example: na:=+a. There are few exceptions to the above: words such as  atmane-pada and parasmaipada where the case-a x of the rst word is not dropped. self-knowledge. are called a-luk sam asa.B 83 In devan agar .ma Ideally. and the written form re ects this: after the operation of sandhi. very extensive use indeed. the vir ama  . then the n is dropped. but in transliteration these are often shown hyphenated.B. In declining the compound word.Ta.ma  na:=+a.na.a.Lesson 10. rst purus . so much so. This makes expressions in Sanskrit at once concise and precise.e.

~tea :pa:=+ma :pra. a.sa..a.Dua ma.va + A.k+:m.Za + +.va + O.ta. 3.. Do remember that the purpose of the exercises is a practical understanding: one learns from mistakes.pa ma. by repeatedly pronouncing the word pairs aloud very swiftly. c Join the following word pairs using vowel sandhi: this exercise is most usefully done in sound alone.na.e.pa.tma.nd + A.va.ya.a..a.a.va gua: ma. 6. 25.d .a.a + O.ca.a:= Za.ya. 7.k+:tva.m. 23. 24.nd k+:a. 4. b Write out the alphabet chart on page 74 once per day from memory.a.a A. .sa. 29..~ya + A. not from right answers! 1.ea :pa:=+ma na + I+.va.d + I+. 26.a.ea.k.a.a.a:= + O. 30.a ma. 28.na.Ta + IR +. a. 27.h.na.a h:=e ma.va + O..a.Ea + A.a.k+:a:= 16.ta + A.a.a + A.n. 10.a.m.ta.a.a.d .a.Sa + A.h. 14. 2.nd + A.na + A.a + A.a h. and then writing down what is heard: the results may afterwards be checked against the rules or the sandhi grid.na. 11.SNa.a.a .a. 13. 12.a + A.nd . 5.a + IR +.ta .nd + A..na. 22.~ta + I+.a. 21.H + O. 19.nta na.a.na.a.84 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory 10.m.Dua k+:tRxa A:Xa BUa .3 Exercises a Practise sounding the alphabetical order while following the consonants on the alphabet chart on page 74. 18.mxa..Za. 15.a k+:tRxa k+:a na + A. .va + A:*+. 8. 9.tya .d. 20.yRa + I+.. i.h.a + O.m.Za + IR +. 17.nd + +.B..nd + IR +.txa :pa. :de .

saH or O.Lesson 11. followed by another . a vya~ avas ana e. the rst r is dropped.ea.=. -Vh .ea.sa.A. Note: The words . - ah . of course. is that before c ch t .a disallowed combination. it is replaced with a sibilant  ss .t . if a i or u. -Vs -Vh .Y or O.Sa. One very important point to note about this table. Vr -Vr -V3 -Vr -V s -Vs . h or t th.A 11. is the last row: an avas ana is a pause or stop in speech. Basically a nal s or r becomes r before a voiced ghos .1 Visarga Sandhi This is most conveniently presented directly in tabular form: Final Vowel -as - as Vs1 Vr2 Next Initial Sound The table is simple enough. a vya~ c cht .Y. -ah .. -o 0-a -o -o -a s -as .  1 -Vs = any vowel except a or  a before the nal s. as for example at the end of a sentence or line of poetry. and a preceding A I or o lengthened. a sound whether a consonant or a pause in sound.SaH followed by hrasva A becomes .g. or s of the same mouth position as that of the following consonant.. A .t .  ar- any vowel other than  a any other ghos njana . And the nal s or r becomes a visarga before an unvoiced aghos . is lengthened. ht th- . is elided. where the nal is -r and the following word begins with r. Vr -Vr -V3 -Vr -V s -Vs . - as - ah . 3 any other aghos njana .Y . -as before a ghos . the -s is dropped before a vowel.s. a consonant becomes -o.a+A becomes :A.=.ea. -Vh . 2 -Vr = any vowel before the nal r. unless that vowel is hrasva A in which case :A. the exceptions to this are: 1. a sound which includes the vowels. -Vs -Vh . - a - a - a - a - a s - as . -as -ah . the exception to this. before any other letter the visarga is dropped. and the preceding vowel. 2.

a alpapr . this table is split according to the following sound being ghos .g.3 for pronunciation of the anusv ara. m urdhanya or dantya aghos s-. There are no sandhi changes when a vowel meets a consonant.tpn n m or h r .e.  were discussed in 11. when a word ends in -n _ or -n preceded by a short vowel.t . this should be replaced with an s before applying the visarga sandhi. -V_ -V _V _V    V  V  . but note that a nal -t changes to the mouth position of a following t alavya or m urdhanya sound both ghos s. a. The rst four of the nal consonants are the alpapr an sa except c . and remain unchanged when followed by an aghos . a and aghos . a sound.and case the substitute replaces the following s. a these four are replaced by their ghos . then the nasal is doubled.86 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory This also applies when a sentence is split up into its independent words pad ani by removing the external sandhi. The immediate relevance is that the declension of nouns and conjugation of verbs is given in the form of independent words. a equivalents.: The nal aghos a k t an .a consonant of the same mouth position when the following sound is ghos . this table covers the remaining consonants. The sandhi of words ending with a visarga h . and may end before an avas ana or pause with one of eight consonants k t _ .m . . or with any vowel except  . a sound. a process called sandhi vigraha.in the last .1.as well. and observe its special changes before l.. The kan .2 Consonant Sandhi As a rule.and nal -m changes to anusv ara before any consonant see 8.which is ghos .gGa . So. and the h. and l . Before an h.h. a. then a c is inserted. a spar and the remaining three are nasals. and the following word begins with a vowel. hya nasal remains unchanged. when the word is used in a sentence. 11.A.. with two exceptions: when a word ends in a short vowel and the following word begins with ch-. while the dantya nasal like the -t changes to the mouth position of a following t alavya or m urdhanya ghos . As with the visarga sandhi. which means that sandhi rules applicable to a following avas ana have already been applied. -Vcch -V   n  nn  . a. secondly. . a equivalent of that ghos . t and p are basically replaced with the ghos . this sandhi must be removed: where the word is given in the tables with a nal visarga.k  ch. h  . n .l . i. . also note the special changes before l. a word may begin with any vowel or consonant except h _n ~n r .A. -Vnn -Vn .is replaced by the mah apr an . and to an anusv ara and sibilant of the following mouth position of a following t alavya. a. . a or aghos .A. A . . a substitute e. a aghos .

c ch-k -t -t -p -n _ -m .-bbh. . -g -d -d -b -n _ 1 -n1 -m any vowel . is replaced by even if k kh g gh n _ . k kh-k -t -c -p -n _ -m s -m .3 Internal Sandhi n .-d _ -n -m . y r v-g -d -l -b -n _ -l 2 -m . .s . . intervene n when followed by a vowel.-ddh. . .e.-n . -m . g gh-g -d -j -b -n _ -~ n -m .Lesson 11.rr . and which a ect the spelling of vibhakti endings in particular. . m v y or n which last becomes n . s -m . p ph b bh m. l . . t . . unless it is the nal letter or followed by r. h-k -t -t -p -n _ -m . t th-k -t -t -p -n _ -n -m . b bh-n _ -n -n -m -n _ -n -m . . . . h-k -t -t -p -n _ -n -m . . .a l becomes . or  . d . 3 -~ n s. h-g -d -d -b -n _ -n -m . h. 11. s .A Final Consonant before avas ana 87 -k -t -t -p -n _ -n -m Next Sound . -g -d -d -b -n _ -n -m . . following s r . d . . e ai o or au is replaced by even if there is an intervening m . . -m . or h . . sThe nasal doubles to -_ nn _ or -nn if the preceding vowel is short. p ph-k -t -cch-p -n _ -~ n3 -m s. -k -t -t -p -n _ -n -m .may also become -~ nch-. l-ggh.t . are: following k r i  uu r r s .d . . This is a nasalized l. d dh-g -d -d -b -n _ -n -m .A.n. y v h or m . . j jh-g -d -d -b -n _ -n . . s . . 1 2 The two most common rules of internal sandhi. . i. n m-g -d -d -b -n _ -n -m .

moon = full-moon. ks . a. For example: Itaretara | the members are considered separately. ca  r . as . There are several types: Tatpurus . a-tatpurus . The compound may be further classi ed according to the case relationship dvit y a through saptam  of the rst member to the second. .2 Tatpurus asa . Karmadh araya | this is a descriptive determinative compound. tree-root. but has a word . the members refer to the same object. the gender of the compound is r amah amakr ama and Kr .B. Pairs of opposites are often put in this form. a = root of a tree. `couple' sam asa is a copulative compound in which the members. if not compounded. ah . or modi es. a-tatpurus . a | also called vyadhikaran di erent case endings if the compound is dissolved. ca and. sukham ca duh . asya m . am . is characterised as having .s . i. acandrah . Dvigu | this sam asa has the same sense as the karmadh araya. and is characterised as having the same case ending if the compound is dissolved. also called sam an adhikaran .t . i.Lesson 11.e.n . `his man' sam rst member depends on i. the number is the sum of the members. for example: denoting direction or a numeral as its rst member. a. kham note the singular 11. ks . a lit. kham ca  sukhaduh . For example: vr ulam  vr ulam s . ah . full candrah . au note the dual = R Sam ah ara | the members are taken collectively as a unit.B The following detailed notes may be used for reference: they need not be studied. a. it is always neuter singular.  p .e. would be in the same case vibhakti and connected by the conjunction .n .s .1 Dvandva Sam asa The dvandva lit.e. has a case relationship to. a Sam The tat-purus asa is a determinative compound in which the . 11.s . There are two types of dvandva: the gender of the last member. the second.n . for example: = pleasure and pain. the members are di erent objects. hi-tatpurus . ca kr .B. for example: p urn urn .

for example: sakrodham  sa. `an unchanging nature' sam asa is indeclinable avyaya and functions as an adverb.the sense is accompaniment + krodha anger yath a sraddham  yath a.n.negation or absence + j~ n anam knowledge = ignorance. act. to do.ca. from p vac. a and the bahuvr remains a noun.B.speaking. = with anger. In the Vedic Sanskrit the determinative and descriptive compounds were distinguished by accents see 9. lotus-eyed. angrily.=+a:$a. 11. or a- as its rst member.A.k+:va.Lesson 11. a. one . Na~ n-tatpurus .B O.1: r aja-putr a  . and the last a noun n aman. for example: padm aks . giving `dual' and `plural' Upapada | this compound has a dh atu derivative as its second member. `much rice' sam asa is a descriptive compound forming an adjective vi ses . bahu.B. a agreeing with a noun expressed or understood. while the latter becomes an adjective..a king + putra son r aj a-putra = whose son is a king bahuvr hi .many. a  padma lotus + aks . giving a negative or privative sense. for kumbha-k ara  kumbham pot + p kr . singular lit. 11.two. an . a eye = whose eyes are like lotuses.3 Avyay bh ava Sam asa The avyay bh ava lit. an-.4 Bahuvr hi Sam asa The bahuvr hi lit. a | a compound with a negative particle na-. for example: a-j~ n anam  a.. to speak also dvi.na 89 example: eka-vacana. make = potter similarly a-k ara etc. the king's son tatpurus . The di erence between the tatpurus hi is that the former . . The rst member is an indeclinable preposition or adverbial pre x. = the son of the king..the sense is proportion + sraddh a faith = according to one's faith. and the whole takes the form of the neuter singular.

narau alpam vr sv at vahatah . ca agnim nar . ca alp .Bea.a. l+. guruh at gacchati iti alp a b al a vadati .5 Exercises a Practise sounding the alphabetical order while following the consonants on the alphabet chart on page 74. b .tea 10. ks . u gacch . a . ks .a. am agnim a . ks . ks . am agnim b 4.90 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory 11. The man and horse take the small trees.a. b al a alpah svah at gacchatah . b Write out the alphabet chart on page 74 once per day from memory.nvxa. phal ani a svam vahati iti guruh al ah . pa. phalebhyah . ks . a . c Write the following sentences in devan agar . 1. gur u alpam naram vr ay at s ghram gacchatah . narah al ayai a svena vahati . vr . 3. applying sandhi rules as necessary | and it will be necessary quite often! | and then translate them into English. vr .Y:.a. na:=+ea. u vr . a 6. 5.B. sundares . alpebhyah avah . . narah an phalebhyah svena gacchati . es . ks . . 9. a. ks . For example: narah svah an vr an labhete .a. . 8. ks . vadati 2. agnim nar 7. b al a a svam alp am nad m vr at nayate . b al a a svam naram ca vr at labhate .

be exercises related to the dictionary or Dh atu-P at .e. the rst part of the word will be found in the dictionary. and the last syllable or two forming the vibhakti ending needs to be omitted. without the vibhakti endings that they gather in actual use. The dictionary often marks the accents of vowels in transliteration: the ud atta is marked with the acute accent   and the svarita with the grave accent . Monier-Williams Dictionary In the dictionary. There will be an element of guesswork in this because only the six most common noun declensions have been given: forty declensions are necessary to cover all possibilities. however. ha at the end of each lesson. there will. i. words are listed in their pr atipadika stem form. therefore in seeking the meaning of words found in Sanskrit writings.Lesson 12 12. and as many again for exceptions.1 From here forward the lessons will no longer be divided into parts `A' and `B'.

and subsequent lessons will cover the details. beginning with the fourth paragraph Then a third improvement . . or very di cult: the di erence lies in understanding the founding principles of the dictionary. . and thus there is some Victorian coyness in translating sexual terms.1. The alphabet used in the dictionary.A.2 Alphabet and Transliteration Some of the devan agar characters used in the dictionary di er from the standard followed in these lessons. The rest of the lengthy Preface and Introduction need not be read. which are sometimes given in Latin rather than English. and some transliterations di er from the generally accepted standard. | this is illustrated in section 9. There is an interesting section on the subject of accents on page of the dictionary introduction. 12. xviii This dictionary is either very simple to use. . In this lesson the broad structure of the dictionary is explained. in both devan agar and transliterated Roman characters. ". do note that the dictionary was completed at the end of the Nineteenth Century. and appreciating the devices that Monier-Williams has employed in order to make it simple to use. however. the dictionary does use. is presented below in the standard format. from which one may deduce the standard alphabetical order which of course.

 . it becomes a trivial matter to trace the word back to its dh atu. . . an ah f F .sMa.a + .Ea M H a  a i  u u  r . and this facilitates a broad understanding of the word..hM . This distinction is . that cognate words derived from the same dh atu are gathered together.Da dha na na l la . as for example .3 Fundamental Structure The dictionary is arranged on etymological principles. is immensely valuable in the penetrating study of the scriptures.  which arises through the operation of the rules of grammar.z r .sa.92 . a . . ha d .sa hinsa. giving both breadth and depth to the understanding of a word.a t .sa ansa and . .a. the anusv ara.$a lr e o ai au am . and n as synonymous with the anusv 12.l . xxxvi Monier-Williams distinguishes between a `true' anusv ara n which is inherent in the word from its dh atu and is found in such words as AM . Oe. observe also the transliteration for r r l . s peculiar to Monier-Williams the standard is to use m . s and s facing page 1 of the .sa. secondly. ha n . and it is this that makes it such a powerful tool. . .a d . and the consonants Ja and :Na. together with its applications and uses. The two main advantages of this arrangement are.sa sa ta :pa :P ba Ba ma va pa pha ba bha ma va h ha Observe the devan agar characters used for A and its derivatives in the sixteen sakti.ea .r 41O. and the `substitute' anusv ara m .r. ca C .sa.m.a I IR o  A Practical Sanskrit Introductory 41+ .a:= sam ara. throughout.= :Sa ka kha ga gha na _ Va ya Za ca cha ja jha n ~a ya s _a t . rstly.a:=  .a ra sha ta Ta tha d da . . and may be ignored: simply treat m ara. This combination.Ga . . thus allowing a penetrating insight into the very essence of the word.i k Ka ga .q Q . i lr . These are also shown on page dictionary.

the words in Roman script are themselves listed alphabetically still in Sanskrit order.ba. and Buddhaka and Buddhi middle of third column. the derived words are themselves listed alphabetically.l. Now look at the next page: at the bottom of the rst column is the entry bua. and not just two. The entries in this column should be the same as the list given above: con rm this.Za in devan agar script should be between Bilasa and Bilma. Bila Bilasa Bilma Bilmin Billa Bilva Bilvaka Bilvak y a Bilvala .a.a.l+.l+.D. but their order is independent of the outer structure using devan agar script. and the sub-structure of derived words is listed under the devan agar entry in transliterated Roman script.ba.a in large devan agar type.ba. At this stage the purpose is not to nd word meanings. Now open your dictionary at page 732. and that each entry comprises just one paragraph. and observe that each entry begins with an indented word in devan agar or bold Roman script.l .a.ba:=+a.ba.a. Comments on the list: The entries in devan agar script are listed in alphabetical Do not proceed any further with this lesson until this principle of the independence of the two levels of alphabetical order is clear.ba.a.a. the entries could be listed as follows: . the dictionary is also ordered alphabetically.a. For example.ba. Such an entry indicates a major dh atu. Similarly.a.l+. but to understand how to use this tool called a dictionary.nTa .a.ba. The words derived from this dh atu include Buddha middle of second column.a.a.nTa .a. A word of caution: the dictionary contains a wealth of information | do be alert to attention being captured by some interesting item.l+.l+. as one would expect of a dictionary.Na order and ignore any intervening words in transliterated Roman script. h.ba. The seeming con ict between these two is resolved quite simply: the main etymological structure is ordered alphabetically in devan agar script.ba. the words . The reason for this instruction is that the dictionary uses four levels of alphabetical order.l . Look down the rst column.a.l+.l . The list also demonstrates the two levels of alphabetical order: without these levels.Lesson 12 93 Besides the etymological arrangement.a. Continuing through these .l. and are all derived from the previous word in devan agar script .Za .a. in this case.a.

and nd the fourth sam asa entry -kshetra about 1 2 2 inches 60 mm from the bottom. following -kap alin . Return to the second column. Similarly.g. Work through these sam asa until satis ed The next entry word is Buddhaka.e. observe the change of the rst vowel from Buto Bo. which returns to the second level of alphabetical order: the point to note here.through Bo. There are two points to appreciate here: rstly. the nal a of buddha is changed: thus. in strict alphabetical order. is that a sam asa like Buddh agama is before it. This third level may be viewed as an extension of the second level. as will be explained later. Bauddha. i. The next line contains the word in light italic type -pari_ sodhaka . a and vr . the next word in bold type is -kalpa.g. :a. Buddh agama and subsequent sam asa are spelled out in full because. Thus these sam asa sub-entries are truly a third level of alphabetical order. and secondly.to Bau. that they are in fact in alphabetical order. These form .e. The rest of the column has several more such words in bold type and each beginning with a hyphen and the hyphen is not irrelevant. This means that -kap alin is appended to the entry word Buddha so as to form the sam asa Buddhakap alin . note the strengthening of the dh atu vowel of the entry words from Bu. due to the rules of vowel sandhi. Three inches 75 mm below this is -kap alin in bold type: nd this. remembering the two levels of alphabetical order. to the entry Buddha in the middle of column two. note that there can be several pages between devan agar entry words. Continuing at this level. before the next word in devan agar script bua.| at this stage just note that they are the gun .94 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory derived words on the next page. and thus out of sequence as far as the second level in concerned. and similarly in the line below that.e. Bodha. ddhi forms | the signi cance of this will be explained later. but more of that later: observe that these words or listed in alphabetical order. Buddh agama with d rgha  a follows after the previous sam asa -sena. and on the following page to Bau. where the leading hyphen is mentally replaced by the entry word. This is the third level of alphabetical order: sam asa beginning with the entry word which may be in Roman type or devan agar  are listed within the body of the paragraph for that entry in alphabetical order. Buddhasena with hrasva a. note that in the third column about three inches 80 mm down is Buddha c gama: the caret  c  above the vowel indicates that it is long d rgha | it conveys more information in fact. Now return to page 733. forming the sam asa Buddhakalpa. is -vara-locana .

and the last b jin is in transliterated Roman: these words are at di erent levels in the hierarchy of alphabetical orders. for they can sometimes be misleading in that they do not indicate at which of the four levels of alphabetical order they occur. 12. Do make use of these rather than the body of the text as you scan through the pages looking up a word: but don't rely on them totally.sa sa. and turning over the page. When you suspect that you have been misled by the page heading words.4 Page Heading Words The words in the top margin of each page. etrapari_ Buddhiks . being derive from di erent words in the devan agar script: had one been looking for bua. Buddhiks . but for the moment leave aside words beginning with .a the rst entry in the second column. Note that these two sub-sub-entries listed under the sub-entry -ks . Again. given in both devan agar and Roman transliterated forms. and note that the rst bir ala is in devan agar script in the text. on the next page the heading words are at the second and third levels. but be aware that it can happen. At this stage you could start to make use of the dictionary if there are words that you particularly want to look up. are also in alphabetical order: this is the fourth and last! level of alphabetical ordering. etra. the heading words would have been quite misleading. etra.e. etravaralocana. This situation does not happen often and so one forgets about it. i. indicate respectively the rst and last entry words to be found on that page.Lesson 12 95 further sam asa when appended to -ks sodhaka and . . Examine the words at the top of page 732 for example. Ba. the words at the top of page 735 are both at the second level but are in reverse alphabetical order. turn a few pages backwards towards A and follow the devan agar entries in the body of the dictionary.

a 15. brahman 9.96 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory 12.a 14. purus . manas 17.n . 2 Forgetting that `a' and ` a' for example.e. j~ n ana 6. sar ra 18.s .5 Dictionary Practice Look up the words in the following list in the dictionary. The words in the list will all be found at the start of an entry like buddhi and not buried in the text. You have been warned: but go ahead and fall at on your face anyway! But then do observe what tripped you up. so simply nd the word and note the page and column in the form: buddhi 733b i. r . the words may be in devan agar or transliterated in the dictionary. When you are more familiar with the dictionary. are two separate letters.u 16. rajas 11.  ananda 7. ti 5. 1. page 733. vy akaran . kr . say fteen seconds. citta 12. hetu 3. it should take no longer to nd a word in the Sanskrit dictionary than it does in the English dictionary. Common errors of rst-time users are: 1 Confusing the English and Sanskrit alphabetical orders. prakr . bhakti 19. yoga 4. 6 Wasting time by reading interesting but irrelevant entries. guru 10.a 8.s . both in the list of words and in the dictionary: watch those diacritics! 4 Failing to use the page heading words.n . 3 Not seeing what is actually there. 5 Misunderstanding the structure of the devan agar and transliterated entries. daya .i 13. The exercise is to nd the word in the dictionary and not to examine the meaning of the word.  atman 2. hr . second =b column. vis . ananta 20.

a and is then found in the dictionary where one would expect to nd .*:+. . expressing conjunction.h. .Lesson 13 13. a m.sa.a.va.1 Words Beginning with Sa- The pre x sam. a nasal to give A.a.m. i. man.z follows the anusv ara in the alphabetical order. sound them! Do remember that in the dictionary the anusv ara before an antah . stha is not substituted with a nasal: for example.c.sMa.k+: pa. since the nal -m is often replaced with the anusv ara.k+:a.h.e. completeness is very common. As an illustration of the importance of sounding the words.sa. in column two of page 124 is the entry A. replacing the anusv ara with its savarn .sa. and . and not only to words beginning with sam-. are listed after the antah s ara .na.sa.V a.`altogether'.nDa.. in the dictionary order where the anusv ara appears before the consonants.sMa. | -y -v adin etc. For example. -yu. the last being in the dictionary order of . For example.na the anusv ara is sounded as the savarn .ve from ka to ma. a nasal where applicable.ga:= which in turn will be before . and then look up the word in the standard alphabetical order with that substituted nasal. pa. one needs to make the same nasal substitution for the anusv ara for the words in the dictionary. stha and u .*:+=+Na and.sa.a in devan agar .sa. the anusv ara in . and thus there are many words beginning with it.d.pra. pa.sMa. di culties may arise if the rules for pronouncing the anusv ara are not thoroughly practised.a.a.sMa. in the word . a. In looking up words containing the anusv ara it is essential to sound the word.*: u +:. . .Da. and for .a. examine the third column of page 1125 of the dictionary: the last three words given in devan agar script are . . look up . note the anusv .sMa:: a. and derived from it and hence transliterated is the next entry word aham ara: the sam asa formed with aham ati. . and secondly. .k This principle applies wherever the anusv ara occurs. etc. union. a.sMa. similarly for .l . are listed in alphabetical order | but note that the spar sa -karan . There are two points to bear in mind here: rstly.va.a:= will be before . .pra. for . etc. of course. Again.k+: pa.a | and that is the alphabetical order in sound! u .sMa.a:= is not substituted and therefore. the anusv is sounded with its replacement savarn .sa.d. -kartavya. the tradition followed by MonierWilliams makes this nasal substitution only before a spar sa the twenty.*:+.sMa.sMa.

.d.sua.ta. Returning to the top of the rst column. but the entry shows that it is derived from the dh atu b adh.a. and half-way down the column is :pra. The next two entries are dh atu. ten ways of conjugating verbs.suc.g. followed by its transliterated form and a class number.bua. is a dh atu.q+.d.l. The next dh atu bua.Z. the personal name bua. .tsa which is not a dh atu. the next entry :pra. The last word in this column is in large devan agar type. indicating a major dh atu: the entry for this word begins with its transliterated form.du .a.k whose etymology is not known. a. but this.car. For the next three words.e.a. i " which stands for `class-1'..d .2 Structure of Devan agar Level The outermost layer of the dictionary.f . note that bua. but in practice it includes those words whose form has changed radically e. The next word. by sampras aran . and bua. the similarity in both sound and form of ba and va allows this to happen.c.ta. the rst entry is ba.q.d. Page 672 of the dictionary is representative of this type of entry: the second column begins with :pra. but does illustrate the many types of entries listed in devan agar .ca:=. should ideally only contain dh atu.. bua:. followed by cl. and the dh atu bua.d. The transliteration shows the etymology of the word.*:.e. is also given the alternative reading vung _ . This is followed by the onomatopoeic bua. and is followed by ba.q. namely the entries in devan agar script. except for those beginning with a pre x which form the bulk of the words listed in devan agar . is onomatopoeic i. and allows each element to be separately examined in the dictionary. That was a pretty mixed bag of words. and bua.a.a and in transliteration is p conveniently split into the pre x and dh a tu as prati.ma.a having three pre xes prati-sam- a-pdi s.a.a.*:+:sa whose root is not known.B. the dh atu bua.a. The word bua. At this stage.sa. Turn to page 733 of the dictionary and examine the devan agar entries in the rst column. or whose dh atu is not known. which is a dh atu.*:. and nally the dh atu bua. which means that the dh atu is not known to Monier-Williams anyway and may be foreign words absorbed into Sanskrit.sMa.ta. together with the other information given in the dh atu entry.a. it sounds like the thing signi ed. simply be aware that a devan agar entry.k . There are ten classes of dh atu i.a.D. . p has two pre xes prati-sam. gives references to columns two and three: common words like this are often listed in the devan agar with a cross-reference given to their etymological entry position. will be explained in the next lesson. These are followed by the onomatopoeic bua. This is followed by bua. or have a pre x added.Ba.98 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory 13.a. is given as both class-1 and -10. no etymology is given. is class-6.

followed . from a quality vi ses . The converse does not apply: had the entry been `Buddha. a or a n word indicates `mfn. an . and this is shown in the dictionary by `m. as a bonus. . a species of grass . and avyaya indeclinables. guided by Dharma Law. a adverbs.Lesson 13 99 13. . which. . knowledge'. `f. . neuter. . lofty. are listed in their pr by a description indicating their meaning. an . a wise or learned man'. -linga 12th line:  a  f. a. a.' Examine the entry for Buddha in the second column of page 733: it begins with `mfn.' buried in the text | this re ects the overall structure of the dictionary in tapering down from the general to the particular. . pum _ n aman . vi ses . avyaya form 7th line: m. must have the same linga _ as that n aman. so if the heading . an . an . and lightly read through the text for the word Buddha: the information provided about Gautama Buddha the founder of Buddhism is typical of the encyclop dic scope of the dictionary. where the gods and their consorts are the personi cation of universal forces: from Daks . . there will be no `mfn. a to the speci c n aman. . Now lightly read through the text for the word Buddhi in the third column. a form 5th line: am  ind. in bringing a quality to a n aman. six lines down is `m. tall .3 Structure within non-Dh atu Entries The entries for n aman nouns. and must therefore be able to take any form of the three linga _ . . thus the word Buddha can also be a neuter noun. long.' masculine. Thus the same pr atipadika form may be a vi ses aman. m. a adjectives.' one may yet nd `m. napum saka-li nga _ n aman.GRa near the bottom of the third column of page 481: 1st line: mf an. . Here. a long vowel . . vi ses . a wise man'. and are thus indicated in the dictionary as `mfn.a. an oblong tank . A fuller illustration of this principle is shown under the entry d . buried in the text for that word. This is the general order followed in the dictionary within the text for an entry word. a the Creative Force arises Buddhi Intelligence. for a long time . you are given an insight into the mythology of India. . str -linga _ n aman 14th line: n. typically kriy a-vi ses atipadika form.'. and further down just before the bold type -kap alin  is `n. an . however. indicating a vi ses . The rst division of n aman is into linga _ gender.' etc.'. produces Bodha Knowledge. an . Return to page 733. so Buddha can also be a masculine n aman. The vi ses . long. feminine.' or `n. an .

a + u o c etc. The following page of the dictionary lists the abbreviations that are used. The last four symbols are not very clear.4 References and Abbreviations xxxiii On page of the Introduction is the List of Works and Authors that MonierWilliams has consulted in compiling the dictionary: look for a few works that you know to see how it is abbreviated in the body of the dictionary. The caret symbols a b c d denote a joining of vowels. similarly ly would mean consciously. consciousness. As an illustration of its use. as a + a  a a. The next page of the dictionary has a list of symbols that are used: read through and understand these.g. but will be elucidated in the next section. Bhag. short or long.5 Special Symbols and a b c d The little circle   is a standard abbreviation symbol in the devan agar script to denote either the rst or last part of a word that has to be supplied from the context. Monier-Williams also uses this symbol to abbreviate English words in order to save space. nd the sam asa listed under Buddha beginning with -kap alin and -kalpa: the hyphen not only indicates that the word . as a +  aa c. and ness. Make it a discipline to look up the references when appropriate and abbreviations always when you are not sure what it stands for | this way you will very soon become familiar with them. if the word `conscious' is under discussion. rather than repeat the word in full. 13. d denotes the joining of two long vowels. e. as  a+a  a b. c denotes the joining of a short with a long vowel. for Mah aBh arata. the abbreviation con or even c may be used. so that the words may readily be looked up separately: a denotes the joining of two short vowels. b denotes the joining of a long with a short vowel.100 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory 13. These are used in the transliterated script for sam asa compound words. for example. 13. a + i  e a. for Bhagavad-g t a and MBh.6 Signi cance of Hyphen and Caret Symbols Turning again to page 733 column two. These are also used when the rules of sandhi change the vowel sound. and very helpfully indicate the length of the nal and initial vowels at the point of union. as  a+ aa d.

vea.ea.sMa.A.a .l+.7 13.k . 12.l+ +.l x +:ta .a.ea.3: the reasoning here is that. 3. is appended to Buddha see section 12.Za.txa .na.a. and they may be printed in devan agar or transliterated Roman or both.gxa.ya.a.ta.ga .=e +k l+. 4.Lesson 13 101 Where the sam asa is printed in full.a.pa ra:. and Oe.ta.ea.ga A.sa.a. so that  agama can be separately looked up.Q .a.a. patty-abhinirh and varn .cC+$a.A.BRa :pUa.ma. If a word is not found in the main dictionary.Da. a and vr .pa.v. 11. 10.3.ta A.~k k+:a.k+:a. k aya .ta .h:=+Nya. 9.sMa.a.ya. 13.ga.ya. Look up the words in the following list in the dictionary: the words may be at any of the four levels of alphabetical order.a ma.Dxa.a.u Buddha-ed ka and not Buddha-aid ka which are the two possibilities listed in .nva.ya. 5. 18.h.ga.a.va. a.na. the `weaker' of the two vowels in terms of gun .vRa.Gua.h . and this is why the next sam asa.u the vowel sandhi grid of 10.sMa. 19.ga.d.ta. Ba. 14..a. 17.8 Supplement to Dictionary Dictionary Practice 1. 7. this use of the caret symbol allows the second word of the sam asa to be correctly determined as beginning with a d rgha  a.Dya. which stands for Buddha- agama.pa. is given the thin stroke in the caret symbol.va.[ +a.sa:Vva. 20. 15.mRa ba. 8. 16. -k aya-varn ar a is itself hyphenated each element.ya.d +e +. may usually be separately found in the dictionary.pa.a.2.na . look for it in the supplement of Additions and Corrections beginning on page 1308.a.u . the sam asa printed as Buddha ad ka stands for . Similarly. but that kap alin and kalpa are words that may be separately looked up in the dictionary.k .yua. as in Buddha c gama.a.Ba. 13. a-parinis .a:=+ea. and hyphenated appropriately. 6. A. are both long vowels.va. although O.a:Xa. ddhi see section 10.ma.ga mUa. a for example.va.Na a.va. 2.Dya.

102 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory .

in comp.B. to anoint thoroughly. Since this entry is not in devan agar . `distinction'. .ya:*+. m. . p This is the kriy a from which the n aman vya~ njana derives. to decorate . .a. Vy-a~ njana. to decorate. adorn. ornament. speci cation. to cause to appear. manifestation. to cause to appear. Now that may appear to be a very owery description of what . sign.1. before vowels for 3. . . decoration.1 Tracing a Word to its Dh atu Since the dictionary is essentially etymologically arranged. a consonant. . Compare this with the sense of the upasarga vi. . . . . . to celebrate . it is quite straightforward to trace a word to its dh atu. . namely vyand dh atu a~ nj. In the third column of page 949 is the entry: . This is best illustrated by example: nd the word Vy-a~ njana in the third column of page 1029. manifesting. . mfn. badge. . beautify. In the second column of page 1028 is found: v.given in 7. . . `arrangement' . . . follow the entry words backwards towards A  until an entry given in devan agar the outermost level of alphabetical order. .y. . . In the middle of the second column is: v. .vi. token. . The next step in analysing this word is to look up the two component parts of this verb.a vy. used as a pre x to verbs and nouns . indication . to express `division'. indicating . . n. . manifest. The dh atu of vya~ njana is given in the rst column of page 11: a~ nj.va 3. a mark. `distribution'. ind.vi Here is an example of vowel sandhi used in forming a word. Compare all this information with the description of vya~ njana given at the start of the rst lesson.a~ nj . . vy. make clear . . a consonant . A:*+. display.Lesson 14 14.

which indicates that there is another entry budh. as also derivative verb forms. this is followed by the Dh atu-P at atup.g. also P.4.e.63' is a Dh atu-P at . next `budhyate ' shows the lat . abudhram. 14. that the dh atu vowel remains unchanged when conjugated as a class-4 verb. That the dh atu is printed in large devan agar means that it is a major dh atu. The `ep. passive forms of the verb are given. The following . an . but in this complicated hi-tech age the profundity of simple things is often overlooked: the ability to form a range of consonants is what separates man from animal. a listed  in the rst column on the next page.g. bodhati and bodhate for parasmai-pada and  atmane-pada respectively. Indeed.A. present indicative prathama purus . bubodha or pre xed with `a' e. simply note that some of the forms have the rst syllable `re-duplicated' e. many scriptures speak of the creative power of speech. conjugation as a class-4 verb. ha reference.  . The last four lines show associated verbs in several other Indo-European languages.' indicates that the dh atu conjugates according to class-1 rules in both parasmai-pada and  atmane-pada. Without adorning the vowel sounds with consonants there would be no language: without language there would be no mathematics or science. just as a matter of interest.. ti ' means that in the epics it may also be found conjugated in class-4 parasmai-pada. and that creation itself is spoken into existence. but in the class-1 conjugation the vowel has the gun . which may or may not be another dh atu in fact it is a vi ses .i. no history or philosophy. Again. `cl.11'. where the form will be buddhyati. this is followed by the numeral `1'. A atmanepada verb. but can it embellish that to say `Who could fool you?'.104 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory is simply a consonant. P. Within the English translation section. Observe. a eka-vacana forms. no culture or civilisation | all this rich diversity is founded on the simplicity of vowels and consonants. te '. ha reference `Dh two words. . ` . ddhi form. Next. xxi xxvi The next eight lines show conjugations of this dh atu for other lak ara tenses and moods etc.2 Dh atu Entry Information Turn again to the dh atu budh at the bottom of the rst column of page 733. i. A dog may be able to howl a perfect prolonged u 3 . a form.' which means that it may also be found as a class 4  Next there is `cl. show the lat . before starting the English translations `to wake' etc. some other classes use the vr . `bodhati. . which are printed in light italic.

where entries have the same spelling. Monier-Williams numbers these 1. improper. a m.ta A.nua. as we shall see shortly. such as bap .a..ca.ta 1. mfn. anu-cita.nua.ta above. For example. kr rst column. p The rst is derived from 1. nd the two consecutive entries for A. which is found by looking up ucita on page 172c. nd the entry for pratip an .a. the second is derived from p uc. . a that we are now examining is at the third level of alphabetical order. having di erent derivations. turning to the second column on page 32. see s. p Note the numerals and the di erent derivations indicated in the transliterated forms. ci . an-ucita. set or placed along or . 14. their meanings will be quite di erent: in such cases. observe that there are two entries for A. Also note that these words do not have consecutive entries: indeed they may be separated by several pages. |now nd the meaning of `s. whilst others give more information.' in the list of abbreviations on page two pages before page 1. there are ve entries for cit on pages 394 5.a near the top of the x 1. .Lesson 14 105 Some dh atu entries give much less information. he usually.a..nua. xxxv Be aware that the numbered entries inform you that there are at least two entries with the same spelling: for example.ca. wrong. Further down the column are two entries for anucchindat which have di erent derivations from the same dh atu. at the end of page 300.ca. ci.nua:: a. and we now need to nd it at the outermost devan agar  alphabetical order: this is at the bottom of the second column on page 667. mfn. for 2.. which both have the same etymological derivation. .a. and so on.2. -p an . Turning to page 662. but the overall format is similar. both here and in A.v. . which in turn indicates that there is more than one dh atu ci in fact there are three. unusual strange .  1. but the rst is a verb and the second a noun.v.a. but not always.a.ta | A.B.3. a in the middle of the second column. 2.ca. In the next column.3 Numbered Entries Words having the same spelling may have quite di erent etymologies. Here Monier-Williams gives a clear reference to where we have just come from: where the numbered entries are widely spaced  ve pages in this case.nua. such as k . where it is given as 1. gives pointers to where the other entry may be found.. The entry for pratip an . Note that the numerals appear before the transliterated form. .

106 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory and a sixth on page 398. :pra:: a. If we look down the second column there are three entries for as . word had not been found on page 1138. We shall examine three such words here. This As anga _ | Turn to page 116: according to the heading words we should nd . some words may not be straightforward to nd. These examples illustrate that the page heading words are a useful guide to get within ten pages or so of the target word. However. The next devan agar entry is .va on the previous page.t .sa:Vva in 1138b.a.ca. which in turn does not refer to the other two. as anga _ here.va on the previous page.k+:l : continue forward at the devan agar level. we come to . It would be a useful exercise to nd them.a .t. but there is no as anga _ .a. but neither of refer to cet in 397c. However.t . not even at the third level . a. Although there are these inconsistencies. where it gives a cross-reference to page 1135 column 2: and indeed there it is listed as Sat-tva.a. Vic ara | Turn to page 950: again.t . according to the heading words we should nd vic ara in the middle of the second column.a. Monier-Williams has here decided to have a separate entry word for sam asa where the adjoining word starts with `a': as anga _ is on the third line of the rst column of page 117. there are fortunately very few of them. . It is in fact listed at the third level in 1134c where it simply gives `see below' | this means scan forward over entry words at level-1 or -2 for the entry. Again. This will p be found near the bottom of 958c where it simply refers to vi. for reasons best known to himself.va.vMa. and thus the entry word is found near the bottom of 958b. .t .Za on 953b. and as a noun in the second column.car. not according to the heading words which indicate that it is on the previous page. of sam asa. Be warned that this numbering system is not perfect: for example. looking for . All the sam asa listed on this page are Sattva | This will be found listed as . cea. This is the outermost devan agar  level | now remain at that level and search for vic ara. derived from . 14.4 Misleading Words Because of the etymological foundation of the dictionary and its four levels of alphabetical order. and in the next column as a. but that they can also mislead. if the .. in the third column of page 401 are two entries for . The trick here is to escape out of the current level of alphabetical order to the next higher level: searching backward for the entry word under which these sam asa are listed.t . but these are not numbered. you would not have found it on this page. and the page ends with .a.va.a:= .a is indicated as a verb in the rst column of page 659. .t .

are just plain di cult to nd. col. or sva- adhy aya.a . The rst two don't help because we have already found that there is no entry word Yat a | but there is an entry word ya.~va and thus nd the entries in 1277b. yat a- atman. working from the left again. this is not the end of the story: we want to nd the dh atu from which .~va. sv a-dhy aya.' And indeed there we nd two entries: the rst as a noun and the second as a verb.na. see p 1277.Da. So let's split the word at  a: we could have yat a-atman.7. However. Yat atman | The word is not found as a sam asa under ya or ya. and 14. then examine the heading words a few pages before and after. because of their etymological development. then examine entries at the next level of alphabetical order.5. treat it as a sam asa and use the sandhi rules to split it into parts at every syllable | this process may seem rather laborious.a. we would have arrived at . sv a adhy aya. yata-atman.a. or yat a- atman. b If it has three or more syllables.t.4. sva-adhy aya. we nd the closest entry is .2. Nevertheless. 14.a.Lesson 14 107 confusion arises because the page heading words may refer to any of the rst three levels of alphabetical order: if the word sought is not quickly found on the expected page. is irregular and the only recourse is to lists of paradigms. for example.5 Di cult Words Some words. This detective work is illustrated with two words: Don't get excited: it is a guess and could be wrong. Having found nothing useful under . When you have exhausted all the tricks that you know with the dictionary see sections 12. following this clue to page 845 we nd Yata c tman in the third column | who would have guessed that it came from dh atu yam? order.~va. but reading the text for that entry we nd `sva a dhy aya. then consider the following: a If it is a short word one or two syllables then it may not be listed in the dictionary at all: the declension of pronouns.sUa four entries or .ta .sua  ve entries or . but it does get there if the word is listed in the dictionary. 13. to produce su- adhy aya. Sv adhy aya | Having worked our way to the devan agar level of alphabetical Alternatively we could have tried splitting the word ourselves. and there is no entry word Yat a. until nally at the outermost devan agar level. If the word is still not found. s u- adhy aya. sv a-adhy aya.

a. fearlessness :pUa. So we proceed to the next syllable: adhi- aya. we return to the devan agar level A. nor is the entry word dhy aya found.a. and there the dh atu is given as  . ya steadiness .a.d . starting from the left. but cannot nd adhy aya on page 23 where we would expect it. 4.a.h..ta. 6. 5.a. 2.a.va.k+:mRa. adhy aaya.108 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory this word derives. skilled in painting na.NRa abundance :pra.ya Look up the following words in the dictionary and trace their etymology as shown in 14. adhya- aya.1 as an aid.pa.6 Dictionary Practice 1. the English equivalent is also given: . adh - aya.tya. giving a-dhy aya: but nothing suitable is found under A six entries. 14.a.Da two entries. So we do the same trick again. adhya-aya.ma.ca.Da. Again we nd nothing helpful under A.Ba. 3.a. and adhy a- aya.a:= withdrawal A.Da. but under A..ta.na.a .a we nd the entry word Adhy- aya! Having found thep word.ca:Xa.a.a not too much pride A.

d. which express the activity of a sentence.a .g. Introduction to Dh atu-P at . names that have come to be used as verbs. k+:Nq+:a. is a class of dh atu derived from nouns.ga. derive directly from the dh atu. As an example of this class in the dictionary.2. `freeze' an aspect of the activity of a dh atu.d.a.Na . a. Note: `Nominal' is the adjectival form of `noun'. see 2. ha is a dh atu dictionary. Payasya in 586a. a is named after the rst dh atu in its section: for example. Note that this publication makes use of alternate character forms to those we have been using in this course see section 9. where `Nom. and its application in the study of the scriptures.Lesson 15 15. This lesson is concerned with extracting the artha. Each gan . the class beginning with bh `beginning with'.a. and its meaning is restricted according to the context. which word is formed from bh u- adi-gan u. where  adi means . or classes of dh .1. or `meaning'. `Recitation of Roots' also encodes a wealth of grammatical information about the conjugation of verbs and the formation of nouns derived from each dh atu: much of this information will not be used at this stage of the study.Na . The eleventh class. Bva.' is the abbreviation for `Nominal Verb'.1 A word standing alone expresses a universal: in a sentence it refers to a particular. ha lit. A word is thus given many meanings in the dictionary: the particular meaning is selected according to the context in which it is used. a. i.A. the rst p is Bva. and here means `derived from a noun'. e. of each dh atu from the Dh atu-P at . ha 15. i.2 The Contents Page This lists the ten gan atu conjugation. which name things. whereas verbs. note the numeral forms used especially for 8 and 9. A dh atu is therefore the most universal element of all words.e.ga. The immediate utility of this page is that it connects the dictionary classi cation. with that used in the Index. ha.a. cl. and since the page numbers are also in devan agar . . Nouns.e. as it were: it provides a sense of the underlying meaning of the dh atu | usually in just one word! The Dh atu-P at . and the Dh atu-P at .

the compound formed is an itaretara dvandva sam asa see 11. the eka-vacana form is used.m.pa.RaY. When the artha has two or more words. na.a. Following this are a few lines of technical information which may be ignored. the dvi-vacana form. | mw1011a'. In the Dh atu-P at atu usually has an extra syllable appended to the end . the bahu-vacana form. and encode further grammatical information which is not now required: our interest at this stage is in the basic dh atu and its artha. ha: after the heading the rest of the page. In this type of sam asa only the last word of the compound takes a vibhakti ending. fortune. increase. ha each dh of it.d.Ea and so on. For example. satt ay am.aH+Sua giving both dh atu the same artha. These extra syllables are called anubandha lit.. In the lefthand column the rst entry is: This is the rst dh atu bh u together with its artha.Txa .1.T. ddhi growth.Da vxa:.3 The Text Body BUa . and when three or more words. or `meaning'.ya.B. Where the artha is a single word. when two words formed into a sam asa.a Turn to the rst page of the body of the Dh atu-P at . Thus all words derived from this dh atu have this sense of expansive good fortune | a sense that may be overlooked in some of the English words o ered in translation. not compounded. forming a simple list of words which. The artha is generally expressed in saptam vibhakti. a little lower down is the entry: na.110 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory 15.a and na.a na.ya.a. Note the layout which gives the dh atu and artha in two columns: there may be more than one dh atu in the rst column.a. and sometimes one appended before it: for example. the above four appear in the dictionary as BUa O.D.a. which may be translated as `in the sense of'. For example. the others remain in their pr atipadika form.Y.Dxa ya.a.a. and the next entry is: O. `bound along with'.a. . become happy grow strong mw231c is used `in the sense of vr . and the artha may spread over more than one line. etc. success.pEa:.D.a .sa:Va. and subsequent pages. are divided into two columns. ca and.a..ea.a. would be expressed in the same vibhakti and be joined together with .a:*.ta.Za. the dh atu edh to prosper.

when the artha is given as two separate words.e. assume that is the rst word. instead the words will need to be looked up separately. for those ending in -es . u. from the stillness of unmanifest sound. The last entry on the rst page is of this type: :h. The quality of happiness and refreshment referred to. for an ending in - ay am. for an ending in -au. . b dvi-vacana sam asa end in -yoh . ends in halanta vya~ njana. Some entries in the Dh atu-P at atu and .e. read -i. for an ending in -uvi. ha di er from the common format of dh artha illustrated above. i. read -a.d A. in other cases simply remove the -s . for an ending in -y am. The itaretara dvandva sam asa will generally not be found in the dictionary as one would expect to nd a sam asa listed. and then repeat the process with the following syllables | but do remember that sandhi rules apply at the junction of words.ya. through the senses | here we have a subtlety of meaning that is not at all obvious from the English translation. c bahu-vacana sam asa end in s . read -a.a.de Here the dh atu hr ad to delight or refresh mw1307c is used `in the sense of unmanifest avyakta mw111b sound  sabda mw1052b'. is thus that which comes from within. use the following: a eka-vacana endings have six forms: for an ending in -e. an . read - u. . u.P e Za.Lesson 15 111 To get back to the pr atipadika form as listed in the dictionary. and not that happiness and refreshment that comes from without. This is straightforward enough: simply start at the left and nd the word in the dictionary that uses most syllables. for an ending in -i.b. a. u. then the rst of the pair is a vi ses . which is removed. read - a. For example.v. both in saptam vibhakti. read -i. remove -i i.

cya. enclosed by p urn ama .. dh atu k+:T.Ta. not mentioned elsewhere. ca .cya. .RaH  . ha as handed down. some of which is helpful in nding the correct dh atu.nyea = I+.t.ma.RaH pratham a bahu-vacana of A.a.Ta. ha the dh common grammatical features of their development into words.tea . and may be construed as `for the sake of causing injury'.a has the artha ..a = injury.cya.tea = not spoken.a m. Fortunately the Dh atu-P at .a causatives treated as having an I+. d When the artha is followed I+.ea. i.a..hM .tya. also. e Where the artha is given as a sam asa ending in A.hM .ta-O.k e = thus in one or I+.tyea.e.TRa.4 The Index In the body of the Dh atu-P at atu are grouped together according to . expressing motive.ta-A. bahu-vacana because the artha applies to several dh atu. then ` A.Ta. c When the artha is followed by na. then this has the same artha as the previous dh atu. avir   and may have the order of dh atu and artha reversed: these dh atu have a special meaning when they are . harm mw1297c. ha includes an index listing the dh atu in alphabetical order and indicating where each dh atu is listed in the body.112 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory The interpretation of other variations in the format is described: a When the dh atu is followed by . it means that this artha is not given elsewhere in the Dh atu-P at .a. f Some entries have an unusual format.tea = na-o+.a which prevents the normal lengthening of A in the causative. ha.t.a. b When the artha is given as a word followed by .e. and are comments by the compiler of this edition. then the artha for that dh atu is that word together with the artha of the previous dh atu. i. This ordering is not at all helpful in seeking the entry for the dh atu. na. 15. The index also provides more grammatical information.sa.RaH ' may be translated as `for the purpose of'. ca  = and.k e = I+. For example..sa. or `with the aim of harming'.nyea = thus in another.ea.a. this refers to artha given in di erent versions of the Dh atu-P at .a.

a.Ea Note that the index has two entries for dh atu A. a parasmai-bh . . = . Where the dictionary gives both  bh as a.e. i.sea. and may be found on page 17 column 1. f The column on that page where it may be found.na. . accepts augment I in its expansion. on page 99.k . . ubhayato-bh as a = both. A.sa-I+.f .a-I+. e The page number on which the dh atu together with its artha may be found.a.k with its anubandha belongs to Bva.Ma ga. ha gives the order of the gan .Lesson 15 113 The index starts on page 53: each page is divided into two columns.ya. provide the following information: a The dh atu together with its anubandha: the index is ordered alphabetically according to this column.a.a. A.Na . = A. do make use of the information given in the dictionary immediately after the dh atu heading word: this information gives the class gan as a of the dh atu see b and . c The bh as a = speech. d Whether the dh atu is .'. or A. a and bh . These columns. as `P.ga k u +:a. At the end of the index. or .f. The rst entry of the index shows that the dh atu A. in fact. `cl. in the Dh atu-P at .ga. a and  bh as a. b The gan atu belongs: this column has just the . does not do so: this may be ignored at this stage.ta.n. Where the dh atu has more than one entry in the index. one row of tabulated data.l+. this is the equivalent of ubhayato-bh as a in the Dh atu-P at . ha. A. as: A.k and A.k . a. . . six columns wide..a. is an Addendum listing entries that had been omitted from the main index. 4 P. etc.e. the table of contents . `cl.  atmane and parasmai . a.a. with di erent anubandha vowels i. is :pa:=+smEa-Ba. from left to right.k . for example.' means div adi-gan as a.  c above. whereas the dictionary lists only one dh atu A. . 1 A. a to which the dh rst syllable of the gan . synonymous with pada used in this . parasmai-bh as a.f .d. course.' means class 1 bhv adi-gan atmane. which is shown in full on the contents page. .k . .f . so that a dh atu together with its grammatical information is listed on one line.a.f . which may be  atmane-bh as a.Sa.

ini 6.na. ha body in the rst column of page 26: it is the second entry.a. then its artha found in the body. E. listed as :Na.a.nd.nd These spelling changes may also be combined.a may be spelt here with an initial :S.3.sa.114 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory 15.d.na. as in .a in the Dh atu-P at . 6.Nq+. na.d . listed as .a.6 Illustrations of Dh atu-P at .Ba.a .a.64.a.6 will be used as a practical demonstration in the use of the Dh atu-P at . Index: .58 respectively. na.a. alarm.a. to fear. .sUa:Xa .d na. and the remaining word in its pr atipadika form is looked up in the dictionary. mw747a Ba. and thus provides no further insight into the sense of the dh atu than that provided by the dictionary entry. The class juhoty adi-gan as a agree with the .ya bhaya n.a. . p . mua.a.65. .vua . mw758a .l. it may require the insertion of a nasal after the vowel of the dh atu.qu na. p . . ha: the dh atu is located in the index. E. P.3 may be used to `remove' the vibhakti from the artha although this declension should be familiar.pa. p p . information provided in the dictionary.v.g.a 1.q .g. so the dh atu entry . and nally the artha is examined in the dictionary. Body: . as mua.d c When the dh atu has a nal I as an anubandha.nd. E.l.a. .Ba.na.sa.P.1. 1 15. A.Na. b An initial n.g.d .a. cl.Sa.a.a is sought in the Dh atu-P at .Va Ba.l p na. o+. and 7.a.1.a.  bh Notes: This dh atu has its anubandha syllable placed in front of it: in the index this is enclosed in square brackets so that the dh atu Ba.dw.Va.d . ha Use p Ba. be afraid of Dh.a Ba.d .bh . dread . The notes in section 15.P.5 The spelling of the dh atu may di er from that given in the dictionary: a An initial . In this case the given artha is itself derived from the dh atu being examined.s.Nq. a and bh .k p mua.1. Dh atu Spelling Changes p . which is listed Those seeking the technical reasons behind these changes should consult the commentaries to P an .a.Va.$ua :pa A 26 1 Dh.a.a may be found in alphabetical order. The dh atu for each word of the previous exercise of Dictionary Practice section 14.nd na.na.Sa.a.a.a may be spelt here with an initial :N. as :Na.a listed as .a.yea p  fear. . ha as . as :Sa.

a mf n. Body: k+:a. cl. . .ca.eaH mw623a P alana mf n. . to tremble.1.a. . n. nor is it to ll with rubbish. . The artha p alana adds the sense of `nourishing' to the ` lling up' of p uran . . Notes: If the dh atu is not found at its expected place in the alphabetical order in the index. . cl.pUa:=+Na. .a A. . attend to . cl. carry 3 mw1302a & 1. shaking motion. so the class kry adi-gan .P. . '. so we can expect to look up two words in the dictionary. ca.a which itself derives from the dh atu p r .P. 5a mw395b mw648a p :pXa pr .a kamp.pa . a mf carrying or bringing or fetching.ta. i.a :pa .a Bva. . .pa Bva. cherish.a o A 20 1 Dh. shake.9 P. . . Index: k+:a. `completer' . the act of lling or lling up. n. to ll . n.l+. This gives a bene cial aspect to the dh atu: it is not to ll to the point of bloatedness. . movable.a. completing.P.1. to perceive. shaking.5: the third rule applies here. a and bh .Lesson 15 2 115 Dh. guarding. holding. defending . P. protecting. the act of . . to sate. .sea 39 1 Dh. tremulous .A Dh. 4 mw252b Dh. a and bh as a information from the dictionary is used to select the correct one. nourishing . moving.cit. mf an. and is given as such in the dictionary translation.a. to take.a 4. cl.hr .a h:=+Nea mw1289a Haran a or  n. Notes: The gan as a are used to select the dh atu entry.P.a. but the sense is of generous abundance.A  . Index: p . Body: &+V. . Index: :pXa k^+.1 . . nor in the Addendum. so beware! The vibhakti ending of the artha is the dvi-vacana form see section 15. both words end in `-na' with or without sandhi changes | this is a common neuter su x usually meaning `the act of .na. p  .sea 8 2 Dh. As nouns which is the sense here. carrying. . then check for applicable dh atu spelling changes see section 15..ya.a Bva.a :pa .P. . The dh atu with its artha are in fact at the top of the second column of page 39: there are a number of such errors. . . Notes: The index has three entries for dh atu :pXa . .. trembling.P. .t. m.l+. nourishing. x the mid upon. . .nea mw391b Calana. Index: &+V. . bear. mw642a P uran n. .a . . . .P.3. Body: :pXa :pa. p k+: . nourish Dh. satisfying .p. containing . . lling.sea 2 1 . . the act of guarding. .ca.

becoming acquainted with.a man. . a helper.' as well as `cl. 5b mw300c x +:V. learn .vid. producing. but its artha .a .. e ecting.n.na . right perception Notes: Again. .a. .a. believe.va.nea and ma.2. perceive.na : a.sea 25 1 Dh. becoming acquainted with.ya. ha does not list a class 2 dh the dictionary for more information.nua A.a. . .' and `cl. .m.a. . n.qu+.8. .nea mw1133c Sam n ana mf n. Body: .a. e ecting. a is used to select the entry in the index. to think.5.d A :pa . n. P. . . i .qu k x +:V. Notes: The dictionary entry for this dh atu is quite lengthy: reading through the rst column of page 301.va. . .a. mw963b p . unanimity. In practice the cl. n.P. A Dh. harmony .Da.sea 38 2 Dh.va. Index: ma. as.nua ta A.P.a.P. . make. causing . both artha seem applicable: one to the opinion held in the mind.a ta o A 38 2 Dh. . consciousness . perform. .5 dh atu should also be examined. .d A. hence the return to The Dh atu-P at atu k . P.nea mw426a J~ n ana n. knowledge . . .8 this is the usual formation in the Br ahman utras. . . Body: . .2. P. . .a. Notes: Since the dictionary gives two classes for this dh atu and both are listed in the index. .d. the act of making.sa.a. . . . and the other to the expression of that opinion in word or deed thus informing others. -j~ with . producing harmony . the ve entries in the index for dh atu .a k+. understand. .116 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory Dh. doing. making.ba. Body: . . given the original word that led to the dh atu.sa. cl. S x . the artha for both need to be examined.kr . p  . Index: . cl. .ca.4.d. a mf companion .k mw254a Karan an.a . m. . . 1.a. knowledge . a and bh . 5c Dh. it also gives `cl.=+Nea Dh.va. meaning `in the sense of injury' is inappropriate to the original word that led us to the dh atu in the rst place.ea.a . .V a. imagine. informing. Notes: The gan as a given in the dictionary are used to choose among . to know. pk x 1.hM . the gan . Body: ma.P Index: . mw101b Ava-bodhana. to do.ta. teaching.P. In fact.a.d : a.P.nea mw426a J~ n ana n.1. and which was to do with pride.P. accomplish. Observe the aspect of harmony and unity provided by the artha: there is no passion or ulterior motive in the perception or attention of the dh atu cit. .va. cl. and in classical Sanskrit'.a. instruction. knowing. knowing.a A 29 2 and ma. P. 6 mw783a ma. doing.

ma.s .sa. h mw3b A. a:= a-kshara mfn.Na.sma d. in relation to the entire Veda: the mind is thus turned towards the spiritual world.a. the student the reader of the translation has his own limited associations with the words in his native tongue. in relation to the scripture as a whole. ha to see what may be discovered.sa.a..t . most universal source.a.k+:~ya . let us examine a verse from the Bhagavad G t a: Chapter 10 Verse 33 is selected simply because it has some words and concepts r introduced in this course.Y.a. mw1a A 3. .sa. a syllable. letter.Na. a:=+a. A.ma. The translations are helpful in selecting a passage for study. the rst line of the verse is: A. and slowly trained to view all of life in terms of that spiritual world. At rst glance.ndH . ha.a . and.m. .Lesson 15 117 15.ma. secondly. . I am the copulative of compound words.a.Na.sa.a a pre x having a negative or privative or contrary sense.k+:~ya . but nonetheless we pursue it through the dictionary and Dh atu-P at . a:=+a. word. in fact.a. After this preparatory work with the dictionary and Dh atu-P at . it would be a pointless exercise to apply the dictionary and Dh atu-P at . vowel. thereby overcoming the limitations that the individual has with particular words and ideas. imperishable . a:=+a. a's response to Arjuna's asking for details of His Glory and powers.a.H A. Removing the sandhi from this line. a..k+:a:=+ea. and to con rm that the correct word is being traced through the dictionary.a. we have: A. ca |s bahu-vacana of A. as .sma d.k+:a:=. n. It does take practice before realising that the scriptural texts can only be understood through contemplation and meditation. As an illustration of this method of study. through tracing the etymology of each word to its nest. ha to merely con rm the translation.a. These sources of error and misunderstanding are minimized by studying the scriptures in the original language. a:= . the passage is considered in relation to the section of scripture in which it occurs.ndH .7 Study of the Scriptures Since most scriptures are available in translation.n .a A. sound. all translations are signi cantly awed by two factors: the rst is the translator's level of understanding of the subject in respect of the scriptures that means spiritual understanding and his ability to express that understanding in another language. a.m. It is an extract from S Kr . ca Of letters I am the letter A. this statement does not appear to be at all profound or have any spiritual associations whatsoever.

exist.nea . remain. live. perishable. even.a.k+:a:=. male and female .sa A :pa . glide.ma.sa.H | pratham a eka-vacana of A.k+:a:= .a.sa:*. Bhag. be present. equivalent. the act of making.a. `equality' . mw504c .a.qu k u +. mw1111b . space.a 1.a.sea 18 2 a:= . . concise. .P. doing. a couple. `similarity'. P. Dh.s.a 2.a. the letter p or sound a. the term used in designating a letter or sound or indeclinable word .d two. m. cl. .a. .sama mf an. doing. -calana n. wane.sea 23 1 A.a.sa and 2.a 2.sa 7.t . from sam- asa . expressing `junction'. i .sma | eka-vacana uttama-purus . m.=+Nea Dh. 1. an act. . Dh.a ta o A 38 2 .k mw254a Karan n. p mw117a A. n. . ifc. . P. the place of being.a. making. agitation. world or universe. causing . .sa Bua. ar.pa. brief.vea.k mf n. mw1152a . see beginning of Lesson 3. present indicative of as = `I am'.P. a copulative compound or any compound in which the members if uncompounded would be in the same case and connected by the conjunction `and'. .sa A A. . to do.ma 2.2. . .a. a helper.ma. a. .sa. perish . trembling.ma.A. ..sa. `conjunction' .a.Za. ara mfn. m. moving about. seat. . the act of becoming or arising. existing .a . h mw1206b . .sa ind. . cl. . mw274b k+:a:= 1. make.a.sa o+. mw503b d original stem of dvi. .ndH p | pratham a eka-vacana of d.sa.k . f. similar like. a cloud. altogether. with. smooth . water. mw1152a .k+:~ya |s eka-vacana of .a.P.a k+.va mw760c 2. . comprehensive. A. d. . a lat .as cl.nea mw1132a Sam . p mw327a a:=. mw159c 1.118 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory mw327a Ks . a compound word. doing. to be.nd .kr . working . . . shaking.2. a mf panion .k ara mf n. relating to or belonging to a compound word. to ow. being. com. a:= Bva. m. p x 1. .s. ks .sa.a. along with. . .sea 25 1 A.sam ind. e ecting. producing. abide. e ecting . A. mw503b dM .d n. . m.sa. .P.1.m. like to or identical or homogeneous with . to melt away. . A.  sa m. accomplish mw300c k . .sama . `having the same'. mw1a A -k ara m.Bh u mfn. stream.q x +:V.a :pa . melting away.A p mw159c A. making. the body.l+. x +:V. n. Dh. P. or n.sa. .kri . together with. perform. as to sit quietly. action. . becoming. A. equal. succinct. as . connected with 7.sa. .a. same. . . .

. . and. and all sounds are derived from A . neither good nor bad. In responding to Arjuna's question. The primacy of its position at the head of the alphabet re ects its role as the source of the whole alphabet. the being devoted to or 2. Re ections: The following personal re ections are o ered as illustrative of this process of study: they are neither right nor wrong. Giving this as the foremost of the sam asa | where there is no di erence in importance between the elements | places the emphasis on that which links them together.A. ara: they may be manifest. ca 119 mw207a Upa-ve sana n. If the sounds of the alphabet are imperishable.1. as well as . the ever-present A ? This may be understood as referring to the immutable Consciousness underlying the whole creation. but are not subject to absolute destruction. All words are formed from sound. both. holding it all together as one. and here the illustration is being the A of letters. mw380a . ca ind. ca . Kr . yet allowing the elements to retain their individuality.n .B. moreover. In all languages the rst letter of the alphabet is A. is like Consciousness. and all the words. how then does one describe their source and support. a gives many examples of being the foremost of several classes. which are deemed important and interesting. Here the allusion is also to Consciousness as being the underlying Source and Support of p the manifest creation  asa bhuvi. `in this world'.6 summarizes the core role of A in forming all the vowels. are like creation. which is their source and support. But what of the letters which form the words? Or the ink that forms the letters? And what about the paper that holds the ink in place? The plain white paper. the attention at the moment is on the words on this page. which is taken for granted. . they may change. The sounds of the alphabet are imperishable aks . By way of illustration. . are derived all the consonants. and from the ve mouth positions of these vowels. ca | avyaya . they may be unmanifest. By analogy it is Consciousness that underlies the ever-changing variety of creation. The mark of the dvandva sam asa is that there is an equality between the joined elements.Lesson 15 engaged in.s . on their signi cance and meaning. also. a seat. and each retain its individuality see 11. they are simply what were presented to the mind in considering the passage. the act of sitting down. In Sanskrit this is easy to demonstrate: the gure given in 1. they are all but a modi ed form of that A .

There are no right or wrong answers here.120 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory 15.mea.ta.a. then nd the artha in the Dh atu-P at .a .yaH k+:a.yaH | pratham a eka-vacana of aks . .KaH I am verily Time inexhaustible. is implied here. a.a.va | Note: from the information given in the dictionary.ea.a..h. and write down what is presented to the mind.a O.h.ta.l = time. a. a.va:. Note: the verb A.a.h. together with its grammatical division down to the pr atipadika level.ta.. There is no rush with this part of the exercise: let the scripture come to mind over a period of a week or so.a.va:.a.mua. the other half of this verse from the Bhagavad G t a is o ered.h. A. I am the Dispenser facing everywhere.m.KaH pratham a eka-vacana of personal pronoun `I'. we have: A. As with all exercise.ta. k+:a.Da.va:. Removing the sandhi from this line. it is not possible to select which of the entries in the Dh atu-P at .ea. .8 Study Practice As a practice in using the dictionary and Dh atu-P at . ha.l:H |pratham a eka-vacana of k+:a. a little performed regularly has the greatest bene t in the long term.a.a | pratham a eka-vacana of dh atr .va.a. a.l:H . Examine each word in the dictionary.m. ha in studying the scriptures.va A.sma used in the rst line of this verse. so do not look for clever results: the exercise is one of stretching the mind to larger issues than those that daily life normally o ers.Da. aya = inexhaustible. tracing it to its dh atu where possible. The last entry is the most appropriate.a A. consider the passage in a universal or spiritual sense.a.a | O.a.a. A. A. and examine those words in the dictionary.l+.mua. avyaya = verily. and then write down your understanding in clear readable English.KaH | pratham a eka-vacana of vi svatomukha = facing everywhere..ea. indeed.m.ta. Having done this mechanical work.Da. .ta. ha index is the correct one: one needs to examine the artha for the three possibilities and compare that with the meaning given in the dictionary.ea .hM .mua. = dispenser.yaH k+:a.

paperback. as it expresses the grammar of the text as well as giving a word-by-word translation. i. and the building of a vocabulary detracts from the penetration of the scriptures because of the limited worldly associations with familiar words. SUNY: 739 pages. b The Bhagavad-Gita. together with its magni cent philosophy and wealth of practical advice. the general reader will nd the rst ve books in the list useful to further study of the grammar: a The Geeta. rather than a literal translation: a delightful book. Whatever the reason. translated by Winthrop Sargeant. as well as putting the Chapter number in the top outer margin of each page. Furthermore. from poetry to philosophy. from comparative linguistics to liberation. This translation provides a simple way of getting the context of a verse being studied. and is also useful in selecting a verse of interest to study. though expensive for its size. This translation is especially suited to the Sanskrit student. The verses are not numbered: it is worth the e ort to work through the book numbering the verses in pencil. therefore translating from English into Sanskrit is irrelevant. which. the range of grammar needs to be very wide: from the full etymology of each word including the signi cance of each a x to the gurative use in the most sublime writings. . In clear easy-to-read language. The Gospel of the Lord Shri Krishna. There are a wide range of books on Sanskrit grammar available. Despite the above quali cations.Suggestions for Further Study There are many reasons for studying Sanskrit. paperback. The G t a is written with simple and straightforward grammar. ranging from the introductory level to academic tomes: the majority of these approach the subject as they would any other foreign language.e. with a view to translation. rather than treating the study as a means to penetrate writings which express ideas and concepts foreign to the Western mind-set. the next obvious step is further study of the grammar. A personal bias needs to be declared here: my interest in Sanskrit lies in studying the scriptures. Faber and Faber: 80 pages. translated by Shri Purohit Swami. makes it an ideal work with which to begin. from simple chanting to mythology.

by Sri am Ramakrishna Math. ads. Bucknell. kara's commentary in translation by A.122 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory c Sanskrit Manual. but answers are not provided. in both directions.. Motilal Banarsidass: 208 pages. paperback. of verbs. it is a reference work containing many tables of noun declension and verb conjugation.Sastry is published by Samata Books. A useful tool to determine the pr atipadika forms of nouns. with indices linking noun. f Laghukaumud of Varadar aja. translated by James R. this book gives a broad understanding of the language without getting bogged down in details and exceptions. As the title implies. ini 's As . A Quick-reference Guide to the Phonology and Grammar of Classical Sanskrit. kara's commentary by Advaita Ashrama Eight Principal Upanis andogya. Br aran . hardcover or paperback. the Bhagavad G t a with S . George L. d Teach Yourself Sanskrit. Motilal Banarsidass: 451 pages. It is useful as a semi-reference book when examining a particular concept in depth: the next book is a lot easier for general study. This covers the grammar of Classical Sanskrit in some detail. yaka by Sw am Madhav ananda. and large vocabulary. As a `part-time' student studying alone. with answers given at the back of the book. Each lesson has translation exercises. George S. by Sw am Gambh r ananda. but is essential study to penetrate to the full spiritual signi cance of words. e A Rapid Sanskrit Method. tense etc. paperback. Divided into thirty lessons. Motilal Banarsidass: 254 pages. Hodder and Stoughton: 493 pages.and verb-endings and verb stems to the paradigm tables. the text and commentary are in devan agar with English translation. had . Hart. depth. each introducing one or two topics. from in ected words.M. This contains approximately one third of the s utra s of P an adhy ay . Ballantyne. . this is a `hard' book because of its style. the major Upanis . or with S . hardcover. . am For further scriptural study. Michael Coulson. Each chapter has translation exercises into and out of Sanskrit. ads are published with word-by-word translations of Sw am Sarv ananda etc. and Chh .t gathered together thematically to exhaustively explain word formations in Classical Sanskrit. This is an exacting work and not to be tackled lightly.

3. We pl.t .t . vadatha tis . h 4. They two speak and we pl. vadathah .t . tis ami ca . hati vadatha ca 6.t . tis avah .d. stand and you two speak. tis . vadathah .B.t . 6.t . I stand and he speaks. You s. 2.d. tis . stand and we two speak.1. I stand and speak. vadasi tis .t . vadatha ca 2. hati ca 5. hasi vadati ca 3. 5. ca 8.1. tis . h .2. You s.t . stand and you two speak. 3. He stands and you speak. He stands and they pl.B. h 6.e. speak and they two stand. tis amah . hanti ca 3.B.B. 2. hathah . 2. You pl. stand and they two speak. vadasi tis ami ca . 5.t . hasi ca Answers: Lesson 2 2. tis ami vadati ca .t .t . You two stand and we two speak. 6. 4.c.t .2. They pl. hati vad 2. h . vad ami tis . You stand and I speak. tis .Answers to Exercises Answers: Lesson 1 1. speak. 8. vadatah . hanti vad 5. I speak and you stand. tis . ca 4.1. 3. 7. You speak and I stand. 1. tis ami ca . hasi ca . stand.1.t .3. vadathah . 4. hati ca 7.t .

ks . am nar 6. . ks . vr an a svaih . The man and the horse go from the tree.3. a sv an vr at gacch amah . The horse leads the man. take the trees pl. hatah . 5. nar ah sv an nayante .t . vahanti .1. lead the men two to the trees pl. a svam nar aya nayethe 3. am nayate 5. from the horse. 2.B.3. ks . narah svam nayate . The man and horses two are standing. 3.B.1. 6. a svena gacchati 2.3. naram vr . vahanti 4. 6. The horses two lead the man to the trees pl. a svau naram nayete 3. The man and the horse are leading. The horse stands and the man speaks. . The horse carries the tree for the man.B. The man goes to the tree by horse. ks . You pl. 5. vr at a svena labh avahe .d.c. ebhyah . He leads the horse from the tree for the man. ah . 2.d. a sv ah naram vr . a Answers: Lesson 4 4.124 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory Answers: Lesson 3 3. 4. nar ah .1. The horse carries the man to the tree. 3. ks . 4. 5.. 3. 6. We pl. vr svah ca tis .1.B. 4.3.. a . a 2. ks . vadanti nayante ca 4.e. a svah .

5. u narah .t . 5. ks . am vahatah . ks . narasya a sv an vr at labhate . by horse. 3. . The horse goes to the man from the tree. ks . a svau naram vr . 6. The horses two carry the trees pl.B. 8.d.Answers to Exercises 125 Answers: Lesson 5 5. a svayoh .2. vr . for the man.B. narasya a svah .2. 7. 9.1. The girl and the man carry the tree to the horse.t . hatah . ebhyah . 8. 4. Answers: Lesson 6 6. The man carries the fruit two from the tree for the girl.. 2. naram vr . I go to the trees two and take the fruit pl. 6. narayoh ah . ca tis . you are standing on the horse. The girls two take the fruit pl. hati 2. am nar 7. The girls pl. to the horse.3. tis . to the fruit pl. He takes the man from the tree by horse.t . are standing among the trees pl. O man. 3. ks .. . The men two take the fruit pl.c. vr svah . The man's horses pl. ks . The horses pl. The girls two stand among the trees and speak. 2. are standing. vahati 5. The horse carries the man and the girl to the tree. hanti 4. The man's horse takes the fruit from the girl.1. He stands on the horse and speaks. tis .1. 3. 6. The man takes the tree from the horse. ks . 8. of the trees pl. 5. 10. The girl leads the horse to the tree for fruit. a .B. of the men pl. from the man's tree. ks . lead the men pl. 7. 4.e. . naram a svam vr at vahathah . es . he a sva vr aya vahasi .

es . ks . 7.3. a svah ani b al ah aya vahati . assume two horses.126 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory 6. nar ah al ayai labhante . 2.f. tis . .g. 2. 4. phal 5. b ale a sve tis at labhete . a svam vr ani nayethe .B. gacchati 6. ks . vr .1. b .B.d.B.B. 2. a svam nayethe ca phalam labhe 3. u a . b al a a svah . narah al a ca tis . am a 5. vr .2.1. labhate 7. am b 8. naram b al am ca a svam vr at labh avahe . a 3. narah svam phalena nayate . vr . es . vadatah . asya phal 4. The girl's horse carries the fruit pl. asya phale b . 3. b al a phale vr at a svebhyah . ca phalam vr . ca 3. b al am vr at narasya a svam vah avah . ks . narasya b al a a sv an vr an nayate . 6. u phalebhyah . 4. We two carry the girl from the tree to the man's horse..1. ks . for the man. ks . .e. narah al a vadati . ks . hati ca b 2. phal ani vr at a svena vahatha . ks .t . The man's girl leads the horses pl. hatah . a svah al am nar aya vahati .2.. ks . asya phalam b 6. gacchatah . b . a 9. narah an a svena phalebhyah .t . of the tree for the girl. vahanti . b al ay ah svah ani nar aya vahati . . 5. vr . The man takes the fruit s. a svah an narebhyah . to the trees pl. vr . 6. . labhate 4. ks . ks .1. narah al a ca vr sv abhy am gacchatah . ks . 5. b al ay ah svau phal ani naram labhete . vr . hatah . a . Answers: Lesson 7 7. The horse takes the tree's fruit two from for the girls pl. ks . nar 10. ks . 7. The man and the girl stand and talk. narah sv at b al ayai labhate . a svah al abhyah . ks . ca vr .t .2. phal . ks .

l+.ea.Ba.t .na va.taH 5 A:. i phal .2.a.a na:=e +ByaH va.aH vxa. 4.Sua :P+.l+. b al ay ah ay am nady am tis ..t .l+.Tea 3 na:=.a.a. ea. asya sundares .l+. 5.1. ah .Answers to Exercises 7. alpam vr .a A:. :P+.B.t .aH A:. alpah . alp .a.~ya :P+. vr . lead the small beautiful horse to the rivers two.tea 2 A:.yea.h.yEa l+. nad 2.a. hati 8.a. ks .h.h. hati 5. 6.a ba. alpam sundaram a 6. narasya guruh m a svena gacchati .Bea. 8.cC+.ByaH ga. The teachers pl.a.e. sundar b al a alpam a svam nad m nayate 4.a vxa. b al a agnim sundar at nar at gacchati 2. sundar b al a naram alpam gurum s ghram nayate 6.1.B.n. hati .d.tea 4 ba. guravah svam nadyau nayante .a A:. narah al am agnaye s ghram labhate .l+. The small tree stands in the beautiful re. ca vxa.ya.a. 2.nta 6 127 Answers: Lesson 8 8.Ea :P+.a.Ta 1 ba. 5. The man quickly takes the small tree to the girl for re.l e +.a. narau sundar an ani alp at vr at labhete .B.t. a.5.aH .a. am b 3. ks .na vxa. u tis .a.a A:.a.l+. a. guroh al a sundare a sve tis . u phales . hati 4. The beautiful girl leads the small horse to the river. a.c. alpasya vr .a.a. guruh . a.na na:=+m.B. ks .a l+. b . sundare agnau tis . 3.5. a.a.t . guruh .1..t. The men two take the beautiful fruit from the small tree. ks .na na. b al a alpam phalam narasya gurum vahati 3. The girl goes to the re from the handsome man.m.m.a.H vxa.5.

d.5. b al ay ah s ghram labhadhve . . b .5. 9. +a.Gra. vr .nd:=e A:.l+.ta 3 gua:=+eaH ba.ya.f.a na:=+~ya gua: +:m..a.ta 1 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory ba.5.B. phalam vr ay at a svena nar aya vahatah .a Za.a A:. vr a svaih s ghram vah ami . of the tree for the girl.a :P+.d .a.a.e.1.ta 6 Answers: Lesson 9 9. you are leading the two girls. 5. pa. +a. 2. +a. The horse carries the fruit pl.5. a svah ani b al ayai vahati ..l+. 2. phal ani b al ay ah at labh avahe .c.l+.nd:=e +Sua :P+. The river carries the small tree to the beautiful girl.d.cC+.a. ks . pa. narah al a ca sundaram gurum nady a gacchatah . ks .a.m.l+.m. 6.a na. ks .h. phale naram 4. vr m vah ami iti narah al am vadati .m.sua.a.ta 2 ba.ta.m. narah ani labhate iti b ale vadatah .l e +.a. vr . phal ani a svam labhe iti b al a gurum vadati 2.a.ta.Sua . ks . 3." the girls two say.a.ea. The man is taking the fruit pl.a.B.ea .m. 6.m.a va.~ya vxa. he guro b ale nayase iti alpah .a. sundar b al a a svam alp an vr an phalebhyah . nayate . ks .B.ya. narah . na:=+~ya gua: . pa.ya. 5.a. a. I quickly carry the tree to the small res two by horse pl. O teacher.a na:=+m. ks .a na.H na. .ta 4 . am sundar 9. b 3.na ga. am nad . am alpau agn .H A.a A. asya phal 4.ta. 5. vadati 3.a. 6." the small man says.sua.B.a .1. from the tree by horse for the man.m.a gua: +:m. 4.a .. phal .tea 5 gua: .a.~ya .sua. pa.l+.a A.a.nd:= +a ba.128 8.a.1. ks . nad alpam vr m b al am vahati .H A. They two carry the fruit s.aH gua: .

k+:pa.a. pa.d.ta na:=. :pa:=+mea:.yRa 23.m..m. k+:tRXa.mxa.B.n.5.l+.a.a.a.l e na:=+m. v.SNa 19.l+.a na.h.nd 24.na A:.na.sua.d.a vxa.va 27.H ba. .d .a.a.a.yEa.a.tyea.a.Dva.a.va.Xa.na ba.na.aH :P+.ByaH na.a.sua.l e +.tya. ma.ndE .a.va.d.a.m.a:= 30.nd 17.ya.a.l+. ma.va. nea. ma.ta ba.nd 3.a.a.sa.a.ta 2 ba.nd 25.a.m.l+.a.h. :pa.a va.a.m. h:=e :Y.a. ma.Za 4.Answers to Exercises 9. gua. .he ..k.~ya 18.a.a 12.a.a va. ma.l+. .a.a l+. .Za.l+.a.Y.ma I+.SRa or ma.Dva.a gua: +:m.a 29.ta 1 vxa.k+:m. 8.ca.a.a.a.a.Sa 10.a l+.a.Ta 11. :P+.a. na.m.Dvea 3 :P+.a.ya.taH 5 . a. k+.H 22.a.a ga. Za.a.a. :pra.Ba.he :.h.Ra.a.ntya.a.d 7.a :P+. .k+:tva.a gua: +:m.k+:a:= 5.d..m.a.~tea.veRa.na 2.H ba.a l+.a A:.na.d .cC+. :k e +:ya.a.a Za.na.ya:*+.a A.a.m.~ta 16.nd:= +a ba.l+.Bea I+.a.a A.a.nd 9.f.d .a va.+.a. a.nd:=+m.a na.ta.a.m.va. Bva. a.Gra.ta.a .tma.ta 20.a.m.nd 21.aH vxa.a.a 26.a .Ba.Za 13. a.a.a:= 14.a.ya.n.v. A:XEa.sa.n.a 28. h. :de . :pa:=+ma. ca .a. .a.ya.va 15.na.he 4 129 na:=.t.Ea. A.l+.na.a.va 6.pa:Xa.tea 6 Answers: Lesson 10 1.nEa.

hr .d.nd:=e +Sua vxa. a.taH The men two carry the small tree to the re from the horse.a va.a.d .=+.4.cC+.ByaH :P+.a.l+. ca vxa. ba. idaya 1302c 15.ma. 3.Sa 226c 13. a. 6.a ba.Ma na. 3.a. na:=+ea vxa. a 1035c 8. ishn .a.[+.a.ga 856b Pra-kr ..l+.gnMa na:=+a. 10. 5.a 135a Hetu 1303c ya. A.tea The girl leads the horse to the small river from the tree.ta The man carries the tree to the re for the girl by horse. Bhakti 743a 19.cC+.sua.Ma na:=M .a A:.130 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory Answers: Lesson 11 1.cC+.va.n. .gnMa na:=+a..a.a:. 4.a.cC +.na va.taH The girl and the small horse go to the re from the man.. Rajas 863b 11. pa.a va.a.Bya.ya. a." the teacher says to the girls pl. :P+. Za:= +a:= 1057c 18. a.a. Answers: Lesson 12 The words are given in the form found in the dictionary: 1.a. for fruit pl.l+. 2.ea.l+. :pua: +:Sa 637a 16. pea. a.nta 25a x +:SNa 306b 20.nP+. k or Kr . a. pMa vxa.a.na ga.. Citta 395c 12.h. gua: 359b 10.a.a.taH see 10.ta.Ra.a. a.ta The man goes to the trees pl.ya.ea.l+. +.a.Ma vxa. 6.a. gua: +.Y:.vaH no sandhi We two are going among the beautiful trees for small fruit pl.ea.SNua 999a 14.a. A. 4.a. pa.[+..cC+.l+. a. iti 654a J~ n ana 426a  -nanda 139c A Vy- akaran . +:Ba.gna..gnMa ba.l+. 8.a." the small girl says.. a.Y:. pa.ea.Ma va.ta I carry the fruit pl.a.ra.a.ya. to the horse. 9. a.ea.d.ByaH .a.d. ea.n. pMa na:=M vxa. a.a:. .a.a 737c 9. 7.a. 2. gua: A. Manas 783c 17.a.tma.Sua ga.ta gua: +:ba.tya.a. A. by horse.h. na:=+a.nya:.b The teachers two go quickly to the small man from the tree. ba.a.a.a.tea The girl takes the horse and the man from the tree.ma.le+..cC+.ma:. b.ma.le+.na.va.GrMa ga.h. na:=+ea vxa.ta The teacher is going to the re from the man.A. 7. a 308a . 5.a. ba.ta.a..

near to.vRa 17. . harati . . .Answers to Exercises 131 Answers: Lesson 13 -vyatireka 46b 2. mw1a A 3. be afraid of . 2. back . before vowels for prati above mw661b :pra. . bear. ya -garbha 1299c -paksha -p ada 643c 19. . . k+:a. plenty. mw1302a & 1. . Sam . to fear. . Sraddh atr . . ita 1120c 5. M ud . Caus. i 1095c 18. nourish . p mw641a :pUa:= p ura. . . ih Answers: Lesson 14 1. in comp. . . . cl. drawing back . alarm. . mfn. . .hr .ya a-bhaya. A. abundance . . cl. to ll .l -yuga 262a 6.a. P. 3. . . l+.Ba.a 1. mw642a P urn . n. a as a pre x .ya. -skr . . mf an.Gua -sattva -t a 894b 3. i. Mano -bhava -_ sa sana 785b 12. to take. Adhy- aropa 23b _ 16. .9. . near. . mw60c A. Dhy ana -yoga 521a 15. Kshatriya -dharma 325b 9. . :pUa. a. .  pr . ha 825b 7. . . towards. dread . A-gr ta 1309a .A Note: It is not the second dh atu & because of its meaning in translation. Vi-v aha -k ala 987b 4. fulness. . . n. -yoga 1112b 14. bh mw758a Ba. Mleccha -j ati 837c 20.ya 11.l -r upa -dhr .a. . -gama -man 8. Hiran .hr . as a pre x .3.nva. . . . carry. . i P.1. having a negative or privative or contrary sense p  fear. ik 729b 10. P. Sam . mw648a :pXa pr . Bhagavad -g t a 744a 1.& praty- a. . cherish. -harati to withdraw mw663c Praty. .a . abstraction mw677b :pra. . absence or removal of fear. i 1128c .prati. mw677b Praty- ah ara p m. .ta 1. ind. Sam . . .  .a 4. mw747a Ba. towards .a.ya bhaya n. Vi-veka 987c 13. . P. cl.bh . mw126a A. this is con rmed by the conjugational form harati given at 677b. ba. to sate.

cl. cl. mw396a Citra. mw12b Ati .kr mw300c k . . . neither . not. too . Note: This has a more appropriate meaning than 4. . mf an. n.a.a . x the mind upon.2. . 1. .a. imagine. . . . .m anin. in comp.a. . not very much.va.a. . trembling  . .p.a man.Vid. pride .vid. mw810b ma. . . .  shaking. . -m anin. 2 and 3. o ni-t a. then the n is dropped . . mw258b k+:mRa. A 5. .4. . .pa. self-conceit.na. . -m anin . mw523a na 2. f. .2. . .a. unsteadiness. conspicuous. agitation.1. extraordinary. . a knower mw963b .vid on 964c. . freedom from unsteadiness. n.a. distinguished . . from capo mobility . haughty. learn . .n. fancying that one possesses. . to perceive. x 1.m anin.  kamp . n. mw783a ma. mw963c 2.n. . act. .l c apala. to think.na 1. perform. not too. . action. 1. mfn.. . to do. mw523b Na a ti .k m anika. x on 304a because its meaning given Note: It is not the second dh atu k in translation is not appropriate to that given for karman. . intense. ifc.  man  opinion . for 1. . if the pr atipadika ends in -an. skilled in the art of painting . .pa.ca. . i . . knowing. . painting . cl.8. . cl. . perceive. P. . . . excessive. ca. . any extraordinary act . make. mfn. .a. Na a ti for na + ati . . . nor. imaginary .a 4. mfn. a. . 1. understand. mw1a A 3. understanding. m. . Na a ti .  .m ana. n. p mw388b . am. mw8c A-c apalya. shake mw252b k+: . performance . . . pre x . . .a karman.B. . p i . not too proud or arrogant. . .M anin mfn fr. accomplish . unsteadiness. Note: See 10. attend to .m ana  . . Bhag. mf an. . m anita. p mw809c 1. o rma-vid.P. or its dh atu .na ind. proud . . ckleness mw393a . mw396b Citra-karman . . .a kamp. . mw809a ma. cl. mw396b Citra-karman n. no. M ani. mw393a C apalya. . .l capala. .Vid on page 965a.t. . kr . p man or fr.2. . excellent. .va. having a negative or privative or contrary sense. 6.d. believe. See p 809. . . . 3.cit. mw395b .1. to know. .1 on page 83: . . . ca. . . A . . cols. .d .. to tremble. mw809b M ani -t a f. .132 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory 4.

 -sv mw162a A adana n. . all-containing. .Za. . p   . . P.P. .d.a. a mf n. . . -khy calculation . dimunition. supporter. having a negative or privative or contrary sense.a 1. bearer.qu+. P.Na. insult. . decay. a.a. enumeration.V. and for the others the artha must be examined. a Bva. immovable concentration of the mind upon.l .nea Dh. universally .P.Ea . truly. Dh. .sea 48 1 k+:l ga. a mfn. bearing .P.pa. constitute. the act of nourishing.h.V. . founder. face is turned everywhere. one whose mw514a Dh atr . probably from 1. mw328a 3.va. ruin. appoint. 3. really.A  atmane-pada.a . create. The last is selected as being most suited to the dh atu meaning given in the original word k+:a. p mw989a . undecaying.ea. the act of eating. becoming seen. . cua o . a 4.a. .~va.$ua o A 26 2 . . procrastination . mw347a Gati f.a:=+Na. destruction. to make.Sa.va nom. creator. pervade.Z. kshaya m. set . mw994c Vi_ sva-tas ind. to enter. injure. . mw260a k+:l. k+:l . sg.a. all round. place. p mw328a . mw650b :pa. moving. . incite. . . preserving. p mw992b . holding.Answers to Exercises 133 Answers: Lesson 15 mw124b mw232b A.a. ind.  3.Sa -n . . for vi_ sva-tas.a.a 1. moving to and fro. produce. .Za tua :pa A 36 1 .3.sa. abuse.m.kal to calculate or enumerate . ca mw329a Kshepe m. maintaining . tasting.vi_ s cl.va. cua o . . bearing.vi_ s to pervade all. cua :pa . supporting.a :pa A 5 2 . `I'.sea 45 1 k+:l A. . omni-present.a. n. cause. keeping. loss.k ala m. . . Dh. keeping. mw3b A.a.*+.dh a cl. mfn. dismissing .Da. gait . entire. every. a throw. establish. . k+:l .yea . reckoning. arranger. cast . enjoying.6. delay. . establisher. to impel. facing all sides. . mw1a A 3. movement in general. indeed. P.a mf an. waste. the rst may be eliminated because it is p a.vea. universal.. .eaH mw515a Dh aran n. . wane.a.1.a. going.pea Dh. corrupt. to destroy.Da. rarely A Note: Of the four entries for k+:l . . everyone.P. .ea.Da. invective.a. whole.nea mw994c Vi_ sva-to-mukha in comp.P. mw278a k+:a. .ta. nourishing.Da.P.nea .ya. . sending. kill.va. . to be absorbed in . time in general.a O. . all-pervading.sea 42 2 k+:l ea. appearance.a .Za :pra. urge on .a . k+:l . p  . a Dh. from or on all sides. i m. . measurement.qu . . exempt from decay. P.a. the act of holding.kshi cl. mw1128b Sam ana n.ya a-kshaya mf an. . upon . Dh.kal . to put. generate.va:.a. everywhere. just so. direct or x the mind or attention mw513b .l 2.

however. and so on up to cycles lasting billions of years. the rotation of the seasons. `Providence' may be a better word to use than `Dispenser': the latter has a sense of purposive action i. relative to which movement takes place. . aperture.n . In one sense time can be viewed as an e ect of movement. the cycle of birth and death. . In the second half of the line. even their very existence. That Time is indestructible is simply an acknowledgement of the fact that these cycles keep on tirelessly repeating. in another sense time can be viewed as the cause of movement. years: this is the measurement or reckoning aspect. time is viewed as a subdivision of some convenient cycle e.s . taking it in the sense of `face'. seeking a result. whilst the former is more an impersonal principle. as a measure of the movement. the mouth. the latter view would be more appropriate: thus here Kr . Time is inextricably linked with movement: if there was no movement there would be no time. to the manifest appearance of that Consciousness. and more appropriate to the universal aspect implicit in vi svatomukha. face. for time is a measure of the change of position or state relative to some more durable `constant'. supporting'. Or again. or as a multiple of cycles e. In daily life. the phases of the moon. countenance .a represents the Absolute Unmoving Consciousness within which all movement takes place. intelligence. and speech exits. time is viewed linearly. . entrance or penetration into . The all-pervading Consciousness thus provides the space. and food for all beings: indeed It provides for their total sustenance and nourishment. entering. . and dh atr .g. rather than the active role of `creator. in the East.Ka Re ections: In the West. sarvatomukha could refer to Consciousness as the Witness.e.g. arranger' given for dh atr . . opening. time is viewed cyclically: the cycle of day and night. as the underlying constant.134 mw819c A Practical Sanskrit Introductory mw692c Pra-ve_ sa-na n. through which all creation is nourished and through which Consciousness Itself is nourished. it may be interpreted as symbolizing all senses. Taking mukha in the sense of `mouth'. entrance into or egress out of. as beginning in some remote past and continuing to some unimaginable future. This is more in keeping with the artha of the dh atu as `nourishing. mua. Thus sarvatomukha could be viewed as the sum total of all senses. . time of day. it represents a two-way opening through which food enters. both active and receptive. In the light of the Vedic teaching. mukha n.

e Adverbial: A these express a wide range of meaning time. Love S is V blind Cs . c Object: There are two types: i Direct Object: Od  expresses that which is directly acted upon by the verb. place. ii Indirect Object: Oi  is the recipient or bene ciary of the activity. each of which may comprise one or more words: a Subject: S in English grammar this is considered the main element or focus of the sentence. there may be several of these in one simple sentence. and the rest of the sentence the predicate is considered to be a statement about the subject. as in the command `Run!'. . Unlike the other elements. For example: The children S are playing V. Again A it S rained V steadily A all day A. or transitive verbs in the passive voice. NB: These notes are about English Grammar: the grammar of Sanskrit is rather di erent | do not confuse the two. It expresses the agent of an active verb.English Grammatical Terms On the assumption that the reader can speak correct English but is unfamiliar with formal grammar. The judge S set V the prisoner Od  free Co . They S elected V him Od  chairman Co . ii Object Complement: Co  used with transitive verbs in the active voice and expressing an attribute of the direct object of the sentence. For example: Jack and Jill S went up the hill predicate. He S built V the dog Oi  a kennel Od . which may be used to demonstrate similar or contrasting concepts in Sanskrit grammar. and every grammatically complete sentence must have one explicitly stated: even the subject may be implied. These terms are gathered together thematically under three headings | Sentence Elements. d Complement: This completes the sense expressed by the verb. etc. The purpose of these notes is to brie y illustrate the technical terms and concepts of English grammar. manner. Sentence Elements A sentence comprises one or more of ve elements. He S became V a doctor Cs . the technical terms will not be strictly de ned but brie y described and followed by illustrative examples where appropriate. it agrees with the subject in person and number. and Finite Verb Forms | and then followed by an alphabetical list of other common terms that do not t under these headings. 1. There are two types: i Subject Complement: Cs  used with intransitive verbs. It is the most essential word. She S gave V the food Od  to the dog Oi . Parts of Speech. related to the activity of the sentence as a whole. expressing an attribute of the subject. b Verb: V this expresses the activity of the sentence.

with another: Jack and Jill wanted to go. as it were. I will sleep. and one that doesn't is called intransitive. `an'. I live. g Interjection: an exclamation expressing emotion: Alas ! Oh ! Ah ! Ahoy ! h Adverb: quali es a verb or adjective or another adverb: The very tall man spoke quite softly. but were detained. Note: nouns and pronouns are categorized according to number. b The main verb may be accompanied by one or more auxiliary verbs used to express tense or mood: I had slept. These are: a Noun: used to name a person or thing. b Pronoun: used instead of a noun to designate a person or thing without naming it: He kissed her when they met. the girl stepped from the house into the garden. i Verb: expresses the activity of the sentence: He built a house. ii Common nouns name general things. 3. place.136 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory 2. She was here. gender and case. Parts of Speech There are nine types of word called Parts of Speech. intransitive. f Conjunction: connects one word or phrase or sentence. d Article: a name for the three adjectives `a'. expressing its relation to another noun or pronoun or to the verb: As the sun rose in the East.. a A verb taking an object is called transitive the `energy' of the activity is transferred to the object. e Preposition: `governs' a following noun or pronoun. c Adjective: quali es a noun or pronoun: The happy dog wagged its long tail at the familiar gure. Finite Verb Forms The activity of the sentence is expressed by the verb. Verbs are typically one or the other. They dig a hole. and auxiliary. There are two types: i Proper nouns name a person. Among these are: . she enjoyed it. etc. c The verb is the dynamic part of the sentence. both concrete and abstract: The love of money is the root of all evil. animating the relatively static nouns etc. but may often be used either way: He beat the drum. There are three types: transitive. I must have been sleeping. `the': A boy gave an apple to the teacher. and are usually written with an initial capital letter: John and Mary went to London on Tuesday. As such it is the most exible of the parts and appears in a wide variety of forms to express its manifold potential. The children are playing a game .

. third of the subject of the sentence: I am here. . advice. Help me! c Subjunctive: expresses an action. vi Voice: the verb form indicating the relation of the subject to the activity as: a Active: e. You are there. iv Aspect: the verb form expressing the activity as: a Inde nite: the degree of completeness of the action is not speci ed. iii Tense: the verb form indicating various times past. Note: the verb agrees with the grammatical subject in person and number. in the past. future at which the action is perceived as taking place: He stood. He stands. The door was opened by him. He will stand. He eats that he may live. it may also express a condition or question: He stands.English Grammatical Terms 137 i Person: the verb form indicating the grammatical person  rst. He opened the door. They stand there. He is everywhere. These four are shown in order. There are three basic moods: a Indicative: asserts a statement as a fact. Continued overleaf . Did he stand ? b Imperative: expresses a command. He will have been standing. . plural of the subject of the sentence: He stands here. He had been standing. v Mood: the verb form indicating an emotional quality or manner of the activity. and future respectively: He stood. May you live long. b Continuous: the action is not yet complete but still continuing. He had stood. If he stands . present. He is standing.g. d Perfect Continuous: combining the force of the previous two. . present. second. but as a condition. He will stand. or purpose: Were he here . ii Number: the verb form indicating the grammatical number singular. b Passive: e. He was standing. He stands. or entreaty: Go ! Follow the instruction of your teacher. not as a fact. desire. He will have stood. He has stood. He will be standing.g. c Perfect: the action is in a completed or perfect state. He has been standing.

having more than one clause. i. See Case. they them. See Pre x. some other word. itself. John. number.ii Agreement see Concord Conjugation the change of form of verbs Apposition a noun or pronoun is in to express tense. More Grammatical Terms A x a verbal element joined to a word I opened the door when John rang the bell. etc.g.: Show S me Oi  usually manifests with an `apostrophe-s'.g. Su x. we us. and in performs the activity of the verb. neuter subject stated or implied and a predicate. and common denotes See also Compound and Complex Sentence. the author's book. two or more simple sentences Gerund a non.g. Compare with Complex Sentence. the author of the book. and person. denotes neither sex. she her. It usually ends in `-ing'. either or both. E. I opened the door. 1. I Etymology the facts relating to the spoke to my neighbour. mood. feminine denotes a female. one being the Genitive a grammatical form of a noun or main clause and the others subordinate pronoun.g.g. It may generally be rephrased with the `of'.c. The windows are open. with Compound Sentence. and the genitive case.b.i. 3. For Finite Verb expresses the activity of a just six pronouns the common case is clause or sentence. what Od  you S did V Od .: Writing a textbook is more di cult one larger complex sentence. Complex Sentence a construction doctor. which expresses its relation to their modi cations of form and sense. John. The form the main clause. gender. 2. E.e. and Gender in English. the Case one of the forms of a noun or expounding of the elements of a word with pronoun. English uses two cases: the unmarked common case. the masculine gender denotes Clause a combination of words having a a male. i.: than teaching orally. having more than one clause which are coordinate.: grammatical relations.138 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory 4.: The window is open. etc.g. 3 apposition with another when it refers the change of form of to the same person or thing and is Declension mentioned immediately after it often o set nouns and pronouns to express di erent by commas to identify or describe it. the role particular between the grammatical subject and the verb. my neighbour. nouns and pronouns express natural as opposed to grammatical who whom. e. . E. E.. Compare e.g .g. he him. the book's author. called to see me. John rang the bell. E.nite verb form that linked together with conjunctions to form functions as a noun. Examples of this last are: I. possessor. Concord the agreement between words Agent one who instigates or causes or in case. and loosely the relation Exclamation See Interjection 2. formation and derivation of words. un happy. Compound Sentence a construction preposition the book of the author. 3 split into subjective and objective: I me. of the semantic subject of the sentence. for example: heroine. gender.e. committee. to form a new word. expressing its relation to another clauses which form sentence elements of word as source.

. `turning left' participial phrase. im possible. e. 2. English makes little use of this to express grammatical meaning. See also Complex Sentence. Su x a verbal element joined to the end of a word to form a new word. Re exive Semantic relating to signi cance or meaning. Non. It is usually preceded by `to'.: he likes to read. relation. with a passive verb. attribute.g.g.nite Verb A verb which has been turned into another Part of Speech. and the comparison of adjectives and adverbs. the conjugation of verbs. See Gerund. hyper sensitive. Participle. In nitive. It participates in the nature of a verb expressing aspect and voice. Person The three classes of pronouns and corresponding verb forms denoting the person speaking  rst person.nite verb form that functions as an adjective. or more than one plural person or thing is spoken of.English Grammatical Terms use of language. By itself it expresses a universal concept. Word a minimal element of speech having meaning as such. friendship. 139 together as an element of a sentence. In nitive A non. E.g. Verb See Finite Verb and Non. Number the property in words of expressing that one singular. See also Complex Sentence. forming the grammatically complete expression of a single thought. A combination of words forming only one clause. E. anti septic. e. primarily the conventions of arrangement by which the connection and relationship of words are shown. In ection the change of word form to express di erent grammatical relations. describes transitive verbs where the subject and direct object refer to the same thing or person.i Phonetics the science of vocal sounds especially of a particular language that deals with their production and representation.: Having heard this he went away. Syntax the study of sentence structure. etc. Sentence a combination of words forming Simple Sentence a series of words in connected speech or writing. and the rest of the world third person. For example. He considered the matter to have been settled. E.c.nite verb form that functions as a noun or adjective or adverb. E. Morphology the study of word structure.nite Verb. the grammatical subject expresses the semantic object. at least one clause. It is meaningful by itself. `on a hill' adverbial phrase. shortly. the audience addressed second person. The two primary areas of study are morphology and syntax.g. and in the nature of an adjective in qualifying a noun. He saw himself in the mirror. and may take take an object. You need not read this. `because of' prepositional phrase. careful. faultless. primarily a xes and in ection. including the declension of nouns and pronouns. Grammar the rules describing the best Phrase a group of words which operate Pre x a verbal element joined to the beginning of a word to qualify its meaning. it may express aspect and voice.b. Participle a non.g. 3. it names the activity in the most general sense. also pronouns so used usually ending in `-self'. in a sentence it denotes a speci c thing.g.

140 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory .

113  bhyantara-prayatna. 73 Uttama-Purus . `stand between': general name for the semi-vowels ya ra la va. 73 Avagraha. 104. 73  Is .Each entry word is given a simple translation in single quotes where it is literal. 64  tmane-pada. synonymous with  atmanepada. 87 A-ghos . sa sa and ha. 85. 9 An-ud atta. 83 Alpa-pr an . e. 14. or separating a word from its de nition. 13. 86 Antah . `meaning': the words provided in the Dh atu-P a. Sanskrit Glossary and Index cords not vibrating. 9. 88. the gure eight. stem: that part of an in ected word that remains unchanged except for sandhi  in the process of in ection. `little breath': characteristic of those consonants uttered with minimal breath. a.t . at-spr . 71 Anun asika.tha as the sense of the meaning of a dh atu. indeclinable: that class of words that do not have vibhakti endings. 21. 75  Is . at the A-k ara: the sound or letter a. 113  tmane-bh A as a.g. 14. `inner e ort': the A method within the mouth of articulating sounds. verbal voice. stha. ad-vivr . a. `last person': grammatical person. 6 2 sandhi substitute for an m before a consonant. 21 end of a line of verse. unvoiced: characteristic of those consonants that are uttered with the vocal Avyaya. 109 112 Ardha-spr . the rst word of which is the more important. `raised': one of the three pitches or tones svara  of the vowel accent system in Vedic Sanskrit. a. 25. distinction in verb endings denoting the agent of the verb  = English rst person. 21. `half-contact': the `inner e ort' applicable to the u s . 22 A-luk Sam asa: a sam asa wherein the rst word does not lose its vibhakti. 14 15. sa sa and ha. 111 Iti. `expression for oneself': A verbal voice.s . `after sound': 1 a nasal sound following a svara. sman consonants sa . nasal: characteristic of those sounds uttered through both nose and mouth. man consonants sa . 9 Ud atta. 79 Artha. an. `not raised': one of the three pitches or tones svara  of the vowel accent system of Vedic Sanskrit. 71. 73 Itaretara Dvandva Sam asa: the basic copulative compound whose number is the sum of its members. `slightly open': the `inner e ort' applicable to the u . a. `slight contact': the `inner e ort' applicable to the semi-vowels ya ra la and va. 63. 110 Anusv ara.t .t . 73 Anga _ . 75 Avyay bh ava Sam asa: an adverbial compound. 89 As .s . `expression for oneself': . 73 Anubandha. `bound along with': a letter or syllable attached to a dh atu and marking some peculiarity in its in ection. 91 . 80 Avas ana: cessation of sound. 83. ta. `thus': used as inverted commas. eight: the cardinal number. 64. followed by a brief description. Y : symbol for the elision of A at the beginning of a word due to sandhi. a. 22. and page references to where the word may be more fully described or applied.

`expression for both': . 63 -k ara. kavarga and ha. or pratham a with a passive verb. 56 Gan .t .t . 88 Karman: the immediate object of the agent. if dissolved. 75 Ubhayato-bh as a. the gure one. verbal voice.t . pa-varga. ka-group: the group of stops beginning with ka. fourth case: dative a x of nouns and adjectives. a. an . ^: a rare half-visarga before ka or kha. 75 Kriy a-vi ses . 73 Kan .e. 22. guttural and palatal: . : the agent of the verb. 22. 17. 13. 109. hya. verb: 1 fully in ected form of the verb. guttural and labial: the mouth position associated with the pronunciation of o. hat the mouth position associated with the pronunciation of e. 89 Upasarga. `class': there are ten classes of dh atu. s U . as contrasted with the tonal accent svara  system of Vedic Sanskrit. 73 Catur. hos .tha d . expressed in dvit y a with an active verb. ca cha ja jha n ~a.e. or tr y a with . i. 13. adverb: an indeclinable that quali es a verb. a.a d .75 Ks . kak ara. 49 Ka-varga. and ai. 13.ta .ta-group: the group of stops beginning with . `one-speaking': grammatical singular number. 9 2 one of the four types of word. `moon-dot': the symbol . 23. ha n a . hya. a Sam terminative compound which.142 before pa or pha. 113 . four: the cardinal number. sa and ha. `action': su x appended to a Sanskrit letter sound to name it. 64 Eka-vacana. 22.g. 63 J~ na: pronunciation of. and au. a.t .e. and va. 63 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory ending. hya. 73 Kan alavya. the gure four. 63 Jihv am ul ya. 13. 101 Ghos . a. 67. `quality': the secondary form of vowels. voiced: a characteristic of those consonants that are uttered with the vocal cords vibrating. `single hearing': the neutral sound of Classical Sanskrit. 78. t a passive verb. a: pronunciation of. 13. 73 Kan . e. Candrabindu. . 63 Ca-varga. 13.t . 13. 23. dh atu conjugation in parasmaibh as a  or a  tmane-bh as a. man. ^: the rare half visarga the members would have the same case Upapada Tatpurus asa: determi. 14. 57 T . the word su x denoting that one person or thing is referred to. guttural: the mouth position associated with the pronunciation of a. a. labial: the mouth position used with the pronunciation of u. 113 Gun . s . 17. expressed in pratham a with an active verb. 64 Caturth Vibhakti. verbal pre x: 1 a pre x to verbs to qualify or change its meaning. . a Sam native compound having a dh atu derivative as its nal member. . See also dvi-. 63 . i. 60 2 one of the four types of words. 49 Karmadh araya Tatpurus asa: de. 21 Kriy a. 33. 73 Kartr . one: the cardinal number. ca-group: the group of stops beginning with ca. `heated': general name for the group of four consonants sa. placed above a vowel or ya la or va to indicate that the sound is nasalized. 51 Upadhm an ya.ta. i. a-varga. 73 Eka. 26 Eka- sruti. ka kha ga gha n _ a. 71 Os . bahu-vacana.

pa-group: the group of stops beginning with pa. 33. 17. particle: one of the four types of word in Sanskrit. 63 Tatpurus asa. 15. 51 Tri. 113 Dh atu-P at . a and vacana. i. 113 Pa-varga. the word su x denoting that two persons or things are referred to.Dvi-vacana. 64 D rgha. t su x to nouns and adjectives. 51 143 dual number. a Sam compound with a negative particle as its rst member. 13. a Sam tive compound having a numeral or word denoting direction as its rst member. 64 Dvandva Sam asa.l. 23. the gure nine. 13. a Sam . `recitation of roots': name of a book giving the sense of meaning and grammatical information about each dh atu. 75 Pa~ ncan. 113 Parasmai-pada. determinative com. 92. 13. 8. 25. 86 3 verbal voice. 109. the gure ten. 5 Devan agar . ta-group: the group of stops beginning with ta. ya and sa. 104. 113 Parasmai-bh as a. 104. 73 Tin-Vibhakti _ . pa pha ba bha ma. 50 Navan. 33. 32 Tr y a Vibhakti. 1 2 variations in symbols. `two-speaking': grammatical . ve: the cardinal number. 75 N aman. 64 Dantos . copulative compound: a type of compound in which the words are of equal importance. 73 Da san. ten: the cardinal number. 9. second case: accusative a x to nouns and adjectives. 92 Dva. neuter: one of the . cavarga.51 Pada. 64 N ama-dh atu. 13. or vowels having this measure. 88 Dvit y a Vibhakti. See also eka. 26 Dh atu. synonymous with parasmaipada. 26. 75 Nip ata. `city of immortals': 1 the name of the Sanskrit script. dental: the mouth position associated with the pronunciation of . 26. two: the cardinal number. `name': a noun. the gure three. 103. the gure ve. 88 Dvigu Tatpurus asa: a determina. see  atmane-pada and parasmaipada. tavarga. 21 Dantya. la and sa. three: the cardinal number. palatal: the mouth position associated with the pronunciation of i. 23. expression for another: verbal voice. hya. verbal voice. 83 Ta-varga. 71 3 used in dictionary. root: rudimentary meaningful verbal element from which words are derived. nine: the cardinal number.bahu-vacana. 25.e. one of the four types of word in Sanskrit. fth case: ablative su x to nouns and adjectives. `long': the long measure. ta tha da dha na. 64 Pa~ ncam Vibhakti. word: 1 traditionally divided into four types. nominal verb: a verb derived from a noun.t . s three grammatical genders. 75 2 general name for a fully in ected word. ha. 89 Napum aka-linga _ . expression for another: . third case: instrumental .e. 109 116 Na~ n-Tatpurus asa: determinative . 1. verbal su x: the su x of the kriy a indicating purus . 83. the gure two. dental and labial: the mouth position associated with the pronunciation of the English `f' and `v'. 63 T alavya.Sanskrit Glossary and Index pound: in which the rst word quali es the second. 104. i.

2 associated with the pronunciation of . 9 P urn ama. 38 Prayatna.e. 89 B ahya-prayatna. a descriptive compound: a compound forming an adjective qualifying an external noun. l-a xes: a common term for the Lat . No other language. without any case ending of a noun or adjective. ` rst person': grammatical person. . 26. 17. 5. or vowels having this measure. person speaking uttama-purus . a . : a technical term for the present genders. a. 1. as found in the dictionary. spoken to madhyama-purus a . distinction in verbal su x denoting the person or thing spoken of  = English third person. 114 Pum _ . 104 Linga _ . a.str . 73 unlike other sounds. . 'speaking': grammatical number. a. 9 Pratham a Vibhakti. a. ubhayato-bh as a. Madhyama-Purus . 13. `many-speaking': the grammatical plural number. `person': grammatical person. outer e ort: the method external to the mouth. distinction in verbal su x denoting the person or thing spoken of prathama-purus . a-vir end of a verse or end of a paragraph. 17. 26 . saka-li_ ten primary tenses and moods of Sanskrit verbs. and the . 26. 78. -linga grammatical genders. ini: a grammarian circa 350 bc whose work. the word su x that one. a. a . . two. 13. 82 Prathama-Purus . 81 Bahu-vacana.dvi-vacana. See ekadvi. the As adhy ay . the throat of articulating sounds. 23. hya. a. e ort: the method of articulating sounds: divided into  abhyantara. 113 . a. 26 Bahuvr hi Sam asa. 63 Pragr . cerebral: the mouth position Repha: traditional name for ra which. 65 Purus . `to be taken separately': exceptions to sandhi rules. ra and s . 50. 9 istic of those consonants uttered with extra breath. masculine: one of the three . pum . 13 Pr an an a. 17. 1. see  atmane-.bahu-vacana.   full stop: indicates the . su x: general name for any type of su x. 73 M atr a: name applied to the rst sixteen . `breath': see alpa-pr pr an . 26 . 91 Pluta.144 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory P an . the word su x indicating that many more than two persons or things are referred to. 17 indicative simple present tense. word stem: the stem form i. has been so perfectly described.e.r. `measure': the length or duration for which a vowel is sounded. `great breath': a charactersounds of the Sanskrit alphabetical order. or more persons or things are referred to. La-k ara.tavarga. `dot': the anusv ara mark above a Bh as a. 63 Bindu. to this day. one of the la-k ara. a and mah . 21 M urdhanya. ava S mystical symbol ?. 14 Pr atipadika. does not use the -k ara su x. grammatical gender: there are three Vacana. See also eka. 51 2 and vocative. `prolonged': the prolonged measure. 63 Pratyaya. i. these may be hrasva d rgha or pluta. fully describes the .and b ahya-prayatna. parasmai-.t grammar of Sanskrit in minute detail. 6 second grammatical person. 81 abda: a name applied to the Pran . speech: verbal voice. 26. `middle person': the Mah a-pr an . 73 vowel. k M atr a. distinction in verbal su x denoting the person spoken to  = English second person. rst case: 1 nominative su x of nouns and adjectives. 14. . 83.napum nga.

32 Vir ama. calling. 77 81. 13 Varga. a: the process whereby an antah stha is replaced by a simple vowel. 6 S . a.t . 75 145 euphonic changes that arise when sounds are uttered in proximity. `placed together': the system of . 6. an . the members would have di erent case endings. 22. 85 Visarjan ya. yoga. `embellishment': general name for any consonant. 64 S Vibhakti. 78. 53 Sam n a. as . 51 Sarva-n aman. ddhi. 86 Sandhyaks . compound vowel: general name for e ai o au. 88 Sam asa. proper noun: personal or place . the gure six. e. a Tatpurus . 85 87 Sandhi Vigraha. group: grouping of consonants Sandhi. addressing: case ending of nouns and adjectives. 38. ara. if dissolved. a Sam determinative compound which. `bound together': a conjunct consonant. 26 Str -linga _ . 65. 4 Saptan. pa-varga. 75 Visarga. 13. six: the cardinal number. 1. and gender as the noun that it quali es. . consonants not having a separating vowel or pause.Sanskrit Glossary and Index according to some common quality. the members would have di erent case endings. as well as the personal endings for verbs ti_ n-vibhakti . 73 Visarga Sandhi: euphonic changes arising with the visarga. `emitted': unvoiced breath after a vowel. `position': the various mouth positions used in uttering vowels and consonants. technical terms whose meanings cannot be etymologically derived. 75 Savarn . kavarga. 38. `placed together': a compound word. 38. 26. 51 Sam . 53 2 symbol ` ' indicates the end of a halfverse or end of a sentence. 83. 63 Vi ses . 103 Vyadhikaran asa: de. 101 Vya~ njana. the gure seven. seven: the cardinal number. 63 Sup-vibhakti: case endings used for nouns and adjectives. 81 . 63 Vr . ' indicates a consonant without a following vowel. variation of pratham a-vibhakti. 14 Vibhakti: common term for the case endings used for nouns and adjectives supvibhakti . homophonic: categories of sounds having the same mouth position and `inner e ort'. number. 64 Saptam Vibhakti. sixth case: genitive a x . stop: 1 symbol ` . it is the tendency to ease of pronunciation. `separation of sandhi': removal of the sandhi between words in a sentence so that the words stand separately. if dissolved. 94 Sam ah ara Dvandva Sam asa: copulative compound whose members are taken collectively as a unit. h to nouns and adjectives. 88 akti: name applied to the rst sixteen S sounds of the Sanskrit alphabetical order. 50. 88 Sampras aran . as . synonymous with visarga. the compound is treated as a neuter singular noun.g. `name of all': pronoun. seventh case: locative su x to nouns and adjectives. j~ name. 51 Sam an adhikaran asa: . adjective: it has the same case. a Tatpurus . feminine: one of the three grammatical genders. `emission': unvoiced breath after a vowel. 6. a Sam terminative compound which. `increase': strengthened form of vowels. a. 65 Sth ana. Sambodhana.

13. 53 Spar sa. `short': the short measure.146 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory pitches or tones svara  of the vowel accent system of Vedic Sanskrit.nal': ending in a consonant without a following vowel. `sound' or `tone': 1 a general term for the vowels. 73 Svara. `consonant. `contact': the `inner e ort' for the 25 spar sa ka through ma. 13. 1 2 a term for the tonal accents ud atta an-ud atta svarita  of Vedic Sanskrit. mixed tone: one of the three Hal: technical term referring to any Halanta. 53 vowels having this measure. `contact': the general name for the group of 25 stops ka through ma. 71 Svarita. 73 Spr .t .s . a. 71. 1 Hrasva. or . 91 consonant.

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