S.Rengasamy.

Introduction to Professional Social Work

Principles, Philosophy, Ethics & History of Professional Social Work
Profession
Definition
A professional is a worker required to possess a large body of knowledge derived from extensive academic study (usually tertiary = University), with the training almost always formalized. Professions are at least to a degree self-regulating, in that they control the training and evaluation processes that admit new persons to the field, and in judging whether the work done by their members is up to standard. This differs from other kinds of work where regulation (if considered necessary) is imposed by the state, or where official quality standards are often lacking. Historical trends Typically a professional provides a service (in exchange for payment or salary), in accordance with established protocols for licensing, ethics, procedures, standards of service and training / certification. The above definitions were echoed by economist and sociologist Max Weber, who noted that professions are defined by the power to exclude and control admission to the profession, as well as by the development of a particular vocabulary specific to the occupation, and at least somewhat incomprehensible to outsiders.

In narrow usage, not all expertise is considered a profession. Although sometimes referred to as professions, such occupations as skilled construction work are more generally thought of as trades or crafts. The completion of an apprenticeship is generally associated with skilled labor or trades such as carpenter, electrician, plumber, and other similar occupations. A related (though not always valid) distinction would be that a professional does mainly mental or administrative work, as opposed to engaging in physical work. Many companies include the word professional in their company name to signify the quality of their workmanship or service. (e.g., Finance Managers). Profession: An occupation whose core element is work based upon the mastery of a complex body of knowledge and skills. It is a vocation in which knowledge of some department of science or learning or the practice of an art founded upon it is used in the service of others. Its members are governed by codes of ethics and profess a commitment to competence, integrity and morality, altruism, and the promotion of the public good within their domain. These commitments form the basis of a social contract between a profession and society, which in return grants the profession a monopoly over the use of its knowledge base, the right to considerable autonomy in

 Charity and help is a characteristic of all societies  Many civilisations have a strong emphasis on authority and social order through loyalty to family, community and traditional structures  Medieval Europe: poverty and charity  !600s, 1700s: Renaissance, Reformation, some state assistance  Late 1800s, early 1900s: States responsible for social help (Idealism)  Mid-1900s: welfare states (post-war, post-depression)  Late 1900s: Economic pressure on state responsibility: managerialist, neo-conservative response  Sources of UK social work  Church, charity, dependence, public disorder  Church adapts to industrialisation, urbanisation  Municipalisation and the local bureaucratic elite  Reform, rescue and secularisation  Main origins:  Poor Law  Insurance, working-class mutual help  Charity Organisation Movement  Settlements  Emergence of social work > casework, group work, community work  Depression, war, welfare states, cold war  Neoconservative, rationalist, managerialist policies

Professions Vs Trades /Crafts

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S.Rengasamy. Introduction to Professional Social Work
practice and the privilege of self-regulation. Professions and their members are accountable to those served and to society. The term profession derives from the Latin: "to swear (an oath)". The oath referred to dictates adherence to ethical standards, which invariably include practitioner/client confidentiality, truthfulness, and the striving to be an expert in one's calling, all three of these being practiced above all for the benefit of the client. There is also a stipulation about upholding the good name of the profession. The term profession thus refers to an occupation, vocation or high-status career, usually involving prolonged academic training, formal qualifications and membership of a professional or regulatory body. Professions involve the application of specialized knowledge of a subject, field, or science to fee-paying clientele. It is axiomatic that "professional activity involves systematic knowledge and proficiency. "Professions are usually regulated by professional bodies that may set examinations of competence, act as a licensing authority for practitioners, and enforce adherence to an ethical code of practice. Contents 1 Examples of the professions 2 Formation of a profession 3 Regulations 4 Autonomy 5 Status and prestige 6 Power 7 History 8 Gender inequality 9 Racial inequality 10 Characteristics of a profession

Examples of the professions
Professions include, for example: Dentists, Doctors/Surgeons, Lawyers, Accountants, Vets, Pharmacists, Engineers, Teachers, Diplomats, Software Engineers, Commissioned Officers, Professors, Clergy, Town & Transport Planners, Architects, Pilots, Physical Therapists, Librarians, Social Workers, and some other specialized technical occupations.

Formation of a profession
A profession arises when any trade or occupation transforms itself through "the development of formal qualifications based upon education and examinations, the emergence of regulatory bodies with powers to admit and discipline members, and some degree of monopoly rights." The process by which a profession arises from a trade or occupation is often termed professionalization and has been described as one, "starting with the establishment of the activity as a full-time occupation, progressing through the establishment of training schools and university links, the formation of a professional organization, and the struggle to gain legal support for exclusion, and culminating with the formation of a formal code of ethics."

Regulation
Regulation enforced by statute distinguishes a profession from other occupations represented by trade groups who aspire to professional status for their members. In all countries, professions have their regulatory or professional bodies, whose function is to define, promote, oversee, support and regulate the affairs of its members. For some professions there may be several such bodies.

Autonomy
Professions tend to be autonomous, which means they have a high degree of control of their own affairs: "professionals are autonomous insofar as they can make independent judgments about their work" 3

S.Rengasamy. Introduction to Professional Social Work
Status and prestige
Professions enjoy a high social status, regard and esteem conferred upon them by society. This high esteem arises primarily from the higher social function of their work, which is regarded as vital to society as a whole and thus of having a special and valuable nature. All professions involve technical, specialized and highly skilled work often referred to as "professional expertise." Training for this work involves obtaining degrees and professional qualifications without which entry to the profession is barred (occupational closure). Training also requires regular updating of skills through continuing education.

Power
All professions have power. This power is used to control its own members, and also its area of expertise and interests. A profession tends to dominate, police and protect its area of expertise and the conduct of its members, and exercises a dominating influence over its entire field which means that professions can act monopolist, rebuffing competition from ancillary trades and occupations, as well as subordinating and controlling lesser but related trades. A profession is characterised by the power and high prestige it has in society as a whole. It is the power, prestige and value that society confers upon a profession that more clearly defines it. This is why Judges, Lawyers, Clerics, and Medical personnel enjoy this high social status and are regarded as true Attributes of a profession professionals. 1. There should be tested body of knowledge, consisting

How professions evolve
The main milestones which mark an occupation being identified as a profession are: 1. It became a full-time occupation; 2. Establishment of training school; 3. Establishment of university department; 4. Establishment of local association; 5. Establishment of national association; 6. Introducing codes of professional ethics; 7. Establishment State licensing laws.

of techniques and methods communicable through an educational discipline which should not only be academic but practical in nature 2. Standards for training, jobs and services should be set up. 3. There should be a sense of belonging, group consciousness and and responsibilities, professional ethics for every professional. 4. Profession should provide the professional with continued occupation. 5. it should be responsive to public interest and work towards social ends. 6. the goals should be the welfare of the people, improved human relations, built on understanding and tolerance Paul Chowdhry p.23

The ranking of established professions in the United States based on the above milestones shows Medicine first, followed by Law, Dentistry, Civil Engineering, Logistics, Architecture and Accounting. With the rise of technology and occupational specialization in the 19th century, other bodies began to claim professional status: Pharmacy, Logistics, Veterinary Medicine, Nursing, Teaching, Librarianship, Optometry and Social Work, all of which could claim to be professions by 1900 using these milestones. Although professions enjoy high status and public prestige, all professionals do not earn the same high salaries. There are hidden inequalities even within professions. Gender inequality & Racial inequality There is a long-standing and well-documented male domination of all professions, even though this has weakened over the last forty years or so. For example, well-qualified women rarely get the same pay as men.

Characteristics of a Profession
The list of characteristics that follows is extensive, but does not claim to include every characteristic that has ever been attributed to professions, nor do all of these features apply to every profession: 4

S.Rengasamy. Introduction to Professional Social Work
1. Skill based on theoretical knowledge: 2. Professional association: 3. Extensive period of education & Institutional training: 4. Testing of competence: 5. Licensed practitioners: Characteristics of Social Work 6. Work autonomy: 1 It is a helping activity, designed to 7. Code of professional conduct or ethics: give assistance in respect of problems 8. Self-regulation: that prevent individuals, families, groups 9. Public service and altruism: and communities from achieving a 10. Exclusion, monopoly and legal recognition: minimum desirable standard of social 11. Control of remuneration and advertising: and economic well being 12. High status and rewards: 2 It is a social activity, carried out not 13. Individual clients: for personal profit 14. Middle-class occupations: 3 It is a liaison activity, through which 15. Male-dominated: disadvantaged individuals, families, 16. Offer reassurance: groups and communities are linked to or 17. Ritual: enabled to access resources to meet 18. Legitimacy: their needs 19. Inaccessible body of knowledge: Paul Chowdhry p.21-22 20. Indeterminacy of knowledge: 21. Mobility:

The Emergence of Social Work as a Profession
Social Work emerged as a professional activity during the late 19th century. Its roots lie in early social welfare activities, charity organization movement and the settlement house movement.

Early Social Welfare organizations.
New York Society for the Prevention of Pauperism (1818) Association for Improving the Conditions of the Poor(1840) Various Child Saving Organizations American Social Science Association (1865) ------

Conference of Charities (1874) ------ National Co

Charity Organization Societies.
Founded by a priest, S. Humphreys Gurteen, in 1877, expanded throughout USA, within a short period by popularizing the techniques of investigation and registration of the poor to eradicate pauperism. Its method of scientific charity necessitated vocational preparation of charity workers (Friendly Visitors). The demand for trained workers led to the gradual replacement of volunteers with professional staff. Mary Richmond(1861-1928) a prominent leader in COS was instrumental in shaping the course of social work profession by writing books “Social Diagnosis” (1917) “What is Social Case Work” (1922) NewYork COS began its own publication and founded the first School of Social Work (now the Columbia School of Social Work). Many identify the COS’s responses to individuals’ needs as the genesis of social case work. Interest in understanding the family relationship, utilization of “natural helping networks”, emphasis on personal responsibility (Later translated to self determination) and concern for accountability in service delivery are some of the COS’s enduring contributions to social work.

Settlement House Movement
The settlement house movement began in London .. Samuel Barnett founded Toynbee Hall .. university students lived there with the poor families. 5

S.Rengasamy. Introduction to Professional Social Work
Stanton Coit established the Neighborhood Guild of NewYork City in USA Jane Addams and Ellen Gates Starr established Chicago Hull House (1889) Settlement house movement combined social Advocacy and social services.

Milestones in Professionalization
Flexner, A. Is Social Work a profession? Proceedings of the National Conference of Charities and Correction 1929 American Association of Social Workers’ Milford Conference examined social work’s generic nature 1951 Hollis & Taylor report examined social worker’s role in professional practice. 1957 Greenwood re-examined the professional status of social work 1958 Social workers formed a definition of Social Work 1961 Bartlett analyzed social work by fields of practice 1969 Social workers applied general systems theory to social work 1970 Bartlett explicated the common base of social work practice 1977 Professionals examined social work’s purpose and objectives 1981 NASW developed a working statement on social work purpose The rise of Professional Organizations National Social Workers Exchange & Bureau of Occupations 1911 American Association of Medical Social Workers 1918 National Association of School Social Workers 1919 American Association of Psychiatric Social Workers 1926 American Association of Social Workers 1921 American Association of Group Workers 1936 Association for the Study of Community Organization 1946 Social Work Research Group All these merged into one NASW 1949 National Association of Social Workers National Association of Black Social Workers National Association of Puerto Rican Social Service Workers National Indian Social Workers Association North American Association of Christians in Social Work National Federation of Societies of for Clinical Social Work Society for Social Work Administrators in Health Care National Association of Oncology Social Workers Various groups representing Women’s Rights, Gay & Lesbian issues American Association of Schools of Social Work National Association of Schools of Social Administration Merged into CSWE Council on Social Work Education
Types of theory Theories of what social work is Theories of how to do social work Theories of the client world Formal theory Nature and purposes of welfare Theories of practice Social science theories

1915

1955

1919 1952

Informal theory Moral, political cultural objectives Induction from particular situations Use of experience and general social meanings

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S.Rengasamy. Introduction to Professional Social Work

NASW Code of Ethics—Summary of Principles I. The Social Worker's Conduct and Comportment as a Social Worker
A. Propriety — The social worker should maintain high standards of personal conduct in the capacity or identity of social worker. B. Competence and Professional Development — The social worker should strive to become and remain proficient in professional practice and the performance of professional functions. C. Service — The social worker should regard as primary the service obligation of the social work profession. D. Integrity — The social worker should act in accordance with the highest standards of professional integrity. E. Scholarship and Research — The social worker engaged in study and research should be guided by the conventions of scholarly inquiry. II. The Social Worker's Ethical Responsibility to

Clients F. Primacy of Client's Interests — The social worker's primary responsibility is to clients. G. Rights and Prerogatives of Clients — The social worker should make every effort to foster maximum self-determination on the part of the clients. H. Confidentiality and Privacy — The social worker should respect the privacy of clients and hold in confidence all information obtained in the course of professional service. I. Fees — When setting fees, the social worker should ensure that they are fair, reasonable, considerate, and commensurate with the service performed and with due regard for the client's ability to pay. III. The Social Worker's Ethical Responsibility to Colleagues J. Respect, Fairness, and Courtesy — The social worker should treat colleagues with respect, courtesy, fairness, and good faith. K. Dealing with Colleague's Clients — The social worker has the responsibility to relate to the clients of colleagues with full professional consideration. IV. The Social Worker's Ethical Responsibility to Employers and Employing Organizations L. Commitments to Employing Organizations — The social worker should adhere to commitments made to the employing organizations. V. The Social Worker's Ethical Responsibility to the Social Work Profession M. Maintaining the Integrity of the Profession — The social worker should uphold and advance the values, ethics, knowledge, and mission of the profession. N. Community Service — The social worker should assist the profession in making social services available to the general public. O. Development of Knowledge — The social worker should take responsibility for identifying, developing, and fully utilizing knowledge for professional practice. VI. The Social Worker's Ethical Responsibility to Society P. Promoting the General Welfare — The social worker should promote the general welfare of society. NASW Code of Ethics, 1980. National Association of Social Workers, Inc.

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Professional Values, Ethics and Principles
Value:
Values are the implicit and explicit ideas about what we cherish as ideal or preferable. Values shape our beliefs and attitudes and in turn our beliefs and attitudes shape our values. Values make us emotionally positive or negative about a situation. Value system is complex networks of values that people develop either individually or collectively. Normally a value within a value system is congruent or internally consistent.. but one should aware that some conflicts exist within the value system. For ex. All people are equal Vs only people who work productively is worthwhile … these values reveal inconsistency. Poverty is the result of laziness Vs One cannot accumulate wealth if he /she is honest

Ethics:

Indian Values The Bhakti movement’s value of humanism, every individual has inherent worth and dignity Socialistic values of equality and legal, judicial, social and economic justice for satisfaction of basic human needs, sharing of natural resources and access to essential services Sarvodaya’s values of Swarajya and Lokniti, that is people have to govern themselves in order to obtain equity and justice. Solidarity with the marginalised peoples, recognizing that marginalised people need to be empowered
See also TISS SW Ethical frame work

The study of how people ought to act in order to be moral.A moral code that guides the conduct of a group of professionals (such as medical doctors).The branch of philosophy that defines what is right for the individual and for society and establishes the nature of obligations, or duties, that people owe themselves and one another. The word ethics is derived from the Greek word ethos, which means "character," and from the Latin word mores, which means "customs." In modern society, it defines how individuals, business professionals, and corporations choose to interact with one another. Values are the implicit and explicit ideas about what people consider good, ethics relates to what people consider correct or right. Ethics generates standards that direct one’s conduct. Social work ethics are behavioral expectations or preferences that are associated with social

work responsibility.

Professional ethics = upholding moral obligations + complying the standards of practice
1. Historical shift in the focus of values – from morality of individual clients to morality of professional behavior e.g. People were poor because they refused to profit by abundant opportunities to improve their condition. To be destitute to the point of having to ask for relief was to be guilty of a defect in character – thriftless ness and immorality. It was settlement house movement and the Great economic depression changed our perception that it is economic and social problems rather than individual inadequacies contribute to human sufferings.

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Besides social work profession’s commitment during the formation of profession – commitment to quality of life, social justice, human dignity and worth – inclusion of value sets like equality, social justice, freeing of life styles, rightful access to social resources and liberation of self powers are also evident In social work literature values are explained and listed using different phrases with an underlying uniformity. Herbert Bisno has classified values / philosophy in to different headings (The terms Values & Philosophy are used interchangeably) 1. Values / philosophy relating to individual. 2. Values / philosophy relating to problem 3. Values / philosophy relating to relationship. 4. Values / philosophy relating to social agency 5. Values / philosophy relating to social work practice

1. Values / philosophy relating to individual.
Social work believes that human suffering is undesirable and should be prevented or at least alleviated whenever possible.  Human behavior is the result of interaction between the biological organism and its environment. Family relationship is of primary importance in the early development of the individual. Though humans are moral being at birth, they tend to act irrationally also. Inherent dignity and worth of human beings, inherent and inalienable right of human beings to choose and achieve his own destiny 

  

2. Values / philosophy relating to problem
  There is a serious political, economic and social maladjustment in every culture. Evolutionary type of reform is both possible and desirable. i.e. incremental development
Principles of Personal Ethics Personal ethics might also be called morality, since they reflect general expectations of any person in any society, acting in any capacity. These are the principles we try to instill in our children, and expect of one another without needing to articulate the expectation or formalize it in any way. Principles of Personal Ethics include: Concern for the well-being of others Respect for the autonomy of others Trustworthiness & honesty Basic justice; being fair Willing compliance with the law (with the exception of civil disobedience)

Refusing to take unfair advantage Benevolence: doing good Preventing harm Principles of Professional Ethics Individuals acting in a professional capacity take on an additional burden of ethical responsibility. For example, professional associations have codes of ethics that prescribe required behavior within the context of a professional practice such as medicine, law, accounting, or engineering. These written codes provide rules of conduct and standards of behavior based on the principles of Professional Ethics, which include: Impartiality; objectivity Openness; full disclosure Confidentiality Due diligence / duty of care Fidelity to professional responsibilities Avoiding potential or apparent conflict of interest Even when not written into a code, principles of professional ethics are usually expected of people in business, employees, volunteers, elected representatives and so on.

 

Social workers believe in the possibility of the intelligent direction of social change and hence there is a need for social planning. Appreciating the multi dimensionality of the problem and its multiple consequences

3. Values / philosophy relating to relationship.
   

Social Work rejects the doctrine of laissez faire and survival among the fittest. The rich and the powerful are not necessarily “fit” , while the poor / weak are not necessarily unfit. In social work “socialized individuals” are preferred to “rugged individualism” A major responsibility for the members rests with the community.

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  Accepting the clients / situation as it is and working at a pace convenient for them Social work agencies are basically resources to solve human problems

4. Values / philosophy relating to social agency 5. Values / philosophy relating to social work practice
 Social work has a functionally dualistic approach. It attempts to solve individual problems and at the same time simultaneously attempt to modify the social and institutional framework in required direction.  Social work services should be provided by professionally trained workers in both public and private agencies.  Social work accepts democracy as the fundamental ordering of the society.  Knowledge, skill, ethical standards etc Social Work Values, Knowledge & Skills Values / philosophy Foundational Knowledge Requisite Skills Respect for diversity Philosophy of Social Work Thinking critically Non judgmentalism Theories of human behavior Building relationships Confidentiality Cultural diversity Empowering process Ethical Conduct Social welfare history Practice methods Professional comportment Family dynamics Analyzing policies Access to resources Group dynamics Effective communication Dignity & Worth Service delivery system Ethnic confidence Self determination Human systems Computer literacy Social Justice Fields of practice Research Self knowledge Social planning Crisis intervention Time management

Difference between Social and Professional relationship
Difference between Social and Professional relationship Social Relationship Professional Relationship Duration Open ended Ends when the problem is solved Time Not limited Limited according to the problem Place Home, Club, Worship places, Cinema Office or Institutions Focus Mutual satisfaction of range of needs – Focus on client’s needs, problem emotional, social, intellectual, aesthetics solving Role relationship Mutual Helper and helped

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S.Rengasamy. Introduction to Professional Social Work
Core values of Social Work (NASW, IFSW, CSWE)
1. Respect individuals’ worth and dignity, encourage mutual participation, demonstrate acceptance, uphold confidentiality, express honesty and handle conflict responsibly. 2. Encourage individuals’ active participation in the helping relationship and uphold their right to make their own decisions. 3. Assist clients in securing resources needed to enhance their social functioning. 4. Ensure that social institutions are humane and responsive to human needs. 5. Accept and appreciate diverse populations 6. Hold themselves accountable for ethical conduct, quality of their work and continuous professional development. (Brenda Dubois, Social Work An Empowering Profession pp118 -142)

Social Work Values 1 Social workers believe in inherent worth and dignity of the individual 2 Each person has an inherent capacity and drive toward change which can make life more fulfilling 3 Each person has responsibility for himself and his fellow human beings 4 People need to belong 5 There are human needs common to each person, yet each person is unique and different feom others 6 Society must provide opportunities for growth and development that will allow each person to realize his full potential 7 Society must provide resources and services to help people to meet their needs to avoid such problems as hunger, inadequate education, discrimination, illness without care and inaequate housing 8 Peole must have equal opportunity to participate in the molding of society 9 People should be treated with respect and dignity, should have maximum opportunity to determine theeir lives, should be urged and helped to interact with other people to build a society responsive to the needs of everyone and should be recognized as unique individuals rather than put into sterotypes because of some particular characteristic or life experience
Armando Morales & Bradford W.Sheafor 1987

Principles of Social Work
Principles
A fundamental, well-settled accepted tenets. A basic truth or undisputed doctrine; a given proposition that is clear and does not need to be proved. It is basically a hypothesis, an assumption so adequately tested by observation / experience / experiment may be used as a guide for action, or as a means of understanding. Konapka (1958), Clarke (1947), Cohen (1958), Friedlander (1958), Perlman (1976) Piccard (1988), Morales & Sheafor (1998) explained about Social Work Principles. Social Workers transform the abstract values of the profession into principles for translate these principles into concrete actions in specific situations. E.g. Social Work Value Social Work Principle Positive manifestation Respect individuals Principle of Affirm individuality worth and dignity individualization Appreciate diversity Uphold confidentiality Principle of confidentiality Respecting privacy Principles of Social Work 1. Principle of Acceptance 2. Principle of Individualization 3. Principle of Purposeful Expression of Feeling / practice. Then they Potential effect Affirm personhood Creating trust

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Principle of Meaningful Relationship / Principle of Controlled Emotional Involvement / Empathy 4. Principle of Non Judgmental Attitude 5. Principle of Objectivity 6. Principle of Self Determination 7. Principle of Confidentiality 8. Principle of Accountability 9. Principle of Access to Resources Besides this, some authors also mentioned Principle of Communication Principle of Social Functioning The concept of social functioning involves two sub concepts – task and coping. Tasks implies demands made upon people by various life situations. These demands may pertain to issue of daily living, family life, entry into the world of work or inability to do so, marriage and divorce, management of health, illness, finances and so on. The concept of coping ‘emphasizes the relative mastery of the tasks in the situation. Principle of Tuning Behavior Principle of Social Learning

1. Principle of Acceptance.
Acceptance originate from Greek word “agape” which means “love which descends to misery, ugliness and guilt in order to elevate..the love is critical and is able to transform what it loves..this love (acceptance is not charity) is not charity which is an escape from the demands of critical love …acceptance penetrates to the inner selves of others and affirms their humanity

2. Principle of Individualization
Social Workers by their training develop a generalized understanding of people, their problems and their environment. If one applies this to all it may lead to bias, prejudice, labeling, stereotyping and ignoring the beauty of diversity and uniqueness. This principle emphasis that client (group / Community) have a right “to be individuals and be treated not as a human being but as this human being with personal differences…and this transformed into “start where the client / group /community is” 3. Principle of Purposeful Expression of Feeling / Principle of Meaningful Relationship / Principle of Controlled Emotional Involvement … Principle of Empathy

3. Purposeful Expression of Feeling
Social workers have to go beyond the content of just the facts to uncover feelings that underlie these facts. By listening attentively, asking relevant questions and demonstrating tolerance and non judgmentalism social workers encourage clients to share their feelings …to relieve pressure or tension.. a cathartic or cleansing experience that enable clients to put their situation in perspective.

Empathy
Putting oneself into the psychological frame of reference of another, so that the other person’s feeling, thinking, and acting are understood and to some extent predictable. A desirable trust-building characteristic of a helping profession. It is embodied in the sincere statement, “I understand how you feel.” Empathy is different from sympathy in that to be empathetic one understands how the person feels rather than actually experiencing those feelings, as in sympathy. How we call a person with little or no empathy? Any one with a high level of the trait of narcissism (an inflated self-esteem, a sense of superiority and a feeling of entitlement) generally has little empathy or sympathy for others. 12

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Controlled Emotional Involvement
Controlled emotional involvement is in no sense a “hardening” process. It is rather a mellowing process which serves to steady and temper our emotional responses. Over identification with clients impedes objectivity and neutrality.

Meaningful Relationship
Meaningful relationship begins by demonstrating the interests in client.

4. Principle of Non Judgmental Attitude
Non judgementalism presumes acceptance. Nonjudgmental social work excludes assigning guilt or innocence, or degree of client responsibility for causation of the problems or needs but it does include making evaluative judgments about the attitudes and standards or actions of the client. Nonjudgementalism signifies social workers’ non blaming attitudes and behaviors…not judging clients as good or bad, or worthy or unworthy.

5. Principle of Objectivity
It is closely related to non judgementalism

6. Principle of Self Determination
Positively it means having freedom to make mistakes as well as to act wisely. Negatively not being coerced or manipulated. Self determination acknowledges that sound growth emanates from within.

7. Principle of Confidentiality
Confidential means private or secret; something treated with trust, resulting in a feeling of security that information will not be disclosed to other parties. An example is the confidentiality of conversations and records between attorney and client.

8. Principle of Accountability 9. Principle of Access to Resources Principles of Social Work

1

It is essential that problems do exist and that there is no stigma attached to any maladjusted person 2 Many problems arise out of environment and circumstances over which an individual has no control. 3 A solution can be sought to every problem, because of the belief that conditions can be created to help the maladjusted persons to adjust to the environment. 4 Individual / community is to be helped to help himself / themselves. His / their participation is necessary. A social worker should act as an agent to enlist peoples’ support for programs. 5 Total personality of the individual is to be studied in order to help him. 6 Total needs of the individual, group, or community are to be taken into consideration while trying to help them. 7 Relationship is the key-note of all types of work. 8 Self help programs require the use of local resources, in terms of humans, money and material, so that dependence on outside help could be minimized, if not avoided. 9 People in need should be helped by placing them back in the community rather than sending them to institutions except in case of mental, social, physical and emotional maladjustments which require specialized treatment. 10 Apart from treatment of social problems, social work should also evolve ways and means of providing preventive services, like public health and social security programs

Introduction to Social Work - Paul Chowdhry –p22

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Objectives of Social Work
1. 2. 3. 4. Objectives of Social Work To provide people physical help TO help them in adjustment To solve their psychological problems To make available the opportunities to the weaker sections for raising their standard of living

Friedlander Witmer ESCAP –UN

Brown

1. Bringing change in painful social situations 2. Development of constructive forces 3. Providing opportunities for experimenting democratic and humanistic behaviour

1. To give assistance to individuals in removing difficulties which they face in utilizing the society’s resources 2. Utilization of community resources for their welfare 1. Social Work seeks to see and assist individuals, families and groups in relation to many social & economic forces by which they are affected 1. Social Work seeks to perform an integrating function for which no other provision is made in contemporary society 2. Social Work seeks to maximize the resources available in the community by promoting social well being

Purpose / Goals of Social Work
The NASW “Working Statement on Purpose” defines the unifying purpose or mission of social work as “promoting or restoring a mutually beneficial interaction between individuals and society in order to improve the quality of life for everyone” In response to the mission of the profession, social workers strengthen human functioning and enhance the effectiveness of the structures in society that provide resources and opportunities for citizens. Social workers strive to release human power so that individuals can actualize their potential and contribute to the well being of society. Social workers at the same time initiate activities that release the social power that creates changes in society that in turn create changes in social policies, social institutions and other social structures in the society. The dual focus of social work on people and their social environment raises questions about the interconnections between private troubles and public issues. Social work acknowledges that private troubles and public issues intersect.

Enchance social functioning

Promote social justice through social policy

Pu rpose / Goals of Social Wo rk

Link client system with needed resources

Improve the social service delivery net work

The cumulative effects of personal troubles are public issues. Likewise, individuals feel the repecussions of public issues personally as private troubles.

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Strengths and Needs
The mission of social work profession as well as the statements of its goals and objectives implicitly concern human needs and human strengths. Human needs are the substance of the social work profession – the impetus for social work activities. Human strengths are the building blocks of social work practice – the source of energy for developing solutions.

Evolving Ethics for Social Work Practice
Historical Periods of the Code
 The Code has evolved over time. – Morality Period-Late 20th Century – Values Period-Appeared 1950’s – Ethical Theory & Decision-Making Period-Early 1980’s – Ethical Standards & Risk Management Period-1996 to current Values vs. Ethics
 Values are the implicit and explicit ideas about what we cherish as ideal or preferable  values determines which goals and actions we evaluate as “good”. Our values shapes our beliefs and attitude and vise versa.  Ethics relates to what people consider correct or right  ethics generates standards that direct one’s conduct. Ethics represents “values in action”

History of the Social Work Professional Code of Ethics

•1919-First attempt at drafting a Code for the profession of Social Work-Mary Richmond credited in form of an “Experiential” Code •1947—American Association of Social Workers created first formal code for the profession •NASW-Established as the professional association for social workers in 1955 and adopts the first Code five years later in 1960 as the “guide” to the everyday professional conduct of social workers in the profession •Revised Five Times Since Its Creation •1979—More comprehensive than first and useful for resolving ethical conflicts, •1989—Eliminated Standards that prohibited the solicitation of clients to a private practice because of a consent agreement with the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) and in recognition of client selfdetermination, •1993—Added Standards pertaining to Dual/Multiple Relationships and to impaired social workers, •1996—Modified numerous areas of the Code and made it more comprehensive •2001—Clarified Language around the areas of Privacy & Confidentiality

Purpose of the Code for Today’s Practice

–“Guide” Practitioners in resolving ethical dilemmas that arise in practice –Protect the public from incompetent –To Protect the Public –To Describe the Responsibilities & Expectations of Social Workers to their Clients, Colleagues, Employers and the Society –To Assist the Social Worker in Developing Ethical Problem and Decision Making Skills as well as Develop Strategies to Address the Ethical Dilemma. –To Summarize the Social Work Profession’s Mission and Core Values

How Values Influence Practice  Influence forming of relationships  Influence views of situations  Influence selection of options  Diversity often signals value differences

Code of Ethics
 Professional Sections – “Preamble”-summarizes the social work profession's mission and core values – “Purpose”-provides an overview of Code’s main functions and a brief guide for dealing with ethical issues or dilemmas in social work practice – “Principles”-presents broad ethical principles, based on social work’s core values, that inform social work practice –“Standards”-includes specific ethical standards to guide social workers’ conduct and to provide a basis for adjudication

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S.Rengasamy. Introduction to Professional Social Work
Professional Code vs. State Licensure Regulations
        Code applies to all degreed professionals within the field of practice Code is regulated by professional association Code incorporates values, principles and standards Code has the highest level of practice expectation Code is directed towards the professional State Regulations only apply to those who are licensed within their jurisdiction State Regulations are minimum standards of practice State Regulations are directed at protecting the public or
Universal Declaration of Human Rights      Protection of life Right to equality Right to autonomy Right to a decent quality of life Right to privacy
 ALL HUMAN BEINGS ARE BORN FREE AND EQUAL IN DIGNITY AND RIGHTS.

December 10, 1948 30 Articles http://www.un.org

consumer of the service

Identify Ethical Dilemmas
 Review the Following Situational Questions – Am I having a conflict with my practice around the issue of the Law? – Am I having a conflict with my practice around the issue of My Own Personal Views? – Am I having a conflict with my practice around a Section of the Code of Ethics? – Am I having a conflict with my practice which has a lot of Gray Area?

Steps for Ethical Problem Solving
1. Determine - - Is there a conflict of values, or rights, or professional responsibilities? 2. Identify - - What meanings and limitations are typically attached to these competing values? 3. Rank - - What reasons can you provide for prioritizing one competing value/principle over another? 4. Develop - - Have you conferred with clients and colleagues, as appropriate, about the potential risks and consequences of alternative courses of action? 5. Implement - - How will you make use of core social work skills such as sensitive communication, skillful negotiation, and cultural competence? 6. Reflect - - How would you evaluate the consequences of this process for those involved: client (s); professional (s); and agency (ies)?

Case Scenario #1
In the course of treatment of a coworker’s former client, a social worker learns that the client and her former therapist were sexually involved during the same time that they had engaged in a professional relationship. The clients report that she has not told others in the agency about the relationship. The social worker would like to discuss the issue with her supervisor and the client’s former therapistlover. The client prefers that the social worker not discuss this matter with her former therapist or with supervisory staff at the agency.

Scenario Commentary #1
Competing Values: – Client’s right to Self-Determination – Therapist unethical behavior with client – Agency’s integrity

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S.Rengasamy. Introduction to Professional Social Work
NASW Ethical Standards 1.Social workers’ ethical responsibilities to clients 2.Social workers’ ethical responsibilities to colleagues 3.Social workers’ ethical responsibilities in practice settings 4.Social workers’ ethical responsibilities as professionals 5.Social workers’ ethical responsibilities to the social work profession, and 6.Social workers’ ethical responsibilities to the broader society NASW Ethical Principles 1. Service: SWer’s primary goal is to help people in need and to address social problems 2. Social Justice: SWers challenge social injustice 3. Dignity and Worth of the Person: SWers respect the inherent dignity and worth of the person 4. Importance of Human Relationships: SWers recognize the central importance of human relationships. 5. Integrity: SWers behave in a trustworthy manner. 6. Competence: SWers practice within their areas of competence and develop and enhance their professional expertise. NASW Social Work Practice Principles a. Empathy b. Individualization: Affirms each client’s unique and distinctive characteristics c. Non-judgmentalism: Maintains unbiased attitudes toward clients d. Objectivity: Promotes professional caring, concerns, and commitment in working with clients

Case Scenario #2
A substance abuse treatment social worker who works with a client who has lost her license to drive after a recent arrest for driving while intoxicated sees the client drive to the agency for her session. During the counseling session, the social worker comes to believe that the client is under the influence of alcohol. The client shares with her social worker her frustration over her need to drive to work and other essential places as justification for her decision to occasionally drive without her license.

Scenario Commentary #2
The standard exceptions to confidentiality include disclosure of information shared by a client when it is necessary to prevent serious, foreseeable, and imminent harm to a client or other identifiable person or when laws, such as mandatory laws to report child abuse, require disclosure without a client’s consent. A social worker should be knowledgeable about or obtain proper consultation about relevant laws and regulations concerning disclosure. One might argue that the loss of one’s driver’s Following international organizations provide the basic leadership for the globalization of social work. International Federation of Social Workers (ifsw) International Association of Schools of Social Work (iassw) Council on Social Work Education (cswe) permit-unlikely as a consequence of a first offense-constitutes a dangerous situation and holds the possibility of harm to the client or an innocent other. THE PURPOSE OF FORMULATION OF GLOBAL QUALIFYING STANDARDS Protect the “consumers'” or “clients” of social services; Take account of the impact of globalization on social work curricula and social work practice: Facilitate articulation across universities on a global level; Facilitate the movement of social workers from country to another; Drew a distinction between social workers and non-social workers; Benchmark national standards against international standards; Facilitate partnerships and international student and staff exchange programs;

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Ethical Principles and Values Hierarchies Loewenberg & Dolgoff Ethical Principles Screen
Loewenberg, F.M. & Dolgoff, R. (2000). Ethical Decisions for Social Work Practice (6th ed.).

To      

be used when an applicable code of ethics does not provide specific rules Principle of the protection of life Principle of equality and inequality Principle of autonomy and freedom Principle of least harm Principle of quality of life Principle of privacy and confidentiality

Professional Boundaries  A social worker shall not become involved in a client’s personal affairs that are not relevant to the service being provided  A social worker shall not exploit the relationship with a client for personal benefit, gain or gratification  The social worker shall distinguish between actions and statements made as a private citizen and actions and statements as a social worker  The social worker shall not have a sexual relationship with a client or client’s relatives  The social worker shall not have a business relationship with a client Hugging a client, and going to disclosure  ? Principle of truthfulness and full lunch with a client

Social Work Values Hierarchy
Reamer, F.G. (1999). Social Work Values and Ethics (2nd ed.). New York: Columbia University Press

     

Rules against basic harm to an individuals survival take precedence over rules against harms such as lying or revealing confidential information or threats to additive goods; An individual's right to basic well-being takes precedence over another individual's right to self determination; An individual's right to self-determination takes precedence over his or her right to basic wellbeing; The obligation to obey laws, rules and regulations to which one has voluntarily and freely consented ordinarily overrides one's right to engage voluntarily and freely in a manner that conflicts with these; Individuals' rights to well-being may override laws, rules, regulations and arrangements of voluntary associations in cases of conflict; The obligation to prevent basic harms and to promote public goods such as housing, education and public assistance overrides the right to complete control over one's property.

Medical Model Principles Hierarchy
Beauchamp, T.L. and Childress, J.F. (1989). Principles of Biomedical Ethics. Respect for autonomy;  Nonmaleficence - do no harm;  Beneficence - actively pursue the welfare of others;  Justice - allocation of resources, fairness, need

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Social Work Levels of Intervention

Social Work Intervention

Society Communities Complex Organizations Formal Groups Members of Families & Groups 1 Individuals
6 5 4 3 2 2 Social Work Intervention 1

Members of Families & Groups Individuals

1 Social Work Levels of Intervention

2
4 3

Intervention at the Micro Level

Complex Organizations
6

Social Work Intervention

Formal Groups

5

Society

Social Work Intervention

3

Intervention at the Midlevel Communities

5 6

4

Intervention at the Macro Level

Individuals  Genetics  Prenatal Health  Nutrition  Developme -tal Disability  Disabling Condition  Health  Personality  Mental Health  Life Experiences  Coping Capacity  Self Concept  Income / Assets  Age  Life Style  Cultural Heritage  Ethnicity  Developmen tal Stage  Motivation  Cognitive level

Families & Groups  Size  Composition  Unity  Communica - tion  Rules  Roles  Values  Relationship Patterns  Natural Support Systems  Socio economic level  Functional Capacity  Kinship networks  Multi generational patterns

Determinants of Social Functioning OrganizatCommunity ions  Size  Bureaucracy  Housing  Focus /  Personnel  Transportation purpose Management  Economy  Past history  Membership  Availability of together roles jobs  Developmental  Governance  Educational Stage  Organizational resources  Communicatio behavior  Standard -n pattern  Administrative of living  Decision functions  Cultural making style  Socialization diversity  Overt /  Committee  Diversity covert goals structure of life style  Interpersonal  Group  Environmental relationship cohesion stress  Divergence  Conflict  Availability of in individual resolution style resources goals & group  Mission of  Support goals purpose networks  Norms /  Day to day  Relative values of group operations social class  Leadership  Decision  Urban / roles making process rural nature  Length of time group will meet  Manner of managing conflicts Groups

Society Technology Social values Social class Stratification Institutions Alienation Economic cycles Social Policy Government The“isms” Prejudice Demographic trends Pop culture Laws & legislation

World community  Hunger  World poverty  Foos shortage  Ecology  World health  Space exploration  Human rights  Populati on base  Political climate  Energy  Power & authoity base  Threat of war  Internati onal

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S.Rengasamy. Introduction to Professional Social Work
DECLARATION OF ETHICS FOR PROFESSIONAL SOCIAL WORKERS IN INDIA
(Developed by Tata Institute of Social Sciences)

Preamble
 The Declaration of Ethics for Professional Social Workers is intended to serve as a guide to the members of the social work profession, who have obtained minimally a bachelor's degree in social work and, thus, base their work on recognized knowledge, philosophy and skills. The Declaration is rooted in the contemporary social reality which has a historical background and in the framework of humanistic values, based on the intrinsic worth of all human and non-human life. Need for Ethics Ethical behavior is necessary for a society to function in an orderly manner. The need for ethics in society is sufficiently important that many commonly held ethical values are incorporated into laws Why People Act Unethically The person’s ethical standards are different from those of society as a whole The person chooses to act selfishly. A Person Chooses to Act Selfishly – Example Person A finds a briefcase containing important papers and Rs10, 000. He tosses the briefcase and keeps the money. He brags to his friends about his good fortune. This action probably differs from most of society. Person B faces the same situation but responds differently. He keeps the money but leaves the briefcase He tells nobody and spends the money. He has violated his own ethical standards and chose to act selfishly. Resolve ethical dilemmas using an ethical framework. Ethical Dilemmas An ethical dilemma is a situation a person faces in which a decision must be made about appropriate behavior. Rationalizing Unethical Behavior  Everybody does it If it’s legal, it’s ethical. Likelihood of discovery and consequences  The Bhakti movement promoted the value of humanism, that is, every individual has inherent worth and dignity, irrespective of attributes and achievements. Every person, therefore, has an innate capability to run his/her own life. Democracy emphasizes participatory process in the decision making of an entity and accountability of that entity to its members.  Socialism has promoted the values of equality and legal, judicial, social and economic justice for satisfaction of basic human needs, sharing of natural resources and access to essential services. While equality highlighted non-hierarchy and nondiscrimination based on equal worth of every person, the growing value of equity emphasizes recognition of differences, diversity and pluralism.  The ideology of Sarvodaya has emphasized the values of Swarajya and Lokniti, that is people have to govern themselves in order to obtain equity and justice. This ideology accepts that people are knowledgeable about their situation and the ways to manage them, given the necessary resources. It acknowledges that they have the right to plan their own destinies and determine their life styles. It appreciates that local solutions must be congruent with local resource realities.  The social work profession is committed to solidarity with the marginalized peoples. The basic human rights are very often violated for people, who lack economic, physical, mental, social and/or 20

S.Rengasamy. Introduction to Professional Social Work
emotional resources. Lack of resources lead to powerlessness and, thereby marginalization of people by the social, economic and political systems. Marginalized people are vulnerable to deprivation and exploitation by those who yield power as they have control over resources.  The profession recognizes that marginalized people need to be empowered so that they themselves play a dominant role for their development and welfare. Empowerment is the process of gaining control over self as well as the resources which determine power. This process aims at reforming the nature and direction of the systemic forces which marginalize the powerless. Systemic change is an imperative for redistributive justice.  The Declaration provides general ethical principles to guide conduct of professional social workers with respect to self and the profession, work with the marginalized and other people in need, the society and the state, co-workers and employing organizations and social work education and research. In its practical application, the entire Declaration and its spirit are of importance, and must be viewed holistically, rather than considering a particular ethical principle in isolation. This also implies that the application of ethical principles must be judged within the context in which they are being considered.

Declaration of Ethics for Professional Social Workers Value Framework
As a professional social worker, I pledge to promote the following values in myself, in the profession and in the society. 1. I pledge to perceive people as having inherent worth and dignity, irrespective of their attributes and achievements and having the capability of continuing development; and I pledge to perceive myself and other people as part of nature, needing to live in harmony with other non-human existence. 2. I pledge to work towards the overall well-being of all people in the spirit of Sarvodaya, through the achievement of the following goals: 21

S.Rengasamy. Introduction to Professional Social Work
Equity, non-hierarchy and non-discrimination of human groups in terms of race, religion, tribe, language, regional origin, gender, sexual orientation and other such factors, and condemning segregation / apartheid / discrimination among them; Social, economic, political and legal justice, ensuring satisfaction of basic needs and integrity and security, universal access to essential resources and protective safeguards for the marginalized people; and People-centered development, in the spirit of Swarajya and democracy from micro- to macro-levels, where people participate to determine their life styles and goals for development. 3. I pledge to work with people, guided by the following values: Solidarity and partnership with the marginalized people; and Peaceful and non-violent approaches in the spirit of Ahimsa for resolving conflicts with self, others and the environment.
The Tata Institute of Social Sciences (TISS) was established in 1936, as the Sir Dorabji Tata Graduate School of Social Work. The first school of social work in India, the TISS was a pioneering effort, characteristic of the Sir Dorabji Tata Trust (SDTT). Its establishment was the result of the decision of the Trustees of the SDTT to accept Dr. Clifford Manshardt’s vision of a post-graduate school of social work of national stature that would engage in a continuous study of Indian social issues and problems and impart education in social work to meet the emerging need for trained human power. This subsequently influenced the direction of social work education and social research in India.

Ethical Responsibility to Self and the Profession
As the first essential to social work practice, I shall constantly seek an understanding of myself and change my attitudes and prejudices which may affect my work.  I shall be sensitive to and respect the feelings and thinking of others, understands behaviors, avoid stereotypes and recognize individuality in every person.  I accept with humility and openness, the need to learn and shall imbibe the spirit of inquiry to constantly update my knowledge base and intervention strategies.  I shall gear my practice upon relevant knowledge and in the changing socioeconomic, geographical and cultural context.  I shall use my knowledge, power and status as a professional, for the well-being of all and not misuse these for personal gains.  I shall intervene into the personal affairs of another individual only with his/her consent, except when I must act to prevent injury to him/her or to others, in accordance with the legal provisions.  In order to ensure credibility and integrity of the social work profession, I shall constantly review it and work towards its

development.

 I shall work to promote networking among social work professionals, other professionals and like-minded individuals and organizations, at the micro- and macro-levels, to work towards peoplecentered development.  I shall work towards developing and strengthening of professional associations, which are means for development of the profession.  I shall facilitate development of the new entrants to the profession.

Ethical Responsibility to the Marginalized and Other People in Need
My primary professional response and accountability are to the marginalized and other people in need I work with. My commitment and professional stand shall be with them.  I shall empathize with people's marginalization and thereby respect and give credence/value to their life experiences.  I shall work towards changing the systemic and contextual forces which marginalize people, on behalf of and in partnership with them.

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S.Rengasamy. Introduction to Professional Social Work
 I shall respect people's right for self-determination, and shall ensure that they themselves play an active role in relation to the course of action to be taken about their life situation.  I shall nurture a relationship of partnership with people that promote mutual reflection on our life situation and our development.  I shall facilitate people's access to opportunities and resources and empower them for work towards their stated goal.  I shall share with people, accurate and relevant information regarding the extent and nature of help available to them, that is, opportunities, rights, strengths, limitations and risks associated with the intervention offered.  I shall enable and encourage people to work with other individuals, organizations and groups, when such collaboration is in the best interest of the well-being for all.  I shall obtain people's consent before recording or permitting third party observation of their activities after informing them about its purpose and utility.  I shall keep confidential; all matters shared by them, and shall inform them fully about the limits of privileged communication in a given situation.  I shall facilitate people's access to official records concerning them, if asked by them. While doing so, I shall take due care to protect the confidence of others covered by these records.  I shall ensure that payment for services by people, if necessary, are fair and commensurate with the intervention provided, and within the capacity for such payment of the people served.  When I perceive the need to withdraw from the helping process, I shall give consideration to all factors in the situation and shall take care to minimize possible adverse effects on the people.  When I anticipate discontinuation of my intervention, I shall notify them promptly and seek transfer, referral or continuation of service, with consideration to their needs and preferences.  I shall not pursue a relationship or use any coercive means to continue services, which the people served wish to terminate, and shall offer suggestions or alternative help that they can avail of.

Ethical Responsibility to the Society and the State
 It is my ethical responsibility to promote implementation of the Fundamental Rights and the Directive Principles enshrined in the Indian Constitution.  I shall work towards a society and a state that promotes equity, justice, Ahimsa, Swarajya and Lokniti.  I shall advocate changes in social systems and the State policies and legislation to promote the above values.  I shall encourage informed participation by the people in shaping State policies, legislation, and programs.  I shall respond and offer my professional services in events of emergencies at micro- and macro-levels.

Ethical Responsibility to Co-Workers and Employing Organizations
It is my ethical responsibility to respect the inherent worth and dignity of all my co-workers, that include social workers, other professionals, auxiliary workers, volunteers and all those involved in the development process, within and across organizations  I shall cooperate with my co-workers towards development, accepting and respecting our personal and professional differences.  I shall contribute to the process of collective reflection and democratic decision-making when working as a team.  I shall acknowledge my co-workers' attributes and achievements and will be willing to learn from them.  I shall respect confidences shared by my co-workers in the course of their professional relationships and transactions.  I shall promote a practice of mutual evaluation with co-workers for our professional development.  When I am an employer or supervisor to my co-workers, I shall ensure clarity of goals in delegation of roles and responsibilities, provide opportunities for growth, give them due credits and jointly review their performance on the basis of goals and clearly enunciate criteria.

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S.Rengasamy. Introduction to Professional Social Work
 I shall act to promote humanistic values and ethical practices in my employing organization’s policies and practices.  I shall ensure that the organization’s resources are used judiciously and for the purpose they are intended.  I shall periodically monitor and evaluate the organization’s policies and programs by maintaining records, self reflection on people's feedback and feedback from the co-workers.

Ethical Responsibility to Social Work Education and Research
When teaching and training, it is my ethical responsibility to be conversant with the learners' needs, readiness and goals.  I shall keep my knowledge update about social work and the subjects I teach through field experience, reading and training.  While teaching and training I shall impart knowledge, inculcate attitudes and develop skills within the value framework of the profession.  I shall recognize the importance of partnership between practitioners and educators for the purpose of social work education and training.  I shall develop a nurturing relationship with students, encouraging openness and self study and facilitating sharing and discussions in a learning situation.  I shall, whenever possible, undertake demonstration of people-centered field action projects for the purpose of research and documentation, training and replication.  I shall share the knowledge I gain with other social work educators and practitioners.  I shall contribute to the knowledge base of social work education through my practice wisdom, documentation as well as research.  I shall expose the students to the professional associations and orient them about their role in developing and strengthening them.  When carrying out a research, I shall carefully select the topic for research considering its possible consequences for human beings within the value framework of the profession and towards the goals of people-centered development.  I shall consider the informants of my research as my co-partners in understanding the phenomenon. I shall, therefore, share my research objectives with them and get their informed and voluntary consent, respect their knowledge and attitude about their life situation, and share/interpret the findings with them.  I shall not cause them inadvertent physical or mental discomfort, distress or harm, through my research.  I shall protect the confidentiality of the information shared by them and use the findings for their benefit, by revising policies and programs concerning them.  I shall provide information services to them, as and when necessary, during the process of data collection.  I shall acknowledge in my paper, the published as well as unpublished material and personal discussions that have directly influenced my paper.

Background of the Declaration
This `Declaration of Ethics for Professional Social Workers' has been prepared by the Social Work Educators' Forum (SWEF) at the Tata Institute of Social Sciences. The SWEF is a forum for social work educators at the Institute to undertake meetings and activities with a goal to strengthen social work profession and education. In the meetings scheduled by the SWEF in 1991, a need was felt to formulate a document on ethics for professional social workers. An initial draft prepared by a sub-committee was discussed and revised through several in-house meetings. The draft was also circulated for feedback at the National Workshop on Social Work Practice and Education held in May 1993 and discussed at a Workshop in February 1995 along with the members of the faculty of the College of Social Work at Nirmala Niketan and the members of the Bombay Association of Trained Social Workers. It was also sent to some senior social work educators. Feedback obtained from all are incorporated in this Sixth Draft.

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S.Rengasamy. Introduction to Professional Social Work
Foundation of Social Work Practice in India
Religio Philosophical Foundation
Though social work is not practiced in its present form, serving the people and helping the needy has been considered almost a moral duty to everyone. In this regard several prescriptions are also laid down for the individuals to follow. Traditionally social work in India is more person based and not institution based. Religio philosophical foundation of social work in India is better understood to the following three major titles. 1. Social welfare during Vedic Period 2. Hinduism and the philosophy of social welfare. 3. Buddhism and the philosophy of social welfare. 4. Jainism and the philosophy of Social Welfare

1. Social welfare during Vedic Period
The Vedas are the scriptures derived from the Vedic period (c. 1500-700 BC)

Communitarian (a social order in which individuals are bound together by common values that foster close communal bonds. A model of political organization that stresses ties of affection, kinship, and a sense of common purpose and tradition, as opposed to the meager morality of contractual ties entered into between a loose conglomeration of individuals) republics existed during the early Vedic period. In communitarian social order the whole business of helping people in need was everybody’s business mainly handles in a collective way. Thus every body was client and agent both an different occasions and for different purposes. In early days of Indian civilization both social life and social welfare were almost inseparable

2.Hinduism and the philosophy of social welfare.
According to Hindu philosophy human beings should revere, respect and love all, because, God, the supreme being pervades all and immanent in all things and beings. The goal of life is to realize the self, which is nothing but GOD, for this one needs to rise into higher spheres of thinking, feeling and acting and help others to achieve the same. The rules and regulation prescribed to achieve self realization are known as Manushya Dharmas. It is “Stand up, be bold, be strong. Take the whole responsibility on your own shoulders, and know that you are the creator of your own destiny. All the strength and succor you want is within yourselves. Therefore, make your own future.” - Swami Vivekananda elaborated as yamas (actions to be avoided) and niyamas (actions to be followed) These virtues are enriched by the additional virtues of Dana, Daya and Kshanthi Dana: it is understood as charity in the form of alms giving to the deserving. Daya means compassion to all Kshanthi patience and forgiveness The popular Hindu saying expresses Janata Seva is Janardana Seva. The service of man is the service of God. Janata Seva means helping the people. Serving his fellow human beings is an instrument to realize Self – God or Janardana. The reward for Janata Seva is the enlargement of the self. At later days, Mary Richmond, a social work pioneer, while explaining the underlying philosophy of social work, mentioned about wider self. The concept of wider self match the Hindu concept of larger or greater self. 25

S.Rengasamy. Introduction to Professional Social Work
Yama and Niyama
Yama is a "moral restraint" or rule for living virtuously. Ten yamas are codified in numerous scriptures, including the Hatha Yoga Pradipika compiled by Yogi Swatmarama, while Patanjali lists five yamas, and five niyamas (disciplines) in the Yoga Sutra. The ten traditional yamas are: Ahimsa: Nonviolence. Abstinence from injury, or harm to any living creature in thought, word, or deed. This is the "main" Yama. The other nine are there in support of its accomplishment. Satya: Truthfulness in word and thought (in conformity with the facts). Asteya: No stealing, no coveting, no entering into debt. Brahmacharya: Divine conduct, continence, celibate when single, faithful when married. Kshama: Patience, releasing time, functioning in the now. Dhriti: Steadfastness, overcoming non-perseverance, fear, and indecision; seeing each task through to completion. Daya: Compassion; conquering callous, cruel and insensitive feelings toward all beings. Arjava: Honesty, straightforwardness, renouncing deception and wrongdoing. Mitahara: Moderate appetite, neither eating too much nor too little; nor consuming meat, fish, shellfish, fowl or eggs. Shaucha: Purity, avoidance of impurity in body, mind and speech. Patanjali's five yamas, or moral restraints, are ahimsa (non-injury), satya (truthfulness), asteya (nonstealing), brahmacharya (continence or chastity) and aparagriha (abstinence from avarice). He also lists five niyamas, or disciplines, which include shauca (purity), samtosha (contentment), tapas (asceticism), svadhyaya (study), and ishvara-pranidhana (devotion to the Lord).

3. Buddhism and the philosophy of social welfare.
By the performance of acts of punna (punyam) and the avoidance of acts (pavam) of papa one contributes to social welfare while gradually transforming oneself in such a way that noble qualities of mind conducive to produce the maturity and insight that bring full liberation of the mind could sooner or later be attained. Until such time as one attains the final liberation, acts of punna protect a person from falling into unhappy rebirths and furnishes one with all the desirable material conditions of living. Buddhism provides a great incentive to believers by emphasizing the effects of punna_deeds to engage in acts of social welfare. The concept of punna is connected with the doctrines of kamma and rebirth. These doctrines appeal to the concern of everyone with one's own interest and have the effect of preventing people who have faith in them to avoid engaging in any conduct that is productive of suffering to others and encouraging them to do positive good to others which is productive of beneficial effects to themselves. It is to be noted that the Buddhist notion of social welfare is wider than a purely mundane notion in such a way that it includes an awareness of the material needs that are necessary for the promotion of social welfare. The welfare of people can be promoted only when all their needs are adequately fulfilled. Humanist psychologists have pointed out that human beings have a hierarchy of needs. xv They do not attain their real humanity unless certain higher and uniquely human needs are also satisfied. Buddhism can fully agree with that view, for Buddhism recognizes the necessity to attend to the basic material needs of man not as an end in itself, but as a means to an end which is much higher than that. The greatest happiness that a human being can attain by becoming entirely free from the corruptions of mind is considered in Buddhism as the highest in the hierarchy of human needs

4. Jainism and the philosophy of social welfare.
Jains believe that all living beings possess a soul, and therefore great care and awareness is required in going about one's business in the world. Jainism is a religion in which all life is considered worthy of respect and it emphasizes this equality of all life, advocating the protection of even the smallest creatures. This goes as far as the life of a fly. A major characteristic of Jain belief is the emphasis on the consequences of not only physical but also mental behaviors. 26

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5.Islam
Islam is the name of a religion founded by Muhammad in ancient Arabia in the 7th century. People who follow Islam are called Muslims. They believe in only one God, That God is called Allah, which is the Arabic phrase for "the (only) God". Islam has more followers than Roman Catholicism with 1.3 billion followers which makes it the worlds largest religion dating today. It is also the fastest growing religion in the world.

The Five Pillars of Islam
There are five things that Muslims should do. They are called "The Five Pillars of Islam". 1. Faith: The Testimony (al-Shaada in Arabic) is the Muslim belief that there is no god but Allah Himself, and that Muhammad is His messenger. 2. Prayer: Muslims pray five times at special times of the day.[2] 3. Charity: Muslims who have money must give alms (Zakah or Zakat in Arabic) to help poor Muslims in the local community. 4. Fasting: Muslims fast during Ramadan, They do not eat or drink from sunrise till sunset for one lunar month. 5. Hajj (Pilgrimage): Muslims in general who can afford or who have made the Hajj must buy an animal according to the Islamic criteria to sacrifice and cook as food or give away to the poor, if they have the money for it.

6.Christianity
Christianity is a faith based on the believed life and teaching of Jesus. Christians believe by faith that all who sin (disobey God) even once wouldn't go to heaven, even if they did good things, so God gave His own Son, Jesus, to die, so that Christians can "substitute" Jesus' sinless life for themselves. Christians believe that no matter how many sins or how much evil a person has done, they will still go to heaven by taking Jesus as a substitute for his/her own sin. It is a unique religion in the sense that the believer's good or bad deeds do not determine their eternal salvation. Rather, it is the sinless life of Jesus and the sacrificial death of Jesus that is the way to heaven. Thus, Jesus is their "Savior" and they are "saved" by Him, and not because of anything they did on their own.

Charity - Showing love for people
The word "Charity" gets its roots form the Latin word "caritas", meaning love. In 1 Peter 4:8a (King James Version), Peter writes; "And above all things have fervent "charity" among yourselves." Simply put, this verse says that a Christian is to have complete love to each other. And in Mark 12:31b (King James Version) Jesus, when asked what was the greatest commandment, replied that first is to love the Lord, "And the second is like, namely this, Thou shalt "love" thy neighbor as thyself. There is none other commandment greater than these." So in Jesus' own words, it is vital to the Christian belief, that a Christian, have Charity (or love), to each other.

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Contributions of Ancient Indian Kings to Social Welfare
Ashoka, the Great
As the third emperor of the Mauryan dynasty, Ashoka was born in the year 304 B.C. His greatest achievements were spreading Buddhism throughout his empire and beyond. He set up an ideal government for his people and conquered many lands, expanding his kingdom.

H. G. Wells wrote of Ashoka:
In the history of the world there have been thousands of kings and emperors who called themselves 'their highnesses,' 'their majesties,' and 'their exalted majesties' and so on. They shone for a brief moment, and as quickly disappeared. But Ashoka shines and shines brightly like a bright star, even unto this day.

Kanishka
Kanishka was a king of the Kushan Empire in Central Asia, ruling an empire extending to large parts of India in the 2nd century of the common era, famous for his military, political, and spiritual achievements. His main capital was at Peshawar (Purushpura) in northwestern Pakistan, with regional capitals at the location of the modern city of Taxila in Pakistan, Begram in Afghanistan and Mathura in India.

Gupta Chandra Gupta
Ghatotkacha (c. 280–319) AD, had a son named Chandra Gupta. In a breakthrough deal, Chandra Gupta was married to a Lichchhavi—the main power in Magadha. With a dowry of the kingdom of Magadha (capital Pataliputra) i, conquering much of maghadaѕ, Prayaga and Saketa. He established a realm stretching from the Ganga River (Ganges River) to Prayaga (modern-day Allahabad) by 321.

Sultanate
The Delhi Sultanate refers to the many Muslim dynasties that ruled in India from 1206 to 1526. Several Turkic and Pashtun ("Afghan") dynasties ruled from Delhi: the Mamluk dynasty (1206-90), the Khilji dynasty (1290-1320), the Tughlaq dynasty (1320-1413), the Sayyid dynasty (1414-51), and the Lodhi dynasty (1451-1526). In 1526 the Delhi Sultanate was absorbed by the emerging Mughal Empire.

Deccan sultanates
The Deccan sultanates were five Muslim-ruled late medieval kingdoms–-Bijapur, Golkonda, Ahmadnagar, Bidar, and Berar of southcentral India. The Deccan sultanates were located on the Deccan Plateau, between the Krishna River and the Vindhya Range. These kingdoms became independent during the breakup of the Bahmani Sultanate. In 1490, Ahmadnagar declared independence, followed by Bijapur and Berar in the same year. Golkonda became independent in 1518 and Bidar in 1528. In 1510, Bijapur repulsed an invasion by the Portuguese against the city of Goa, but lost it later that year.

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Mughal Rule
India in the 16th century had numerous unpopular rulers, both Muslim and Hindu, with an absence of common bodies of laws or institutions. External developments also played a role in the rise of the Mughal Empire. The circumnavigation of Africa by the Portuguese explorer Vasco da Gama in 1498 allowed Europeans to challenge Arab control of the trading routes between Europe and Asia. In Central Asia and Afghanistan, shifts in power pushed Babur of Ferghana (in present-day Uzbekistan) southward, first to Kabul and then to India. The Mughal Empire lasted for more than three centuries. The Mughal Empire was one of the largest centralized states in pre modern history and was the precursor to the British Indian Empire.

International Federation of Social Workers
History
The International Federation of Social Workers is a successor to the International Permanent Secretariat of Social Workers, which was founded in Paris in 1928 and was active until the outbreak of World War II. It was not until 1950, at the time of the International Conference of Social Work in Paris, that the decision was made to create the International Federation of Social Workers, an international organization of professional social workers. The original agreement was that the IFSW would come into being when seven national organizations agreed to become members. After much preliminary work, the Federation was finally founded in 1956 at the time of the meeting of the International Conference on Social Welfare in Munich, Germany.

Aims of the IFSW
The Constitution of the IFSW provides that the aims shall be:  to promote social work as a profession through international co-operation, especially regarding professional values, standards, ethics, human rights, recognition, training and working conditions;  to promote the establishment of national organizations of social workers or professional unions for social workers and when needed national coordinating bodies (collectively "Social Work Organizations") where they do not exist;  to support Social Work Organizations in promoting the participation of social workers in social planning and the formulation of social policies, nationally and internationally, the recognition of social work, the enhancement of social work training and the values and professional standards of social work. In order to achieve these Aims the Federation shall:  encourage co-operation between social workers of all countries;  provide means for discussion and the exchange of ideas and experience through meetings, study visits, research projects, exchanges, publications and other methods of communication;  Establish and maintain relationships with, and present and promote the views of Social Work Organizations and their members to international organizations relevant to social development and welfare.

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The International Association of Schools of Social Work
IASSW, is the worldwide association of schools of social work, other tertiary level social work educational programs, and social work educators. The IASSW promotes the development of social work education throughout the world, develops standards to enhance quality of social work education, encourages international exchange, provides forums for sharing social work research and scholarship, and promotes human rights and social development through policy and advocacy activities. IASSW holds consultative status with the United Nations and participates as an NGO in UN activities in Geneva, Vienna and New York. Through its work at the UN and with other international organizations, IASSW represents social work education at the international level. The office of IASSW is located in the office of the President, Abye Tasse at Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia. IASSW is governed by the Board of Directors under a Constitution approved by the biennial General Assembly. The mission of the association emphasizes the promotion of world wide excellence in social work education and engagement of a community of social work educators in international exchange of information and expertise.

IASSW carries out its purposes through:
• A biennial conference of social work educators, the IASSW Congress • Publication of a newsletter • Representation at the United Nations • Co-sponsorship, with IFSW and ICSW of the journal International Social Work • Activities of Committees and Task Forces • Funding of small cross-national projects in social work education Important recent policy documents include the Definition of Social Work; Global Standards for Social Work Education and Training; and Ethics in Social Work: Statement of Principles (all developed with the International Federation of Social Workers). IASSW was founded in 1928 at the First International Conference of Social Work, held in Paris. It was initially comprised of 51 schools, mostly in Europe, and was known as the International Committee. Revitalized after World War II, the organization expanded its membership to include a wider range of countries and was renamed the International Association of Schools of Social Work. The association has member schools in all parts of the world; 5 regional organizations in Africa; Asia and the Pacific; Europe; Latin America; and North America and the Caribbean are affiliated with the IASSW and represented on the Board of Directors. Membership is open to tertiary level social work schools, individual social work educators, and others specifically interested in social work education. The Association of Social Work Boards (ASWB) is the association of boards that regulate social work. ASWB develops and maintains the social work licensing examination used across the country and in several Canadian provinces, and is a central resource for information on the legal regulation of social work. Through the association, social work boards can share information and work together. ASWB is also available to help individual social workers and social work students with questions they may have about licensing and the social work examinations.

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National Association of Professional Social Workers in India
Aim:
To advance excellence in education, training and practice of professional social work through Education, Research, Training, Networking, Advocacy, Resource Development Objectives  Increase awareness about social work profession at various levels  Promote the highest professional standards and ethics in the practice of professional social work  Advance the knowledge and practice base of social work interventions that enhance quality of life and a standard of living of persons, their family and environment.  Faster communication and foster support among professional social workers.  Promote social change, empowerment and liberation of people to enhance their well-being adhering to a principles of human rights and social justice.  Promote research, action and other forms of continuing education for knowledge up- gradation of members.  Advocate for programs and policies to meet the needs of social work fraternity and its various clientele groups.

INDIA - Social Work Today
1. Social Work Today
Social work in India today has lost direction. This is not new. Many have talked about social work being in crisis for over thirty years now. The starting point for this Manifesto, however, is that the ‘crisis of social work’ can no longer be tolerated. We need to find more effective ways of resisting the dominant trends within social work and map ways forward for a new engaged practice. Many of us entered social work – and many still do – out of a commitment to social justice or, at the very least, to bring about positive change in people’s lives. Yet increasingly the scope for doing so is curtailed. Instead, our work is shaped by managerializm, by the fragmentation of services, by financial restrictions and lack of resources, by increased bureaucracy and work-loads, by the domination of care-management approaches with their associated performance indicators and by the increased use of the private sector. While these trends have long been present in state social work, they now dominate the day-to-day work of front line social workers and

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shape the welfare services that are offered to clients. The effect has been to increase the distance between managers and front line workers on the one hand, and between workers and service users on the other. The main concern of too many social work managers today is the control of budgets rather than the welfare of service users, while worker-client relationships are increasingly characterized by control and supervision rather than care. Unless the fundamental direction of social work changes, then neither a new social work degree nor new bodies such as the Social Care Councils will do anything to improve the current situation. These are no more than ‘technical fixes’ for deep-rooted problems. So attempts by individual local authorities to alleviate the staffing crisis by offering cash incentives – the so-called ‘golden hellos’ – simply move the problem around. In the absence of an organized response to these trends, people understandably react in different individual ways. Some social workers may leave the profession, but for many this is not an option. Some workers have found ways within their workplaces to occupy spaces where they can practice a more rounded social work – in the voluntary sector, for example, or in more specialist projects - but this option is not available to most. Even in the voluntary sector the trends are increasingly mirroring the managerialist pattern of the statutory agencies. And yet, the need for a social work committed to social justice and challenging poverty and discrimination is greater than ever. In our view, this remains a project that is worth defending. More than any other welfare state profession, social work seeks to understand the links between ‘public issues’ and ‘private troubles’ and seeks to address both. It is for this reason that many who hold power and influence in our society would be delighted to see a demoralized and defeated social work, a social work that is incapable of drawing attention to the miseries and difficulties which beset so many in our society. This alone makes social work worth fighting for. The current degraded status of social work as a profession is inextricably related to the status and standing of those we work with. Social work clients are amongst some of the most vulnerable and impoverished in our society, and have benefited least from New Labor’s social welfare reforms. In fact, under New Labor we have witnessed not only greater levels of material inequality, but also an intensified demonisation of asylum seekers, young people and poor families, the very groups that social workers engage with. Too often today social workers are often doing little more than supervising the deterioration of people’s lives. So in opposition to those who would be happy to see a defeated and silenced social work occupation, we are seeking a social work that has prevention at its heart and recognizes the value of collective approaches. At the same time we also recognize that good casework has also suffered as a result of the trends referred to above. We are looking to a social work that can contribute to shaping a different kind of social policy agenda, based on our understanding of the struggles experienced by clients in addressing a range of emotional, social and material problems and the strengths they bring to these struggles.

2.An ethical career
The enduring crisis of social work in India has taught us many things. It has brought us to a state of affairs that nobody in their right mind could possibly view as acceptable. It has taught us that there can be no return to a past of professional arrogance and that progressive change must involve users and all front line workers. As agents of change senior managers have had their day. It has reminded us that budget dominated welfare systems are cruel and destructive of human well-being. The casualties are everywhere in the social work system amongst clients and users and social workers. These years of turmoil have highlighted that social work has to be defined not by its function for the state but by its value base. Above all it has been a stark lesson in the need for collective organization, both to defend a vision of social work based on social justice and also to defend the working conditions that make that possible. As we noted at the start of this Manifesto, in the past many people entered social work because it seemed to offer a way of earning a living that did not involve oppressing or exploiting people, but on 32

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the contrary could contribute, even in a small way, to social change. It was, in other words, an ethical career. That potential for social change has all but been squeezed out of social work by the drives towards marketization and managerialism that have characterized the last decade and a half. Yet overwhelmingly it is still the case that people enter social work not to be care-managers or rationers of services or dispensers of community punishment but rather to make a positive contribution to the lives of poor and oppressed people. If it is the widening gap between promise and reality that breeds much of the current anger and frustration amongst social workers, it is also the awareness that social work could be much more than it is at present that leads many of us to hang on in there. We note that the organization People and Planet includes social work within its ‘Ethical Careers Service’. If that progressive promise is to be realized even in part, then we need to coalesce and organize around a shared vision of what a genuinely anti-oppressive social work might be like. This Manifesto is a small contribution towards the process of developing that vision and that organization.

PROFESSIONAL ASSOCIATIONS OF SOCIAL WORK IN INDIA
Professional training in social work in India was initiated by Dr. Clifford Manshardt, an American protestant missionary. He came to India in 1925 through the American Marathi mission, a Protestant Christian organization. This organization worked in slum communities of Bombay and founded the Nagapada Neighborhood House in 1926, headed by Dr.Clifford Manshardt as its first Director. The agency was similar to Settlement House in its objective and activities. It was located in an area, which had many social problems including poverty, gambling and prostitution. Such problems were the result of the fast changing social structure, which had weakened the family bond and community togetherness. Manshardt mooted the idea of developing a school of social work to meet the need for trained manpower to work in Indian conditions. With financing from the Sir Dorabji Tata Trust, the first school founded in 1936 was known as Sir Dorabji Graduate School of Social Work later renamed as Tata Institute of Social Sciences in 1944. Since then, Social work education in India has spawned seven decades during which it has attracted a large number of youth to pursue a formal degree in Social Work, develop human service values and work for the betterment of society. The journey has not been without its fair share of bumps and jerks, but challenging and exciting, nevertheless. The problems these trained social workers confront are common in Indian subcontinent. In order to ensure excellence in education, training and practice of professional social work, we need very active professional associations. Though India has fairly a long history of social work education as compared to other South Asian countries, professional associations were formed much later in order to play huge proactive roles. Our existing associations are yet to get permanent affiliation or membership in International Federation of Social Workers (IFSW). As professionals we have a responsibility for making professional organizations vibrant. In past, we had several associations such as Labor Welfare Officers‟ Association, Probation Officers‟ Association, Association of Alumni of Schools of Social Work in India, etc. There are few regional level associations as well, such as, Bombay Association of Trained Social Workers (BATSW), Maharashtra Association of Social Work Educators (MATSWE), Karnataka Association of Professional Social Workers (KAPSW), Professional Social Workers Forum, Chennai (PSWFC), etc. The ambit of their activities rarely reaches beyond local level meetings, seminars and they do not have much say or authority at the national level. The professional bodies of social workers that function at the national level are mainly three, namely, ASSWI, ISPSW and NAPSWI. Associations of Schools of Social Work in India (ASSWI) ASSWI was established in 1959 at Baroda. It is a professional organization engaged in the promotion of standards of social work education in the country. It has represented the profession by taking up social issues and concerns related to social work education at the national level since the early sixties. This association is functioning through its elected executive committee. Most of the members of ASSWI are from Schools of Social Work/Departments of Social Work which were established during the second half of the 20th century.

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The Indian Society of Professional Social Work (ISPSW)
The Indian Society of Professional Social Work (ISPSW) is the oldest association of professional social workers in India. It has been geared towards the goal of Empowering Society for Social Development. The Society was formerly known as Indian Society of Psychiatric Social Work. It was established in the year 1970 by Dr. R.K.Upadhyaya and his staff of the Dept of Psychiatric Social Work, Central Institute of Psychiatry, Ranchi. The present name of the Society was considered in the year 1988, because of an increased representation of the trainers, practitioners and researchers of all specialization of Social Work. The association primarily focuses on uniting the professional social workers to debate, discuss and develop conceptual frameworks and feasible indigenous interventions of social work for practice in India. In order to facilitate this purpose, the Society has conducted many annual Conferences seminars and symposia on various social issues, all over India. Many of the life members of this Society are representing various reputed National and International organizations, Universities and other agencies all over the World. The Society regularly identifies and felicitates esteemed personalities from the Social Work and its related fields.

National Association of Professional Social Workers in India (NAPSWI)
NAPSWI is a non profit, non- political, national level organization dedicated to the promotion of standard and status of social work profession in India. The association received legal status as a society under the Society Registration Act XXI of 1860 on 9th September 2005. This national association comprises social work institutions, schools and departments, educators, practitioners as well as students from every state in the country. Senior citizens are also provided membership. NAPSWI intends to fulfill the twin purpose of promoting the social work profession across the country with the aim of improving the quality of services in the social welfare and social development sectors on one hand and to protect interests of social work professionals on the other hand. NAPSWI aims to advance excellence in education, training and practice of professional social work through Education, Research, Training, Networking, Advocacy and Resource Development. Objectives of NAPSWI are as follows:  Increase awareness about social work profession at various levels;  Promote the highest professional standards and ethics in the practice of professional social work;  Advance the knowledge and practice base of social work interventions that enhance quality of life and standard of living of persons, their family and environment;  Faster communication and support among professional social workers; Promote social change, empowerment and liberation of people to enhance their well being adhering to the principles of human rights and social justice; Promote research, action and other forms of continuing education for knowledge up- gradation of members; and Advocate for programs and policies to meet the needs of social work fraternity and its various clientele groups. With the launching of social work program by dint of Open and Distance Learning in India through IGNOU, a new chapter has been opened for professional social workers in the Indian sub-continent since 2004.This initiative of IGNOU has taken social work education to the door steps of the unreached in far flung areas i.e. from Kashmir to Campbell Bay in Andaman and Nicobar Islands and all the states in the North-East. There is flexible admission procedures adopted by IGNOU: any one having the required entry qualification can pursue social work education at Bachelors, Masters and Doctoral level without restrictions on age, place of residence and occupational status. The Annual National Seminar being organized by IGNOU in collaboration with NAPSWI is a meeting place for professional social work educators, practitioners and students from any state and union territory in the country. This annual event is gaining momentum with the support of ASSWI, several universities and international organizations.

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Critical Social Work /Radical Social Work
Critical social work is the application of social work to address social injustices, as opposed to focusing on individual people's problems. Critical theories explain social problems as arising from various forms of oppression. This theory is like all social 1 Introducción work theories, in that it is made up of a polyglot of theories 2 History from across the the humanities and sciences, borrowing 3 Focus of critical social work from many different schools of thought. 4 Sub-theories of critical social work 5 Dialectic explanations of free will Introduction 6 Practice models Social workers have an ethical commitment to working to overcome inequality and oppression. For radical social workers this implies working towards the transformation of capitalist society towards building social arrangements which are more compatible with these commitments. Mullaly & Keating (1991) suggest three schools of radical thought corresponding to three versions of socialist analysis; social democracy, Revolutionary Marxism and evolutionary Marxism. However they work in institutional contexts which paradoxically implicates them in maintaining capitalist functions. Social work theories have three possible aims, as identified by Rojek et al (1983). These are: The progressive position. Social work is seen as a catalyst for social change. Social workers work with the oppressed and marginalised and so are in a good position to harness class resistance to capitalism and transform society into a more social democracy or socialist state. ( Bailey & Brake, 1975[2], Galper, 1975, Simpkin, 1979, Ginsberg, 1979) The reproductive position. Social work seen as an indispensable tool of the capitalist social order. It’s function is to produce and maintain the capitalist state machine and to ensure working class subordination. Social workers are the ‘soft cops’ of the capitalist state machine. (Althusser, 1971, Poulantzas, 1975, Muller & Neususs, 1978) The contradictory position. Social work can undermine capitalism and class society. While it acts as an instrument of class control it can simultaneously create the conditions for the overthrow of capitalist social relations. (Corrigan & Leonard, Phillipson, 1979, Bolger, 1981)

History
Critical social work is heavily influenced by Marxism, the Frankfurt School of Critical Theory and by the earlier approach of Radical social work, which was focused on class oppression. Critical social work evolved from this to oppose all forms of oppression. Several writers helped codify radical social work, such as Jeffry Galper (1975) and Harold Throssell (1975). They were building on the views expounded by earlier social workers such as Octavia Hill, Jane Addams & Bertha Reynolds, who had at various points over the previous 200 years sought to make social work & charity more focused on structural forces.

Focus of critical social work
Major themes that critical social work seeks to address are: Poverty, unemployment and social exclusion Racism and other forms of discrimination Inadequacies in housing, health care and education Crime and social unrest (although it should be noted that the critical approach would be more focused on the structural causes than the behaviour itself) Abuse and exploitation

Sub-theories of critical social work
As critical social work grew out of radical social work, it split into various different theories. They are listed below, with a selection of writers who have influenced the theory.

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Structural social work theory ( Ann Davis, Maurice Moreau, Robert Mullaly) Anti-discriminatory and anti-oppressive social work theory (Neil Thompson, Dalrymple & Burke) Post- colonial social work theory (Linda Briskman) New structural social work theory (Robert Mullaly) Critical social work theory (Jan Fook, Karen Healy)

Dialectic explanations of free will
While critical social work has a strong commitment to structural change, it does not discount the role of free will. Critical analysis in social work looks at competing forces such as the capitalist economic system, the welfare state or human free will as all affecting individual choices. Therefore, according to critical theory the aim of social work is to emancipate people from oppression and allow individual liberty to prevail. “A dialectical approach to social work avoids the simplistic linear cause-effect notion of historical materialism and the naïve romanticism associated with the notion of totally free human will." (Mullaly and Keating, 1991). "Dialectical analysis helps to illuminate the complex interplay between people and the world around them and to indicate the role of social work within society” (Mullaly, 2007:241)

Practice models
Some of the practice theories that critical social work utilises include: Working collectively Building cooperation and consciousness Helping people to understand the social consequences of the market system Helping people deal collectively with social problems rather than individualising them Making alliances with working class organisations and recognise social workers as ‘workers’ themselves

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