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PLN (PERSERO) PUSAT PENDIDIKAN DAN PELATIHAN
COAL HANDLING PLANTS
2. COAL HANDLING PLANTS
Coal handling plant is one of the important energy consumers in thermal power plants and contains the following energy consuming equipments: • • • • • Crushers Conveyors Feeders Tipplers Stacker-reclaimer
2.2 Steps Involved In Conducting The Energy Audit
The energy audit in coal handling plant should emphasise on evaluating specific energy consumption and capacity utilisation and compare with design/PG values pertaining to following • • • Overall CHP Stage wise Equipment wise which include conveyor belts, paddle feeders, crushers, vibro feeders, belt feeders, wagon tippler, stacker, reclaimer etc.,
The steps involved in conducting energy audit of coal handling plant are: • • Data collection Observations and Analysis of - Drives Speed - Belt tension - Condition of rollers - Condition of belts - Loading of belts with respect to design value. - Loss of energy in the coal lying in stockyard due to auto ignition. - System capacity utilization. (To be pushed back) Exploration for energy conservation measures Report preparation 1
Berbagi dan Menyebarkan Ilmu Pengetahuan Serta Nilai-Nilai Perusahaan
capacity. pertaining to the following equipments: • • Design details of overall coal handling plant (Capacity. capacity. width. vibrating feeders. etc) Process flow diagram/Schematic diagram of coal handling plant and description of system configuration which includes details about different routes (direct bunkering. travel speed. travel speed. number of buckets and length of boom. power consumption. boom conveyor. motor rating.1 Specification Of Coal Handling Plant Collect the detailed design specifications of coal handling plant. etc Compile the Design / PG test values for the above mentioned equipments. motor rating of each tippler) Crusher specifications (No. Maximum coal size at the inlet and outlet. reclaiming route.PT. stacking. etc) Paddle feeders – Ploughs (No of feeders. motor rating. dust extraction fans. bucket wheel. maximum weight of handling. of crushers. capacity of reclaimer. etc) Coal design parameters and sizes Belt conveyers (capacity. slew. specific power consumption. motor rating for travel. type of crushers.3. capacity. application. PLN (PERSERO) PUSAT PENDIDIKAN DAN PELATIHAN COAL HANDLING PLANTS 2. capacity of each feeder. etc) Wagon tippler details (Number of tipplers. Capacity. power. number of vibrating feeders. power consumption) Stacker reclaimer (quantity. tippler time cycle. number. etc) of the key equipment Track hopper (Number of track hoppers. • • • • • • • • • The key specification parameters shall be complied as shown below (Refer: Table 2-1) Berbagi dan Menyebarkan Ilmu Pengetahuan Serta Nilai-Nilai Perusahaan 2 .3 Data Collection 2. length of hopper. speed. power.e. dust suppression system pumps. etc) Other equipments – i. belt feeder. type. schematic layout. number of clamps.
PT. month wise given in the Table 2-2 and also for day wise for a period of two/ three weeks when plant is under normal operation.2 System data collection Collect last one year data. PLN (PERSERO) PUSAT PENDIDIKAN DAN PELATIHAN COAL HANDLING PLANTS Table 2-1 : Key Specification parameters Equipment reference Paddle Feeders Belt conveyors Vibro feeders Grizzly feeders Belt feeders Dust extraction fans Dust suppression system pumps Crusher Stacker reclaimer Other equipment Motor input Capacity power. kW TPH TPH TPH TPH TPH NM /h M /h TPH 3 3 Speed of driven Length Specific Hours of equipment energy (in case operation (rpm or linear) of belts) consumption 2. Table 2-2 : Production and operating data Parameter Total coal receipt Total electrical related load Overall operating load Energy consumption of CHP Plant equipment operating hours Plant utilization factor Total gross generation of station Total auxiliary power consumption of the station Unit Lakh tons MW MW kWh Hrs Hrs MU MU Berbagi dan Menyebarkan Ilmu Pengetahuan Serta Nilai-Nilai Perusahaan 3 .3.
• Power Analyzer: for measurement of an electrical parameters such as kW. 2. 3. % MU KWh/MT Collect the parameters for coal as given in the Table 2-3. 5. Equipment wise operating hours 1. 6. 7.4 Instruments Required The following instruments are required for conducting the energy audit of coal handling system. pf. V. 8.PT. PLN (PERSERO) PUSAT PENDIDIKAN DAN PELATIHAN COAL HANDLING PLANTS Total power consumption by the CHP plant % of power consumption of CHP with respect to total auxiliary power consumption Specific energy consumption. Table 2-3 : Coal Parameters Unit Fixed carbon Volatile matter Moisture Ash Grindability Coal calorific value -HHV Size of the coal to mill Total contract fuel fired % % % % HGI Kcal/kg mm tph Design Actual Remarks 2. A and Hz of class 0. 4.5 accuracy 4 Berbagi dan Menyebarkan Ilmu Pengetahuan Serta Nilai-Nilai Perusahaan . kVA.
comparison with PG test / design. Voltage.6. production. particularly different routes such as bunkering mode. the following measurements and observations are necessary: • • • • • • • • • • • • • Equipment operations and throughput. loading. stacking mode and reclaiming mode. condition. kVA.5 Measurements & Observation To Be Made While conducting the audit.2 Measurements & Evaluation a. Power parameters: Measure the power input i.e.1 System Familiarisation And Operational Details Detailed interactions with the plant personnel have to be carried out to get familiarisation for system detail and operational details. electrical parameters such as kW. for all drives for no load and load conditions Berbagi dan Menyebarkan Ilmu Pengetahuan Serta Nilai-Nilai Perusahaan 5 . power factor. power consumption. etc 2. Pre visit can be made to get familiarisation with CHP configuration.PT.6 Observations And Analysis 2. 2. Current. etc Power consumption of the equipments Drive speed Belt speed Condition of rollers Condition of belts Loading of belts with respect to the design Loss of energy in the coal in stack yard due to auto ignition Input coal parameters Unit load of the plant Date & time of measurement Instruments used for measurement Frequency of the measurement 2.6. PLN (PERSERO) PUSAT PENDIDIKAN DAN PELATIHAN COAL HANDLING PLANTS • • • Stroboscope: To measure the speed of the driven equipment and motor Tensiometer On line instruments – (calibrated) for coal transfer rates.
operational constrains etc. V. for each of the euipment and their actual & design electrical parameters like KW. Note the coal throughput using coal totalisers or other alternative methods.) Equipment Rated kW A No load kW A Average load kW Specific Energy Consumption No load kW /MT Average kW /MT Rated kW /MT Remarks on throughput. Actual kW / Rated kW) Also make a table (as shown in Table 2-4). Also provide remarks and calculations. It is also desired to study time-motion study. operating hours. A. specific energy consumption. operational controls for energy efficiency. Average capacity ………tph. Coal throughput rate: Study track hopper management/coal unloading. Evaluation of equipment loading and specific energy consumption • • • • Determine equipment wise % loading (i. power consumption. hour operation ….PT. PLN (PERSERO) PUSAT PENDIDIKAN DAN PELATIHAN COAL HANDLING PLANTS b.tph. Obtain operating hours Operational constrains to achieve the optimum loading Table 2-4 : Power Consumption & Throughput Direct Bunkering (Rated capacity ……. condition. PF.e. c.e. Berbagi dan Menyebarkan Ilmu Pengetahuan Serta Nilai-Nilai Perusahaan 6 . actual TPH / rated TPH) as well as the motor % loading (i.
) Equipment Rated kW A No load kW A Average load kW Specific Energy Consumption No load kW /MT Average kW /MT Rated kW /MT Remarks on throughput. operational constrains etc. Stacking (Rated capacity ……. calculate month wise kWh / MT for last one year. operational controls for energy efficiency. operating hours …. condition. power consumption. specific energy consumption. and reclaiming both activity wise & equipment wise for last one year for each CHP. operating hours. Average capacity ………tph. condition. specific energy consumption. d.PT. Berbagi dan Menyebarkan Ilmu Pengetahuan Serta Nilai-Nilai Perusahaan 7 . Based on energy meter reading & coal receipt data.e. operating hours.tph. operational constrains etc. Plot kWh/MT on Y-axis & months on X-axis. operational controls for energy efficiency. Calculation of Specific Energy Consumption • • • Calculate kW /MT for existing operations i. stacking. power consumption. bunkering.tph. Average capacity ………tph. PLN (PERSERO) PUSAT PENDIDIKAN DAN PELATIHAN COAL HANDLING PLANTS Reclaiming (Rated capacity ……. hour operation ….) Equipment Rated kW A No load kW A Average load kW Specific Energy Consumption No load kW /MT Average kW /MT Rated kW /MT Remarks on throughput.
Lub Oil Inspection • • • Collect the lube oil sample. Get the sample analysed. Recommendations may be made accordingly. h. Performance of Crushers • • Observe and compare the operation of crushers and its throughput. Coal Sample Analysis Send 2-3 samples of coal taken from the belts feeding to the crushers for sieve analysis to determine extent of coal particles below 20 mm size. power consumption. Calculate liner speed of the belt (Sb) Sb = p D2N2 Measure actual linear speed of belt (Sa) Calculate slip = Sb -Sa Tolerances of slips should be < 4% for conveyor belts. -20 mm -25 mm + 25 mm Berbagi dan Menyebarkan Ilmu Pengetahuan Serta Nilai-Nilai Perusahaan 8 . Drive Speed Analysis & Belt Tension • • driven rpm (N2) : N1D1 = N2D2 • • • • • • • Measure actual driven rpm (Na) by tachometer. Diameter of drive and driven pulley (D1 and D2. f.PT. recommend for complete oil change or inspection of bearings / Gear internals. PLN (PERSERO) PUSAT PENDIDIKAN DAN PELATIHAN COAL HANDLING PLANTS e. hours of operation. Measure drive speed N1 (with the help of tachometer). etc Carryout the sieve analysis and compare with the design or optimum values Sieve size (mm) Crusher output of. Calculation theoretical value of g. If the metal traces are found beyond permissible limits.
Modifications and changes in coal feeding circuits .Possibilities in Improving the throughput .): Major HT /LT motors i. need to be identified. The details of feeding circuits of coal handling system to be given in the report along with the specifications and schematic layout indicating equipments.6. crushers etc. • • Berbagi dan Menyebarkan Ilmu Pengetahuan Serta Nilai-Nilai Perusahaan 9 . reduced I2R losses in cable upstream of capacitor (and hence reduced energy charges). Power factor correction possibility: Induction motors are characterized by power factors less than unity. and an increase in the overall efficiency of the plant electrical system. • Performance improvement options: . Capacitors connected in parallel with the motor are typically used to improve the power factor. The measured and calculated specific energy consumption data for these circuits need to be compiled and compared. leading to lower overall efficiency (and higher overall operating cost) associated with a plant’s electrical system. The merit order studies for energy consumption of various paths.6.3 Study of coal feeding circuits Study the different coal feeding circuits routes. conveyors. PLN (PERSERO) PUSAT PENDIDIKAN DAN PELATIHAN COAL HANDLING PLANTS 2.e. (Conveyor belt etc. 2. reduced voltage drop in cables (leading to improved voltage regulation). are often partially loaded & also there is frequent starts /stops. the following need to be explored in detail to arrive at an appropriate energy conservation measures.Increase the loading . The impacts of PF correction include KVA demand (and hence reduced utility demand charges). which indicates scope for energy conservation.4 Exploration of energy conservation possibilities While conducting the energy audit of the CHP. Comparative study of various coal feeding circuits has to be made.Reduce the idling time .PT.Need for automation and controls Explore Installation of power saver device in major LT motors. Explore the possibility of providing power saver devices (soft starters) in major motors.
Maximum Mechanical Handling: Minimum Bulldozing: Sequence of coal handling operations like receipt. stacking and reclaiming and the selection of machinery is to be made in such a way that all the handling operations are accomplished without the use of semi mechanized means like bulldozers which are more energy intensive equipments. unloading.PT. Thus for the given application of dust suppression. lesser quantity of water is sprayed which also results into lesser wastage of latent heat in the steam generator. However Principal of “FIRST IN FIRST OUT” is to be adopted for coal receipt & consumption and at any time coal need not to be stocked in yard for more than incubation period (duration between coal mined and getting self ignited) Reduced Number of Fillings: Live storage capacity of raw coal bunkers and the filling pattern of bunkers is so planned that 24 hours coal requirement of the generating units is met by not more than two fillings per day. by way of reduction in surface tension of water. This will eliminate frequent starting and stopping of the CHP • • Berbagi dan Menyebarkan Ilmu Pengetahuan Serta Nilai-Nilai Perusahaan 10 . PLN (PERSERO) PUSAT PENDIDIKAN DAN PELATIHAN COAL HANDLING PLANTS • Explore the possibility of using chemicals for reduced water spray: Mixing of chemical compounds in water for suppression of dust provides much better atomization of water spray.