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• Reference: Chapter 3 of the text books
What is friction?
∂W F = ∂s
µ varies as a function of the sliding distance.
60 D i stan ce slid ( m )
001~0.001~0.6 k =10-8~10-5 µ = 0. tools lubrication roller bearing head / disk MEMS AFM lithography .6 k~0 Applications machinery brake. 2000) Scale 10-4 m 10-6 m 10-8 m 10-10 m Range of friction coefficient (µ) & wear coefficient (k) µ = 0.1 Scales in Tribology and Typical Values (Adapted from Kim.01~0.1~1 k =10-5~10-2 µ = 0.Scale issues in tribology Table 3.2 k =10-7~10-5 µ = 0.
Nannaji Saka .Friction Measurement Lab • Wednesday. September 22. 2004 • Please report to the Tribology Lab • Dr.
on Si wafer.2 mm ) 1 0.1 .01 ta-C Si wafer Si-DLC a-C:H Sputtered DLC Optimized DLC 1 10 100 1E-3 0.Microscale friction as a function of coating (various carbon film -. diamond tip of r=0.250 nm thick -.1 0.
" Wear 200 (Dec 1996): 305-327. After Komvopoulous. h (nm) Figure by MIT OCW. K. .Relative friction forces in MEMS of two flat and smooth surfaces as functions of the distance between the two surfaces 103 Capillary at 45% RH h-1 Force per unit area (m Nµm2) van der Walls Electrostatic 100 h-2 10-3 Typical restoring force h-3 10-6 1 10 100 Surface separation distance. "Surface engineering and microtribology for microelectromechanical systems.
(c) Friction in sliding contacts due to intermittent contacts. 200. pp. . (b) In use stiction caused by operational and atmospheric conditions. See Komvopoulous. Wear. wear. 1996. Dec. 305-327. Vol. "Surface engineering and microtribology for microelectromechanical systems".Attractive forces in MEMS devices: (a) Stiction of two surfaces created by etching of silicon. K. and fatigue Diagram removed for copyright reasons.
Friction at Macroscale Sliding Contacts (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) What is the controlling mechanism for observed friction? Is the friction due to adhesion? What is the role of wear particles in determining the coefficient of friction? Why do different material combinations give arise to different friction coefficient? What is the effect of environment? .
1020 steel on iron.1 in [Suh 1986]: Suh. N. Tribophysics. and 1095 steel (I) to (l) -. P.1095 steel on iron. Englewood Cliffs NJ: Prentice-Hall.SEM micrographs of the surfaces of worn slider (a) to (d) -. 1020. 1045. 1020.1045 steel on iron. 1045. . 1020. 1020. and 1095 steel (e) to (h) -. and 1095 steel Photos removed for copyright reasons. 1986.Iron on iron. 1045. and 1095 steel (m) to (p) -. See Figure 3. ISBN: 0139309837. 1045.
(g). (h). and 1095 steel (b).1095 steel on iron.1020 steel on iron. (e). 1020.2 in [Suh 1986]. (f). . 1045. (j). (n) -. and 1095 steel Photos removed for copyright reasons.Iron on iron. 1045. See Figure 3. (m) -. 1020.SEM micrographs of the surfaces of worn specimen (a).1045 steel on iron. (p) -. 1045. 1020. (o) -. and 1095 steel (d). and 1095 steel (c). (I). 1045. (l). 1020. (k).
Coefficient of friction versus sliding distance µs µ µi Distance slid (a) µs µ µi Distance slid (b) ∆ µρ .
Effect of removing wear particles for an Armco iron slider sliding against an Armco iron specimen µ µs µI’ µi Distance slid Wear particles removed .
Friction at Dry Sliding Interface • • • • Plowing Mechanism Particle Agglomeration Height of Agglomerated Particles Friction Coefficient and the Number of Agglomerated Particles • Reduction of Friction by Elimination of Particles .
Friction at Dry Sliding Interface Undulated Surface for Elimination of Particles Pads Pockets Sectional view .
Experimental Setup Experimental conditions conditions Experimental Speed Normal load Pin-on-reciprocator tester 1 mm/sec 1. 50.4 m Temperature Humidity Distance Experimental setup . 70 % 2. 5 gf 25±2 ℃ 35.
Slider (Nano type) • Flat specimens .Specimens • Pin specimens . 50㎛ width 50µm spacing µ-structured Si 5µm spacing µ-structured Si .Bearing ball (1/16”) .µ-structured Si(coated) : Linear and square : 5. 10. 20.
0 2.4 0.5 2.5 1.5 2.Wear Track of Al Coated Flat and µ-structured Surface (ball pin.8 0.5 0.4 Al coated Si(5gf) Flat surface 0.5 Sliding distance(m) Sliding distance(m) Agglomeration of wear particles Abrasive mark Extrusion of Al layer Adhesive mark Plugged undulation Delamination of Al layer Trapped wear particles Abrasive mark Flat surface .0 0.0 0.0 1gf 1gf Al-coated Si(1gf) Undulated surface 1.0 0.0 0.0 2.s µ tructured surface .0 1. RH 35%) 1.5 1.6 0.0 1.s µ tructured surface Flat surface .8 0.2 Undulated surface 0.2 0.0 5gf 5gf 0.6 Friction Coefficient Friction Coefficient Flat surface 0.
5 Sliding distance(m) .0 1.5 1.6 Input particles 0.0 2.4 Re-input particles 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.Particle (SiC) Insertion into Al Coated µ-structured Surface (ball pin. Contact area reduction 2. 1gf) 1.0 0.8 1.5 2. Wear particle trapping Friction Coefficient 0.
Six stages in the frictional force versus distance slid relationship µ I II III IV V VI Distance slid .
Hard stationary surface polished by a soft surface Craters(“potholes”) due to the wear sheet formation Mirror finish .
Two interacting surface asperities L F A B F L θ .
Sliding direction θ θ’ A α D B C θ’ O θ .Geometrically compatible slip-line field.
Slip-line field solution for friction as a function of the slope of asperities 1. "The Genesis of Friction. N. After Suh.5 Figure 3.9 0 15 q' 30 45 Figure by MIT OCW. and H.. Sin." Wear 69 (1981): 91-114.0 a =q 20o 10o 5o 0o 15o m 0. C. . P.
Effect of Boundary Lubrication ∼ µ ~ 0.1 • Cause? – Plowing • What is the role of a lubricant? – – – – Lower shear stress Transport particles Prevent particle agglomeration Prevent adhesion .
Friction in Geometrically Confined Space Experimental Arrangement Weight Bushing Housing η Strain Gages Extended Arm .
Friction in Geometrically Confined Space 2.5 0 0 200 400 600 800 Cycles 1000 Torque -150 -200 -250 1200 .5 1 0.5 Voltage 50 0 -50 -100 2 1.
Friction in Geometrically Confined Space 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 200 400 600 Cycles 800 1000 0 1200 Transition F1 N1 2.5 1 0.5 2 1.5 µ1 .
Friction in Geometrically Confined Space Bearing 125 Shaft Dimensions in µm .
5 1 0.Friction in Geometrically Confined Space 2.5 2 1.5 Torque Voltage 50 0 -50 -100 -150 -200 -250 5000 0 0 1000 2000 3000 Cycles 4000 .
polyurethane – Glass fiber reinforced or filler • Elastomers – Thermoplastic elastomers – Polybutadiene rubber . phenolics.Friction at Polymeric Interfaces • Thermoplastics – Highly linear semicrystalline polymers: HDPE. PTFE – Linear semicrystalline polymers – Polymers with large pendant groups (amorphous polymers) • Thermosetting plastics – Epoxy. polyesters.
.Structure of some thermoplastics Diagrams removed for copyright reasons.1 in [Suh 1986]. See Figure 6.
. See Figure 6.12 in [Suh 1986].Friction Coefficient of Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE) Graphs removed for copyright reasons.
(a) µ as a function of the sliding velocity at various temperatures of acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber on wavy glass (b) Master curve (Reference temperature = 20C) (c) Shift factor a(T) vs (T-Ts) Graphs removed for copyright reasons. . See Figure 6.13 in [Suh 1986].
. Graphs removed for copyright reasons.(a) Rolling friction of 3/16 inch steel ball over the surface of a nylon copolymer as a function of temperature (load 1050 g). (b) Low -frequency vicoelastic loss data for the same polymer as a function temperature. See Figure 6.14 in [Suh 1986].
carbon/carbon composites.Frictional Behavior of Composites • Fiber orientation • Continuous vs. teflon/graphite fiber composites . chopped fibers • Example: Brake lining.
Effect of Coatings on Friction • Hard coatings on metals – TiN. DLC. Au/steel. TiC. • Polymeric coatings on metals – Polyurethane. Fluorocarbon polymers. Cd/Steel. . • Soft coatings on metals (primarily to reduce wear) – Ni/Au/Steel. etc. etc. Al2O3-13TiO2. etc.
the friction force is generated by plowing of the surfaces by wear particles. In a majority of engineering applications that involve a metal surface sliding against another. Because friction is caused by plowing. The friction force is also generated by the work done to shear asperities and in some rare cases. .Conclusions 1.with and without the normal load. Friction is a manifestation of the energy consumed when two surfaces in contact slide relative to each other -. by the adhesion between the two contacting surfaces. adhesion and asperity removal. it is best represented by "Friction Space". 3. 2.
Friction is not an inherent material property.Conclusions 4. 6. but still there is a metal-to-metal contact. Boundary lubricants lower the friction coefficient by preventing wear particle agglomeration and plowing. The friction is the highest when the two surfaces have exactly the same hardness. which leads to plowing and the observed coefficient of friction of about 0. . 5. Removal of wear particles by the use of undulated surface reduces the coefficient of friction to a level of boundary lubricated cases with boundary lubricants. It depends on the relative hardness of materials that are sliding against each other.1.
Polymers are used extensively in diverse applications because of their unique tribological properties.Conclusions 7. highly linear polymers have low coefficients of friction. 8. For instance. . Composites can be made with polymeric materials and fibers or fillers to satisfy a specific set of functional requirements.
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