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University of Amsterdam Algorithms and Complexity Dr. P. van Emde Boas

1. Full title

**Algorithms and Complexity
**

2. General Information

The Algorithms and Complexity programme is carried out by the Theoretical Computer Science group at the Institute for Language Logic and Computation (ILLC, which has participating members from the Faculty of Science, the Faculty of Humanities and the Faculty of Social and Behavioral Sciences, all at the University of Amsterdam. The ILLC participates in the Dutch Graduate School in Logic (OzSL). Group leader: Dr P. van Emde Boas peter@science.uva.nl

3. Programme Members

Professors (hoogleraren) Adriaans, prof. dr. P. Apt, prof. dr. K.R. Buhrman, prof. dr. H.M. van Emde Boas, dr. P. Vit´ anyi, prof. dr. ir. P.M.B. Associate professors (UHDs) Torenvliet, dr. L. Assistant professors (UDs) Janssen, dr. T.M.V. from 01-01-1998 until 01-01-2000 from 01-01-2001

until 01-01-2000

4. Keywords

Computational complexity, quantum computing, theory of information, descriptive complexity, learning theory, game models, distributed computing, communication complexity.

**5. Research Input Academic Staff (wp)
**

Note: in the table below 0.8 fte is used for PhD students. fte wp1 AIOs other wp2 OIOs other wp3 AIOs other total 1996 2.4 1.2 0.8 0.0 0.8 0.0 5.2 1997 3.2 1.2 0.8 0.0 0.8 0.0 6 1998 3.0 1.28 0.8 0.0 0.8 0.0 5.88 1999 2.4 1.28 0.8 0.0 0.0 0.0 4.48 2000 2.0 1.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 3.2 2001 0.6 1.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.8 total 13.6 7.36 3.2 0.0 2.4 0.0 25.56

Main sources for contract research: NWO(-SION), EC, Min. RIVM. 1

2 0.0 0.0 0. e.0 0 wp3 0.0 0.University Programme name Research director : : : University of Amsterdam Algorithms and Complexity Dr. Speciﬁc subjects are quantum information processing.54 Main Themes 8. computational learning (focusing at grammar induction.0 0. 2 .g.54 wp2 0. Machine learning. Research Output Research Output in Numbers PhD theses Refereed journal articles Refereed contributions to international conferences Academic publications Other refereed academic publications (including books and chapters) totals 1996 2 8 12 1997 1 2 12 1998 3 10 15 1999 1 10 14 2000 0 10 16 2001 2 11 6 total 9 51 75 1 23 7 22 1 29 4 24 2 28 3 22 18 151 7. computational complexity theory. network algorithms. cognitive psychology and planning and scheduling.0 0. Two lines of investigation A leading conception structuring the research at the University of Amsterdam is the view that informatics is a unifying paradigm between alpha.64 0. ¯ Complexity and the real world. Quantum computing. From this perspective the potential domains and application areas of research in complexity are numerous and range from fundamental issues in quantum computing to questions in biology. The study of Algorithms an complexity in the context of the manipulation of real world systems.0 1.0 0. Programme design The main themes of the project are algorithmic methods.5 0. human language and human cognition and object orientation. Currently research in our groups focuses on two domains: ¯ The study of Algorithms and Complexity in the context of alternative paradigms of computation. the minimum description length principle. Composition of Research Input of Academic Staff in 2001 fte professor (hgl.0 0.64 0. van Emde Boas 6.2 0.0 0. beta and gamma disciplines.0 0. e.2 0.5 0.0 1. P.0 0 total 0. descriptive complexity and its applications and computational game models.0 0.lec) associate professor (uhd) assistant professor (ud) other senior staff PhD students (AIO.g.2 0.OIO) other junior staff total wp1 0.0 0.0 0. cognition and AI). complexity analysis and programming methodology.

In distributed computations and network models problems like mutual search and naming conventions in networks are investigated. which states that any regularity in any give set of data can be used to compress these data. The results obtained by Buhrman. Complexity in the real world In this line of research various themes dealing with the application of complexity theory are combined. Examples are: planning. Modeling imperfect information of agents turns out to be the major bottleneck. The relevance for society of these two lines of research is clear. P. 3 . but also lead to increased understanding of quantum phenomena in nature. and other human cognitive capabilities.University Programme name Research director : : : University of Amsterdam Algorithms and Complexity Dr. In the last years evidence has arisen that the proposed coherent quantum computers may be (and for some tasks are) intrinsically much faster than classical computing devices. the more compression. A speciﬁc example investigated involves learning context free grammars from positive examples. A central theme in Machine learning is the so-called ”Minimum Description Length Principle”. various games like checkers and chess. The work on programming methodology focused on the efforts of rendering declarative programming more efﬁcient and usable. This led to research on integrating logic programming with imperative programming and on various aspects of constraint programming. The more regularity. Aside from this potential for technological development these models are also of theoretical interest as they may lead to the solution of open problems in complexity theory. language learning. results One of the great challenges in the area of Quantum Computing is to present good examples of problems which are easier to solve by quantum computers than (as far as we know) by a standard computer. The second line of investigation is driven by a wish to gain a better understanding of the relation between theoretical results in complexity theory and the factual efﬁciency of various problem solving systems in the real world. It is a common observation in AI and cognitive psychology that human beings perform reasonably efﬁciently in problem domains with exponential (or worse) upper bounds for time and/or space complexity. de Wolf and others on lower bound techniques and communication complexity provide both new examples answering this challenge and new insights in the way quantum computing can improve over standard computing. Research in Complexity Theory focuses on reductions and completeness notions. The recent ﬁeld of computational game models aims at bridging the conceptual gap between the anthropomorphic conceptions invoked in agent theory in AI and Object technology on the one side and traditional computational models on the other side. Quantum Coherent Computation Quantum coherent computation is a new ﬁeld of research that has attracted an increasing number of computer scientists and physicists over the last 10 years. van Emde Boas The motivation of the ﬁrst line of research lies in a fundamental rethinking of the foundations of computation in the light of the results of modern physics together with the promise of more efﬁcient algorithms for some important classes of problems. A main theme in the study of algorithms is Kolmogorov Complexity. An understanding of the search bias that make these tasks feasible is of the utmost importance. At the start of the period covered by this six year’s report two examples of such problems were known: Shor’s factorization algorithm and the sub-linear search algorithm invented by Grover. scheduling.

and the analysis of imperfect information. Several important results in this area were obtained during the past six years. Machine learning algorithms are key in developing the truly intelligent agents which are currently being used in contemporary information processing and decision support systems in business and government. compositionality has remained a prime source of inspiration. Programme development The research input has reached an all time low in 2001. through personal union. de Graaf was hired on the NWO project of Buhrman and Torenvliet “Extending feasible computation: Quantum Computing”.University Programme name Research director : : : University of Amsterdam Algorithms and Complexity Dr. but also in the study of the structure and meaning of graphical representations. Work in programming methodology converged on the design of the hybrid language ALMA which combines ideas from logic programming with constraint programming. already mentioned. In distributed computing interesting results have been obtained on routing. In fact. and T. coordinated by Buhrman. will be continued in a next phase of three years. van Emde Boas and van Benthem obtained funds for their ENIGMA project. there are presently no plans of strengthening the participation of the UvA in this research area. Other investigations concern learning of grammars from corpus data in known and unknown natural languages. European quantum computing project. As algorithms and complexity are not central in the research effort of the ILLC. but also resource sensitive measure theory has become a useful ingredient. and communication in a network. Also the use of this technique in solving standard Mathematical problems (as exempliﬁed by the Heillbron triangle example) is a convincing example illustrating the power of this technique. automatic translation. The. van Emde Boas The idea of proving lower bound proofs for speciﬁc algorithmic problems using Kolmogorov Complexity based arguments has been used many times over the past 25 years. Lee was hired as a PhD student by UvA on the ongoing quantum computing project lead by Buhrman. among which the more prominent one is the analysis of the Shellsort algorithm. The reason for this is that this programme is strongly interwoven. In computational complexity a number of results have been obtained on separating complexity classes relative oracles. Societal/technological relevance The main societal impact of quantum computing is that its possible realization will destroy the computational intractability of most. The research output has certainly not. MDL and Bayesian Inference to the practical work on building an autopilot on a single handed sailing ship trained by the experience of previous voyages. 4 . P. which gave extra emphasis to this union. both in the study of natural and formal languages. with the programme INS 4 of the CWI. if not all cryptographical mechanisms and protocols on which the security of todays electronic information exchange in the world is based. In part these results invoke yet another use of Kolmogorov complexity. In 2001 Harry Buhrman was appointed full professor at the University of Amsterdam. 10. Models based on games provide the most promising representation for the interactive aspects of these agents. In September 2001 M. In the ﬁeld of learning theory our results range from the very theoretical work on the relations between Kolmogorov Complexity. 9. the majority of the PhD projects reported in this section were carried out at the CWI. In our research in areas related to semantics. which will start September 2002.

47(6):2443– 2463. the HPCN board.. Mosca. G´ acs. Comp. Quantum vs. He is also coordinator of the 5th framework project: Quantum Algorithms and Information Processing. At the same time it is required to obtain a better understanding of those aspects on computational problems which make these problems really intractable. L. Buhrman. 31th ACM Symp. D. Other Indicators for Quality. Mathematical Systems Theory/Mathematical Computing Theory. R. Vit´ anyi Algorithmic statistics. and L. Fundamenta Informaticae. 12. Buhrman. 63–69. he also served on 8 program committees and gave several invited lectures at inter´ nyi is editor of: Distributed Computing. 2001. R. and gave 15 invited keynote lectures at international conferences. Assoc. RAIRO. van Emde Boas Short of the arrival of quantum computers eventually all systems are realized on machines patterned after an architecture which has not changed essentially over the past decades. Th. Harry Buhrman is editor of Theory of Computing Systems. 1996. Theoretical Informatics. Journal of Logic Programming. in which 13 European and 4 North American sites participate. [2] H. John Tromp. [4] P. and R. [5] R. J. and Paul Vit´ anyi. Reputation and Innovative Potential Krzysztof Apt is editor of: Theory and Practice of Logic Programming.” Paul Vit´ anyi has served on 26 program committees of international conferences in the period 1996– 2001. Peter van Emde Boas is editor of RAIRO and Information and Computation. Cleve.M. He served on 5 program committees. Paul Vit a Letters. Harry Buhrman served on 11 program and steering committees of international conferences and gave 15 keynote lectures. Pieter Adriaansis senior research advisor for Perot Systems Corporation. He is also a Member of the Scientiﬁc Board “Encyclopedia of Mathematics. and has served on 14 program committees of international conferences in the period 1996–2001. H. He gave 9 invited lectures at international conferences in the period 1996-2001. He is also president of the association for Logic Programming and chairman and co-founder of the ERCIM Working Group on Constraints. Fortnow. Buhrman. 48(4):778–797. 43:723–746. Journal of New Generation Computer Systems. 2000. van Melkebeek. Key Publications [1] Ming Li. How to share concurrent wait-free variables. gave 4 invited lectures and obtained 3 IT related international patents in the period 1998-2001. J. SIAM Journal on Computing. classical communication and computation. Wiley/Teubner Series in Computer Science. Assoc.. 11. Information and Computation. Wigderson. notwithstanding the fact that so far according to Moore’s Law the speed and capacity of hardware keeps on increasing exponentially. Parallel Processing Letters. Comp. Mach. Efﬁcient algorithm design and analysis remain a must for solving the increasingly large problem instances submitted. J.. and P. de Wolf. 5 . P. Inform. Journal of Logic and Computation. M. ACM Transactions on Computational Logic. 1998. the CWI board. IEEE Trans. International Journal of Foundations of Computer Science. Information Processing national conferences. Mach. Separating complexity classes using autoreducibility. least we build no systems based on solving intractable sub-problems. [3] H. Journal of Computer and System Sciences (guest editor). He is a member of the Board of the International Federation for Computational Logic. Tromp. and Frontiers in Computing Systems Research. the ICT Forum and the committee for for Biomolecular Informatics.University Programme name Research director : : : University of Amsterdam Algorithms and Complexity Dr. Quantum lower bounds by polynomials. Science of Computer Programming. 29(5):1497–1520. In Proc. on the Theory of Computing (STOC). and A. Torenvliet. Cleve. 2001. Beals. He is a member of the steering committee of the ICGI (International Conference on Grammar Induction).

University of Amsterdam.B.H.D. [7] B. 154 (2):367–377. Promotor: P. de Jongh. Apt. J. Torenvliet.M.R. Category 1. Category 1. John Tromp. P. [2] F.J. Vit´ anyi. University of Amsterdam. PhD thesis. Promotor: K. P-selective self-reducible sets: A new characterization of È . 28 2:147–180. bounded quantiﬁcation and iteration in logic and constraint logic programming. [5] Harry Buhrman and Leen Torenvliet.B.M. van Emde Boas 13. University of Amsterdam. Teusink Logic Programming and Non-monotonic Reasoning. Apt and R. September 1996..M. Promotor: P. [3] R. Ben-Eliyahu. and Paul Vit´ anyi. Category 1. Pedreschi. Promotores: H. Dastani Languages of Perception PhD thesis. University of Amsterdam. March 1998.University Programme name Research director : : : University of Amsterdam Algorithms and Complexity Dr. 1996.F. [7] Ming Li. 1996. Vit´ anyi.J.B. de Haas Logics for OO Information Systems: A Semantic Study of Object Orientation from a Categorial-Substructural Perspective. PhD thesis. Synchronization and Fault Tolerance. PhD thesis. [4] Klaus Ambos-Spies. Funtamenta Informatica. 1996. Dissertations [1] J-H. PhD thesis. Ambos-Spies. Vit´ anyi. Cramer Modular Design of Secure Yet Practical Cryptographic Protocols. H. Journal of Logic Programming. P. University of Amsterdam. University of Amsterdam. Promotor: P. de Wolf Quantum Computing and Communication Complexity PhD thesis. 14.B. [8] E. Promotor: K. (168)1:3–19. 43:723–746. [2] K. November 1999. Meta-variables in logic programming.R. [4] S. september 2001. Co-promotores: D. May 2001. PhD thesis. Vit´ anyi [6] M. L. Buhrman. 1996. P. University of Amsterdam. Category 1. Category 1. Journal of Computer and System Sciences. 6 . [3] K. Category 1.M.M. A closer look at declarative interpretations. [6] Lane Hemaspaandra and Leen Torenvliet.R. Scha.M. Vit´ anyi. Terhal Quantum Algorithms and Quantum Entanglement. Adriaans. Apt. [5] P. Comp.M. and Bas Terwijn. Genericity and measure for exponential time. 1996. P. M. How to share concurrent wait-free variables. Scientiﬁc publications 1996 Articles [1] K. 1996. Apt. January 1997. University of Amsterdam. 1996. Promotor: P. Category 1. Category 1. PhD thesis. Gr¨ unwald The Minimum Description Length Principle and Reasoning under Uncertainty. van Emde Boas. Neis. University of Amsterdam. Theoretical Computer Science. Gabrielli and D. June 1996. Mach. Arrays.B. Theoretical Computer Science. October 1998.R. December 1998. 53(2):210–217. Hoepman Communication. or in praise of ambivalent syntax.A.-C. Science of Computer Programming. van Emde Boas. Promotores: R. 26 1–3:133–148. [9] R. Assoc. Promotores: P. Optimal advice. Category 1. Terwijn Computability and Measure PhD thesis. 28 1–2:23–26.

AID’96. In Proc. [7] Yuri Engelhardt. pages 38–70. 7th Int’nl Workshop on Algorithmic Learning Theory. editors. 15th ACM Symp. 1996. The visual grammar of information graphics. [3] Harry Buhrman and Luc Longpr´ e. [12] Ming Li and Paul Vit´ anyi. 1996. ISIS: Information. Actes de MCU/UMC’95 .University Programme name Research director : : : University of Amsterdam Algorithms and Complexity Dr. [5] Harry Buhrman and Leen Torenvliet. Ideal MDL and its relation to bayesianism. volume 1046 of LNCS. 1996. Mass. [8] Theo M.Proceedings of MCU/UMC’95. [4] Harry Buhrman and Th. In EDBT proceedings. In Logic Collquium 96: European Summer Meeting of the Association for Symbolic Logic. Margenstern and J. on Principles of Distributed Computing. The complexity of generating and checking proofs of membership.B. pages –. Reversibility and adiabatic computation: trading time and space for energy. Australia. Institute for Logic Language and computation (ILLC). Proceedings of the 10th Amsterdam colloquium. volume II. pages 67–82. In Proc. the Netherlands. 1996. In Proc. [11] Paul Vit´ anyi. New York. LITP 96/31. P. 1996. Amsterdam. Heidelberg. Series A. 1996. Dekker and M. In 4th Workshop on Physics and Computation. University of Amsterdam. and Paul Vit´ anyi. 1996. Boncz. In Proc. In Proc. [10] Ming Li and Paul Vit´ anyi. 1996. pages –. [6] Peter van Emde Boas. and Remko Scha. pages 134–142. pages 769–789. Reasoning and Interaction in Design. Stokhof. 1996. Genetic ﬁtness optimization using rapidly mixing Markov chains. In M.. Melbourne.H. In Ron Book Memorial Volume. pages 1–11. The convenience of tiling. Kersten. Theo Janssen. and Martin L. Stanford. Reversible simulation of irreversible computation. Hoepman. Yunes. 1996. volume 1160 of Lecture Notes in Artiﬁcial Intelligence. Statistics and Induction in Science. Compressibility and resource bounded measure. [9] Ming Li and Paul Vit´ anyi. In proc Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS). 7 . 1996. Optimal routing tables. Chapters [1] Ming Li and Paul Vit´ anyi. Janssen. Complete sets and structure in sub-recursive classes. Space-energy trade-off in reversible simulations. Royal Society of London. Wilko Quak. van Emde Boas [8] Ming Li and Paul Vit´ anyi. volume 452. In Proceedings Workshop on Visual Representation. Royal Society of London.V. pages 13–24. Is compositionality of meaning possible? In P. [2] Harry Buhrman. Boston. pages 407–424. Springer-Verlag. Average-case analysis using Kolmogorov complexity. pages 59–64. pages –. Thierauf. editors. Jos de Bruin. Springer. 1996. 1996. Springer. In proc Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS). pages 301–306. J. pages 75–86. 1996. Springer-Verlag. Monet and its geographic extensions: a novel approach to high performance GIS processing. Proceedings [1] Peter A. 11th IEEE Conference on Computational Complexity (CCC). volume 1046 of LNCS.

Institute for Logic. Apt From Chaotic Iteration to Constraint Propagation. of the 11th Amsterdam colloquium. L. pages 1–16. Li and P. In Lecture Notes in Artiﬁcial Intelligence. Dekker. Springer-Verlag. Schaerf Search and Imperative Programming Proc. Berlijn. Fortnow. [7] T. Proceedings [1] K. Springer..A. Van Emde Boas. Seiferas. 9th European Conference on Machine Learning. pages 441–451. In Proc. Springer-Verlag. Buhrman. In Proceedings of the 14th Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS). Torenvliet. A compositional semantics for the game-theoretical interpretation of logic. Kolmogorov random graphs and the incompressibility method.H. pages 105–116. Mach. 1997.. Cleve and H. Two heads are better than two tapes. New York. [2] K. [3] H.B. number 1279 in Lecture Notes in Computer Science. 8 . Heidelberg. 1997. 56(2):1201–1204. Resource-bounded Kolmogorov complexity revisited. Springer-Verlag. number 1279 in Lecture Notes in Computer Science. [4] H. In Proc. Li. and L. 1997.R. Resistance is futile: observations on the formal linguistic status of design patterns. Stephan and S. 1997. 1997. Heidelberg. Vit´ anyi. 1997. Venema P. [12] Ming Li and P. pages 2–12. volume 1228. and P.B. J. Fortnow. 1997. 1997. 1997. pages 67-79. de Wolf. and P. In J. and L. 11th Conference on Fundamentals of Computation Theory. number 1224 in Lecture Notes in Artiﬁcial Intelligence. In Proceedings 24th ICALP Lecture Notes in Computer Science. [5] H. Physical Review A. In Y. OOPSLA’97. [9] S. Vit´ anyi. Foundations of inductive logic programming. Heidelberg. of Philosophy.B. [2] T. Substituting quantum entanglement for communication complexity. Buhrman and L.M. Vit´ anyi. Stokhof. editor. Comp. Nienhuys-Cheng and R. 1997. pages 38–50. The complexity of universal text-learners.University Programme name Research director : : : University of Amsterdam Algorithms and Complexity Dr. In Proceedings of the 12th IEEE Conference on Computational Complexity (CCC).C. Fortnow. [10] F.V. pages 188–194. Language and Information. Vit´ anyi.A. P. Buhrman. [8] M. Fenner.M.M. Terwijn. Proceedings 24th ICALP Lecture Notes in Computer Science. pages 14–30. Jiang. 1997. pages 181– 185. pages 237–256. 24th Annual SIGPLANSIGACT Symposium on Principles of Programming Languages (POPL ’97). On prediction by data compression. IEEE Computer Society Press. M. Janssen. University of Amsterdam. Average-case analysis via incompressibility. Results on resource-bounded measure. [11] P. S. pages 2–12.R. [6] H. Proc. 1997. Springer. Assoc. 1997. IEEE. Springer-Verlag. In Proceedings of the 11-th International Symposium on Fundamentals of Computation Theory. Six hypotheses in search of a theorem. van Emde Boas 1997 Articles [1] R. Dept.M. In Proceedings of Conference on Compression and Complexity of Sequences. Buhrman. Buhrman. 1997. 1997. M. Apt and A.

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