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Coastal & Inland Water Tourism
One of the most common types of tourism is coastal tourism. It is based on a unique resource combination at the interface of land and sea offering amenities such as water, beaches, scenic beauty, rich terrestrial and marine biodiversity, diversified cultural and historic heritage, healthy food and, usually,good infrastructure. It includes a diversity of activities that take place in both coastal zones and coastal waters, which involve the development of tourism capacities (hotels, resorts, second homes, restaurants, etc.) and support infrastructure (ports, marinas, fishing and diving shops, and other facilities). Besides physical conditions, the development of tourism in coastal areas is related to socio-economic features of the receiving environment such as local community interests, health and security conditions, political factors including unpredictable crises, and traditional models of tourism. The growth of tourism in coastal areas has reached its peak in recent decades.The economic importance of coastal tourism is unquestionable, although there is no analysis forecasting what would be the direct share of coastal tourism in the tourism sector, or its likely contribution to the economy as a whole. Main conceptual issues The main conceptual issue of coastal tourism which needs to be solved is the conflict between the benefits tourism provides for the economy as a whole and for the social environment it is operating in, and its heavy impact on the coastal physical environment in terms of urban sprawl, linear urbanisation, pressure on sensitive areas, the production of waste and the fragmentation of habitats, and the social environment, in terms of the loss of social and cultural identity and values. Usually the development of tourism activities in coastal areas is based on a process where any planning or/and management decision is taken mainly on the basis of financial criteria, while the environment is taken into account only in a sense that can be described as “trying to minimise effects given the available budget”. This process leads to the unsustainable development of coastal areas which not only impacts negatively on the environment and
society but, in the long term, is also eroding the economic benefits of tourism since it destroys the basis of the tourism activity in coastal areas, namely the variety of the landscape, the biodiversity and the ecosystem services - in the sea and on land. The major challenge in this conflict remains how to develop coastal tourism patterns that will not minimise benefits to tourists and local populations, and the quality of the natural resource base for tourism. In order to minimise tourism-induced problems and secure both the sustainability of the tourism industry and coastal resources used by other sectors, increased attention must be paid to the integration of coastal tourism into strategic development planning. In planning tourism development, it is of the utmost importance to focus on the appropriate planning of tourism growth with regard to the capacity of local systems.
Tourism in coastal areas “Coastal tourism was generally related to the therapeutic properties of
sea and sun.Sun, sea and sand have continued to provide the main ingredients for coastal tourism until today” Coastal tourism is based on a unique resource combination at the interface of land and sea offering amenities such as water, beaches, scenic beauty, rich terrestrial and marine biodiversity, diversified cultural and historic heritage, healthy food and good infrastructure. It includes a diversity of activities that take place in both coastal zone and coastal waters, which involve the development of tourism capacities (hotels, resorts, second homes, restaurants, etc.) and support infrastructure (ports, marinas, fishing and diving shops, and other facilities). Coastal recreation activities, which have been increasing both in volume and in number during the last decade, occupy a unique place in coastal tourism. They take in two main types of recreational uses of coastal zones: consumptive and non-consumptive ones. Activities such as fishing, shell fishing and shell collection, etc. belong in the first category while activities in the second include
swimming, diving, boating, surfing, wind-surfing, jet skiing, bird watching, snorkelling, etc.
The main impacts and challenges
All tourism forms and activities rely on the use of environmental resources. Even if it is considered as a “soft” industry, tourism has a major environmental impact in many coastal areas, which are particularly vulnerable to pressures associated with its growth. The relationship existing between tourism and environment is best qualified as a relation of mutual dependence: not only tourism is highly dependent on environmental quality but environmental quality is also highly vulnerable to tourism development.
Global issues and coastal tourism
Tourism development is usually one of the most important factors of socioeconomic and environmental change. Even though such changes could lead to negative environmental impacts such as biodiversity loss, they do not necessarily have to be undesirable ones since they can help maintain the vitality of societies. In some coastal areas, tourism can be the most important activity, generating economic benefits and therefore contributing to poverty alleviation.
Tourism is a global activity, bringing different cultures and customs together, and also sharing the same global changes. Changes in climate are the most serious ones, affecting the entire globe. Tourism, being mainly a coastal venture, is particularly vulnerable to such change. Careful planning and decision-making in tourism development is therefore extremely important for preventing and mitigating the possible negative influence global climate change may pose to the local community.
The importance of coastal environment
Sri Lanka's coastline is about 1700 km long. Along the coast is a variety of eco-systems, which include sandy beaches, rocky shores, lagoons, estuaries, mangroves, salt marshes and sand dunes. In the shallow waters of the coastline are found sea-grass beds and coral reefs. Coral reefs and their resources are important for the fisheries industry, tourism industries and coast protection. Fisheries and tourism industries also provide employment to many. Estuaries and lagoons support fishing activities and they are used as anchorages for fishing boats.
There are 14 true mangroves and there are 12 associated species in Sri Lanka. Very beautiful coral reefs are located in places such as Hikkaduwa, Pasikudah, Trinco and Kalpitiya. Coastal resources like coral reefs, sand dunes and mangroves are important to prevent coastal erosion. Degradation of these resources severely affect the coastal areas. Mangrove habitats are located within the lagoons and estuaries. For example, Madutank, Puttalam lagoon etc. We should protect coastal resources for our next generation
Lagoon Sandy Beach
Mangrove Sand Dune
Coastal and Environment Development
Coastal Environments are under very high population pressure due to the rapid urbanization processes. More than half of todays world population live in coastal areas(within 60km from the sea) and this number is on rise.
Additionally, among all different parts of the planet, coastal areas are those which are most visited by tourists and in many coastal areas tourism presents the most important economic activity. In the mediterannean region for example, tourism is the first economic activity for islands like cyprus,Malta,the Belearic Islands and sicily. Forecast studies carried out by WTO estimate that international tourist arrivals to the Mediterranean coast will amount to 270 millions in 2010 and to 346 millons 2020(in 2000 around 200 million foreign visitors per year). Daglas Devananda, Minister of Traditional Industries and Small Enterprise Development, addressing the graduate trainees absorbed to the State service at the Coastal Environment Protection Programme held at Jaffna district secretariat recently said that the sea weed farming project covering the entire coastal area of Jaffna peninsula that was launched was of extreme significance towards the protection of sea resources as well as the expansion of fishing activities in the area.Speaking further, the Minister said that the project initially would cover 292 km of the Northern coast and was a step in the right direction taken to protect and conserve the Northern coast which was under constant threat due to destruction of mangrove vegetation, coral reef and other natural resources preventing sea erosion. He also said had such a step not been taken consequences would prove to be disastrous to fishing; the main livelihood of the inhabitants in these areas as well as to the beauty and splendour of the vast stretches of golden sea beaches in the North. The Minister requested the trainees to extend their full support to the Divisional Secretaries in implementing the coastal protection programme.
Coastal conservation department
Conservation of the Coastal Zone and Management of Sustainable Coastal Resources.
Sri Lanka to achieve prominency as a country with the sustainable management of coastal resources in the Asian Region.
The combating Coastal Erosion dates back to many centuries and Coast Protection works were handled by various departments at various times prior to 1963. The realization of the government, that a comprehensive approach to coastal erosion control is required, led to establishment of a Coast Protection Unit in the Colombo Port Commission in 1963. In 1978, the Coast Protection Unit was transferred to Ministry of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources (MFAR) and was functioned as Coast Conservation Division.
The Coast Conservation Act required having a survey of the Coastal Zone and preparation of a Coastal Zone Management Plan (CZMP). The CZMP, prepared by the CCD, was adopted by the Government and implemented as the Coastal Zone Management Plan 1990. A Resource Management strategy for Sri Lanka’s coastal region, “Coastal 2000”, which provided the direction for Coastal Resources Management of Sri Lanka, was prepared in1992. The second revised CZMP was implemented since 1997. The last revision of the CZMP was done in 2004 and is being implemented.
Coastal regions are home to a large and growing population in Sri Lanka. The high concentration of population have produced many economic benefits from the coastal resources, in particular from fishing, tourism, and maritime activities, while having improved transportation links, developed industrial and urban centers, and modified physical nature in the coastal zone. Eventually the increasing beneficiaries cause for degrading the Natural Coastal Environment. Hence Engineering and Management of Coastal Zone is vital for the sustainability of Coastal Resources. Specifically Coastal Conservation Department’s objectives are : Improve the status of coastal environment Develop and manage the shoreline Improve the living standards of coastal communities Promote and facilitate economic development based upon coastal resources
Marine Environment Protection Authority (MEPA) An act to provide for the prevention, control and reduction of pollution in the territorial waters of Sri Lanka or any other maritime zone, its fore-shore and the coastal zone of Sri Lanka and for matters connected therewith or incidental thereto. Marine Pollution Prevention Act, No.35 of 2008
Department of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources (DFAR) An act to provide for the Management, Regulation, Conservation and development of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources in Sri Lanka; to repeal the Fisheries Ordinance (Chapter 212), the Chank Fisheries Act (Chapter 213), the Pearl Fisheries Ordinance (Chapter 214) and the Whaling Ordinance (Chapter 215); and to provide for matters connected therewith or incidental thereto. Fisheries and Aquatic Resources Act, No. 2 of 1996 and Act, No. 4 of 2004 (Amendment)
National Aquaculture Development Authority of Sri Lanka (NAQDA) An act to provide for the establishment of the National Aquaculture Development Authority of Sri Lanka, to develop aquatic resources and the aquaculture industry: and to make provision for matters connected therewith or incidental thereto. National Aquaculture Development Authority of Sri Lanka Act, No.53 of 1998 and Act, No. 23 of 2006 (Amendment)
Central Environmental Authority (CEA)
The Central Environmental Authority (CEA) was established in August 1981 under the provision of the National Environmental Act No:47 of 1980. The Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources (ME&NR) which was established in December 2001 has the overall responsibility in the affairs of the CEA with the objective of integrating environmental considerations in the development process of the country. The CEA was given wider regulatory powers under the National Environment (Amendment) Acts No:56 of 1988 and No:53 of 2000. Vision : A clean and green environment through service excellence Mission : Flagship of the nation steering towards protecting & managing the quality of the environment by promoting public participation, enforcement, advanced technological interventions & environmental education.
Central Environmental Authority’s Services
The Central Environmental Authority has a well equipped Laboratory which is capable of carrying out an extensive tests in water quality, air quality, noise and vibrations measurements. During last two decades, our services were restricted only for official environmental regulatory purposes. But now we have extended our analytical testing facilities under commercial basis for those who need water, air, noise, soil and solid waste testing facilities. As a service oriented testing facilities provider, we offer you the competitive rates in environmental monitoring and analysis.
Marine Fishing and Aquaculture Development
40% of Sri Lanka’s coastline lies in the Northern Province of Sri Lanka. The province has immense potential for fisheries and marine aquaculture. Marine and lagoon-based fishery industry will have to be modernized and re-equipped to enable the population to benefit from the rich and underutilized marine resources. New aquaculture-based industries could be established to elevate productivity and offer more livelihood options to the people of the NorthernProvince. In order to develop marine fisheries and coastal zone on a sustainable basis, the fishery potential, looming threats and important conservation areas (such as sea grass beds and coral reefs) should be surveyed and mapped. It is imperative that exploitation of the resources is done within the limits of sustainability with adequate emphasis on conservation and protection for future useage.
IN-PLANT TRAINING In our training period we were visit some places to learnt about their functions and main activities. Such as : Coastal conservation department National Institute of Fisheries and Nautical Engineering (Ocean University Jaffna) Net factory Boat factory Department of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources Ice factory Sea food factory.
National Institute of Fisheries and Nautical Engineering (Ocean University Jaffna) The Ocean University is not just another University. Our aim is to develop it as a community-oriented University. The fishing community and people who earn their livelihood from the sea will be the direct beneficiaries. The development of the port sector is bound to create more job opportunities. The university has already commenced degree programs on Navigation, International Transport Management, Harbour Management, Coastal Zone Management and Diploma programs on Marine Engineering Technology, Fibreglass Technology, Computer Science, Certificate courses in Underwater Welding Technology, out board Motor Engine Repair and Maintenance, Marine Engine Technology, Swimming, Life Saving, Scuba Diving, and Fishing Gear Technology. The BSc degree programs are on Fisheries and Marine Science, Marine Engineering and Naval Architecture.
The Ocean University - the National Institute of Fisheries and Nautical Engineering was setup in 1999 by President Mahinda Rajapaksa the then Minister of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources. Main Coastal Habitats in Sri Lanka Coral Reefs Sand Dunes Lagoon sand Estuaries Sea Grass Beds Salt Marshes Mangroves Barrier Beaches, Spit sand Dunes Coastal Problems in Sri Lanka Coastal Erosion Habitats Degradation Costal Pollution Lack of Beach Access Coral Mining and Sand Mining Improper Constructions
North Sea Limited
North Sea Ltd, located factory in Jaffna was established in June 2001 under Companies Act No: 17 of 1982 and re-registered new Company Act No: 7 of 2007. This Institution was assigned to Ministry of Traditional Industries & Small Enterprise Development by the extra ordinary gazette notification No.1651/20 dated 30th April 2010.
Classification of ice plants
The term ice plant is used in this note to mean a complete installation for the production and storage of ice, including the icemaker itself, that is the unit that converts water into ice together with the associated refrigeration machinery, harvesting and storage equipment, and the building. Ice plants are usually classified by the type of ice they produce; hence there are block ice plants, flake ice plants, tube, slice or plate ice plants and so on. Ice plants may be further subdivided into those that make dry or wet ice. Dry ice here means ice at a temperature low enough to prevent the particles becoming moist; the term does not refer in this note to solid carbon dioxide. In general, dry subcooled ice is made in plants that mechanically remove the ice from the cooling surface; most flake ice plants are of this type. When the cooling surface of an icemaker is warmed by a defrost mechanism to release the ice, the surface of the ice is wet and, unless the ice is then subcooled below 0°C, remains wet in storage; tube ice and plate ice plants are of this type.
Types of icemaker
Block ice Rapid block ice Flake ice Tube ice
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