THE

SKIIIT

DANCE.

MAGIC
STAGE ILLUSIONS AND SCIENTIFIC DIVERSIONS
INCLUDING TRICK PHOTOGRAPHY

COMPILED AND EDITED BY

ALBERT

A.

HOPKINS

EDITOR OF THE "SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN CYCLOPEDIA OF RECEIPTS, NOTES AND QUERIES," ETC.

WITH AN INTRODUCTION BY

HENKY RIDGELY EVANS
AUTHOR OF
"

HOURS WITH THE GHOSTS

;

OR, XIX.

CENTURY WITCHCRAFT,"

ETC.

WITH FOUR HUNDRED ILLUSTRATIONS

LONDON

SAMPSON LOW, MARSTON AND COMPANY
LIMITED

Fetter Lane, Fleet Street, E.G.
1897

COPYKIGHT,

1897,

BY

MUNN

& CO.

NEW TORE
ENTERED AT STATIONERS' HALL, LONDON, ENGLAND

All lights reserved

The

articles

used from the Scientific

American and

the Scientific are copyrighted

American Supplement

Prinlod in
J.

tlic

U.

S.

A. by

J.

I-ittlc

&

Co.,

New

York City

/r-^-

^77„ /My

PREFACE
It is believed

that the present Avork occupies a unique field in the exten-

sive literature of magic.

natural magic and legerdemain, but in most of

been given to the expose of

There are already a large number of treatises on them very little attention has stage illusions, which are of great interest as they
Optics,

are so largely based on ingenious applications of scientific j^rinciples.

mechanics, sound, and electricity have
de Steele prestidigitateur.
to elaborate tricks of this nature,

been pressed into service by the fiti In the present work great attention has been paid
all

and

in

many

cases the exposes have been
first

obtained from the prestidigitateurs themselves.
of the best illusions of Robert-Houdin, Dr.

In the

few chapters

many

Lynn, Professor Pepper, Bautier de Kolta, Heller, Herrmann, Maskelyne and Cooke, and Kellar will be found
clearly explained.

Conjuring tricks have been by no means neglected, but the number of them which are given has been limited, owing to the fact that many of tlie books on magic have gone into this subject quite extensively. Ventriloquism, shadowgraphy, mental magic, etc., will also be found treated in the present
work.

The chapters
of automata

relating to ''Ancient

Magic"

take

up the temple

tricks of

the ancient Egyptian, Greek, and

Roman

thaumaturgists, as well as a

number

which are very interesting in view of their very early epoch. It is believed this will be found a particularly entertaining feature of the book. There is always a great charm about the stage, and the methods of producing the effects which give realism to the drama. The chapters devoted to " Theatrical Science " will be found to contain a very large number of effects and illusions, many. of wdiich are here presented for the first time. Thus an entire opera, "Siegfried," is taken up, and the methods by which the wonderful effects are obtained are fully illustrated and described. Such amusements as cycloramas, the nautical arena, and fireworks with dramatic accessories are

not neglected.
describe

The chapters on " Automata " and " Curious Toys "
esting tricks

many

inter-

and mechanisms of an amusing nature. The last few chapters of the book deal with " Photographic Diversions," and here will be found some of the most curious and interesting tricks aiul deceptions which may be performed by the aid of photography. The practical side of scientific photography will also be found represented. The chapter

1CS9560

Evans has also contribnted two Shadowgraph y. on " Chronophotography " describes the photography of moving objects of all The kinds." remarkably complete history of magic art from the date." or "Treweyism. as well as to the student of modern magic. Si'pl ember. who is Though compiler of the excellent Bibliography which concludes the book. especial attention being given to contains a brief but earliest times to the present amusing incidents in the careers of celebrated necromancers. which he has gathered at home and abroad during a long period. I>urlingame. the well-known j^restidigitateur. the classic exponent of the art The chaj)ter on " Shadow"Mental Magic. J. Mr." or second-sight exjjerimeuts. William E. the other on in honor of M. but on account of the sketch of the M. ^'KW YfdiK. Evans is also the silhouette-making.vi PREFACE. We are also indebted to Mr. life and adventures of Mr. being written by Mr. Other acknowledgmeiits are due to Mr. this Bibliography makes no pretense to absolute completeness. chapters —one is on "^ . Nineteenth Century Witchcraft. Especial acknowledgments are due to our French and German contemporaries. number screen is a upon a projection of moving pictures of different The introduction is Henry Eidgely Evans. for permission to use extracts from his writings and for assistance in the Bibliography. it is believed to be more extensive than any other bibliography of the subject. thoroughly treated. a unique feature of the work. de Rochas in " La Ndtiirr. Felician Trewey. . of Chicago. particularly " La Nature. D. t*' . entertaining parts of the present book. author of "Hours with the It Ghosts or. 1897. C. Tliis Introduction will be found one of the most Mr. of AVashington. and it will be found of great value to the student of psychology.'''' These articles were afterwards amplified by him and published in a most interesting book entitled " Zes Oritjiues de la Science. Eobinson having a very remarka])le collection of books upon magic. The matter for the present work is very largely compiled from articles which have appeared in the "Scientific American" and the "Scientific American Supplement. forms of the apparatus being described." as it has been called.'''' It is hoped that the present work will prove entertaining to those who are fond of the art viiifjifjve. Eobinsou. and shows how the results obtained are of valne to the savant.'''' The section on "Ancient Magic " is taken almost wholly from the articles of Colonel A." with the addition of much material hitherto unpublished. Trewey. H. grapliy " not only interesting because of the expose of the art of theatrical a jiersonal friend of the writer. for many suggestions and favors and for important help in connection with tlie Bibliography.

— — — 55 Miscellaneous Stage Tricks. . — — — — — — — — — — — ..... .— TABLE OF CONTENTS. CONJURERS' TRICKS AND STAGE ILLUSIONS.. •' Trilby "—The "Haunted Swing" — Tlie of Balsarao " Mask " Scurimobile " — TheXeooccultism— "The — The Invisible Woman — Magic Harps. Ancient Magic — Division qf Magic — Cagliostro — Robertson — Comte de Grisi—RobertHoudiu — Carl Herrmann — Signor Blitz — Robert Heller— Alexander Herrmann Bautier de Kolta— Harry Kellar. THE 3IYSTERIES OF MODERN MAGIC. . INTRODUCTION.. ... CHAPTER I. Optical Tricks.. PAGE .. Lynn " " Black Art " -The Talking Head The Living HalfWoman "She" "The Queen of Flowers" The" Decapitated Princess" " Stella " Houdin's Magic Cabinet A Mystic Maze Platinized Glass Statue giving a Double Image. " Vanity Fair " — " After the Flood "— " The Magic Palanquin "— " Cassadaga Propa— "The Appearing Lady"— "The Disappearing Lady"— "The Mys— " The Indian Basket Trick " — " Decapitation "— " Spiritualistic terious Trunk " ganda" Ties. The "Cabaret du Neant " The Three Headed Woman •' Amphitrite " "The Mystery of Dr. .. 1 BOOK I.. Mystekioijs Disappearances." 37 CHAPTER H. CHAPTER in.. 89 ^ ..

Sliadowgrai)hy — French Shadows.-lier. Fire Eaters and Sword Tricks. Hol. Ventriloquism and Animated PurrETs..irt Il. Target Human 149 VII. SlIADOWGRAPIIY. . Fire Eaters. Tricks with Fire Sword Swallowers — A Stab through the Abdomen— The — Swcjrd Walker— Dancers on Glass. 164 CHAPTER VIII. . Jugglers and Acrobatic Performances. Trick witli an Egg and a Handkerchief The Cone of Flowers The Magic Rosebush " Magic Flowers" The " Birth of Flowers" Tricks with a Hat— A Cake Baked in a of Coins— Magic Coins — The — The Spirit Slates— Second Sight —Magic Cabinets— The Traveling Bottle and Glass — Disappearance of an Apple and a Ninepin — A Goblet of Ink Converted into an Aquarium — The Invisible Journey of a Glass of Wine — The Wine Changed to Water— The Animated Mouse — The Sand Frame Trick Hat — The Egg and Hat Trick — Multiplication — — — — PAGE Dissolving Coin Houdin's Magic Ball.— viii CONTENTS. CHAPTER . 173 IX. .. CHAPTER IV.. Jugglers — The Leamy Revolving Trapeze — Walking on the Ball. CHAPTER . Conjuring Tricks. Mental Magic.Sfcond Sight— 'I'lic Hsildwiiis juid Second Sight— Silent Thought Trans184 ference.. 105 CHAPTER V. Ceiling Head Down — The 139 Mysterious CHAPTER VI. .

. . .— CONTENTS. vs. Lamps — An Ancient Automaton — A Greek Toy Horse —Odometers.d. . . — The Ordinary Stage —The English Stage— The — The Cellars— The Flies — The Gridiron — Traps— Sliders— Bridges The Metropolitan Opera House Stage — Wing Posts — Curtain Calls — The Electric Lighting— Paint Bridge — The Property Man — Striking a Scene— The DressingRooms— The Production of a New Opera. BOOK III. Miraculous Vessels of the Greeks. IX BOOK II.. CHAPTER Behind the Scenes of an Opera House Stage Floor I. The Origin op the Steam Engine. in Definite Proportions — Apjiaratus for Permitting — The Magical Bottle 221 CHAPTER III. ANCIENT MAGIC.. . Toys. Temple Tricks op the Greeks...... Invention B. The Dicaiometer —Miraculous Vessels —Magical Pitchers the Mixing of Wine and Water Ancient Organs.. . An Egyptian Lustral Water'Vessel. .. —The Decapitated Drinking 239 .C. 234 Greek Lamps. Puppet Sliows among Greeks The Shrine of Bacchus The First Automobile Vehicle The Statue of Cybele Marvelous Altars The Machinery of the Temples Sounding of Trumpets when a Door was Opened Opening and Closing Doors when a Fire was Lighted on the Altar Invention in 1889 a. tlie — — — — — PACE — — — — 203 CHAPTER II. SCIENCE IN THE THEATER.. The Eolipile of Heron —Heron's Marvelous Altar— Heron's Tubular Boiler.. 251 . CHAPTER IV. CHAPTER I. Perpetual etc.

.311 " . An Electric — An Elevator Theater Stage— Some Remarkable American Stage Inventions — A Revolving Stage — The " Asphaleia" Stage — A Theater with Two Auditoriums — Curio's Pivoted Theater— The OlymCurtain —The PAGE Fan-Drop Curtain pian Theater of Palladio at Vicenza. CHAPTER The Nautical Arena V. Cycloramas. Ancient and Modern. CHAPTER II. . Traps — The Swan in "Lohengrin —The Floating Rhine Daughters in " Rheingold " — The " Sun Robe "— The Ship on the Stage— Miscellaneous Stage Effects— The Destruction of the Temple of Dagon— The Horse Race on the Stage — The Effects in " Siegfried " — Siegfried's Forge — Siegfried's Anvil — The Dragon Fafner Wotan's Spear — The Bed of Tulips and the Electric Firefly — The Electric Torch and Electric Jewels — An Electrical Duel — The Skirt Dance. 348 CHAPTER Vn. 345 CHAPTER VL A Tkii' to the Moon. Some Remakkable Stages. The Electric Cycloraiiia— The Painted Cyclorama. 293 CHAPTER IV. 268 CHAPTER III. . c .— X CONTENTS. Scene Painting Effects — Sunrise Effect — Sun Effect — Change from Day to Night— Stars—Moon —Rainbow Effect — Wind Effect—Thunder Effect— Lightning— Snow Effect — Wave Effect — Crash Effect — Rain Effect — Gradual Transformation — Fire and Smoke Effect — Battle Scenes — Theatrical Firearms — The Imitation of Odors. 354 CHAPTER FiUEW(»HKs with Dramatic Accessories VIIL 363 . . . . Stage Effects. . Theatek Secrets.

Lavater's Apparatus for Taking Silhouettes Spirit Photography upon a Black Ground Photography Artificial Mirage Duplex Photography Illusive Photography Photographing a Catastrophe New Type of Photographic Portrait Photographing a Human Head upon a Table Photographing a Head on a Platter A Multiple Portrait Multiphotography Pinhole Camera A Photographic Necktie Magic Photographs— Electro-Photo Detective Thief Catcher Composite Photography. CHAPTER I. CuRiors Toys.CURIOUS CHAPTER I. — — — — — — — — — 406 BOOK V. Interesting Tricks in Elasticity Novel Puzzle Simple Match Trick Crystallized Ornaments Magical A]iparition on White Paper Magic Portraits A Trick Opera Glass— A Toy Bird that Flies The Planchette Table Japanese Magic Mirrors Magic Mirrors. Automata. xi BOOK IV. An Optical The Money Maker Experiments in Centrifugal Force and Magic Rose Electrical Toys The Electric Race Course Magnetic Oracle The Dancers An Ancient Counterpart of a Modern Toy Unbalanced Toy Acrobats Columbus's Egg—-Jacob's Ladder The Mikado A Toy Cart— The Phonographic Doll. Illusion Gravity — The — — — — — — — — — — — 380 CHAPTER III. — Cliess Player — A Curious Automaton—The PAGE 367 CHAPTER II.— CONTENTS. — — — — — — — — — — — — — 423 . Automaton Chess Players Tbe Automaton Toy Artist— A Steam Man. Trick Photography. AUTO21ATA AND. TOYS. Miscellaneous Tricks of an Amusing Nature. PHOTOORAPIIIC DIVERSIONS.

Jenkins. APPENDIX.. The Edison Kinetograph Reynaud's Optical Theater— Electric Tachyscope Apparatus for Projecting Moving Pictures by the Denien}-. The Magic Table—" Gone "—The beika Persane" — "Metempsychosis. Chronophotograpliy — The Registration and Ailalysis of the Movements of Men.. — Amateur Chronophotographic Apparatus. . and Other Forms of Apparatus — The Kinetoscope Stereopticon The Mutoscope and the Mutograph. .539 553 . . The Micromotoscope. Fishes. etc. Animals. ADDITIONAL TRICKS. . . PAGE Birds. Lumiere. ." Siiider and the Fly— The Trunk Trick—" La Stro- 519 BIBLIOGRAPHY OF WORKS ON NATURAL MAGIC. INDEX. CHAPTER II. Insects.xii CONTENTS. 462 The Projection of Moving Pictures. CHAPTER III. Chronophotography.. .. with Illustrations of Moving Objects "Cinematograph" Camera 488 Camera for Ribbon Photography. — — — — — — .

12. before the building of the pyramids. INCLUDING TRICK PHOTOGRAPHY. The rods actually were serpents and hypnotized to stiff such an extent as to become perfectly and rigid. THE MYSTERIES OF MODERN MAGIC. The Hebrew prophet and it " cast down his rod before Pharaoh and before also called the wise also did in like his servants. By Henry Ridgely Evans. Far back into the shadowy past. where rows of black marble sphinxes stare at you with unfathomal)le eyes. once told me that he had seen this feat performed in Cairo many times by the Dervishes. In this manuscript it is stated of the magician: " He knoweth how to bind on a head which hath been cut off. for Egypt was the " cradle of magic. When thrown Tipon the earth and recalled to life by sundry mystic passes and strokes. INTRODUCTION. contended against iVaron." their enchantments. at the court of Pharaoh. 11. Then Pharaoh men and the sorcerers: now the magicians of Egypt. B.MAGIC: STAGE ILLUSIONS AND SCIENTIFIC DIVERSIONS. 3766. where the mise en scene is awe-ins])iring this trick of the rods turning into serpents becomes doubly impressive. magic was a reputed art in Egypt. where the high roof is supported by ponderous stone columns painted with hieroglyphics.'^ The magicians of Egypt. of — Transferred to the gloomy audience chamber some old palace. they crawled away alive and hideous as ever." is an Egyptian papyrus. prestidigitateur. traveler in the Orient. became a serpent.C. For they cast down every and they became serpents: but Aaron's rod swallowed up their [Exodus vii. 10. they man his rod rods.] late manner with The Robert Heller. and he knoweth the number of the stars of the In the British Museum of a magical seance given . he knoweth how to make a lion follow him as if led by a rope. whicli contains an account by a certain Tchatcha-em-ankh before King Khufu. Said Heller: " It was in the open air tliat I saw this strange feat performed. and indeed to the uninitiated a miracle. according to the Bible chronicle. and skeptic.

Black magic. divination. goblins. shows hypnotism to be old. The art of natural magic. Heron. and Grecian priesthoods. second- sight. one of the Fathers of the early Christian Church. Modern magic. Jewish. tiquity. secret thought read by an ingenious system of diagnosis. A control take a particular direction l^y acquired over the will of the spectator. dates Weeping and bleeding statues. and which are worked Expedients derived from the sciences. Eoman. mysterious cabinets. 8pii-itualism or pretended evocation of spirits. Magic is divided." Mental Conjuring. catalepsy. Shriveled women were burned gloomy cells at the stake for the crime of witchcraft. the combined 3. house (constellation) of Thoth. Cellini. result constituting " conjuring tricks. and sometimes com- ])elled to 4. as guileless as a (hild in matters of science. rai)i)ijig . trance. Tbe bauds and tongue being the only means used for the production of these illusions. is divided by Robert-Houdin into 1. wrote several interesting treatises on automata and magical appliances. and perpetual lamps that flamed forever in the tombs of holy men. etc. Hippolytus. table- Inruiitg. temple doors that flew open with thunderous sound and apparently by supernatural means. Chaldean. being used by them to dupe the ignorant masses. were some of the thaumaturgic feats of the Pagan priests. Colonel A. in an interesting work. undoubtedly a hypnotic feat. certain subtle artifices. clairvoyance. Mediumhiiip. Imitation of mesmeric phenomena. magicians of the period were able to produce very fair ghost illusions to gull a susceptible public. five classes.ind writing. or conjuring. back to the remotest periods of anIt was an art cultivated by the Egyptian. and old gnomes in the literature of that period. as follows: Feats of Dexteeity." The decapitation trick is thus no new thing. De Eochas. also described and exposed in his works many of these wonders. monks in furnaces. who lived in the second century before Christ. their wrestled with Satan and the ])ovvers of darkness. St. then. Les Origmes de la Science. a Greek mechanician and mathematician. and Necromancy. seeking in elixir of life. Pretended Mesmerism. 5. according to old writers on the occult. and grimy' fires of their idchcmisls toiled djiy and night over the red vain for the talisinsuiic ])hilosopher's stone and wondrous With the aid of the concave inirror. while the experiment performed with the lion. into: White magic. Experiments in Natural Magic. In I lie ^liddlo Ages magic was greatly in vogue and we read strange stories of gliosis. in combination with feats of dexterity. desiring to study sor- cery.ii INTRODtJCTlON. 2. used in the ancient temples. has given in detail Heron's accounts of these wonderful automata and experiments in natural magic. IJenvenuto Cellini chronicles one in his fascinating auiobiogra])hy. applied to a Sicilian priest who was a professed dabbler in the occult .

and a smattering of chemistry. II. and then started out to fleece mankind. predicted lucky numl)ers in the lottery. pronounced some spells in a peculiar gibberish known only to himself. intoxicating perfumes cast on it. as Cagliostro like Nostradamus. " Count Cagliostro. his fame. Joseph drew a magic circle of phosphorus on the earth. Joseph Balsamo for such was the Count's real name was born of poor parents at Palermo. but it is easily explainable. filled all the arch-necromancer of the eighteenth century. and accompanied by the amateur sorcerer first was Balsamo's on a certain dark night to the lonely spot Avhere the treasure lay hid from mortal gaze. art. raised the shades of the illustrious dead. The history 6i magic would be incomplete withont a sketch of Cagliostro. and bade the goldsmith dig away for dear life. then he robl)od a goldsmith a named ]\rarano of sum of money. after that a will. told fortunes. whereupon a legion of . Poor Marano like a susceptible gudgeon swallowed the bait. as witness Goethe's " Grand Cophta " and Alexander Dumas' " Memoirs of a Physician. hook and all. who manipulated a concave mirror. Balsamo pretended that a secret treasure lay buried in a cer- tain rocky tion. and tlurt he. at Eome. to the great terror of Cellini. He received the rudiments of an education. transmuted metals. story of this spirit seance reads like an A-rabian tale. pronounced sundry cabalistic words. and legions The of demons were seen dancing in the air. smoke.— INTRODUCTION. chasm just outside the city of Palermo. ilk. This illusion was accomplished by the aid of mirrors adroitly secreted amid hanging draperies. the monk described a circle on the ground and placed himself and the great gold- its mystic outlines." which makes fascinating reading. and soon an impenetrable smoke arose. and founded occult lodges of Egyptian Masonry for the regeneration of mankind. and others of that the Scotch say. The man of the cowl then waved his wand in the air." Thomas an immortal Carlyle has remorselessly dissected the character of Cagliostro in essay. He manufactured much elixirs of life. He began by forging — theater tickets. ]\rarano went vigorously to work with visit attempt in the necromantic line) paid a pick and spade. Suddenly terrific yells were heard. paid (it the contingent fee. in the year 1743. at a neighboring monastery. Sicily. who Europe with Novels and plays have been founded on his strange career. a fire was built. was a pretender to magic and sorcery. which he denominated iVrabic. The priest had a brother confederate concealed among the ruins. for a considerawas able to unearth the gold by means of certain magical incantations. 3 One dark night they repaired to the ruins of the Coliseum. by means of which painted images were thrown on the smith within Later on ISTostradamns conjured uj) the vision of the future King of France for the benefit of the lovely Marie de Medicis. pretty spirit after the fashion of our modern mediums.

who proved of great assistance to him in They travelled over Europe in a coach-and-four with a his impostures. be found tlie ground pre])ared for bis magical operations. . In company with a Greek. Claude. declared that she was sixty and that she had a son a veteran in the Dutch service. he visited various places Greece. of France. At Rome he married a beautiful girl. no cured tlu' ])oor lettcsr of credit. though only twenty years of age. and scattered money right and left. Grand Master of the — Knights of Malta and St. to the high-sounding title of the Comte de Cagliostro. his scorn for . daughter of a girdle maker. and proj)hets so Serioiis Never numerous and so respected. Imbert Saint-Amand. Persia. in order to escape the vengeance of the furious Marano. which promised to its votaries the length of life of the Noachites. indulgcMl to every form of extravagance. magistrates. the interesting author of "Marie Antoinette and tlie End of the Old L'egime. declared tbein- selvcs eye-witnesses of alleged . he made them large presents of money. Cagliostro coined money in the French capital with liis spurious Egyptian Rite of Freemasonry. the rage for the marvelous.4: INTRODUCTION. he studied alchemy at Malta in the laboratory of Pinto. were tlic Rosicrucians. The enchanter. who eye-witness of the crucifixion of Christ. prevailed in the last years of the eigbteenth century." age. " At Strasbourg. was compelled to flee his native city. ^\'liicli bad wantonly dei'ided every sacred thing. and educated men. pounced upon the goldsmith. Balsamo changed his name retinue of servants garbed in gorgeous liveries. He treated and witbout and not satisfied with restoring them to health." says (Scribner Edition): "The mania for the supernatural. and thronged to his magical soirees at his residence in tlie Rue St. . This was in 1785. the adejjts. All Paris went wild over the enchanter. the gold wdiich he squandered so freely? was all a mystery." says one of his biographers. So far as was known. Arabia. and superhuman power over nature and her laws. and nearly beat him to death with their pitchforks. devils (Joseph's boon companions with cork-blackened visages) rushed from behind the rocks. entertained him in Paris. Venice and Rome. Malta. became a firm believer in the pretensions of the charlatan. bis origin? Wb(>re did he get exfraordinary diamonds wbiclv adorned bis dress. Althotas. that he was present at the burning of Rome under Nero and was an Cardinal de Rohan. John. neeessiirily welcomed and bailed bim as ils guide. Lorenza Feliciani. who. Egypt.. and yet he lived in luxury. y)ay. Ehodes. introducing him to that gay world of the Old Regime which went out forever with the French Revolution. Wlien Cagliostro came to France. Cagliostro also pretended to be of a great and solemnly declared that he had hobnobbed with Alexander and Julius Csesar. bis age. Lorenza Eeliciani. in which pretension he was seconded by his wife. Naples. sorcerers. " he reaped an abundant harvest by professing the art of making old people young. Whence did he tliose conie? What was It bis counlr'v.. . iiiii-acles. Cagliostro had no resources. sneli a niiin A society eager for distractions and emotions. His generosity to the poor. courtiers. According to his own account.

. the adepts were transported ^vith delight. . and was thrpwn into the Bastille. of the Hierophant. on legends." The interior of Africa was an excellent place in which to locate all these Since no traveler in that age of skepticism and credulity had ever marvels. berish. Before the globe he used to place a kneel- ing seer. and exhibited every sign of nervous excitement. of a city in the interior of Africa ten times as large as Paris. To awe his dupes with weird and impressive ceremonies. All this bears a close analogy to Blavatsky and her Tibetan Mahatmas. to have delicate nerves." Cagliostro became involved in the affair of the Diamond Necklace. with which he mingled a jargon which he did not translate. in addition. he found a number of people ready to listen and believe him. should behold the scenes which were believed to take place in water within the magic is to say. m The operation had succeeded.Amand: "As a sorcerer he had a cabalistic apparatus. there stood the emblems: little Egyptian figures. What was taking place that hundreds of miles from Paris. as well as things which were going to occur only some weeks. the Munchausen-like the late stories of the magician. adds that for the proper performance of the miracle the seer had to be of angelic purity. he used to recite with solemn emphasis the most absurd fables. 5 lived The Germans. The water became active and turbid. who . he was a strong believer in the spectacular. The seer was convulsed. When he repeated his conversation with the angel of light and the angel of darkness. it was impossible to deny the Memphis. months. she declared that she saw distinctly in the globe. blue eyes. where his correspondents lived. though not the same as the Christian's cross. which was neither French nor Italian. was keenly alive to the effects of mise en scene in his necromantic exhibitions. but called Arabic. he was compelled to . Speaking a strange gibimagined that he was the Wandering Jew. a young woman " Count Beugnot. very like. like all and observant wizards. old vials filled with lustral waters. Though eventually liberated. and. penetrated into the mysterious land of Ham. on which were embroidered in red the mysterious signs of the highest degree of the Eosicrucians. the geniuses were bidden to enter the globe. or years later. in Vienna or Saint Petersburg. when he spoke of the great secret of enormous animals. great sensitiveness. Cagliostro. powerfully to stimulate their imaginations ah. she ground her teeth. and there too Cagliostro placed successful Madame — a glass globe full of clarified water. and a crucifix. aroused universal enthusiasm. of the giants. and illuminated with wax lights in massive silver candlesticks which were arranged about the apartment in mystic triangles and pentagons. At at very moment last she saw and began to speak. by supernatural powers. When she knelt down.INTRODUCTION. America or Pekin. that was the great desideratum! His seance-room was hung with somber draperies. who gives all the details in his Memoirs. Says Saint. ^^'ho. to have been born under a certain constellation. the great. that globe. On a table with a black cloth.

Pinetti. allied to natural magic. J. is uncertain. ment of the Seine. Burlingame. The beautiful Lorenza Feliciani. Comus I. who They gave very amusing and interesting exhibitions. no less curious tban seemingly incredible. Of the great pretenders win any great fame. history reIn the year 1789 the enchanter was in Eome. however. adjudged him guilty of the crime of Freemasonry a particularly heinous offense in Papal Territory and day be razed lates. TJrbino. witchcraft. but the Holy Inquisition pounced down upon him." Here M^e have the first mention of tbe secrtnd-sigbt trick. of her life of impostures. stupendous. Cagliostro. He made to the one remarkable prediction: That the Bastille would one How well that prophecy was realized. and necromancy. an interesting writer on magic: . sincerely repentant. but ascribed their jeux. among which Clicvjilicr Pineiti will bave tbe spccin] lioiioi. nay the day of his death. ground. but supposed have taken place one August morning in the year 1790. Katerfelto. Pliiladelphus Philadelphia. although there has been a feeble attempt to revive thaupiaturgy in this nineteenth century by Madame Blavatsky. ical Very few of these conjurers laid claim to occult powers. 1784.and satisfaction of exhibiting various cxjx'riinents of new discovery. Carlotti. and guessing at everything imagined and proposed to ber by any ])erson in the com])any. meclianical. it is said. The sentence. wbicli bis recent dec]) scrutiny in those sciences. He endeavored to found one of his Egyptian Lodges in the Eternal City. liave enabled liim to invent and construct. Science has laughed away sorcery. Eollin. Houdin i-cdiscovered it. magic died. and purchased the chalcau of h'ontenay-aux-Posos. These magicians soon became popular. particularly tbat of Madame Pinetti being seated in one of the front boxes. practiced the art of sleight-of-hand." ended her days in a convent. Pinetti. and assiduous exertions. and at the present time the conjurer Kellar makes it his pikefJeresisfr/nre. at the inn of the Golden Sun. in the departhis Consort will exhibit when he arrived in London in advertisement: " Tbe (^hevalier Pinetti with II. was imprisonment in the gloomy fortress of commuted by the Pope San Leon. to manual dexterity. — — condemned him to perpetual to death. Towards the middle of the eighteenth century we hear of Jonas. III. Androletti. called by her admirers the " Flower of Vesuvius. The it is manner to of his death. physical. wiili a liandkcrciiior over her eyes. and most and philosopliical ])ieces. so-called genuine to occultism With he was the last to Prior to Cagliostro's time a set of men arose calling themselves faiseurs. ^Kollin had a romaniic cancer. Says II. He accumulated a fortune at coiijiiriiig. or tricks. mechanand scientific effects. and al)so]ut('ly inimitable. displayed the following wonderful.6 INTRODUCTION. passed it on to Pobcrt Heller who improved it. wbicb in the hands of latter-day artists has become so popular. leave Paris.

who was minister of the interior in the provisional government of France of 1848. generally concluded by saying: I have shown you. This is the first paper I cannot conjure away. with thunder accompanying. managed to save his neck from " La Guillotine. began. The curiosity-seekers who attended these seances were conducted by ushers down dark flights of stairs to the vaults of the chapel and seated in a gloomy crypt shrouded -with Ijlack draperies and pictured with the emblems of mortality.' and ' Phylacteria." In a moment a grinning skeleton stood in the center of the hall waving a scythe. lucky fellow. he turned to those about him. and there is but one more truly terril)le specter the fate which is reserved for us all." and returned to his native province with a snug fortune to die of and * ' Teretopasst Figure . whereupon clouds of odoriferous incense filled the apartment.' To conclude with the performance of the and ]\Iagical House ' the like never seen in this kingdom before. Robertson. citizens. Shades of Voltaire. Rousseau. Robertson. phantoms of the great arose at the incantations of the magician. " Eollin incurred the suspicions of the Committee of 7 PuhHc Safety ' in 1793."' Comus Great II.' INTRODUCTION. and Lavoisier appeared in rapid succession.' ' Kharamatic Operations. Robertson extinguished the lamp and threw various essences on a brazier of burning coals in the center of the room. with the solemn sound of a far-off organ. Clever as was Robertson's ghost illusion. Suddenly. All these wonders were perpetrated through the medium of a phantasmagoric lantern.. at the end of the entertainment.' with many wonderful Ehabdology.' also ' Chartomantic Deceptions chanted Horologium. AVhen all was ready a rain and wind storm. '' London in the year 1793. performed by the aid of the phantasmagoric lantern. it had one great defect: the images were painted on glass and lacked the necessary vitality. An antique lamp. gave a curious exliiHis programme announced that the various Comus would ' present ' uncommon experiments with his ' En- Pyxidus Literarum. This was a great improvement on the simple concave mirror which so terrified Cellini. The effect of this entertainment was electrical: all Paris went wild over it.' and many curious oijerations in Stenaganagraphy." In the height of the French Revolution. On the warrant for his execution being read to him. and sutfered death by tlie guillotine.' Eollin was the grandfather of the late political celebrity of that name. emitted a flame of spectral blue. every species of phantom.' ' performances of the grand Dodecahedron. who played in bition of conjuring tricks and automata. arrived in Paris. suspended from the ceiling. which threw images upon smoke. It was reserved for the nineteenth . when the guillotine reeked with blood and the ghastly knitting-women sat round it counting the heads as they fell into the basket. and observed. and opened a wonderful exhibition in an abandoned chapel belonging to the Capuchin convent. Marat. '' — old age in a comfortable feather bed. a Belgian optician. and will astonish every beholder. named Etienne Gaspard Robertson.

Intoxicated with flattery. much difficulty performance for the benefit of the poor of the io say notliing of city. that of Prof. He established himself at Xaples." Dickens' " Haunted Man " and " Christmas Carol. the Chevalier Pinetti arrived in Naples to give a series of magical entertainments. Pepper. A peculiar incident led him to adopt the profession of a magician. De Grisi consented. Profiting by the disorders in the French capital. No sooner. performed them for his friends. having unraveled the secrets of most of Pinetti's illusions. on that fatal up a secret treasure his father had concealed for any emergency. Pinetti." 8 INTRODUCTION. One of the accomplices declared that lie liad loaned the young magician a valuable diamond ring to use in a trick. number of I'inetti's tricks who loaned various objects was laid for cbampagne. In the evening carry a lighted candle to the window and you will see reflected in the pane. His father. In the year 1863. The Comte de Grisi. where he soon his noble birth city. At the Carnival of 1796. manager of the London Polytechnic Institution. century to produce the greatest of spectral exhibitions. on a simple optical effect." In France the conjurers Eobin and Lassaigne presented the illusion with many novel and startling effects. De Grisi begged the monarch to draw a card from a pack. One of the most famous of the eighteenth-century magicians was Torrini. Here and aristocratic manners gave him the entree into the best society of the Like many enthusiastic amateurs he became interested in legerdemain. A diabolif-al trap De Grisi. you gaze through the clear sheet of glass of the coach window and behold your " double The apparatus for producing the Pepper ghost has traveling along with you." and Dumas' " Corsican Brothers. and proceeded to Italy to study medicine. became a physician of note. and but harl bad returned to him a pinchbeck substitute. One evening. been used in dramatizations of Bulwer's " Strange Story. who Avas furious at having a out rival. he in- vented a clever device for projecting the images of living persons in the air. a French nobleman. lost his life at the storming of the Tuileries. Apy)roaching the box where the king and his family were seated. and complimented him on his success as a prestidigitateur. Do man off with an excuse until after the entertainment. illusion is based The a devoted adherent of Loiiis XYL. set Withhe succeeded in ingratiating himself with De Grisi. not only the image The same illusion may of the candle but that of your hand and face as well. however. The were performed by the aid of confederates in of Avhich the magician had duplicates. Grisi put the Here was a dilemma. ever memorable in the annals of French history. the young De Grisi was enHe dug abled to pass the barriers and reach the family chateau in Languedoc. day in August. Pinetti was the idol of the Italian public. he persuaded the young Count to take his place at the theater and give a about revenging himself on the aiidacious amateur. whose real name was the Comte de Grisi. numerous glasses of greater the audience. had . and performed for the amuse- ment of his friends. be seen while traveling in a lighted railway carriage at night.

had no such fears. and searched in vain for the author of the Do Grisi was so utterly infamous act of treachery. enter every town before to Pinetti's repertoire — — him. 9 the king glanced at the card he had selected. piece similar to this in " Is there another time- examining the watch.'' De Grisi sold everything he possessed. When Pope the evening of the performance arrived the magician appeared before the and a and executed his astonishing experiments in conjuring.INTROD UCTION. so I vowed to fight him with his own weapons. " But one. This was the plan I drew up: I determined to devote myself ardently to sleight-of-hand. since he laid claims to genunecromancy to encompass his tricks." said the jeweler. but Pinetti had fled. and humiliate the shameful traitor in my turn. Then with splendid apparatus and elaborate printing. however. worth ten thousand francs. than he threw it angrily on the De Grisi. he espied a magnificent watch lying on the counter undergoing " Whose chronometer? " inquired the wizard nonchalantly. Rome?" De noble who spends his time in the gambling hells wasting his ancestral estates. and toiled for six months lie at sleight-of-hand. when quite confident in myself when I had added many new tricks I would pursue my enemy. and a possible auto da f^. as his entertainment was professedly a sleight-of-hand performance and did not come under the denomination of The Frenchman set his wits to work to concoct v^'itchcraft and necromancy. up the card and found written on it a coarse insult. After many promises to handle it carefully. to study thoroughly an art of which I as yet knew only the first principles. er's shop. he apprehended a trial for sorcery. picked stage. On fever. Happening one day to drop into a jewela trick worthy to set before a Pope. the result of overwrought geance on Pinetti. De Grisi. and continually crush him by my superiority. in Yolhynia. Remembering the fate of the Comte de Cagliostro. 's watch." replied the jeweler. picked up his sword. that he this ruined. took refuge in the country. He commissioned the jeweler to purchase the Avatch at any cost and engrave the Cardinal's coat-of-arms inside of the case. The conjurer rushed off the stage. horror-struck. He succeeded in accomplishing his ends: Pinetti had to retire vanquished. socially and financially. by his recovery he vowed venemotions. Then. The expensive recreation cost De Grisi a thousand francs. Grisi determined to proceed to De Eome as a finish to his Italian performances. Pinetti died in a state of abject misery at the village of Bastichoff. a most unique vengeance. " and that owned by an improvident young continued Grisi. the Cardinal de Pinetti by the renowned Bregnet of Paris. and made Eminence. As a culminating feat he borrowed the Cardinal's chronometer. came near dying of brain fiasco." That was enough for the juggler. took the field against his hated enemy. Russia. with marks of intense dissatisfaction. ine had never dared to enter the Eternal City. Says De Grisi: " To have challenged him would be doing him too much honor. he dropped it on the floor of the audience chamber as if brilliant assemblage of red-robed C^ardinals . " His repairs. which had been returned by the jeweler.

tricks. A real leaden bullet got among the sham bullets and was loaded The wretched father did not long survive this tragic affair." exclaimed the king to the conjuror. But the Frenchman smiled at the consternation of the spectators. your majesty. The Pontiff presented him the day after the seance with a magnificent diamond-studded snuff-box as a mark of esteem." said Comte. France. He died in the city of Lyons. them in a big A detonation took place and red flames leaped up from the mor- most approved order of diabolism. but "Pardon me. De Grisi's son was accidentally shot by a spectator in the gun trick. and all were horror-struck at the unfortunate fiasco. and rammed into a pistol. Comte was the most distinguished of these audacity. Yeare after this event. Monsieur Magician. all crowded around to watch the Watching his opportunity. that you have made a slight mistake. the flowers. picked up the fragments of the watch. told of him: '' He was slot'd ii|)(in a talile in tlie center of the stage. by chance. his " blind man's game of piquet being a trick unparalleled in the annals of conjuring. there all is your likeness! —and are you acknowledged king of people?" not tli(! our hearts. Bosco. came a host of mentioned Dobler." 10 INTRODUCTION. pointing to a vase of flowers which a past master in the art of flattery. Loftk. Tlie card was torn up. story is being noted for his wit and The following good During a performance at the Tuileries given before Louis XVIII. Philippe. The monarch selected the king of hearts. "but I have ful(ilh'd my |)romiso to the letter. ventriloquist and expert in flower artists. The Cardinal turned pale with rage. voice. in the early part of this century. in a slightly sarcastic tone of "I think. Behold. the first European performer to present the " bowls of gold fish " and the " Chinese rings " . Smash went the priceless timepiece. "I shall fire tliis pistol at the vase and the king of hearts will appear just above. expert in cup and ball conjuring. the wizard surreptiously slipped the dupliThe mystification was cate chronometer into a pocket of the Pope's cassock. resulting in the discovery of the watch. and then proceeded to pulverize brass mortar. complete when De Grisi pretended to pass the ingot of melted gold from the mortar into the pocket of His Holiness." interrupted Ihe conjurer. into the weapon. the well-beloved of the French . tar in the result. among whom may be trick was the lighting of one hundred candles hy a pistol shot. This seeming marvel made the lifelong reputation of the French artist. "Ah. by accident and set liis heel upon it. and Conite. De Grisi was a superb performer with cards. whose principal After Grisi De clever magicians. or by adroit forcing on tlie part of the magician. " You promised to make Ihe king of hearts appear." The weapon Avas lii-ed. had them fully identified in order to preclude any idea of substitution. Comte asked the king to draw a card from a pack. yonr majesty. whereupon a small bust of Louis XVIII appeared instantaneously out of the center of the Ijoucpiet. which was produced intact.

Comte was in the zenith of his fame when a new performer entered the One day the following modest handbill arena of magic Robert-Houdin. About the time of which I write he invented his "mysterious clock" piece of apparatus that kept admirable time. liis 11 royal head benignly. Frenchman. The proprietor was destined to be the greatest and most original fantaisiste of his time. During his spare moments Houdin constructed the ingenious automata that subsequently figured in his famous Soirees Fantastiqiies. The king bowed little scene. " ]\I. over the door of which was displayed the unpretentious sign. perhaps of all times. MAGIE IV. 3 Juillet 1845. the founder of a new and unique school of conjuring. who was an ardent lover of the art amusante.a INTRODUCTION. or science wedded — — ." It was the shop of a watchmaker and constructor of mechanical toys. author. In the year 1843 there was situated in the Rue du Temple. Robert-Houdin. in his long blouse bewould become the premier prestidigitateur little of France. a little shop. improver of the electrical clock. and ambassador to the Arabs of Algeria. Pendules de Precision. the Count de I'Escalopier. — appeared on the Parisian bulletin-boards: Aujourd'hui Jeudi. The journals next morning reported this and Comte became the lion of the hour. PREMIERE REPRESENTATION DES SOIREES FANTASTIQUES DE ROBERT-HOUDIN. The Count. Paris. while the assembled courtiers made the salon ring with their applause. PRESTIDIGITATION. the inventor of the electrical bell. and the inventor of some marvelous illusions. AUTOMATES. When Re went abroad on business or for pleasure he wore the large paletot of the period and practiced juggling with cards and coins in the capacious pockets. though apparently without works and he sold one of them to a wealthy nobleman. No one who stopped at the unpretentious place could have prophesied that the keen-eyed smeared with oil and iron filings.

One day the watchmaker. A strong friendship grew up between the watchmaker and the scion of the Old Regime. urged Houdin to start out immediately as a conjurer. after a dinner given in honor of Monseigneur Afl:re. The first envelope being removed a second was found. I have come to ask one of you. for the purpose of trying his skill in sleight-of-hand before a congenial and art-loving company. Again and again De rEsealoi)ier urged him to take it. than. one inside another. and in order to give the conjurer opporto recreation. sir. the last containing the scrap of paper restored intact. so that he might acquire the confidence which he lacked. my dear Hondin. But after a few days he returned. saying. then another. It was not long before Houdin confided the secret of his hopes to the Count his burning desire to become a great magician. Accept them. who was killed at the barricades during the Revolution of 1848. had been opened. at "Ah. and begin your career.' Houdin preserved lost it this slip of paper as a religious relic for many years. and sat workroom watching Houdin at work." In the language of Houdin. I handed it to the Archbishop's Grand Vicar. handing to the prelate himself a small slip of paper. I requested him to open it. handing the envelope to the iVrchbishop. after considerable hesitation. refused the generous offer. that you will achieve brilliant success in your future career. after the incident at the The Count de memorable dinner. and (apparently) burnt. made frequent visits to the shop in the Rue du Temple. Archbishop of Paris. secretly. It was passed from hand to hand. it is easily remedied. or whatever he him to write thereon. but without success. finally the nobleman. Listen! apjiriinent has ])een ro])bcd For the last year an escritoire in my sleepingfrom time to iime of large sums of money. "if that's all. I requested tence. not- ." 12 INTRODUCTION." replied the nobleman. loft llic shop in a state of ])i(|ue. the paper was then folded in But scarcely was it consumed and the ashes four. Next. loath money in a theatrical specidation. On one occasion. the effect was as follows: "After having requested the spectators carefully to examine a large envelope sealed on all sides. sealed in like manner. annoyed at the mechanician's obstinacy. The nobleman approved the idea. begging him to keep it in his own possession. wiiliont some guarantee of its being repaid. until a dozen envelopes." to incur the responsibility of risking a friend's But Houdin. I have home ten thousand francs or so which I really don't know what to do with. but during his travels in Algeria. a sen- might choose to think of. and each read as follows: " ' Though I do not claim to be a prophet I venture to predict. confessed his inability to do so on account of povc]-ty. for hours on a stool in the dingy — tunities for practice. Houdin performed his clever trick of the " burnt Avriting restored. constantly invited him to pass the evening at the De I'Escalopier mansion. I'Escalopier. scattered to the winds. as he (sntered: " Since you are determined not to acept a favor from me.

and impelled by a spring. I have dismissed my is servants. me?" "I am willing to serve you. 13 withstanding the fact that I have adopted all manner of precautions and safeguards. than this claw- mechanism. such as changing the locks. and at the same time the report of a pistol is heard.INTRODUCTION." he remarked. and these tlie points are shoved through a pad soaked with nitrate of silver. and aided by his two workmen. who remained with him the whole of the night." " " steel claw which " How is that accomplished ? " said De rEscalo})ier. "but how?" Can you help "What!" replied De I'Escalopier. When everything was arranged. the mechanician began his explanation of the working of the secret detective apparatus. The noise is to alarm the household. Houdin. could not think of such a thing." said Houdin. M. alas! have not discovered the culprit. and ask how? Come. it is like this. over There a dark cloud of suspicion and evil hanging my house that nothing will lift till the thief is caught. come. " Simplest thing in the world. thereby making scars in- delible for life. The glove is to protect me from the operation of the tattooes the word Robber on tlie l)ack of the criminal's hand. and said quietly: "I'll see what I can do for you. " All in good time. one after another." Setting to work feverishly. horror-stricken at right to anticipate Justice in this way." said the Count. attached to a light rod. having secret fastenings placed on the doors. " I liave no To brand a fellow-being in sucli a I fashion would forever close the doors of society against him." " But. This very morning I have been robbed of a couple of thousand-franc notes. but no sooner does he raise the like piece of lid. " The thief un- locks the desk. but. he had it ready To the nobleman's house Houdin went. The Count under various pretexts had sent all his servants away. the Count frequently expressed his w^onderment at the heavy padded glove which the conjurer wore on his right hand. he invented the apparatus. etc. While Houdin was placing his apparatus in position. A peur dc li/s staiii])('(l by an executioner with a tlie idea. "you a mechanician. comes sharply down on the back of the hand which holds the key. " of very short but sharp points. my friend. my dear Count. red-liot iron could not be more effective." replied Houdin. " You see. Besides. ever so little. " and But the glove you wear! " interrupted the nobleman." . a portion of forced by the blow into tlie punctures." said Houdin. suppose some member of my family through carelessness or forgetfulness were to fall a victim to this dreadful apparatus. so fixed as to The claw tlie consists of a number which is form word. can you not devise some mechanical means for apprehending a thief? " Houdin thought a minute. at eight o'clock the next morning. so that no one should be a\\'are of the mechanician's visit.

" no result. lioudin had arranged a kind of cat's claw to scratch the back of the thief's hand.14 " a INTRODUCTION You are right. and saw the imprint of llic claw thereon. ." to Houdin. wliich 1 invested in Government stock. My valet was holding liis right hand behind liiiii. " who is he? " " But first let me relate what happened. In place of the branding apparatus." One morning De I'Escalopier rushed into the watchmaker's shop. "'Fifteen scrip is in tlioiisand francs." said the Count. what was that noise? "In the coolest manner he replied: ^I came into the room just as you did. ' For nearly two he said. at the explosion of the pistol. me a few hours. tlie wretch fell on liis knees and begged my forgiveof the sleeping-room ' ' ' ' an ancient battle-ax from the robber. but finding nothing at hand. but. but I was so bewildered that I was unable to apprehend him. Hu. Each day the nobleman reported. and the two men parted company. around for a weapon. can Bernard be the thief? T returned to the library. hut dragged it forward. and the machine was adjusted to the desk. " " " * How long have you been robbing nie? years. finding the door locked on the inside. A great light broke upon me. Great God! I cried. ' ' And how much have you taken? 1 in(|uii-('d. and ran to seize and saw.' " I rushed down the back stairs. iind in tlie made Bernard sign the fcjliouing confession: presence of another witness. I pushed open the door ' ' ' \ ness. and ejaculated: "I have caught the robber at " Indeed. and was on the point of giving up in despair. a man who has been in my employ for upwards of twenty ' What are you doing here? years." The Count assented.' ' I asked." replied Houdin. save a mere wound that will easily heal. to my intense surprise. sir. this " I was seated morning in my library ' when the ' report of a pistol resounded in I looked my me sleeping-apartment. last. Two weeks elapsed.' "I found the securities correct. sank breathlessly on a chair. but the bait proved a failure. The Count did everything possible to excite the cupidity of the robber. my trusted valet and factotum. to " I will alter the mechanism in such superficial flesh way that no harm can come Give any one." answered Houdin. wound was bleeding profusely. The desk was closed. Finding himself convicted. The thief! I exclaimed excitedly. The my desk. I asked. on which occasions sums of money were ostentatiously passed from hand to hand. Bernard. He sent repeatedly for his stock-broker. he returned to the nobleman's mansion. and the mechanician went home to his work-shop to make the required alterations. I saw a man making his escape down the back stairs. he even made a pretense of going away from home for a short time. knew that no one could have passed that way. At the appointed time. I grasped a stand of armor near by.

surely you cannot refuse to accept " Take it as a loan the money your ingenuity has rescued from a robber. " Now go/ I exclaimed. and began his fajnous performances. " ' 15 I. but finding the transcribing of musty deeds a tiresome task. his He says in memoirs: "I had often l)een struck by the ease I witli wliicli pianists tliat. You are safe from prosecution. go. easy for the artist to attend to several things simultaneously. . 18—. the — day of ' Bernard X . the birthplace of Louis XII. still. enabling him to juggle four . While working in this capacity. read and perform at sight the most difficult pieces." which attained the greatest popularity. December. lopier the keys.0UU francs." said the Count to Houdin. " was the only security De I'Escalopier would accept from me. from the was thus enabled within a year to pay back the money borrowed ' Count de I'Escalopier. and was handed by mistake a work on conjuring. and this incident decided his future career. called by him: " Soirees He Fantastiques de Bolert-Houdin. it would be possible to create a certainty of perception and rendering I it facility of touch. initiated the young Houdin into the mysteries of juggling. afterwards known to fame by the cognomen of RobertHoudin. emliraced him hands. in true Gallic style." ing at Blois at the time was a mountebank who. saw can by practice. and this embrace. and never enter this house again. overcome by the Count's generosity. Houdin says. and was subsequently apprenticed to a notary at Blois. but he did not realize his ambition until later in I'Escalopier when De came to his aid. " I want you to take these 15. the undersigned.' " And now.INTRODUCTION. on the sixth of At the age of eleven His father was a watchmaker. The marvels conlife. for a consideration. Robert was sent to a Jesuit college at Orleans. hereby admit having stolen from the Count de I'Escasum of 15. he prevailed on his father to let him follow the trade of a watchmaker. was born at Blois. In his early study of sleight-of-hand Ploudin soon recognized that the organs performing the princi})al part are the sight and touch. taken by me from his deslv by the aid of false *'* " ' Pakis. I had recourse to the juggler's art. and pressed them into Iloudin's The mechanician. he chanced one day to enter a bookseller's shop to purchase a treatise on mechanics. 1805. wished to acquire and ap])ly to sleight-of-hand. tained in this volume fired his imagination. while his hands were busy employed with some comiilicated task. and repent of your crime.000 francs and begin your career as a conjurer. preparatory to the study of law." Without further delay the conjurer had a little theatre constructed in the Palais Royal. Jean Eugene Eobert. The nobleman produced the securities. as This faculty music could not Resid- afford me the necessary element.

Avere " ten of these ])istons. taste. apparently there was no place for the concealment of anything. while my eye was at the same time acquiring a promptitude of percep- tion that was quite marvelous. Let us now look at some of the illusions of the classic prestidigitateur of . as savoring too dress. 1845. at the side wings or walls were consoles. upon which were displayed the various articles to be used in the seances. with about five inches of gilt fringe hanging from them. and across the back of the room ran a broad shelf. or concealed assistant." Tiien. Houdin discarded the long. Houdin's first Fantastic Evening took place in a small hall of the Palais Eoyal. and no places were to be had under forty sous. or a handkerchief. modern question of tables and elaliorate apparatus. flowing robes of many of his predecessors. The stage set represented a miniature drawing-room in white gold in the Louis XV style. and appeared in evening has dared to ofl'end good Since his time. terminated at a keyboard. and roll into the hands of the conjurer's alter ego. many of them using simple little gueridons with glass tops. flanked and by two small side tables of the lightest possible description. unfringed. professors of the art magique have gone to extremes on the In fact.16 INTRODUCTION. nor has he dared to give a performance with draped tables. one of these tra])S and covered with a ])aper. " The practice of this feat. but the prices of admission were somewhat high. The simplicity of everything on the all of conjurer's stage disarmed suspicion. Houdin's center table was a marvel of and ingenuity. delabra A chandelier and elegant can- made the little scene brilliant. federate boxes." On Thursday evening. be encountered with the apparatus of the new In addition. no first-class prestidigitateur by presenting la his illusions in any other costume than that of a gentleman habited a mode. July 3. Toucliing a spring caused the article to fall noiselessly through the trap upon cotton batting. much of charlatanism.'' M^'lie consoles were nothing more than sliallovv wooden boxes with opcMiiugs ilirougli the side scenes. The little auditorium would seat only two hundred people. Various ingenious automata were actuated ])y this means of ii-ansniitting motion. Prior to Houdin's day the wizards draped their tables to the floor. as comdifficulties to pared with the school. passing under the floor of tlie stage. continues Houdin. thereby making them little else than ponderous con- Conjuring under such circumstances was child's play. Any ol)ject Avhich the wizard desired to woi-k ofl" secretly to his confederate' behind the scenes was placed on metal cover. " gave my fingers a remarkable degree of delicacy and certainty. according as it was drawn down by a sj)iral s])ring or pulled up by a whip-cord which passed over a ]>ulley at the top of the tu])e and so down the table log to the hiding place of the confederate. Concealed in the body were " vertical rods each arranged to rise and fall in a tul)e. and the ten cords." balls at once and read a book at the same time. The tops mechanical skill of the consoles were ])erforated with tray)s. front seats being rated at $1 or five francs. In the center Avas an undraped table.

Houdin added an additional effect. Several gentlemen were noAV invited to hold the disengaged end of the rope. but at a wave of the magician's wand the little chest descended slowly to the floor. and bade the try as he miglit. in order to throw the public off the scent as to the principle on which the experiment was based. After first having exhil)ited tlie trick on the " run-down." so heavy that the strongest nian cannot lift it. and requested the services of a volunteer : assistant. which had an iron bottom. It is a simple mechanical principle and will be easily understood by those acquainted with mechanical power. of electro-magnetism were entirely unknown was to the gen- when this trick of the spirit cash-box first presented." he hooked the liox to one end of a rope which passed over a pulley attached to the ceiling of the hall. instead of passing straight over tlie pulley. clung to the electro-magnet with supernatural attraction. with the top and The phenomena eral public in 1845. constructed of tissue . at a spot marked. 2 The blossoms. the conjurer executed his pretended mesmeric passes. The secret lay in tlie pulley and block. Houdin's orange tree. He placed the box on tlie run-down. which served as a means of communication between the stage and the audience. modesty apart. and the box. for safe-keeping. They were able to raise and lower the iwx with perfect ease. But volunteer would prove unequal to the task. was a powerful electro-magnet with conducting wires reaching behind the scenes to a battery. At a signal from the magician a It is secret operator turned on the electric current. whore a workman at a windlass held his own against the united power of the five or six gentlemen below. I have here a cash box which possesses some peculiar qualities. and remarked as follows to the audience " Ladies and gentlemen. Reverse passes over the is demon box restored as follows: it to its pristine lightness. France. the gentleman lift it a second time. so as to correspond sides. to the top of which was attached a metal handle. that I ever invented anything so daringly ingenious.INTRODUCTION. that blossomed and bore fruit in sight of the audience. working over a doulile pulley on the floor above. was a clever piece of mechanism. with all his strength. I place in it. The rope. went through the block and through the ceiling. lifting ofi' their feet the spectators who were holding the rope." which he himself wrote: "I do not think. and by mesmeric power I can make the box Let us try the experiment. in on one side and out on the other. When people became more enlightened on the subject of electricity. of 17 By far his best and greatest invention is the " light and heavy chest. l)ottoni of needless to remark that the the cash box was painted to represent mahogany. it created a profound sensation. When the latter had satisfied the audience that the box was almost as light as a feather. for example." The conjurer came forward with a little wooden box. to the astonishment of everyone. a lot of bank-notes. This extraordinary trick performed Underneath the cloth cover of the run-down. As may be well imagined.

The conjurer found time There was always a great scramble for these souto edit and publish a small comic news- paper. exclaiming he distributed " Here are toys for young children and venirs. Two mechanical made. revealing the handkerchief in its center. — fruit opened. giving his time to electrical studies and inventions. which entailed no small labor on the part of the hard. chemistry. small fans. from evening to evening. . of Houdin's life was his embassy to Algeria to counterMarabout priests over the ignorant Arabs. mais le Ministre des Fitiances recevra tous les jours et of this journal pour rire were changed . which was distributed among the spectators. liislory. and awe. It was worked butterflies. too. When these pedals were relaxed the blossoms disappeared and the fruit was gradually developed real fruit. toys. up through the hollow branches of the tree by the pistons and operating against similar pistons in the orange-tree box." the spectators. In performing this illusion Houdin first Ijorrowed a handkerchief from a lady in the audience. These : articles among old. Gervais near Blois. The contents jours suivaiits. The handkerchief of course was exchanged in the beginning of the trick for a dummy l)elonging to the magician. The oranges were stuck on iron spikes affixed to the branches of the tree and hid from view by hemispherical wire screens painted green and When these screens were swung back by pedal play the secreted by the leaves. exquisitely into the mechanical orange by an assistant. " Cagiiostro. white bournous and turban. then took the delicate piece of cambric or lace and flew upwards with it. before the tree was brought forward for exhibition. and are continually fanning the flames of rebellion and discontent against French donvination. It was pitting Creek against Greek! ^'ho marvels of optics. It was illustrated with comic cartoons.18 paper. were pushed rising in the table INTRODUCTION. and was eagerly perused between the acts. electricity. . and caused it to pass from his hand When the disappearance was elfected. The crowning event act the influence of the coii])l('d wKli Ills digital dexterity. Houdin returned to France and settled down at St. After his successful embassy to the land of \}\q. Here is one of Houdin's bon mots : Le Ministre de V Interienr ne recevra pas demain. Cull A tained in bis memoirs and . The Marabouts are Mohammedan miracle workers." copies of which were handed to every one in the theatre. bouquets. The French Government invited Eobert-Houdin to go to Algeria and perform before the Ara])s in order to show them that a French wizard was greater than a Marabout fakir. and mechanics which Houdin liad in his repertoire.worked prestidigitateur. Houdin was very fond with liberal hand of producing magically bon-bons. the into an orange left on the tree. and bric-a-brac from borrowed hats. matter of How well tlu' were well calculated to evoke astonishment famous French wizard succeeded in his mission is a account of his adventures among the Arabs is conmakes very entertaining reading. fruit was revealed.

" he gives a list of eleven of these impostors. continued to carry maker. no sooner arrived in the United States than imitators sprang up like mushrooms in a single night. as witness the case of Signor Blitz. Signor Blitz. Jr. and electric wires from attic to June. indeed. 1887. trap doors. By Purchase. the Admirable Crichton of fantaisistes. Signor Blitz. The Mysterious. assisted by and capable of the most deft movement. being full of surprises for the friends who visited the place. Signor Blitz. Hamilon the Temple of Enchantment at Paris. There were sliding panels in the walls. he produced many wonderful effects by a sharp observation of the absence of a mind of the human auditor. V. and the other became a watch- Houdin died at St.— INTRODUCTION. and at the present time there is a little theater on the Boulevard des Italiens called " Theatre Eohert-Houdin. His son-in-law. He was. Of him Burlingame says: "Without using much mechanical or optical apparatus. The Great Original. Signor Blitz." Carl Herrmann traveled extensively. who not only had the impudence to assume his name. The Unrivaled. Gervais in ton. and many conjurers adopted his name as a nom de thedtre. one entered the French army. at the Prestidigitateur of France and First Pro- Magic in the World. matons in every niche. for the suc- cessful application of electricity to the running of The conjurer's house was a regular ]\lagic Villa. but circulated verbatim copies of his handbills and advertisements hand as firm as steel Signor Blitz. The Original. descending cellar. Signor Blitz. and a combination of talents rarely seen in one individual. The Great. 19 He received several gold medals from the French Government clocks. June 8. Magicians seem to have a penchant for this sort of thing. autofloors." He died at Carlsbad. In his " Fifty Years in the Magic Circle. advanced age of seventy-two. 1871. A a clever entertainer musician — was Robert Heller. M. It was a great disappointment to Houdin when his two sons refused to take up magic as a profession. Antonio Blitz. Signor Blitz. a mimic. Signor Blitz's Nephew. Signor Blitz. The Wonderful. As a pure sleight-of-hand . Signor Blitz's Son. a very clever performer. Signor Blitz. One of the best sleight-of-hand who styled himself the " Premier fessor of artists that ever lived was Carl TTornnann." where strolling conjurers hold forth. He was a magician.

Il^TRODUCTION. a Miss Kieckhoffer. it directed his execniors to destroy all of his apparatus. on Broadway. who wrote an organist of one of the large churches of the city. mnsic. so that into the possession of any other conjurer. Eobert Early in life he Heller. and abandoned music for magic. In this regard he was like Robert-Houdin. C. His second delmt as a conjurer was an artistic and financial After a splendid run in New York he returned to London. California." . Hatton also says that Heller began his magical soiree with an address in the French language. he became enamored of magic. Heller abandoned conjuring. and settled in Washington. India. what tlie is now Pool's Theater. scholarship the Royal Acadwon at music. 1878. as a teacher of the piano and received in the United States than an English wizard. at the height of his fame. lik(! performances on the ])iano. subsequently travel- ing around giving entertainments in the English provinces. was born in London. in the year 1833. opening success. Eventually he married one of his music pupils. Dickens wrote Weller Anderson was But the greatest is Heller. His theatrical posters usually bore the following amusing verse: '' SliakoRpoave wi'oto well. or Palmer. and devoted In the year 1852 his time to perfecting himself in the art of legerdemain. I have this article authority of Henry Hatton. In his will he might not come . . in a building which then stood opposite Niblo's Garden. where he opened Heller's Hall. having come to the conclusion that a French prestidigitateur would be better audience at the Chinese Assembly Rooms.20 artist. Heller was not the equal of some of his contemporaries. He went to ISFew York. Many of his eleclricnl iricks were of his own invention. Iloudin. on on the on Heller's " second-sight " trick for the " Century Magazine " some years ago. His entertainments consisted of magic.s. Heller was a clever advertiser. he made his bow to a New York which occasion he wore a black wig and spoke with a decided Gallic accent. D. returning to New York He died November 28. at Continental Hotel. the daughter of a wealthy German banker. in London. made great use of electricity in his magical seances. Like most of his CO »/rcre. and an exhilntion of preThose w]io were not interested in liis feats of legerto bear his snperb demain flocked Heller. of emy of Music at the age of the conjurer Houdin. I'liiliidGl])]iia. Not meeting with the desired financial success. insignificant of legerdemain the feats invested most wit he and of his address with a peculiar charm. the conjurer. tended clairvoyance. and in 1875. and a talent for manifested a unique performances witnessed several Having fourteen. Subsequently he visited Australia. but he made up By the power for all deficiencies in this respect by his histrionic abilities.

possessed of a large fortune. at Germany. a American by adoption. but an Kobinson. 1843. He came h i of a family of eminent prestidigitateurs. and died in his private car on N". I am indebted to Mr. est Alexander's eld- brother.. for years an assistant to Herrmann. Pa. Carl. should be a physician. France. December 17. Wm. One day young Alexander was missing from the . After Carl adopted magic as a profession. There were sixteen children in the Herrmann family. and began the study of medicine. to Amerto use t and the and n a introduce ' h e me ' prestidigita- teur in this country.INTRODUCTION. for the following account of the great conjurer's career: "The Eochester. died He Carlsbad. Alexander's whole desire and ambition was to become a magician to take like his father and his brother. s Samuel Herr- mann. "The family to next in the wield the (.'arl magic wand was Herrmann. father. quently sent for who frehim to at give entertainments in the royal palace Constantinople. world of magic. European by birth. and Alexander the youngest. February 11. June 8. his favorite son.. It was the the father abandoned it. Carl being the eldest. late Alexander Herrmann was born in Paris. He persuaded his brother him as an assistant. 1887. but fate decreed otherwise. mann was of a great fa- vorite with the Sultan Turkey. the first who visit first was of the Herr- manns ica. father's fondest hope that Alexander. 189G. while en route from Y. to Bradford. The most popular performer 21 in this country was Alexander Herrmann. being the most famous conjurer of his Samuel Herrday. success achieved in great the ALEXANDEK llKUIOrANN.

Carl introduced xVlexander to the audience as his brother and successor. 1876. His 'misdirection. Germany. "His success lay in his skill as a manipulator. Carl made a short tour of this country. his great dexterity. His career as a magician success. and he was compelled to return jjose. After that he made a remarkable run of one thousand performances at the Egyptian Hall. France. INTRODUCTION. Monday. and the surrounding countries. When this engage- America was 1861. liis was ])eyond expression.22 parental roof. and ran away from home and studies. England. and The sudden ajjpearance of the father disiDelled the visions of the embryonic magician. giving his marvelously dexterous hands the better chance to perform those tricks that were the admiration and wonder of the world. eyes were compelled (as by . and a fine actor. lie had been kidnapped and taken away by Carl. Eussia. For six years the brothers worked together. at the age of eight. in fire liis witty remarks and ever-running of good-natured small talk. at the Academy Their last joint ment terminated. the brothers separated. with the company and instruct the young prodigy.' which he enhanced in all possible ways. llussia. in New York. The many lengthy and favorable notices jr)uriia]s States in the year 1874. visiting Spain. provided his Carl engaged two competent tutors to travel education were not neglected. engagement was in this country in the year 1869. where he appeared in the principal cities. a clever comedian. and Dame Nature certainly had him in view for one when she brought him to this ' regarded as a public character. But the youth's attention could not be diverted from his purand again he became his brother's assistant. at a performance in St.' to use a technical expression. his manner was ever genial and kind. London. He accepted his brother's proposal to make a tour of the world. citizen in Boston. subsequently visiting the Brazils and South America. becoming a naturalized was one uninterrupted of him in the leading of ihis country. Their first appearance in of Music. New York. He was a good conjurer. At the age of sixteen. September 16. in recognition of human nature's belief in the superhuman i)owers of the arch enemy. presence of Even at that early age mind were simply marvelous. Again the parents claimed Alexander. but Alexander went to Europe. with whom he made his first public aj)pearance. all If Inininous eyes turned in a certain direction. On the opening night. September 20. From England he returned to the United and from that period made this country his home. Magicians are born. " Herrmann bore a remarkable resemblance to ' sphere. immediately after bis death. ingenuity. and placed him in the University of Vienna. Petersburg. his face was not forbidding. the father comjiromised by consenting to Alexander's remaining on the stage. some mysterious power) to follow. not made ' was a favorite paraphrase of his. This time. Monday. sliowed that he was His Satanic Majesty. Despite this mephistophelian aspect. the old desire and fascination - took possession of him. home.

many of them Spain each preof King the late Belgium and of The King jewels. . of which weird science he was master. In personal appearance he resembles He is very clever at palmistry —the cardinal principle of con- juring. instead of one. to his apparent surprise and consternation. and Swedish. and to its use he attributed many of his successful feats. a nephew Herrmann. On one occasion he gave a performance before Nicholas. represents a slwrt hand. him gave one from Portugal. and reappear from under some stranger's vest or from a pocket. holding about two quarts. Arabic. having mastered French. and immediately the ring would vanish from sight. He also had a fair knowledge of PortuItalian. which indicates an imaginative faculty than miraculous. Russian. but lu' did not exhibit A silver dollar these talents in public. he them into the very laps and hands distributed cards about a theater. He was a capital ventriloquist. a determined nature. he was an adept in the ordinary tricks of causing cards to disappear. and decorated him. the Czar of all the Russias. sending of individuals asking for them.INTRODUCTION. The accompanying impression of his right hand. taken a few days after he died.' The Czar tore a pack of cards into halves. With the greatest ease and grace. Chinese. and of the great Leon Herrmann. him with a sented " He was decorated by almost every sovereign of Europe. to reappear from under a gentleman's coat. at the same time smilingly remarking: I will show you a trick. slender. hand tricks: He M-ine. " At private entertainments and clubs Herrmann was especially felicitous as a prestidigitateur. would disappear. and denotes a generous heart^ genius for friendship. in the his uncle. German. guese. had curled inward somewhat. Dutch. King of the from ring there was a cross. The Czar complimented the conjurer upon his skill. would cliange into a twenty-dollar gold piece. "The lines in Herrmann's hands were studies little less for adepts in cliirograpby. full to the brim with sparkling when suddenly. and an artistic temperament. Spanish. A magnum bottle of champagne. tapering. the finger of some person. His great forte was cards. and various other gems. is now performing United States with success. an imitator of birds. and quite clever at juggling and shadowgraphy. 33 " Alexander Herrmann's pet hobby was hypnotism. enumerate a few of his numberless sleight-ofwould place a wine glass. Herrmann was as clever ' wdth his tongue as with his hands. and good-humoredly asked: 'What do you think of that? Can you duplicate it?' His surprise was great to see Herrmann take one of the halves of the pack and tear it into halves. and English. to his lips." owing to the fact that in death the fingers In life his hands were long. I will the glass of wine would disappear from his hand and be reproduced immeHe would place a ring upon diately from some bystander's coat-tail pocket. There were three lines of imagination. and the Prince of Wales.

He has done more to unmask bogus spirit mediums than any conjurer living. he is an inventor. and Maskelyne. the Masheld leading exponent of the magic art kelyne. One of the most original and inventive minds in the domain of conjuring M. De Kolta. He is ahnost a gentleman of leisure. who resides in Paris. and his "rose-tree" feat has never been surpassed for dexterous and graceful manipulation. a Hungarian. a Pennsylvanian. the cocoon. and only appears about three nights in a week. is J. One of the best per- formers in the United Slates of anti-Ki)iritualistic tricks and mind-reading experiments Kellar. Apprenticed like Houdin to a watchmaker. always having some new optical or mechanical illusion to grace his entertainments. To perform this V. the vanishing lady. Maskelyne became acquainted with mechanics at an early age. spirit mediums. HAM). Kellar is exceedingly clever with handkerchief tricks. and Ke>lar.24 INTRODUCTION. N". . is Mr. Harry who at one time in his career acted as assistant to the famous Davenport Brothers. for many years. Like Houdin. He is the inventor of some very remarkable automata and illusions. At the juggling he has but few feat of spinning dessert plates rivals. and the is trick known by as the " black art." reproduced Herrmann In England." f. Bautier de Kolta. He is the inventor of the flying bird cage. who has forth at Egyptian Hall. for example " Psycho " and the "Miracle of Lh'asa. London. IMlMiKSSION OK lIKKKMANiN S re- quires the greatest skill ajul delicacy.

thereby olt'ending one of the cardinal principles of the art of legerdemain —never explain tricks. Trewey. unless he confines himself to mechanical tricks. Eobert-IIoudin was extremely modest. During the last six nights. The Great Delusionist will perform his Thousand Feats of Photographic and Alladnic EnDextrological. who has not traveled in the Orient. he is again on his magic throne. an exceedingly clever juggler. and more than proof. and Necromantic Cabals. in London the Wizard of the North. fill his coffers with gold. rush as if charmed. concluding every evening with the tion. We have Wizards of the North. Every now and then some enterprising wizard rushes into print . Gun Delusion! " ! The Theosophical craze of recent years has had its influence on prestidigitaA modern conjurer who does not claim some knowledge of the occult. Adelphi The greatest wonder at present . Napoleons of Necromancy. and every evening during the week. list of modern fantaisistcs is the French enter- M. sleight-of-hand artist. People go to magical entertainments to be mystified by the pretended sorcery of the magician. and West. Of late years 25 he has made the fatal mistake of exposing the methods of palmistry to the audience. to the spectators. for the Wonder seekers of the apLondon is again set on fire by the supernatural fame of tlie eximious Wizard. and thousands of beauty.' INTRODUCTION. have not imitated His suc- him in this respect. and literature. he waves his mystic scepter. though he Avas but an " is The following is one of his effusions: Theatre Eoyal. In his advertisements. VI. or. this is proof. Modern Merlins. Anderson. 12. proaching holidays. however simple. and shadowgraphist. at least. fashion. they look with indifference at the more ambitious illusions of the very foundation stone of prestidigitation. the performer. No it magician. South. the English conjurer. etc. went to the extreme in self-laudation. ' chantments. of the Wizard's powers of cliarming. to behold the mesteriachist of this age of science and wonder! Hundreds are nightly turned from the doors of the mystic palace.000 spectators have been witnesses of the Wizard's mighty feats of the science of darkness. Last but not least in the tainer. but managed to draw crowds by his vainglorious puffery and indifferent performer. and when they learn by what absurdly simple devices a person Palmistry is may be fooled. can do without in a performance. and all exclaim. cessors in the art magique. or s])ell-commanded. He has prepared a Banquet of Mephistophelian. White and Black Mahatmas. however. Can this be man of earth? is he mortal or super-human? " Whitsun-Monday. that cannot gain admission. cuts but little figure in public estimation.

and dazzling theater-goers. hobnobbed with and studied the black. the result of years of original research in India. dumbfounding. Mohammedan Bajahs. and white art in says: " Success ramifications. magic. and exploits his weird adventures in Egypt and India. and attract enormous houses delighting.26 INTRODUCTION. the Great American Magician. has journeyed. enables His Oriental him to present new triumphs of art. according to his The magician Kellar is a reputed Oriental tourist. ." illusions that are —dazing. the birthplaces cf magic and mystery. Every intelligent reader reads between the lines. He wit- nessed fakir-miracles at the courts of Mahatmas all its in Tibetan lamaseries. blue. In one of his recent advertisements he crowns the season of Kellar. but the extravagant stories of Oriental witchery have their effect on certain impressionable minds. in the wilds of India. own account.

The first is ostensibly for The horizontal piece pur- . is A The large pier glass in an ornamental frame wheeled upon the stage. though much simpler." BOOK CONJURERS' TRICKS I. CHAPTER MYSTERIOUS DISAPPEARANCES. an introduction to the tricks wliicli. ILLUSIONS. The method used remarkably ingenious. — it essential to the illusion. as they depend upon pre-arranged machinery. The is little fascination which the general public finds in clever tricks and ilkisions to be wondered at. so that every one a skilled observer would be apt to notice are a wide panel extending across the top of the frame and a bar feet crossing the glass artistic effect from the floor. ai)i)arently through is a solid looking glass. ing tricks are those which are produced at considerable expense in the way of apparatus and stage fittings. afi^ord All of these illusions. some The fact of the matter is. can see under down within about two feet The only peculiarities which some four really is of the floor. require a certain amount of aptness in manipulation. and a wand. glass reaches it. Chief among the more important illusions are the wonderful cabinets and other articles which enable the wizard describe a number is will to make away with his assistants. but it is a mistake to suppose that all the outfit which the modern magician needs is a few paper roses. "VANITY The first illusion FAIE. It is for this very reason that the secret of the After a series of illusion is always so closely guarded by the prestidigitateur. AND STAGE I. a pack of cards. that usually the most entertaincoins. sleight-of-hand tricks the magician usually leads up to what might be called "set pieces" in contradistinction to the sleight-of-hand of furniture tricks. of these arrangements for " mysterioiis disa])i)earances We before proceeding with the mirror and other optical tricks to which the fin de siecle magician so largely indebted." presents tlie disappearance of a lady.

Brackets are attached to the frame. She at once turns to the glass and begins inspecting her reflection. one on each side. Its real function not revealed. A screen is now ])laced around her. which is desirable lady steps for the 'J'he A performance of is tlio deception. at the level of the transverse piece. the utility of the crosspiece. using a step-ladder to reach it. jjair ports to be used in connection with a of brackets to support a glass shelf on which the lady stands — it also is essential to the illusion. thus imjn'ossing U})on the audiis ence. and it also leaves her with her back to the audience. This gives some l)yi»lay. ets a Across the ends of the brack- rod or bar is placed and a plate of glass rests as a shelf with one end on SCUKKNING THE LAUY. and a couple of curtains are carried by curtain poles or rods extending outward from the sides of the frame. screen so narrow tliat a considera])le portion of the mirror shows on . tlio ntd and ilie otlicr on tlic Jioj'izoiital })iece. The exhibitor turns her witli Iut face to the audience and she again iiirns back.28 MAGIC: STAGE ILLUSIONS AND SCIENTIFIC DIVERSIONS. upon the shelf.

Two of our cuts illustrate the performance as seen by the audience. so that its lower The large upper end slides down is placed just back behind it. and then the screen is taken down The mystification is completed by the removal being thus made evident that the performer is not hidden behind it. the second explains the illusion.MYSTERIO US DISA PPEARANCES. The mirror is really in two sections. the a[»par- THE DISAPPEAKANCE EXPI. of the portable mirror. ently innocent crossbar concealing the top of the lower one. leaving an open- . Out of the lower portion of the same mirror a piece is cut. section of the lower piece. and to make this possible without the audience discerning it the wide panel across the top of the frame is provided. This upper section moves up and down in the frame like a window sash. When the glass is pushed up. 29 All is quiet for a and the lady has disappeared. so that its up])er edge is concealed. each side of it. its upper portion goes back of the panel. it moment.ATNKD.

just wide sash. is tlie being removed. the performer steps upon The counterpoised glass is raised like a window is aO.^^^\^. The fact that some of the mirror assistant was visible during the entire operation greatly increases the mystery. still the fact that a margin of the mirror shows on each side of the screen further masking the deception. explains everything. this tlie easier. so that the notch is completely hidden from the audience. and.30 2IAG1C: large STAGE ILLUSIONS AND SCIENTIFIC DIVERSIONS. glass is pushed down again. The lady passes through Ihe notch feet foremost. Ihere no lady to drawn away behind the scene. makes . and her position. The second with this description. put in place. The notched poriiig cut. Tlie screen is enough to conceal the notch. the screen l)e seen. Tln\)Ugh tlie opening the lady tlien creej)S is and by tlie the platform removed. tion lies behind the lower section.ADY HAS VANISHED. The mirror as brought out on the stage has its large upper section in its lowest position. inclined itlatl'oi'in is From llie the scene piece back of the mirror an projected to opening is in the mirror. it When the glass shelf and is screened from view. ex])osing the notch. TIIR I. enough to admit of the passage of the person of the lady. facing the mirroi-.

. and birds are taken»out dogs. give it a hoat-like aspect. cats.r. which. the stage..MYSTERIOUS DISAPPEARANCES. After the flood the exit of the animals from to. removed and run around on the stage or fly about.. the water simply runs through a pipe.. this time the back is being ready swung l)y into place last. In reality. Fig. shows the ark in tirety. This represented the water poured in ad libitum through a funnel inserted in an aperture in the upper corner. and all for the flood...1. Ducks. Fig. curving upward. 3. .. 1. It stands / i ^^v- .. chickens. and it .. now closed. as be attended 0])ening windows in its front." In this illusion the curtain rises and shows upon the stage wliat is to he interpreted as a representation of Noah's ark^ a rectangular hox with ends added to it. as and shown he raising the to]) in Fig.^. en- The it exhibitor all opens on sides.. To the audience filled it seems as if the ark were being with water. carried through one of the legs of the trestle. the ark is next to THE FLOOD. upon two tles. a quantity of animals and a pig are shown in Fig. It will noticed by the observant spectator that back lid is first dropped and that the asthe sistant helps throughout. "AFTER THE FLOOD. liorses or tres- The cut. pigeons. the reason of which will be seen later. The skeleton or frame of the structure It is now disclosed and lid is it is seen to be completely empty. flood is and so down beneath The management of the illustrated in our cut. 3. its 3. S^\V^X- THE AKK OPENED FOR is INSl'Et'TIOX. swinging down the ends and the front and hack lids.

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and how they escaped the water. illusion. is audience to see through the ark —in ostensibly to enable the reality to it through the For. is fastened originally to the back is lid. are the mysteries to be solved. They are stowed away in these. seemed completely empty. this lid swung down. which only room enough to accommodate her. . completes the explanation. and are taken out through a]K'rtures in their opened before the audience. Where the animals came from. It is none of the animals are wet the water has not reached — them. When opened for inspection. Our cut. and how they and the woman could be found lias in the ark. prevent them from seeing swung down before the front is- THE MYSTERY EXPLAINED. lets is to follow. 5. 4. Fig. are swung up and down with them. the other the ark is tenant. reclines gracefully in the center of the ark. Fig.MYSTERIOUS DISAPPEARANCES. is 33 wondered how so small also to be observed that an inclosure could contain such a collection. The ends which are swung up and down in the preliminary exhibition of the ark are the receptacles which accommodate the animals and birds. when TIIE LADY TENANT OF THE ARK. More. fronts. which. for the exhibitor now down the and a beautiful Eastern woman. front. The woman. as stated. however.

palanquin was well isolated on This in rick. with the lid. was performed as follows: The four uprights arranged at the four corners of the apparatus were hollow. who only see the rear side of the door as it is Fig. "THE MAGIC PALANQUIN. . and is received with high appreciation by the audience. it opened. in this play was presented on the stage in a palanquin carried diately opened. which also a woman was made to disa])])('iu-. and each contained al ihc iop a pulley over which a cord pusscd. as will be cx))lained later on in this chai)ter. The illusion is exceedingly effective. and yet the TIIK MAGIC PALANQUIN. tlic sliciildci's of the carriers. At a given moment the curtains were drawn and then immewhen it was seen that the actress had disappeared. of the audience. Tlu-se coi-ds were attached by one end to the double bottom of the ])alan(piin. ihc carriers dis- . 5 woman in place on the rear shows the rear view of the ark when open. I which |ti'cci'(lc(l l)y many years Buatier do Ivolta's experiment. and as it goes down the woman goes with it. and by the other end to counterpoise concealed in the cano])y. and also shows the animals in place in the side compartments. and remains attached to and out of sight lowered. the performance is of heightened interest.34 3IA0IC: STAGE ILLUSIONS AND SClENTlIIC DIVERSIONS." The heroine by four slaves. who resumed tlu'ir jorirncy niul cnrriod it ofT tlie stage. hut l)y an entirely different pro- cess.i At llic |»recis(! nionient at which the curtains were drawn. To those who understand it.

When erected." an explanation of which herewith i)resented. The cabinet is now opened and found to be empty. rajndly raised up to the interior of the canopy. when the instruments instantly began ])layiiig and are then tlirown out at tlie top of the cabinet. The was quite slender and took such a position as to occupy as little space as possible. engaged the counterpoises. 35 witliin tlie uprights. THE CABINET OPEN FOK INSPECTION. and which. person thus to disappear made " CASSADAGA PROPAGANDA. of erected a small beautifully tinislied cabinet consisting front. By making the shadows of the mouldings of the canopy and columns more pronounced through painting.MYSTERIOUS DISAPPEARANCES. sliding the double bottom. and on of four pieces. is which the sides are hinged to the back. thirty-six inches wide. witli the actress. are seen resting cabinet deep. The effect as produced on the spectators by sixty inches in it is will first be outlined. the affair was given an appearance of lightness that perplexed the most distrustful spectator. which. and by exaggerating them. slate . with the on a chair at the side of the stage. size is placed A sheet of of plate glass about sixteen upon the backs two chairs. and fourteen inches Tambourines and bells are placed in the cabinet and ilie doors closed. A." among Ivellar's repertory of successful illusions is One is of the most mysterious the "• Cassadaga Propaganda. the forty-two inches high.

sides. in reality. the counterweights overcoming the extra weight of the concealed assistant. This folded cabinet is hung on two fine wires which lead up to the " flies " and over rollers or pulleys to the counterweights. the perthe cabinet and places it on the glass. is and yet this cabinet apparently not large enough to contain a person. THK J^l'IKIT MANIFESTATIONS After sliowiiig tlie chairs and ])lacing the glass plate former picks up the folded part of then opens out the upon them. or an intelligent child of ten or twelve years of age. llic l:iinl)()iirin(> and bell are placed in the cabinet and the doors are closed. lias placed in the cabinet a message written thereon. places the front He containing the doors in position. a concealed opening in the silk at the back of the cabinet. all manifesta- tions usually exhibited in the large cabinets are produced. where there is a small shelf on which the concealed assistant is sitting Turkish fashion. inside of the cabinet is and panels of doors are lined with pleated gold tlwoiigli. The silk. in There it. for. being suspended by invisible wires behind the back of the cabinet. fastening same by hooks to the sides. In fact. the whole secret consists in a small person.36 MAGIC: STAGE ILLUSIONS AND SCIENTIFIC DIVERSIONS. We say apparently not large enough. Tlie assistant now passes his hand and arm . for artii the assistant to pass his order to handle whatever is placed within Everything hciiig in readiness. When proper wire is used on a brightly illuminated stage the wires are absolutely invisible.

:"* : ..^f. ' ..«frj?4» " ^r h— -»—m- ». d ^ . ^JHBl * i "' '. . l^j BEJiE *•„> -'"Bi'^ ". . .

The second cut is an end view looking from the side of stage." He used two cabinets. the odalisk has disap])eared from the cage. goes into ibe cage at down. the little platform on the cage at hidden by the cage and the screens. the curtains fly up. When the curtain rises the caliph stands on a bearded caliph. but. one being suspended. appear and disapjDear at will. The carpet on the stage. Usually two cages were used. usually a caliph and an odalisk. from from which the caliph has vanished. The two cages stand . I'he doors arc closed. The clever illusionist Chev.of llic parquette ilie smiling behind her veil. she steps. The doors have scarcely closed l)ehind her Avhen they open again. Clean slates placed in the cabinet are removed with messages written on them. however. and tlirows botli out over the top of the cabinet. Screens of the same color as the rear of the stage served to close the space between the audience by walking behind the cabinet or cage as often as possible screens were open so that the audience could see The magician deceived the when the him through the slats. the manifestations that can be produced in the cabinet are limited only by the intelligence of the concealed assistant. a shot is fired. Now a brilliantly dressed odalisk steps into the box at the left. In tlie meantime the follows is has the stage. through the opening in the back and shakes the tambourine. cage containing the odalisk I'aised on a hoisting rope so hangs in midair with the dooi-s open. which stands again on the that it floor of the stage. each large enough to receive a person in an upright position. E. Slie ])asscs cali])h down through left the audience io stage again. Tiie ciirtniiis of botli cages are' What ])iilled even more surj)rising. Thorn made great use of a variation of the " Cassadaga Propaganda. The performers. One of the cuts shows the cabinet with open doors as seen by the audience. in fact. remains uncovered.38 31AGIC: STAGE ILLUSIONS AND SCIENTIFIC DIVERSIONS. really taking up the place on the wooden stage at the back of the cabinet. at tlic the cage at the left. of slats and were provided with curtains. rings the bell. showing the assistant on a shelf at the rear of the cabinet. and in licr ])lace stands a whiteleft. ilic calipli '^^Die the left and the odalisk into that is at the riglit. the back of the stage. the rear wall. while she appears at the rear dooi. as smiling as ever. and the wires leading up and over to the counterweights. and the screen were all of the same shade of green. When the doors are opened the cabinet is shown to be empty. and by the use of confederates who were dressed alike some very clever illusions were produced. same instant. and it is seen that the woman has disappeared. at the same instant the doors of both cages s])ring open and the curtains are raised. They were constructed slats. After the performer has demonstrated this he pulls down red silk curtains over the side walls and the doors. Attention is then called to the cage at the right whose screen is open so that the performer can be seen when he passes behind it.

real odalisk the board of the cage at the the cali})h standing behind the screen on installs himself in the cage. On command. spectators rub their eyes in bewilderment. through which the audience has been able to see up to this time. the stage is seen a "• .MYSTERIOUS DISAPPEARANCES. In the cloth gradually rises from the center few moments it though something were pushing it up. at that A shot is now fired and just time the odalisk moves very quickly on a board behind the screen and the cage is let down and stands firmly on the floor. slips in of the curtains serves to conceal the entrance of the the odalisk is to vanish and the caliph to appear he from the board on the outside. When Owing to the i)eculiar costume of the odalisk is tliis disguise is rendered very easy. on the . The then raised in the air in the second cage.vK><w:C\. per all - Eventually. appears to be empty and a])parently the odalisk has passed through the air to The success of the trick depends upon making the spectators is believe that everything done in cages through which they can see." Of the many new is illusions recently presented in Europe. false odalisk is While the left. / §kJ. is a becomes very evident that some one. the invention of that clever Hungarian magician . 39 curtain falls and the The The pulling down caliph in the box. open and the audience can see right through them. The odalisk who appears at the door of the auditorium and walks down through the audience is an exact double of the real odalisk who is standing invisible behind the screen on the board of the cage at the left. On table. plain round top four-leg which the magician has been using as a resting place for part of the apparatus used the in his magic performance. The swinging cage the other cage. former removes cles arti- from the table and it covers with a cloth that does not reach the floor. of the table as TABLE KEADV KOI{ THE APrEAKANOE. Buatier de Kolta. Our first engraving rep- resents the table in this condition. while the odalisk takes her i)lace on the board behind the screen. or something. an ingenious one that of the appearing lady. "THE APPEAEING LADY. at the same moment the odalisk in the other cage changing places with the caliph.

The top of the table is iuhiid in such a manner as to conceal the . tlic to]). to which the j^iece is fastened. by the cloth. is a box.40 MAGIC: STAGE ILLUSIONS AND SCIENTIFIC DIVERSIONS. which are hollow. table covered is The magician now removes good the cloth and a lady seen standing on the table. open at Below the stage To this box are attached four very fine wires. as in all illusions. When the trap is closed the rug appears to be tration will show. as the third illus- In the stage there is a trap door. is very simple. The secret of this. In the table top is a trap that divides in the center and opens table is The ])laced directly over the trap. as shown in our second illustration. outward. with cloth sides and wood bottom. that lead up through tlie stage by means of small lioles where the irap ami floor join. over small pidleys in the frame of the table and down througli the table legs. an ordinary one. THE APPEARING LADY. through the stage to a windlass. over which is placed a fancy rug that has a piece removed from it exactly the same size as the trap.

all is the assistant stands at the windlass. 3 the under side of the table top. and close the trap. except when distended by the weight of the lady. box containing the lady is drawn up under the table by means of the windlass. Fig. is The moment opened and the that the cloth touches the floor in front of the table. 41 The lady takes her place in the box in a kneeling position. and Fig. it in front of the table.MYSTERIOUS DISAPPEARANCES. the trap DETAILS OF THE APPARATUS. The magician proceeds to cover takes a large table cover. Thanks to this arrangement of the box. and the trap closed. it folds up as the lady leaves it for her position on the table top. so tliat draws it \\\) over the table it reaches the floor top. standing at the rear of table. edges of the trap. These elastics are for the purpose of keeping the bottom and top frame of box together. table . during the moment's time in which the magician is straightening out the cloth to draw it l)ack over the All that now remains to be done is for the lady to open the traj) in and slowly take her place on top of the table. The top and bottom of the box by means of which the lady is placed under the table are connected by means of three strong elastic cords placed inside of the cloth covering. and is concealed inside of the frame of table table. and. 1 of our third engraving shows the arrangement beneath the stage. and ready. This is done very quickly. then slowly by throwing cloth over table.

the two traps. A somewhat similar trick is called " The In this illusion the process is worked in the reverse "THE DISAPPEARmG LADY. is after her weight Disappearing Lady. removed from it. which is concealed hy the printed characters (Fig. without any cross rod in front (Fig. and after the words " one^ two. on . she causes the frame to This operation is hidden by the veil tilt and cover her head and shoulders. on tlie stage. and then through floor. the one paper and the one in the As soon as she reaches the floor bcnc-illi stage she closes the trnp in the newspa])er with it gummed she was paper." order.43 3IAGIC: STAGE ILLUSIONS AND SCIENTIFIC DIVERSIONS. The lady passes between the legs in ilic llic which opens the trap in the of the chair (Fig. with a frame of wire which is invisible and which. old affair. mikI still sliiils ihe one in the floor." lifts the veil her closely with a and shows that the lady has disappeared. three. besides. is turned backward on the side opposite the spectator. and might be thought that In fact. It is provided with a movahle seat that lowers in oi'der to allow the lady to pass between the two front legs. upon an open newspaper and seating a lady thereon." The accompanying after placing a chair figures illustrate a trick in which the prestidigitateur. The newspaper is provided with a trap. covers silk veil. the veil. that is generally an mi FIG. 1). a](li(»ugh she has disappeared. 4). It is provided. attached to the on As soon as the back. 1. this instant the operator actuates a spring. 3). that the prestidigitateur spreads out nl this moment in front of the lady. account of the feeble diameter of the latter. As for the chair. This trap is of the same size as the one that must exist in the floor upon which one operates. lady who is to be made to disa})pear is seated (Fig. At floor. 2).

MYSTERIO US DISA PPEARAM CES. 43 account of the wire frame. 3. found to be made of India rubber and to contain a large In the next chapter Avill be described an interesting illusion called " She. three. seems always to outline the contours of the vanished subject. FIG." he lifts the veil and causes wire frame to fall back. . rent at about the center. two. examined. so it is placed with the other illusions requiring the aid of mirrors. but the preceding description states the methods generally trick. it Since this trick was hrst introduced has been more or less perfected or modified in its form." in which the lady disappears while being supposed to be cremated. 4. employed in performing the In some cases if the newspaper is carefully FIG. This ingenious trick depends for a portion of the effect upon it will be mirrors. After the operator has said tlie "' one.

and as the at a carefully prestidigitateur lias taken care to tilt tlie trunk marked point of the stage lra|) tlint fioor. Avhich closed Then iiie the trunk. tlie Mysterious Trunk. is shut down. etc. what the experiment consists: The prestidigitateur has which he allows the spectators to examine. When every one is certain that it contains no mechanism. the spectators its who have exit aided in the packing remain on the spot to see that nothing makes been placed upon two wooden horses. The trunk is afterward wound in all directions with rope. for the convenience of tying. Some obliging s]iectators then aid in tying the trunk. and the cover stage and enters the trunk. the Packer's Surprise. '^^I'lic then that the assistant inclosed in the interior presses llic of lriml< tlicii li. When the person in the interior presses upon a point corresponding to this bolt. The whole credit of the trick is the trunk. so that it secured by a pivot to the two long is can swing. The its prestidigitateur then fires a pistol when divested of covering. in the first place.e. which closes upon its spring ])late bolt. the intersections of the latter are sealed. It is (Mid is tilted upon the end where the rope passes. and the closest examination reveals nothing out of the way about is Yet one of the ends. and which may in its turn l)e sealed at each of its buckles.44 31AGIO: STAGE ILLUSIONS AND SCIENTIFIC DIVERSIONS. he pushes up the latter.is a tendency to open. wliich may we be presented in several ways. which. and the whole is introduced into a bag provided with leather straps. a person comes upon the It is found that he fills it entirely. "THE MYSTERIOUS TRUNK.. The following is the way that the operation performed in order that the spectators may not perceive the opening of the trunk. bolt. When the operation is finished. The latter. iiiul it is opens at ihe same llirough these two tra])S that the invisible vanishing takes ])la(. the movable end meets in the latter with an exactly similar liinc. A spectator locks the trunk and guards the padlock. the pivot turns freely trunk swings. The following is in a trunk brought to him. digitation. The time that it takes Ihe man to pass through the trap is insignificant. sides. is The operator's assist- and locked and the padlock sealed.structed exactly like an ordinary trunk. ropes. and found to be entirely empty. which has unbroken seals. is from the trunk. it. instead of being nailed. The swinging motion and the end of the is arrested by a spring plate bolt. around which the rope is passed twice lengthwise. ant takes his place in the trunk. beginning at the side opposite the opening part. formerly had much success in theaters of prestiis trick. executed by different means." A trick known by This the name of the Indian Trunk. . one of wliich shall describe. is due to the cabinet maker who con. As soon as tlie assistant has passed through the trap. T\\(i rope is Uicn passed over iliis ])art and runs in the axis of the pivots. and conse(pu'ntly the movable end of the trunk. over the trunk.

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"THE INDIAN BASKET Among TRICK. which. and pulls out the blade all dripping with blood. Boxes with glass sides also have been constructed. there is nothing to be done but to proceed with the experiment as we have said. moment to be lifted into the whose movable end is opened outwardly by the prestidigitateur at the desired moment. and the feelings of the ilicii s])octators become wrought up high pitch. When the vanished person descends beneath the stage. Afterward. This presentation has more effect upon the sj)ectators than tbe preceding. bound with ropes. and seems to present greater difficulties. Grasping a sword. and around the latter buckles a belt. which. is At a few yards distance cries are licard jU'occHMling is fi-oiu ilie cliild wlio had been inclosed in the basket. but. Whatever be the process. and by a trap with a counterpoise if the construction of the stage admits of it. but is useless in the process described above. to the surprise of all. He takes a child and incloses it in this basket. It will be easily comprehended that the operation here is reversed. empty." the most remarkable experiments performed by prestidigitateurs its should be cited that of the Indian basket. and that the confederate beneath the stage awaits the proper interior of the second trunk. sealed and laid upon this side. which then consists of one of the sides. now running forward sound and happy. it who studied iliis juggler's iv'wk. and which operates still at the moment when is the trunk. and was . and not to allow them to try the weight of the trunk. however. as Asiatic origin. not to abuse the complaisance of the spectators. cxplMincd perfectly. and who Kobert-lfoudin. care being taken. Tlie management is the same. makes use of an oblong osier basket provided with a cover. care must be taken to so pass the ropes as not to interfere with the trap of the trunk. about to be wrapped up.46 MAGIC: STAGlJ ILLUSIONS AND SCIENTIFIC DIVERSIONS. the presentation of often complicated by causing the person who has vanished to reappear in a second trunk that has previously been ascertained to be empty and that has been sealed and enveloped under the eyes of the spectators. The spectacle to a is shocking. The magicinn ojjcus the basket. and while the ropes are being crossed the operation might he j^erformed several times. as the person inclosed is visible up to the last moment. he is supported by some other individual if the theater is not well appointed. This trap permits of expediting things in certain cases of the reapj^earance of the confederate. he thrusts it into the basket here and there. is of Travelers in Hindostan have often told us that the Indians The Indian magician practice this wonderful trick upon the public places. is Such one of the it is artifices employed. name indicates.

the cover beingclosed. The basket used by the Indian prostidi^ritateiirs represented herewith. But the bottom. it. In all the preceding tricks the magician has to a case of mutilation in made way bod- with assistants. places his THE INDIAN BASKET THICK. double movable bottom. knee on The child can Replacing the then easily hide himself under the robe worn by the magician. this order over. basket in its first position. B. the Indian has escapes from beneath the robe. that de- pends upon do not take part in this motion. ily when this trick is well performed. able to perform is 47 it himself. and the part A. Wliile Ihe attenlittle absorbed by this exciting operation. the to center of mois at tion of which C. In basket fastens leather. we now come which the luckless clown must suffer decapitation. a startling effect. 3). For the sake This basket is provided with a of the explanation we have cut away one end. it to turn the the Indian of facilitate with to strips and. the top of the bas- ket it is lowered by turning the spectators toward (Fig.liYSTERlOUS DISAPPEARANCES. the Indian insei'ts his sword and sticks the l)lade into a small sponge fixed within tion of the spectators is and saturated witli a red liquid. In child order make the disappear. and runs a short distance from Iloudin says that tlie spectators it without being seen. this and by fact the part AC shuts off the bottom of 2). The weight of the child lying upon the bottom latter forces the to remain in place. it. . 1 shows the basket open ready to receive the child. the basket (Fig. operation. Fig. A C B.

DECAPITATION. removed. and begins to cut the cloth Deligliterl with a huge knife across the victim's neck. and . or appears on the stage. and removes the cloth. The means employed in this illusion is the old-fashioned " defunct method of decapitation. Harlequin approaches as executioner. which lie is condemned to die. with his trophy. he carries about under his arm. A NOVEL STAGE T]{ICK — UEt Al'ITATION." 48 3IAG1C: STAGE ILLUSIONS AND SCIENTIFIC DIVERSIONS. as the case and after performing certain acrobaiic for feats. and lljir'lcciuin lifts in it the air the severed head. commits some crime against his fellows. He is ])laced u])on the block. it has a certain precision. and although this lacks the refinement and scientific interest of execution by electricity. The poor clown who sufi^ers the death penalty twelve times a week usually enters the circus ring. may be. is In a moment all is over. his head is covercfl with a cloth. it ])laces it in a cliarger in the center of the ring. and finally takes places it back to the T)lock wrap])ed by the side of the headless trunk. lie up in the cloth.

then in sport places a lighted cigarette in notice that the cigarette begins to glow. An as the clown lies on the box and his head has been covered with the he passes his head through an invisible opening in the top of the box. Not able to bear the horrible sight. The done trick is a is good one. who substitutes his own head (which is painted to match the other two) in place of it. assistant inside of the box passes up the dummy head. When he places it by the side of the trunk. places it in its original position on the shoulders of the victim. and bows to the audience —an orthodox clown. and suddenly EXPLANATION OF THE DECAPITATI©N TRICK. who makes such sport of it as he sees fit. he throws the cloth again over the head.MYSTERIOUS DISAPPEARANCES. 49 its mouth. in reality he passes it through an opening in the top of the box to the assistant within. This is seized by Harlequin. The other steps in the performance readily follow. kneads to the body. eyes roll. rises. and takes with the audience. The way in which it is explained in the second cut. . the figure head and all. which is an exact facsimile of the clown's head and face. seizes it it. and the Evidently the head has come to life. In a little while you smoke comes from the nose. As soon cloth.

tlie performer the right wrist resting over the knots on hands behind him. fastened witli handcuffs. however. The methods used are many. To the average auditor the most wonderful point is. brass collars. securely tied around the ])erformer's left wrist. and the ends of the rope are S('curely tied together. unlike many " mediums " he has met with. I'he cloth which the harlequin always carries conceals all the sleight of hand. Caulk) has been fastened in their cabinet. dividing the rope so that the ends will be of an equal length. many as alert as All anti-spiritualists. Among is tbe many successful rope tests. mediums. mediums " personally known to the make use of these same methods of release. some simple^ others complicated. to the bad fortune of the writer. bringing the knots wrist. This may be due. Another performance of a somewhat similar character was recently performed at a theater in New York^ in which a clown throws himself on a sofa and is cut in two by a harlequin. One part of the sofa with the body remains in one part of the stage w^hile the other part with the legs and feet (which are all the time vigorously kicking) disappear through a wing at the other end of The action is very sudden and the effect startling. was never exposed. A piece of soft cotton rope a])out six feet long. and by people who were jvist any investigator of spiritualistic phenomena. aiid chains. before the public as a magician and cabinet performer. in the stage. and of tlie size known as sash cord. Tlie writer has been tied with ropes. the feet and legs alone being exposed. and the whole performance is a series of surprises. but merely to explain as well as several professional " how anti-spiritualists. but all mystifying." and can safely say that all of these people who have come under his observation have been imposters. When the committee ])laces liis tlie left is satisfied that they have Jiiadc tlu' knots secure. because. or otherg founded on the same principle. how does For the benefit the performer release himself after being so securely bound? of the curious the writer Avill explain a few of the methods by which he has secured his release after being fastened by a committee from the audience. . while the body of the second clown is concealed in the box under the seat at the other end of the sofa. but it is not as fair as appears." secured their release after being During the years the writer (Mr. he has met a number of cabinet test " mediums. with wrist. down tight on the right it This appears fair enough.50 MAGIC: STAGE ILLUSIONS AND SCIENTIFIC DIVEHSIONS. SPIEITUALISTIC TIES. The following article is not written with the intention or desire to antago- nize any believer in Spiritualism. them appears at the head of the sofa. the following is about tlie best. The head and body of one of this case there are two men similarly dressed. yet. Of course. tijnes in many different cities. as well as several " writer.

The latest " Spiritualistic Post Test " among the and most successful of mechanical fastenings. when he can perform any trick he chooses with the free hand.MYST^RIO US DISAPPIJA RANGES. Our first and second engravings show the twist. but how and by what means does he secure slack?" this '"n^ » ']^n / In ])lacing his hands behind him after the rope is tied about the left with the wrist. A piece of wood f o u r inches square and three bore a feet long is given to the EXPLANATION OF THE ROPE TEST. hand from the rope encircling The reader may say. ^. coiiiinittee. who it hole through near one end. releasing the twist lying on the knot. he gives the rope a twist and knot over the other. is twist and knot then tied. tying a knot in the rope on each side of the post. while the knots are secure enough. "That is all well enough. making the above explanation By re])]acing the liand in the loop and giving the hand knots a half turn sliown the as can be secure as when is first tied. and then pass an ordinary rope through the hole. the performer gives his right hand and wrist a half turn. and enlarging it sufficiently to enable the performer to pull the right hand free from the rope. to withdraw this it. which When ready to release himself. pressing the twist down on knot and covering the with A ROPE TEST. which thus liecomes a part of the loop tied around the I'ight wrist. pressing the knots against the post so that the rope .>\^^ the right wrist. formation thus of the clear. there to enable the performer. 51 is suflfieient slack between the wrists by giving his right wrist a half turn.

to which are fastened cords tliat are passed out through the cabinet and held by members of the committee in order that they may know if the performer moves the post in any manner bound around his wrists and tied securely. one on each side of the are })ost. A large nail is driven in the top of the post. The ends of the rope are cannot be drawn through the post. now unraveled. % . (luring ihc ])erforiiunice of any test. Fig. standing behind the post. such as the ringing of bells. etc. and the post secured to the floor of the cabinet.62 MAGIC: STAGE ILLUSIONS AND SCIENTIFIC DIVERSIONS. The performer. TEST. and the unravelled ends of the rope and all knots are sealed with wax. ^ THE SPIRITUALISTIC POST in the rope. places his wrists against the knots e^v ffi:->> /M S^vK'^N^S..

" In this test the performer uses any pair of handcuff's furnished by the audience. When is tlie rope is passed through the hole and knotted chisel. which keys are concealed about the person. and all that a " medium " has to do is to secure the proper key for each style. removed from the wrist but locked. and holding the hands tight against the post. THE Sl'IKIT COI. in a very few liis moments after he takes is thrown on examination the handcuffs are found to be on his wrists just as they were placed by the audience. very styles of mysterious. forcing through the thin of wood above the rope and through the rope. and by the aid of fingers and teeth tlie j)r()per In some types of handcuffs it is impossible . and when by merely replacing the ends of the rope in the holes from Avhich he removed them.LAIJ. it When it tlie top of the post strikes the chisel. in is bored in the center of the end of the which is is placed a chisel-shaped piece of steel sharpened at the The opening in the and all signs of such an ojwning are concealed by the aid of glue. can allow a most finished. 3 end of the post now carefully closed takes care to start the bit. like of this trick is very many simple tricks. thus releasing the performer. There are only a few handcuffs made in this country. in order that there will be no mistake about getting the hole directly beneath the chisel concealed in the post. When the committee are invited to bore a hole in the post. The curtains of the cabinet are closed and the usual nuini- festations take place. his coat out. sawdust. Yet. The Handcuff Test is a great favorite of the " medium. as shown in Fig. rigid examination of the cords released his hands. the performer comes out of the cabinet place in the cabinet. but. of our third engraving 53 shows the performer tied to the post and the committee hokling the cords. The explanation simple. key can be fitted to the handcuffs. it is directly under the sharp edge of the the nail driven in sliell with a thin layer of wood between. and by them put on him. Before the performance a hole stick or post. but holding the handcuff's in his hand.MYSTERIOUS DISAPPEARANCES. and a little dirt rubljed over it. seals to show that and the persons hold- it was not possible for him to liave ing the nail that are fastened to the testify that they did not feel any movement of the performer or the post. As a final test. the performer lower end and blunt at the upper end. wlio can withdraw his hands from the post and do any trick he chooses.

allotted for this article is limited. which crack he makes sure is there before undertaking the thus holding the key and unlocking the handcuffs. thus releasing the performer." which is known test. allowing him full liberty to perform any trick he wishes.64 MAGIC: STAGE ILLUSIONS AND SCIENTIFIC DIVERSIONS. This genuine bolt can be removed by the performer when the collar is on his neck. . and this chain is passed around a post. As the space as the Spirit Collar. is in the ends of the collar passed a chain. after the on the ^performer's neck. The collar is made Through the openings collar is of brass. This collar is shown in our fourth engraving. If such a pair is placed on the performer aud he cannot use his teeth to hold the key. the collar is decorated with a number of small bolts. which impart to it an additional appearance of strength. is to again apparently fasten himself securely. the writer will explain but one other piece of apparatus used to secure the " medium. and fits closely about the performer's neck. By this carried back and through the padlock which is used to lock the collar. and permitting him securely that there fingers. This loose bolt fits so no danger of any of the committee removing it with their The performer uses a small wrench to remove the bolt. As seen by the cut. These bolts are all false Avith one exception. to get the fiugers to the key -hole. at least it appears so to the audience. as shown in the cut. he slips the key in a crack in the chair or cabinet. arrangement the performer is fastened securel}'' to a post. thus allowing the collar to come apart at the hinge.

each picture being in fact a transparency giving a different effect as lighted is from the rear or entered. it is as seen simply by reflected light. Many of the illusions in the succeeding pages have often been used as an enterit termed " side show science. but a new aspect it is given to each when lights directly behind it are turned on. Seen by the light spectators The black and find themselves in a spectral restaurant. OPTICAL TPJCKS. The second chamber the walls tears are now hung with black throughout." made to all appearances of bones and skulls." Without doubt the most famous of all the illusions in which effects of ligliting are used is " Pepper's Ghost " which was devised by that eminent experimentor tainment in themselves so that might really be on physical and chemical science. or "Tavern of the Dead" ("non-exist. The spectators are here at liberty to seat themselves at the tables and are served with what ihey desire by a mournful waiter dressed like a French mourner with a long crape streamer hanging from his silk hat. From the center of the ceiling hangs what is termed " Robert Macaire's chandelier. of the room these pictures are ordinary scenes. ^^ ing ")." and " No two somewhat incongruous inscriptions. and on the end of each coffin is a burning candle. the figures in appear as skeleit is tons.CHAPTER 11. The prestidigitateiir has always been indebted more or less to the use of reflection from mirrors and j^late glass as an important adjunct in conjuring. and in close juxtaposition are " Requiescat in pace. THE "CABAKET DU NEANT. Around the walls of the room are placed pictures to which the spectator's attention is called by the lecturer. There are a number of variations of the Pepper Ghost of which the " Cabaret du Neant " is an excellent example. The interest of course centers in the ghost illu- on entering the Caharet pass through a long hall hung with Along the walls coffins are placed for tables." The reason for the latter admoni- . smoking. On painted. has been given by the proprietors to a recent Parisian sensation it was also exhibited in sion." The name " C aha ret du Neant. John Henry Pepper. New York.

the one in the coffm sees absolutely nothing out of the com- mon. he is conducted by an attendant to the coffin Entering the stage by the side door. After the restoration to life one or more auditors are put through the same performance. Two rows of Argand burners illuminate his figure. at the word of command the skeleton in its turn slowly disappears. His interest. if he knows what is going on. is centered in watching the changing expression of the spectators. somewhat similar to the second. which is also given by the lecturer. At the end of this second chamber. in which one of the audience is requested to place himself. the draped figure of the spectator appears again. so that the recent occupant of the coffin can see what he has gone through. is that for the success of the illusion an absolutely clear atmosphere is essential. Again. being increased by the fact that at their period of greatest astonishment he is absolutely invisible. The third chamber is now entered. Now. as the spectators watch him. and position. but on . is seen a coffin standing upright. The illusion is perfect to the outer audience. at the back of a stage. although directly before them and seeing them more plainly than ever. Blocks of wood sufficient to bring his are placed for him to stand on in quantity it right height so that the top of just presses against the top of the coffin. the attendant with great care adjusts his height according to head to the and the predetermined THE SUBJECT AND HIS SKELETON.56 MAGIC: STAGE ILLUSIONS AND SCIENTIFIC DIVERSIONS. he gradually dissolves or fades away and in his place appears a skeleton in the coffin. which is then wrapped in a white sheet. and placed in it. tion.

cuts show the scenes between the spectator at the table and the specters. through which his hand passes unobstructed. One does of the auditors as is invited to seat himself at the table on the stage. floor of the stage is represented. To the right is and directly in front of him the coffin with its living occupant. the other burners being turned down. at the other side of the table. and the appearance of a brown-robed monk who acts as Charon to introduce the spectator to his place in the coffin. its 57 stage is a table and seat. side by side. AYhile the description of the lecturer and the ap- pearance and comments of the audience tell him that something very interesting is going on. sees nothing. He sees the other spec- tator seated alone at the THE SHEETED GHOST. moving things. which as accessory has the strains of a funeral march. the performing spectator's idle gestures show that he certainly does not see Or perhaps it is a the glass. and. appears table.OPTICAL TRICKS. Ho it. appears and makes the most alluring gestures toward him who This concludes the exhibition. glass are seen upon the table. while a bottle Suddenly a spirit. they being no mere painted appearances. the remarks will probably fact disclose to him the out of that this time at least he is never their sight. but evidently living. seen Charon. all the walls Leing lined with black. the coffin with its living occupant draped Two other in a sheet and in the other the skeleton which appears in his place. and exhorted to help himself to the liquid. the coffin with its occupant is all that is seen by the spectator. illustrating how active a part the specters take. perhaps of an old man. and stage then he understands the nature of the drama in which he has been an unconscious participator. In one of our illustrations we show. When woman who never sees her. Our large illustration shows preThe cisely how it is done and so clearly that an explanation is hardly needed. "When lighted up by the burners shown near him. . the ringing of deep-sounding bells as room after room is entered. before. To the left are seen the spectators and the performer at the piano discoursing his lugubrious melodies. He leaves the and his place is taken by another.

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is a back of the painting of in a skeleton its a coilin with own set of Aris gand burners. Directly in front of the coffin. by turning up the lights placed. and by the adjustment of his liead by the tendant. Instead of the coffin there is the table and act and in place of the pictured skeleton a live performer there is no dissolving effect. is done with a purpose. In other words. however short he or may be. strongly and when down. is 59 a large sheet which offers is no impediment to the view of the coffin with its occupant. crossing the stage ol)liquely. It covers the body from the shoulders down and extends to the very bottom of the coffin. The magic lantern operator always effect perfect registration is essential. By the blocks on which the at- occupant of the coffin stands. the head of the skeleton. the skull occupying precisely the place of the head. covering the blocks also. presumably the enveloping in a shroud. the rest taking care of Still referring to the large cut. THE FEMALE smRIT. tlie exhibition tall fits out everybody with a skeleton of precisely the same height. is brought into perfect registration with the reflected head The wrapping with the sheet. At one side of the stage. of the clearest plate glass. realizes that to secure a good dissolving In the securing of this lies the secret of the coffin exhibit of the Cabaret du Neant. it Avill be seen that serves to explain the is exhibition in the other chamber. it of the head concealing from the spectators this inaccuracy. down a perfect is dissolving effect ob- skeleton replacvice ing spectator and versa at the will of the exhibitor. turning up one set of burners as the others are turned tained.OPTICAL TRICKS. the draping of the sheet and accurate position itself. chair. when the latter fully illuminated. illumi- When nated. the lights of the real coffin are turned the spectators see reflected from the glass a brilliant image of the pictured By coffin and skeleton. In this at the side of the . thus doing away with all defects of registration which would be inciirred in the persons of spectators of different heights. It screened from view. in the })icture.

balustrade a lie I-ADY. In a few moments the latter is drawn back and there is distinctly seen a woman's body the lower part of which is This body has three heads. mirror there sides jet Behind the is a recess whose with a stage flowers are covered black fabric. the stage position should be taken during one or both performances. stage any object desired the stage.60 MAGIC: STAGE ILLUSIONS AND SCIENTIFIC DIVERSIONS. enters the The side visitor then scene and perceives that on the little stage where the phenombut a enal woman is just appeared. As in many tricks of this kind the showman usually announces that for an additional admission the hidden by a basket of flowers. and the curtains are drawn together and the 2')erformance is over. and to one who knows how it is performed. sits the basket from which issued On an young inclined board which rests against the screen or girls. and the middle head. and finally salute the audience. and it is she who in the exhibiThe lower part of her body tion makes trunk. being reflected I To properly enjoy it. From the scientific as well as scenic aspect. and performers dressed as spirits are made to appear from the glass plate. three ])rilliaut . one in the middle and two others grafted at the base of the neck of the first. The spectators simulupon taneously see their companion sitting at the table and the reflections of the ghosts apparently executing tlieir movements about him. one of these. the interest is vastly enhanced. the exhibition is most interesting. THE THREE-HEADED WOMAN. the middle one. arms. —behind which In this illusion the spectators are separated from the stage by a balustrade is seen the curtain. The heads move their eyes. answer questions and sing. is clothed in costume of light-colored silk. secret of the illusion will be divulged. In of front of the mirror on the THE THHKK-irKADKI) the woman's body. visible nothing large plate of glass slightly inclined towards the audi- ence and its edges hidden by drapery.

" name of " Amphitrite.OPTICAL TRICKS. cut in a screen. hair. over which is stretched transparent muslin. the image is thus made upon the spectator. The bodies of these two girls at the sides are completely covered with fabric of a In front of these three young women are placed powerful lights. below. the curtain of small stage ^ AMPHITKITK rises. There is observed a circular aperture. clouds. is fil covered over with a black fabric and she is supported by a cushion which permits the two other girls to place their necks closely against hers. the light. dead black color. which is presented under the is as When the representation about to begin. there a canvas representing the . and arms of the " body " are covered with powder All the white or light-colored so as to present completely white surfaces. " AMPHITEITE." a is This follows: illusion. surfaces being strongly lighted by the lamps reflect. in the foreground. About six feet behind the latter there is is a scene representing the sky with sea. The heads.

The illusion that is just described Amphitrite an image — may be performed as follows: If a specter analogous to those of Robin. clined inre- 45° with spect to the stage. will exhibit an upright im- age behind the glass. as Am])hitrite is T T. All at once. the table. lying hori- zontally upon a black background the stage. P P. to cause Amphitrite to appear or disappear. A. image will formed in front of the back This a])pear to be canvas. her image will turn in all directions.. lying upon a table.63 3IAGI0: STAGE ILLUSIONS AND SCIENTIFIC DIVERSIONS. diagram: explaining the amphitrite illusion. and she should be illuminated by The muslin that jesters stretched in front of the screen glass. beneath and well illuminated. she will be able to go throiigh her evolutions and bend herself in a circle. Amphitrite should be placed upon an absolutely black background. " Ampliitrite. When the exhibition to is at an end. Finally. a powerful electric light. a woman in the costume of an opera nymph rises from the sea without anything being visible to support her in space. . it will suffice to slide the table upon rails. thus bringing it in front of or behind the glass. M M. during this time. now in one direction. and if. in is our diagram. Her costume should be of a light color with metallic spangles. Now. come forth!" exclaims the person in charge of the show. we imtrans- agine that a l)arent glass. she straightens out m the position of a swimmer about we have make a dive. movable upon its axis. is designed to arrest anything might throw against the and which. and plunges behind the curtain representing the ocean. a person clad in light clothing. and then in another. gracefully moving her legs and arms. sticking thereto might explain a part of the mystery. is revolved. in which she turns round and round.

and that beyond nothing but a black background. as well as a white handkerchief which seems to have been dropped upon the stage by accident. In many of the tricks of talking heads. but the mysAll painters tery of Dr. Another variation of the be described later on." wliich will obtained without the aid of mirrors. LYNN. The still latter is rendered darker THE ILLUSION EXPLAINED. and at a signal the exhibitor removes the shelf. is motion of the All this portion hidden by opaque re- black drapery so ar- ranged as not to flect the light at any point. forming an absolutely dark back- ground.OPTICAL TRICKS. In this illusion which was presented at the " Folies Bergeres. The showman moves the shelf laterally. very intense then immediately there is behind seen intense darkness. At a short distance at the thighs know light that in a very strongly lighted picture the bright colors stand out at is the expense of the half-tones and dark colors. etc. and this effect greater as the becomes brighter. so that a will be seen that the latter are in manner dazzled by everything that this they see absolutely strikes the eye in the foreground. the illusion is obtained by the aid of mirrors. the stage is rather larger than in most of the talking heads and other analogous from the spectator is observed a woman cut off and resting on a small swinging shelf. It is upon this principle that the Dr.. At least six powerful gas burners or electric lights with reflectors it are turned towards the spectators. the remainder of her body being extended nearly upon a board which is capable of swinging and following the shelf. asks is. is Lynn trick is based. Lynn is obtained in a much simpler manner. and the halfThe question which every visitor length body appears suspended in the air.." at Paris. by the brilliant cords of the shelf. is illusion of the "Decapitated Princess. where is the rest of the body ? isolated busts. tricks. a metallic chain and a dagger suspended beneath it. A young girl . shelf The bust and receive light a . of the The lower part of the bust seen a dummy upon which the upper part horizontally woman's body lies. 63 "THE MYSTEEY OF DR.

"BLACK AET. Mysteries of the Yogi. out. The curtain then drops. as has just been explained.'' To the Yogi and Mahatmas of India." or the " Midnight made famous in this country by those master minds The weird illumagic. doubt nearly all of the readers of this article have seen " Black Art presented by one of the above named magicians." of known as " Black Art. has her head ness. yet the number who could No advance a plausible explanation of how it was done. because as soon as one thinks that he has discovered the secret. her body being hidden behind the cloth in the rear of the stage. The lights tlirougliout tlie entire house arc either turned very low or put mentioned above. In this illusion the entire stage froin witli tlie first hung The black velvet. While the published reports of many of the alleged marvelous effects produced by the " wonder workers " of India must be taken with a very large amount of salt. the illusion is sion founded on an idea advanced by the Yogi of India. Take. and armed with the traditional axe of his profession. and Near the exerises in a few moments. out the same size. served for execution. trick is the same as the preceding one. regular footlights are turned out. and the top is covered with black velvet. The that had her head and at her side is the fatal block however. which is in darkThe other. accompanied by an executioner clad in red. it illusion successfully. that consist of a side of the black row of open gas jets ])laeed on a line with the boxes. the magicians and illusionists of Europe and America are indebted for the ideas of many of their best tricks and illusions. the performer produces an effect in direct variance witli the principle on which the illusion appears groove to the rear is to be founded. and a special set are used. lying on the girl's head a round table distinguished perfectly cutioner can be lying on the bed a few feet from seen The body is at the back of the stage. and carried up the outroom. bent far back and hidden in a sort of box. who makes the body. to carry One of these." 64 MAGIC: STAGE ILLUSIONS AND SCIENTIFIC DIVERSIONS. are very few. Harry Kellar and the late Alexander Hermann. as shown in the large engraving. a false cardboard neck contributing to increase the illusion. the one who shows herself to the public. for instance. the stage being somewhat darkened. thus forining a large room lined entirely in black. two persons of the requires. wearing the same costume. makes the head. appears before the audience. with the exception of the special lights . the floor covered with black felt. yet we riiust give these people due credit for being the originators of many tricks from which the modern magician has taken principles on which he has founded and created several of the grandest and most successful illusions of modern times.

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A lifesize skeleton now appears and dances around tlic stage. which are tossed in the air and disappear. which instantly becomes filled with oranges. from which it disappears and is found in ihc. and the wand is passed over the vase. A wave of the wand. and in one is placed a few orange seeds. The oranges are poured into the second. suit. then a second table appears on the left. Both of the vases are shown and proven empty. appears on the magician's the and second vase tables. and the skeleton vanishes. A borrowed watch is placed in one of the vases. and a A large table appears on the right. and the vases are again sho\\n em])ty. a vase appears on one of outstretched hand. and again placed one on each of the tables. from which it is taken by the performer. dressed in a white floating in the air. vase on the other ta1)le. The curtain rises. becomes dismembered. then returned to the first vase. but they finally rearticulate themselves. and in liis hands it becomes two. AN ASSISTANT KEMOVING THE TABLE COVER.€6 MAGIC: STAGE ILLUSIONS AND SCIENTIFIC DIVERSIONS. The number and stylo of tricks performed in tlie mysterious black chamber . Now a rabbit is seen in one of the vases. a appears. disclosing the black chamber. In a moment the magician and a white wand appears which the magician secures. when they disa])p('ar as quickly and as mysteri- ously as they appeared. wave of his hand. the separated parts floating about.

but suffice to 67 an explanation of the ones mentioned above show how " Black Art " is performed.OPTICAL TRICKS. and the magician is dressed in white. The second engraving shows how the assistaiit removes the piece of velvet and causes a table to appear at the magician's command. mstead of pouring them into tbe vase. are almost unlimited. will While the stage is draped in black. The transposi- . with gloves on his hands and a hood over his head. The tables are on the stage. one on the table and the other on the performer's hand. vases are also s-itting on the stage. by removing the velvet. from which the assistant pours them into the vase. whose sight is somewhat dazzled by the open gas jets. made of black velvet. he is not seen by the spectators. THE DISARTICULATED SKELETON. The velvet. rendering tliem invisible. The oranges are in a black velvet bag. pours them into the open mouth of a large black bag held by the assistant just over the lower vase. but as he is dressed in black. There is an assistant on the stage all through the act. but covered with pieces of Ijlack velvet. everything that appears is painted white. To cause the oranges to vanish. the magician. but covered with pieces of black By picking up the covered vases the assistant can cause tbem to appear.

The bag in which it was concealed. cheap apparatus dear at any price. papier mache. costing several hundred dollars to properly stage with the best drapery and accessories. painted white on the outside and black on the inside. This sucli are is prevent the hand of the assistant ^^elug SCCU whcU hc plaCCS it lu the vase. The it. skeleton is made of papier painted white. In vanishing the rabbits the performer merely tosses them assistant places the first one in the vase by means of a black up into a large open-mouthed black bag held by the assistant. THE JOINTED PAPEK SKELETON. and unless is lost. then places the second one in the performer's hands from a second small bag. The manipulation of the rabbit is equally simple. is tion of the watch from one vase to the other just as easy. The reason the inside of is the vases are painted black to o^ih^v^^. . The mache. one of the most expensive of stage it illusions. and fasis tened on a thin board that sawed to shape and covered with One arm and one black velvet. used the proper illusory effect is In magic as well as in other business.68 MAGIC: STAGE ILLUSIONS AND SCIENTIFIC DIVERSIONS. assistant merely removes it it from the vase in which the performer placed and places in the second vase. The tables are made either of wood or papier mache and painted The vases are made of white. leg are jointed so as to be readily removed assistant and replaced by the when he is operating the The last two illustraskeleton. method of tions fully explain the construction and manipulation of the skeleton.

It also reflects the end of the red makes it appear to hang down and thus hanging in front of the table from behind. we perceive . likewise reflects the front leg of the table so as to make it appear at an equal distance from the other side and thus produce the illusion of the fourth fabric leg." it is usually exhibited. Such proximity of the spectator and actor would seem to favor the discovery of the trick. The visitor stands only a few inches away from the table and head. THE LIVING HALF-WOMAN. but on the contrary it is indispensable to its success. illustration almost self- explanatory. This illusion is a very ingenious On entering the small booth in which improvement on the " Talking Head. 69 THE TALKING HEAD. the table. it make it appear continuous under the table. Probably the most mirrors is common Head of all of the illusions which depend uj^on is the Talking uj)on a table. The girl.OPTICAL TRICKS. The apparatus consists only The mirror hides the body of of a mirror fixed to the side legs of the who is on her knees and seated on a small stool^ and reflects the straw which covers the floor so as to TILE TALKING HEAU.

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as shown in our small engraving. . Tiie visitor can see the four legs of the table and can perfectly distinguish the space under the stool. decorated in mosaic in regular reflect designs and the latter in such a to way that they seem uninterruptedly continue The table under the stool. little 71 room decorated with flowers and lights and hung with In front there are two railings and the floor is covered with a In the center is seen a small table on which rests a kind of threecarpet. the whole scene being brilliantly lighted. The lady shows she has arrived by moving her arms and head and speaking and singing. These mirrors not only the designs of the carpet which by their continuity produce the illusion of a vacancy. legged stool supporting a cushion and the half body.OPTICAL TRICKS. but also two table legs located on each side behind the railing. an elegant tapestry. the mirror to the left transmits to the spectators on that side the image of the leg placed on the left and this image seems to them right plays the same rdU with regard to the spectators on that to be the fourth leg of the table. reflect EXPLANATORY OF THE HALF-WOMAN. analogous arrangepresents an legs being conment. its side middle one by nected with the two mirrors. is The secret of the illusion as follows: formed only whose supports are connected by two mirrors that make with each stool is The of a hollowed out disk an angle of forty-five These mirrors rest on the top of the table which was other degrees. to the These mirrors in addition hide the lower part of the girl's body. The mirror side. contrary to the usual custom in any such illusions.

Eider Haggard's celebrated novel " She." exhibited by Powell." In this scene a beautiful young lady mounts a table arranged in an alcove formed by a folding screen. The upper cylindrical screen shown to be entire. and /SKM'^^ K ^^"^^''^^ PREPARED FOR CREMATION. with openings only at the . Above the victim is suspended a cylindrical cloth screen. beneath indicate that the space underneath the table is and four candles shown is open and clear. the most interesting. The it screen is lowered to the level of the table. completely inclosing the subject. During the season at the scientific. The table apparently has four legs. tlie among various interesting things to be seen Eden Musee. well-known illusionist. of 1891-92.'^2 MAGIC: STAGE ILLUSIONS AND SCIENTIFIC DIVERSIONS SHE. perhaps at tlie same time tlie most was the weird spectacle entitled " She. and suggested by the Cave sceue in H.

TUK ESO.1& THE BURNING. ^^^"x" .VPE. .

and lower ignited. Kellar's recent illusions is what lie is Queen of Flowers." One of Mr. places the bones and the fireworks u])on the table.74 MAGIC: STAGE ILLUSIONS AND SCIENTIFIC DIVERSIONS. she immediately escapes through a trap door in the table top. and the specIn tators are forced to conclude that the whole affair is a very clever trick. The operation of now obvious. Wlien closed the apparatus the victim is is in- by the cylindrical screen. with the side panels of the screen. endS. the other two Underneath the table. however. of the of THE FINISH. When the fire is burned out the screen is lifted. with . and converging at the central standard. fact. which the mirrors form two sides. It is. or with a covering of the same color as the back panel. By arrangement the side panels. The back- ground. and represents a mass of flowers and bushes indiscriminately thrown together. closing tlie trap door after her. "THE QUEEN OE FLO WEES. and no openings are seen in tlie folding screen which partly is surrounds the table. obvious that the magician cannot afford to sacrifice such a subject every evening. reflections. The triangular box. and at the firing of the pistol ignites the latter and retires. Close observation does not reveal any way of escape for the young woman. are arranged two plane mirrors at an angle of 90° with each other and 45° being reflections. and nothing remains upon the table but a few smouldering embers and a pile of bones surmounted by a skull. set against curtains. The central standard sup- ports j but two candles. The table has but two legs. Upon the firing of a pistol the occupant of the table and smoke and flame bursting from the screen indicate that the work of destruction is going on within." Our first engraving represents the sees it. which are of the same color as the central or back panel.. it is simply a modification of the beheaded lady and numerous other tricks based upon the use of plane mirrors. pleased to call " The stage as the audience and the last cut will help to explain it to the reader. has a top composed in part of the table top and in part of mirror sections for reflecting the back panel. are reflected in of this means the mirror and appear as a continuation / back 2:)anel. the other two which appear being simply l|. is about ten feet long and eight feet high.

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Kellar says. that is true. ^C\K\A^\. Kellar next brings a semicircular stand which he ])anel at the ])laces in ]\rr. extreme right and left of the audience can still see through the summer house. inclosing the stand. There being no doors or screens or curtains of any kind. At the roof is fixed a brass rod in the little form of a semicircle.76 MAGIC: STAGE ILLUSIONS AND SCIENTIFIC DIVERSIONS. front of the middle height of the floor. The audience usually wonders what these lights are for in this strange place. for the setting. tliose on the quite behind the curtain. not only because he told . the spectators have the satisfied feeling that there is no deception there. The bottom is a floor raised about a foot from the stage^ and in front of each of the three divisions made by the poles between the stage proper and the floor of this improvised summer house is placed an electric light. only they don't realize how them very much except by dazzling them. liowever. ENTIIANCE TO THE CABINET. for. So much as they are meant to do. from whicli hangs a curtain This. much they are seeing. and they believe him. these lights do not disturb blue sky above. They can. but as audiences always accept anything shown them by the prestidigitateur. cannot do much good. as Mr. for they can see all there is to see. There is a little flat roof which projects out about three feet from the bottom of the screen and is supported by four red j^oles.

them so. the spectators do These. tbat is." it is the head of an Egyptian who was accused of treason and beheaded.OPTICAL TRICKS. anyone can walk from behind the scenes to the stand behind the curtain. form a passageway through which not notice the mirrors. while the audience is still keeping guard with its ever watchful eye. of course. running from the iloor to the last The engraving will explain matters. 11 but because they can see with their own In a convincing! moment is the curtain is eyes. . to the The house. The head is exhibited in ILLUSION OF THE DECAPITATED PRINCESS. summer flowers painted "THE DECAPITATED In this Princess illusion the exhil)itor states that PEINCESS. two center poles roof of the lines extending from the background represent double mirrors. What coukl be more withdrawn and a beautiful lady little surrounded by flowers seen standing on the platform. each mirror consists of two mirrors back to back. On account of the indefinite arrangement of the on the back scene in monotonous design.

At the proper angle the bottom of is cliair is reflected in the mirror. upholstering on the inside of the chair arms. The ends of the mirror rest in folds of the fan-shape "3^t TIIK DK( Al'ITATED PRINCESS — EXPLANATION OF ITJ. There is a hole in the rear curtain directly opposite the hole in the chair back. At the back the level of the tops of the chair arms.'^8 MAGIC: STAGE ILLUSIONS AND SCIENTIFIC DIVERSIONS. as it is concealed This opening is by a mirror that an opening just below is not seen from the placed between the arms of the is chair at an angle of 45°. at the The chair upliolstered in red plusli upon two swords lying across the arms of the and is placed close to the curtain of the chair back of the recess. and the upper edge concealed by laying one of the swords on impression that one as may tlic be seen in the other illustration.TTSION. is The lower edge is of the mirror resting on the bottom of the chair it. leaving the looking at the back. The folds in the upholstering of the inside of the arms eirectually conceal the ends of the mirror. front. and is it rejioses a curtained recess chair. through .

curtain in the rear five feet. One sees the rear of the stage." A small partitioned off curtains. isolated This head the top and the bottom. The exhibitor then disappears behind the side scenes with the candle. swords. the second sword is placed at with her chin just the back of her head and a wide lace collar that she wears around her neck is The lady who is adjusted so as to rest nicely on the two. passed through the curtain.OPTICAL TRICKS. a young is girl's head. must be close to the chair. is IN THE CENTER OK A STAGE. on every side. . but the side curtains are is removed about The board padded so as to make the lady as comfortaljle as possible. suspended in AN ISOLATED HEAD space. In the center of tlie stage. "STELLA. 79 seat of the to impersonate the princess takes her position on this board above the edge of the mirror. which there passes a board supported at one end by resting on the chair and at the other end by a small box or any convenient article.". The following stage is illusion l)y is similar to the " Decapitated Princess. the neck of which starts from a satin collar. the board in position. The head speaks and smiles and finally blows out a lighted candle. The second The illustration shows it. the sides. and the brilliant illumination leaves no portion in shadow. with the lady lying on her head on the swords and the lace collar in position.

in fact. every point of the reflected M I. '^Plie farce of and the candle which was blowing out the candle and ciirrying it behind the scenes was only designed to make the spectators believe tlie was the same candle that was seen at rear of the stage. He draws out a panel in the back of the stage. c C equaling I. C. The arrangement will be better understood by reference to the annexed diagram. The absence of the body is therefore apparently demonstrated to the visitors. indicated substituted for the girl's head." from line. for the spectators are not aware of the diifcrence that exists between the arrangement of the y)laco wliere the bust appears and of that of the place wh(!r(! the showman is '' In the illusion of walking. from the line. wlien. but much farther off. by virtue of the optical law that " an object reflected latter at a distance equal to appears to be behind the from a mirror that which separates it it. only the clown is and through this the mirror was. under the head. In the same way. now.80 MAGIC: STAGE ILLUSIONS AND SCIENTIFIC DIVERSIONS. which belongs to the same illusion. he will believe that he sees the back of the stage. he sees nothing but a reflection of the ceiling in the mirror. C C. the reflection from the front of the ceiling will produce the illusion of tlie stage floor. M L. and is in the direction the body would occupy if the head possessed one. The it DIAGRAM EXPLANATUliY OF THE PIIENUMKNUN. And will The spectator. . The table was vertical fifiiily flxcd to it it was liorizonfal. The illusion was oljtained by means of a simple mirror which starting from In the upper part of the back of the stage descended obliquely to the front. to at upon the M the spectator 0. Now. mirror. as we liuve just said. the intermediate points. will appear to be situated L. when in reality it was only a duplicate. will appear to be L. in fact. Now. the distance. Tliis fact still further contributes to increase the illusion. loc. and upon is it directly the center of this there was an opening which was concealed by the satin collar young girl passed her head. P M. reflected at l)e C will appear to the point. and through the aperture thus formed the spectator very distinctly sees the top of a table Now this aperture a candle which the head has just extinguished. as it seems. cated the ' point. The inclination of the by a gold rod designed to hide the junction of the mirror and the side. be the same for all point. So. reflected at L'. then. when in reality he sees only the reflection of M I. will believe that he sees the line. Stella " the aperture tlirough which the table was seen was in reality at the top.

and notably that of the magic cabinet. lo and behold! the closet is empty. but there is tliere is no l:»ar in the center. when. and he also disappears. and which appears to be empty when Pierrot or Cassandra lifts the curtain that shields its entrance. as sliown in our observed on one of the sides in the interior a bracket a few centimeters in length. and every one being able to look under are justly stupefied. a shelf. there is seen in the center. lets He then asks some of the specits interior. back and above this. repeated the same experiment with the latter open. Then the doors are closed again. fraud would seem to be an impossibility. the object being to remove all ])ossibility of a communication with the stage beneath.OPTICAL TRICKS. 81 HOUDIN'S MAGIC CABINET. and the danseuse makes her appearance. The lecturer. When the Vv^itnesses have made themselves certain of this fact. But. dark- colored cabinet. The box into which the harlequin takes refuge. and causing the disappearance therein of an individual while the doors were closed. woman has disappeared. These apparatus were formerly much employed by magicians EohertHoudin. The showman turns this cabinet around and shows that there is nothing abnormal about it externally. the showman young man in his place. The following is an example of one of the scenes that — may occur with them: When the curtain rises. for instance. and them examine which is entirely empty. and then opened. and finding nothing changed therein. is a] so a sort of magic cabinet. after showing the cabinet. tators to come up close to is it. and a little longer mounted upon legs that are than those of ordinary cabinets. A young woman dressed as a danseuse then comes on the stage and enters tlie cabinet. ornamented with mouldings. of performing a few experiments more than does one just allows a is Thus. all sides. of the stage a large. nor any hiding-place. when the to enter. and a certain number of them even consent to remain behind the cabinet and see nothing of the experiment. In a few moments the doors are opened again. At the end of the experiment the witnesses examine the cabinet again. These legs are provided with casters. The cabinet being thus surrounded on it. while the young woman found This is a very surprising substitution. and so on. they station themselves around the stage. In a series of lectures delivered a Institution. In another style of cabinet engraving. This arrangetlie ment permits described. the young woman having disappeared. a professor of physics employed on the stage for few years ago at tlie London Polytechnic unmasked the secret of some of the tricks producing illusions. There no double bottom. in the latter case. and. so quick was the 6 . and the doors are closed upon her.

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OPTICAL TRICKS. 83 .) .

A MYSTIC MAZE. at the same time.^4 MAOiC: STAGE ILLUSIONS AND SCIENTIFIC DIVERSIONS. and the three persons. Three or four persons massed in one of the angles present the illusion of a compact and mixed crowd standing upon a sidewalk is and awaiting the passage of a procession. the triangular prism. A very simple geometrical construction. The accompanying figure gives an idea of this remarkable effect. sees his image reproduced indefinitely in groups of six until. the latter cease to be visible. allows us to see that the image of any point whatever placed reproduced indefinitely by groups of six images distributed symmetrically around points regularly spaced in the prolongations of the planes of the three glasses. The hats waving in the air convert so the peaceful waiting into an enthusiastic manifestation. Five or six persons may occupy. of which the sides are about six feet wide. the experiment is nothing more than an application of the principle of the old kaleidoscope enlarged and revived. as A person large as possible. Let us imagine that three perfectly plain and very clear mirror glasses. placed in the interior of this prism will see his image reflected a very large number of times. in the sense that the observer has before his eyes the successive reflections of his own image. and one which we recommend our young readers to carry out as an exercise in optics. which much the more surprising in that it is made by but half a dozen persons at the maximum. therefore. A person. We present an engraving of a very interesting optical illusion produced with only three mirrors. by the simple application of the principle that the angle of incidence in the center of this triangle of glass plates will be is equal to the angle of reflection. form a prism whose base is an equilateral triangle. and whieli they enter through a trap all in the floor. By multiplying the mirrors the large number of different effects can be obtained. When these five or six persons are walking al^out in directions. . Upon the whole. and that the objects are replaced with living beings movable at will. they present the aspect of a tumultuous and agitated crowd commenting upon grave events. the successive reflections attenuating the intensity of the images. whose images reflected ad infinitum produce the curious result that we call attention to. would have much trouble to believe that they were the subject of an illusion.

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the human head will disappear and maj be replaced by the photo- . when the shutter is open. by reflected light. is On if exposing the shutter open. As the glass is transparent there may be seen through it.86 3IAGIC: STAGE ILLUSIONS AND SCIENTIFIC DIVERSIONS. but are transparent when observed by transmitted The metalization of glass with platinum was discovered a great many years ago by FIG. the mirror to the light to look at one's self in the ordinary way. but the illusion effective. Platinized glass plates are no longer a novelty. PLATINIZED GLASS. 1. latter there is This property of transparency by transmitted light affords a very clever surprise. so it occurred to the inventors to utilize this transparency by placing an image or photograph between the panel and the glass. the Messrs. In a panel behind the an ai)erture closed by a shutter. is very at The mirrors give an image in the ordinary way when looked light. everything that is on the other side. Dode. The mirrors are set in frames.

Electric light used to illuminate the . which is placed hehind the mirror. the effect is rather trick. startling. In the illusion we illustrate the head of the devil whose body is hidden by two mir- FIG. 87 graphic portrait or a horned devil.OPTICAL TRICKS. As he moves his head and smiles. as in some of the illusions we have already described. -i. rors inclined at an angle of is forty-five degrees.

reflection the This latter gave by image of Faust. and the man's figure slated. it was skillfully obtained was not a double statue. . and these same arms form Faust's face is is who holds tliom crossed beliind his back. lier arms in front of her. well concealed by the sculptor. but the by means of the folds of Marguerite's robe. figure of Faust ]n reality. sented Goethe's Marguerite standing before a mirror. as before by means of the folds of the woman's robe. It repre- there was a statue that attracted much attention from the visitors. Marguerite holds those of Faust. carved in Marguerite's back hair. Paris. as shown in our engraving. The artifice was MARGUERITE AND FAUST. STATUE GIVING A DOUBLE IMAGE.MAOIG: STAGE ILLUSIONS AND SCIENTIFIC DIVERSIONS. obtained. At the Italian exhibition held a few wears ago in the Champ de Mars.

it is really is supposed to an ingenious application of mechanics. lies down upon the plank. She holds a bouquet in her hand. stepping on a footstool. The first trick in the regards shall describe. The tricks in this chapter are gone which we before." Herrmann won for himself a firm place Houdin. MISCELLANEOUS STAGE TRICKS. representing the fin de siecle executed ^^ork. A lady performer who is supposed to represent Du Manner's " Trilby " enters and. and other exhibitions are referred to as the gaore PREPAKING TRILBY of their quality. In Herrmann's illusion of "Trilby. As . which bouplay a part. with its peirfect and finish. detail of the civilized world.CHAPTER III. S COUCH. His carefully was a standard among perit formances of natural masic. is called " The late Professor The Illusion of Trilby. but are rather of a no less interesting than those which have more miscellaneous nature." hypnotism will be seen. A plank is placed upon the backs of two chairs.

still resting and the position changes to an inclined one and back to the horizontal one. The assistant behind the scene ])ulls u])on the tackle and works the handle. Herrmann. unknown to the audience. so that Trilby's . air. the bar is thrust forof the cuts ence. and In one by one removes the chairs. drapery. up and down which a movable slide works. its socket end. The other passes. show the progress of the performance as seen by the audiBehind the scenes is a strong explains the mechanism. walking around her as he does Then he makes some on the board. drapery at the back having hitherto concealed Trilby with her bouquet the curtains. and nothing is to be seen further. THE AEKIAL SUSPENSION OP TKILBY. The fair now effectually conceals it as it emerges from behind The performer. and the lady and board remain in the response to his passes the lady. and in front a socket. MAGIC: STAGE ILLUSIONS AND SCIENTIFIC DIVERSIONS. while apparently it sedulously arranging the drapery. and can also be thrust in and out through the journal box. and lower the slide. carefully arranges the so.90 quet. the lady by passes is supposed to be waked from her trance and steps down. rises. A bar carrying at its rear end handles. chairs and plank are removed. guides the socket and causes to grip the board. Tackle is provided to raise frame. is journaled in the slide. Two The third ctit ward. Finally the chairs are replaced. When Trilby has been placed upon her board couch. has its own part to play. shown in the upper right-hand corner of' the same cut. per- former. who is supposed to be Svengali. and a workman behind the scenes is intrusted with its manipulation.

By manipulating the tackle she can be raised and lowered.MISCELLANEOUS STAGE TRICKS. Those who are to parof sitting in a swing around points of support. showing that there is no deception about that portion of the display. giving the occupant what .' which apparently wliirls is most properly described as a new sensation. server slight A close ob- may notice of a agitation the drapery or curtains be- hind the stage as the bar is pushed out and withdrawn. before the bar in place or after it has been withdrawn. which are removed. After the board Avith is vacated. about. supported by the bar. and the assist- ant lowers Trilby upon them. is around the in place or after it is reclining lady before the bar is withdrawn. he can walk behind her. his complete excursions are restricted to the time is Hence when she resting on the chairs. completely it will be seen. can only walk THE ILLUSION EXPLAINED. may now be enjoyed by all. but cannot go completely around her. The magician. THE "HAUNTED The supreme happiness its SWING. its fall. Svengali throws it down upon the stage. When is the bar in place. she seems to float in air. and. but the attention of the audience in general is so taken up with the performance proper that this disturbance is overlooked by them." and has been in most successful operation at Atlantic City and at the Midwinter Fair near San Francisco. accompanying noise and disturbance. During the wakis ing passes the socket detached and the bar is withdrawn. It is termed the "haunted swing. the chairs are replaced. 91 weight leaves the chairs one by one. By a the handles she can be tilted giving wonderfully good Finally effect.

a bar crossing the room. near the coiling. linngs a large swing.93 31A QIC: STAGE ILLUSIONS AND SCIENTIFIC DIVERSIONS. swing— and there may be quite a —are ushered into a small room. After the people have taken their . which is pro- vided with seats for a number of people. From ticipate in the apparent gyrations of the number who enjoy it simultaneously TRUE POSITION OF THE SWING.

Gradually those in feel after three or ILLUSION PRODUCED BY A RIDE IN THE SWING. until presently four movements that their swing is . the attendant pushes the car 93 and it starts into oscillation like it any other swing. The apparent amplitude of the oscillations increases more and more. going rather high. but this it not all. The room door is closed. places.MtSCELLANtlOJJS STAGE TRICKS.

The never imagines that it is an electric lamp. it. the movement brought gradually to a stop. so that seems demonstrably impossible for the swing to pass between bar and ceiling. of Ijiege. After keeping this up for some time. and in a few seconds. so that this adds to the deception materially. THE The cyclo " SCURIMOBILE." is peculiar gun shown in the cut ]\r. near securely fastened to the table. " the old cat dies. of the chair with a hat on baby carriage^ All contribute to the mystification. imparting a most weird sensation to the occupants. It continues apparently to go round and round this way. increasing the arc in the swing imagine that the room is stationary while they are whirling is through space. Those who have tried it say the sensation is most peculiar and the deception perfect. a sufficient number of back and forth swings being given at the finale to carry out the illusion to the end. Ik'lgium. and of the Even though one is in- kerosene lamp to be inverted without disaster. as the children The door of the room is opened and the swinging say. until its movements begin gradually to cease and the complete rotation is succeeded by the usual back and forth swinging. but concealed by the shade. of the The same full of is to be said of the pictures cupboard chinaware. named after its inventor." At this time the people to correspond with the movements forth. fastened in place.94 3IAGIG: STAGE ILLUSIONS AND SCIENTIFIC DIVERSIONS. Alessandro known as the inventor of a uniThe " scurimobile " is a gun with two barrels is also . starting of the swing. the bar is bent crank fashion. of course. To make it the thing more utterly mysterious. while the room rotates about the suspending bar. and the light supplied by a small incandescent lamp within the chimney. At the beginning of operations the swing may be given a slight push. It is What is apparently a kerosene lamp stands on a table. taking a complete rotation. is which in visitor it its turn is fastened to the floor. and naturally thinks that would be impossible for a hanging on the wall. Scuri and a quadruple cornet. describing a full circle about the bar on which it hangs. the deception is said to be so complete that passengers involuntarily seize the arms of the seats to avoid being precipitated below. everything being." party leave. is During the entire exhibition the swing practically stationary. They swing it back and through Avhich it moves until it goes so far as to make The operatives do this without special machinery. the whole swing seems to whirl completely over. the operators outside the room then begin to swing the room it off itself. Scuri. formed of the secret before entering the swing. The illusion is based on the movements of the room proper. which is really a large box journaled on the swing bar. The room at hand. hold of the sides and corners of the box or " room. is as completely furnished as possible.

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. each shot fired. therefore. which can be aimed Both cartridges are automatically ejected after It is also possible to use only one barrel in the ordinary way. etc. is made from a point more distant from the objects If the observer steps back ten yards. The adjustment is effected by moving a ring located on the under side of the gun. and measures the distance or angle between the two barrels. long. but. lamp globes. he will know that in the second position he first was? just twice from the objects as in the first position. It on the contrary. and it is almost impossible to obtain the grain of the screen is upon the photographic plate. and now competing with the most noted mediums in the of physical apparatus. and also objects covered with platino- cyanides (used by Eoentgen) and with calcium tungstate. are becoming the indispensable coadjutors of surgeons. to work the glass in such a way as to prevent any Such experiments will certainly be made ere irregularity in the radiograph. zinc sulphate. and finds that the graduation indicates just one-half of the value obtained at as far first. the angle between the barrels being adjustable. a graduation being provided for this purpose. the action of the X electric lamps. been devoting himself for a long time to experiments with the Eoentgen rays in the which all is apparatus of kinds. only the trouble of selection in . like glass. because the radiographs obtained up to the present. cases. Then first the same operation sighted." The X rays. Eadiguet. encumbered with and perhaps a useful experiment due to accident. and glass One day he perceived that tliese glass objects. at different objects. shone in the darkness. it is the fantastic side of the discovery that we shall present to our readers. under Here again was an amusing rays. after even of physicians. the property of becoming luminous in darkness under the rays. In the cut the inventor is shown aiming at two balls placed about a yard apart.96 MAGIC: STAGE ILLUSIONS AND SCIENTIFIC DIVERSIONS.. liave. This operation will give distances with but more exact results can be obtained by means of a simple trigonometric formula when the angle between the barrels sufficient accuracy in most is measured. " THE NEOOCCULTISM. and diamonds. Useful. Porcelain. the well known manufacturer laboratory. so that the objects are ten yards from the observer's position. for the present. enamels. The pivot of the barrels is so arranged that it is easy to sight two objects at the same time. by means of artificial screens. easy. have been In a really good only when the sensitive bodies have been in small crystals. action of the X We have. M. Another valuable feature of this new gun is its applicability as a range finder. pulverulent state they are nearly insensible to the X rays. The observer first sights two objects which are at about equal distances from him. has domain of the marvelous.

because the spirits are in an mood and disposed to be eoyish. ARRANGEMENT FOR A STRIKING EXPERIMENT WITH THE X KAYS The following will prove a scene sufficiently if weird to put the most intrepid it worldlings in a flurry 7 some one of our friends takes into his head to give . 9t order to get up a " spirit seance " with every certainty of success.MISCELLANEOUS STAGE TRICKS. wliile genuine spiritual seances fail in ill most cases. as well known.

The is first figure that we present hcrewitli its ('xliil)its a Kulinikorfr coil.98 MAOIC: STAOE ILLUSIONS AND SCIENTIFIC DIVERSIONS. spectacle thereof before they have read them the mysterious the trick. which of placed here to show the operation in entirety. an exposure of TIIK Ari'AUITlUN. But. as the first effect .

so fertile. and whose eyeglasses alone have held their own before this ghastly apparition. since he contents himself with water. Let us now put out the light and a surprise! set the Euhmkorff coil in actjyn.Miscellaneous stage trivks. a glass. This apparatus. is Armed with and fork. who has disappeared. and the spirit of invention there is no doubt that before long ladies will be giving a place in the programme of their soirees to this up-to-date spiritualism. which not very bulky. while his light consists of a single candle. It must be remarked it is that. In the experiment under considerabout a knife ation a diner (who to is doubtless near-sighted. this apparatus is some distant room. and a candle sliine in space with the light of glow-worms. he attacks his beefsteak. but he assuredly a greater eater than drinker. allowable for the most incredulous members gentleman tightly to his chair. The objects designed to become luminous is are placed as near to the tube as possible. its 'jd vibrations would be to attract tbe attention. moreover. . desire. and then disappear. since he wears eyeglasses) do justice to his breakfast. and those multiply. if they during the entire time of the experiment. may be placed Ijehind a door or be concealed under black cloth. and. to hold his hands and feet It is scarcely necessary to explain how the latter is performed. Finally. those are simply gloves covered with the As same sub- stance and fixed to the extremity of long sticks that are moved in all directions by confederates. hands are seen moving over the heads of the spectators. only to appear anew. is Such scenes may naturally be varied to infinity. What A plate. whom it rays is is is a question of transporting into the domain relegated to of the marvelous. and render luminous the glass objects covered with zinc sulphide. The cur- rent that produces the X led into the Crookes tube by wires. in order to render the experiment more conof the i)arty to tie the clusive. to complete the illusion. a water l)Ottle. for the mysterious hands. A sinister guest in the form of a skeleton sits opposite the place occupied by the near-sighted gentleman. A black curtain on the other side of the table conceals from tlie spectators a skeleton covered with zinc sulphide. and consequently the sus- picions of the s^jectators. The X rays pass through the black cloth on the door that conceals the Crookes tube and also through the body of the gentle- man.

formed as follows: Upon a table near the magician was placed a it ball of soft wax attached to a string which ran to the side scenes. After the experiment a simple scraping with the finger nail removed every trace of the trick. 1. on a small table and the mask The magician then brings the table still and the mask continues to move. Fig. the prestidigitateur." the " mask of Balsamo/' and the method This illusion is a variation of the enchanted " death's of producing the illusion. as. The skull replaced by a wooden mask laid flat answers questions by rocking slightly.loo IIAGIC: iyTAO'L' ILLUSIONS ANL SClLNTlFlU LlVEliSlUNS. Our engraving shows both the " death's head. After passing the skull around to be examined. the same color as the The secret of the trick is that part of the wood which forms the chin is replaced by a small strip of iron which is painted mask so that it cannot be seen. to the astonishment of the onlookers. Vic.-^ The Mask of Ralsamo. to on the glass plate bends forward and seems to salute the The nodding of the " death's head " was utilized in a number of indicate the number when dice was thrown. Under the influence of the passes of the prestidi- gitateur the skull spectators. This trick was per- TIIEATKICAL SCIKNCE. ways. THE MASK OF BALSAMO.— The Kiiclmnteil Death's Head. The is Isola Brothers used electricity in a somewhat similar illusion. into the midst of the spectators." head " which was for a long time the attraction of the Eobert-Houdin Theater. an electro-magnet is let into the top of the table so that the cores shall be opposite the strip of iron . wliere could be pulled by a confederate. in laying it upon the table. 3. fixed the ball of wax at the top of it.

while the other to the cover of the table. . and the sharp blow table is replaced by a quick succession of sounds. when the lol mask is laid upon the table. producing anblow. Upon the same principle is Robert Houdin's heavy chest and magic drum. The table may from a distance by employing conductors passing through the legs of the table and under the carpet. Contact is made l)y means of a pusli button somewhere in the side scenes. and connection is made through the legs of the table when the legs are set on the foreordained place. electro-magnet. is contact made at a Thus num- ber of places. carried in the lower part of the table. A The rapping and talking table battery is may be made by carrying out the is same idea. all the the contains of mechanism in itself.31ISCELLANE0US STAGE TRICKS. of the battery. ^Yhen the hand is is raised the circuit broken. it can be moved to any part of the room. and the electro-magnet attractthe toothed one. By subbe also operated RAPPING AND TALKING TABLE. where the is three legs join. The top of the table in two parts. the lower of which is hollow and the top being very thin. ing the armature produces a sharp blow. the cover bends and the flat lightly pressed table is the This closes the circuit. circle touches upon. other sharp By is running the hand lightly over the table the cover caused to bend successively over a certain portion of its circumference. the rapping spirits stituting a small telephone receiver for tlie may be made like talking ones. In the center of the hollow part placed an electro-magnet. the wires run under the stage. one of the wires of which connect with one of the poles is connected with a flat metallic circle glued Beneath this circle and at a slight distance from When it there is a toothed circle connected with the whole pole of the battery. Electric insects may be constructed on the same artificial ])lan and give a very life- appearance when placed on an bunch of flowers in a flower pot. is This for very useful as spirit table rappings.

and the beginning of the present. keeping circuit successively has been set down. a very by the curious experiment. At the end of the last century TlIK INVISIUI-t: WOMAN.102 MAGIC: STAGE ILLUSIONS AND SCIENTIFIC DIVERSIONS. was wonderfully popular at Paris. . When the pot is raised a drop of mercury closing the which occupies the bottom of the pot will roll over the bottom. battery is The concealed in the top. and one which was looked upon as marvelous place took representation The credulous. THE INVISIBLE WOMAN. the pot until motion in them on different insects.

in his pamphlet. had for a frontis- piece the engraving which we reproduce herewith and which invisible is exi)lains tlie whole experiment. explains that above the ceiling darkish chamber. at the pleasure of the experimenter. he even felt upon it the action of a he presented any object whatever in front of the mouthpiece. Ingennato. People were lost in conjecture as to the secret of experiment. The sound traversed a space of about six inches. there was here merely an ingenious application of a scientific principle. I). an answer immediately came from The box was suspended freely from the ceiling. while it is thoroughly was taken up under the name of "^Eolian Harps'' by Eobert-IIoudin. was provided with two panes of glass that permitted of seeing that it was To one of the extremities was fixed a speaking trumpet. . E. and then answered through the speaking tube. The spectator entered a well lighted hall in which. wbo introduced several modifications of it. it was empty and tlie tliat isolated in space. could be When made to swing at the extremity of the chains. there was a box suspended by four brass chains attached by bows of ribbon. and the following the explanatory legend appended to the original engraving: " Questioner: ' Frances. at the old 103 Capuchin convent. tliat slie looked at tbe whicli was skillfully hidden by a hanging lamp. in part of a window. r> B C. When a visitor spoke iiL the latter. The box. D): " ' A stick with " The entire assembly at once: ' It is incomprehensible! Ingennato. and object presented to her through a small aperture." This tract.' 3nSCELLANE0US STAGE TRICKS. he was answered by a hollow voice. what is this that I have in my hand? '^ ''Frances (after looking through the a crooked handle. in which Frances was concealed. mysterious breath. and asked the voice to name it. that separated the speaking tube from the speaking trumpet. revealed the Woman mystery in a 2:)amphlet published in 1800 under the title of " The Invisible and Her Secret Unveiled. and when he placed his face near the box. vibrated as if they were made to resound by invisible hands. The experiment which we are about to describe. four harps were arranged in a semi-circle on These harps. A physicist. tliere was a low. When the experiment was perthe stage of the Polytechnic Institution. The woman of the Capucmin convent was named Frances. As usual in these kinds of impostures. which was surrounded by a grating. liidden in the wall. now rare. scientific. J. and it the speaking tube.' little peep-hole. formed by Wheatstone in 1855. Among the unlikely theories that were put forth was of the invisibility of a person o])tained by unknown processes. absolutely empty. MAGIC HAEPS.

to interrupt the vibrations supporting the latter were divided at two inches above the could be cut off between the instruments and the harps. operate through the intervention of mediumistic spirits. after passing through the floor. and two others upon the sounding boards of violins. from communication with the instrument below by turning it When Robert-Houdin introduces the illusion. effect was produced by fixing to tlie sounding board of each of them vertical rods of fir-wood wliich passed through the floor of the stage and ceiHngs. another upon the sounding board of a violoncello. the rods Each harp floor. into the cellar of the Institution. . This stage was traversed stage elevated in the very a which. thanks to the careful preparations and the elegant mise en schie. where one of them was fixed upon a sounding This board of a piano.EOLIAN HARP EXPEUIMENT. rested upon harps by two fir-wood rods placed in the hands of skillful players. he used midst of the spectators. At the command of the prestidigitateur two other harps supported upon the upper extremity of the rods executed a concert which was very successful. Of course the harps were supposed to around upon its axis. In order to render it possible .104 MAGIC: STAGE ILLUSIONS AND SCIENTIFIC DIVERSIONS.

with no ajiparatus elaborate outlits. jiainted white Behind the on the con- vex side. as shown in Fig. so as to represent the half of an Qgg. A. 2). and the modern magician appears clad The in ordinary evening dress. As soon as the haiul kerchief no longer appears externally. /i 1 . of wood (Fig.CHAPTER IV. It is this shell. and. inclosing a small handkerchief exactly like the first. which is beyond the suspicion of concealment. All of these things have now passed away. and long folds. it as a storeroom for objects of the easiest Some have been published iu those journals. to which it can be perfectly fitted in one direction or the other. sometimes. was not one of those that served for the experiment. In the old days the mau of mystery appeared on the stage clad iu a robe embroidered with cabalistic figures. Two but it eggs. and on the concave side offering the same aspect as the interior of the egg-cup. CONJURING TRICKS. but they are believed to be the best which using ceal. We shall now ex})lain how these invisible transfers are effected. furniture is all selected with special reference to the apparent impossibility of which the prestidigitateur wishes to conand simplest of modern tricks that anyone with little The tricks iu this chapter are or no practice can perform are very'feffective. 1. far from being all which have been published in the Scientific Atnerican and the Scientific American Supple nieiit. while the handkerchief has passed into the egg-cup (Fig. • ^ In this trick we have an Qgg in an egg-cup. at all. which the prestidigitateur covers with a hat. The table in the center of the its stage was covered with a velvet cloth embroidered with silver. Having described some of the illusions wliich are ])rodiiced with the aid of we now come to the more simjile tricks which are produced with smaller and less expensive apparatus. which has invisibly left the place that it occupied under the hat. and then he rolls a small silk handkerchief between his hands. C.. the ample folds of which could well conceal a wdiole trunkful of paraphernalia. TRICK WITH AN EGG AND A HANDKERCHIEF. 2.2. 3). which reached the ground. genuine and entire. suggested endless possibilities for concealment. wei-e truly placed in plain view in a basket. as may be seen in the section in Fig. basket was placed a half shell. he opens his hands and shows the Q2.

by this means disappeared in the egg-cup. Then.106 3IAGIC: STAOE ILLUSIONS AND SCIENTIFIC DIVERSIONS. upon the egg-cup (Fig. However. they are usually emi)loyed in preference to other objects. 2). Jiut. Such it is the case in the experiment which we are about to present. It is almost useless to add that the metallic egg it. he with the right hand quickly turned the shell upside down. without too great must be con- that they are looking at from some little distance in order that the spectators an effort of the imagination. even seen close by. 3. THE CONE OF FLOWERS. are replaced by paper or is feather ones. may be easily concealed either with the palm of the hand that holds or with the handkerchief. natural flowers. stuffed into it the handkerchief that he seemed simply to roll and compress between his hands. The prestidigitateur. containing an oval aperture (F. that the prestidigitateur placed the left TRICK WITH AN KGG AND HANDKERCHIEF. the trick . in most cases. and which. fessed. requires to be seen nuiy. the bulk of which more easily reduced. 2). In prestidigitation flowers have in arul tiie all times played an important part. The shell. therefore. assumed the appearance that it presents in Fig. s^jreading out. be led into the delusion genuine flowers. while with hand he covered the whole with a hat with which he concealed the operation. since they give experiments a pleasing aspect. espe- cially when it is necessary to conceal their presence. having afterward secretly seized with his right hand a hollow egg of metal. and the handkerchief. Fig.

we see opposite us the petals 1. when it is capable of expanding freely. and pointing in opposite directions. )'et prestidigitateur takes a newspajier It is impossible to into a cone before one's suppose the existence here of a double bottom. 1 and 4.CONJURING TRICKS. is exterior two petals. band of paper of the same color. and thin D. formed of steel THE CONE OF FLOWKKS two strips soldered together at the bottom. The number of them even becomes so great that they soon more than fill the cone and drop on and cover the floor. opens the flower and gives it its voluminous aspect. A snuill. surprises one to the lor ance of more or previous. 3. Each flower consists of four petals of various colors. united and held together by means of a thread or a rubber band (Fig. only the back of which he allows the spectators to see while he is forming the paper cone. becomes filled with flowers that have come from no one knows where. anterior sides. less same degree as all those that consist iu causing the appearbulky objects where nothing was perceived a few moments and forms it The eves. gentlv shaken. cut with a punch out tissue of very thin paper. of the flower. 2. where they are lettered A and B. and the cone. Quite a large number of these flowei's (a hundred or more). The two sides of the flowers employed are represented in Fig. gummed above. spring. 3. Mdiile B shows us the petals 2 and 3 united in the same manner on the opposite very light side. C) makes a package small enough to allow the operator to conceal it in the palm of his hand. A. 2. Upon examining Fig. . and is concealed by a fixed to the It is this spring that. and 4 gummed together by the extremities of their Fig.

This experiment over paper. in speaking of aniline colors. If. paper. THE MAGIC EOSEBUSH. and the phenomenon causes great surprise to the spectators who are not ill the secret. the latter immediately becomes red. and then when a visit is received from an amateur of horticulture. the flowers of which become red when alcohol or cologne is poured over them. in which aniline colors are very soluble. be poured over the paper. comes in the form of iridescent crystals. we tell him that we have a magic rosebush in our garden. which. so that it would be thought that nothing remaiued on the THE MAGIC KOSEBUSH. He shakes the surplus off the paper into the bottle. however. performs the follov'ing experiment: Upon a sheet of paper he throws some aniline red. as well known. In lectures on chemistry. it is may be varied as folloAvs: Instead of scattering the aniline dusted over the flowers of a white rosebush. the professor. and the flowers are shaken so as to render the dust invisible. alcohol.108 MAGIC: STAGE ILLUSIONS AND SCIENTIFIC DIVERSIONS. The experiment is performed with the aid of a perfumery vaporizer. . in order to give an idea of the coloring power of certain of these substances.

and can be carefully examined.CONJURING TRIGKii. bushes are prepared they are suspended inside of cones. There is a small shelf attached to the stand leg. as the forward. When the bushes are placed in the cones. To When the the stumps the genuine roses are attachd by tying with thread. thus proving how well nuigicians keep The trick is not a difficult one by any means. After the bush is produced. and mystifies tlie audience as much to-day as ever. On each of the stands is a miniature stand on which are flower-pots. open at both ends. drapery does not extend around them. the seed having sprouted. and by many recipients of the magician's favors these buds are looked upoi^s For many years this trick has occupied a promia production of fairy land. and with long rich drapery trimmed with gold fringe. the florist would find it anything but an economical method of raising show. then places them on the stands. of which the audience see but one. by means of a stout cord that is fastened to the stump by one end and to the -other end of Avhich is attached a small hook. and when uncovered a second rosebush is seen. A large cone. The stands entirely are not what they appear. resting on the sand. yet. making one of onr leading magione in wliich a hush filled with genujiot ine rosebuds is caused to grow in a previously-examined that contained nothing but a small quantity of white sand. Three cones are used. on wiiich the roses and buds after which they are distributed to the ladies. their secrets from the public. nent position on the programme of the magician in question. so the magician says. . near the bottom of the drapery. on the removal of which a The large rosebush is seen in the pot. The rosebushes are merely stumps to which are attached a base of sheet lead. as a perusal of the following will On the stage is seen two stands with metal feet. roses. first pot is again covered for a moment with the cone. and on its removal a green sprig is seen protruding from the sand. which hook is slipped over the edge of the upper opening of the cone. these cones Keference to the second are placed on the shelves at the back of the stands. a mass of full-blown roses and buds. 100 "MAGIC FLOWERS. moment with the cone. the Howers are cut and distributed to the ladies. but quite a space at the back of the stand is open. A small basket or tray is now brought are placed as the performer cuts them from the bushes. and plants a few flower seeds in each pot. is One of the pots is covered for a shown. regardless of its simplicity and the ease with which it may be performed. Now the second pot is covered for a moment with the cone." A trick that has contributed mucli toward is cians such a favorite witli the fnir sex. The magician passes the pots for inspection. cut of such a size as to fit nicely in the flower-pots. The cone is once again shown to be empty. equally as full of roses as the other.

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which are nsed to convince the spectators that there is no connection between the pot and the large stand. AVhen the performer removes the cone and by slipping oft' the hook holding the rosebush in position. that the seed may germinate. order named. as we now in place of one. painted green. properly. and removing the cone. there is no danger of the inside cones being seen. He now returns to tlie flrst stand. back of etand. and posiThere is a variance in the size of the tion of concealed cone plain to all. and covers the top of the pot on the first stand. picking it up with the second rosebush inside. and in a most natural manner passes it down behind the stand and over the concealed cone containing the rosebush. and jDlaced the pots on the small stands. the weight of the lead base keeps it in position while the cones are being removed. He now turns tlie large cone so the audience can see through it. shows the second rosebush. over the concealed third cone. or cones. as he says. . and as the upper and lower edge of each cone is blackened. he slips oif the small hook supporting the rosebush. planted the seed. from the pot. to shut out the light.AIXED. After the performer has shown the pots. it have two — or cones. and carries this cone away inside of the larger the same THE MYSTEKY EXPI. the cones will in the fit Thus snugly one in the other. and the cone beliind the second stand is a fraction smaller than either of the others. wo should now say. covers the pot. The rear of the stand tops are something of a crescent shape. The performer now steps to the second stand and covers the flower-pot on one. At with the cone. moment he picks up the flower-pot and carries it down and shows the green sprout in the sand. is The cone shown to the andience is slightly larger than the cone that behind the first stand. he has concealed a small metal shape. As soon as the pot is covered. Avhich drops into the pot. which he drops through the cone into the pot. which is nicely decorated. he shows the large cone. although tliis fact is unknown to the audience he passes it down behind the stand. Between the fingers of the hand holding the cone. Ill engraving will make the arrangement of the shelf. In a moment he removes the cone from over the pot. bones.— CONJURiNO TRICKS. to facilitate the passing of the large cone down behind the stand in a graceful manner.

The prestidigitatenr conies forward. which I shall put into — undergone What no ! ! begin the a violet. place. "Here there is no need of moisture. and this borrowed hat with which I cover it can have Let us remove it quickly. perhaps. marigold? Here is a seed of eacli kind. here a small goblet. — Xow let each one tell me the flower and count three seconds. and is rightly. done. 1. A few seeds are in this little box we shall cover for an instant so that it cannot be seen how It is (Fig. THE "BIRTH OF FLOWERS. holding in his hand a small cardboard box which he says contains various kinds of flower seeds. a the glass. " You are suspicious. A) flowers are born. 3. or time to cause the seed to germinate. Let us flowers? Wliat flowers do you want a mignonette. is very interesting. forget-me-nots.113 2IAG1C: ISTAOE ILLUSIONS AND SCIENTIFIC DIVERSIONS. violets. tlien. the transparency of which perfect. that and see! the rose appears. eartb. for the flowers uo preparation. and more BO of its cover. Everything takes place instantaneously. is Well. of tiie little tin box. althoiigli old. (Fig. Now I cover the glass he prefers. operation over again. and the flower to bloom. Ah it is l)ecause I forgot to sow the seeds. and Easter daisies are here all freslily blown. AVould not a rose in my buttonhole produce a charming effect? A stroke of tlie wand upon the seed deposited in the desired THK BIR'I'H OK THE FLOWERS. the plant to spring up. let us take off the cover." The trick that we are about to describe.) See the magniflcent bouquet! " tiuit .

with the bouquet. held by the taut rubber. The special object of evidently. the right. beginning with that which involves the houtonniere of magician himself. but in other respects just like the fixed a small which it entirely covers. By slightly squeezing the cover. the left buttonhole of the coat. 2 shows in section the three pieces of the apparatus. there is really nothing very mysterious. The following an explanation of the the various tricks. The free extremity of the rubber traverses. and the rose. and the j^restidigita- teur feigns astonishment upon seeing that the flowers have not appeared. and looks in the same direction in order to attract the eyes of the spectators to that side. but at the same time he separates suddenly puts his arms itself in place. is secured by a strong which should be five or This is a stemless artificial rose of muslin.from the hat a is small bouquets that are offered to the ladies. ity to When proper one of the right-hand buttons of the waistband of the trousers. which this thread. the spectators all do not perceive the substitution made. there can be sity of experiment that is to follow. The Buttonhole To Rose. III. wdiere he holds by a slight jiressure of the arm. but . black silk thread arrested by a knot.CONJURING TRICKS. in the first and then a small eyelet formed beneath. six inches in length. ratus In the second appearance of flowers. Fig. and then passes over the chest and behind the back. toward the bottom. whence they believe the flowers started. and in which. I. To the bottom of B is bouquet of artificial flowers. the prestidigitateur comes upon the stage. and think that they first the time see the box. said. is attached quite a strong rubber cord capable of being doubled if need be. The FloweRvS ix the Small Box. which are placed separately seeds are sown. on the contrary. This is the most interesting part of the experiment. the box upon the table. B. is left If. and B another box first. C is (which lifted. 3. 2n'oduced by means of the small appashown in Fig. Finally the trick is WW number of finished by taking. the rose is carried under it his left armpit. could not be The magic II. the box. is of thin brass). 1. effect produced by the instantaneous coming whence no one knows where. The Bouquet in the Glass. upon the table in Fig. Moreover. the diverthe means employed contributes powerfully toward astounding the it is to bring into relief the spectators. appreciated without having been seen. the glass is first As we have covered with a hat. no question of double bottom. appearance of this flower. At the moment he raises his wand toward slightly. A is the cylindrical tin box in which the of slightly larger diameter. and is fixed by the extremplace.

114

MAOlC: STAGE ILLUSIONS AND SCIENTIFIC DIVERSIONS.

which the hat is lifted, when all eyes are fixed upon the Ijouqiiet announced, the operator, who, with the right hand, holds the hat carelessly resting upon the edge of the table, suddenly sticks his middle finger in the cardboard tube fixed to the handle of the bouquet, which has been jjlaced in advance upon a bracket, as shown in Fig. 1, and, immediately raising his finger, introduces the flowers into the hat, taking good care (and this is an important point) not to turn his gaze away from the glass to the bouquet or hat, as one might feel himself led to do in such a case. This introduction of the bouquet should he efi'ected in less than a second, after which the hat is held aloft, Avhile with the left hand some imaginary seeds, the kinds of which are designated in measure as they are taken, are selected from the cardboard box and successively deposited in the glass. So, this time, be
at the very instant at
glass,

looking for

tlie

certain of

it,

the flowers will appear.

lY.

The Small Bouquets in the Hat.

There is not a second to be lost; the spectators are admiring the houquet The operator very quickly and are astonished to see it make its appearance. profits by this moment of surprise to introduce, by the same process as before, a package of small bouquets tied together with a weak thread that will afterward be broken in the hat. We have not figured these bouquets upon the Of course, a skillful operator will not bracket, in order to avoid complication. He will advance toward the spectators hasten to produce the small bouquets. as if the experiment were ended, and as if he wished to return the hat to the person from whom he borrowed it. Afterward making believe answer a request, he says: "You Avish some flowers, madam? And you too? And are there I will, then, empty into the hat the rest of my wonderothers who wish some ? It is at this moment that the spectators ful seeds, and we shall see the result." are attentive and that all eyes are open to see the advent of the flowers.

TEICKS WITH A HAT.
Prestidigitateurs frequently borrow from their spectators a hat that serves

performance of very neat tricks which are not always easily shall describe some of the most interesting of these. The operator will begin by proving to you that the felt of your hat is of bad quality, and, to this effect, he will pierce it here and there with his
for

them

the

explained.

We

finger, his

This
ing.

magic wand, an Qgg, and with a host of other objects. an illusion, the mystery of which is explained by our first engravIt is either of wood or cardboard, and terminates in (See the finger B.)
is all

a long slender needle.

The

prestidigitateur, wiio has concealed the finger in

his left hand, thrusts the point into the top of the hat,

toward

tlie

spectators.

whose interior is turned Afterward raising the right hand, the forefinger of

CONJURING TRICKS.
M^liich

115

he points forward, he seems to be about to pierce the top of the hat, but
forefinger, the point of tlie needle,

instead of finishing the motion begun, he quickly seizes in the interior, between

wiggles it around in all and the cardboard finger, which moves, seems to 1)6 the prestidigitateur's own finger. The same operation is performed with the wooden half egg, C, and the rod. A, which, like the finger, appear to traverse the hat, in tlie interior of which are hidden the true rod and egg. We may likewise solder a needle to a half of a five-franc piece, and thus vary the objects employed for this recreation to infinity.
the
directions, turns the hat over,

thumb and

I'AssrNG A

FrN(;i:i!,

hod,

and kog

Tm:()r(iii

\

hat.

In order to take from a hat a large quantity of paper in ribbons, and then
doves,

and even a duck or a

rabbit, there

is

no need of

special apparatus nor of

a great

amount

of dexterity,

and

still is

less of

the revolving bobbin or of the
tlie

mysterious machiiie whose existence

generally believed in by

s))cctators

and turning gracefidly of itself as tlie water from a new sort of fountain would do. Nor is there here any need of a high hat; a simple straw hat (or a cap. at a liinch) will suffice. The prestidigitateur holds close pressed to his breast and hidden under his coat a roll of the blue paper prepared for the printing
see the paper falling regularly
h;it.

when they

from the

apparatus of the Morse telegraph, and which is so tightly wound that it has the aspect and consistence of a wooden disk with a circular aperture in the
center.

In turning around after taking the hat, the opening of which
it

rests

against his breast, the operator deftly introduces into

the roll of paper,

which

has the proper diameter to allow it to enter by hard friction as far as the top of the hat, and stay where it is put even when tlie hat is turned over.

116

MAGIC: STAGE ILLUSIONS AND SCIENTIFIC DIVERSIONS.
left

Were it needed, tlie ^xiper might be held by a proper pressure of the hand exerted from the exterior. The introduction of the paper is effected
fraction of a second.

iu a

" Your

hat,
it

my
a

dear

sir,

was doubtless a

little

too wide for your head, for I

notice within

band

of paper designed to diminish the internal diameter,"

says the prestidigitateur, while, at the

same time, he draws from the hat the end that terminates the paper in the centre^of the
roll.

Then he
that the

reverses the hat so
interior cannot be

seen by the spectators.

The
to fall

paper immediately begins to

unwind
very

of itself

and

regularly and without

intermission to the right.

When
in

the

fall of

the pais,

per begins to slacken, that
general,

when no more
roll

than a third of the
mains,
the

re-

prestidigitateur

turns the hat upside down, and with the right hand pulls out and rapidly revolves in
the
air

the paper
cajiricious

ribbon^

whose

contours,

succeeding one another before the first have
to fall to the floor,

had time produce

a very pretty effect, as

shown

THE ENDLESS PAPER KIBBON.
tracted from the hat ajjpears also in this

iu

our

second
of

engraving.

The quantity

paper exit

way much greater than

really

is,

and at length forms a 2)ile of considerable bulk. U'liis experiment may be completed in the following manner: The operator, approaching his table, which, upon aboard suspended behind it, carries a firmly })ound ])igeon, quickly seizes the jjoor bird iu ])assing, and conceals it under
the pile of paper, while he puts the latter back into the hat in order to see, says
he,

whether

all

that has been taken out can be

made

to enter anew.
liat,

Having thus introduced the pigeon
])ajter is

or any otlier object into the that the
liat is

the

taken out, and

it is

at the

moment

restored to

its

owner

that he pretends to discover that

it still

contains something.

CONJURING TRICKS.

117

A CAKE BAKED IN A HAT.
porcelain vessel, some flour

This old trick always amuses the spectators. Some eggs are broken into a is added thereto, and there is even incorporated with the paste the eggsliells and a few drops of wax or stearine from a near-by

candle.

The whole having been put

into a hat (Fig. 1), the latter

is is

passed

three times over a flame, and an excellent cake, baked to a turn, As for the owner of the hat, out of this new set of cooking utensils.

taken

who has

FIGS.

.

1

:i.

—A

CAKE BAKED

IX A HAT.

passed through a state of great apprehension, he finds with evident satisfaction
(at least in

most

cases) that his
it.

head gear has preserved no traces of the mix-

ture that was poured into

employed by prestidigitateurs to bake a cake in an earthen or porcelain vessel (it may also be of metal) into which enters a metallic cylinder, B, which is provided with a flange at one of its extremities and is divided by a horizontal partition into two unequal compartments, c and d. The interior of the part d is painted wiiite so as to
Fig. 2 shows the apparatus a hat.

A

is

imitate porcelain.
vessel.
is
it

Finally,

when the

cylinder, B,

is

wholly inserted in the

A, in which it is held by four springs, r, r, r, r, fixed to the sides, there nothing to denote at a short distance that the vessel. A, is not empty, just as was presented at the beginning of the experiment.

The

prestidigitateur has secretly introduced into the hat the small cake and

the apparatus, B, by

making them

fall

back of a chair.

That

at least is the

suddenly from a bracket affixed to the most practical method of operating.

118

MAGIC: STAGE ILLUSIONS AND SCIENTIFIC DIVERSIONS.

The vessel. A, about which there is nothing peculiar, is, of course, subThe object of adding the flour mitted to the examination of the spectators. is to render the paste less fluid, and to thus more certainly avoid tlie production of stains.

The cake being arranged under

the apparatus,

B, in the space d, the contents of the vessel. A,

poured from a certain height, fall into the part then the vessel, gradually c of the apparatus
;

brought nearer,

is

quickly inserted into the hat in
contents, and leave only

order to seize therein, and at the same time remove,
the receptacle, B, M'ith the cake.
Fig. 3
its

shows
it

this last operation.

We

have

in-

tentionally
FIG.

shown the

part, B, projecting

from the

vessel,
4.

A, but

will be

understood that in reality

it

must be inserted up

to the base at the

moment

at Avhieh the vessel,

the spectators.
all

A, introduced into the hat, is concealed from the eyes of The prestidigitateur none the less continues to move his finger

around the interior of the double vessel as if to gather up the remainder which he makes believe throw into the hat, upon the rim of which lie even affects to wipe his fingers, to the great disquietude of the gentleman to whom it belongs. The experiment may be complicated by first burning alcohol or fragments of pajier in the compartment c of the apparatus. Some prestidigitateurs even add a little Bengal fire. But let no one imitate that amateur prestidigitateur who, wishing to render the experiment more brilliant, put into the receptacle such a quantity of powder that a disaster supervened, so that it became necessary to throw water into the burning hat in order to extinguish
of the paste,

the nascent

fire.

of baking a cake in a hat is a decided improvement over the old trick with the porcelain
vessel. It has the advantage of being able to be employed anywhere and of i^roducing a complete illusion. liefore beginning the experiment, take three eggs, and having blown two of them, close the apertures with white

The following method

wax.

Place the three eggs upon a plate.
FIG.
5.

AVithin the left-hand side of your waistcoat place a fiat cake, and then make your a])i)earance before the spec^tators.

Having borrowed a hat, place it upon the table, and, after secretly introducing the cake into it (Fig. 4), take an empty egg, crack the shell upon the edge of the jtlate, and, inserting your hands in the hat, make believe empty
the contents of the egg into the latter (Fig. 5). In order tiiat the means employed may not occur to any one, take the per'

CONJURING TRICKS.
feet

119
will break

egg and

let

it

fall

upon the

plate so that

it

and

its

contents
All you

flow oat.

Then

take the remaining egg and operate as with the
is to

first.

have to do then

pass the hat back and forth a few times over the flame of

a candle in order to cook the mass

and then

to serve the cake.

THE EGG AND HAT
An
effect

TRICK.

dne

to an invisible thread

is tlie

following:

Some months

ago, in a Parisian public establishment, a clown took a hat
after showing,

and a handkerchief, and then, handkerchief was empty, drew an egg from the folds of the crumpled fabric and allowed Then it to drop into the hat. he took up the handkerchief, shook it out again, crumpled it up, found another egg, and let it drop into the h^it, and When it might have so on. been supposed that the hat
contained a certain
of eggs, he turned
it

by spreading

it

out, that the

number
upside

down, and, lo and behold, the All the eggs hat was empty from the handkerchief were
!

reduced to a single one

at-

tached by a thi'ead to one of
the sides of the luindkerchief,

and which the amusing operator maliciously
after

exhibited,

seeming
the

to look for the

vanished eggs.

While
was

handkerchief
out,

the egg TUE EGG AND HAT TRICK. was behind it, and, although it was shaken, remained suspended by its thread. In crumpling the handkerchief it was easy to seem to find the egg in it, and to put it in the hat, where it did not remain, however, for, lifted by the thread, it resumed its place behind the handkerchief. Our engraving shows the handkerchief at the moment that the egg has been removed by the thread on the side opposite that of the spectators. On attaching a black thread, sixteen or twenty inches in length, to an empty egg, and selecting the egg thus prepared from a lot of ordinary eggs, as if by chance, we have a ready means of amusing and mystifying spectators for
stretched

130

2IAG1C:

STAGE ILLUSIONS AND SCIENTIFIC DIVERSIONS.
free extremity of the thread to a buttonhole After apparently ordering egg upon the table. suffices to recede from the table to make the docile egg By the same means it may be made to make its exit

a long time.

Having hooked the
it

of the Avaistcoat, let us lay the
it

to approach us,

obey the command.

alone from a hat; or, again, by bearing upon the invisible thread, it may be made to dance upon a cane or upon the hand; iu a word, to jDerform various
operations that eggs are not accustomed to perform.

MULTIPLICATION OF COINS.
Upon a small rectangular ti'ay of japanned sheet iron, similar to those in common use, are placed seven coins (Fig. 1). A spectator is asked to receive
these iu his

hand and to put the coins back upon the tray, one by one, and to count them with a loud voice as he does so. It is then found that the number has doubled, there being
fourteen
instead
of

seven.

The same operation repeated
gives as a result twenty-one
coins..

As may be seen
section in Fig.
3,

in the

the tray

has a double bottom, forming an interspace a little wider
tlian the thickness of

one of
is

the coins,

and which

di-

vided breadthwise into two
equal
partition,

compartments by a B. These two compartments are closed all
the tray, where there are two

around, save at the ends of
apertures,

A

and C, that in

double the diameter of the coins. In this
length
are

interspace are concealed fourteen
side.
Mi;i/lin,T(

coins,

seven

on each

When

the contents of

ATION OK (OINS.

the tray are emptied into the .hand of a spectator, the coins

concealed in one of the compartments drop at the same time (Fig. 2). The operator tlien takes the tray in his other hand, and thus naturally seizes it at the end at which the now empty compartment exists, and this allows the seven coins
that are contained in the other
latter are rapidly

compartment

to join the first ones,

when

the

emptied into the hands of the spectator for the second time.

:

CONJURING TRICKS.

121

A

divisions

square tray, with a double bottom divided into four compartments by running diagonally from one corner to another, would permit of

increasing the

number

of coins four times.

Let us
bottom.

however, that skillful prestidigitateurs dispense with the double They hold the coins sometimes nnder the tray with their fingers
say,

extended, and sometimes on the tray, under their thumbs, and renew their supply several times from secret pockets skillfully arranged in various parts of
their coats, where the spectators are far

from suspecting the existence

of them.

MAGIC COINS.
The
street venders of Paris

trians a coin that can be

made

to enter

have for some time past been selling to pedesan ordinary wine bottle. This coin is

a genuine ten centime piece, but,

when
it

it is

handled,

it is

found that

bends exactly like the leaves of

a

dining-room

table.

Amateur

mechanics, clock-makers, and copper turners can easily manufacture
similar
ones.

The

process

is

as

follows

By means

of a very fine metal
FIG.

saw, cut the coin in three pieces,

1.— MAGIC COINS.

either by parallel cuts, or, better, by following the contours
If the operation be skillfully performed, the

shown

in Fig.

1.

marks

of the cutting, too, will be

FIG, 2.— mode;

of INSEKTING THE COIN IN A BOTTLE,

122

3IAGIC:

STAGE ILLUSIONS AND SCIENTIFIC DIVERSIONS.
Before the coin
is

nearly invisible.

sawed, a groove about aline in depth should

be formed in the rim by means of a saw or file. inserted a very taut rubber ring, which, before

In this channel or groove
it

is

is

stretched, should be, at

If the rubber is well the most, one and a half or two lines in diameter. hidden in the groove, the cleft coin will appear to be absolutely intact. Owing to this process, the coin can be easily inserted in a bottle by placing The hand that bends the coin covers the the hands as shown in Fig. 2. mouth. The cohi is inserted, and then, by a smart blow given the bottle, it

Owiug to the tension of the rubber, the through the neck. form, and the operator makes it ring against tlje jiiece at once regains its flat In order to extract glass in order to sliow that it is really a piece of metal. it, it is necessary to get the saw marks exactly in the direction of the bottle's axis, then the bottle is slightly inclined, neck downward, and through a few blows on the latter the coin is made to drop into the hand, where it will at once assume its original form. We shall now have a few words to say about what is called the " double sou." The operator places the prepared
is

made

to pass

and calls strict attention to the fact that no companion i^iece. Then he covers it with his other hand for a moment, and finally shows two coins,
coin in his hand,

there

is

instead of one, in the

first

hand.
the experiment
is

Fig.

3 shows,

not

how
is

performed,

but how the double coin
nary sou, over
FIG.
3.

prepared.

It is simply

an ordi-

which

is

placed a sort of hollow cover confits on the an ordinary

THE DOUBLE
sou.

taining the impression of the coin, and which
latter so accurately that the piece looks like

sou.

This cover

is

lifted

and made

to slide alongside of

the coin, thus sliowing two pieces instead of one.

stamped from a thin sheet of copper placed upon a sou servIt might possibly be made by means of some electro-metalThe mutilation of United States coins is forbidden under lurgical process.

The

cover

is

ing as a mould.

penalty of the law.

THE DISSOLVING
Borrow a
silver dollar,

COIN.

Ask some one

marked, so that it can be identified. between the thumb and forefinger of the right liand within the folds of a silk handkerchief, and over a glass full of Your assistant's two hands being thus water held in the left hand, Fig. 1. Stepping back a few occupied, you will have no sort of iiuliscretion to fear. feet, direct your assistant to let the coin drop; and the impact against the botWhen the handkertom of the glass Avill be heard by the entire assemblage. chief is raised the coin is no longer in the glass, l)ut has made its way to your hand or to the pocket of a spectator. I^et it be examined, and it will be found

and have

it

tp hold the coin horizontally

to be really the coin that has been previously

marked,

CONJURING TRICKS.
lu order to jierform this trick
it is

123

necessary to have a disk of glass of the

same diameter as a Hide this disk,
you.
to
will

silver dollar (Fig. 2).

This you between the thumb and forefinger of the same hand. A\'hile your hand is concealed by the handkerchief in which it is thought that you ])laced the coin, you shift the latter and give the assistant the glass disk to hold, by the

A (Fig. 3), in the palm of your right hand, turned toward not prevent you from holding the coin that has been confided

DISArPKATJANCK OF A STI.VER DOLLAR.

edge, of course, and not by the

flat

surface, so that the substitution that

you

have made cannot be perceived by the touch. After the trick has been performed, do not be afraid to let the person who has held the coin, and who is thoroughly astonished, examine the glass and its
contents at his leisure.
as it is well to do,

The glass disk is entirely invisible in the water, and if, you have taken care to select a glass whose bottom is perfectly plane and of the same diameter as the disk (Fig. 2), the latter will remain adherent to the glass even when it is inverted to empty the water in order to prove once more to the spectators that it contains nothing but clear
water.

THE
Two

SPIRIT SLATES.

ordinary wooden-framed slates are presented to the spectators, and examined in succession by them. A small piece of chalk is introduced between
the two slates, which are then united by a rubber band and held aloft in the
prestidigitatenr's right hand.

124

MAGIC: STAGE ILLUSIONS AND SCIENTIFIC DIVERSIONS.

Then, iu the general silence, is heard tlie scratching of the chalk, which is writing between the two slates the answer to a question asked by one of the spectators the name of a card thought of or the number of spots obtained by throwing two dice. The rubber band having been removed and the slates separated, one of them is seen to be covered with writing. This prodigy, which

at first sight

seems to be so mysterious, is very easily performed. writing was done in advance; but upon the written side of the slate, A, there had been placed a thin sheet of black cardboard which hid the characters written with chalk.

The

The two The
it

sides of thiselatethus

appeared absolutely clean.
slate

B

is

first

given

out for examination, and after
has been returned to him,
to

the operator says:

want

one also
pass

"Do you examine the other ? " And then, withhe makes a

out any haste,

analogous to that em-

ployed in shuffling cards.
slate

The

A

being held by the
forefinger of the

thumb and
left

hand and the slate B between the fore and middle finger of the right hand (Fig. 1), the two hands are brought together. But at the moment at which the slates are superposed, the thumb and forefinger of tlie right hand grasp the slate A, while at the same
time
the
fore

Sl'IIlIT

SLATES.

and

middle

finger of the left

hand take

hands separate anew, and the slate that has is put into tlie hands of the spectator. 'I'liis shifting, done with deliberation, is entirely invisible. During the second examination the slate A is laid flat upon a table, the written face turned upward and covered with black cardboard. The slate having been sufficiently examined, and been returned to tbe operator, the latter lays it upon the first, and both are then surrounded by the rubber band. It is then that the operator holds up the slates with the left hand, of which one sees but the thumb, while upon the posterior face of the second slate the nail of his middle finger makes a sound resembling that produced by chalk when written with. "When the operator judges that this little comedy has lasted (juite long enough, he lays the two slates horizontally upon his table,
the slate
li.

Then

the two

already been examined, instead of the second one,

an atlas or portfolio. of course. layers beneath it. It is better. The upjoermost blacked Avith crayon or soft pencil on its under side. who manages to read them either through a hole in the drapery or by the light that sifts through it as he sits covered up in his chair with his back to the audience. and it can be seen he has not The audigone down through the floor or ascfended up through the ceiling. is brought in and led. It is upon it that the black cardboard rests. which. The pasteboard. and for this purpose bits of about the audience. for instance. The inserted slips of tell-tale papers are collected and carried with him by the performer. 2). The rest is easy enough. he may dupe not be a confederate. He may tell him. as if in a state of trance. to a chair within full view of eveiy one present. the uppermost layer of paper can be separated at one of the edges from the layer of paper is and into this slip white paper introduced. and yet it is thin enough to be translucent. at least at first. are taken out of the room and given to the performer by his assistant. SECOND SIGHT. upon which to write anything he or she may choose." says Judge James Bartlett in the Popular Science Neivs : " Each person in the audience is presented with a slip The paper of paper. and the other slate. it is equally impossible that another j^erson could have seen what was is thereon written. Avritten upon is immediately secreted by the writer. '• as simple as it is surprising. who may or may That is. however. who has been absent from the room while this is being done. as much care as possible The performer. the paper has not left the possession of the writers. as it seems to be. "The trick is performed as follows. being taken that no one else sees what is written upon it. thrown over him so that he is completely covered by it. and yet the trick certainly saying a great deal. It is well.CONJURING TRICKS. and that are stated to have been written by an invisible spirit that slipped in between the two slates. Xothing can be more it is astonishing. 125 taking care this time that the non-prepared slate shall be beneath (Fig. not to have enough pasteboard cards to go round the audience. shows the characters that it bears. it is him to have these pasteboard rests and pass his fingers over them so that he can become en rapjjort with the person with whom they were in contact. is not solid. on being raised. if the performer is very skillful. and what- is written upon the paper resting upon it is faithfully stenciled or traced upon the white paper inserted. the upon any or all the. being collected. has been neatly covered with . ever his assistant as well as his audience. light piece of drapery is A ence is told the drapery j)revents the sphere or influence or spell that surrounds dissipated. him from being sentences written certain that He now begins and repeats. sometimes. and give apparently at haphazard necessary for a book. and that is The explanation is as follows: In order to write anything upon the sli]^ of paper given out.slips of paper. however. to have a confederate. one must have something firm and flat upon Avhich to jilace pasteboard of a convenient size are handed it. The pasteboards. word for word.

care being taken that the pins do mystify the audience. ing pencils to your audience be sure to give them good. the writing upon the sli]i of paper by means of the tracing. is well to have the sentences take the form ^f questions which the performer can read. by the performer the assistant should ask if any one in the audience wrote that sentence and if it is correctly repeated. Let him again be led let some one person. stepping to the M'l'iter and taking the slip from him or her. down his sleeve. ostensibly magic sphere renewed.' ho says." . neatly pinned to the lining of the sleeve. paper or cloth and supplied with blackened and with wliite p. and his arm enter the room. but only such sentences as appear to his mental vision. He first names the person whom the audience has choseii. he requests that person to crumj)le up the slip of paper ujkjii which the name so that the writing is written and rub it Avell over his arm just above his cuff. that will If " of paper. in ]n§ absence. The manner of performing this ptirt of the ti'ick is. and also gives the performer time to decipher the next slip. to have his from the room. that the paper with which you furnish them is rather thin. or red jirinter's ink. especially as this takes up time. to write the name. comment u2')on. on a slip of paper. no'w turning up his sleeve he shows the writing that was upon the pa])er in blood-red letters upon his bared arm. be careful.1-^G MAGIC: STAGE ILLUSIONS AND SCIENTIFIC DIVERSJOAS. and proceeds with his trick. having ascertained. one name shall be that of a person deceased this. * not scratch when the sleeve is turned down. or oil color and turpentine. u]ion paper which is to be fastened upon the inside of that part of the ])erformer''s coat sleeve which he instructs the person who has The paper may be written the name upon the j)aper to rub with the paper. readjusts his cuff. being only to let "Now the master of occult art cap the climax. and answer in an oracular way. of course. write the name of deceased together with their audience a the among Lay a good deal of stress on the requirement that own. the performer some pressure to make the writing legible. hard ones. and then. he turns bared to the elbow. too. as before. and consequently gives fewer selected slips to read during the require period allotted to the trick. After showing there is nothing wpon his arm. will penetrate through his sleeve. this enhances the wonder and interest of the It performance. to write or print it Avith red ink mixed with a little glycerine. and . In supplyto the effect and make the trick a2)2)ear all the more mysterious. for to read a few is quite as Avonderful as to read many. he should himself read it aloud and show it to any one desirous of seeing it. anything sliould happen that would prevent reading any particidar strip may at once say thab he does not pretend to be able to This will add read all. so that you will get a good As each slip is read tracing on that you have inserted in the pasteboard rest. "When the names have been written the performer is to He does so with the sleeve of his coat rolled uji.qier as are the pasteboard cards.

\2l MAGIC CABIXETS. these latter being fixed in such a way that when the two pieces of cardboard were open and juxtaposed the external edge of each of tliem was connected with the inner edge of the otlier. a The apparatus by means of whicli objects of various sizes a card. then. woman. the four strings. after a folio being opened from both . may be made to apparently disappear play a large part — — in the exhibitions of magicians. formed the flaps of the portfolio. when folded over. a double hinge that permitted of the portsides. etc. AND IJUXES. This is an apparatus which an itinerant physicist might have been seen a few years ago exhibiting in the squares and at street corners. kfitf^. two sheets of paper. a child. Among The Magic Portfolio. EiSVELOrES. folded crossways. We shall examine a few of them. formed the flaps of his portfolio. which he then placed between the four sheets of paper which. It was only necessary. a bird. His method was to have a spectator draw a card. to open the latter in one direcTliis constituted. MAGIC rUKTFULlOS. and also in pantomimes and fairy scenes. The portfolio was made of two square pieces of cardboard connected by or rather tators. back to back. When he opened tlie latter again a few instants afterward the card had disappeared. while others bring in the aid of optics..' t^^ . To one pair of strings there were glued. such apparatus there are some that are based upon ingenious mechanical combinations. manner.r"'-4M iMR.(JONJURiXG TRICiCS. had become transformed. which. Profiting then by the surprise of his specsliowman began to offer tliem his nuigic portfolio at the price of five cents for the small size and ten for the large.

when pulled birds have disappeared. such as a note. out. and it is only necessary. then. for the noise that is heard prosides of the box. a simplification of the foregoing. usually are back to back. for example) hand it to some person and ask him to hold it. while he is doing this the spectators think that they hear the noise made by the ring striking against the Vnxi that is only an illusion. to open one or the other of these latter to cause the appearance or disappearance or transformation of such objects as have been inclosed within it. Magic Boxes. Yet. Magic boxes are of several styles. — One when of the inner sheets of jiaper — the folded. second one. Double-bottomed boxes are so well known that it is useless to describe them. and. which. ceeds from a small hammer which is hidden within the cover under the escutcheon. and the spectators are led to believe that the object has disappeared. trick performers often employ a jewel box. The afPair consists of sev- paper of dift'erent colors folded over. forms two env^elopes that It is only necessary. and. it tion or the other to render of flaps. secret of the trick is is very simple. Tlie box can thus bo shaken without any noise being heard within it. There is no one who has not seen a magician put one or more pigeons into the drawer of one of these boxes. open it to find that tlie Such boxes contain two drawers. T|iis device is impossible to open more tluin one of the two sets since every object put one that permits of a large number of tricks being performed. one upon the other. an image. and after putting the object (a ring. they tion of objects that are not very thick. at the will of the prestidigitateur. In order to causb the disappearance of smaller objects. But this simple same at the motion has permitted the performer to cause the ring to drop into his hand through a small trap opening beneath the box. double. under one of the sets of flaps will apparently disappear or be converted into something else. after closing it. then. Magic This trick eral sheets of is I^Isvelopes. . over which have been folded all the The others.128 MAGIC: STAGE ILLUSIONS AX/J SClLNTIFlC DtVLliSloXS. Sometimes the double bottom is hidden in the cover. to jiull out the inner one or leave it closed in order to render the inclosed birds visible or invisible. and at others it 7'ests against one of the sides. and which is rendered movable when the latter is pressed upon by the ])erformer. A card inclosed within the middle envelope. seem to be but one. Such boxes permit of the disai)poarance or substituinto this. requesting him time to wrap it up in several sheets of j)aper. according to the size of the objects that one desires to make disappear. or a card. is found to have disappeared when the flaps are opened again.

he has at the same time lifted the first by slightly compressing the paper. It covers a second is bottle that similar. the labels of both being turned bottle What no one can toward the same side and exhibiting a slight tear or a few identical spots designed to aid in the deception. but a little smaller. It receives the half of THICK WITH A BOTTLE AND GLASS OK WINE. a table. up to the brim. ostensibly. 129 THE TRAVELINCt BOTTLE AND Upon the latter full of wine GLASS. which have been sepa- rated from each other by a short interval (Fig. are observed a bottle and a glass. empty cylinder upon and covers the glass with the one -in which the first bottle is concealed (Fig 2). The bottle of varnished tin.'ith one of tlie paper cyliiulers as if to ascertain wine that was poured from the first glass. it and snspect. at the rising of the curtain. It is then the second bottle that is seen. and which is precisely like the other." are Then two cylinders of the same diameter as the bottle made before the eyes of the spectators out of two sheets of paper and four to cover the bottle pins. while at the opposite side. the bottle. which are. and in the center there is concealed a glass similar to the one that has been shown. on being removed. but empty. exposes the the second bottle 9 The operator. and in an invisible manner. however. 1). Instantaneously. The prestidigitateur pours into the bottle half of the liquid. having finished his palaver. The operator first covers the bottle v. the places it whether it has the proper diameter. ''which otherwise. and bottomless." he remarks. torn into a hundred Fig. The magic wand is then brought into play. and after this the paper cylinder alone is lifted at the side where the glass was in the first place seen.CONJURING TRICKS. 3 unravels the is mystery. These are designed and the glass. This operation necessarily contributes toward convincing the spectators that they have before them an ordiiuiry bottle provided with a bottom and capable of containing a liquid. but immediately removes npright upon the table. and yet there is never anything in the paper cylinders. '"might slop over during the voyage. places the . the two objects change places twice. bits.

or. rather. in fact.130 MAGIC: STAGE ILLUSIONS AND SCIENTIFIC DIVERSIONS. the spot by molding it over —The placed upon the inverted "in order that it maybe more V. the inverted ninepin is covered with the napkin. which the ninepin. The api)lo. Second Disappearance (Fig. All at once the napkin. finally. a large vessel of dark blue glass. quickly seized by the two corners. is vigorously shaken. direction . First Disappearance (Fig. the principal objects witli which this trick is performed. 1). This is DISAPPEAKANOE OP AN APPLE AND A NINEPIN. bottle the cylinder that still begun over again in the opposite once again showing that either the operator replaces upon the second is first one. unbeknown to the spectators. it is found. is thrown invisibly toward the paper cone. first placed upon the table. S. and. glass. done so rapidly that the action is apparently a gesture. To an apple and a ninepin. and the ninepin has disappeared. while TKICK WITH AN APPLE AND A NINEPIN. under the paper cone. are added as accessories a napkin. but nothing more is needed to free the cylinder of its contents and reestablish things in their former state." is is made on apple. in sight. The operation glass that it concealed. under which. which has passed into the prestidigitatour's pocket. 3). it is found upon the glass in place of the a})ple. under pretense of contains the paper cylinder can be used indifferently. — . and a cone of coarse paper. through which it is held.

Fig. 1. is apparently nearly full and place it upon a table. show that it has been blackened. B. only the cardboard disk being held. of thin In the metal. and. the ninepin. who. of shows in section with the glass. formed of two napkins sewed together by their edges. nevertheless. which would have the inconvenience of blackening it. placed upon the table. pretend to dip it into the ink. it As he gives up trying seen to find was and seizes inordeptoput in place. Fig. Announce that you are going to make amends for your awkwardness. C. having borrowed a ring. a small disk of cardboard of the same diameter as the The latter was allowed to fall secretly behind the table base of the ninepin. driven by the apple. which remained in the cone when the latter was removed. Exhibit a goblet which of ink. between the two fabrics. At the moment that the paper cone was made. presers^e the into a same position as if they held the apple. painted cover. while it is thus concealed. thanks to which the napkin preserved the same form that it possessed when the ninepin There is no need of explanation in regard was beneath it. sends it rolling on to a shelf behind the table. napkin. to the apple that comes out of the prestidigitateur's pocket and which is similar to the one that remained on the glass and was hidden by the false ninepin that covered it when the paper cone alone was removed. has passed underneath. Then. the false ninepin being removed this time with the pai3er Under the glass there is a second false ninepin. FIG. not by plunging your hand into the liquid. 3 and also the different pieces as they are arranged at the beginning of the experiment. 1. as shown in Fig. is surrounded by the two hands of the prestidigitateur. It is the first one that is seen upon the foot of the glass. . dark blue in the interior and which has a narrow flange through rests A\ihich it upon the edge it of the glass.GONJliRiNO TRICKS. was covered with a dummy. 3 renders an explanation scarcely necessary. A. 131 And to the ninepin ? ' The prestidigitateur '' had forgotten " to tell it where it it go when he sent the apple in the blue vessel its place. by a blow given with the little finger of the right hand. For the second disappearance the apple. box lined with silk waste. but really allow it to drop into the saucer. which it seems to form a part. but by rendering the ink colorless instantaneously. it is tliat the ninepin. Take a white napkin or a large that the goblet really contains ink. With an ordinary spoon dip out some of the ink and pour it into a saucer. In order to prove immerse on taking it out. was concealed. of metal. partially a visiting card in the liquid. A GOBLET OF INK CONVERTED INTO AN AQUARIUM. His hands.

with the white side toward the spectator. napkin or handkerchief. Upon removing the handkerchief and cover the glass with it. and. 4) that can be easily obtained in variety stores. and. a hat situated at a distance. and place against the inner surface a piece of black rubber cloth. the question to cover the glass paper. to which attach a black thread that is allowed to hang down a few inches outside of the glass. the glass will be found to contain clear Avater in which living fish are swimming. and to the extremity of which is attached a small cork. and thence to send it invisibly into the hat. care should have been taken to previously fixiu the interior few particles of aniline black soluble in water. or any mark whatever that has been made upon the glass. The hand may then be dipped into the liquid and the ring be taken out without fear. Of course. Then the water taken out with the spoon will be converted into ink. In order to perform this trick.132 MAGIC: STAGE ILLUSIONS AND SCtENTlFIG DIVERSIONS. should be pifj _ 2 quickly turned around so as to show the blackened of the bowl a side. Cover the glass Avith the napkin. so as to raise it as well as the rubber cloth in the interior. and which contain between their double sides a red liquid that has been introduced through the . As for the liquid taken out with the spoon. by breathing on fix it. it is necessary to have one of those double glasses (Fig. after being immersed in the liquid. A small piece of wood or paper that a spectator has put in the wine. that should have been previously blackened on one side for about three-quarters of its length. As for the card. the thread and cork must be placed at the side of the glass opposite the spectator. which everybody can examis ine closely. THE INVISIBLE JOURNEY OF A GLASS OF WINE. will permit of verifying the fact that it is really the same glass that was first exhibited. and on removing the latter. sized silk The trick is performed as follows: Take a goblet containing water and some fish. Being given an ordinary glass half witii a piece of full of wine. this serving to into a plate or saucer. which may be poured the spoon before introducing the powder. and that is afterwards found in the hat. grasp the cork.

or into a The prestidigitateur. is h. tions are divided. at least. B) and of the same appearwith wine. level equal to that reached by the red liquid in the double is The it prestidigitateur. placed the Afterward. which he presently spirits away with ease by the following process. This paper. the prestidigitateur asks the spectators whether he shall make it pass visibly or invisibly into the hat. As a usual tbing suggesand so. which he folds around it in such a way as to make it follow its contours and completely conceal it (Fig. as foot of he still held the glass in the paper. invisible if it not examined very closely. foot of tlie 133 glass. taking the simple glass in his hands. while he turns his Ijack to the spectators. the double glass. silk waste. there ourselves with which is absolutely withdrawn at will in" no occasion to occupy This double glass is kept concealed until the moment arrives for using A second glass ance as the other — — this is a simple is iilled one (Fig. to a glass. is first TRICK PERFORMED WrFH A GI-ASS OF WINE. the glass which he had concealed under his arm. so to speak. inserted and is order to change the lif|uid. and the tlie which seems to be supported by right hand. put ostensibly into the hat and then immediately taken what is thought by the spectators. it. for our trick. and which can be handled without any fear double of spilling the liquid that it contains. who are very readv to laugh at the little hoax played upon those who perhaps expected to see the glass carried through the air upon the wings of the wind. introduces into it. The hat upon is then table. The glass having been placed upon the table. 4. which has been allowed to fall behind the table into a sort of pocket that. these details. 2). 1). in order to j^lease every- body. afterward preserves the form upon which. is of canvas. which must be very stiff. it has been molded. in the presence of the spectators. as well as strong. and to take out. the glass out. lie covers it with a square piece of strong paper. arranged to this effect (Fig. after exhibiting the interior of the hat so as to allow to be seen that the latter empty. having thus got rid of the glass. A small cork. walks toward the delicately pressing the top of the paper between the thumb and if box lined with forefinger of the left hand. although it is no longer supported by tiie glass. A spectator is then . s])ectators. But the prestidigitateur has taken care to leave the simple glass in the hat. in place of it.CONJURINO TRICKS. but. is which is hollow.

He same instant the paper.\NU WINE INTO WATER. but invited to take the glass with the paper. as required by his profession.\N(iEl) INTO WINE . especially he invites one of them to come to keep him company. permission of his spectators to refresh if himself in their presence. a prestidigitateur is excusable for asking. THE WINE CHANGED TO WATER. guest to select one of the two decanters and leave is the other for himself. The guest hastens astonishing! to seize its the wine and each immediately his glass. suddenly crumpled into a ball. one of prestidigitateur asks his upon a tray two claret glasses and two perfectly which contains red wine and the other water. Judge of tiie hilarity of the spectators and the amazement of the victim! The j)retended wine was nothing but the following composition: one gram one j)otassium permanganate and two is grams sulphuric acid dissolved in quart of wat(n-. allow the wine to run at the np his sleeves. After having done considerable talking. and care is taken to advise him not to then stretches out his hands. WATEK CH. No hesitation fills possible. An The assistant then brings in transparent decanters. How Upon contact with the glass the wine changes into water and the water becomes wine. and the glass of wine has passed invisibly into the hat. is thrown tnto the air. 'I'liis liquid instantaneously decolorized on entering the glass. at the bottom of which lias been placed a few drops of water saturated .134 2IA0IG: STAGE ILLUSIONS AND SCIENTIFIC DIVERSIONS.

On moving the hand away from the body. He fixes this loop in the hook above mentioned. but of a toy. THE ANIMATED MOUSE. In order to perform the experiment off-hand. a little place upon the back of their hand. The glasses must be carried away immediately. at the moment that it is about to fall on reaching the thumb. for example). of course. places the mouse upon the back of his left hand (near the little finger. as well known. is not a question here of a live mouse. arrives just in time to catch it near the little finger. so that it may lie perfectly flat. poisonous. for. since in a few moments the wine changed into water loses its limpidity and assumes a milky appearance.— CONJURING TRICKS. the right hand. then make two ears out of . inStreet venders are often seen selling. The mouse keeps on running until the vender has found a purchaser for it at the moderate price of two cents. passed beneath. is provided near the head with a small hook. and so on. which. tonhole a thread ten inches in length. which does not stir. The mouse. which is now free. and then the first one. and second. having been tamed. possesses strong tinctorial properties. In order to prevent it from attaining its object. it seems to go toward the thumb. which is flat beneath. The mixtures are. whence. then cut away the under part of the animal thus rough-shaped. and at the bottom of the glass that was ^o receive it had been placed a small pinch of aniline red. they interpose the other hand. may have been divined. and. tautening the thread. cluding the instructions for jnauipulatii^g as it it. 135 As for the water in the second decanter. mouse which they and which keeps running as if. at night. with sodium hyposulphite. and the operator has fixed to a but- THE ANIMATED MOUSE. terminating in a loop. by the same movement as before. an effect of optics. This little toy is based upon two effects first. the effect due to an invisible thread. seems to slide over the back of the hand. the mouse. it suffices to take a cork and carve it into the form of a mouse. it wished to take refuge upon them. and. that had had considerable alcohol added to it.

an answer written upon a sheet of In appearance it is a simple. THE SAND FKAME TRICK. a sealed letter. of the The lower filled side frames is hollow and with tiie forms a reservoir iiiterior very fine blue sand. The is card. the reservoir at the top. till! In a few seconds sand will have disa])|)eared. the black thread. and. but. tlie back of which opens with a hinge behind a glass. allow the spectators after is returned to you. terminating in a ball of wax or a i)iu to examine the mouse. at first sight. fix the thread. etc. or letter that is sub- se(|uently to in the appear it placed frame in advance. plush-covered frame. and finally blacken tbe whole in After this. In reality. presents nothing peculiar. The sand frame employed jiaper. the In door is covered with blue paper of the same shade as the sand. the latter held vertically. falls. having been fixed to a button-hole. })ortrait. provided that in order to be held vertically prevent the . to the front of the flat part of the rodent. a photograph. render is in order to invisible. soft out of a piece of twine. there are two glasses separated from eacli other by an interval of three millimeters.136 MAGIC: STAGE ILLUSIONS AND SCIENTIFIC DIVERSIONS. The the sand then glasses. tail cardboard. which you may then cause to run as above described. The door that closes the back nniy be o])ened il by a s|)eiUator and the frame shown close by. the roBcrvoir at the botlDin. SAM) IliAME. which.sand from ajipearing between the two glasses. either by its its ball wax or hook. and covered with a silk handkerchief. of hook. . the ilK In order to cause the appearance of the conobject. and a the flame of a candle. is a very ingeniously constructed little apparatus which is in different tricks of prestidigitation for causing the disappearajice of a card. cealed frame Avith is placed vertically. and fills space that separates the two and the blue surface first thus formed behind the glass seems to be the back of the frame.

Fig. D. ball. D. and side. is seen open. upon which a spectator has placed the seven of hearts. tiie reservoir. externallv. after the experiment is finished. Another experiment may ]>e made by means of a small standard on a foot. before said that we have here to do with a double bottom. In the section at the V and V are the two glasses. 2 shows the frame us seen from behind. and when a cord [jassed through the latter. iiouDLN s maor.'" Extending is through its center there is a straight cylindrical aperture. one used in the familiar toy known as the " cup and ball. at S is seen the sand falling between the two glasses. C. and upon whicli it was placed. disk. It will be Allow the cover. and K. has the aspect. and the foot. which was recently seen in a toy shop. This of the ball. The card passes into To tell the truth. Is the cover asked for again ? One will hasten to show it without saying that the back edge of the table has just been struck with cause the disk. and the card to fall it in order to on to the shelf. C. A. A.CONJURING TRICKS. that covered tlje foot. covering the card. P. HOUDIX^S MAUIC BALL. . A. the door. lOi 1 O ** The door. to be examined. the ball easily slides along it. along with the thin the frame. P. it is removed by the cover.

far of large size. which was formerly performed by Eobert-IIovidin with a ball is who in the secret holds the cord by its change. and does not move again until the operator allows it to. while aperture. It will less in through the straight now be apparent order to retard or is only necessary to tighten the cord more or stop the descent of the ball. descends very slowly along the string. and a person in the secret. That is explained in the section of the magic In addition to tbe central aperture.138 MAGIC: STAGE ILLUSIONS AND SCIENTIFIC DIVERSIONS. there is another and curved one. '? How ball does the affair work in the figure. which ends near the extremities of the axial perforation. . If a person two extremities. very mnch surprised sjiectators. or even remains stationary. things from falling. ball thus To the left of the engraving seen the magic suspended between the operator's hands. This trick. since the ball. actually passes that it is it shown making believe jiass the cord through the ctirved one.

calculate the parabola that His it will describe. and. in addition. ^ JUGGLERS AND ACROBATIC PERFORMANCES. too. The juggler is obliged to give impetuses that vary iufinitesimally. He must know the exact spot whither his ball will go. or upon a barrel that revolve. same spot. l. JUGGLERS. eye must take in the position of three. upon a ball. causes to is His dexterity won- derful. and mathematics ten.<fig. in the least conthe venient position — upon lie back of a running horse. fifteen. catching them in succession while standing steadily in the . do balancing wortliy of remark. and he must solve these different problems in optics. or several five balls that are sometimes yards apart. and without being ... The tricks performed by jugglers afford a most wonderful example of the perfection that our senses and organs are capable of attaining under the influ- ence of exercise. and that. We terity can obtain experi- mentally some idea of the dex- shown by a juggler by trying for ourselves the simplest of his tricks. Many with jugglers are content to perform their feats of skill their hands. «g "N.'. twenty times per minnte. mechanics. four.CHAPTER V. IS Whoever two and capable of throwing balls into the air at once. instantaneously.?. upon a tight-rope. and know the exact time that it will take to describe it.

" says he. l)Ut tiiat did )iot satisfy my ambition. and soon.140 MAGIC: STAGE ILLUSIONS AND SCIENTIFIC DIVERSIONS. it should balls it is necessary to have been taught by a professor. upright upon a rickety chair without any feeling of fear. eave during the time it takes to receive the ball with orie it hand and pass other. and many children succeed in it after a few days' :' practice. In his memoirs. pass into the right the is one that in the left and throw first this up in too. into the instead of iising both hands. or cross a country brook. he relates that. whoever can stand an undoubted aptitude for juggling. or nndergoiug contortions. It is to this greater. be remarked that the art of juggling has sufficient advantages as regards the development of the touch. and pass it into the right. If. 3. has an aptitude for tight-ro})^ walking. to cause it to be added to those gymnastic exercises which children are taught at school. which I had much admired . not upon a tight-rope or wire (which would be too much to ask for a debut). is quite sim_ ple. is in the air. the nimbleness of the fingers. receiving and throw^ A. so that the two balls are almost constantly in the air. "I succeeded. is endowed wiUi On the other hand. the quick calculation of distances. however. to surpass iu that faculty of reading by appieciatiou. while taking some lessons from an old juggler. receive the ball the left hand. if it were so [)ossible. obliged to step to the right or left. they throw the one in the right vertically into air. art that the celebrated prestidigitateur llobert-IIoudin attributcnl the dexterity and accuracy that he displayed in his tricks. but upon a plank of two hands' width. follows: They proceed as Having a ball in each the hand. he applied himself so closely to the exercises that at the end of a month he could learn nothing further fi-oiM his instructor. the child em[)loys • — -4>i>> but one. and do this without a quick palpitation of the heart. To perform with a couple '^ of balls. ing one ball while the other FIG. " in performing with four balls. the difficulty is and the young man who can perform this operation twenty times without dropping one of the To perform with three balls can treat the artist of the circus as a coufrhre. and the accuracy of the eye and of motion. throw it up again. I wished. Moreover.

an orange. use merely a simple wooden bar held vertically. perform the most diverse feats (Fig. and upon the top of which they i^erform their various feats of dexterity or contortion.JUGGLEUS AND ACROBATIC PlhiFORMANCES. with hats that they revolve by striking the rim. as a support. and. be believed how much municated to After in this and certainty of execution this exercise comand what quickness of perception it gave mv eve. throwing up. in a word. and they jugglers are capable of performing extremely curious feats of dexterwith the most diverse objects. these articles of different size and weight such an impulsion that each falls and is thrown again at the moment desired. jierform with balls and daggers. It could not delicacy fingers. These hats and napkins no longer seem to obey the laws of Others. FIG. and. and giving for example. the Japanese by means of a simple bit of paper. jugglers Some verse perform with objects of the most dinature. acrobats even balance themselves on the head at the top of this perch. pianists. drink. with rings that they throw into the air. way rendering my hands supple and obedient. by means of a streamer. I no longer hesi- my tated to directly practice prestidigitation. and a piece of paper. It is the its same apparatus formerly used by Greek acrobats. 2). book in front of me. 3. Japanese maidens are noted for performing with extraordinary grace and skill." since a In order to keep their hand in. with their legs extended in lieu of a balancing pole. or with a flag or na]>kin ity Some that they revolve. at the a large ball. form helices and graceful curves. called eat. gravity. so I placed a 141 flying in the air. and. the with same ity is the case with the agilthe of danscuse. again. shoot off a pistol. smoke. by reason of Some naravpor (perch for fowls). one day of rest often moans more than eight days of double whom work. for example. form. butterfly and this others. . succeed in reproducing trick. As is well known. Some jugglers. same time. Their arms are free. few days of voluntary or forced rest would necessitate double work in order to give the hands their former suppleness and dexterity. professional jugglers have to exercise daily. while the four balls were accustomed myself to read without hesitation.

will be observed. located as it is at great lieight it from the floor. has come back to the United States. by gearing shown in the small cut. after attracting attention in England. from whose extremities two trapezes hang. including the bicycle. In the smaller cut we illnstrate the mechanism of tlie apparatus. performers go through differDIAOHAM OF THE KEVOLVING TIIAPEZK. while the illuminated bicycle. IndependentLof the high merit of the performance simply as gymnastics. an exhibition which. the mechanical points are of value. and the performer who rides the bicycle wears a helmet carrying electric lights. but here the performer on the bicycle does all the work of actuating tlie mechanit-al portion and has every part under constant supervision and control. keeps the lower rid- frame in rotation. One of the performers sits on the biif cycle and. The whole apthe cranks of the bicycle are paratus. it. A switch board is placed at the head of the bicycle. while two ent evolutions on the trapezes thus carried around through the air. tlie much center a four-sided rectangular frame. No one has anything to do with its operation exceiit the three performers. THE LEAMY REVOLVING TRAPEZE. To the upper side of the vertical frame is secured a bicycle. so that when worked tlie lower frame is turned round and round. there is always a great liability of trouble or partial failure. is The very striking performance explained in great measure by the cut.143 3IAGJC: STAGE ILLUSIONS AND SCIENTIFIC DIVERSIONS. turning the cranks. The length of the trapeze ropes. as ing. is so adjusted as to allow the performer to pass through the frame without touching is and the absence of a center bar in the frame necessary to the same end. is studded with incandescent electric lamps. connects with the axle of the lower frame. The application of mechanics to scenic and gymnastic displays has an interesting exponent in the revolving trapeze. It can be brought into accurate balance by means of shot. and by mani])ulating switches the vari-colored electric lights are turned on and off so as to produce any desired effect. while the performance execnted npon the apparatus is shown in the larger cut. for ease and safety of manipulation and security from any failure is an absolute essential. is an added attraction. which. . so that it is constantly under their control. From the ceiling of the great auditorium is suspended a vertical three sided In its lower extremity is journaled at rectangular frame open at the bottom. Where any attempt is made to operate such mechanism from behind the scenes.

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short steps while turning. The perbut so far no serious accident has happened. which is perforated near the end. The attachment to the shoe is. calculated. The performer. surface to which it adheres. Taking very short steps. head . in general terms. and eventually returns. Sitting in the trapeze with pneumatic attachments to the soles of her shoes. the string will be drawn tight and will pull the Air will rush in. It is an india-rubber sucker with cup-shaped adhering surface. A former has frequently fallen. A short piece of string is secured to the India rubber and passes through a hole in the extension. The ]K. The socket is also perforated transversely. This stud enters a socket fastened to the sole of the shoe. WALKING ON THE CEILING HEAD DOWN. and is smooth and is a trapeze. pressure. To provide against accident a net is stretched under the board. The socket is under the instep and is attached to the sliank of the shoe sole. taking very the length of the board backward. * down.rformer asofuids The ease with which to the top it is ui)j)arently ofrhe iuidicnfc hall and walkw on the done is marvelous. still walking backward.* order to procure a perfectly smooth surface to walk on. One end of the loop projects back toward and over the shoe sole by a spring. a disk four and one-half inches in To its center a stud is attached. and hangs head downward. A wire loop that extends forward under the toe of the shoe is pivoted on two studs which are secured on each end of the transverse central diameter of This loop is normally held away from the disk and pressing against the disk. pressure. She leaves the trapeze. diameter and five-eighths of an inch thick. and near one end of this The lower surface of the board is painted. if the shock were received directly by the spinal column. the rear edge of the disk. with her face to the audience. she gradually walks She then slowly turns round. as shown. securing the hold between socket and disk. the hnman fly. This closes the performance. and raises They adhere by atmospheric her feet until they jDress against the board. and other performance of considerable scientific interest lias been jiroduced in this In cities which is presented in the accompaoying illustration. one disk is made to adhere by adhesion will cease. and the other is detached by the action just described. not over eight inches in length. as. A pin is passed through the apertures. and the edge of the india rubber away from the board. ceiling. As each new step is taken. she draws herself upward by the arms. There is a certain art in managing the fall. a board twenty-four and one-half feet long is suspended from the ceiling. it might be very severe. who is known as Aimee. is equipped polished. or rearwardly projecting IMie disk when pressed against a smooth surface is held fast If now the loo]) is pressed toward the by the pressure of the atmosphere. The power of the disk to sustain the weight of a performer may be easily arm. of the loop.144 MAGJC: STAGE tLLVStONS AND SCIENTIFIC DIVERSIONS.

AIMEE. . THE HUMAN FLY.

and a fairly perfect is vacuum procured. top of a sloping bridge formed of two jilanks with an intervening platform (Fig. 1). at Paris. to descend with precaution. so that the ball shall not ])lane. to have a remarkable sense of equilibrium and remarkable suppleness to be able. to 240 jDounds. very surprising to see man steps forth from it. As the i)erformer only weighs about 125 pounds. and then Here tlie mystery begins to be explained. At the circus of the Champs it Elysees.140 3lAaiC: STAGE ILLUSIONS AND SCIENTIFIC DIVERSIONS. where a It is It is the clown Lepere. and then starts off again When is it has reached the base of the inclined plane. did not the performer explain after his exhibition. All at once the ball begins to rock a and then moves to the edge of the platform. edge and begins in fine style. falls ui")on a cushion placed upon the gronnd. then ascends a stops again. A\ hen he wishes to make his ball move forward. and contains therefore 10 square The full atmospheric pressure for the area would amount The stud and socket attachment provides a central bcciring. ^^ inches in diameter. the lower extremity of which All at once a flag is fired rapidly ascends to the top again. passes over but a small space. whence one might expect to see it roll immediately to It stops at the the base of the inclined plane. he must bend over and walk upon his hands and knees. Our second engravAfter the ball is closed. is Each sucker inches of surface. it stops. then a shot from the interior. fall fi-om the inclined to which is but twelve inches wide! And what agility does it not require react immediately against the velocity ac({uired after the ball. a performance was given a few years ago that w^ould really put the sagacity of the spectators to the test. seen to make its is exit through a small aperture. in fact. so is that the full advantage of this and the disk obtained. who not only places himself within his ball. is about twenty inches from the ground. there about 115 pounds to spare with a perfect vacuum. in such a position. THE MYSTERIOUS BALL. we cannot compare their performance to that of M. an equilibing shows how M. a man of such a stature from so small a ball. for. the ball certainly inhabited. in conse- . after rolling rapidly to the base of the second inclined pUme. It seems to hesitate. after the manner of a squirrel in his wheel. This we soon have it proof of. thirty inches in diameter. But liow many precautions have to be taken to make the axis of the body (five feet) make his exit coincide with that of the bridge. Lepere places himself. but it does nothing of the sort. It is necessary. little. rium exists oidy when he is seated. Lepere. to contimuUly displace the center of gravity of the ball and keep it always in the vertical plane passing through the axis of the bridge. brought into the ring and placed on little. is A ball. Although we have seen " india-rubber men " who could place themselves in so confined a space. but moves therein with a skill that is truly wonderful.

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and and dexterity Although clowns do not bother themselves much with learning the principles of mechanics upon which their performances are based. to roll! qnence of a displacement. has begun often put ujider contribution. 2. -THE CLOWN IN THE MYSTEBIOUS BALL. Center of gravity. iliey apply them with wonderful dexterity and have a sort of instinct. a special aptitude. FIG. Lepere presents in so ingenious and of equilibrium. velocity. which permits tliem cpiickly to find the position The pei'formance that ]\[. inertia are principles of mecluinics that exhibitions of strength new' a fashion is an evident proof of this. .148 MACrIC: STAGE ILLUSIONS AND SCIENTIFIC DIVERSIOSS.

CHAPTER FIRE EATERS Vl. FIRE EATERS— TKICKS WITH FIRE. This was done by the physician Dodart. tion of the proof of fire man against Avas looked at from a scientific standpoint. plained Dodart ments could be performed without the aid of any chemical prejiaration. by taking a few precautions. and by those or burning water or oil. accounts for fact that in all times the wonder and curiosity of the public have been excited by those who are capable of handling burning coals or red-hot iron with impunity. Burning is nndoiibtedly that kind of pain against which the human is being most strongly revolts. . but exists also as an instinct in the entire animal fear. and the trials by fire in ancient and mediaeval It was not until about 1G?7 that the questimes do not need to be cited here. acquire under the influence ot an oft-repeated action. AKD SWORD TRICKS. which is so powerful in kingdom. or of touching molten metal. and the fear of being burned not confined to man tlie alone. These studies were i^rovoked the wonderful tricks which were being performed by at ati that time in Paris by ex- English chemist that these named experi- Richardson. a member of the Academy of Sciences. This men. the liorror of being burned. who are proof against flames There are many examples in history of individuals who are more or less fireproof. and also that the success of them depended upon the hardening that the epidermis may a mountebank licking a red-hot bak of iron.

he found that a solution of alum had the same property. when put upon the skin. in After all these experiments Sementini succeeded making liimself much better proof against fire than was the charlatan who we first suggested the experiment to h'uu. after submitting himself to repeated friction with sulphurous acid. however. render of the Italian physician The experiments the latter absolutely insensible to contact with fire or incandescent materials. Sementini. he was ejiabled to apply a red-hot iron to his His first FIRK RATERS AT THE OLYMriA THEATER.150 MAGIC: STAGE ILLUSIONS AND SCIENTIFIC DIVLIiSIONS. Fire eaters have always been very popular on the vaudeville stage. he found that the hand was still further proof against fire. One day. Paris. finally. and |)i'<'sciit iin engnvving shewing two five eaters at tho ()lympia Theater. This. who and chemist. He then discovered that a layer of powdered sugar covered with soap sufficed to render liis tongue entirely insensible to heat. Bkin with impunity. experiments had no result. Continuing his experiments. having accidentally rubbed soap upon the surface of a hand that had previously been impregnated with alum. This hardening of the skin among laborers results in their frequently being able to handle red-hot iron and lighted coals with impunity. . PARIS. exhibit in public does not suffice to explain the tricks of those individuals as fireproof. have shown that there are prejiarations which.

They shoot forth a bed of flame for a considerable length of time. but in reality the spoon is only wet. experiments in tricks of this kind. Another trick of the fire eaters is when they pretend to drink burning oil. 151 When the performers appear upon the stage. This trick l>e is very effective if well done. which they continuously move. and put some preparations upon their hands. The devils. experiment without putting anything in their mouths. A little kerosene oil is poured iuto an iron ladle. smoke and sparks. and while the ladle is held in the left hand. and a brilliant flame ^ "^ | makes its exit from between their lips. they breathe gently. after making their bow. taking care while do- ing so to inhale only through nose. membrane candescent in the mouth against contact with the inball.FIRE EATERS AND SWORD TRICKS. and when it is brought blazing to the mouth the operator throws back his head as though to swallow it. as This will what is called the sponge Two or three small sponges are . they blow with energy. an iron spoon is dipped into the oil as though to take a spoonful. and long flames dart forth for a few seconds from They subsequently the tips of their fingers. they come to the front of tiie stage and cause very thin but brilliant flames to dart from their fingers. and at the same time a slight pufl is given by the breath. which certainly exceeds half The combustion is due to a very volatile essence. Certain eaters of burning tow proceed as follows: They form a little ball of material which they tightly compress and then light. The oil is now lighted. which the blows it out. and thus project MOUNTEBANK SWALLOWING ULUMNG TOW. they are clad in a tight-fitting costume of a red color which represents that of the devils of fairy scenes. but the reader is especially cautioned against trying the results are apt to be seen by any dangerous except in the hands of experts. Then I'olling this in new tow in order to guard the mucous a minute. When the two devils touch each other's hands a crackling sound is heard. and allow to burn up almost entirely. go to the rear of the stage. they seem to swallow them and then extinguish them between their teeth. trick. The stage Upon which tlicy appear is but dimly lighted during their presence upon it. bringing these flames near to their mouths.

whose body the sword will simply pass around. The reason that some substances tile and consist of essential oils. The produced its is plete. and. they must in no case drip. He expels Suddenly he closes his mouth. etc. liot at is all and the plan is of which seen at A in the accomiaanying cut. it It might be made illusion come out is comfrom the at the center of the back. It is the ])restidigitateur himself who. and the two extremities of which are bent in contrary directions in such a arc situated in the way that they same straight line. is held in place by cords attached to two small rings at the two extremities of the tube. in reality. The sword employed sharp. is placed in an iron ladle. 2'>ierce. When this is lighted tlie complexion of. but in this case tlie would be necessary to have an aperture formed the seam of coat. The point sufficiently blunt to prevent As sists of for the prestidigitateur.. and semicircular in shape. directs tails of it into the metallic tube. can be burned without injuring them. burning liquid. thin. the oxygen necessary for combustion. The sj^onges are now on fire. flexible blade of steel. necessary to . which is on fire. it is usually poured upon tow which is lighted. on account of the form of the hitter's extremity. it is merely their vapor Tliis vapor then tends to borrow heat from the liquid. throwing his head back. or uj^on the skin without burning. drops the blazing sponge into his month. is a simple. appearing instinctively to grasp tlie point of the sword as It if to protect himself. to makes its exit between the in the coat. everyone is hideous. ether. seeing that tlie flexible blade straightens out on making It exit tube. it from doing any harm. whence the latter may remain at a relatively low temperature while the surface This is a reasonable explanation of the curious phenomenon of the is on fire. There are some liquids that have the property of taking fire and burning without injuring the object upon which they are ponred and without producing any As a usual thing such liquids are very volapainful sensation upon the skin. only a sufiicient quan- being used to wet tbem. SWORD TRICK—A STAB THROUGH THE ABDOMEN. This apparatus. and.152 3IAGIC: STAGE ILLUSIONS AND SCIENTIFIC DIVERSIONS. and their tension is try experiments considerable. A slightly different effect isnsed by infusing saffron in alcohol for a number of hours. the two orifices opening in front and behind at right angles with the abdomen. and the experimenter takes up one of them with his tongs. This is done by pouring a few ounces of alcohol into a basin containing a handful of salt. when they are burning. but not he carries concealed beneath his vest a sort of sheath that con- a tube of rectangular section. and the flame immediately goes out. and then adding salt as before. Perset formers who jn'esent fire tricks for the amusement of a company frequently which give a ghastly ajopearance to the audience. B. are explained as follows: These substances are very volatile. gasolene tity poured over tlieni. this cuts off his breath quickly all the time.

FIRE EATERS AND SWORD TRICKS. them in the board just above the . which required One of them stood. operate rapidly. few years ago two of them performed the following feat. the following substitute was devised by M. THE HUMAN TARGET. stationed himself at a distance of about six yards from the board. and from thence threw the knives with a sure hand and stuck one of head of the target. he outlined the form of his companion with the knives stuck very deeply into the board. with arms exteuded. and wliich follows the when the latter is pulled out at the oj^posite side of the body. are possessed of very extraordinary skill. in a word. A SWOKD TRICK. the operation is dangerous. in front of a wonderful dexterity. a thick board placed vertically. armed with a number of wide- A bladed knives. Voisin for the use of prestidigitateurs. as well known. Japanese jugglers. and an effort was at once made to reproduce it. The blade figure represents a variant of the trick in is which the sword is provided with an eye through which a long red ribbon passed. but as such dexterity is not possessed by everybody. so that the spectators of tiie sliall 153 not have time to see that the length line that it sword has diminished at this moment. the curved follows not being the shortest passage from one point to another. aud as. in addition. two of them very close to the right and left of the neck. This performance met with extraordinary success. and the other. and others around the arms.

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traversing the stage. board is carefully marked. throw the knife between the side scenes back of but. in succession according as the knife is to fall or rise. with its window. near the opposite side scenes. In addition. he can. a simple one. act with the limbs of the target. in poising his arms to take aim. The sound made by the spring in expanding and the sudden ajipearance of the knife. the incision closed is with modeling the bottom. in order to make space for the blade is when the valves are closed. since the spectators it him while he takes a step forward. a piece of cabinet work containing an ingen- ious mechanism. and that they shall not come into conEach of these knives. as we liave explained. To this effect the board is placed on one side of the stage. at first sight and at a short distance. knife supposed to be thrown thus disappears completely at the desired The moment. the pei'son who threw the knives makes believe to pull them out by force from the wood in which they seem to be inserted. illusion. The board having been invented. This consists in a genuine throwing of the knife. which Avill appear In each of the valves the as if stuck into the board just above the instep. where the sound of its fall is deadened l)y some such material as a piece of carpet. forms a distinct apparatus. The board that is 155 employed in is this case. shows the window opening to allow of the fall of the knife. and the person who throws the knives stations himself on the other side of the stage. which. way as to cause it to pass by the board and fall between the side scenes. and is concealed within the board by a very finely adjusted double-valved window. at the last moment. by pressing ujwn the ends of the rods as if upon the keys of a piano. it is Each of these knives is fixed by its point upon a pivot. . may he easily disengaged from its axis when. after the operation. viz. near the side scenes.FIRE EATERS A2sD SWORD TRICKS. opens and The spring causes the knife to fall or rise allows it to appear. it became necessary to find a method of throwing the knives in such a way as to cause them to disappear. and appear as if they had just stuck into the board. In both of these two methods. angles that meet each other are cut slopingly either at the top or bottom. combined with the motion of the person throwing it. which is controlled by a rod that ends at the edge of the board just at the place where the fingers of the human target can reach them. causes the blades to come out of their place of concealment. but in such a. Before the exit of the knife. affords a complete Let us add that each knife mounted on a pivot at its point. which. and he can therefore act in two ways. The place which the human target will occupy on this and the knives that are to be stuck into the board around such place arc contained in the cabinet work. at the proper moment.. and then closes. first. it is is preferable to employ the second method. controlled by a spring. ^'o. do not see the flash of the blade. 'Z of the engraving according to the place that the latter is to occupy. wax the color of the wood. one after another. as in the genu- ine performance. In our engraving the incision at Naturally the knives are concealed in the board in such a way that on making their exit the field shall be free. seems to be absolutely without preparation. It is he who. instead of being.

and it is necessary to employ the other method. This tors. It is experiments of this kind that constitute the tricks of sword swallowers. At one side of him there are flags of different nationalities surrounding a panoply of sabers. advantage that there . after experiment in swallowing the blade at a single gulp. too. on the other hand. it has its inconveniences. a and a fourth up to second not quite so far. and the blade at length entirely disappears. solid. with so much the more facility in that many had seen the Japanese perform in the middle of a circus. let ns say in conclusion. the hilts being then Arranged as shown in our third illustration (C). . the handle of a spoon. when well executed. for example. a physician introduces his linger.. the latter exjieriences an extremely disagreeable of the pharynx. pain. he introduces extremity into throat. he causes one to penetrate little less still. causes and nausea. has often deceived the shrewdest specta- and that. taps the hilt gently.156 3IAGIC: STAGE ILLUSIONS AND SCIENTIFIC DIVERSIONS. however slight it be. where it was impossible to conceal the knife. that is there exist boards in which the freeing of the knives This process has the no danger of the spectators seeing the manipulation of the rods but. and the organ reacts with violence against the obstacle that presents itself to free respiration. or a pencil into the throat of a patient. swords. a thread held in the side scenes by a third party. effected by the pulling To of be precise. in a place where a communication cannot be established between the invisible confederate and the mechanical board. These experiments are nearly always the same. and at Taking a flat saber. in order that the click of the expanding spring may be taken by the spectators for the sound of the knife sticking into the wood. up to its guard. the other. introduce into their pharynx large. and for this reason Ave are justly surprised when we meet with peo^Dle who seem to be proof against it. since it could be followed by the eye in its travel from the hand of the Japanese to the point where it penetrated the board. and stiff objects like sword blades. The individual comes out Any touching strangling. and who. and yatagans. a third a about half its length. triclv. is SWOED SWALLOWEES. the blade being from liis fifty-live to sixty centimeters in length. viz. There is no one who has not more than once experienced this disagreeable impression. Subswallowing and disgorging two of these same swords. for the human target to press the spring of tlie knife that he wishes to make appear at just the precise moment. the use of it is impossible. lie then repeats the sequently. dressed in a brilliant costume. When sensation. and cause these to jienetrate to a depth that appears incredible. and to omit no information. a stack of guns provided with bayonets. whose its blade and hilt have been cut out of the same sheet of metal.

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After swallowing several different swords and sabers. It daily happens that persons afflicted with disorders of the throat or stomach can no longer swallow or take nourishmeiit. As a trick. to make daily use of this a])paratus. the sword swallower borrows a cane from a j^erson in the audience. are capable of becom- SWORD BLADE 'UE BODY. and swallows it almost entirely. and swallows the latter. and causes two-thirds of it to disappear. flexible . But arti- for sword swallowers fices are who employ few in numl)er and their experiments but slightly varied. that they gradually get used to The first introduction of the end of the tulje into tlio ])harynx is extremely j)ainful. despite their sensitiveness and their rebellion affainst contact with solid * bodies. after tiie maimer of swoi-d swallowers. he swallows the four blades at a gulji. and then he takes them out leisurely one by one. mistake. and would die of exhaustion were they not fed artificially by means of the u. before being able of which milk or bouillon is introduced. the gun remaining vertical Finally he borrows a large saber from a dragoon who is present over his head. A certain number of spec- tators usually think that the performer produces an illusion through the aid of some trick.'sophageal tube. I'he washing out of the stomach. ]torfoi'n)0(l by means of a long. This latter is a vulcanized rubber tube which the patient swallows. I They attain this re- suit as follows: ' ^ rosiTlON OCCUPIED BY THE The back parts of the mouth. he takes an old musket armed with a triangular bayonet. advantage of in medicine. Pressing now on the hilts. really while the majority i J| do introduce into their mouths and food passages the blades that they cause to dis- appear. encored. and that this is a it is impossible to swallow a sword blade. second less is a little less so. must serve a genuine a])prenticeship.158 MAGIC : STAGE ILLUSIONS AND SCIENTIFIC DIVERSIONS. and through the extremity But the patient. that the })atieut succeeds in swallowing ten or twelve inches of the tubing Avithout a disagreeable sensation. and it is only after a large number of more or prolonged. The effect is quite surprising. the trials. ing so changed through habit This fact is taken abnormal contacts. on being for the ])ur|iose.

Its width is twenty-five millimeters. Swallowers of forks and spoons serve an analogous apprenticeship. is made of very thin metal. but the patient succeeds in accustoming his organs to contact witli the tube. is a long spoon or fork while holding This trick on all of suction if the individual cannot hold it. and his stomach. among other things. the spoonman " then. the saber swallowed mouth and ])harynx first. strongly attracted. But the majority of sword swallowers who exhibit upon the stage employ a guiding tube which they have previously swallowed. the head is thrown back so that the mouth is in the direction of the oesophagus. after a short time. and is finally able. the curves of which disappear or by the performer enters the traverses the cardiac — . then the oesophagus. which is from forty-five to fifty centimeters long. and with which he injects into ajid removes from his stomach a quantity of tepid water by raising the tube or letit hang down to form a siphon. of these consists in their ability to introduce into the throat it suspended by its extremity between two extremely dangerous. and of the performance of the four-sabers experiment. near the point. loO tube which the patient partially swallows. and. Some swallow the blade directly. Others do not even take such a precaution. especially. for with them it only as a consequence of repeated it trials that the pharynx becomes suflficiently accustomed to to permit them to finally swallow objects as large and rigid as swords. without the tlieir sabers are provided at the extremity. canes. and who. but swallow the saber or sword just as it is. normal state these organs are not in a straight line. who has become a poor juggler. to swallow the latter with ting indifference. As known. and of the introduction of sabers and swords of all kinds. All sword swallowers do not proceed in the same way. likewise necessitates an apprenticeship of some days. sabers. To explain the latter from a physiological standjioint. without any intermediate apparatus. and enters the latter as far as the antrum of the pylorus In their the small cul-de-sac of the stomach.FIRE EATERS AND SWORD TRICKS. in his experiments. with a small bayonet- shaped apjiendage over which they tors perceiving it slip a gutta-iiercha tip sjiecta- (F and G). so that the experiments they are enabled to perform become less dangerous and can be varied more. opening of the stomach. at least. It was accidents of this kind that made the "forkman " and the '" knifeman " celebrated. below his sternum. allows tlie spectators to touch. The spoon or fork is. and its thickness fifteen (B). With these sword swallowers is it is absolutely the same. since the oesophagus exerts a sort bodies that are introduced into it. but in this case. the talent fingers. whence it — '"' who died from the effects of the extraction from his stomach of a sirup spoon. it will drop into can only be extracted by a very dangerous surgical operation gastrotomy. This tube. These dimensions i)ermit of the easy introduction of flat-bladed sabers. and even billiard cues. In the first jdace. This is the mode of procedure of an old zouave. the projection that the point of the saber in his stomach makes on his skin. but are placed so by the passage of the sword. more recently.

like him whose talents were utilized by Stevens. and of . to reach the small cul-de-sac. and the illumination of the latter organ by the after a certain electric light. too. is explained by the dimensions of the organs traversed. and. the (esophageal tube. In order to do this he to caused VAUIOUS APPAKATUS FOl! individual SWOKD SWALI. a Scotch l)hysician. 25 to 28. to the number of four.OWEKS. the washing out of the stomach. finally. dis- tended stomach. thus permitting the blade to traverse the stomach through its greater diameter. they have the faculty of swallowing pebbles of various sizes. The depth of fifty-five to sixty centimeters to instruments to penetrate. swallowers of pebbles. the last-named organ distends in a vertical direction and internal curve disappears. at the same time. Such lengths may be divided thus: Mouth and pharynx. sometimes even stones larger than a hen's egg. It sometimes happens tliat sword swallowers who exhibit in public squares and at street corners are. five. less. Stevens. Sword swallowing ors have services to medicine. and from this resulted the invention of the Foucher tube. and got him to disgorge them again l>hysicians to It was also sword swallowers who showed length of time. in 1777. what extent the pharynx could become habituated to contact. 20 to to G2 centimeters. that is to say. ings. or six. It should be understood that before such a result can be attained tlie stomach must have been emptied through fasting on the part of the operator. oesophagus. sometimes more. a length of organs of from 55 to 62 centimeters may give passage to swallow^ed swords without in- convenience.160 MAGIC: STAGE ILLUSIONS AND SCIENTIFIC DIVERSIONS. — 55 According to the stature of the individual. that is to say. which these men cause their and which seems extraordinary to spectators. 10 to '2'2 13. to exhibit- rendered important It was one of them a swallower of both swords and peb- due — bles — that. to was enabled make the first studies upon be- tlie gastric juice of hunum this. and that. swallow small metallic tubes pierced with holes and filled with meat according toEeaumur's method. become its the angle that the cesophagns makes with the stomach becomes null.

This is a very neat trick. stiff blade. generally a lady. eighty centimeters in length. how the swords are arranged in a rack The rack is usually about seven feet high. so that he seems to have swallowed the sword see (G and E). disappear that but a few centimeters of the blade hilt. placed near the mouth. Usually the inspectors are invited to examine the rack as well as the swords. In a pint of water as much alum is dissolved as the water will readily take up. to about The blade is thus reduced which length enters the hilt. eight swords are used. protrude. A'oisin. explanations of " how it is know how it is performed. treading directly on the sharp edges without any injury to the It is feet. consists in plungitig the saber into a tube that descends along the neck and chest. The secret is not in the swords or rack.FIRE EATERS AND SWORD TRICKS. of the 11 One . presents no peculiarity (see D in our engraving). the skillIn its ordinary state this sword has a ful manufacturer of physical apparatus. as will lie on a silver dime. it will From the illustration be seen with the cutting edges on top. To the alum water is added as much zinc sulphate. twenty-five centimeters. yet none of them ever come near guessing the truth. thoroughly dissolved. none have caused more comment than the one iu which a person. that sword whose blade enters its hilt. a half of THE SWORD WALKER. which deceives only at a certain distance. of the is hidden by means of a false beard. and these two parts enter into the one that forms the base of the sword. which has been employed in several enchantment scenes. and which is due to ^l. but in the preparation of the performer's feet. the spectator sees it descend by degrees. in his organs by determination and In conclusion. solid tip In the blade has entered into the is for it possesses a that enters the middle part. and finally so nearly realit}'. There then remain but a few centimeters outside the exhibitor's mouth. Another and much more is ingenious one. and the opening of which. but when the exhibitor plunges it into his mouth. let us say a word in regard to the tricks that produce the illusion of swallowed swords or sabers. which hollow. 161 afterward disgorging them one by one through a simple contraction of the stomach. and paper is cut with the swords to show that they are really sharp. This secret has been so jealously and successfully guarded that very few. Of all the daring tricks that have been introduced in the circus. and the swords fit snug and tight in the slots made to receive them. One of these. Here Ave have a new example of the modification of sensitiveness and function that an individual may secure constant practice. under the garments. when looked at from a distance of a few meters. even among the best informed experts. walks with bare feet up a ladder of sharp swords. amusing to a person who is acquainted M'ith the secret to hear the many done " offered by the spectators. Avhich. and most necessary points in the preparation for the trick is that the rack should stand firm.

shows his feet to be free from any covering. and have seen a lady walk with bare feet up a ladder of sharp swords. steps in the box. then removes his shoes.?t<. visitors are almost is sure to see before the ever-present side show a large painting on which the representation of a Mexican dancing with bare feet in a shallow box filled with broken glass.v*>N-. On a raised platform is found a box about four feet long. and six inches deep. or the solution result A would be a very bad accident. three feet wide.162 MAGIC: STAGE ILLUSIONS AND SCIENTIFI C DIVERSIONS. 5f. and at once wiped dry without rubbing. By placing the feet squarely on the swords there is no danger. In a few moments a man dressed in the Mexican costume ai)pears on the platform and proceeds to break a few old bottles and throw the broken glass in the box. . 'On leaving the circus in which one has seen the above act. but great care must be used not to allow the foot to slide or slip on the sword.. dressing-room the feet are dipped for a moment in as cold water as can be secured. SWORD WALKER. you enter the side show to see this new wonder. the bottom of which is covered with broken glass. few minutes before doing the act the performer bathes the feet in this Just before leaving the and allows them to dry without wiping. If you are of an inquisitive nature.

and go upon the platform. and you run no risk of cutting your feet. and retires. 163 has finished dancing he shows bis feet is to be nuinjured. among Avoid the sides or corners of the box. Remove your shoes.. break them in rather small pieces and file or grind all the sharp edges round. The amateur hardly needs to be informed that such tricks should be left entirely to professionals. The trick performed in the following manner: Secure a number of thick glass bottles. . where you have thrown the glass. step in the center of the box. around the edges and in the strong alum water and wipe dry. and throw this fresh broken glass in the Ixix. corners. them a tluirough rubbing with pulDust the inside of your shoes Mith rosin. and give verized rosin. After lie SWOJil) TRICKS. This stock of glass you place in the Now soak your feet in center of a box made according to above measurement. not in the center. GLASS DANCET!.FIRE EATERS AND and dances among the glast. Take some old lamp chimneys and bottles. especially if you use plenty of rosin. the prepared glass. and do your dancing. ])ut them on. break tliem in bits.

and wrapping a handkerchief or napkin around the hand. make dolls or dummies speak. or a pro- cession. the noise of tools. magician had just opened his hand. a regiment. showing that it was tlie latter alone that formed the inclosed in a white glove upon which were a few colored marks At Egyptian Hall. etc. in these ventrilofjuists.it words that tlie spectator hears. if one has a little aptness for ventriloquism. succeed ])ro(liicing so coiii|ilete an ilhisioii tliat peo])le are frequfsntly persuaded tliat the voice heard actually conies from the mouth . are in the vicinity. carrying a doll. In our engraving may be seen two methods of arranging the fingers for The illusion is produced by making a forming a doll's head with the hand. Those figures are so constructed that the ventriloquist's hands can move theii' arms and legs. some mock tlie noise produced by a crowd. In our time. when all at once the doll's head was strangely transformed. turn their heads to the right or left. YENTEILOQUISM AND ANIMATED PUPPETS. while others. The plete. have the faculty of making their audience believe that several persons. with made his appearance upon which he held a somewhat uncoutli conversaThe lips of the doll were observed to move. saw. most ventriloquists who exhibit in public considerably facili- produce by using large articulated dummies. Certain ventriloquists imitate the sound of musical instruments^ from tbat of the violin up to tbat of brass instruments with the most piercing notes. and talk to one another each in a different voice. London. and move their lower jaws in such a tate the illusion that they desire to — way that of tlioir their mouths seem in a to utter tlie th. then. accordiug to their s^^ecialties.i. We may s. others imitate the sound of musical instruments. and the illusion was comtion. open or close their eyes. which tlipy make speak and sing.v. etc. he may hold a conversation with the head. Certain ventriloquists. give their siioulders a slirug. Some devote their talent to the imitation of the cries of animals. general way.. the songs of birds. 'the stage. tiianks to the use dummies. a magician recently — doll's head.— CHAPTER YII. or even a crowd. be divided into various categories. again. Avhile hidden by a screen simply. Others excel in imitating the noise of the plane. Ventriloquists may. few simple lines with charcoal.

a mind . Explanation of Ventriloquism. and the liuiirc. is that this: in the little prefatory speech is that tlie ventriloquist makes. and does not s])eak the language of his audi- MKTIIon OK MAKIXO FACKS WTTTI TlIK MAM). His dummies. (if Klo near is uud that it does not proceed from the ventriloquist standing but from a confederate liidden somewhere about. as the ease may be. on the contrar}-. Mr. ence well. they are led to believe that ventriloquism counts for nothing in their answers or conversation. tlic latter. and when the anditors hear them. answer in very good French or English.VENTRILOQUISM AND ANIMATED PUPPETS. That there is such an incertitude as to the direction of sounds is easily verified. whose voice heard through the intermedium of a speaking-tube. in fact. he expresses himself with difficulty and with a strong accent. There is one trick that always tends to confirm the spectator's illusion. he gives out that he a foreigner. Stuart Cumberland. based upon an acoustic phenomenon — The art of ventriloquism primarily — the difficulty that the ear experiences in is determining the exact point whence comes the sound that it hears. and the following are a few cases in proof of it.

a willingly disposed person. for example. natMoreover. the person designated by. and amusing his auditors. in the main. or if. that is. after his " second-sigjit " seances. as a matter of fact. as a beautiful voice not always accompanied row of a chorus they will place pretty supernumeraries.16G MAGIC: STAGE ILLUSIONS AND SCIENTIFIC DIVEliSIONS. caused the latter's perception as to the direction of the sound to vary. analogous to that Another example: If several persons be obtained through ventriloquism. standing in the same line. performed a little experiment in the drawing-room. an endeavor Avith is made to have an agreeable aspect in is addition to vocal qualities. he can easily make believe that he has an animal endowed with speech. at a few feet from a spectator. say a key or another coin. when his bandage was removed. without moving his lips. extremely surpiised. standing near his dummies. who had cheerfully submitted himself to the ex2)eriment. allowed his eyes to be Then Mr. at the gross errors in auditory i)ercej)tion that he had just comThe illusion that it is thus possible to produce by varying the posimitted. In this experiment. say a a a that requires no motion of the lips. who. Mr. In almost all cases the individual guessed a direction and distance very different from the real one. In the choruses of operas. by striking it Avitli a hard object. while the child was making believe pronounce words. and one of them emits a prolonged sound a vowel. although not obliged to sing. which nsually resulted reader. he tries to point the one out. although. it might easily be believed that the words heard were being spoken by the child. If a man standing near a child should. S2:ieak with a squeaking voice. him being the third or fourth to the right or left of the one Avho actually produced in surprising — — the sound. moreover. Cumberurally provoked great hilarity from the spectators. while his figures become animate and move their lips and seem to speak. the spectator will be unable to determine from which of the persons the sound proceeds. Cumberland took a five-franc piece and made it jingle bandaged. land. the exiDcrimenter had not budged from his first position. Avbo exhibited at Paris a few years ago. being seated in the middle of the room. and the error. The person submitted to the experiment then had to tell the direction from whence the sound emanated. he Avill be almost certain to commit an error. The ventriloquist who. At a soiree. we have seen a member of the Institute. the a pretty face. bv varying the position of his hand in such a way that the latter formed a screen between the coin and the ear of the blindfolded person. it often happens that in the first . and. tions of the hand in which a coin is jingled is. and to give the distance at which it seemed to liim to have been made. detected by the audience. open their mouths and make believe pronounce words. It is possible to teach a dog to ojien his mouth and follow the motions of his master's hand. and if the master be any sort of a ventriloquist. succeeds in keeping his facial muscles absolutely immovable. while in reality the singing is This fraud is very rarely being done only by their companions in the rear. produces such an illusion among the spectators by virtue of the acoustic principle that Ave have just noted. which was ofttimes great.

nasal sound of e . They may be classified in the form of gamuts. en. nasal sound of o . to by a slightly more open or more closed sound. and to speak without causing any of the facial muscles to act. The -CLA^^SIFIC-VIIOX n sounds or vowels are made up of all the continuous OK lllK. 2. VOWEL A. without the tongue and other vocal organs having to undergo the slightest modification. animals. without changing the position of the lips or tongue. eiin. o. each having a typical vowel. of grammar. more and more pronounced contraction of the lips. e. addresses his questions in an ordinary voice. a. of the lower THIRD SERIES. in. The chief of such sounds result of a are: a7i. . no longhis lips to FIRST SERIES. on. i. and ti are vowels.VENTRILOQUISM AND AM MATED PUPPETS. which are merely applications of the physiology of the voice. and plainly his lips. which separates the language of eilx man from that mar and teaches. Thus . nasal sound of eu. It is to be remarked that the chief difficulty in the art of ventriloquism is to keep the couutenauce immovable. articulates distinctly. The moves fhe ventriloquist who talks with a dummy that is interrogating him. in pronouncing each of these vowels. and facial scarcely smile. un. in fact. Articulate si^eech. we draw the base of the tongue toward the back of the throat. because possible. but when the dummy answers. TOWEL E. can be explained by recalling a few principles SECOK"D SERIES. bility part Tlie except preserved is immoby him speako(L while he really ing. 1(57 difficulty that the ear experiences in determining tlie precise point whence emanates the sound tiiat it hears. nasal sound of a. and uniform they noises that the vocal organs can emit. then. VOWEL I. These type-vowels and their descending gamuts are shown in Fig. is divided. we shall obtain the nasal sound thereof. may be infinitely prolonged of vowels than is a a a a a a. example. NOWKI. as graminto sounds articulations. the entire corresponding series of which is but the modify them to infinity. ventriloquist's face er contracts. If. then. for so to speak. There are a it is greater number usually admitted in writing.

without any visible sign exhibiting itself to the eyes of the spectators. h. The pronunciation of the vowels. upon the jiharynx. p and h. can act and articulate without the aid of the of the facial muscles contracting. In each category they are divided into strong and weak. but usually substitute for them a sound bordering on that of the letter n. The same is not the case with the consonan'ts of the second 7?. it Avill Upon examining be seen that. we must remark that. are easily obtained by tlie ventriloquist by the aid of the tongue and the interior organs of the mouth. without causing the lips and facial muscles to undergo the slightest motion or the least contraction. acting teeth. in most cases. vowels and consonants enter. with the five labials. the pronunciation of some of which is a difficulty that the ventriloquist can overcome only by virtue of practice and skill. which may be pronounced by causing only the interior muscles of the lips to act. but which is obtained with the internal vocal organs of the mouth. but it w^ill suffice to allow the latter to remain slightly parted in order to give passage to the sound this being generally done by the ventriloquist through the aid of a smile. primarily. The ventriloquist's art consists in pronouncing these without moving the lips or facial muscles. this table. that seems to be provoked by the interest that lie takes in the talk of his dummies. because of the back position naturall}' occupies in pronouncing them. constitutes no difficulty for The same is not the case with the articulations or consothe ventriloquist. in the entire first series of these consonants. the tongue. present a greater difficulty. A classification of them is given in Fig. according to the vocal organs employed for pronouncing them./. and without the necessity will The ven- triloquist. or again by an approximate — pronunciation facial — the ai'ticulation difficult to })ronounce Avithout moving the muscles being replaced by another which gives nearly the same sound. then. the tongue "What precedes may be called the theory of tiie vowels. From the stand- point of ventriloquism. as regards ventriloquism. or taking different lips. be able to pronounce any word in which none but these series. or that of persons of slight education. With a little practice it is easy to reach such a result with /" and v. they comprise two series. in other words. ventriloquists who wish to keep their lips perfectly motionless pronounce none of these three constmants distinctly. and we may say that. All the modifications in the organs necessary for passing from one vowel to another. of an acoustic phenomenon. and m especially. 3. r. i The vowels which is that the base of and u have no nasal sounds. without moving his facial muscles. and but slightly modified when we endeavor to give tiiem a nasal sound. bearing against the shapes. in order to pronounce the vowels. that is to say. as in the diphthongs oa and ae. The consonants may be classed by categories. the uncertainty of the sound's direc- . or when they suppress certain intermediate articulations. and. It is partly for this reason that veiitriloquists succeed much better in imi- tating the language of children. the illusion produced by ventriloquists is the result. no motion of the lips is necessary. then. nants. upon the Avhole. So. m. or.168 JIAGIC: STAGE ILLUSIONS AND SCIENTIFIC DIVERSIONS.

or cask. who had an ojiportunity of examining the ventriloquist Fitz-James. from a grotto or cavern. 3. spot that to thus pointed out Gutturals Palatal linguals Dental Unguals Dentals Palatal dentals Dental sibiilants Guttural sibiilants Weak. such as the toji of a tree or the roof of a neighboring house.— CLASSIFICATIOX auditors that these are the very words that they heard. tlie ventriloquist usually takes care to show that by an expressive motion and by looking in that direction. But.— COXSOXANTS FORMED BY THE INTERNAL VOCAL ORGANS. have tiie Those ventriloquists who. interest. muffled. and which always preceded by a strong inspiration. or surprise. power of throwing same principle of acoustics that we liave exphiined aljove. with accessories. 169 of a habit acquired of speaking without moving the facial muscles. he will produce the illusion of a voice coming from the ceiling. and. As for the exact point whence the sound proceeds. hoarse or nasal . n s d gn 2 but the ventriloquist takes care. or from a box. / p b and by commenting upon them. which is is. the tongue being in the same position. upon bearing against the soft palate. in order to effect the emission of this voice.VLWTiiJLoguisJi tion. to render ch J Weak. while his face expresses great fear. them intelligible by repeating them in his ordinary voice. the ventriloquist arranges his tongue in such a way that its base. secondarily. him in a seemingly unin- e I 9 ill tentional manner. after a manner. by means of which he introduces into his lungs a great volume of air. Aspirated labials m OF THE CONSONANTS. form a sort of diaphragm that allows but very little of the voice to pass. as a general thing. He thus persuades his FIG. or closet. -LABIAL CONSONANTS. the sound will appear to come from the earth. Strong. If then. in both cases. the celebrated physiologist. too. Strong. which he carefully husbands. and emits as little breath as possible in pronouncing. In order to produce a muffled sound that seems to come from afar or from an inclosed place. protracted. shall . Sibillant labials Siu) pie labials by accenting them. succeed therein by utilizing the his finger. says: "His entire meclianism consists in a slow and graduated expiration. v SECOND SERIES. the ventriloquist articu- lates his words with a strong guttural voice. without their voices almost anywhere. Richerand. and by designating it. A^n animated puppets. tlie ventriloquist keeps his lungs distended. oh the contrary. or from some high place. The the w^ords are often pro- r t nounced very indistinctly by mysterious voice. So the spectator easily persuades himself that the sound does really come from the exact is FIRST SERIES. the ventriloquist speaks with a sharp voice. As for the modifications to be introduced into the usual position of the organs in order to obtain the voices of aged people or children. If. somewhat indistinct." voices.

when the processes used forth. suspecting. will be easily understood. rubs resin on his bow. JlKKTItAMJ S ANIMATED I'dTETS. being twenty-two inches in height. and so owing to the mobility. 3 shows one of them while she is executing a difficult scene. they are easily effected. sounds of musical instruments. it is only necessary to devote ourselves to this exercise for a few minutes. they appear to be real. The little Fig. puppets are about half life size. G. and the position and curvature of the tongue. After the player has finished. and it is by ventriloquists. They are suspended from the upper part of the theater by very fine wires fixed to a Left to itself the puppet is suspended about three feet from rubber spring. of such organs." which he exhibited for a long time in Paris. he bows and M. indeed. . the noises of tools. so as to obtain the voice that he desires. of the most charming of the puppets was a violoncellist who bows. and the illusions that it is possible for them to produce. perfection. and plays a march. such an exercise will reveal to the experimenter that he has an aptness for ventriloquism that he was far from ANIMATED PUPPETS. Bertrand's dansenses are no less wonderful. Puppets have been in use since antiquity. the cries of animals. The French painter M.ITO :\IA(rlC: STAGE ILLUSIONS S AND SCIENTIFIC DIVEHSlONS. Moreover. Bertrand devised some very ingenious puppets. the opening of the pharynx. repeats the piece for an encore. in order to get a good idea of the modifications that with certainty. and resources by practice and feeling his way that the ventriloquist conies to know them and repeat them. which he calls "animated models. and when skillfully constructed and operated the effect is very amusing. may be introduced in the voice by regulating the breathing. When the characters make their One appearance and walk and approach each other. Perhaps.

The fifth figure shows that the fundamental osseous framework is made of hard wood.A J.MATK' UAXSEl'SE. or dance. FKi. and are manipulated from the side scenes. When this wooden . Each figure is built up on a skillfully wrought skeleton.— ArTO. .'. jump. wliich from beueatli that the operator holds it Ity means keep it on the floor and make it walk.. Plfi. It is 171 of wires attacheil to its feet.VENTRILOQUISM AKD ANIMATED PUPPETS. Lateral wires are attached to the hands. and the articulations formed of steel springs. :S.EN(X)NTKK (SKCOXD Sl'KNK). the floor of the stage. -I.

KUi. prologue.. saying.. who. at the rising of the curtain. 4.— TUM MlNui. TUK CLO\V^ AMD Ulb SKEI-KTo. rilK lUILKT UF A DA.172 3rA0I(' : STAflE ILLUSIONS AND SCIIJNTIFIC DIVLRSIONS. " Tie is capable of showing his the 'i'his is way I am made. all of the articulations operate of themselves. it skeleton is made to dance upon the stage. 5. with perfect BUi)pleness. The covering last Our of tow and dress materials give the external human form. own skeleton to the spectators and Look at my framework! " of .NShtSK. has the attitude of an animated being. engraving shows the clown. recites the I'Ki.

you may he sure of an admiring audience. . and it would be attempt to creation of these animals and chissic figures. chanteuse eccentrique. public in the world. Trewey and his wonderful art I wish to introduce to the American reader. oiidi in its kijid. after patient exercise of his finger. '"write up" that of a new singer at the Grand Opera. Trewey was not long in discovering that ombromanie was capable of improvement.. and M. little masterpieces. ITis imitator. shadowgraph ist. such as the rabbit. swan. The Italian painter Campi was one of the first who thought of adding new t\'pes to the collection of figures capable of being made with the shadow of the hands. By Henry Ridgelt Evaxs. Within a few years these rude figures have been improved. and the play of shadows has now become a true art instead of a simple diversion. to-morrow yon tread the boards of some minor theater. The clever Frenchman is one of the best sleight-of-hand artists in France. These is — silhouettes are projected Avith marvelous dexterity of manipulation. To-day you are a performer in the cafes. as well as the most appreciative. the art of casting silhouettes with his hands. Two of the greatest entertainers in Paris to-day are Yvette Guilbert. if you are an artist in your particular line. mimic. It M. SHADOWGEAPHY. and it was in tliis latter country that Ti-ewey got his knowledge of it. and juggler.CHAPTER Vni. He devised amusing forms of animals that delighted the school-children before whom he loved to exhibit them.^? to render them supple. sometimes with as much elaborateness as they would Paris is the home of the fantaisisfce. but his lasting fame has been made through his ombromanie. Felicien Trewey fantaisiste. Frizze. negro. The idea of projecting the shadows of different objects is (among others the idle to hands) upon a plane surface assign a date to tlie very ancient. or shadowgraphy. Xo matter how trivial your profession may he. genial atmosphere of the great French capital. and. etc. imported the nascent art into Belgium. These rare exotics flourish in the and cater to the most critical. that have served to amuse children in the evening since time immemorial. which ai-e. he succeeded in producing new silhouettes. and the journals duly chronicle your debut. on an illuminated screen.

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by means of a few accessories. either at the base or extremity of the fingers. owe the exact precision in the force and accuracy of the blows that they give with the hammer to the suppleness of the first joint of the thumb. plane. or lathe. exceeding the ring finger by nearly an inch. Trewey's hand. The two characteristics the mentioned above curved thumb and the peculiar fingers — suppleness of the —are in most cases united in the same person. properly shaped and held between two fingers. 2).SHADO W6RAPHY. the artist. when the hand is extended On the greater or less flexibility of all the joints. which derful is of wonthe suppleness. the middle finger. Trewey. and the thumb. It is necessary to have witnessed all these little scenes in order to understand how. -TUE KISUEKMAN. reproduced by molding. the boat is apiece of wood held in one of the artist's hands. depend the dexterity and skillfulness dis- played in work executed with tlie file. renders see. for example. differ very percej)tibly in length. It possesses the faculty of reversal of the phalanges to the highest degree. chisel that 177 no flaw is visible in the cut. as we shall greatest service in the for- mation of his shadows. so equal everywhere is the imprint of and all superb workmen. which are long and slender. a juetallic ring holds the fish-pole against the thumb of the other hand. who chisel the precious metals. and livening uj) when the fish bites. forms the hat. example (Fig. In addition to the for i^rofiles of men and animals. tlie fingers. phlegmatic at first. who. and ib is opposite tliis latter. we have a fisherman. liy means of his . A piece of cardboard. who sculpture marble and stone. exhibits to us living persons j)laying amusing pantomimes. Here. Let me add that his fingers. figures in several English museums. bent as shown in the figure. that we observe all the emotions of the fortunate fisherman. The more important of is these the first. the tool —these A it is second characteristic of skillfulness is indicated by the faculty of reversso that ing the metacarpal phalanges of convex. all artists wlio shape white-hot iron with the hammer. finally is triumphant when he has it at the end of his line.

or. drogen screen is When lamp the oxyhyused. The lens must consequently be of very short focus. 3). As may be seen.— FIGHT BETWEEN A JANITKESS AND TENANT. while a block of wood affixed In order that the preacher may to the arm near the wrist forms the pulpit. and applause of hundreds of we have a scene with two persons. where the exhibition is given must be veiled in order to prevent reflections. even The mirrors in the room by a common candle that gives very sharp shadows. But it will be understood that there can be no absolute rule about this. 4 shows KIG. It is a fingers alone. the more the shadow enlarges and loses its intensity. with a He is a man of Trewey's appearance on the stage is very prepossessing. To make the shadows sharp. now (Fig. silk stockings. the shadow becomes sharper. the following things are indispensable: The source of light must be a single lamp inclosed in a projecting apparatus. appear smaller than the pulpit. the screen being situated in front of the arm that forms the preacher. however. he must necessarily be nearer the screen. . but smaller and smaller. Fig. oxyhydrogeu lamp necessary in a theater may be replaced at the amateur's house by a lamp. between a janitress and one of her tenants. are best determined by experiment. fight Here. the acces- sories are here very simple again. Trewey exhibiting the scene The canopy is formed by the arm and the first of the preacher in the pulpit. and the artist's hands at three feet from the same. and this explains the distance apart of the artist's arms in the engraving. by a wax candle. throw- ing very divergent rays. all depending upon the scale of the figures. and consequently at seven from the screen. It suffices to recall the fact that the nearer theliand is brought to the light. while on bringing the hand nearer the screen. indicative of the comedian. better. The neces- sary distances. the artist can evoke the laughter spectators. or. phalanges of the fingers bent at right angles. 3.178 3IAGIC: STAGE ILLUSIONS AND SCIENTIFIC DIVERSIONS. indeed. the placed ten feet away from the light. commanding physique. jovial countenance. and all The electric light or brilliant objects must be is re- moved. always appears in full court costume He —dress coat. and pumps.

says. Tabarin. Trewey realizes this to per- unique and novel from week to week to present for the delectation of his audiences. but The Paris F'ujdro has described the continue to excite and stimulate public curiosity. after the inventor. to frequent the quays of Paris who used century. His mobile features are an international portrait gallery. Englishmen. from the shovel hat of a snuffy-nosed French abhe to the headdress of a Xorman j^easant girl. work of this fantaisiste as " Treweyism. a certain "Tabarin. I quote the following." and Illustration and I. and quack-salver. which he removes before beginning his entertainment of juggling and sleight-of-hand. It is not these varieties of headgear that astonish the audience. the startling nature of which causes one to hold his breath with dismay at such boldness and audacitv. a very clever little i)eriodical devoted to sleight-of-hand. He is the past grand master of balancing feats. when he was engagement in the music halls of Mahatma. I oblongs of glazed cardboard from the stage of have seen him project the Alhambra. and gets up early and goes to bed late to think out new problems in the art amusunte. and saw the performance of a conjurer. He was taken one day to the circus at Marseilles. and natural magic "Trewey was born in Angoulunie nearly forty-five years ago. is a performance named M. fection. Robert-IIoudiu. He was so delighted with the entertainment of the mountebank that he forthwith determined to become a professional prestidigitateur. London (the largest hall in Europe) to the farthest part of the top gallerv. the excellence of an artist's work must never flag. Trewey during the early part of the eighteenth is able. I first became acquainted M'ith this versatile artist He has something playing a phenomenally long London. Scotchmen. and he a lightning sketch artist of no mean ability. It is a facial pantomime of exceeding skill. Finding that he could not enlist the interest of his son in machinery. and desired the young Trewey ti) become engineer in the manufactory. His father was a machinist employed at one of the pajier mills of the city. His dexterity in throwing cards these little is really extraordinary. and we see represented in the "Tabarin" Irishmen. \\\ He also jiossesses great skill the unique art of writing backwards any word is or sentence chosen by the audience. Trewey j>ere sent him to a . With the brim of an old felt sombrero. 179 On his first appearance on the stage he wears a long Spanish cloak. by dexterous manipulation. mountebank. and heard from his own lips the story of his early struggles and hardships before attaining eminence in his chosen profession. An unexpected incident diverted Trewey 's mind from mechanics to juggler}'. to say nothing of the famous chapecm affected by the great Napoleon." or twenty-live heads under one hat.a Nature never fail to send their staff artists behind the scenes to make sketches of tiie ombromanist's latest creations. jugglery. He is the most tireless experimenter I have ever met on any stage. but Trewey's facial interpretations of the different types of character assumed. and other nationalities. contributed by me to the pages of in the summer of 1893. Chinamen.: SnADO WGRA PHY. in his memoirs. juggler. to construct every variety of headgear.

started anew as the j)roprietor of a pantominK! and vaudeville comi)any. One day. Speaking of this period of his interesting me: It was the custom in French places of amusement. and eventually Trewey succeeded in getting an engagement in one of the Marseilles music -^ FIG.180 3IAGIC: STAGE ILLUSIONS AND SCIENTIFIC DIVERSIONS. after he Jesuit seminary at Marseillec to study for the priesthood. had completed three years at the seminary. Trewey exhibited his skill as the factory.years. Otlier engagements foi- olTci'cd theninclvcs in ((uick succession after that. These costumes and the popularity acquired enabled me to ol)tanv an engagement at the in this M'ay until Alcazar. :iiiil Aftei. and refused to return. he returned liome for a short holiday. The two boys gave performances in the cafes of the neighboring towns. ran away from then one and factory. for the spectators to throw money on the stage to a successfnl actor. afterwards one of the French comedians. halls at the munificent salary of a franc a day.— THE PHEACHEU IN THE PULPIT. at the age of fifteen. and Ibecame a where I favorite performci' in all the principal towns in the south of France.a while I returned to the strolling branch trav'-iliiig the profession. Tl-ewey said to ' I was able to purchase two grand new costumes. Avhen I was a young and struggling entertainer. 4. . home with a professional acrobat not much older than himself. ]»riticipal i)lace of amusoment in ]\Iai'seillos. summer's fine day. In this same company was Plessis. an amateur juggler. He had to give his own jug- gling entertainment several times a day. and appear in a pantomimic performance every night. tlit. and took part in tlie dramatic exhibitions given by the He kept up his practice while at work at the students from time to time. I carefully saved the coin obtained greatest of the career. whereupon his father sent him to work daily at During his sojourn at the scliool. remained of three or foui.

and my success was complete. ]>l. and the so skillfully cut that the celebrities of the day who are passing in the Avenue des Acacias can be recognized. got up a few years ago.1 HITA DO wan Amy. Under each drawing ' is a carefully written description of the particular act. The shadows entitled the figures are " Peturn from the Woods" form a }nasterpiece as a whole. and since then traveled all over Europe Austria. 2 and 3. at Paris. Ambassadenrs. a special representation. to '•'What are you going I do with all this material?' I once iusked him. and. unique in themselves and contain hundreds of sketches in water colors of juggling feats either performed by himself or by other artists. Says a writer in La Nature. 18 "'I travek'il fnuii one little town to aiioLlier. after which an offer of an engagement came to me from Bordeaux. who knows ? I've done worse things. is an interesting place to it is crowded with ap})aratus and all sorts of new inventions intended for His scrap and memorandum books are use in his conjuring entertuinments. a grotesque quadrille.' " FPEXCH SHADOWS. and one would think that he was present at a genuine review. Great Britain.j)antaiot)n Frencli panto- mime. An offer quickly came for an engagement at the Concert dea the ombromanie. The defiling of the troops is astonishing. Pussia. Here I was most successful. It -was a bare living only that was gained in this manner lor two years. d'Ache takes pleasui-e in representing the military scenes of the first republic and first empire. etc. A "Vision in the Steppes" is another series of pictures that represent the advent of the Kussian army. Belgium. years. M. " We were not content to remain in the body . in Paris. of Chinese shadows which were devised by him. and are so superior to anything that has previously been done in this line that he has been able to call them "French shadows. " Trewey's home in the Pue Iiochechouart. been busy for a long time iierfecting myself. I stayed in Paris nine in Spain. at the Tlieater d'Application. the real height of the figures being about eighteen inches. with a merry twinkle of ' the eye. with which I had It was at this jieriod I invented. the cartoonist and illustrator. He projects ujion the screen an entire army. danced in the CUnhirJir. Paris. may publish a book one of these days. reduced. M. and took part in a comedy. Two amusing specimens of this part of the These reproductions are much representation are given in Figs.iyiiig ol' various rolex including Pierrot and ('ass. wherein we see the emperor with his stafl" at different distances amid the ranks. Caran d'Ache. introduced shadowgraphy — ' to the American public in ISOI}. Germany." in order to distinguish them from similar i)roductions..' he replied.' visit. and made a hit with a number of new feats of balancing Avith bottles. in addition to giving my ommi entertainment. the clown and.iii(li'c. as you know.

1 represents the back of M. for. d'Aohe to of the theater to witness the sliadows. hussars. have apertures and behind pasted coh)red transparent paper.182 :\[AGIC: STAGE ILLUSIONS AND SCIJLYTJFIC DIVERSIONS. " A large number to mechanism. the order 'Carry arms. FKi. a very delicate operation and Some figures. after being composed and drawn. In this way. but requested admit us is to his side scenes for the sake of our readers. M. nnison. are cut out of sheet zinc. d'Ache's theater. and dragoons these is of the grand army.— FHKNCH SHADOWS. rigidity. in certain parts. tliere from here a very interesting api^lication of '^ jdiysics. Tlie cutting is which gives them great requires great accuracy. The screen being Itrilliatitly illuminated by an oxyhydrogen lamp. and the light in the body of .' the guns are seen to rise in The silhouette is provided with a series of guns properly arranged and mounted npon a rod which is lowered or raised by the action of a lever. aside and llie to initiate us into the processes artistic aspect. " l-'ig. of actuating his figures. The silliouettes. the bhick shadows that move along the screen have certain ]iarts in color. 1. At a grand review. sucIj as tliose of cavali'ymen. such as the plumes of of the zinc silhouettes act through all the helmets and the liorses' saddles.

the capture of redoubts. Four or five oper- ators suffice to keep the shadows succeeding one another without interruption. the big drum of the orchestra imitates the noise of the cannonading. is obtained by means of a wad of gun cotton liglited and properly projected. terrible During the Epopee we witness great combats. AND 3. at The cannons are provided with little the same moment. and a rattle of large size As for the smoke that simulates the sound of the discharge of musketry. •?.ES OF TWO SnJTOrKTTES. the spectators perceive ui)on the screen.— FArsnriT. fuses that an operator fires. who projects it at the desired place. and." . and cannonading. that is produced by the cigarette of one The light of the shells of the operators. man who places it in a groove at the bottom of the screen. the silhouettes. in passing. FTOS.SHADOWGRAPHY. project upon the screen a very strong shadow which the spectators perceive. but which is not Each silhouette is taken from a large box by a visible from the side scenes. 185 the theater heing turned down. Nothing is more amusing than the method of producing the effects of these epic contests.

syllaThe teaching of jVIesmer and feats of bles. will designate every object jjresented by tJie andience. named tlie Grand Saltan or AVise Little Turk. he touched. or vowels in the questions put. The most sphinx-like pi'oblem ever preseiiteil to the pul)lio for solution was As has been stated in the Introduction. The and made him guess the objects my mind — 'second sight. intelligence being communicated to a confederate by an ingenious ordering of the words. which answered questions as to cliosen cards and many other things by striking upon a bell. wJio is (lifted with a iiiarvel- ous second sight.CHAPTER IX. I jorinted in the center of my bill the fol- lowing singular announcement: programme M. "were for their 2:)laying one day in the drawing-room at a game they had invented younger had bandaged his elder brother's eyes. This simple game suggested to me the most complicated idea that ever crossed own amusement. questions that gave the clue to the supposed clairvoyant on the stage. A. alleged clairvoyance suggested to Pinetti a more remarkable performance in 1785. "/n this 184G. in his memoirs. a conjurer of the eighteenth century.Jlotidin's to ttim son. Robert Heller saw .'''' Houdin never cated ill revealed the secret of this remarkable trick. sitting blindfold in a front box of a theater. of the first to come forward with an One who wrote a work entitled La Seconde vue devoilSe." he says. but plainly indiit his autobiogi'aphy that was the result of an ingenious combination of expose was F. Bv Hexry Riugely Evans. Paris. Gandon. 1849. and when the latter happened to guess right. they changed places. after his eyes have been covered with a thick bandage." Robert-IIondin invented a "second-sight" system under the following cir- cumstances: " My two children.' " On the 12th of February. when Signora Pinetti. the the " second-siglit '^ mystery. idea was an old oue. replied to questions and displayed her knowledge of articles in the possession of the audience. MENTAL MAGIC. Robert. On this subject the " Encyclopsedia Britannica " says : " In 1783 Pinetti had an automatic figure about eighteen inches in height. having originated with the Chevalier Pinetti.

" he next inquired. and all about it. Half-obliterated cian. Sultan by iuheritajice." a coin Avas handed to Hellei He fiflanced at it fur a moment and asked his assistant to name if the object. At a performance in Bos- ton. one side reads. adding certain subtle trick all but supernatural. "'Heller- KOBERT HELLEU. Komau. I think. wliat kind and how many jewels in the works. "A coin. surgical instru- ments. ism. Nothingoffered by a spectator seemed to baffle Houdin and Heller. going down among articles the spectators.' the other side. Sultan of two seas. seeress accurately for example." "Here. *' It is a large copper coin it — Yes. the effect his iiredeeessors in the art. de- In tbe case of a watch. Without a second's hesitation she answered. it is of Tripoli. described mon in his by Henry Herwork. she gives the metal. no matter what they may be. see she quickly replied. receives from them various which the supposed describes. in the case of a coin. Houdin give an exhibition of " second sight " in LoihIoii. And the same with other objects. as follows: is A lady is introduced to the audience as possessed of clairvoyant powers. also secret society emblems and inscriptions thereon. and he went to work to ^wrfect a system that far exceeded any of improvements that made the Briefly stated. lastly. The magician. not only telling what the country its object is. and the Son of a Sultan. 'Coined at Tripoli. it was the idea of people at the time that the oxiierimciit was the result of animal magnetism. etc. but the acute Heller thought otherwise. She is blindfolded and seated on the stage. The inscriptions on are iu Arabic.a MENTAL MAfiW. 'Sultan of two lands. you can tell tlie name of the country. maker's name. but the where it was coined. numbers on bank-notes. coin of Africa. 18.' " . Gre- and Oriental coins were described with wonderful ease and accuracy by the assistant on the stage. nomination and date. the time to a dot. and.

Mr. " This alphabet is as follows: A is H . sufficing to elicit a correct answer for ten different articles. one question. and I believe tliat his sister." sairl ])J VEh'SloNS.. '' tbaf is eorreei." Salvos of applause greeted the performers at the conclusion of the scene. who was Eobert of Heller's assistant for many years. it comes as easy as if the question were plainly propounded. Fred Hunt. V>wi look. expose. thousand two hundred and twenty of the Hegira. the trick for the London Twie^. but when mastered thoroughly. soon after ing his system. what is Heller. " The student must be first posted in a new al^jhabetical arrangement. and myself are tlie only living persons in whom Robert Heller's Heller had so simplified this system as to embrace every second sight is vested. variety of article classified in sets. Heller was constantly enlarging and j^erfectHe is now gone and has solved a greater mystery than that which many thousands while he was on earth. Haidee Heller. now?" " The date or is 1-2-2-0. which corresponds to 1805 of the Christian era. puzzled so In the years we were together. This is the most difficult part of the business. the date. with a word or two added. wrote the followifig Heller's death: '' Jr. one Mohammedan year. with which he must familiarize himself as thoroughly as a boy in learning his primer.186 MAGIC: STAGE ILLUSIONS AND SCIENTIFIC " Ven" well.

attention must only bo paid the first word of a sentence. and A is H.::i:)4 is required. the question will be: " W^hat is the color ? green being the sixth color in the list. Can 8 9 is is is is Are or Ain't. Gray.' " Pray is K. Will or Won't. Green. ' For instance. ' Well is to re2)eat the last figure. is is 10 Hurrv or Come. the article presented is green. . For example. X UMBERS. which can be followed as easily as the above. then. if ' Xenia ' is required. Do hurr\-. X is D. Xow. Can you see it ? Do you know ? Say the number. which. will furnish the key. Blue. Hurry! A rather difficult numlter would be 1. Yellow. the word would be: " Can you tell the color ? " White is wanted. 1 is 2 3 4 5 6 ' ' is is Say or Speak. " The table of colors is as follows: Colors. The question would l)e put ' to ' ' ' ' ' in this wise ' ' ' On Say the number. and.' ' E is '? F. as I have explained. X is See this. Do or Don't. How is it spelled ? ' "Again. "If you want Kentucky named.: MENTAL JLiatd. as given in the list. 5 is 2 3 is is 6 is 7 is 4 is Brown. Quick.' "Understand that the words explaining the numbers. Or say the number is 100: '' Tell me the number.' "U is '•' 'Look. are applied to the articles enumerated in each of the subjoined tables. Be. thus the question: Pray name the State. Say what it is.' audSisX. or Let. as it stands third in the list. and Q is Y.' a watch or greenback there are sometimes eight or nine numbers. 1 is White. " Blue is wanted. Tell. ' it will be seen. " Look.111. as it stands first in the list. Black. 7 is Please or Pray. Thus the question: Be quick. S. the question is: ' ' ' ' "'Say the color. Well ? Speak out. 'Example: The number l. or Can't. is What. "The solution of the numbers. 8 is Red. ' for the initials U. you will say: Xow. 187 Care must be taken uot to begin a sentence with either of these woras unless applicable to the word to be spelled. aud. are easily understood after a little practice. it I is B. Look. thus: Look at it. " After the alphabet we have the numbers. " See this Find quick.

. 5. 3! 4.188 MAGIC: STAGE ILLUSIONS AND SCIENTIFIC DIVERSIONS. 2. 1.

8. Tobias. Kosary. Cape. 4. 7. 7. 2. 9. Hat. Mulf. 2. Collar. Cap. here? G. Cigar-holder. Beet. 10. 4. Handkerchief. 3. 7. Cioar-lii^htcr. 5. Cross. Bag. Fan. 10. 4. Mucilaffe. Cigarette. 'Z. 2. 77/6 makers name? compauji's Of what [This 1. 4. 3. Wluit is this? 1. 9. Inkstand. Fourth What Pipe. 2.Matchbox. Breastpin. American Watch Co. . Chain. Bracelet. this he? G. Boa. article is this? G. Necklace.] is to tell the maker's name (J. 5. 3. Bonnet. 8. 9. 1. 3. Elgin Watch Co. Waltham Watch Co. Tobacco. 3. Watch. 5. Comforter. 4. Purse. Third What may 1. 5. 7. 10. thus: First Set. Neckerchief. make ? of watches. !t. 5. Ring. What 1. S. Tobacco pouch. 10. Secoxd Set. Set. Charm.21ENTAL JIAO'IC. Miscellaneous articles are divided into nineteen sets. 189 Watches. G. 8. Cigar. 9. is Set. Tobacco box. Johnson. Basket. 7. Guard. 10. Match. Headdress. Swiss. . Cuflf. 8. Glove. Dueber Watch Co.

Seventh Set. 4. Bank bill. f). 5. Magnifying Telescope. 7. Fork. 0. 7. Brush. 9. 0. 190 MAGIC: STAGE ILLUSIONS A^W SCIENTIFIC DIVERSIONS. EiFTH Set. 10. Parasol. 10. What have I here f 1. Stick. 7. Ornament. Pocketbook. Programme. Needle. Envelope. G. is? 3. Treasury note. Corkscrew. Opera-glass case. Ninth Now. 5. 10. BilL Letter. Needlebook. 9. Piece of money. 8. Comb. 7. TeU77ie this. 5. 8. sen fliiis ? 6. U. Locket. what 1. Button. 2. 5. Clothct^piii. litis Do ynu knuw what 1. Paper. Can yuu 1. Shoe. Hairpin. T'enth Set. Umbrella. (J. 9. 4. Sixth Set. 8. 6. Si:t. Bond. Umbrella cover. Boot. Set. Looking-glass. Toothpick. 7. Whip. at this. 2. Knife. 4. Eyeglass case. Sleeve button. glass. Stud. Earring. . 10. 2. Coin. Eyeglass. 2. 3. 9. 8. Postage stamp. 8. Eighth Look 1. Bank check. 7. Cheek. Pin. 10. Currency. 1. 2. Pamphlet. 2. 3. Newspaper. 5. 3. 8. Book. Scissors. 4. is this? Picture. 3. Cnshion. Spectacles. 3. Opera glass. Compass. 4. 5. Gold piece. 10. Spectacle case. Thimble. Silver dollar. Spoon Armlet. 4..

ivant to I- now . fin's.MENTAL MAGIC. Eleventh / 1. 101 Set.

7. arranged in sets. Articles in Sets. ' Eight"— Ace.' cotton standiuL. Diamonds. 5. 8. and the word conveys each particular article. Set. Spades. '"Can you " ' the fabric?' list Cotton. ? 6. . Mnsic. Prayer book. Very good " Jack. 4. 10. 2. Clubs. Vinaigrette. ' ' "'Say the fabric' " The reply would be. ' and the question is: which exphiins that it is a handkerchief. Smelling bottle. Strap. "A " that ' handkerchief article is pi'eseuted. ' If a leather bag. Odd 5.third in the of fabi'ics. set is numbered. Bible. — — King. That's riglit 2. it would be: Will you tell the fabric is ? ' ' will ' standing for ?so. Testament.193 MAGIC: STAGE ILLUSIONS AND SCIENTIFIC DIVERSIONS. " no more than Each set luis at the '"What ' article is this?' " This gives the clue to ten distinct articles. Druids. so as to make the audience believe that the same question is being The question at the head of the set. 1. 'say' representing No. 3. Masonic. as in the cases of tlie colors and metals.. — Nineteenth Devices. Hymn-book. The next demand may be: " Can you tell ? " Whicli would be solution for bag. Set. Musical. which is always asked constantly asked. Good " Queen. 3. " 3. 4. is the clue to the set which contains the article to be described. Playing cards. Tract. Eighteenth Set. Bookmark. Fellows. 4.' that being the first in the line of fabrics. Hearts. 1. What the this? Say. 1. as is first article toll in the list. as I ' Silk. and. 2. worded very nearly alike. Seyenteenth This article 1. Knights of Pythias. numbering head a different question. Eacii first.' it being the third in tiic list. 9. 5. have before stated. " For tlie first set the question is: It will be seen that the different articles are ten.

' AVon't you ' ? "A.' ' Say. tell me. ^^ I860.'" double case.' — MENTAL MAGIC. if you want the color say it is Ijlue " Can't you tell the color? " Blue. 'A "A. 'Gold. will be fciund in tlio sixteiMith set. and must be put and answered as follows: This is a complex Question. 'Three.' ' Say these stones. ' lady. ' made by Tobias.' Will you tell "A. " ^.' " Q. 'A " Q.' ' the maker. 11. 'Will you 'Tobias. l'J3 " Then. the sim[)le word ' yes ' conveys the intelligence aftei ' whom it belongs. C. Be quick. " Q. the key of . 'Tell the ''A.' ' liow many ' ? "^. " Q. three hands. Atisiver.' ' Can you tell me the color of this enamel ? "A. " '' What is this? 'A watch. set with fivo diamonds. tell Can you the number of hands? ' "A. double case. H. "A. " Q. is this ? Can you tdl ' ? " ' A playing card.' If an o])en case."' it is a double case.' tell " Q. gold.' ' Say to whom it belongs.irticle. "If 'to 'Five. again.725. 'C. to C. 'Say the metal.' Q. it is first in the second set. Playixg Cauds. 'Yes. ' Say to whom. Say.' "A. ' ' ' — wiiich is: is '•'What " this?' it is We ' will say that a lady's watch.' 13 .' "A. question will be: " ' Say.' which stands third on the list of colors. question. the initials tlieyear From B. '9.' Please Now the number.' " Q. We what will take tho nine of s])ades as aud the order of suits in the The having been pre>:ented.' "A. 'B. " Q. C initials. 'Blue. 9. 'Diamonds. the word well ' is used.' and blue enameled.' engraved on the case. No.725. I want to know. " These eighteenth. " A watch embodies a greater number of questions than almost any other If you Avant to describe it fully.' " Q.

come being a substitute for hurry. ' if ' That's right." Will you ? " A nxicer. in what kind of a key. come standing for 2. A coin.' and (>iiii:i. 'A ^' piece of money. now.' will be found classed in the eighth is set. an ace.' key being the tenth aiticle (jf the set. third. The request therefore ' is: ' which would bring the answer.")<>.' Do is four. as we know that let ' is 2 and ' will ' 5. if "If the coin a ( of this century. question '^' is: described as Avill ' a i^iece of money. the suit. The cards are told as follows: First. ' Will you ? ' "A.' ' ' list. only the last two figures are asked.Es.' Money. ' Look at " No. "' Let me know the amount. ' it is the interlocutor says if Right.' ' elicit the remark: '"A silver dollar. these simple words will explain: . A gold piece.' ' " The answer order to tell A key.' " The I'eply will be. Good. or $50. Let me know is the amount. and the question is as before: tell ' " 'Will you ' ' at this.' as that country stands tenth on the " A treasury note is presented of the value of fifty dollars. say of Eome. this? ' 'i'ell •• me. ' as Italy stands sixth in the list of countries. Come.' 'Let. a jack. which means spades. ' Twenty-five cents. the key to which is. the playing card. Look Hurry! i ' ' " 'Italy.50 gold piece is presented. The request would be a Look at this. Do you know what it is ? " The answer is. " This this. a king. which means 5 and 0.' : ' 194 JIAGIC: ' STAGE ILLUSIONS AND SCIENTIFIC DIVERSIONS.' Q. 1820. Mexico.' 'won't.' and is always of a less We take a silver quarter of the date of 1820. '' " Do you know tbe suit ? Now. The Look ' at this. and ' ' ' ' now ' is nine. ' second. of a prior date.' " "J'ell me the country. Now. ''A Mexican dollar will " Look at this. as will be seen by referring to the table.' A foreign coin is furnished.' ' ' ' '"Look ' Won't you? KxAMi'i. ' A treasury note.' '"What country?' at the date.' ' ' me the amount? Come. ' Very good. 6 of the set value than a dollar. if a queen. the cue " Look at this.' "Again. after the preliminary question ' put and answered. then. the is number ' or picture. " ' Pray. a 12. If. is: *' Ansiver. Avhat is is. the last three. What is it?' ' "A. Be qiiick.

' " Answer is comb. the ' well. 'well/ a door key. Mr. Ilermon thus describes the receiving instrument in his clever little book. thus connecting munication between his secret "In the sofa there was a was pressed a slight tap was the Heller. A confederate sat tious amateurs or professioiuils to will not enable them to produce — among the spectators.. etc. ' ' to ascertain Yes. by some natural movement of liis body or arms.' a what kind meerschaum pipe. and the wires of an were connected with his chair. he rolled forward to the center of the stage a sofa. thus enabling Miss Heller to sit with her back to the audience.' paint brush. rapidly interpreting tlie secret signals. ' good. but the effects exhibited by Heller. 'good.' a pocket comb. On the foot of the leg there were two more. ' ' ' *' ' Yes. It was accomplished by means of electricity.' a watch key. it could be easily felt.' ' MENTAL MAGIC. in the sets.' a clay ' pipe. and Miss Heller's electric battery : second-sight act that when he came on the stage to begin this part of his performance. This tap could only be heard by Miss struck against a thin piece of board covered by the haircloth of the sofa. This sofa had no back to it. ' well. well. telegraj:)hed them to the clairvoyante on the stage. as she was. It was this artistic effect that so puzzled every one. little machine so arranged that when the button result. When the former system was employed. to the complete bewilderment of the spectators. ' of a pipe. the alphabet will have to be resorted to and the article si:)elled out.' a curry comb.' a toilet comb. Heller gave the cue to the set in which the article Avas. ? Say. directly on it. Robert Heller.' ' ' ' good." is ' ' "If an article is presented which not down The it perfect memorization of the preceding system will enable two ambi(dl of perform the " second -sight " mystery. good. and sitting.' a same words as above: wooden pipe. Robert Heller had another system of conveying information to his blindfolded assistant on the stage a system that permitted him to give a minute description of an object without spcnhinfj a loonl. and the confederate. " Can you see this? Please say. ' pipe. " Hellerism " " It will be remembered by all whoever witnessed Mr. its number. " This concludes the second-sight mystery which so perplexed the world. Heller was The verbal system and the silent .' '' '' Now. " Yes. near the center aisle of the theater. Even magicians were mystified.' clothes brush. (( 195 What is here " The answer is ( Yes. and which I never would have exposed but for the death of my lamented friend. the electric push button being under the front part of the seat. ' ' As the on a sofa was rolled forward it was so jilaced that one of the hind legs rested little brass plate screwed to the floor of the stage.' a safe key. " Can you see this ? Are you going to tell ? " The answer is brush.' hair brush." system were used interchangeably during Heller's performances. for it and making a complete electric compartner and ]\Iiss Heller.

the numbers on the bank notes Avitli a strong spyglass. A very clever exhibition of " second sight " is given by Professor and Mrs. he was compelled. which is turned The clairvoyante calls out the numbers in aloud voice. the recipients of the writing materials are requested to write questions on the slips. near the footlights. by the use of apparatus. she is carefully blindfolded and " mesmerized " by the Her communications to the audience are made after the following Professor. under cover of the passes. and. to confine himself to the center aisle. the magician removes the bandage from the lady's eyes. and secrete them in their pockets. dress is a small tube which reaches her ear. after her eyes have been carefully bandaged. Baldwin. She wants to know something about a ring that was lost. clairvoyance. slightly to one side. the numbers on bank notes. Baldwin. in full view of the audience. tends to mesmerize her. Slips of paper and pencils. and up through a hollow foot of the platform and the leg of In the back of the lady's the chair. fold them up. are distributed among the audience by assistants. remarking that they are given to the spectators to obviate the inconvenience of writing ou the knee. taking advantage of the little comedy She rises. Professor Baldwin calls himself the "White Mahatma. taking to disconnect the speaking tube. makes her appearance. the magician precurly wig which she wears. but in the latter. and adds columns of figures waittten on a blackboard by people in the audience. The explanation is as follows: A rubber tube runs from behind the scenes. The squarwdiereupon the magician proceeds to chalk them upon the board. and conveys the informaTo facilitate the assistant's work. particular care not to show her back to the audience. near the stage. When the "second-sight" seance is conwith the aid of logarithmic tables. have worked up the " second-sight " trick in an ingenious way. exclaims: "" Will the ladv who wrote . and. and vaudeville. just below where the confederate was seated. and small pads of millboard to serve as writing desks. the magician holds the bank note against the blackboard. manner: " I see a lady in the orchestra. connects the tubing in An assistant behind the scenes reads the chair with the tubing in her dress. bows herself off the stage. tion to the lady through the speaking-tube. to the right. who stands in the center aisle of the theater. and pretends to awaken her from the hypnotic state. being cleverly concealed by the When she has taken her seat. ing and the cubing of numbers are performed by the assistant behind the scenes. When the questions have been prepared. the clairvoyante. she tells the names of playing cards. for obvious reasons.196 31AGIO: STAGE ILLUSIONS AND SCIENTIFIC DIVERSIONS. notably Kellar." Professor Baldwin. terminating at the back of the chair. The "White Mahatma" disclaims any preparation about the millboards. The connecting -wires M-ere concealed beneath the Other magicians. carpeting. the assistants collect the pads and place them on the stage. and then Mrs. underneath the stage. The clairvoyante sits on a chair placed upon a raised platform. and may be discarded if desired. enabled to go to any part of the theater. cluded." and his entertainment is a curious hodge-jDodge of pretended mediumshij). After this there is some dancing and singing by the vaudeville artists connected with the company.

while the prepared pads are carried off behind the scenes to Mrs. It is all done very rapidly.MENTAL ness of Mrs. which are distributed among the audience are laid on the stage. viz. cover of the pretended magnetizing.' engraved within. who reads it. when she hears this accurate description by Mrs. can you Consequently. and is whispered by them to Professor Baldwin. the reading of the slips by ]Mrs. nor do those who discard the genuiue pads. perhaps. Baldwin. The surprising part of the feat is the extraneous information imparted b}^ Mrs. the fact that they do not suspect the integrity of the innocent-looking ushers. No. which seems to preclude any possibility of trickery. tells "the suit and value of any number of selected cards. some of which by the Baldwins. 18 the initials M. Then the " White Mahatma" advances to the footlights and commands his " The ring is of gold with a pearl setting. ishment pervades the audience. One reason of this self-deception is. indicates time by any watch. . Baldwin going upon the stage to remae'uetize his wife. solves arithmetical problems.''e that question kindly liold up the slip of jmper and the correct- The lady complies. B. It is worked up with great dramatic effect The secret lies in the pads of millboard. borrowed coins. describes All this is accomplished in silence. This informaBaldwin. are to be conveyed. makes violent mesmeric j)asses over her head. the spectators being completely deluded. tion is obtained from the spectators by the assistants Avhen they go to collect Under the slips of paper. gives numbers on borrowed bank notes. 1. " and has wife to speak. who has ample time to post herself with the desired information before coming on the stage." etc." she says." the clairvoyante. the piano in the orchestra accompanying the operation with several loud chords and cadenzas. and many other tests. and. Silent ThouCxHT Transference. the spectators who get the genuine pads do not receive any clairvoyant communications. The writing of the contain carbon sheets under two layers of brown paper. takes the slip. spectators is thereby transferred by means of the carbon paper to sheets of The genuine millboard pads writing paper placed under the carbon sheets. The people who have been pumped by the assistants seem to forget the fact in their interest in the main part of the trick. In this ingenious trick the clairvoyante." . describe it ? " ' — Baldwin. standing behind cerning the ring which is lost. and a thrill of aston- An assistant goes to the lady. the chords from the piano preventing any one from hearing what The trick an ingenious one. exclaiming: '' Mrs. Baldwin is correct. Of course. or regard them as a part of the experiment. Baldwin's statement? " ^r^r!TC. The lady in the audience had only written: "I have lost my ring. 197 ackno\vled<. and hands it to Professor Baldwin.. Baldwin. It was lost about January 1. he says. the Baldwins use a verbal code of sigThis obviates the necessity of Mr. she is is very much impressed. Where numbers nals. while blindfolded. Professor Baldwin gives his wife this information. but let us see if she cannot give us more detailed information conHe mounts the stage.

' known fact that the beats for medium and performer countcommon ' time are always the same in music. the next items are the signals to give the medium the cue when to start and when to stop counting mentally. and wiien another signal is given. " Say the performer has borrowed a coin. It is best to experiment and find out what rate of counting best suits the two persons employing this code. Of course the clock must be removed when the rate has been well learned. in front of a black- board. This then is the actual method employed in this code. and Mental Phenomena. and requires no electrical apparatus. be best to begin counting at a slow rate. and so on. Say you have in the room. "Tricks in Magic. " Now that the princi|)le has been explained.' or words to that effect. and from it you will see that any number from to 9 can be transmitted by the performer to the medium. during this short period the performer glances down at the coin as if to verify what the lady has called out. Of course both will have arrived at the same number. looks at the coin. if medium being surrounded by a committee from the audience. starting on a given signal. with little practice. speaking tubes. etc. J. securely blindfolded. when first practicing. they both begin to count mentally at the rate agreed upon by practice." he writes as follows: seances can be reproduced.' such as is used during piano practice for the purpose of setting time.transmitted is 6. As the last word of the sentence is spoken they commence mentally 1-2-3-4-5-6. as most coins in use are 18 something or other. Whatever rate is found to suit best must You will find at the rate mentioned that any number up to 9 be adhered to. The medium being on the stage. If preferred. can be transmitted with absolute certainty.: 1 and 2 and 3 and 4. In his little brochure. with chalk in right iiand. or practice with a metronome. A very good rate to finally adopt is about 70 to 75 per minute. if of date 18. the performer takes his position. desired. It consists in It is a "By means of the silent code all the usual effects generally exhibited at thought-reading both ing mentally and together. gradually increasing until you find it advisable to go no faster. wiiicli can easily be arranged to suit one's fancy.108 the JIAOIC: STAGE ILLUSIONS AND SCIENTIFIC DIVERSIONS. H. The 6 and 2 have therefore to be transmitted. with a fairly slow beat. after an hour or so of practice. to count at the same time and rate. but the following suggestions are offered: It may. Burlingame. the In this case number to be .' viz. This is done by the performer putting down on the blackboard sharply the figure . ' ]. to stop. therefore. I am indebted for an explanation of " silent thought transference" to Mr. in the hundreds. but simply calls out: tlie ' After a pause the medium Tlie first figure I picture a one. As soon as they reach the figure 6 the signal 'stop' has to be transmitted. it is easy for two persons. count at the rate of 'commoji time. Tlie trick can be given in a private parlor. The performer stands away from the medium or among the audience. a loud-ticking clock. is He does not speak a word. The first figure of the coin and 8 are generally understood. On the given beat or signal you both start counting at the same rate as the clock. holding coin in his left hand. the date of which is 1863. perhaps. Immediately lady stops speaking. The performer must advise the medium of this by his manner of thanking the person Avho lent the coin. Illusions.

can and perform any rational act that the spectatcws desire. The lady says. This clever trick Avas N"o. With serious mien he advances toward the in a medium. the effect is as follows: " The pretended mesmerist announces to the spectators the marvelous intuitive powers of his subject. The performer puts down the figure on the board This if followed signal immediately the lady stops speaking. introduced to the theater-goers of marvel-loving Paris by (iuibal and ilarie Greville perEngland and America. and perfectly natural to ]mt down is the on the board quickly and sharply. This can easily be arranged. without going on the downward movement in front stage. sharply on the board. is transmitted in the same manner 'The second figure I see is 8. The metal medium it previously by the wording of the reply to The lady now knows must be indicated to the the owner of the coin after The value has been handed to the performer. arrival at the figure 3 the on the jierformer puts is down the 8. which the signal for 'stop. peeii by thif.' " Miss Venus is now introduced by the professor. and you can convey to )ne b}' whisper what you would desire the medium to do. pretends to hypnotize her.MENTAL called out by the lady.' of the coin the full date of the coin. method that the signal figure is quite easy to transmit. The professor. she will walk among you and comply with your requests. previously called out. and between the 6 and the that is. It will it is 199 be 'One' (1). and. and other tests are arranged on similar lines. of her. card. creating a great sensation. way as the previ- ous figure. be applied. is commence When found quite easy and natural in practice. She bows and seats herself on a chair. carefully will be Silent Thought Transference. When I have her under control and in the hypnotic trance. he goes among the audience. now '1. viz. 6. they begin the counting again. despite the fact that I will not sjieak one word during the seance.'"' The bank-note. when launched into the hypnotic sleeep. The last figure. It is based on a very simple principle. as the previous figure. and cannot be detected. but the method here proposed will be found to answer the 2Turpose.' As third figure of the coin The soon as she ceases speaking. asking here and there what the spectators would like the lady marvel to do. Miss Venus. remarking: Miss Venus Professor Verbeck and Mademoiselle Matliilde. ''Any other system that one may adopt for giving the starting and stopping signals can.: MAGIC. While in the trance state. Abbreviated somewhat from Burlingame's brochure. This. facing the spectators. of course. he solemnly enjoins the strictest silence. 1-2. by means of any of the pantomimic gestures. they no pause ' for the stop ' an occurs in the made. it formed in ' shall be will hypnotized by me. after the lady has called out the date. to the known medium. after which dramatic scene. I will move about among you. 2. and motions or waves his right hand She slowly rises and goes through . is the trance-it of Venus. ladies and gentlemen. is of the coin or its equivalent nnmber indicated in the same 2. to count for the value. Having spoken to some twelve or twenty persons.

" This can be varied indefinitely. he goes to number one. and lunv Miss Yenns was successful crucial test. saying. As a natural result. pick out the special one which has been selected. "4. Take off lady's or gentleman's gloves. or anything she may desire. In going through the audience the professor asks each individual his or her request in and so on. " 7. or this. Let her tell me the subject. ' Seeing a lady sitting near with a bag. ' Oh.' suggests the spectator. or somethiTig from it?' Again he beholds a gentleman with glasses on. "3. In this case a volley of queries is fired before the gentle- man has time to make any suggestions not mentioned by the professor. 13. the person selects one of these suggestions. '' How to force these requests: The professor first pretends to hy^anotize ' moving among the audience. Take a watch out of a gentleman's pocket and place pocket. "8.' says the professor.' and so the professor rapidly shoots out a volley of suggestions from his learned code. Take a handkerchief out of some person's j'ocket and tie it on his neck or arm. it in the hands of " " " '' 9. the 'mesmerist' remarks: a purse in it? Madam. 'V\\c jn'ofeesor recaiiitulates for the l)enefit of all in what each spectator desired. Tie a knot iu a watch chain. Get her to do so and so. or that. etc. however. " In this trick a code of signs alleged mesmerist. Take a gentleman's cane or umbrella and put another gentleman. " 14. Take glasses off a person and place on own nose. have you *Yes? Shall the lady remove it. the gentleman does not wish this done. then Avhat I have in my pocket. 'you forget that she is hypnotized and we cannot have her speak. Write any number selected on a card. and so on. What shall she do for you turn up your trousers? Pull your hair? Tie a knot in your ' — liandkerchief V ' etc. or first person. 11. 6. is the forcing code: Pull a gentleman's hair. finally returning to to be chair and allowing herself dehypnotized. '' Going to the next. If. and suggests that the medium remove the spectacles. Write autograph on programme gentleman holds. 10. Turn np his trousers. each and every EXPLAXATIOX. and asks him what he would like the medium to do. .2U0 MAGIC: STAGE JLLVSIONS AJSD SCIENTIFIC DIVERSIOAS. Tie a number of knots in his handkerchief. and things to be done must be learned by the These he forces adroitly into the minds of the i^eople. The following " 1. '' it in another 5. lier each desired performance. Open a lady's reticule. he forces the questions differently. "2. take out her purse. the professor suggests some of the other tests. " From ont of a number of coins placed in a hat.

by the number of downward waves of left hand. he she has to do is to follow him in front or at his side. the professor turns to the audience. As soon as tlie medium reaches No. the second he stops 'J'he she does Avhere second on code. or as he occasionally passes her in the aisles. and so on. the time waving his hands as if making mesmeric passes. 201 and he better. as silencing them. 3 the When if she reaches the proper article. He can do this when he escorts her from the stage to the audience. She stops and turns np the man of mystery tells her how many knots to tie in the liandkerchief. 2. "Again and force him. The first person he stops at. to force only thiee at a time.' 31EXTAL MAOTC. she merely does first on code. is one of the most puzzling effects . letting them drop one by one into the left hand. " These methods may be readily varied to suit the taste of the performers. 'i'he suggest three questions. " lie directs the medium to the spectator in question by tlie movements of He first shows her the rows in which the persons are seated. wherenjion she stops and pulls the gentleman's hair. professor mnst remember each chooser is seated. because all requests can be whispered to the medium by the so-called mesmerist. without the audience becoming aware of it. 1 of code. After becoming it will not be necessary to use the forcing code often. at (by signal). picks out the one she knows is correct. and so on right throngh. To do this. or other receptacle. Miss Yenus pours the coins from the hat into her right hand. "The gentleman's trousers. and are in. wliispei's only. continues pouring the coins into her left hand. The wav- expert ing of his hands and arms in his different 'passes' will partly is tell her what she in the expected to do. and says 'hist! "The when all lady. 1 the professor drops his left hand at his side. but in fact are open sufficiently for her to see all the movements of the professor. but emplia]»i'ofessor oidy one of the three. to has to keep his wits about must keep mental track of the gentleman who selected Xo. j^^eiicrally lias oacli person wlnun he asks a couple of yards apart. "The medium's eyes appear to be closed all the time. 2. all his hands. professor then directs her to No. however. all No. tlieni in rotation. ' "This 'hypnotic demonstration whole domain of mental masfic. a sufficient iinmber in Having gone the audience. To select any special coin out of a liat. When she gets to No. size or force it is when forcing questions. at the same time making jiasses with the right. of him who selected When he returns to the stage to wave down ^liss Venus.

.

were very fond of theatrical represenbut. and Heron of Alexandria. ancients. those who were not \\\ a condition of freedom were excluded from them. One of these Avas put up at Athens. to whom statues were erected by their contemporaries. He adds with vexation that Diophites of Locris passed down to posterity simply because he came one day to Thebes. - TEMPLE TKICKS OF THE GPvEEKS. for every-day needs. to whom we always have to have recourse when we desire accurate information as to the mechanic arts . wlio preferred the inventions of mechanics to the culture of mind. ANCIENT MAGIC. wearing around his body bladders filled with wine and milk. especially the Greeks. PUPPET SHOWS AMONG THE GREEKS. then. provide for the expenses that it carried with it. menageries. charged with the duty of offering continuously and inexpensively the emotions of the drama to all classes of inhabitants. Magnin lias Moderne. who Istiaiaus. for all conditions and for all places. finally. in the Theater of Bacchus. Euclides — and Theodosius. all cities could not have a large theater and It became necessary. alongside of that of the great writer of tragedy." profits by the occasion to deplore tlie taste of the Athenians. puppet shows. as remarked in his " Origines du Theatre were very expensive. Moreover. as to-day. holding in the hand a small ball. reports these facts in his " Banquet of the Sages. and histrions to philosophers. that there should be M. ^Eschylus. and so arranged that he could spurt at will one of these liquids in apparently drawing it from his mouth. jugglers. Avandering from village to village. and for that reason very rare. AVhat would Athenseus say if he knew that it was through him alone that the name of this histrion had come down to us ? Philo of Byzantium. fortune tellers. The tations. Formerly.'''' public representations comedians of an inferior order. CHAPTER I. These prestidigitateurs even obtained at times such celebi-ity that history has preserved their names for us at least of two of them. and. and the other at the Theater of the The grammarian Athenjeus. there were seen. and performers of tricks of all kinds.BOOK II.

oldest and simplest consisted of a small stationary case. I'KINT. M>iCHINy< i'Ki. there were several kinds of puppet shows.-TIIK SJIJtlNE OK BACCHUS. isolated on every side. but Heron's treatise has been preserved to us. in which the stage was closed by doors that opened automatically several The .I) I. of antiquity. both composed treatises on puppet shows.•30-t MAGIC: STAGE ILLUSIONS AND SCIENTIFU' DIVERSIONS. S E MOVEN T E Mo BILJ VHOM AN ()I. According to the Greek engineer. That of Philo is lost. and has recently been translated in part by M. Victor Prou.

. instead The door having been closed.Nti W IM. 3. there was seen. 205 The programme of the represeutatiou times to exhibit the diflereiit tableaux.— THE SHRINE OF BACCHUS. which moved its eyes. was n-enerallv as follows: The first tableau showed a head. painted on the back FIG. MECHAMSM FUK DKLlVEIU. and lowered and raised them alternately. and then opened again. AND MILK. of the Stage. FROM AN OLD VHINT.TE3IPLE TRICKS OF TILE GREEKS.

that of the eyes. and this finished the representation. to be of a head. tiien. three movements made — show There were. only that of the doors. the stage opened a third time to the change of background. and that of Finally. group of persons.206 MAGIC: STAGE ILLUSIONS AND SCIENTIFIC DIVERSIONS. a a new group. i ^r*» .

surmounted by a her right hand. four faces of the base become encircled with crowns. Thus ends the apotheosis. and another round of tlie Bacchantes to the sound of drums and cymbals. hold- left hand and a cup in his right. the Bacchantes dance round about the temple. Then occurs another outflow from the thyrsus and cup. 4. among mechanicians that vehicles containing own propulsion are of comparatively and the fact of the adhesion of the rims of their wheels to the earth or a supporting rail being sufficient to enable adequate power applied to the wheels to move the vehicle was a discoverv of not earlier than the middle . ther.TEMPLE TRICKS OF THE GREEKS. and Bacchus within it. 207 in figure of Victory with spread wings and holding a crown is In the center of the temple Bacchus seen standing. there are Bacchantes placed in any posture that may is be desired. The dance being finished. is There a general belief within themselves the means of their recent origin . for almost all of them had been employed in former times for producing the illusions to which ancient religions owed their power. Very near the columns. but exter- ing a thyrsus in his nal to them. Then The drums the altar in front of Jupiter becomes lighted. Soon. the automatic apparatus set in motion. The theater then moves of itself to the spot selected. while his cup pours Avine over the panther. are two altars provided with combustible material. milk and water spurt from his thyrsus.e dif- ferent operations being performed. at the same time. and M'hich offer a much raoi-o gouei-al inter- than one might at first sight be led to believe. and there stops. the noise having ceased. We est shall try to briefly indicate the processes which permitted of thet. and. The its altar that was behind the god is now in front of him. and. face about. At his feet lies a panIn front of and behind the god. the theater returns to its former station. and cymbals. Victory on the top of the temple. to the noise of FIG. All being thus prejiared. says Heron. and becomes lighted in turn. on the platform of the stage.

of the last century. d. the driving wheel nearest the eye having been removed. a. and by pulling upon the cord. liow the shrine can be constructed to oacrh other. 4 to move in sti'aiglit lines at right angles shows the arrangenient of ilie wlu'cls foi- tliis j)urj)()sc.20^ JIAGIC: STAOE ILLUSIONS AND SCIENTIFIC DIVERSIONS. showing the screws by which the bearings of either set of . which rested upon a quantity of dry. there is illustrated the mechanism bv which the shrine of Bacchus. which passed upward through the space on one side of tlie shriiie and over the pulleys. of the ponderous lead weight. about which was wound the rope. but in this instance the writers on locomotive machines have not dived deep enough or stayed down long enough among the records of antiquity to discover the bottom facts in the history of such mechanisms. mounted njjon three wheels concealed within its base. Heron describes the method of arranging and proportioning the wheels in He also shows (. d. Within the base are seen two of the sujjportiug wheels. r r. or self-nioviug vehicle. of which we have any account was this invention of Heron of Alexandria.ase it was desired tliat the shrine move in a cin-ular patli. 5 is a i)erspective view. to gradually descend. c. is moved. :ind Fig. 3 is a vertical section of that jiart of the shrine below the canopy. of the floor of the compartment containing it allowed the lead weight. b. In his work just cited descriptive of automatic or self-moving machines. caused the shrine to move slowly forward in a straight line. On the axle of the driving wheels was tlie drum. The escape of this sand through a small hole in the middh. Fig. and exhibits the propelling apparatus of this ancient locomotive machine. fine sand. a. Fig. The first locomotive. and was fastened to the ring.

The of the successive lighting two altars. instead and we have the half revolution of Bacchus and Victory. These tul)es Avere ])rolongcd under the floor of the stage. and the noise of drums and cymbals weie likewise obtained by the aid of cords poises.or iTAllK OK ( YBEl.TEMPLE TRICKS OF THE GREEKS. by acting through traction on sliding valves which kept them closed. The latter communicated.. on traversing the moment The flame. Avine which times through the thyrsus and cup of Bacchus came from a double reservoir hidden under the roof of the temple. As for the noise of the drums and cymbals. . that resulted from the falling of granules of lead.MAK\Kl. so as to cause the shrine to 209 move in the Avay jn-oposed. the flow of milk and Avine. Avith the The milk and THK . alfi'viiately opciUM] and closed the orifices which gave passage to the two lifpiids. and extended upward to the hands of IJacclius. 2). over the orifices. Avith one of the halves of the reservoir. the engraving (Fig. and in the interior of which were hidden small lamps that were separated from the combustible by a metal plate which was drawn aside at the jiroper by a small chain. each of them. 0. tluui communicated bustible. comFKi. A key. whence they rel)ounded against little flowed out at two different cymbals in the interior of the base of the 14 car.t. This is clearly shown in as well as the complete revolution of the Bacchantes. Small pieces of combustible material were piled up altars. beforehand on the two the bodies of which were of metal. of a horizontal one. upon an inclined tandtourine. wlieels could be raised or lowered. Supposing the motive cords i)roperly wound around vertical bobbins. moved by counterthe and lengths of which were graduated in such a way as to ojien and close orifices at the proper moment. througli two tubes inserted in the columns of the small edifice. orifice. containt-d in an invisible box provided Avitli an automatic sliding valve. nuuuinivnHl b}' curds.

. had of ]iot been supported by the traps. p. Avere the two illusions that Avere most admired in ancient times. Two tracting points here are specially Avorthy of at- our attention. lighting These. and Avhidi ])r()bul)ly came from some ancient MARVELULs Al.N) Egyj)tiau temjjle as sliown in It l''ig. consisted of -ji hollow lu'inisphcrical dome. they At the desired moment the catch. but whicii was held temporarily means of a catch.N(. and these are the flow^ of wine or milk from the statue of Bacchus. H.iHii(i(s^'' (t. falling vertically. in fact. The crowns were attached to the top of their compartment by cords that would have allowed them to fall to the level the pedestal. and Avhich Avas filled Avith milk. ii. and the latter. by a horizontal ti'ap made for the crowns was moving on hinges that connected it stationary by with the inner wall of the base. at whose extremities tliere were fixed The hemisphere was hermetically closed underneath by a metal plate. closed beneath. To two of these lamps. communicated with the interior of the statue by a tul)e reaching nearly to the hi>tl(»ni.U1. TO IIKKO. a!id the of spontaneous the altar. The space thus along each face. gave passage to the festoons and crowns that small leaden weights then drew along with all the quickness necessary. suppoj"tt'(l by four columns. The small altar which supported the statue. Father Kircher possessed in his museum an apparatus which he describes in '^CEdipus JE(jii. which was controlled by a special cord. adapted movable brackets. and placed over colujiins were tiie statue of the goddess of many breasts.. Till! altiir likewise coniniunicatt'd MitU the hollow dome bv a tube . crowns and garlands that suddenly made their appearance on the four faces of the base of the stage -were hidden there in advance between the two walls surrounding the base.TAU (A( C()1. ceased to hold the trap. and there were several processes of performing them.).210 3IAGIG: Fiiiall}^ the STAGE ILLUSIONS AND SCIENTIFIC DIVERSIONS.'53).

the statue will having no other exit than the tube. e.TEMPLE TRICKS OF THE GREEKS. " shall It is necessary that the tube through which the heat is to introduce itself be wider in the middle. 7). On extinguishing the is the libation ceases. sacrifice who cried out at the miracle. the statues side of it at the shall make libations (Fig. when a is lighted thereon. into which the prin- lighted and the brackets turned so that the flames should come M cipal tube divided. (M. A series of small conduits. The air contained in the latter. but is connected with the altar through a central tube. in order to have more effect. a fire be lighted on the altar. being dilated. and the milk ceased to flow. This will fire e A. A B r /J. 8. or it rather that the draught that produces. which is afterward corked up. Here is one of them.) '* To construct an altar in tire such a way that." . •'If. and occurs anew as often as the fire relighted. the lamps were put out. It is traversed likewise by the e tube. in fact. the statue to the right). and caused it to rise through the straight tube into the interior of the statue as high as the breasts. passed through the tube X and pressed on the milk contained in the altar. E Z H. shall accumulate in an iufiation. which terminates in a cup held by the statue. and will enter the pedestal and drive out the water contained in it. then. 211 At the moment of the sacrifice the two lamps were in contact with and heat the bottom of the dome. on every side. Water poured into the pedestal tli rough a hole. carried the liquid to the breasts. and so last as long as' the fire does. *' Let there be a pedestal. A (in the interior of FIG. The being ended. The pedestal should also be hermetically closed. to the great admiration of the spectators. whence it spurted out. Heron of Alexandria de- scribes in his " Pneumatics " several analagous ajiparatus. But the far is latter. closed and an altar. de Eochas translates the Greek text literally. and it is necessary. M. not from the bottom. make a libation. will rise into the cup. on which are placed statues.— MARVKLOUS ALTAR (ACCORDING TO HEROX). that the heat. having a double bend. the internal air will be dilated.

v. nomenon occurred in the temj)le of (inatia. Nat. Father Kircher. appear to have perceived the essential difference. indeed." In another analogous apparatus of Heron's. it..) it was observed likewise on an Agrigentum. Sat. one of them wine. aud the other milk. becoming heated. Since. appeared to demonstrate clearly the existence of the gods. or else a very lively imagination. t. and that appeared to and Diana As the people who were the dragon seemed to applaud their action by hisses. p.) tell us that this phesays that i. as well as the hissing of the serpent. their preferences were wholly for air. as regards motive power. it will pass through the small bent tubes aud there . it is not aston- After having indicated it due to divine intervention." Father Kircher.. in fact. ishing that they believed Osiris or matics. that Bacchus was considered as the discoverer of the vine and of milk." dance.. When the fire of the upon which are attached figures which form a round. 15) . was the first cause of all these things. Athenjeus {Deipn. when the sacrificial flame was lighted. Dionysius and Artemis (Bacchus and Diana) poured milk and wine. sacrifices had to be made to the gods in order to obtain benefits. small machines of this sort. while its upper part revolves in a tube fixed to the fireplace. From the which runs to the base of the altar. wine. who had at ii. will pass into the tube. which cross each other at right angles. cause the tube as well as the figures to revolve. We might cite several although the effects produced were not very great. . 338) that King Menes took inucli delight in seeing such figures revolve. that Iris was the genius of the waters of the Nile. that exists between these two agents.7) and Horace altnr near {Set'vi. v. while a dragon hissed. or water. in order to cause the outflow of milk from one side to there was at Sai's and of wine from the other. starts a tube and of glass or horn. altar is lighted. Nor are the examples of holy fircjilaces tliat kindled spontaneously wanting in antiquity. an author whom he calls Bitho reports that a temple of Minerva in which there was an altar on which. We know. but we shall confine ourselves to one example that This also is borrowed from Heron's " Pneuhas some relation to our subject.. Father Kircher adds: " It is thus that Bacchus jiour. moreover.. . where it revolves on a pivot.) altar. the flow of milk. liis disposal either many documents that we are not acquainted with. It is easy to conceive of the modification to be introduced into the apparatus above described by Heron.. yEg. but being driven from the latter. and which are bent in There is likewise fixed to it a disk opposite directions at their extremities.. To the tube there should be adjusted other tubes (horizontal) in communication with it.312 JIAGIC: According STAGE ILLUSIONS AND SCIENTIFIC DIVERSIONS. present at the sjiectacle did not see what was going on within. it is steam that performs the But the ancients do not role that we have just seen played by dilated air. and Solin (ch. I'liny {Hist. the air. when a fire was lighted. ii. figures "Fire being lighted on an will appear to execute around The altars should be transparent. fireplace (Fig. or good genius. and that the Serpent. alleges {Q^dip. 8.

'* there exists an altar upon which there are ashes which. and this would exjjlain the unusual color of the ashes observed by Pausanias. in one of the secrets of the Magi. a very small movement sufficed to bring about combustion. Kiys that 213 Phlius. THE :\rACHINERY OF THE TEMPLES. It was through this A. sanctuary. and that was designed to hold in an elevated posiThis tion the statue of the divinity whose name Avas borne by the edifice. "is sunk beneath the pavement of the principal part of the temple {cella). such as sulphur and phosphorus. when the wood soon lights of itself without fire. a chapter on the illusions of their priests. avIiosu inhabitants. word adytum. Rich. in his "Dictionary of . that many ancient temples possessed chambers that were known only to the priests.TEMPLE TRICKS OE THE GREEKS. having fallen under the yoke of the Persians. Entrance therein was effected through a hidden door in an inclosure of walls at the rear end of the building. Cratistlicnes of another celebrated prentidigitateur ing a fire named Xenophon. moreover." of the god at the extreme end of the edifice. resemble no other. in the ruins of a temple in Avhich it had been formed under the apsis. and that served for the production of tiieir mysteries. instead of ashes. Hippolytus." relates. in color. pupil of the cclehnited ])restidigitiiteur. knew the art of prepar- which lighted spontaneously tells us that in a city of Lydia. u!ider the Roman and Grecian Antiipiities. The priest puts wood on the altar. to develop a heat callable of setting on fire incense or any other material that is more readily combustible. or rather us by one of the Fathers of the left. moreover. who a work entitled PliiJof^opliumetia. He was enabled to visit a perfectly preserved one of these at Alba. had no door or visible communication that opened into the body of the temple. and the other rises above it. under the large semicircular niche which usually held the image '' One jmrt of this chamber. The same author points out still another means. it is thought). and the flame from it is Pausanias very clear. says he. then. The process. that is to say." The has secret. with certain precautions. is excellent. The latter. and invokes I know not what god by harangues taken from a book written in a barbarous tongue unknown to the Greeks. for it is only necessary to throw a little water on the lime. has been revealed to Church (St. the altars According on which this miracle took place contained. must have appeared to the worshippers assembled in the temple merely like a base that occupied the lower portion of the apsis. As may be seen. calcined lime and a large quantity of incense reduced to powder. on Lake Fucino. and this consists in hiding fire-brands in small bells that were afterward covered with shavings. had embraced the religion of the Magi. which is designed to refute the doctrines of the pagans. the latter having previously been covered with a comj^osition made of naphtha and bitumen (Greek fire). to him.

. A compartment and the which end at the different parts and which thus allowed a voice to make itself heard at any place in the temple. moreover. that we find therein a number of tubes or liollow conduits which form a communication between this APPARATUS FOR SOUNDING A TRUMPET WHEN THE UOOR OK PLE WAS OPENED. the side and vertical and horizontal grooves whose jmrpose it is but which served. an architect of interior of the temple. which there had been formed narrow passages through which a man could make a tour of the building without being seen. and a description of which has been left to ns by Labbacco. at Eleusis. which they strike in cadence with their staves^ moves like an agitated walls exhibit apertures difficult to divine. the pavement of the cella is rough and much lower tluin the level of the adjacent portico. perhaps. as in a small edifice which was still in existence at Eome in the sixteenth century. while the person and the place wd)ence the sound emanated remained hidden. " led Apollouius toward the temple of their god. eh. "The sages of India. of the walls of the cella. and tiiat is. iii. that epoch." Sometimes the adutu^n was simply a chamber situated behind the apsis. v. singing hymns on tlie way. and forming a sacred procession. out question the purpose of the adytum.214 MAGIC: STAGE ILLUSIONS AND SCIENTIFIC DIVERSIONS. . that the priests introduced themselves and their machines without being seen But there is one remarkable fact. In the temi)le of Ceres.). and one which proves withor recognized. for the establisliing of a movable flooring like that spoken of by Pliilostratus in the " Life of Apollouius " (lib. Colonel Fain tells us that in the interior of all the walls of he himself has visited an ancient temple in Syria. The earth." says he. and.

possessed cavities which tlie priests entered through hidden passages. TRICKS OF THE (. named Helen. in order to deliver oracles (Theodoret. and closed *" again some time afterward. MECHANISM FOR OPENING AND CLOSING THE DOORS WHKX WAS LIGHTED ll'OX THE ALTAK. *' had you desired to open it. It will be seen that duction of the Gfreek engineer's text in the door is when opened. in second engraving. Pneumatics. by means of a machine. Our second and third enirravings are likewise borrowed from Heron. xvi.. The altar is hollow. vol." gives us an explanation of some of these is Our first engraving sufficiently clear to tliis permit of dispensing with a reproplace. a system of cords.. the gates of the labyrinth of Thebes were so lib." The statues of the gods. guide-pulleys. and then settles again and assumes its former level.h'KEKS. and that this door opened of itself on a certain day of the year." According to Pliny (xxxvi. At any other time. as shown at E.^'EMPLF. Jerusalem the of marble like the rest of the monument. had a door made constituted that when they were opened they emitted *' a noise like that of thunder. Heron. We read in Pausanias {Arcadiat. in his prodigies. xxii. S15 eea. aud raises them to a height of nearly two paces. you had sooner broken it. A FIRE The air compressed by the water escapes through the instrument and causes to make a sound.) that at tomb of a woman of the country." adds he. and at a certain hour. to the upper part of which a trumpet is fixed. 14). Hist.). ch. Eccl. when they were of large dimensions. and rods pushes into a vessel of water a hemisphere. AVhen fire it is . viii.

tlie lighted thereon. 1 .21G MAGIC: STAGE ILLUSIONS AND SCIENTIFIC DIVERSIONS. air contained in the interior dilutes and presses against This water then the water with which the globe situated.E WHOS?: DOOKS OPENED WHEN A FIKE WAS IJGHTED XU'ON TIIK AT. over a pulley. beneath is filled. from cord that passes suspended a sort of pail into a runs through a bent tube T7WK\ b . Around the same cylinders are wound in opposite directions two other cords. and winds around two cylinders movable upon pivots. wbich likewise unite into a single one before passing over a l)ulley.' I 1 ' Ui ^' i P' TEM1'T.TA1{. and then hang vertically iu order to hold a counterpoise. and forming a ]n-olongation of the axes around which the doors revolve. and afterward separates into two parts.

TEMPLE TRICKS OF THE GREEKS.
It
is

217
the weight of

clear that, wlieu the water

from the globe

eiiter.s tlie pail,

descend and draw ou the cord, which has been wound around the cylinders in such a way as to cause the
it will

the latter will be thereby increased, and that

doors to open

when

it is

drawn

in this direction.

The doors
the globe
the globe.

are afterward closed again as follows:
pail in

and
and

When

'J'he l>ent tube that puts conmiunication forms a siphon whose longer arm enters the lire is extinguished upon the altar, the air contained in

becomes cooled and diminished in volume. The then drawn into the globe, and the siphon, being thus naturally primed, operates until all the water in the pail has passed over into
the latter
in the globe
is

water in the pail
the globe.

In measure as the pail lightens,
its

it

rises

under the influence of the

counterpoise; and the latter, in

descent, closes the doors through the inter-

of the cords wound around the cylinder. was sometimes used instead of water ou account of

medium

Heron
its

says that

mercury

being heavier.

INVENTION
there

m

1889 A. D. VS.

INVEXTIOX

B.C.

At the railway may be found

stations, ferry houses,

in almost every city

and even upon the street corners, and village in the United States autoless, will

matic vending machines, which, for a nickel, or more or
various goods

deliver the

which they are adapted to sell. The purchaser niay procure a newspaper and a cigar to smoke, or, if averse to the use of the weed, lie may secure a tablet of chewing-gum or a package of sweets. If entertainment is desired, it may be found in the '' nickel-iu-the-slot " jihouograph. In Europe and America machines of this class are provided for dealing out portable liquors; bouquets are also furnished in a similar wi^v; and if you desire to know how mnch you have increased in weight since yesterday, all that need be done is to mount the platform of the nickel-in-the-slot scales, and drop in your coin, and the thing is done. One of the latest achievements in this line is the automatic photographic apparatus, which takes your picture for a nickel, Avhile you Avait. The craze lias even gone so far as to apply the jirinciple to the distribution of perfumery. In the railway stations and ferry houses may be found machines which, for a penny, will dole out a drop or two of liquid wliich jiasses for per fumery, and wdiich, in many cases, serves as a thin mask for bodily uncleauliness.

These various devices, and many others which we might mention, are
regarded as very clever inventions, and have certainly proved successful in

many cases in a pecuniary sense. The last automatic vending machine alluded to is shown in our second engraving. The perfume reservoir is located in the upjier ]iortion of the vase;
the tube communicating with the lower part of the reservoir extends through
the side of the vase,

and

is

closed at its upper end by a valve attached to one

^18

MAGIC: STAGE tLLUStOh^S ANT) SOT^KTlPlC DTVlnnStOKS.
of tlie lever, 0.

end
is

The
rod

other end of the lever, 0,

connected
the

by

a

with
being

lever.

E,

the

longer

arm

of this lever

provided

with

a

pan, R, for receiving coin,

while the shorter
the lever
is

arm

of

furnished with

a weight for counterbal-

ancing the pan and closing the valve. A curved piece
of metal
is

arranged con-

centric

with the path of
coin dropped through the slot in

the pan, R, and serves to
retain the

into

it

the top of the vase until

the

pan,

R,

is

carried

LUSTItAL

WA'l'KI!

\

H>
lOU

down beyond
coin
is

the end of

B.C.

the curved plate,
short

when

the

arm

discharged into the lower part of the vase; the counterweight on the of the lever then returns the lever to the point of starting and closes

the valve, thus stopping the flow of the perfume.

Avas patented

This very clever device by Mr. Lewis
19,
is

C. Noble,of Boston, Mass.,

on JSTovember

1889.
pre-

Our
]>ared

illustration

directly

from the
This
for
re-

patent

drawings.

and

other machines
the

analogous purposes are

garded

as

peculiar

product of our inventive age, but in turning back
the pages of history,
fiiul

we

that in Eg3^pt, some-

tliing

more than two thou-

sand years ago, when a worshiper was about to
enter the temple, he sprin-

kled himself with lustral
noble's attomatic i'khki mk distiuhctoh.
IS
18.S!).

i'atenteu

water, taken from a vase

near the entrance.

The

TEMPLE TRICKS OP THE GREEKS.
priests

;>10

made

the distributiou of holy water a source of revenue by the employ-

vending machine which is shown in our first engraving. This apparatus would nob release a single drop of the purifying liquid until coin to the amount required had been deposited in the vase.

ment

of the automatic

A comparison of the ancient lustral water vase and the modern perfumery The ancient vending machine will show that they are substantially alike. machine has a lever, 0, fulcrumed in the standard, N, and connected with the valve in the reservoir, H. The lever is furnished with the pan, R, for receiving An enlarged the coins dropped through the slot, A, at the tojj of the vase. view of the valve belonging to the vase is shown at the left of the engraving. The mechanism is almost identical with that sliown in the modern device; in fact, this ancient vase, described by Heron more than two thousand years ago, is the prototype of all modern automatic vending machines, and simply serves as another jjroof of the truth of the saying, '' There is nothing new
under the sun."
It is

a curious fact that this ancient invention escaped the notice of the

Patent Office until long after patents were granted for the earlier automatic vending machines. It was only a comparatively short time ago that the Patent
Office

began to

cite

the vase of

Heron

as a reference.
it is

It

was discovered in

an ancient -work on natural philosophy, and interest to us now to know that this device was

a matter of considerable

well* known to the Patent Office during the middle of this century. The vase of Heron is illustrated and described in a work on hydraulics and mechanics published in 1850 by Thomas Ewbank, who was at that time Commissioner of Patents.

AN ECtYPTIAX LITSTRAL WATER
ful by a similar process to that

VESSEL.

Two- thousand years ago the Egyptian priests sold holy water to the faithwhich we have just described, although the

Heron says of apparatus did not partake of the nickel-in-the-slot character. them, that there are placed in Egyptian sanctuaries, near the portico, movable
bronze wheels which those who are entering cause to revolve ''because brass passes for a jjurifier." He says that it is expedient to arrange them in such
a

way that the

rotation of the wheel will cause the flow of the lustral water.

He

describes the apparatus as follows:

"Let
doors.
is

ABFJ
H

This vessel

be a water vessel hidden behind the posts of the entrance is pierced at the bottom with a hole, E, and under it there

Z K, having an aperture opposite the one in the bottom of In this tube there is placed another one, A M, which is fixed to the former at A. This tube, A ]\[, likewise contains an aperture, U, in a line witlir H P, the two preceding. Between these two tubes there is adapted a third, movable by friction on each of them, and having an aperture, 2, opposite E.
fixed a tube,

the vessel.

,

X

2'.^0

MAGIC: STAGE ILLUSIONS AND SCIENTIFIC
''If these tliree holes
l)e

T)IVEI?SI0NS.
into the

in a straight line, tiie water,

when poured
if

vessel,

AB

/'J, will flow out through the tuhe,

A M;

but

the tube,

NH

R,

It be turned in sueh a way as to displace the aperture, 2, the flow will cease. fix the wheel, IS then, to so P, that, O wheu made to necessary, 'H is only

revolve, the, water shall flow."

This ingenious system of cocks having several ways was reproduced iu the
sixteenth century by Jacques Besson, in his "TJLeatrum Iiistrninentnrum
el

Machinarum.''''

Besson

api:)lied

it

to a cask

provided with compartments,

which gave at will different liquors through the same orifice. later, Denis Papin proposed it for high-jiressure steam engines. proved, it has become the modern long D valve.

Some

years

Further im-

EGYX'TIAN J^UfiTKAl.

WATKK

VESSEL.

CHAPTEU

II.

MIRACULOUS VESSELS OF THE GEEEKS.
THE DICAIOMETER.
that were used by
(a

" Pneumatics," describes a large number of wonderful vessels " tlie ancients, and, among them, one called the " dicaiometer correct measure), which allowed of tlie escape of but a definite quantity of

Heron, in

liis

the liquid that

it

contained.
illustra-

This was constructed as follows: Let us suppose a vessel (see the tion) whose neck is closed by a diaphragm.

Near the bottom there
desired to pour out.

is

placed a small sphere,
it is

T, of a capacity equal to the quantity that

there passes a

Through the diaphragm small tube, z/ E, which commuThis tube con-

nicates with the small sphere.

tains a very small aperture, A, near

and beneath
its

the diaphragm.

The sphere

contains at

lower part a small aperture, Z, whence starts a
tube,

Z H, that communicates with the hollow
Alongside of this aperture
one. A,

handle of the ewer.
tiie

globe
it

contains another

through

which
e^ver.

communicates with the
is

interior of the

The handle

provided Mitlr a vent, Q.
is filled
is

After closing the latter, the ewer
liquid

with

through an aperture that
of,

afterwards

stopped up.

made use

The tube, A E, may likewise be but in this ease it is necessary to
in the

form a small aperture
globe, T,
fills

body of the ewer
its exit.

in order to allow the air to

make

The

same time that the ewer does. Xow, if we turn the ewer over, leaving the vent open, the liquid in tlie globe, 1\ and in the small tube, z/ E, will How out. If we close the vent and bring the ewer to its former position, the globe and the tube will fill up anew,
at the

since the air that they contain will be expelled

tuk dhaid-mhtki!.

222

MAGIC: STAGE ILLUSIONS AND SCIENTIFIC DIVERSIONS.

by the

The ewer being again turned over, an liquid that enters thereinto. equal quantity of liquid will flow anew, save a difference due to the small tube, zJE, since this latter will not always be full, and will empty in measure as the
ewer does; but such difference
is

very insignificant.

MIRACULOUS VESSELS.
Ctesias, the Greek, who was physician to the Court of Persia at the beginning of the fourth century of our era, and who has written a history of that country, narrates the following fact: Xerxes, having caused the tomb of Belus

found the body of the Assyrian monarch in a glass coffin which " Woe to him," said an inscription at the side, *' who, was nearly full of oil. having violated this tomb, does not at once finisli the filling of the coffin." Xerxes, therefore, at once gave orders to have oil poured into it; but whatever the quantity was that was put in, the coffin could not be filled. This miracle must have been effected by means of a siphon, analogous to the one found in the Tantalus cup, and which becomes primed as soon as the level rises in the vessel above the horizontal; that is, on a line with the upper part of the tube's In fact, proof has been found of the use of the siphon among the curve.
to be opened,

Egyptians as far back as the
eighteenth dynasty, and Heron,
in

his
xii.,

"Pneumatics"
chap,
iii.),

(book

de-

scribes a very large

number
founded
likewise,

of vessels that are

upon

its use.

The

ancients,

solved a problem contrary to

that of the tomb of Belus, and that was one connected

with the construction of a vessel that should always re-

main

full,

whatever was the

quantity of water that was

lemoved from it, or, at least, which should remain full
even when a large quantity of water was taken from it.

The annexed engraving
(Fig, 1) shows one of the ar-

rangements employed.

"Let A B be
Ki(i.
1.

a

vessel

A

Mil!

Acii.ors vKssKi,

(»i'

iiKuoN,

coutaiuiiig

a

(juantity

of

"

MIRACULOUS VESSELS OF THE GREEKS.

223

water equal to that which may be demanded, and F J a tube that puts it in Q, lower down. Xear this tube there is communication with a reservoir, extremity, E, is suspended a cork float, K, and whose from EZ, fixed a lever,

H

to

there

whose other extremity, Z, is hooked a chain that

carries a leaden weight, ^.

"The

whole shoukl be so

arranged that the cork, K, which floats on the water,
shall close the tube's orifice;

that wlien the water flows out,

the

cork,

in

falling,

shall

leave such aperture free; and,
finally,

that

when a new
it

sup-

ply of Avater enters, the cork
shall rise

with

and

close
effect

the

orifice

anew.

To

this the cork

must be heavier

than the leaden Aveight sus-

pended

at

p..

Now,

let

AM

be a vessel whose edges should

be at the same height as the
level of the

water in the reserthere
is

voir

when

uo flow

through the tube because of Again, let the cork float. f) X be a tube that connects
the reservoir with the base of
mii:acui>ous vksski. of ukhon.

the vessel,

A M. "So, then, when we remove water from the vessel, ./.M. after it has once been fllled, we shall at the same time lower the level of tiie water in the reserThe water thereupon runvoir, and the cork, in falling, will open the tube. ning into the lower reservoir, and from thence into the external vessel, will cause the cork to rise and the flow to cease, and this will occur every time that we remove water from the tazza. There were, also, vessels which discharged but a certain definite quantity of
the liquid that they contained.
here
is another that is measures out may be caused to vary in the same vessel. A vessel containing wine, and provided with a spout, being placed upon a pedestal, to cause the spout, l)y the simple moving of a weight, to allow a given quantity of wine to flow now, for example, half a cotyle (0.13 liter), and now
;

AVe have already described one of these, but more comi)licated, wherein the quantity of liquid that it

a whole cotyle

its

any quantity that nuiy be desired. " Let >.'eaibe the vessel into which the wine is to be put (Fig. 'i). bottom there is a spout, J. Its neck is closed by a i)artition, K /, through
;

or, briefly,

AB

224:

3IAGIC:

STAGE ILLUSIONS AND SCIENTIFIC DIVERSIONS.
to

which pusses a tube that runs
space for
tlie

the bottom, but leaving, however,

sufficieiit

N be the i:)edestal upon which Let K A another tube tliat reaches as far as the partition and the vessel stands, and H In the latter there is sufficient water to stop up the orifice enters the pedestal. Finally, let i7P be a lever, half of which is in the interior of the tube, H 0.
passage of the water.
of the pedestal

M

2, aud

carries

and the other half external to it, and which pivots on the point suspended from its extremity, 77, a clepsydra having an aperclosed, the vessel
is filled

ture, T, in the bottom.

putting water into the pedestal, so that the air

through the tube, II 0, before may escape through the tube, HO. Then, through any aperture whatever, water is poured into the pedestal in such a way as to close the orifice, 0; and, after this, the spout. A, is opened. It is clear that the wine will not flow, since the air cannot enter anywhere.

" The spout being

we depress the extremity, P, of the* lever, a part of the cleps^^dra will from the water, and the orifice, 0, being freed, the spout will flow until the water lifted up in the clepsydra has, on running out, closed this same orifice again. If, when the clepsydra has become full again, we still further
But,
if

rise

depress the extremity, P, the liquid in the clepsydra will take longer to flow
out,

and more wine

will

consequently bo discharged from the spout.
still

If the

clepsydra rises entirely from out the water, the flow will last

longer yet.
^,

Instead of depressing the extremity, P, by hand, Ave

may

use a weight,

which is movable on the external part of the lever and capable of lifting the This whole of the clepsydra out of the water when it is placed near P. weight, then, will lift a portion only when it is farther away from such point. We must proceed, therefore, Avith a certain number of experiments upon the flow through the spout, and make notches on the lever arm, PX, and register
the quantities of Aviue that correspond thereto, so that, Avhen Ave desire to cause
a definite quantity to flow, Ave shall only have to put the weight on the corres-

ponding notch, and

lea\'e it."

The miracle

of

changing

Avater into

ancients exercised their imaginations most.

apparatus designed for efl'ecting
liquors to flow at
Avill

this,

is one of those upon Avhich the Heron and Philo describe fifteen and more generally for causing different

wine

Here
the flow,

is

one of

from the same vessel. the simplest of them (Fig.
is

3):

''There are," says Heron,

''certain drinking-horns which, after Avine lias been jiut into

them, allow of

when water

introduced into them,

now

of

pure

Avine,

and now

of

pure

Avater.

"They

are constructed as follows:

vided with two diaphragms,
this being soldered to tlu'in

AE

Let A Jj /'J boa drinking-horn ])V0and Z H, through Avhich ])asse8 a tube, OK,
a]ierture.
is
./,

and containing an

slightly above the
^l, in

diaiihragm, Z H.
of the vessel.

lieneatli the

diaphragm,

J

L, tliere

a vent,

the side

"Such
lii'i',

ai'rangenumts having been nuide,

if

anyone, on stopping the
tlicrcin

ori-

/
',

poiii-K

wine into the horn,

tlie li(iu()r will

flow thi'ough thu aperture, J,

into

tlic

coniijartnicnt,

JV/A\\,

sin<;e

the air contained

can escMpe

MIRACULOUS VKSSF.LS OF THE GREEKS.

225

through the vent, M. If, now, wo close the vent, tlie wine in the compartConsequently, if, on closing the vent, M, ment, J E Z H, will be held there. we pour water into the part, A B J E, of the vessel, pure Muter will flow out through the oritice, F; and if, afterward, we opeu the vent, M, while there is
yet water above the upper diajihragm, a mixture of wine

and water

will flow

out. Then, when all the water has been discharged, jnire wine Avill flow. " On opening and closing the vent, M, ofteuer, the nature of the flow may be made to vary; or, what is better still, we may begin by filling the compart-

ment, AEZH,yf\l\\ water, and then, closing M, pour out the wine from above.

Then we shall

see a successive

and of wine and water mixed, when we open the vent, M, and then, again, of pure wine when the vent is closed anew; and this
flow of pure wine
will

occnr as

many

times as

we

desire it."

The apparatus represented
in Fig. 4
is

very curious, and
to

might be put

some useful
wine
of

application, without mention-

ing that which

chants miglit

make

it

merby

changing
liquids

the

order of the
in view

and leaving

only the vessel,
cock.

A B,

and the

FIG. 3.— HEHON's DKINKlN<i-HOHN.

''Being given," says Heron again,
wine,
it is

"two

vessels,

one of them containing

required that whatever be the quantity of water j^oured into the
of a

empty one, the same quantity

mixture of wine and water, in any propor-

tion whatever (two parts of water to one of wine, for example), shall flow out

through a pipe. '' Let A B be a vessel in the form of a cylinder, or of a rectangular parallelopipedon. At the side of it, and upon the same base, we place another vessel,
like

FA, which is hermetically closed, and of cylindrical AB. But the base of AB must be double that

or 2)arallelopipedal form,
of

FA

if

we

desire that

Near and into which we have poured wine. The vessels, lA and E Z, are connected by a tube, IE f^K, which traverses the diaphragms that close them at their upper ])art, and Avliich
the quantity of water shall be double that of the wine in the mixture.

FA
is

we place another

vessel,

EZ,

wiiich

is

likewise closed,

soldered to these.

In the vessel,

E Z,
to

Ave

place a bent si})hon,

./MlSr,

whose inner leg should come so near
just

the bottom of the vessel as to leave

enough space for the
15

li([uid

to pass, while the other leg

runs into a neigh-

226

MAGIC: STAGE ILLtlSlONS AND SCIENTIFIC DIVERSIONS.

From this latter there starts a tube, II \*, which passes vessel, HO. through all the vessels, or the pedestal that supports them, iu such a way that it can be easily carried under and very near the bottom of the vessel, A B. and FA. Another tube, ^T, traverses the partitions in the vessels, we adjust a small tube, T, which we inclose, Finally, near the bottom of with the tube HL, in a pipe, ^X, that is provided with a key for opening or Into the vessel, E Z, we pour wine through an aperture, closing it at wdll.
boring

AB

AB

£1,

which we

close after the liquor has

been introduced.

FIG. 4.— AN

APPARATUS OF HERON PERMITTING OF MIXING WINE AND
W'ATER IN DEFINITE PROPORTIONS.

" These arrangements having been made, we
water into the vessel,
the vessel,

close the pipe,

X

<?,

and pour

A B. A

portion, that

is

to say, one-half, will pass into

and the water that enters FA will E Z, through the tube, II ^^K. In the same way this air will drive an equal quantity of wine into the vessel, Now, upon oj)ening the pipe, H, through the siphon, yl M N". <?X, the water poured into the vessel, AB, and the wine issuing from the vessel, OH, through the tube, TIP, will flow together, and this is just what it was proposed to effect." Tlie accompanying figures, borrowed from a work on ''Scientiflc Recreations," by the late editor of La Nature, M. (Jaston Tissandier, roju-escnts a magic vase and pitcher such as tlie ancients were accustomed to emj)loy for the purpose of practicing a harmh'ss and amusing de(;option on those who were not acquainted with the structure of tiie apparatus. For instance, if any one should attempt to pour wine or Avater from the j'itcher shown in the

FA,

through the tube,

^T,

drive therefrom a quantity of air equal to itself into

MlRACULOVS VESSELS OF THE GREEKS.
cut, the liquid Avould

007

run out through the apertures in

tlie sides.

But the

person

who knew how

to use the vessel Avould simply place his fiuger over the

aperture in the hollow handle (Fig. G) and then suck through the spout, A, when the liquid would flow iip through the handle and through a channel run-

ning around the rim of the vessel and so reach the spout.
cups,
2")itchers, etc., Avere

These magic

vases,

not only in use

among

the ancients, but were quite

FIG. 5.— MAGICAL

VESSELS OF THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY.

FIG.

t).

— SECTION OF A MAG KAL PITCHER.

common

and numerous specimens are to be seen in European collections. The ones shown in the accompanying cuts are preThese api)aratus are all based on the use of served in the Museum at Sevres. concealed siphons, or, rather, their construction is based on the principle of that instrument. Devices of this kind admit of very numerous modifiin the eighteenth century,

Thus tankards have been so contrived that the act of applying them to the lips charged tlie siphon, and the liquid, instead of entering the mouth, then passed through a false passage into a cavity formed for its recepcations.

" are said to have thus despoiled travelers in old times of a portion of their ale or of feed. and which is divided into as many comjiartments as the kinds of wine that it is proposed to pour into it. if different i)erKons have poured in different wines. and P be such apertures. through the orifice. in the eiglith problem of his " Fjjiritalia. Let 0. T) represents an arrangement similar to that of the inexhaustible bottle of Robert-Houdin. animal's mouth. but it is more ingenious. and discharged by admitting or excluding air through several secret openings. 77. so that when the cup was inclined to the lips and partly emptied. If the hole be " With left open for some time. and filled Having the lower part already away until he be invited. then you may drink unto your guest. the Avine can then be eitlier drunk or poured out." Another old way of getting rid of an unwelcome visitor was by offering him wine in a cup having double sides and an air-tight cavity formed between them. a vessel of this kind. The apparatus represented in the illustration (Fig. Around each of these finding the contrary. some of the liquid entered the cavity and compressed the air within. In the diaphragm. "you may welcome unbidden guests. a mixture of both liquids will be discharged. and H. The liquid was suspended in cavities. as well as their horses Oats were put into a perforated mangei'." says an old writer. thinking to pledge you in the same. with water. and at its upper part a small hole is drilled where the thumb or finger can readily cover it. into which wine is to be poured. minutely perforated partition divides the vessel into two parts. to pour into it. M. the Greek engineer. tlie air expanded and drove jiart of the contents in the face of the drinker. the liquids Avill not mix as long as the snuill hole in the handle is closed. there are formed small apertures that correspond respectively to each of the compartments. H O and are diaphragms forming the three com])artments. into which are soldered small tubes. a person it ignorant of the device would find tents. The problem proposed. whose signboards announced " entertainment for man and beast. When the vessel was filled. mead. fearing that presumption might more sharply be rewarded. call to your servant to fill your pot with wine. which project into the neck of the vessel. By making the cavity of the siphon sufficiently large. when he takes the pitcher.^-*S MAG JO: STAaE I ILLUSIONS AX/) SdlJJNTlFJC J)J VKliSIOXS. will happily stay his next KA . Another goblet was so contrived that no one could drink out of it unless he understood the art. tion below. N. and to cause any kind that may be designated to flow out through the same orifice. If the lower part of the 2:)itcher be filled with Avater and the upper with wine. the pressure being diminished. who describes the ajiparatus.''' figures and describes a magical pitcher in which a horizontal. and a large part forced through the openings into a receptacle below by the movements of the hungry Heron. Let us suppose. " Let A 15 be a hermetically closed vessel whose neck is provided with a diaphragm.2". wines of several kinds. E Z. is as follows: '"Being given a vessel. and P T. EZ. a difficult matter even to tdste the con- however thirsty he might be. for example. T. drinking up all the wine. The handle is hollow and air-tight. so that. as enunciated by Heron. 77. each jierson may take out in his turn all the wine that belongs to him. Dishonest publicans.

and so on. 229 tuljes there are formed in tlie diaphragm small apertures like those of a sieve. /i. it is desired to introduce one of the wines into tiie vessel. and //. and the tube A //. and //. receive respectively the wine contained in each of the compartments and allow it to flow to the exterior through the orifice. in measure.fi'f»'n the compartment. there are arranged tubes which from each of the compartments.MIRACULOUS VESSELS OF THE GREEKS. (v. To this tube is fixed an iron rod. T. through which the liquids may flow into the different compartments. S e. to wit: The tube. carries a lead weight. whose extremity. X'l'. whatever be the number of wines and that of the corresponding compartments of the vessel. and the wine will flow into such compartment through the apertures of the sieve. quantity of wine will be introduced. therefore. " Let us now see how each person in turn can draw his own wine out through At the bottom of the vessel. in which is accurately adjusted another. from B. p F. because the air contained in the latter has no means of egress. the tube oo <7. The extremities. so that such aper-' tares may. /i F.. Then. closing this vent in order to open another. M. But. and F are stopped with the fingers. When. of these tubes should communicate with another tube. . A B. and the wine is poured into the neck. ff. ij\ 0. closed at A' at its lower extremity and having apertures to the right of the orifices. d. <?. the air in the compartment corresponding thereto will flow out. another FIG. of the said tube. is fi. //•. s.ved an the same neck. if one of the said vents be opened.— thp: magic bottle. To the extremity. where it will remain without flowing into any of the compartments. A B. start . ?/. 2. the vents. from X. as the tube revolves.

Finally. the weight. 0. to turn so as to bring beneath apertures that corresponds to it. ft r.JIAGIC: STAGE ILLUSIONS AND SCIENTIFIC DIVERSIONS. If the ball be Then the wine contained in the compartment. w^ill redesceud to Avill its primitive place." ANCIENT ORGANS. that allows the water to pass all arouiul its bottom. a further inclination of the rod. so as to bring its corresponding aperture beneath ff. N. will flow. If.^30 . box performs here the office of a pump chamber. w^ill be produced. the weight.* small leaden balls of different weiglits. F. will revolve further. the aperture. is bent in the interioi' and communicates with a snuill invei'ted box. " It must be remarked that the smallest of the balls should be so heavy that when placed in the cup it shall outweigh the weight. the ball be removed. I'i'liis BJ is an ^vcre (cylindrical or S(juare ])<'d('stals. H. II K. us therefore snpjiose this trnncated cone established. there arrangfinent liore that it is difficult to understand from Heron's descrii)tion. wall turn still more. 1 Fig. and the tube. E Z II (called a damper). and the interior of whic^h is bored out so that it may receive a piston. so as to cause the flow of the wine contained in the compartment.al to that of the iron pin supporting n small conicul cu]) whose concavity points upward. and Petronius relates that Nero one day him. now. and it will be necessary to so arrange things that it may that one of the thus cause the tube. and Again. Moreover. and consequently bring then be suflficient about the revolution of the tube. ?/'. e d. One of these tubes. and stop the flow. ft upon placing the last (which is the heaviest). gives a reproduction of one of these instruments as described by Heron Let latter in his ""Pneumatics. N. f Altars ]ilatf(irMi. If the smallest be jilaced in the cup. This wine will then flow as long as the ball remains in the cup. and in its number compartments^ M. rj. and from the top of which rise two tubes that communicate with the interioi'. made a vow to them himself in public if he escaped a danger that threatened The invention of them is attributed to Ctesibius. Let wide base at 5. PI. M. cliaracttM'izcd hy a cavity in the upper in which a lire was lighted. and ^. the aperture of which is at the bottom. //' removed. The other balls will to cause the revolution of the said tube. its narrow one (through which the pin passes) at ^. Avhich should fit very accurately so as to allow no air to * The text does not agree witli the figure given by the MSS. in returning to its first joosition. F. If another ball be placed in the will close the orifice. and the wine cease to flow. . one must have ecp. it will descend on account of its weight until it applies itself against the internal surface of the cup. will be closed. The hydraulic organ play one of filled with its powerful voice the vast arenas in which the gladiators fought. ^ 6. fiF. ball r/. J NTT. and that will thus receive the wine of the compartment. ft ?/. an inverted hullow hemisphere. the tube. cup." bo an altar Let there be in the f of bronze containing water.

E Z H. since there and that no longer any The figure shows anotlier arrangemeut. vertical rod. WX. pass. 2). and -which is closed at the upper part To this piston is fixed a very strong rod. with which is connected movable around a pin at y. Z Z'. is placed another box. y 4>. of which are open. 231 T y. there is arranged a thin disk.31IRACUL0US VESSELS OF THE GREEKS. The other tube. Avheu they are pulled back. carried by and ends in a transverse tube. by a cover that contains an aperture to allow of the passage of the air into the 77. Across these orifices. N FIG. 1. which communicates with the first. and the orifices. * (and to those of the tube A A').* This lever moves upon a fixed Upon the bottom of the box. This disk is called a iilatysmatira (Fig. § Registers. covers provided with holes § slide in such a way that the hemisphere. and in order to close it. and are provided with heads in place.f upon Avhich rest pipes communicating with it and having at their extremities glossocomiums J that communicate with these pipes. B'. I f Called a wind-cliest in modern organs.. n. Under the aperture of this cover. Flute mouths. . the pipes are closed. A A'. when they are pushed toward the interior orifices of the pipes of the organ their is holes cor- respond to the correspondence. in order to hold it is tures in the disk.— HYDRAULIC OKGAN. another rod. held by means of four pins which pass through aperbox. N 77.

3IAGIC: If. 3 AXD -DETAILS OF THE HYUKAULIC OKOAX 1. if the orifices correspond to those of the covers. If the extremity. suppose S. and the effect will l)e ])roduced l)y the motion of the cover. its orifice will co- incide with the orifices of the pipes. it is desired to cuiis(> tlic sound to cease. its . and such air will close the aperture of the small box through the intermedium of the platysmatim described above. A A' the transverse tube. it will suffice to depress the corresponding key with the finger. and to which are fixed strong curved arrangement plates of horn. we shall cause the cover to move toward the hand. and that. and the system moving around a will as a whole //. y 0. former position and draw the cover back in such a way as to prevent its orifice from establishing a communication. A A'. placed opposite yS. now. and that they may be closed when it is desired to cause the sound to cease. the piston. it will be seen that in order to cause any one of the pipes to resound. there is established a bar equal in length to and parallel with the tube. It will then pass into E Z H by means of the tube. and ff the cover that is adapted and the aperture of which does not coincide with the apertures of the pijies at and compress the K this moment. the cord pressure ceases. STAGE ILLUSIONS AND SCIENTIFIC DIVERSIONS. a Let us now arrangeof three rods. though the tube Z Z'. pin. AVater is ])oured into the small altar in order that tlie compressed air that will draw upon the horn jHate. and by its force. Let y d he this mouth. SHOWN IN FIG. of the orifice of system toward the the glossocomiums. such as y. S. the rod. and finally from the transverse tube into the pipes. in such a way that when the cover is moved toward the exterior the cord shall be taut. ^ 2 11. FIGS. This arrangement being ado2:)ted for all the glossocomiums. upon removing the all may be carried back toward the exterior and close com- such as the following may be employed. Beneath a number of glossocomiums. £ S. A cord is fixed to the and winds around the extremity. H. the transverse rod. an interior. and r. 3). tliis ])hite end of K. if It be seen that we lower with the hand the extremity. jointed ment composed jA. the following arrangement is employed: Let us consider isolately one of the mouths placed at the extremity (Fig. the cover munication. then be lowered. be lowered at ^. When. Ave shall merely have to lift tlu' linger. ing attached to the cover. and this will occur when all the covers (or only a few of them) have been pushed toward the interior. when it arrives there. the plate will resume But as soon as the right it. beff. on the contrary. will rise air in the box. 6 its orifice. In order that tlieir orifices may be open when it is desired to make certain pipes resound. and the register be thus pushed into the interior. then into the transverse tube A A'. In order that. P 2. V.

in 1G45. in that it carries the origin of windmills (which it is claimed were unknown to antiquity. Fig. but would rise and retained in the dandier. so that tiie piston would have no lateral motion. they produced an exceedingly agreeable tremolo. N 11. around a pin. 4 shows the arrangement with sufficient clearness to permit us to dispense with a description. but of giving a series of harmonies. Fatlier Kircher constructed another at A few years for Eome Pope These organs had the defect of not preserving the note. P 2. be and thus supply the pipes. By this means. but by a windmill. becomes filled with air from the exterior. afterward. descend with exact perpendicularity. it therefore expels the air from the box into the damper. . drives again into the damper. may. constructed at Xaples a hydraulic organ according to the arrangement just described. and fix at the bottom. On the other hand. is 233 tlie driven from the box. 1.— WINDMH^L ACTUATING THE liKLl. It was probably these unusual variations in sound that charmed the ears of the Greeks and Romans. which the piston. motion to which is communicated not by manual power. immovable at T. Porta. It would be better to render the rod. when it is lowered. as has been explained. Then. P. It Innocent X. is raised. Ty. raised anew. because Altruvius and Yarro do not era.UWS OF AN UlUiAN. is interesting to reproduce. the box. owing to the pressure of liquid. of the piston a ring through which this pin would pass. speak of them) back at least to the second century before our FKi. AV' hen the piston.MIRACULOUS VESSELS OF THE GREEKS. E Z H. N77. it opens the platysmatim of the small Iwx. Heron afterwards describes a bellows organ. at the beginning of the seventeenth century.

" Pneumatics " of the Greek engineer the germs of the tubular boiler and of the Papin cock which has been replaced in modern engines by the long D-valve. All works tliat treat of the history of the steam engine speak of the eolipileof Heron as the most ancient manifestation known of that power which But very few persons know that we also find in the to-day fills the world. issuing through the bent At the other extremity cover. 2f) be a boiler containing water and placed over a fire. sulliciently clear to f Tliis figure. . by means of a cover. will cause it to revolve in situ. Avhicli is traversed by a bent tube. the steam will pass through the tube. there was at Sais. known as those that preceded. who reports it on the faith of an author iiamed Bitho. of the Henuissance. at the two extremities of one of its diameters. FA. Egypt. Tbe boiler should liave been r(q)resente(l over a lirei)Iace. but not so well l)orrow(!(l from a MS. is a literal translation of the two passages that have reference to the a2:)2)aratus. and. will raise the ball in On in communication with it. HN. E Z H.'''' employed steam (mixed Avith hot air. is placed the pivot. From the cover starts a tube which rises vertically. 1 is The following apparatus. enters the hollow sphere.: : CHAPTER III. "Let AB It is closed (Fig. so often cited. likewise borrowed fruui a MS. fixed upon the T A. on rising such a way that it will remain susis pended. into the small sphere. of the " Piicuinatics " datini. tubes into tlie atmosphere. and at the extremity of which a hollow hemisphere placing a light ball in this hemisphere it will through the tabe. Here. of Heron " Balls may he held in the air hy the following metliod " Fire is lighted under a boiler that contains water and is closed at its npper part. E Z H. H. alhnv letters to be dispensed with. According to Father Kircher. THE ORIGIN OF THE STEAM ENGINE. happen that the steam. in the direction of the AMN. likewise described by Hei'on. a temple dedicated to Minerva in which there was an altar upon shov/s that the ancients *Fig.* " To cause the revolution of a sphere on a pivot hy means of a hoiler placed over a fire. latter's diameter. which There are added to the sphere. whose extremity.'- bark to is tlie Renaissance. it is true) for causing liquids to rise. two tubes bent at right angles and perpendicular to the line. AVheu the boiler is heated. is K. in the first place.

THE ORIGIN OF THE STEAM ENGINE. another. 0. to the bottoms of the vessels. J E. that descends from the fireplace into the One of the latter. and you Avill stop up all the apertures so that the air shall Then the blast from the fire. the serpent's mouth. 2 the other. and the bottom of Avhich should be above the figure. which. one as follows: performed was miracle The "' On lightiufj a Jire vpon an altar. 3). 1. and the to be connected with the cover of the vessel. poured.— HEKO>''S EOLIPILE. Dionysius and Artemis (Bacchns and Diana) wine. wine vessel. F. which ends in the traverses the side of the first hand of the figure that is to make the libation. FIG. suitable for receiving wine. E Z. and The two latter tubes are soldered is connected in the same way with its cover. and. P and T T. ATheu you Avish to light the fire. by a grating. ^l. Jifjures make libations and serj)ents when a fire of tliera hiss (Fig. you will put a little water into the tubes so that they shall not be burst by the dryness of the not escape. rises likewise to a vessel. will press * The letters on the engraving are again dispensed with. One extremity of each of these tubes dips into the wine. K third tube. suitable for containing " Let AB I'lG. 235 was lighted.* iuterior there he a hollow pedestal upon which there is an altar. passing through these. and in each of these vessels there is a siphon. . mixed with the water. in whose is a large tube. and the other milk. while EN ~. through the fire. Ell &. will rise tubes up to thu gratings. to a vessel. wine. runs to pedestal and divides into tliroe small tubes. K J.— heron's whirling EOLOPILE. as this tube has J. 2.

stove which As regards the cock and Heron calls by the tubular boiler. the latter will appear to make libations as long as the altar is burning.— IIEKON's MAKVKIiOUS ALTAR. because of its resemblance to a milestone. which leads the blast to the serpent's moutli. upon the wine and cause it to flow tlirougli the siphons.230 MAGIC: STAGE ILLUSIONS AND SCIENTIFIC J)J VERSIONS. 4 shows us. Fig. the lirephice in the shape of a vertical cvl- . 3. As for the other tube. P 2 and T T. it causes the latter to hiss. in the center." FIG. The wine issuing thus from the hands of the figures. we find these in a hot-water the (Jra^co.Latin naine nnliarion.

and thus '2.THE ORKilN OF THE STEAM ENUINE. A cer- number of tubes. 4. This is designed for actuating different figures tlie play of the steam and of the several way cocks This latter consists of two concentric tubes capable of revolving with slight friction one within the other. In the is poured in. FIG. such as K and M N. water avoid the ejection of water through the funnel. '2. steam that nuiy be formed. T. and the funnel. put its different parts in com- munication by passing through the surface. fireplace. and not as we have shown it for the sake of greater clearness. The external tube. likewise cylindrical. says that this tube debouches in the interior of the fuimel so that it shall not be perceived. tilled witii water. through that I have mentioned. serves to let off hot water. and thus increase the heating The cock. Heron. and to give exit to the figure there may be seen a compartment formed by two vertical jilates that make an angle into Avhich water cannot enter. V . to introduce cold water into the boiler through a tube Avhicli runs to the bottom of the The object of the bent tube is to allow of the escape of air when latter. inder. in his text.— heron's tubular BOILER. J. All around this tain a boiler. 'Z'il which shouhl have beneath tliere is it an air vent that is not shown in the cut.

finally. and j. is . and traverses it. which will warble. through a rotary motion of the tube. or. correspondences shall occur are denoted by marks engraved on the visible porThe tube. terminates in a triton who holds a trumpet Finally the tube. (p. tures. into that of the serpent. The internal open at its lower part. toward the firei3lace. stove. upper side of the and Xf pla.23S JIAGIC: STAGE ILLUSIONS AND SCIENTIFIC DIVLUSWNS. It contains three aperand communicating. but is closed at its upper part. When the tube. H). is fixed to the q). jIB little water is put into the compartment. tlirongli small tubes.eed at f. This water flows i-nto the tube. and tube. the steam may at will be passed into the body of tlie bird. carries at its extremity a whistle that to his mouth. A. j. A B. The tube. which latter debouches above It contains tliree aperthe stove and may be manoeuvered by the handle. tube. f. A B. tures at the same levels as apertures q). and thus communicates with the interior of the compartment. who will blow his trumpet. with the figures that are to be jiresently mentioned. diiJerent levels. (which passes under the fireplace and is closed at the side opposite its aperture. has been replaced. but differently placed. FA. A B. and is converted into steam. one of them is brought opposite an aperture of the same level in the tube. so that when. A B. terminates in a serpent's head which bends tions of the tubes. is removed and a It will now be seen what will occur. or into that of the triton. the two others do not The positions that it is necessary to give them in order that such correspond. '/'. which will blow into the fire and quicken the flames. debouches in the body of a bird filled with water.

once liglited. in Egypt. that which is at the present day known under the The most ingenious one name of "' Heron's Foun- tain. By this perniittted of accomplishing such an object. combustible gases. which Saint Augustine could only explain as due to the intervention of demons. Philosophers. in a passage quoted by Father Kircher. there comes up through the handle." It is possible that it was to an artifice of this same nature that Avere due some of the numerous perpetual lamps that history has preserved a reminiscence of. Carcel and Carreau applied Heron's system to lamps without. and that in the temple of Venus. burn. in were disengaged naturally from the earth. because of the continuous influx of bitumen and the incombustibility of the wick. when the oil is consumed. The places. any quantity * In 1801. . in their prestiges. many The Arab Schiangia. But the majority of them owed their peculiarity only to the precautions taken by the jiriests to feed them without being seen. that the wick.CHAPTER IV. The same authors is likewise point out different processes for manufacturing oil rises portable lamps in which the automatically. should be kept intact. constructed canals which connected places like these with lamps hidden at the bottom of These lamps had wicks made of threads that could not means the lamji. knowing that they were thus returning to the primitive apparatus. which. TOYS. such as that which Plutarch saw in the temple of Jupiter Amnion. perhaps. in fact. which was made of asbestos threads or gold wire." * The following is the Alexandrine engiueer's text: " Construction of a candelabrum such that upon placing a lamp thereon. burned eternally. ancients utilized. who understood the forces of nature. expresses himthere was afield whose ditches were full of pitch and liquid self in this wise: "In Egypt l)itumen. ETC. GREEK LAMPS. PERPETUAL LAMPS. Heron and Philo have left us descriptions of a certain number of arrangements that subterranean crypts. It was only necessary. and that the body of the lamp should communicate with a reservoir placed in a neighboring apartment in such a way that the level of the oil should remain constant.

any vessel serving as a reservoir for tlie oil. which and reaches almost to the K A. H 0. EZ. as well as tlie air therein. To this projection there is carefully adjusted another tube. Above. and tliat. 77. /^ zJ E Z. and on the other. wholly in- closed within the interior of the lamp. To the tube. "A hollow candelabra must be made. let there be placed a vessel. on the one hand. and in this let there be a partition. 77. when the water has flowed out from the compartment. capable of containing a large quantity of tion. " Fict us now remove the lamp and fill the vessel with oil by the aid of the tul)e. ABEZ. may compartment. there starts a tube. The water that is in the compartment. it M N. upon which latter is placed the lamp in such a way as to allow only a passage for the air. From the parti- EZ. Again. A B. in such a way that the liquid may be capable of flowing. 7^Z/EZ. we will open the cock near the partition. the cover. through which the compartment. This tube debouches in the latter in such a way that its contents may empty into the lamp. traversing the bottom of the is lamp and united with it. being forced . is provided with a stopper at its which upper part. H 0. M N. too. with a base in the shape of a jiyraLet AB /" J be such pyramidal base. Under the partition. Through the upper })late. without there being any need of placing above mid. When it becomes necessary to pour oil into it. and afterward through a cock which is open near the bottom. PLATO S LAMP. E Z. Another tube. forms a slight projection on traverses cover of the vessel. II. there is soldered a cock that enters the compartment. to the bottom of the vessel. The air will escape through the tube. there is pierced a small hole. and. which should also be hollow. rA. passes through the cover and runs down. may be it that wished.'^iO MAGIC: SfAGt: ILLUSIONS ANL> SCII^NTIFlV DlVEliSlONS. FA is 'E^Ta. connecting it at the same time with tlie tube. Let us place the lamp upon its base. K A. EZ. pass into tlie A B E Z. the air within escaping through the same aperture. TLA. may be filled with water. 7'z/ EZ. the orifice of which is of the usual size. let H O be the stem of the candelabrum. there is soldered another and very fine one which communicates with ifc and reaches the extremity of the lamp handle. in such a way that wdien it open the water from the chamber. oil.

0. to the bird. and caused its first note to sound. is somewhat meager and unsatisso very plain that. 12. perhaps. 9. On the top of this box was a basin. Each of these branches was hollow. 2. One of these would sound when air was forced outward through the beak of the bird. it compressed the air above it. B. which escaped through the beak of the bird. air-tight An partments. was sounding its second. AN ANCIENT AUTOMATON. which then sounded its first note. and as it rose in the compartment. and the air in passing into this compartment tli rough the beak of the bird.GREEK LAMPS. but the drawing is No. 3. ETC. the cock is closed. which api:)arently grew out of the top of the box. A. the illustration of whicii we reproduce. was produced by the peculiar way in which the water supplied by the fountain was made to pass through the several compartments. . of which Athen^eus speaks in the *' Banquet of the Sophists. by one of the pipes. which was divided into four comby horizontal diaphragm plates. 1. and the one that forms a continuation of it. The bodies of the birds were also hollow. 44. taken in connection with other is it is mechanism in his work. M When when it is desired to cause the oil to stop coining over. while the bird. This may be repeated as often as may be necessary. This alternate action of the air. Around this basin were four birds. as given by factory. the level of the w'ater in compartment 1 gradually fell. In the hollow body of each bird were two musical reeds or whistles of different note. mata for In his " Spiritalia " (written about 150 B. and were connected Avith the hollow branches by tubes in their legs. A. the flow will cease. perched upon branches or shrubs.) Heron describes several autoof which figures of birds form a part. lamp through the tube. 241 the N. easy to understand how the desired result was accomjilished. operated in a similar way. for receiving the water of a fountain. 0. entered compartment 1 near its bottom by the pipe 11. A." Such was. it at once began to discharge by that siphon into compartment 2 but as the siphon 5 was so proportioned that it discharged the water much faster than it was supplied by pipe 11. 16 . wdiich passed by the pipe 10. As the water rose in compartment 2.C. which passed bat a very short distance through the tops of the several compartments. TOYS. 10." and by means of which the illustrious philosopher was enabled to have a light for himself during the longest nights in the 3'ear. box of metal was provided. and communicated with one of the compartments already named. C. and consequent variation of note. The water from the basin. will cuuse the oil to rise and pass into through the tube. caused its second note to sound. but perhaps the most remarkable its ingenious simplicity The descrijition of this. into the vessel. H 0. Plato's lamp. A. B. but when the w^ater reached the top of the bend of the siphon 5. it compressed the air above it. and 13. Heron. 4. and the other would only respond to air drawn inward. D.

The antifpiity of intermittent siphons of special interest from the fact of their eom])aratively recent application in sanitary plumbing. which then began to discharge into compartments. the water gradually fell in contpartment 2. compartment 1 was again filling. and compartment 3 was also filling. and tracing the action of the flux and reflux of the •water in the 4. i. and that it is only necessary to properly proportion the discharging capacity of the siphons to insure the rejietition and admixture of the notes in a bird-like manner. . and compartment 2 was filled to the top of the bend of the siphon 6. the wings of the birds could be made to move. 8. B. by the movement of the same air which acted upon It is evident that the musical reeds or wliistles. D. Each taneously of the siphons in the its ing to flow when automaton was intermittent in its action. and the first note of bird. and beginning again sponreached the level of the top of is when the Avater its bend. will second note is Avhen the compartment 3 being discharged by siphon 7 into com- partment note. sounding. and the air above the water therein was being forced by the pipe 12 into the bird. C. and of course as many compartments as may be wished can be used. as several birds. each having different notes. While this was taking ]ilace. D. and causing its first note to sound. and the air entering By following out the opera- tions described. and as siphon 5 had ceased to operate. Furthermore. ceascompartment was emptied. causing the second note of the bird. 4. will sound and that eventually the water will escape from the automaton by the siphon heard. and it is further evident that the employment of tlie iileas involved is not of necessity confined to but four birds. this state of affairs continued until all of the water was discharged from compartment 1. and their beaks to open and shut.> \' by the beak sounded its second note. it will compartments 3 and sound its readily be seen that the bird. of the bird. to be by simple and well-known means any or all of the bird notes can be made to trill.U2 aud MAGIC: STAGE ILLUSIONS AND SCIENTIFIC DIVERSIONS. might be operated from the same compartment. C. and at the same time its first the bird. A.

bottom of the is and from which cone there is it is just sufficiently distant to permit the water to pass. Cometh all this new science that men lere. F J. shooting with a bow. And out of old hookes. whose string is with the apple. hollow. and the latter will hiss. If this apple be lifted and there latter. Hercules the ex- stretched and laced at a proper distance is from the right hand. . fixed to a To this adjusted with care another one. apple lying upon the pedestal. and much in error as regards his less true to-day: own time words are only somewhat '' For out of the okl fiekles. To A GREEK TOY. connects holds a small horn bow. 243 (1328-1400). truncated cone whose apex jjoints toward the vessel. A figure of Hercules stands near by." A GKEEK TOY. Upon a pedestal there is fixed a small tree around which is coiled a dragon. Cometli al this new corne fro yere to yere. as men saithe. To this latter there is fixed a Mechanism of — small. ETC. passing through an aperture. in good faithe. Let A B be the water-tight pedestal under consideration. G. the Toy.GREEK LAMPS. ('haucer was not his TOYS. The left hand provided with a detent. j^rovided with a diaphragm. will shoot his from the is an Hercules arrow at the dragon. which it chain that.

its The arrow and accessories will then be adjusted anew. things may be so arranged that the animal shall drink when the man has his back turned. and that then a cock be opened. is tend to cause a vacuum in the tube. MN. Above the pedestal there is fixed a statuette representing a horse and traversed by a tube. the cone. is tremity of this latter there nects fixed a small chain or a cord that traverses the top of the pedestal. in the first place. and thus cause the hissing to cease. the cone. Chapter I. one of those used for whistling with. and that he shall stop drinking when the man threatens him with the club. A small tube.: ^44 MAGIC: STAGE ILLtlStONS AND SCIENTIFIC UI VERSIONS. A B C D. that the said com])artment be with water through an aperture. O. which is afterwards stopped up. It is as follows " " Let us suppose a hollow pedestal. if the apple. "To cut an animal in two and make him drink. so that Avlien a vessel of brought near the animal's mouth the water will be sucked up. which terminates on the one hand in the horse's mouth. Now. When the compartment B is J^ is fidl." under the title. be raised. This is found described at the end of Heron's "Pneumatics. rises through the top of the pedestal. and in the other in the upper part of the compartment. through the tube. and passes into the interior of the tree or around it. against the other. and. filled It will be conceived. and if to the key there be adapted a statuette representing a man armed witli a club. in doing water so. will drive out the air contained in the latter. and con- This cord through the hand and body into the interior of Hercules. the water will flow. K. X0. for example. O. T. divided in its center by a diaphragm. and this will cause the arrow to shoot. and AJ again filled as we have indicated. will be raised at the same time. " If the cock be so arranged as to present its key upon the top of the pedestal. will be tightened.. but one that was founded upon a very ingenious mechanical combination. stop the flow. The optical delusion known as the talking decapitated person has already The ancients been described in Book I. after following if one of the legs. will adjust passes itself with the small chain that joins the cone with the apple.. passes over a pulley fixed to the diaphragm. the cord. A B E F. starts from the diaphragm. EF. invented an analogous trick. so as to form a communication between the upper compartment and the lower (which latter is itself provided with an open air-hole). of the present work. M N. running into the compartment B r. The apple being replaced. The water in the compartment A 7'. " The following is the way in which a knife may be passed through the ani- mal's neck without causing the head to fall or interrupting communication . the catch will be freed. it is emptied by means of a spout pro- vided with a key. and produce a hissing. THE DECAPITATED DEINKING HORSE.

and let us introduce a knife into the P. and a wedge-shaped profile tooth of the wheel. let us engage one of its teeth in the cavity. is disengaged. The tooth above the space. and B. as well as the knife. B. 2. will then be disengaged in its turn and connect the head . It is inclosed in the neck in such a way that the circular cavity containing it embraces just four of the sides of the inscribed hexagon. the two other sides projecting outside of the plane. is is given it it. let us engaged therein by the edge. 6 and e. is interrupted to the right of this slit. G. ff. and cause it to descend until it. which are movable around axles fixed in the body of the animal. so that when one can also only leave it by the edge. M N. fix the wheel. TOYS. /^. aft. Avhich are adjusted according to the plane. and to this small tube. between the mouth and pedestal. ETC. G. This wheel is cut out into three parts of circles. aft. Above S and under e are placed two segments of toothed wheels. of the movable axle traversing it. and 3). B. which is likewise movable around heron's decapitated drinking horse. and see what will happen. on entering the space. xt\ let us cause the head and body to approach. there are fixed two racks. " The blade.GREEK LAMPS. P (Figs. and the two parts of it are connected by a snuiller tube. which have for diameters three of the sides of the inscribed hexagon. this projecting containing capable of forms the head a circular cavity is formed portion of the wheel. The tube. an axle fixed in the animal's body. In the piece that P. n and p. 1. free. in the body by means slit. 245 distinct The head and body form two pieces. and the thickness of which keeps increasing from the centre to the circumference. v. will press against one of the teeth. Let us now suppose the wheel. which enters by slight friction into the interior of each of them. Over the whole there is a third wheel.

which has been carried upward by the motion 6. e. Then the blade comes in contact with tbe lower pro- on the inclined plane that the jection of the sector. ff. and. aft. 6. On pressing against such pro- jection the blade causes the segment. and causes the small tube. ])RTAII. and so mutilated. and the tube. which figure with the body again. although he has read the majority of books treating of this so confused class of ideas. brings tube. M. to enter anew the Communication between -M and N is thus reestablished. TIIK JnX AITTATKI) MOKSK. that is connected with the rack. to revolve in a contrary direction. The knife-blade. p. left. . causes the wheel to turn. is now under the wheel. on pressing thereupon. a ji. that in all the Latin editions suppressed as incomprehensible.246 MAGIC: STAGE ILLUSIONS AND SCIENTIFIC DIVERSIONS.S OF THE MKCIIANISM IN THE NECK. rests shows in the segment. tion of this system of toothed wheels. of the rack." M. The description given by Heron is itself and the figure that accompanies it is so incomit is plete. and with it the rack. tt. de Roclias has never found elsewhere than in the " Pneumatics " a descrip- e toward the M. p. which latter leaves the tube. and gives passage to the blade between it and the extremity. a.

GREEK LA3IPS. among other valuable things. but the ures that must have served to throw light upon the text have been his description is lost. A B. dating back probably found two Greek fragments upon Alexandrine epoch and accom- panied with figures. 247 ODOMETERS. as a sequel to a manuscript to the of the Dioptra of Heron. instead of being obliged to measure land slowly and laboriously with the chain or cord. say. have. eight teeth. TOYS. is true. according to the it the wheels. Let us imagine an apparatus in the form of a box (Fig. Fortunately." Vitruvius (X. but every one will be able to decide between the instrument described here by us and those of our predecessors. previous to us. L— hekok's odometer k()){ vehicles. number of revolutions of made known certain methods of accomplishing the same object. "' vehicles that mark distances and fig- hours. . Upon the bottom of the box rests a is copper face wheel. drawn up by Julius C'apitoliniis in the life of Pertinax. there have been this same subject. fixed hub of oue of the wheels of FIG. ETC. we find mentioned. 14) describes the mechanism of these vehicles. de Rochas: To Measure Distances upon the Surface of the Earth by Means OF AN Apparatus called an Odometer. says M. having. vehicle to it is possible in traveling in a know the distances made. 1) in which is contained the entire machine that we are to describe. Others. In the inventory of tlie objects sold after the death of the Emperor Cornmodus. so that somewhat obscure. The following is a translation. to the In the bottom there an opening in which a rod. Provided with this instrument.

This applies to the second toothed wheel. we shall in an express experiment cause the first screw to revolve until the wheel that This gears with it has made one revolution. and this would be 72. twenty revolutions of tiie face wheel to thirty teeth of the toothed Avheel moved by the screw. pnshes forward one of the teeth. if this new wheel has again thirty teeth (and this is a reasonable number). that it has revolved twenty times wliile the adjacent wheel has made a single revolution. This wheel has thirty tooth. In fact. one of the extremities of which pivots npon the bottom. is not all. will cause the screw fixed to its plane to make one revolution. results that wheel will Whence it when the wheel of the vehicle has made eight revolutions. 180 furlongs. As one revolution of each screw does not correspond with mathematical accuracy and precision to the escapement of one tooth. in making one revolution.G00 cubits. indicates eight revolutions of the wheel of the vehicle. in making one revolution. indicate 7. To this wheel is fixed an axle. Now. causes the motion of one tooth of the Avheel with which it gears. so that the screw carried by the face wheel.200 revolutions of the wheel of the vehicle. after measuring the day's route. every screw. so that it is jirovided with spirals formed in its surbecomes a screw. in making one revolution. while it moves only one tooth of the wheel u]3on which it acts. and a single one of the teeth of the succeeding wheel will be thrust forward. too. consequently. So. is provided with an axle whose extremities pivot against the sides of portion of this axle face. the said toothed wheel. On the other hand. by one of This wheel the box. the longer will be the route that one will be able to measure. or as long as there is space in the box. a screw which. Avhich is replaced by the following one. This screw gears with engages with a crosspiece fixed to the sides of the box. Consequently. the vehicle and engaging at every revohitiou. it will. Let us suppose that the latter is ten cubits in circumference. and is this makers a like number of rev(jlutions of the wlu^el of the vehi- that to say. while the other enters the crossjiiece fixed to the sides. the teeth of a wheel whose plane is perpendicular to the bottom of the box. since one can. the face have made one. by its other extremity. for the moi'e numerous are the wheels and screws. to the center of the latter there is fixed per- its extremities. and if the number of teeth likewise increases. begia A anew for the following route. tlic twenty revolutions allow UK) ieotli of the face Avheel to correspond escape.248 2IAGIC: STAGE ILLUSIONS AND SCIENTIFIC DIVERSIONS. If there are others. for example.000 cubits. cle. This arrangement may be continued as long as may be desired. 1. in revolving once. and so on indefinitely. therefore. a single tooth of the preced- . But it is well to make use of an apparatus so constructed tiiat the distance which it will be able to indicate does not much exceed that which it is possible to make in one day with the vehicle. Let us sup])ose. and this axle likewise carries a screw that gears with the teeth of another wheel placed perpendicular to the bottom. that is to say. ^Yitll this screw there gears a toothed wheel parallel with the bottom of tlie box. the length of the journey that it will be possible to measure will increase proportionally. and shall count the number of times that the wheel will have revolved. pendicularly.

it. H. ETC. Moreover. to which is fixed another and parallel Let us suppose that this pinion gears with wheel. which we its illustrate in Fig. means Me shall see upon the external Were it impossible to pre- vent the friction of the wheels against the sides of the box. and the latter will describe upon the exterior a circle that we shall divide into a of parts equal to that of the teeth of the interior wheel. but that and are squared so as to receive indexes. in starting from ing wheel iutlicates 53 1 cubits. Let us suppose that its thread moves a wheel. when. let us construct a star wheel. has pointed out an arrangement of a different system for measuring the jirogress of a ship. another wheel. 0. of 81 teeth. as some of the toothed wheels are perpendicular to and others parallel with the bottom of the box. that the shall be closed Another engineer. of 100 teeth. In this with its way the v. and again that this pinion engages with a wheel. we shall know by the same the distance that we have traveled. the origin of the motion. E (a pinion). laterally. too. finally the last yl. By this surface of the box the length of the trip made. in other words. probably Graeco-Latin. for one reason or another. say two furlongs. and so on. of 18 teeth. of 100 teeth. AB be a screw revolving in supports. whose perimeter is five Let us suppose it perfectly circular and affixed to the side of a vessel . so that sucli circumference may be divided into parts wider than the This circle should carry the number already interval that separates the teeth. Then let us suppose that this pinion gears with a third wheel. in revolving. we shall write we have spoken are so their axles project externally arranged as not to touch the sides of the box. in order to be able to determine the distance traveled without having to open the box in order to see the teeth of each wheel. Consequently. of 72 teeth. so that wheel carries an index so arranged as to indicate the number of stadia traveled. will be necessary to so manage that the side that carries no circle shall serve as a cover. Z. or. so. 249 Thus. this will indicate 800 cubits. of nine teeth. the circles described by the indexes will be some of it them upon the sides of the box and others upon the box top. upon this same wheel we shall cubits.GREEK LAMPS. K. will cause its axle index to turn. A. 2. which likewise is provided with a pinion. since he expresses distances sometimes in miles and sometimes in stadia. We Let shall describe this apparatus. Now. of 18 teeth. and that to the latter is fixed a pinion. we are going to show how it is possible to estimate the length of the route by means of an index Let us admit that tlie toothed wheels of which placed upon the external faces. marked upon the interval wheel. M.heel. therefore write b'^\^ wheels. it would then be necessary to file them off sufficiently to prevent the apparatus from being impeded in its operation in any way. TOYS. the toothed wheel will have revolved by fifteen teeth. the other hand. Making a similar calculation for the other toothed upou each one of them the number that corresponds to In this way. after we ascertain how many teeth each has moved forward. for example. number The index should have a length sufficient to describe a circumference greater than that of the wheel. On paces.

besides. Odometers. and in 1724 bv this circle. that at every distance of 100 miles made by the vessel the Avheel. then.250 MAGIC: STAGE ILLUSIONS AND SCIENTIFIC DIVERSIONS. M. It is clear. . will make one that of the vessel. in such a upon the surface of the water. 100 parts. one tooth of A. at every revolution of the wheel. that. like so many other things. 2. notably in 1662 by a member of the Royal Society of London. a velocity equal to Let us suj^pose. A.— ODOMETER FOK VESSELS. have been reinvented several times. so that. yl will. way as to have. is divided into mark the made by the number of the degrees. if possible. there advances. revolution. A. the index fixed to of miles in revolving upon number Abbot Meynier. FIG. if a circle concentric with the wheel.

D. and at least one of them appeared first. in the "Scientific American. . tioned the French work This book is of rather more popular interest than the series of ^[r. has written other works on opera houses. a typical English stage New York City. the electrician. Edwin 0. the stage machinist to Mr. . Edward Siedle. with the exception of the ^Metropolitan Opera House and the Auditorinm in Chicago. Mr. The audience really sees a very small proportion of the stage. 189G. In this connection may be men" Trues et Decors. architect. Before describing in commodious stage of the ^Metropolitan Opera House. BEHIXD THE SCENES OF AX OPERA HOUSE. both of which For our descrijition of the English form of theater have features of interest. America is which is the preunfortnnate in having so few the English stage will really great opera houses." beginning January 17.- CHAPTER I. but includes the obtaining of The modern adjuncts of the theater stage. McGielian. It describes the ordinary equipment of the stage. and forms a treatise of great value. stage we are largely indebted to a series of papers by Mr. architect. a few generalities are in order. C. and This valuable series is appearing at irregular intervals for a year and a half. special effects on a large scale. so that the description of answer for most of the theaters and opera houses. for behind the cnrtaiu is an enormous rectangueditor is indebted for courtesies to Mr. William Parry. Sachs.'''' by M. Sachs most ])rofusely illustrated. sions Many of the illu- which are illustrated in the present work are described in it. . to gain an insight into that mysterious world upon the stage which always has such an attraction detail the to opera-goers.BOOK III. * The politan . and. we believe. in the London "'Engineering. Georges Moynet. stage manager of the MetroOpera House to Mr. incidentally." Before describing the ordinary English stage and that of the ^Eetropolitan Opera llonse.* we will consider for a moment decessor of most stages in America. are not neglected. It would be difficult to find anyone who would not like to go behind the curtain of a great opera house to see how realism is given to the performance. Stewart. Sachs. such as hydraulic platforms and bridges. SCIENCE IX THE THEATER. the property master and to Mr.

252

MAGIC: STAGE ILLUSIONS ANJ) SCIENTIFIC DIVERSIONS.
which
is is

lar structure

usually

much

higher than the roof of the auditorium.

rendered necessary in order to raise the hanging scenes up Great space bodily without resorting to the necessity of rolling them up. is also needed for the ropes, pulleys, and other mechanism used for working

This great height

Everything above the arch of the the curtains, drop scenes, and borders. The stage proper is the rectangular platproscenium is termed the " flies." Its width is usually regulated by the form upon which the drama is given. width of the sj)ace devoted to the orchestra. Tliere is considerable sjiace at " each side of the stage for workiug space. It is here that the '' wiug " or " side scenes are stored for the various scenes of the opera, and it is here that the singers and the ballet wait before going before the curtain, through the so-

"entrances" into which the depth of the stage is divided, the number upon the number of wings. the stage runs from the footlights to the rear wall of the buildThe floor of usually last few feet of the stage are not utilized by the performbut the ing, ers, as the scenery is usually painted there in what is called the "paint room." It is here that a platform, called the "paint bridge," was formerly raised or lowered, giving access to all parts of the canvas which was being jiainted. But now the paint frames are usually run up and down, while the bridge remains The stage is divided widthwise into sections, and these sections of stationary. the stage floor can be raised or lowered as desired, and it is also arranged so As that scenes, or portions of scenes, may be dropped down through the floor. the scenes raised upwards have to be taken out of sight, the scenes which are lowered below the stage floor have likewise to disappear from the view This results in deep cellars under the stage. The cellar of the audience. should, of course, be as high as the proscenium aperture through which the audience views the scene; but this is often impossible, and various means This is sometimes manare employed to give a great depth to the cellar. or the ground, but this is ajittomake orchestra, pit, above raising the aged by the theater unpopular with those who jxitronize the galleries, as it necessitates a greater climb; and if the orchestra is depressed below the street level, it This increases requires that the cellar shall be sunk in so much further. tlie difficulty of drainage, and the presence of water may be a constant source
called

of entrances depending

of annoyance.

is

England will now describe a typical wooden stage of the English type. home of excellent stage management, and an English property master is known all over the world by the excellence of his work. In England large
the

We

sums are spent on costly productions, and the arrangements which are provided when the stage is built permit of lightning changes, which are so popular
there.

as those in England,

In this country the question of expense prevents such elaborate fittings There are, of course, important exceptions to this rule. In the commoner English and American stages there has been so little progress that Mr. Sachs notes the fact that there is little difference between "the One reason that the ordiiuiry London stage of 1805 and tlie stages of 1750,"
theatei's

on the continent of Europe have such excellent stages

— stages

in

BEHIND THE SCENES OF AX OPEHA UoVSK.

253

which the ability of the architect and engineer are taxed to the utmost is that they are very largely assisted by subventions from either the government or the municipalities ; so it is little wonder, then, that we have so many splendid
examples of the most modern stages in Europe. In tlie present chapter the word "theater" maybe considered to mean eitiier a theater for the spoken drama or an opera house.

The top
consists of a

of the stage

is

known
trusses.

as the "rigging-loft," or "gridiron,"

and

wooden

or iron stage

composed

beams of the principal roof

A

an open floor laid upon the tieconsiderable weight has to be supported
of

it

h^

'-fAAlhWA

^^V'^IA^^ ^'WHHB| imUHMMMr w.«^,BL'.Rx;ii:-^i^|^ ...^' ,w m 4C1| .^vixv^N
[at

'0

vr.

TOP OF THE GlilDIHOX.

upon this gridiron, for from it depend all the "cloths" (drops), "borders," and "gas battens." The strength of the roof is, therefore, calculated so as to sustain this great weight. In some continental theaters there are two gridirons. The gridiron is also called the rigging-loft on account of the fact that the scenes are "rigged up " by ropes from this floor. The scenes are raised and lowered from this level by means of ropes passing through the spaces in the floor, over blocks witli wheels in them, on to the drum, and thence down
to the "fly floors" below.

This gridiron has some interesting features not possessed by the stage of the Metropolitan Opera House,

Our engravings show the upper and the the Castle Square Theater, in Boston, Mass.

uudev

side of

the gridiron of

254

3IAGIC: .STAGE ILLUSIONS

AND SCIENTIFIC DIVERSIONS.
Opera House

which

will be described a little fnrther on, as at the Metropolitan

there are no Avindlasses ou the gridiron.

The

windlasses are used to raise

heavy weights suspended from the gridiron, and are of the greatest possible It will be seen that use iu aerial ballets and other theatrical performances. the gridiron is in reality nothing but a slatted floor supported by iron girders. The ropes will be seen passing over the pulleys to where they descend, Our secoiul engraving shows the under at regular intervals, to raise the drops. side of the gridiron, and the drops and borders which are suspended from

TUK GKIDIKON FKOM

UNUKIi.NKATll, fSJlOWlNli DltOl"

AND

150KUEK>>.

it.

It gives

an excellent idea of the maze of ropes which hang from the grid-

iron.

The flies consist of galleries, on both sides of the stage, running from tlie proscenium wall to the back wall. The "fly rail " consists of a girder made especially strong, to talce the weiglit and ])ull of the ropes and scenes which are brought down from the gridiron. Each cloth or gas batten hung from the gridiron has four or five ropes by which it hangs, and these are all brought over the jjiilloys in the gridiron floor down to the flies, where they are made fast on belaying-])ins or cleats fixed to the fly rail. The "fly floor" is supported by joists running from the fly-rail girder into the wall of the stage.

BEHIND THE SCENES OF AN OPERA HOUSE.

255

On the fly floor are often placed windlasses used to raise the heavy weights which are suspended from the gridiron. The load is usually relieved by counterweights which are placed agaijist the wall. The counterweights are usually encased, to minimize the danger of accident in case the rope breaks. The " fly galleries " are usually two tiers in nnmber, but in very large theaters there are often three tiers of fly galleries, one above the other. Nearly all the working of the flies is done from one side of the stage. The flies are often connected by a bridge against the back wall of the stage, and sometimes there are intermediate narrow bridges among the scenery. These enable the ''fly men" to cross the stage quickly without necessitating their coming down to
the level of the stage.
struction
is

In modern stages of the better

class, iron

and

steel con-

very largely used for the gridiron,

flies, etc.,

and, of course, tends

to decrease the

danger from

fire.

Nearly
foot,

all of

the older stage floors

fall

three-eighths to one-half inch in a
in

from the back actor or singer as he
stage are numerous,

to the front, in order to enable the audience to see the
retires

" up " the stage; but

are usually level, as then the scenery can be set plumb.

modern The

stages the floors
divisions of the

stage directions,

and include the imaginary divisions called for by the and the actual divisions of the stage into '"traps," "sliders,"

and "bridges."
account of
its

The imaginary

divisions need not concern us here.

In the front and center of the stage

is a trap called the "grave trap," on use in the grave scene of " Hamlet." It is a small wooden plat-

form made to rise up and down in grooves between four uprights. The stage may have other traps. The trap as an aid in stage illusions is referred to in Chapter IV. of Book III. of the present work. In ordinary stages the traps are floored over, and before they can be used a portion of the floor of the stage has to be removed. This is done by releasing a lever and letting the section of the floor drop into a groove and slide under the immovable parts at the side of the stage. The opening left in the stage is filled by the floor of the ascending trap. Back of the grave trap there are three narrow^ strips of openings which are technically called " sliders," then a wider opening which is known as the " bridge." The rest of
the stage
is taken up by alternate bridges and sliders. The sliders consist of narrow strips of Avood which are made to slide horizontally^ right and left, under the stage. They slide in grooves cut in the joists, and are moved backwards and forwards by means of ropes which Avind around windlasses which are operated from the mezzanine floor underneath the stage. A\'hen both sliders are slid away right and left, the open space in the floor and the space underneath is known /is the " cut," and it is in the " cut " that the scenery is placed which is to be raised \\]} from below. Scenes are raised up the "slider cuts" by means of lengths of wood sliding up and down in grooves forming very wide and narrow elevators. The scene is attached to the lower

bar.

The

floor of the
is

bridge

is

like the slider floor in construction; the only
left in the stage Avhen the section

difference

in the

width of the opening

of the floor has

been removed.

To

fill

this space a platform of the

same dimen-

256

31AGIC:

STAGE ILLUSIONS ANU SCIENTIFIC DIVERSIONS.
winch
is left

sions as the opening

in the stage

where the bridge

is

removed

is

used.

The bridge
it

is

used to raise bodily any heavy scene, furniture, or a group
its

of figures, but
\le^^[

only raises

load level with the stage, while some of the

hydraulic bridges, or the counterbalanced rising bridge, wliich we will

There management. The This is the level underneath the stage floor is known as the mezzanine floor. working level for all the traps, sliders, and bridges, and it is on this level that all the windlasses are placed which work the ropes to remove the sliders, bridges, etc. The mezzanine takes the same position regarding the manipulaIn some cases tion of the stage machinery below as does the fly gallery above. The the mezzanine floors are multiplied so that there are three or four. lowest level of the stage is known as the " cellar," or '' well." From the
shortly describe, permit of lifting the part of the scene to any height.

have recently been

many reforms

in this part of

stage

cellar spring the uprights

which support the
is

bottom of the
bridges.

cellar are placed the

In

many

theaters there

joists of the stage floor. At the drums and shafts used for lifting the what is known as the '"back stage." It
flies,

has no movable portion, no gridiron,
useful for distant scenes.

or cellar.

This space

is

most

In the finest stages, as that of the Vienna Court

Theater, the entire cellar is constructed of iron and steel, and everything is worked by hydraulic power. Scenes are not only raised np from the cellar and let down from the gridiron, but are also " bnilt np " on the stage. Such
scenes

may

be only small "profile strips," or they

may

be large constructions

which the heavy foundations called "rostrums" run in on wheels. Where the run of the opera is to be long, sometimes they are built at great expense and are very ingenious; but they always take up considerable room, and require time to adjust. In continental theaters what is called the "chariot and jjole " is largely used. Narrow slits in the stage permit of an upright pole jiassing through it, the scene being fastened to it. The truck, or "chariot," which supj)orts the pole runs on the floor of the mezzanine on rails. This manner of shifting the scenes is sometimes very useful. The chariots can be worked singly or in gangs, and they can be worked simultaneously Avith the borders and the drops, as the ropes which manipulate them can all be brought under the control of one
like a throne, in

drum

or windlass. a stage of the ordinary variety,

Having now described

we

will take

large stage built on conservative lines.

The

stage of the Metropolitan

up a Opera

House is one hundred aiid one feet wide, and the depth is eighty-four feet. The height from the stage to the gridiron is ninety feet, to the first fly gallery thirty-six feet, and the depth of the cellar is twenty-eight feet.

The

stage

is

divided widthwise into four
is

l)i'i(lge.s

which run entirely across

the stage.

Each bridge

divided into four parts, so there are really sixteen
general method of securing the side scenes by

working bridges.
of sliding

The

wings, or side scenes, are held in place by means

scene posts.

The

scene frames and

will be understood l)y reference to the engravings' in the chapter entitled "Fireworks with Dramatic Accessories,"

extension braces

HKtllXD
ill

Ttttl f^CES'P.S

Op AX OPERA

TlOVSiP.

2ot

the present work.

When

not in

u.se,

the wings for the opera are temjio-

rarily piled against the side of tlie house.

scene-rooms.

The

stage proper

there are tliree mezzanine floors,
to raise

At eacli side of the stage are liuge supported ujion an iron framework, and though one only is used. AYhen it is desired
is

any part of the stage above the
is

level in order to represent

broken

ground, or for what
trap door
is

called a

"runway,"

or for any other purpose, a narrow

desired height.

They

at each end of the bridge raises it up to the bridges can be raised to a height of twenty-three feet. are counterweigh ted, so that it requires very little effort to raise them.
lifted

and a man

The

^^^

1

^

F

PLAN OK STAGE OF MKTIJOI'OI.TTAN OI'EWA HOUSE.

It is

considered that with this system the stage can be worked about as well

and quickly as

iu the far more elaborate hydraulic stages, as those of BudaPesth and Chicago; certainly the simplicity of arrangement is a point in its favor, and, being jnirely mechanical, it is not liable to break down at a critical

moment. The simple bridges are not favored by all stage machinists, however. The wing posts slide up and down through the floor and di-op down ibish into it. They are at the ends of the bridges.
In the Metropolitan Opera House no use
is

made

of the cellar for raising

up the

scenes,

as they find

it

overhead, and nothing of the
17

more satisfactory to operate the scenes from London pantomime order is done. The cellar is

BEHIND THE SCENES OP AN OPERA
valuable, however, for storage puri)oses.
stairs,

IIOUSK.

259.

Going up

the visitor arrives at the
is

first fly gallery.

several flights of stone Here, as in the other parts
fire.

of the house, every precaution

taken to guard against

The

floor is of

cement resting upon iron
solidity of everything.

girders,

and the

visitor is

at once struck with the

On each side of the fly gallery is a large iron pipe throngh which passes at freqnent intervals a series of belaying-pins to which All of the drops and borders, as well as the curtain, are secnred the ropes.

STORING SCENES IN THE CELLAR.
are

worked from the left fly gallery. In theatrical parlance, a scene which is lowered to the stage is called a '"drop/' while the scenes which represent the sky are called "borders." The drops at the Metropolitan measure forty-five
by seventy
feet.

cnred at the top.
the ropes

The painted canvases, whether drops or borders, The canvas is hemmed so as to permit of a wooden

are sepole, or

batten, being thrust through

it. This bar is secured by means of clamps to which are to raise the scenes or drops. At the very top of the building, underneath the roof, is what is called the gridiron. Tt is an iron framework which supports the pnlleys over which the ropes run to raise the

2G()

MAGW: STAGE tLLVStONS AND

SCIENTIFIC DIVERSIONS.
scene-droji
is

drops, borders, aud the border lights.
ropes,

Each

supported by

five

and most of the borders are also supported by five These ropes are attached at equal are sometimes used.
length of the scene or border. Each of the five ropes passes over a pulley on
loft.
tlie

ropes,

though three

intervals along the

gridiron, or rigging-

The

ropes are then assembled and pass

down on

the left of the stage to

WORKING FLY
the
first
fly

GAI-LEIIY.

gallery,

where the

fly

men

are located.

In raising or lowering

and are secured to the fly rail by means of the belay ing-pins. Tn all theaters tlie arrangement is not the same as in the Metropolitan in some cases there ai'e two or three fly rails, each provided with belaying-pins. Usually oiie rail will be in front, as shown in our engraving, and the others back and at a slightly higher level. The ropes for the drops, etc., which are not in immediate use, are fastened to the belaying-pins on this rail. The fly men climb up to the second and third fly
a scene, the five ropes are pulled at the same time,
;

galleries

when heavy

scenes are to be raised, and, catching hohl

ol'

tlie

ropes,

descend to the

first fly gallei'y

on the ropes.

BEHIND THE SCENES OF AN OPERA HOUSE.
There were one hundred and eighty
dred
feet,

261

coils of

rope used in the stage machin-

ery of the Metropolitan Opera House, each containing one thousand one hun-

and one thousand

feet of wire rope

light, they being, of course, very heavy.

was required to hang each border Twelve thousand feet of wire rope

was needed for the curtains and border lights. The curtain is raised by hand, by means of a winch using wire ropes.
asbestos curtain
is

An
level

also provided,

and may be dropped instantly from the

of the stage in case of fire, so that the conflagration can be confined to the

" back of the house."

We

present an engraving of a corner of the stage, showing the great switchdesk,

board and the prompter's
])ronipter takes

though, of course, in Grand

Opera the
conduc-

up

his position

under a hood directly

in front of the

il|!l!|!l«li!!!'i!l1!!lll!!l!il!!lill!!ll!lll!ll!i!l!lil!l!lil!lll!ll|llllll!lllil^

ELECTRIC SWITCHBOARD.

tor, just

beyond the

footlights.

This hood can be dropped down under the

stage

when not

in use.

Just before the conclusion of the act the conductor of the orchestra rings

an electric

bell in

the Avorking

fly gallery.

This

is

a signal to the
])roper

fly

man

to

get ready to lower the curtain, for the conductor

knows the exact bar

in the

music at which the curtain should descend.
ductor rings again, and
the curtain
gallery receive the first signal

At the

descends.
is,

When

the

moment the conmen in the fly

— that

the signal to get ready

— they

turn a

switch which lights a colored electric

shown in
position.
tric

lamp directly over the small prompt desk our engraving, where the stage manager or his assistant takes up his When the conductor rings the curtain down, another colored elec-

lamp is lighted on turning on a switch by the men in the fly gallery. Of course, audible signals would not answer. The stage manager or his assistant stands in front of the little desk and orders the curtain up and down, ilependijig upon the a])]>]aiisc of the audience, which governs the appearance of

262
the

3IA0IC:
artists.

STAGE ILLUSIONS AND SCIENTIFIC DIVERSIONS.

little corner very much resembles the interior of the conning Here are speaking tubes and electric bells wjiich connect with all parts of tlie house, from the box office to the cellar. The inscriptions under the bells are as follows: "Prompter," "Stage," "Music-Room," "Wardrobe," "Carpenter," "Engineer," "Office," "Orchestra," "Gas Table," "Thunder,"' "Trap," "Fly," "Property This means of communication for giving orders and Artist," " Box Office." " cues " is very useful; for instance, Avhen the proper moment for thunder has Here is also a arrived, the stage manager pushes the button and it thunders. book upon which is inscribed the exact time of beginning and finishing the

This

tower of a ship.

various acts.

A

door at the right of the desk gives access to the stage in front

of the curtain; there

is a corresponding door on the other side of the house. These doors are very useful, as they enable the artists to appear in response to encores, withoiit raising the curtain, which means loss of time which is much needed in changing the scene. It is a wonderful sight to look through the little Tier upon tier of splendidly clothed peep-hole in the door at the audience. humanity rises up to the family circle at a dizzy height above. The whole is bright and gay, and is very different from the practical world behind the stage, where stand the stalwart stage hands ready for their duties; but, after all, the world behind the stage has a charm which even the casual visitor willingly

admits.

The

electric lighting of the

Opera House
is

is

very interesting, the switchboard

especially.

It is believed to be the finest theater

switchboard in the world, and

cost a good-sized fortune.

It

known

as the
is

Kelly-Cushing switchboard.

From

the switchboard every light in the house

controlled both in front of and

behind the curtain.

Of course, the necessity

of arranging all the lights used

upon the stage
board.
if

so that the colors

may be changed,

greatly complicates the switchall

It is

arranged so that the operator can move

the rheostats at once,
of the lights.

desired, thus producing a gradual brightening or
is

dimming

This

done by the large lever

at the right of the switchboard.

Underneath

will be seen the fuses.

At the

right will be noticed a

number

of small switches.

These control the jnlot lights which are fastened at the top of the switchboard. These pilot lights show the exact condition of every light both in the house and on the stage; and the electrician, who has absolute control over all the lights from the great switchboard, can see at a glance what lights he has on, whether The footlights, Avhich are red, blue, yellow, or white, and their brightness. between the conductor and the curtain, are provided with fifty candle-power The drop scenes, and especially the borders, are lighted by means lamps. of what are called border lights. The border lights consist of a batten which runs clear across the stage and which is suspended from the gridTlie batten is backed with a tin reflector. iron by means of wire ropes. There are two hnndrod and thirty-four lamps in each of the border lights, which are eight in nuiubor. The electric lamps are of thirty-two candlepower, and arc arranged alternately in coloi's of red. Avliito, l)luo. and yellow. It is, of course, [)ossiblc for two of the colors to he tui'UfMl on at once if (k-sired.

even to the are stored in the cellar House is used for balls. is little wonder that under this intense light the ordinary and artifice is required to come to the aid of nature. or tlie side opposite to the working fly gallery. are eighteen arc- light projectors. fly The border gallery. The whole stage and orchestra are The Opera House does not have its boarded over. The wings are "bunch They lights. they have a ground-glass front. the effects Much of the lighting depends on being determined upon at the rehearsal. They are provided in the four colors already mentioned. It is believed that there is less risk of a breakdown or from fire than if an Electricity is i. lights are usually maintained at a height tlie just above the first In case of any breakdown in electrical system. \Ylien the house Avas rebuilt after the fire. running the ventilating fans and the elevators.sed in many of the effects and for isolated plant was provided. making a superb ballroom. as many as a thousand incandescent lights maybe going on the stage at one time. in addition to the arc-light projectors already referred to. It is all obtained from the street circuit. the burners being the border lights the same as the electric lights." several incandescent lights being placed in front of a reflector. gas is provided for the borders and the footlights. but it may be jtlayed . wdien thrown on him. Gas may also be had for use In some operas. nine to the side. and are of sixteen called ''side lights. the electrician carrying the lighting in his mind. There paled." when Wotan appears in the mouth of the cave. The electric light can be obtained at nearly all parts of the stage from boxes which are proin various effects. which when not in use. vided with an iron cover." the old calcium lights. Rubber tubes which furnish the supply of gas are attached on the same side At the sides of the proscenium opening are what are as the electric cal^le. complexion is There are about all nine thousand incandescent lights in the entire house. Any degree of brightness 263 may be obtained by maniinilating the rheostats on the switchboard. lie strikes the stage with his spear. are supported by a standard. in the first act of "Siegfried. cellars. and two of them are provided take the place of with lenses and are called '"lens boxes. at the side of the border liglits. "cues. although they are not used at one time. Fp in the first fly gallery." secured to the battens of candle-power.BEHIXD THE SCENES OF AN OPERA HOUSE. the gas table made way for the the Opera When switchboard. in the first fly gallery on the right. this is the signal for light being turned on him with a projector. and are better and lighted by what are called more economical. and further on. splendid chandeliers are used. white light is The organ electrical itself is fixed The organ at the ^letropolitan Opei-a House is interesting. own plant for generating electricity. seven of which are Avhat are called "open These arc liglits boxes. The complicated gas plot is not used at the present time at the Opera House. Every part of the house is beautifully lighted. They are one hundred in nimiber." thus. Tbe cables for furnif^hiiig tlie electricity for the border lights are attached lii'st at the level of the ily gallery on the right side."" that is.

ami furnishes a means of communication lictween the two flv galleries. of the stage. is A fireman on the stage at Axes and flre-hooks are disposed at frequent all the performances. Every precaution is taken to guard against fire. a At the extreme right of the stage is the organ wished to use the organ either for rehearsal or for a perkeyboard is raised by the trap and carried to any part of the is large cable carrying the wire whicli rnns up to the organ. The tion to the audience. paint bridgi. sprinklers are in intervals. all of the rooms.264: JfAGIC: STAGE ILLUSIONS AND SCIENTIFIC DIVERSIONS. The . from any part trap. and automatic PAINTING SCENERY FROM THE PAINT BRlDCiK. This arrangement gives great satisfaction. is a \\n\o. 'I'hc or the stage. When tlie it formance. which once played such havoc with the Opera House. and the men are asbestos curtain affords absolute protec- carefully trained in a fire drill. stage. It may be di-o])])('(l cither from the lowered at night as a precaution. ])lutl'orni at tJic Irvel of tlic first fly gallery. Lines of hose are on every floor. as even a fire of the most serious character time for all flies in the '' back It is of the house" would give the most ani[)lo of the audience to get out comfortably.

and in tlie next room will be found the head of a camel Avhich winks his eyes. but lights. and for every new opera the property master is obliged to devise new properties and new effects for which he has often no precedent. Then canvas to represent the ground is placed over the front of the stage and u}) over the broken ground. while in a case lighted by electricity are the make such an effective appearance when on the stage. Here will also be found a model of the old dragon which was burned up iji the fire. everything depends upon invention." the dragon in " Siegfried. The which visitor Avill is probably be surprised to see the enormous cpiantity is of color used in painting scenery. as with stage carpentry. etc. everything is arranged so that the error can be remedied with the smallest loss of time. breastplates. . it will be seen that there is a great chance of forgetting something.. the men raise the trap doors and. The fly men raise the drops and the borders out of the way. reaching underneath the bridges. Under the property master's charge are modelingrooms and carpenter shops. spears. while the men on the stage take away the movables and the set scenes. crowns. or the '' Rheingold. anvil. the stage machinist blows a sharp blast on his whistle. AVhen it is considered that the size of the objects varies from the dragon to a pack of cards. by incandescent can also be The production of a new opera necessitates the making of large quantities of scenery. the Lohengrin swan. If rising ground is to be made. so that they may be brought to their proper place without a moment's delay.BEHIND THE SCENES OF AN OPERA HOUSE. casques. haul them up to the jiroper height and secure them with 2)ins. 'J'he wing scenes are unfastened and are placed at the sides of the stage temporarily. etc. They are carefully stowed away convenient to the stage. When the curtain falls for good after the encores. Hung up on one side of the wall is an elephant's head with a trunk which is freely flexible. The armory The property-rooms is a room containing a vast collection of helmets. On the paint bridge long tables covered with large earthenware dishes in which the paint kept. and as if by magic all the singers and the chorus who have not gone already. At the Metropolitan the liglited artificially painted by daylight. but should this occur. which seen . lanterns. while the new set scenes are brought out and take their place. In here are also stored the shields and weapons which the great artists use when they impersonate Northern gods and warriors." which will be described in another chapter. the color scenery is mixed with a it size. or upon it. canvas which are is is 265 to be painted is run up the side of the paint bridge. The scenic artist thus has access to all parts of the canvas. " while under the second fly gallery will be seen the parts of "Fafner. his forge. Rocks and trees of papier waclie and canvas are brought in and placed in position. Here you may see Siegfried's Wotan's spear. swords. and their places are taken by a swarm of stage hands. daggers. If any things like chandeliers are used. The day on which the opera is to be performed the property master gets out all of the things which will be needed in the production. leave the stage. are most interesting. With properties. ropes are dropped from the gridiron to splendid jewels.

favored visitor allowed to walk around in this The new world without being flies molested. the prompter. At the present time celebrated artists are often engaged to make drawings of the scenes and costumes. but also of the patient care which has been bestowed upon the opera liim. Tlie results obtained for spoken dramas by Mr. but this is not always the case. and E.'^ vol. or the set scenes straightened until all and able All of this to pass the critical eyes of tlie is stage manager." by E. After any one has viewed the of the entr'acte. in the ''Century. and it must be remembered that the artists are frequently the canse of the delay. When every- and the proper time has arrived. and the opera as seen from the floor of the stage or from the " is " a sight never to be forgotten. jieasants. Frank Millet and Mr. 11.266 secure MAGIC: STAGE ILLUSIONS AND SCIENTIFIC DIVERSIONS. done without confusion. of course. It might naturally be supjjosed that all is now quiet at the back and sides of the stage. calls are sent to so carefully every man trained in his duties. and for interesting examples the reader is referred to "Pictorial Art on the Stage. ballet are. chorus. Then the various dressing-rooms. for months by the stage manager and those wlio have helped company decides to produce a new opera the who are charged with the construction of scenery. and the chorus or " supers " are brought out and placed in position. AV. according to the music. Blashfield. the stage and gives an order are iu order The stage machinist stands in the middle of now and then to some of the men. seuse nervously is 2^i"icticing her stejas Avith the master of the ballet. The tlie When director of the opera libretto is given to those examples of chronological errors Avhich might be cited are almost eiulless. of those and Few who hear is the first production of a new opera realize that the successful performance the result not only of the singing of celebrities and perfect orchestration. '^rhey first consult l>ooks of costume and woi'ks bearing upon the i)eriod which is to be illus- . Northern gods. them at the proiier height. from his little box under the stage. gives a signal which is transmitted to the fly men. or the inemiere danthing is in readiness. The first thing to be avoided is the gross anachronisms which are so often seen upon even the stages of first-class theaters. ^Ji'od notion of an elaborate opera from behind that the elaborate scenes can be gotten the scenes he will never again be in the slightest degree annoyed by the length The only wonder is ready in the fifteen or twenty minutes which elapse between the falling of the curtain at the close of one act and the raising of the curtain at the beginning of the next act. and properties. xxxv. the wings and the stage back of the last drojj are filled with those Avho are to go on next. but often the them up attractively. The dressing-rooms for the supers. If artists are not engaged to do the work it is enirusted to carefully ti'ained spociiilists. artists fix The dressing-rooms at the Metropolitan are not luxurious. who wind away on the windlasses and raise the curtain. the scenes and machinist and the is the drops and borders are raised or lowered. and one may encounter Sicilian bandits. Hamilton Bell are noteworthy. costumes. large.

work to prepare All possible care must be taken to insure are brought into when the costumes and scenery fifty costumes must be made for a single opera.. necessary. all have to be most carefully considered. but we shall endeavor to give a few examples in the next chapter of how some of proper dressing-rooms. and are modified from time to time. the projoer effects of color juxtaposition. "We have not space to go into the subject of rehearsals and how the final production of the opera is accomplished. an annual subvention of 8U0. It is naturally to be supposed that j)npier mncJ/eand plaster of paris are two of the most valuable adjuncts of the property master's art. and placed All repairs are garments before which are required for an opera is frequently several hundred. the properties. etc. and they are of all sizes. brushed. It is really Avonderful to the layman to see how many things have to be taken into consideration in modeling a scene. to say nothing of the remarkable salaries of the singers. and scenery. and the difficulties of setting the scenes. as well as arrangements for traveling on the road. the music. is taken to foster the opera. so that the costume-rooms of an opera house resemljle a mammoth dressmaking and tailoring establishment.0U0 francs. tied if 267 These matters are discussed by the director. from finger rings to immense constructions which require the united efforts of a dozen me?i to move them. The number of persons npon the stage. the government allots In Paris. projierties. Probably nothing it] the way of an opera requires such Yankee ingenuity as does the office of property master. the cost of properties. effects. then the set to whole force at the disposal of the stage manager costumes. trated. the scenery. formance in tlie the costumes required must be gotten out. Opera is such an education to music lovers that it is unfortunate that it cannot receive such financial aid from the state that its success under good management will be Before taking up the minor stage called assured. It is no small task to Before each perall Frequently over two hundred and preserve the thousands of costumes from dust and moths. then stage effects in which the entire stage is required for the production of a certain effect. Little scenes are made for it of pasteboard. Finally the miniature stage with all its properties is is fully equipped. as well as those which might be ' theater secrets. lighting. to the made putting them away again. as required. On the Continent every care we believe. They are placed in position. really warrants the exaction of what are seemingly high prices. . and carefully 2)ainted. The number of properties the effects are produced.BEHIND THE SCENES OF AN OPERA HOUSE." we will first describe some interesting old stages. In leaving the subject of opera it is only fair to say that the enormous expense attending the maintenance of the opera house itself. and the designs are modiThe scenic artist is then called in to sketch and model He lias a miniature stage on the scale of half an inch to a foot.

F. held by a rope which passes around a drum. in a ballet called "Ze Reve'''' (The Dream). width. which pass oyer pulleys. as in place of a this enables drop curtain.half and three and one-half believe. The inunuuvering apparatus is readily . ANCIENT AND MODERN. Three different velocities in descent velocity of descent is five and two in ascent are obtained. at the upper part. A and 1^. by means of the motor. In Japanese ballets a large fan is sometimes used and in some of the Paris cafes: a fan is also used. sticks. o. are ])rolonged beneath the upon in order to axis of rotation. that to say. 9aise. the curtain being raised as required. and wind round a wooden drum. This was. It is C! The two extreme and D. They are connected by strips of canvas of the sainc. There are in all ten sticks that revolve around the same axis (letter K in our second engraving). but the sticks are two stoi'ies high. and the two center ones. We present an engrav- ing showing the fan at the Paris Opera House. we which were w'orked by electricity. iron which connect one with tlie other. THE FAN-DROP CURTAIN. B. feet per There have been many since. and minimum is three feet five inches. D. them to make evasion of the law relating to theatrical perfornumces. an oidiiiary fan. AVe present au engraving of the electric drop scene of the Comedie FranThe curtain is held by five ropes. The two and one. a counterpoise. the medium is three feet six inches. at Paris. to which motion is given in one direction or the other in order to cause the curtain to rise or descend. AN ELECTRIC CURTAIN. assures It is an easy matter to maneuver the curtain an equilibrium at every point.CHAPTER IL SOME EEMARKABLE STAGES. The maximum feet per second. the 2>ioiieer of all theater curtains velocities of ascent are respectively second. n. It scarcely differs in principle from is twenty-three feet in length. Such motion is obtained by the aid of a belt connected with an electrical shunt motor. these four sticks only that are acted Othoi's |»arti('i]):it(' in Ihcir motion through arcs of open and (dose the fan.

MEDIK KKAN(.aI!<E.ELKCTIilC DKUl' SCKNK OK THE (O. .

— VIKW OK THK FAN AT THK I'AKTS OPEKA HOU8E. FIG. first under the closed. moreover. In the middle of the stage. stage. act it is mounted vertically. all upon the behind the streamer which completely hides the maneu- AIM'AlJATrs FOli ver. which .270 MAGIC: STAGE ILLUSIONS AND SCIENTIFIC D I V IJRSloNS. one at each windlass. The is fan is the work facilitated by the use of cables. the ropes from the four working The fan is arranged in advance sticks of the fan running over windLasses. MANEUVEUINO THE FAN. 1. manipulated by two men. provided with counterpoises. understood by reference to our engraving.

each of which would be capable of supjiorting the entire structure. The cables are concealed behind a decoration repre- senting foliage which hides the edges of the fan. but this was done by jMr. Secured to this saddle is a hoisting cable attached to a hoisting drum. with traps and guides and wind- New York The first lasses for raising the traps. ANCIENT AND MODERN. and the entire structure is moved by four men at the winch.SOME REMARKABLE STAGES. top stage is about six feet. the stage hands are setting the scene on the stage above. The whole construction is fifty-five feet high and twenty-two feet wide and thirty-one feet deej). The movement is effected without sound. . The car is suspended at each corner by two steel cables. and knitted together with truss-beams above and below. in 1869. These cables pass upward over sheaves or pulleys set at different angles. which shows a remarkable advance in stage management. present an engraving of the theater stage of the jVEadison Square The- City. The stages are moved up and down in a comjmct. This enables the stage hands to get one scene ready while the other one is in view of the audience. A vertical movement of the structure or car is twenty-five feet two inches at each change. and substantially bound by tie and tension rods. two-floored structure of timber strapped with iron. which are suspended from the saddle to which the cables supporting the stage are attached. Nelson Waldron. or vibration. who elaborated the system and obtained a patent on it. and thence downward to a saddle to which they are all connected. We ater. are 211 hooked above to the four principal sticks and pass over guide pulleys placed in a semicircle. and weighs about forty-eight tons. jar. Only about forty seconds ai'e required to raise or lowei' the stage in i)osition. The shaft through which the huge elevator moves up and down measures one hundred tind fourteen feet from the roof to the bottom. by the rotation of which the stage is raised or lowered. and is operated so that either of its divisions can be easily and quickly brought to the proper level in front of the auditorium. the stage machinist. The space for operating the windlass uiuler the Our illustration shows that while the jilay is pro- ceeding before the audience. and each stage has its own trap floor. The stage in the theater we refer to is moved up and down in the same manner as an elevator car. owing to the balancing of the stage and its weight with counterweights. AN ELEVATOR THEATER STAGE. The borders and border lights are supplied to each of the movable stages. movable stage is probably that which the late Steele Mackaye patented The details of Mackaye's patent were not completely worked out.

.. NKW YOIiK ( ITY.STAdK UK TIIK MADISON SC^IJAUK TIIKATKK.

historical effects in imitation of natural of with sjiecial reference to the proper presentation as. and Mr. or guideways. and to whom we have already referred in reference to the elevator stage. unfortunately. lessen the time of the waits between the scenes. Mackaye's idea was to increase realism in the jierformances. ran on tracks or floated on tanks. and. and nearly all of the them at all. literature of the subject does not consider to the fact that in 'J'his is probably owing many cases the inventions have been i)lanned" out on so large a scale they can hardly bo nsed. .si.BOME REMARKAbLE STAGES. were to be moved over a track which was really a segment of a circle. the discovery of America by Columbus or the burning Rome by Nero. production of perspective moving scenic the scenic arrangements course. of and properties or persons. Electric luotors and moving stages over the curved tracks. Ample facilities were to be provided for the use of vessels. be of Ilis invention consisted primarily of the combination of movable stages adapted to support and carry The building might. in such a manner as to give the effect of the actual occurrence. Unfortunately In this brief. many important ami l)rilliant inventions made by Americans has been overlooked. only on paper." con. To end he devised means for producing various scenic or other scenery. ^ve cannot help but admire the genius of such men as Mackaye. important or other events. where there were four concentric stages. It will be remembered that the unfinished building was just outside the lower end of the Fair gronnds. Steele World's Fair at Chicago. properties. 273 SOME REMARKABLE AMERICAN STA(iE The fact that there have been relating to stages 1 \ \ EM'loNS. liis arrangements permitted of the exhibition of various occurrences. either on land or water. mentioned. or cars. distant Thus. Macka3"e devised an adjustable proscenium openijig to meet the variBack of the proscenium arch was a series of ous requirements of the drama. near and moving objects were to be moved at different rates of speed for the effects. as they might be termed. or persons. ANCIENT ANT) MODERN. stages which could be made in any desii'ed shape and fitted to support and carry They were provided with rollers or wheels and scenes. These stages. whose inventions in this line were most remarkable. of for instance. the cars could be driven at any rate of S])eed. and. In order As already to save space the cars were so arranged that they would telescopic. they usually exist Still. thus. any desired form a proscenium wall or arch was to be provided. the one the furthest away from the audience could ' cables Avere to haul the moved much slower than the one nearest the spectators. Mr. AVe now purpose to describe one of the most gigantic affairs that was ever devised for It was intended for the " Spectatorium "' at the obtaining scenic effects. at the same time. in 1803. produced by what was known as a " wave maker. the scheme Avas not carried out.-iing of a plate pivoted to a reciprocating frame which Avorks in guideways Waves were 18 to be . the various tracks be on which ran the scenic car being arranged so that they could be flooded without interfering with the moving of the scenes.

sluices. The cloud cloth any suitable material. and a motor in the dome over the scene would permit of the currents of air descending. effects Mr. A whole series of the " nebulators. stiff gale.'SlONS. The rotary motion was to be imparted to the blades to force the water through the clninnel and thereby produce a cnrreut. The air could also be sent through flexible tubes. also. Powerful electric fans were to be provided for the purpose of forming currents of air for producing the effect of a gale of wind blowing in either direction. as each w. or cloud shadows moving over land and water. Rain was provided for by a series of perforated or a hard pii^es connected with a water supply. connected by a pitman rod to the crank wheel or shaft of an electric motor. and gates were to'be provided to cause the water to flow from one channel into The current was to be made by spiral blades or archimedean screws another. was to be lowered into another tank. The audience could see nothing of the mechanism. the high lights not needing to be emphasized as in ordinary scene painting. ascending. jonrnaled in proper supports and geared to electric or other suitable motors. could be painted in their natural color. which was suspended from the fly galleries and the roof." and fog and rain producers was arranged for. on which may be placed various cloud effects or forms. within clianuel bars. This trough." or " nebulators. that it could be guided in any desired directioii. thereby imitating clouds moving through the sky. the patent drawings showing six. conduits." " umbrators. What he termed "' cloud creators. from which light may pass through the trans])arent or semi-transparent material on which the cloud effects or shadows are placed so as to cast the shadows upon the scenic arrangements or sky foundations. for prodncing atmospheric upon the stage. slacking the lime. Mackaye had several other devices. or moving in a rotary course. Channels.214 fitted MAGlV: STAdl'J ILIA'SJONS AND SCIhJNTlFK! I)J \ KJ. These pipes were to cross the stage. or a cyclone could be produced. so as to move in proximity to an illuminating coloring device. When it was desired to give the effect of waves upon the surface of the water contained in the reservoir of the foundation floor of the scenic department which overspreads this department to sufficiently conceal the tracks in the water channel. being secured to the fly galleries. with Mr. " It was a stage appliance which was intended to prevent the audi- may . -vvliich are secured to plates forming a canal conThe wave plates were to be nected with the curved water ways or channels. ^lackaye's system of lighting. the wind-making permitting of the lifting or the dissipating of the fog. or produce the effect of moving clouds upon a sky foundation consist of or other surface.'is masked by borders. j\Iackaye was ])leased to term a "luxauleator. Another curious inventio)i is what Mr." consisted essentially of a clond cloth having the cloud forms of shadows placed thereon and adapted to move in front of an illuminating lamp so as to cast the cloud shadows over the landscape or scenic arrangement. The scenes. the wave maker could be set in motion by the operator or prompter turning on the current to the motor. the cloth being secured to a sliding frame or fitted over rollers. so that a gentle rain shower could be jiroduced. The fog producer consisted of a trough containing lime. and thus forming a fog. so that the effect of a a hurricane. so.

The top of the tiers of seats opens on to a wide promenade which connects with enade is building over the stage.. The moving stairway in case of accident is automatically locked with and into the solid portion of the stairway. but the light is arranged to move iu the same manner as the sun. and. The pit can also be used for a circus ring.VARh'ABLE STAGES. as the auditorium. Claude L.SOME JiE. American inventors. so that will not be are There no borders or overhead scenery. to cause the lights The proscenium opening on the scenes to be the same as in nature. set in backings or phiced in the form of a border or other suitable arrangement around the proscenium opening so as to tlirow the space in the rear of the opening into complete shade while flooding of the opening. The space underneath the tracks in which the stage runs being used as an arcade. the light in the auditorium renders it unnecessary to extinguish when removing it or shifting stage In can never be said that America is behind England and the Continent in the matter of stage business. and the inventions of iMackaye are representative ones of a whole class of scenery. curtain and so crossing each other and blending in intercept all sight of anything that may be placed or By this means the ordinary drop it may be dispensed with. tlie other space. Avater This entrance is provided with a lock gate which can be closed. so that the cistern or pit can be tilled with for aquatic purposes. broad stairway. or used for a standing audi- ence or promenade. acts or movements of the actors behind the when it was desired to shift or rearrange Tlie invention consisted of a series of lights. Hagen. the center may be occupied by an electric fountain. the invention provides for a building preferably of circular form. and the circular stage surrounds the entire auditorium. connected with drawbridges to the stairways on the exterior of the building. their work was perhaps not is so brilliant as Another interesting theatrical construction that of Mr. ANCIEyT AXD MODERX. surrounded with large cylinders of glass so covered as necessary to resort to the scene painter's art to give light and shadow. or can be filled with chairs. eiice 27o from witueissiiig the operations or t]ie {)roscenium opening between stage scenery. reflectors. From series of the edge of the pit rise the tiers of seats and boxes in a similar form to that of the Coliseum at Rome. ]\Iackaye's view of Mr. the master nuichinist of the Fifth Avenue TJieater. in the center of which is a circular pit or cistern provided with an entrance which may be used by carriages and persons on foot. is at one end of the circular building. This was tried in a model and was found to be satisfactory. remarkable invention. etc. revolving into the empty space underneath the tiers of seats and boxes. thereby forming an . Xew York City. there being similar exits midway of the aisle. horse show. with rays of liglit. The stage is designed to permit of a it tableaux or pictures being built permanently. behind the jiroseenium on the portion of the Entrance to this prommade by means of endless traveling stairways which form parts of a a roof garden or rafe aisle. at the same time. connection with the lower portion of the tiers is by means of stairways at the foot of each aisle. in front such a manner as to moved in the shaded portion of the stage. although his. In brief.

and this is succeeded by scenes of the voyage. this Avill ])ublic has been demanding more and more realistic Managers have found great difficulty in satisfying demand. The whole plan seems to have great flexibility. a hurdle or other race. America appears. acts. and the return journey made. and at such a speed as to keep Thus. preparing the stage for each performance will be saved. Goethe. for at the termination of the scene the electric the entire stage is rotated. or even a fox hunt. A EEVOLVING STAGE. of the revolving stage consists of a tank filled with water. the whole course the horses in view through tl)e proscenium opening. disappears from view. far The arrangement where for the stage is of great interest. For some years past the representations of plays.. then the coast of etc. and the labor and time which is expended in realistic more real earth. waterways. These delays are bad enough between the but in plays waits be- or operas which necessitate changes of scene during the acts. ample means course. while on the raised rear stage different scenes succeed one another. the scenes can be built in the most elaborate manner. reversed. bringing into view his ship. so that marine scenes with ships and boats can be produced. this added realism will prove of great value.276 MAGW: STAGE ILLUSIONS AND SCIENTIFIC DIVERSIONS. and many of the works of as Scliiller. trees. and the stage can be used as a race track. and this is followed by Of course. and other scenery moving in the most natural manner. as a spectacular performance. and it is to be hoped that at some time one of these interesting buildings will be built. walls. motors or other sources of power are put into motion." in which the front part of the stage remains unchanged. Then the floating branch of the tree is discovered. For example in case a drama of "Columbus" was to be produced. the movement of the stage can be the journey into the interior. Columbus is discovered bidding his friends fareweU on the shores of Sj)ain he then gets into his boat. . owing to the time required to set elaborate scenery. and the next scene is moved in front of the prosce- nium aisle. fences. Where a piece is to have a long run. of egress. and the The land then stage is caused to slowly revolve. many of them divided This difficulty has been sometimes avoided by the use of an elevating stage such as we have just described. and are Shakespeare become well nigh monstrosities. can be shown to an audience. The circular stage platform can at any time be cleared of all its appurtenances. with the fences. as is. then the disembarkment takes place. : A portion . into interminable acts aiul scenes. storms. etc. of a steeple chase. or by the so-called '' Sliakcs})eare stage. and the effect of can be used. The public not stand long waits. whicii are often sufficient to cause the failure of a play or opera. being caused to move in a direction opposite to that in which the horses run. the come well nigh unbearable .

.NUE FKUM TlIK THIRD TO TUE FOUKTH SCENE OF THE FIltST ACT OF " DON Jl AN.CHA.

and. many people with a device used on Japanese stages. . " but this arrangement has Juan. it would be cleared and set for the first scene of the The any desired scene can be set on the turning stage. so that four different scenes are set on the other same time. is This the regarded as eminently nnsatisfactory. — . Mhieh show the stage set for tlie third and fourth scenes of tlie first act of *• ])on Juan.\'t act is presented to the audience. thorough transformation of the stage as the royal stage in tion of The manager of Munich made a practical and successful test of the inven- Herr Lautenschlager.— 278 MAGIC: STAGE ILLUSIONS AND SCIENTIFIC DIVERSIONS. Much more of the artistic element enters into the setting of a stage of this kind than of a stage that is set on straight lines. The reader will understand the above al'tei. As sliown l)y the ])lan." When it associated only a superficial resemblance to the revolving stage we are considering. the mechanical director Bavaria. which is thirty-two feet nine inches wide. all four first scenes can be jn-epared beforehand. manager of book setting forth his ideas in regard to the then existed. or platform. or how it would appear if darkness did not scenes need not be limited to representations of closed rooms. which consists of a revolving platform in the center of the stage. It turns on rollers that run on a circular track is the revolving mechanism is driven by electricity. Difficulties will occur only when two scenes requiring great depth for instance. In case three changes Avere required in one tion of the stage occupied by the first scene had been turned away from the next act. and the scene desired for the ]ie. two landscapes witli distant views follow one another. If a scene set on the quarter circle presented to tlie audience of considerable depth —something similar can be arranged on the opposite side on the stage at the — perhaps a closed room of the platform whicli opens to the rear of the stage. if necessary. ji^blished a it Munich Theater. as well as quarters. audience. This circular platform diameter." The third scene shows Don Juan's gardeji. The revolving of the Royal Theater of stage was used in a representation of Mozart's " Don the nature of the invention first became known. But llerr Lautenschlager has shown that even these difficulties can be overcome by setting the scene along the radius of the circular stage so that the portion used decreases considerably toward the rear. Our large illustration shows iiow this change is accomplished. a similar device being employed in America and England for displaying "living pictures. The arrangement nsed at the Court Theater at Munich is is essentially as follows: On the ordinary stage floor is placed a revolving disk. This is changed to the liall in wliicli tiic first act closes. requiring a different setting for each act. is For a play of four acts. and so on at the act. wliicli fifty-two feet five inches in raises the floor slightly. and presents not quite a quarter of a circle to the pi'oscenium opening. Baron von Perfall. the whole stage can be used the same as any ordinary stage. and at the end of the act the stage turned a quarter of a circle (which requires about ten or eleven seconds). after tlie por- end of each act. and in this way he gains the entire depth of the stage for another scene. (!onsideral)le de[)th was retjuired for this sceiu". in which the peasants invited to i\\o fete gather and the maskers meet.an examination of the accompanying ])lans.

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but. It certainly seems to contain the germ of Herr Lautenschlager's inin 1883. was thoroughly educated as an engineer. wonld meet the most exacting requirements of the present age." A revolving stage was patented by an American. and equi])ped with electrical driv- ing devices. each of which rests on the plunger of a hydraulic press. constructed of iron. '^Phe old clumsy timberwork set pieces aiul the building uj) of scenes is avoided. Needham. — — tlic fl(!xibility of a series of divided bridges such as are uscmI at the Metropolitan OjxTu Ifouse. It will be readily seen that by this means a stage manager has at his disposal a very effective aid in setting a large scene. etc. are worked in various ways. THE ''ASPHALEIA" STAGE.tion. Mr. J. so that it can be raised and lowered either independently or simultaneously with the rest of the traps in that division the whole of the floor can be raised or lowered as desired. Each section of the floor of the stage can be fixed in an oblique position. Before the garden had completely would be visible. Charles A. with all the life and motion.5280 MAGIC: STAOE ILLUSIONS AND SCIENTIFIC DIVERSIONS. The inventor of this stage. with ])erfect safety. The " under machiuery " the traps. A A different scene was set upon each. b:ilconies. prevail wlien the stage was being turned. The stages were rectangular and ing a circle which was capable of turning. facing each scene in turn. bridges. disapjieared. or even a sliip. Herr Lautenschlager's plan in the JVIunich Theater gives ground hope that it will soon be adopted in other theaters. and the traps can bo arranged one after the other so as to form a succession of steps. New ^'oi'k. and tlie method of working is in many ways an ideal one. the dancers. The hydraulic ii-ajts jicrniitol' the easy representation . invented arrangement in wliich the conditions of the revolving stage In the center of a circular building were five andifcoriums formare reversed. A The stage of this kind. a portion of the liall — — tlieater. in a moment. after all. chariots. a)iil without previous pi'epara. and the auditoriums were turned. Mexican. there is a whole series of traps worked by hydraulic These traps are capable of raising a whole section of the stage if desired. of the City of Mexico. and has had so much experience in the management of the mechanical devices of different theatres that he is admirably fitted to plan a thoroughly practical stage which meets the entire approval of those interested in "stage reform. success of for the vention. In the so-called " Asphaleia" stage in which each trap goes right across the stage and is divided into three parts. bridges. llcrrera y Gutierrez. Karl Lantenschlager. and the gaily dressed crowd of guests. does not seem to possess In some theaters power. in 1892 a theatrical siiri'ounded the auditoriums. and they are as accessible and as easily managed as in the ordiThe overhead work is about the same as in any other modern iron nary stage.

SUOWI>'G UYDKAULIC TKAPS AND HORIZON.THE "ASPUALEIA" STAGE. .

gas battens . in view arranged so that entire scenes can be raised and lowered through the It is possible to raise slides simultaneously. like the canvas in a cyclo- rama. which strengthens the jiossibility of ilhision and gives a chance for a far more picturesque arrangement than is permitted on the plain The trap arrangement of the " Asphaleia " stage should be ordinary stage. possible to represent boundless plains or the illimitable expanse of the sea. of the audience. and from the clouds to a sky heavy with thunder. and it is quite in ordinary theaters. E. regarded as something more than a mere arrangement of traps. The horizon. which runs from the back of the stage and up each side for quite a distance. In order to produce the effect of an unbroken surface the corners are rounded off very carefully so AVith this systhat the eye of the s2)ectator is not brought up by the wings. of course. it In our engraving stage it is will be noticed that the horizon Avith is represented by a can- vas background like a panorama. Another very important feature of the '' Asphaleia" stage is the system of and footlights arc dispensed with. whole area scene. the nature of the sky during the action of the play or opera. The fire curtain is also actuated by a hydraulic cylinder fixed to the middle of Valves are provided in various parts of the stage. In the "Asphaleia" theater there is a special arrangement of the proscenium. is In the "Asphaleia" theater the back of the the opening of the proscenium. which perthe fire curtain. For detailed information concerning the splendid stages at Halle. a complete scene representing a room. tem it is no longer necessary to use so much rock and tree work. and tends not only to minimize the danger of fire. ()])iiii«)ns seem to be very much divided as to its niei'its. The hydraulic stage of the Chicago Audito- rium is a fine example of good hydranlic work. but also to insure the safety of the workmen and artists. which is almost entirely fireproof. it is a most interesting example of the most modern form of entJ^ineeriny' talent beins devoted to the buildint. which gives the same impres- The horizon is carried by the rollers. This continuous horizon not only helps in the illusion. but it reaches so high up that borders sion as the sky. but it is niucli cJiciiiK'r in its actual woi'kJTig. In the "Asphaleia" stage even the drop scenes are manipulated by hydraulic power from a central point. it is • In this theater stage. and it may be painted moment's notice the different aspects of the sky can be represented. and to his monumental books upon the same subject. than much wide)'. as compared Its is surrounded by a continuous cloth on which there is painted a sky called the horizon. represents a uniformly illuminated surface. of uneven ground. expensive in its initial outlay. up from below the With these facilities the waits are very much shorter. the reader is referred to Mr. Buda-Pesth. of a lighting. all the lighting There are many other interesting features of the is done from the side. so that at a are no longer needed. from the deep blue of fleeciest Italy to the mists and fogs of the North. 189G. mit of dropping the curtain. and Chicago." in " Engineering" for October 23d and November 13. "Asphaleia" stage. Sachs's series of articles on '' Modern Theater Stages. This form of theater stage is. 0.2S2 MAGIC: STAGE ILLUSIONS AND SCIENTIFIC DIVERSIONS. at any rate. It is even possible to change.

To judge from programme of a first-class house of this type. He made arrangements at the theater at Bayreuth by Avhich the orchestra is entirely concealed from view. noiselessly and in a moment. especially so in the day-time.''^ tlioronglily scientific stage. and. A THEATER WITH TWO AUDITORIUMS. of being the most tireAmerica. the excellence of is by its length and variety. but the results are very satisfactory. and are said to be economical. if a small operetta is to be given. Tlie entire by the musicians is really a gigantic tra]). In this the bridges and traps are maneuvered by wire ropes which system. includes etc. Some of these systems are A^ery comjilicated. Tlie idea of having an orchestra the bottom of the pit when movable was to permit of the musicians playing at the production of a Wagnerian opera was given..SOME REMARKABLE STAGES. The Lyceum Theater. The Court Theater space occupied at AVeisbaden possesses a very novel feature. Xcav York City. the sound coming from the bottom of the deep orchestra well. is similarly equipped. Georges Movnet says in '' Trues el Decors. which." the more concentrated amusement can be packed into any given hour of a "continuous performance. in and auditorium. 283 M. after its quality. The more rapidly the various artists can make "their exits and their entrances. but it will be readily seen that the space required for the rams is pracThis is called the " crane " tically lost. This device was installed by llerr Fritz Brandt. are worked by hydraulic rams placed against the walls of the stage building. the platform for the musicians is raised to tlie normal height. in 'New York City." It was with a view to enlarging the stage capacity that the proprietor of Proctor's Pleasure Palace. We have just described the "'direct ram" system of operating traps and bridges. the inevitable roof garden. as Wagner believed that the musicians should be out of sight. the whole floor being raised or lowered Ijy hydraulic power. for in the case of a ball the platform may be run to any height. so that if desired the orchestra can be see-sawed up and down according to the requirements of the score. a statement which is verified by the everincreasing number of large and well-filled places of amusement. with lounging-rooms. for use the the the hot nightly summer months. so another system is sometimes used. Of late years the growth of tlie popularity of the style of entertainments Avhich are classed under the name of "" vaudeville " has called into existence a special type of jSTew less The people York City have the reputation theater-goers in all of theater. doing away with much handwork. The hydraulic rams are powerful enough to raise the entire load of sixty-five musicians. AXCIENT AXl) MODEIiN. . rafcs. of the Berlin Court Tlieater. This arrangement is valuable in other ways. that the manipuhition of the scenery at Buda-Pesth is very slow and that the cellar is very damp. resorted to the bold expedient performance measured. in addition to the resailation stage special halls of entertainment. At Wiesbaden. from which we take our engraving.

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ANCIENT AND MODERN. The elfect as one looks through the stage may be judged from the larger engraving. which are hung by ropes that pass over pulleys attached to what is known as the gridiron. the stage. which are both accessible to the audience at all times. This is the first time that such an experiment as this has been tried. Here. or animal acts are in j)rogress. in order to accommodate the drop curtains. or when special acrobatic. a stout framework located near the roof of the scene loft. were frequently located the dressing-rooms of the performers. and a proscenium arch was cut through the rear wall of the stage. of two four-walled structures. and its results will be watched with considerable interest. In carrying out the idea of a double stage a hall was built immediately behind the theater proper. and hang in parallel rows as shown in Below the stage floor are shown the traps. the auditorium being about square in plan. theaters. a theater consists of the roof supports. The part of the diagram which includes the auditorium and the stage shows the sliown in the is illiistratioii that a single stage made to summer theater of to-day the cafe in the basement and the roof garden being special features in a house of this kind which introduces no new structural features of much consequence beyond a strengthening Stripped of its galleries and scenery. however. and it is raised only during the intermissions. palm garden is kept lowered. existing wings and all that was then necessary was to paint the backs of tlie and drop curtains with scenery. A passageway leads from the auditorium to the palm garden. and the doubling of the stage was to have three or four perf(jrnuinces of such a was complete. gvmnastic. in the older the diagram. and the new auditorium. and the stage floor about the same width as the auditorium. When the drop curtains are not in use they are raised clear of the proscenium. wliich is ^85 on i)age 284. and half the depth. which is known as the Palm (jrarden. Ordinarily. the floor of which was carried out into the hall and provided with the regulation footlights. though the more modern arrangement is to build them at the sides or the rear of the construction of a typical — — stage. The at the original intention character that they would not interfere with each other going on upon the stage same time. The new proscenium was provided with its own curtain.SOME REMARKABLE STAGES. from which it will be seen do duty for two separate auditoriums. Tlie walls of the stage are carried considerably higher than the roof of the auditorium. the ciirtain opening to the . being so named after the palms and tropical plants and vines with which it is decorated. which is taken longitudinally through tiie auditorium pro])er. and during the summer months this Avas frequently done. as the opening from the stage to the audience is called. The way in which this was accomplished will be seen by reference to the sectional diagram.

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It was only necessary to connect the corners of the two theaters in order to have an amphitheater in Avhich gladiatorial combats might be exhibited. obliged to substitute ingenuity for extravagance. he therefore constructed two large wooden theaters near each other. Curio not being able to do anything more mag- nificent. CURIO'S PivoTp:r) theater. make them face each other. and between these columns tliere were in all three thousand statues.SOME REMARKABLE STAGES. the latter being In the afternoon the theaters were all at once revolved so back to back. the people being carried witli them. and In the mornthey were so arranged that each could be revolved upon a pivot. was. with three hundred and sixty cohimns. according to Pliny. a Avealtliy Roman citizen coustrncted a theater capable of The stage of this theater was ornamented holding eightv thousand persons. . One record is 281' of the most ingenious of tlie ancient theaters of which we have any is that devised by Curio. It is rather extraordinary that the Romans should have allowed themselves as to SECTION OF CUKIO'S riVOTKD THKATER. In the Inilf cen- tury before Christ. ing plays were put upon the stages of each of the theaters. ANCJE^T AM) MUDERX. which described by Pliny.

and. low the two theaters to revolve on their own axes so as to come face to face. was only for temporary use. P and Q. The stages. and thus alPLAN OK CUHIO S I'lVUTKD TIIKATER. stone one was built the Rome by seen that Pomjjey. of the two great theaters. C and D. which formed on the ground floor could be taken vast doors for the entrance of the gladiators. The amphitlieater form was therefore preserved. . It will be transformation due to Curio's imagination might have been effected. by a rotation around the pivots. of course. Curio was obliged to change the order of his magnificent entertainments. The mode in which these theaters were constructed has occupied the attention of several learned persons.^88 MAGIC: STAGE ILL USTONS AND SCIENTIFIC DIVERSIONS. Tlie theater. Avhose framework rested upon a series of small wheels movable on circular tracks. so arranged that they down and pushed back at C and D'. while leaving between them only the space necessary for rotary motion. in tlie story above. This space was then filled with light aiul movable pieces of framework. first The architects in the century the in before Christ were accustomed to build first wooden theaters. as Pliny indicates. since the pivots became strained and out of true. boxes foj the magistrates. around in tliis to be carried unstable niacbiue. A and B. but during the last day of the celebration. and were of the theaters were constructed of light framework.

In the old Greek Theatre the spectators were seated in a semicircle in front of a raised platform on which a fixed architectural screen vided. theater is the result of the blending of the old circular theater Greeks with the rectangular theater (so-called) of the ^liddle Ages. and Before considering this curious theater it since the well to glance for a moment it is the would. the room could be only forty or hundred to one thousand persoiis could see and hear to advantage. The conch-like arrangement of classical times was soon found to be unfit for a spoken dialogue. Italy. requiring the actors to wear masks with strongly marked features. owing to the of the . the spectators being so far away from the scene of the They attempted to overcome these difificulties by action of the drama. and jilays were often performed in churches but in France the climate was so bad that the tennis courts were used. the dialogue being simple. be at the history of the theater in ancient and mod- ern times. in which the seats rose in tiers. The amphitheater. glass in the modern theater has.SOME REMARKABLE STAGES. ANCIENT AND MODERN. and often intoned. The trouble with the tennis court was that. The modern diflficulty fifty feet open space. which has not been departed from. perhaps.* The oldest time of the Romans. Avhich were placed tier upon tier in the same manner as high office buildings ~are erected. . could accommodate a large number of spectators. at least of those bnilt is the Olympian Theater at Vicenza. The Greeks fully understood that the facial expression of the actors Avas lost. done away with all objections of this kind. A theater with a radius of three hundred feet conld seat twenty thousand spectators. last of its race. Avhere people must see and hear. to give increased accommodation. The action took place of upon this stage. spoken drama. *By 19 Albert A. Hoi>kins. or the expression of the actors' faces appreciated at a greater distance. and only six or eighty feet away. The accommodations had to be increased by tiers of boxes. of course. wdiich cannot be well heard more than seventy-five of rooting a large wide. rhythmical. owing to the smallness and great value of some of our city blocks. so that the next the improvement was the roanding off of the corners of room and the multiplication of boxes. The best counterparts of the Greek theater are some of the concert halls which were built specially for oratorios and concerts. 289 THE OLYMPIAN THEATER OF PALLADIO AT VICEXZA. The earliest mediieval theaters in Italy and Spain consisted of courtyards Avith balconies which were impressed into the service. In 1075 Fontana invented the horseshoe form of theater. In opera houses and lyric theaters the curve is elongated In theaters for the into an ellipse Avitli the major axis towards the stage. and to The opera increase their height they were provided with high-heeled shoes. permanent theater in Europe. The dramas of the Greeks was proand Romans were the simplest kind. the contrary process was necesTiie introduction of sary and the front lioxes were brouglit near the stage.

" and the center panel over the largest of the three openings in the proscenium. and the two on the side. Over the arch is the following inscription: *' Viktvti ac Gento OLYMPicoRVisr Academia Theatrvm iioo a Fvnuamentis Euexit Anno MDLXXXIIII. In the lower order the middle interval has a high open arch. Sir Christopher Wren was enabled to construct in London the Cathedral of St. Avhere the statues touch the external wall. He was an architect of the first order.^^ which was played before Leo X. all places. even when they possessed great archifiological accuracy. Paul. and the inter-columnations are enriched with niches and statues. could not be detached filled the outer wall at pieces of statuary. which are surmounted in turn with a liglit and well- The is proportioned attic. which is arched. It was an attempt to reproduce the classic theaters of Greece and Eome. it was finthough not altogether after the original design. which an architectural composition of two orders of the Corinsuperimposed. and ished. is Palladio therefore up the nine center and the three external columnations. with a representation of an ancient hippodrome. with sixty feet broad. used it in 1508 in the iDroduction of " La Calandra. At the from summit of these receding steps. is a corridor of the Corinthian order. a town in northern Italy. The scene. Scamozzi. which would have done honor to the great Italian master forty-two miles west of Venice. it not being possible. have square openings through which are seen streets and . and it mention any architect Avho exercised a greater influence on the men He was an enthusiastic of his time as well as on those who succeeded him. The Oertosa of Pavia would have been impossible in London. to use a semicircle. It consists of an auditorium under an awning in the form of a semi-ellipse. student of antiquity. ranges of seats for the spectators follow the curve of the ellipse. by his pupil and fellowcitizen.* 290 MAGIC: STAGE ILLUSIONS AND SCIENTIFIC DIVERSIONS. Its greater diameter is ninety-seven and one-half feet. formal. Such is in brief the development of the modern theater. or seats. Further improvements led to the necessity of a recessed stage with a framing like that of a picture. were often lifeless and unsuited to His writings and architectural work renthe uses of the sixteenth century. yet under the inspiration of Palladio. which. from the narrowness of the ground. and. The panels of the attic are ornamented with reliefs of the "Labors of Hercules. is difficult to himself. Fourteen Palladio died before the theater at Vicenza was completed. On the stylobate of the second story are placed statues. Palladio (1518-1580) was a native of Vicenza. and cold. but which were cramped. Palladio Archit. thian style orchestra is five feet below the seats. from the narrowness of the situation." others. fascinated by the stateliness and charm of the buildings of ancient Eome. and his friends assisted him by sending designs of antique buildings to help him. and its lesser as far as the stage is fifty-seven and one-half feet. who painted movable scenery seems to have been due to Baldassare Peruzzi. dered it easy for those who came after him to reproduce buildings which were faultless in their details. he did not reflect that reproductions of these.

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until the Avhole becomes a gorgeous pageant. arcli. ment. yet by skillful and ingenious perspective and foreshortening it appears to be four hundred feet For tliis skillful and ingenious conceit. . and fills the buildings with the well-dressed courtiers of Venice. when he said that it was a " mirage of a Paolo Veronese in architecture. it does resemble the works of the great painter of Verona.'a-^N I'l-AN OK rAM.ADK) S OLYMTIAN I II KATKH. and was inaugurated by the performance of the ' (Edipns Tyraiinus " of Sophocles. is Though the distance to the back of the theater only forty feet. crowds the space with monumental architecture. with its profusion of statues and niches and columns. Eugene Miintz has expressed the conception of the theater neous society. who. The magnificent palaces and private dwellings which are here portrayed furnish a very effective setting for the plays which were performed in the theater." and indeed. Palladio conciliated the precepts of Vitruvius and the needs of a contemporaM. The general lines of the interior of the theater are noble and calm. distant. each ending in a trinm))hal of the diverging avenues will be understood The position by reference to the plan. we are indebted to 8camozzi.2'J'Z 3IA0IC: STAGE ILLUSIONS AND SCIENTIFIC DIVERSIONS. squares of stately architecture. Tlie exterior of the theater is by no means comIt was built not at the expense of the governparable to its internal beauty. The theater was completed in 1580. which is unclassical in spirit. like so inany of Palladio's buildings built of brick aud stucco. in his great light-filled frescoes and canvases. Avhicli are now in a dilapidated condition. for. It must be said that in this remarkable building it has an enduring shabbiness. but by some private A^icentine gentleman of the Olymi^ic Academy. St. The theater looks as well on paper as in reality.

the flat Hotel. marine. The present chapter called for in almost deals with the various effects whicli are liable to be It should be moonlight. The artist Avorks upon a bridge built in front of this frame. He first makes a pasteboard model of builds the and gives it to the stage carpenter or stage machinist. By hoisting or lowering the paint frame the artist is enabled to reach any part of the scene. such as is used by house painters. meadows of Holland. who framework and secures the canvas to it. may be obtained in a great variety of ways. so that only an some of the methods of producing the illusion can be given. and has a windlass attached by Avhicli may bo raised or lowered. Stage management is a constant study. He is provided with plenty of brushes. Stage managers and stage machinists and property masters vie with one another in producing more and more realistic illusions. A paint bridge is Chapter I." This is a huge wooden affair hung up with ropes with counhis scene It is usually placed against the Avail at the it terweights attached. ranging from a heaA'y two-pound brush. It is a curious fact that this business is largely a it is little tion. the palace of Versailles.. back or side of the stage. lightning. Scene painting like it. Aviud. etc. or architectural paint- He must be able to produce at any time the mountainous passes of Switz- erland. SCENE PAINTING. or the Windsor The method by whicli he works and many of the materials he employs from tliose are altogether different painter. is an art by be at itself. either in the variety of subjects There is no other branch of painting embraced or in the methods employed. used by the ordinary oil or water-color The scene painter Avorks upon canvas. thunder. scenic artist must home in landscape. STAGE EFFECTS. remembered that the rainbows. and wonder that it is in the matter of invenhands of exceptionally clever men. effects of sunrise. to a snudl shar}) one used for draAving fine lines. It is then ready for the "paint frame.CHAPTEli III. In addition to these he has several whitewash brushes for laving in flat . of the present division of this Avork. outline of fires. The ing. the paint bridge fly usually giving a passage between the two illustrated in galleries. any opera or other dramatic production.

75 per pound. His ready to go then He is of charcoal. After the canvas is primed and dry. and here the great advantage of painting in distemper is made plain. color is white. Scene the color dries precisely the same shade it had before being mixed. of course. painters of different nationalities have various methods of working. The colors are kept in buckets. upon the stage at night in The artist sits in the center auditorium aiid minutely observes every nook and corner of the scene under the glare of the gas or electric light. The priming coat is laid on with a heavy whitewash brush. Nearly every scene which are very useful for producing In The is last thing the scene painter does before the introduction of a of the new play to have his scenes set order that the lighting of tliem can be arranged. Distemper with plain coat of done a is This the scenes. secondly. The color dries very quickly. tin cans. the wall of the Eastern palace cannot be imitated with a sufficient degree of realism to stand the glare of the light. plenty of twine. which is simply a used in scene jiaintiug. the artist is ready to draw. and. regularity of outline and accuracy are absolutely essential. Some of the colors used cost as much as 12. some using a great deal of color. This is done with whitewash brushes. it is carefully gone over with an ink specially The architectural work must be done with preciprepared for the purpose. Gold and silver leaf are freely used for Jewels in certain kinds of scenes. The colors are mixed with sizing. skies. as the effect of many scenes depends almost entirely upon it. the first point. A scenic painter. Here a light is turned up and there one is lowered until the proper effect is obtained. weak solution of glue. The gas man or electrician takes careful note of his directions. Indigo Ten pounds of indigo are is used in very large quantities by scenic artists. is not confined A number of other materials are of great to colors in producing effects. . sometimes used in a single scene. importance in this kind of painting. they are in made of all colors. others very little. however. large quantities to produce the glitter painter has a large collection of stencils architectural decorations. washes and vessels. so jewels are made of zinc and set in the canvas. ice scenes mica powders are used and sparkle. and the stage manager oversees everything. After the rough charcoal sketch is made. and earthenware and sticks first duty is to "prime" to work. The principal point is to get it on thickly. as well as foil papers and bronze powders. The sky is. Some idea of the rapidity of working can be obtained when it is stated that a scene painter of the English school has been known to paint a scene of twenty by thirty feet in less than four hours.394 MAGIC: STAGE ILLUSIONS AND SCIENTIFIC DIVERSIONS. thus affording the artist a high rate of speed in working. The perspecsion. tive requires to be laid off with the greatest possible care. His other requisites are a palette knife. The next step is the laying in of the groundwork. or the painted surface lacquered. they are often covered with colored lacis quers.

carried by means of a winch which is slowly manipulated . as described in of the various incandescent Chapter erable in I. border lights. pulleys. The resistances in the circuit lamps are successively withdrawn so as to heighten In some theaters colored incandescent lamps the red light of the rising sun. are used. 295 SUNRISE EFFECT. and the color screens are removed from in front Motion is given to the sun by means of an inclined plane up is which the arc lamp by the assistant. a platform immediately behind the center of the stage is placed an arc projector that is maneuvered by hand. pref- many ways.STAGE EFFECTS. of course. in charge of the arc When the signal is given to him. the red glass placed before the aperture of the projector is of the lamps. The electrician first puts into the circuit the light. A semicircular screen is Upon placed across the stage and forms the background. Colored gelatine plates may be slid over the refleccessively into the circuit. New York City. as at the Metropolitan Opera House. To return to the sun-rising effect: after the sun has risen above the is moun- tains the red light diminished. and other devices for turning the gelatine shades around or raising them so as to give the desired effect. and throws a luminous disk upon the Upon the stage are suspended colored incandescent In other suitable places there are arranged groups of lamps These lamps nuiy be introduced sucprovided with reflectors of special form. canvas of the screen. systems of lighting employed. gradually removed. Our engravings show the various tors so as to give the light the color desired. The sunrise effect is obtained in several ways. as for mountains. of the present division of this work. This system is. the operator lamp places a red glass in front of the lenses of the pro- jector and switches the current on to the lamp. showing the cords. At a given signal the operator pulls the rope so as to bring the red colored shades in front of the lamps. duce the blue and at the group of lamps that prosame time turns the blue shades over the lamps.

0—^ J ^^IQillU COLOR SCREEN ( IIANCilNd. JUJNCII Ol't SIDK IvUJIIT? .COLOR SCREEN CHANGING.

which is profiled — that is — to represent trees. especially the former. A . candle-power behind it. case requires. mountains. cut irregularly placed immediately in few feet further in front is held what is known This has sides and a top of canvas painted as the as a cut gauze drop. The stage effect which we are about to describe is produced by the mechanism which was formerly in use in the Metropolitan Opera House. as the following: To produce the proper effect the back is made nearly dou])le tlic height of the usual scene. SUN" EFFECT. and the lower half to represent moonlight. the upper half is painted to represent a sunset sky. One of the most beautiful effects produced upon the stage is the change from day to night or from night to day. It showed through a hole cut in a drop curtaiu.STAGE EFFECTS. This piece is. 297 SUNRISE EFFECT. or houses. during ascension and declination. This is accoml)lished in various ways. and was set firmly in a frame covered with colored gauze to represent the various hues which the sun imparts to the atmosphere. It is very effective in many operas." CHANGE FROM DAY TO NIGHT. It The scenery of the distance is is hung so that the upper half ahnie is visible. as in " The Prophet " and " Tannhauser. drop then painted upon a separate piece. and the colors it projects upon the clouds. while the center is filled with fine gauze which lends an aerial front of the sky drop. New York The electrical sun was a big glass disk with an arc lamp of two thousand City.

In this case they are hidden from view by what are called the sky borders. Red lights are effect to the distance. The as we will shortly describe. They are placed upon the stage just in front of the main scene. the green lights are slowly turned on. A row of them is often suspended from the flies in order to light the top of the scenes.298 3IAGIC: STAGE ILLUSIONS AND SCIENTIFIC DIVERSIONS. and there is nothing which can be as well counterfeited on the The artist usually begins his task by painting a moonlight scene. The star which we illustrate consists of a single sixteen . showing through. candle-power incanonly the star itself. being painted in cold grays and greens. At the proper moment the back drop slowly and steadily raised. A fainter light upon the scenery at the back of the stage is obtained from what are called "green mediums" lamps with green shades. and the lights are put in with white. thus a soft green light is given to the entire stage without the source of it being visible. the green lights are turned on to their full power. The strong moonlight of the foreground is produced by a calcium light thrown through a greeu glass. The position of the moon stage as moonlight scenery. — . There is hardly any illusion on the stage which is seen as often as the moon- light effect. moon is sometimes made in the night-half it. descent lamp fixed to a metal frame set in a drop curtain with a covering of red gelatine tinctured with blue. by daylight such a scene is ghastly. slightly tinged with emerald green. in which Prussian blue and burnt umber play an important part. While the red lights are slowly The moon effect is obtained in different ways. STARS. and are " masked in " by scenery. of the sky drop and rises with When it rises above the distant horizon. MOON EFFECTS. dimmed. employed to give a soft sunset is glow to the scene.

must be colored the same ?M9^^MWmM. It is about eighteen inches in diameter. The hoop is tipped from side to side. The moon is moved by means of a batten. being determined upon. A hollow wooden cylinder provided. It RAIN MACHINE. The rain machine is is usually placed high five feet in up in the flies. connected with a rheostat.M as the drop. is. cylinder. RAIN EFFECT. though exaggerated. Xew York City." STAGE EFFECTS. immediately under it 299 a number of small irregular These are covered on the back with muslin. It is very effective in many operas. and therefore to keep up the illusion the wires it draws after it may be used. but the moon moves before it. and is made of j^orcelain or milk glass and is oval in form. the flashing of the light through the passing holes in the towel and the stationary ones in the drop scene produces a fine efliect. By turning these cylinders the peas run down between the teeth. the course being marked for the operator by the apparent. sides of the towel. In the towel are cut a number of holes similar to those cut in the drop. beginning at the horizon. easily obtained. A is quantity of dried peas are placed in the it and a belt run around one end of and down to the prompter's desk. When the crank is turned. as in " Tannhauser. A sheet of heavy brown paper is hoop and a handful of bird shot is placed upon the paper. producing a fairly good rain effect. panies often have to go to small theaters where such luxuries as "rain machines" are unknown. height. and are painted over on the front to match the rest of the Behind these holes is placed an endless towel about eight feet in scene. and the noise produced by them nuikes Traveling coma good imitation of rain falling upon a roof. The form which we illustrate is one in use in the Metropolitan Opera House. which is produced in a number of ways." in the present work. holes are cut in the drop. The mimic sun moves behind the drop. circumference and four feet in length Upon the inside are placed rows of small wooden teeth. a thin piece of wood let down from above. We now come to the moon proper. Instead of a towel a large tin cylinder Other interesting moon effects are described in the chapter entitled "A Trip to the Moon. Our engraving shows a French form of rain machine. A sufficiently good substitute however. pasted over a child's . Within are six incandescent lamps of sixteen candlepower. movements of the moon as we see them in an orrery. A strong gas burner is jilaced between the two . running around rollers at the top and bottom the lower roller has a crank by which the towel is turned. and the shot rolls around the paper.

cal projector. bow Kheingold " the gods enter Walhalla over the rainis a magnificent stage illusion. wooden box seven or eiglit feet long. As in nature. The quantity regulated of peas and the violence of the drops of rain depends upon the quantity and the inclination of the box.h to set a cylinder provided with paddles. WIAI) FKFF("I\ AYind is very useful in licighteniiig the ell'ct^t of stage storms.300 MAGIC: STAGE ILLUSIONS AND SCIENTIFIC DIVERSIONS. and i-cscnd)ling very much the stern-wheels seen on Ohio Kiver towboats. there appear to be two arches. consists of a as shown in our engraving. whicli the following is one: A iieuvy frame made in whi(. The wind machine portable. wishes. and ig produced as follows: The prisms are fastened one above the other in front of an electriIn the hiist scene of "• bridge. The rainbow KAIIN'BOW Et'FEOT. 'I'lic Where the is effect is well done the very realistic. . and is maybe placed anywhere the property master <»!' wind machine is miulc in vai'ious ways. by oblique pieces of tin which transform the of peas is interior into a tortuous passage for the dried peas. especially in pitiless blast is melodramas. RAINBOW EFFECT. The tlie light from it passing through tiie prisms produces the various colors of prismatic spectacle due to the influence of the raindrops. the primary and the secondary. at the top. divided into compartments.

is Then rumble cart is a box material. W IND-PHODUCING it MACHINE. and when accompanied with a flash of lightning produced Avith a stick. but canvas is is 301 stretched . The rapid passage of the paddles over the surface of the silk or canvas produces the noise of the wind.is tight as possible a piece of heavy often substituted instead. The and end in a sharp point. thunder. however. Instead of running these staves over silk or canvas.STAGE EFFECTS. Across the top of the cylinder gros-grain silk. KUMRLE CAKT. rattling thunder. The extraction of wind from the liose is not entirely satisfactory. To produce this effect a heavy box frame it is tightly this Upon is made. The thunder and lightning may be regarded effect is somewhat complicated. so that they can be tightened so as to cut into the staves. cords are substituted. also used. is especially the as the result of the First a large piece of sheet iron combination of a nnmber shaken. THUNDER EFFECT. staves are triangular in shaj)e. Often traveling companies is are in theaters where there no wind machine. This fails to tion which is usually heard in storms. This is called the thunder drum. the stage hand operates one end of which is padded and covered with chamois skin. with the aid of a magnesium flash torch renders the illusion very the Often two thunder drums are used at the same time. It consists of a cylinder mounted on an axle. In this case one of the stage hands selects a heavy piece of flexible hose and whirls it around his head. The cylinder is tnrned by a crank. and over drawn a calf skin. a reverbera- tation of sharp. and mounted upon irreguhirly shaped wheels. which produces an imigive the dull roar. which of effects. realistic. 'J'he ''rumble cart" filled \\\i\\ some heavy . The cords are secured below. Our engraving shows a French form of machine for imitating the noise of the wind. and by turning rapidly the friction of the cord produces a good reiiresentation of wind.

third fly gallery. is which we It consists show in our engraving. With tliis a little wind is added from the wind machine. producing lightning very useful for flashes. The sudden combustion of the composition produces very vivid flashes of lightning. very good. At the end of the trough the balls drop through the flooring to the gallery below by means of special slants. Another method of producing lightning flashes is to secure two large files. Immediately is A above the flame a shelf or partition punched with is fine holes. the effect is enhanced. of course. heated very hot by the flame.302 3IAGIC: STAGE ILLUSIONS AND SCIENTIFIC DIVERSIONS. It is usually placed against the wall of the It consists of a kind of cabinet with is or six slanting shelves. produce a brilliant flashes. which is some twenty feet long. In large opera houses a more complicated system is employed than those five which we have just described. files to an are electric circuit. Our engraving shows a rumble cart as used in the Paris Opera House. On each shelf are kept a half dozen cannon balls which are retained in place by hinged doors. The mixture which used to give the effect of lightning consists of three parts of mag- nesium powder and one part of potassium chlorate. and the rain effect The result of this complicated effect is is sometimes worked simultaneously. and the balls drop down into a zinc-lined The trough being built with inequalitrough. When the signal given. LIGHTNING. Lightning example. This is. of course. of which the following is an bottom is metal box having a large opening in the top is provided. At the placed an alcohol lamp having a wide-spreading flame. through the top of the metal box. . the effect may be varied as the stage manager may think proper for the opera. flash pistol. Arrangements are provided by which the balls can be stopped before they pass through the floor. series of The nuignesium l-IUHTNING. the stage hands open the more compartments. A similar device has long been used by photographers for taking instantaneous photographs in dark places or at night. is produced in a number of Avays. This is poured upon the heated grill. and. doors of one or ties of surface. The when they rubbed over each other. It will readily be seen that by regulating the number of balls almost any thunder effect can be produced.

a wire is run from the flies to the object which is to be struck. The rider consists of a section of iron pipe.STAGE EFFECTS. Around. 303 with asbestos which is is which is slotted. A rider runs on the wire. The asbestos is soaked with alcohol. . worked with the thumb. When a thunderbolt is to strike an object. It is LIGHTNING I'UOJECTOR. PISTOL. it is secured asbestos by means of wire. The barrel is is filled soaked When the lightning effect is to be used the alcohol lighted and magnesium powder projected into it by means of the blower on the top of THE MAGNESIUM FLASH tlie pistol. of a barrel in alcohol. and is lighted just at the instant when it is to be projected upon the object.

If well done the effect is very pleasif the theater is provided with them. The lightning and the clouds are scratched and painted on small pieces of glass. as the operator revolves the disks one over the other. Devices are provided for rotating them so that they jiroduce the effect of clouds rolling across an apparently immense expanse of sky. It ing. The flakes of snow are usually illuminated by the electric light. and the forked lightning seems to shoot across the heavens. SNOW EFFECT. tin. and the second row is set so as to show in the openings left by the first. One way of doing this is to sprinkle them with soapsuds by means of a birch broom before they appear upon the scene. It rushes flaming through the air. linen. the soapsuds disappear in a few moments. The first row set uj) at a distance of three or four feet between each billow. In the case of rich costumes it is impossible to use soapsuds. adheres to the hair. Our engraving an illustrates still another method of producing lightning. made as follows: usually Each wave is cut out separately. of pajier.304 3IAGIC: STAGE ILLUSIONS AND SCIENTIFIC DIVERSIONS. and produces the consists of effect of a ball of lire striking the object. The noise on the stage which is . or white kid are WAVE An ocean of heaving waters is is EFFECT. The waves are rocked back and forth. and produces no ill effects uidou the costume. It is similar one of the oldest im])Iements of imitation on the stage. and the effect is very good. This a variation of the rain machine we have already referred CRASH EFFECT. small boys are usually employed to furnish the motive power. Sometimes pieces thrown from one of the intermediate bridges. This forms a light coating which resembles snow. so that bone shavings or ground It corn are used instead. It is usually held string. It consists of a wheel with paddles set to the wind machine in construction. by a. and the creases in the clothing. the shoulders. is often necessary to have the actors appear with traces of snow upon them. It electric projecting lantern with attachments for giving the effect. effect of is The snow obtained in a number of ways. corresponding to the melting of the snow. is produccil l)y wluit is called the crash machine. Of course. which is cut. not from side to side. The is noise of the surf upon the beach is obtained by allowing two or three ounces of bird shot to roll around in a box of light wood lined with to.

through which the painted canvas is attached. at u05 wheel one end of au angle of about forty-five degrees. The the quickest possible touch of flame the oakum. because the orchestral music at the moment of the fire is relatively soft and low. it is more portable. Conflagrations are jiroduced in a destroyed by and if jiroper precau- tions are taken. generated by a boiler in the Paris Opera House. number of ways. sheet iron. Variously colored electric lights and small pieces of fireworks simulate the leap- In some cases the shutters on the houses appear to burn off is accomplished as follows: They are secured This is made of powto the scene with a preparation called " quick match. the former to give a red glow^ and the latter to repi'esent flames. Steam is used An to represent the smoke." the opera of Massenet. and in a is moment fire runs around the sash. the framework. and one method of using it is described below. Ai)paratns for jn'oducing the smoke of a conflagration than that for producing lightning. a place Avhere the smoke is to api)ear. by means of rubber is apt to cause considerable noise when it escapes into the air. Usually the buildings which are to be fire are constructed of separate pieces of stage carpentry. but are placed a short distance behind ignites ujion platforms. FIRE AND SMOKE EFFECTS. They are covered with oakum soaked in alcohol or naphtha. and fall down upon the stage.STAiiE EFFECTS. but this It Avas i)articularly Magian. slides. the slats passing under the stationThe princij)le of the machine is illustrated produce a rattling crash. the steam being admitted to triangular boxes at the apex opposite the base of the triangle. machine of this kind. allowing it to slip from running picket fence along a boy by a In many theaters a gigantic rattle is used in place of a picket to picket. The boxes at the point of attachment with the steam pipe have a considerable thickness. The difficulty was surmounted as follows: The steam. produces a sudden nothing apparently left puff of smoke which gives the spectator the idea of a fall of a rafter. They are raised and lowered by means of hinges. and a lamp wick. Upon the top of tlie a stout piece of wood is phiced down by fastening the other end to a portion of When the wheel is turned. This difficulty has been surmounted in at least one stag eiliusiou which we illus- hose. occasional crash. they are perfectly safe. ary piece with a stick. and pulleys. and but the blackened and charred wood. this being the '' necessary in the case to have the engraving. and is conducted to is more complicated Steam is largely used for producing smoke." The window frames and sashes are made of der. this sashes and frames are not fastened it to the canvas scene at all. so as to give the effect of tumbling down. The fire jiroper consists of cliemical red fire and powdered lyco])odium used separately. alcohol. These ing of the sparks. smoke produced as noiselessly as ^lossible. was led to special devices shown in our trate. cords. which gradually diminishes as the base of SO . followed by the ignition of a little powder.

fastened to them permit of their being attached to the scenery After a sinqde coupling pipe has been connected In the with a steam pij)e. op(Ta we have referred p()ints. seventeen are distributed over the stage at different and nearly up stciarn to the pipe of tlie soHit curtains. and the orifices through which the escapes are flush with the floor.300 MAGIC: STAGS ILLUSIONS AND SCIENTIFIC DIVERSIONS. is the triangle approached. so that the steam. with ease. orifice between the two faces of the apparatus. Avhich is distributed throughout the whole extent of the box. Tlie boxes are easily manipulated. The twelve others are beneath the stage. the ap2)aratus is ready to operate. there are pieces of the principal object of which In the interior of the boxes is to absorb the drops which are carried along niechaniciilly or whicli may The advantage of this arrangement is that it permits of the disengagement of the steam everywhere where it is necessary.h (»1 \ 1IIL\'IKH. felt. escapes without any noise through a narrow API'AKATUS FOR IMITATING THE SMOKH OK A fONFI-AORATFON UN I UK si u. twenty-nine double boxes are em- ployed. The realistic fire clouds and flame in the last act of " The . and hooks of water condense. to.

the arc light being dimmed and brightened alternately. while the orchestra is playing the funeral scene march of unearthly beauty. The two best examples of this perfection of scene shifting are probably those in "Parsifal. of a scene during an act. The effect is largely enhanced by the orchestra. The clouds really effects are produced by steam and a series of gauze curtains. then clouds rise upward. then yellow and white. remain." when the warriors place the dead Siegfried upon the bier and carry the body up the rocky patli. so that the parallelism of the drops shall follow a supposed changing of the direction of the wind. as he was desirous of avoiding everything Avhich broke the continuity of the dramatic action. is The superiority of when every detail is carried out with this method over the conventional curtain apparent." when the Prophet. and the glass turned this way and and the red." when the magic garden changes to the sanctuary of the Holy Grail. rfed "Queen that. and the rain by jiarallel scratches on a black surface. . As the procession gradually disappears. triumphs of Wagner's scenic art is his method of scene lie was very much opposed to sudden changes of scenes. or else the setting of the new hidden behind clouds. and red and black. then yellow and white. but are run across from the side. learning that he is 307 betrayed. ally These changes are usu- accomplished in is j)lain sight of the audience. in other words. which are so frequent in Shakespearian plays. They are "profiled. but in " Rheingolci " the curtain remains. The mist gradually thickens into fog. The sandstorm in the last act of of Sheba " is done in yellow and black and pink gelatine before the light. These effects are accomplished by means of successive gauze curtains which are raised and lowered. In the greater part of his operas he lets a single scene suffice for Once in a great while he was obliged to provide for a shifting the entire act. and the other effect is in the third act of " Gotterdiimmerung. usually." or. mists rise from the Rliine. they are irregular in shape. serve as a screen to prevent the scene shifters being viewed by the audience. or should One of the greatest shifting.STAGE EFFECTS. Prophet. hiding the whole scene from view. orders the fire of the palace of Mtinster. Then the clouds rise and dissipate The into mists which finally disclose the moonlit hall of the Gibichungen. GRADUAL TRANSFORMATIONS. Sometimes the gauze curtains are not droj^ped from the flies. first yellow for the fumes. are done by concentrating the arc light upon colored gelatine. which symbolizes the changes which are taking place. which is carried almost to perfection. so that they help to produce the effect without any noticeThe steam able line of demarcation between the two halves of the curtain. raised during the whole of the performance. and by the clever use of light which is gradually diminished until almost total darkness reigns. satisfactory effect can only be obtained A the greatest care.

Battle scenes are particularly effective upon the stage when they are well produced. there is a charge which is also ignited by electricity at the same time that the boml) is exploded. hearing the loud report of the cannon at the same instant. Our engraving shows the method of obtaining this result. imagine that the harmless paper ])ond) is the cause of the formidable explosion. S. the effect is apt to be a little curtain formal. The primer is connected by wires which go back of tlie scene. admitted through a perforated steam pipe in a sink cut. . and the spectators. As the steam curtain is in a straight line. carrying death and destruction in its wake.o08 IIAGiC: STAG:^ ILLUSIONS AND SCIENTIFIC DIVERSIONS. BATTLE SCENES. At one of the sides of the stage. The steam is is often very effective. At the ])roper moment a man throws the shell and touches tlie button. In the powder there is an electric pieces glued together. the bomb bursts. the floor being perforated. A ixvpi&r inaclie shell is formed of separate This contains the quantity of powder sufficient to separate the pieces and produce the bursting. especially in Wagnerian operas.SijSr" BOMB EXPLOSION EFFECT. and in the midst of a desperate battle a shell is seen to fall and burst. out of sight of the spectator. primer which is ignited by a current.

the illuis seriously injured. The ous. .and numerIn melodramas. and smoke. The preparation is held in a cavity formed in a small cork which is introduced into the extremity pared so as to give a red ^^ THEATRICAL GUNS AND PISTOLS. Philippi. the auditorium becomes filled with to the great precautions dense smoke and a peculiarly disagreeable odor of burnt powder. accidents on the stage caused by firearms liave been man}. owing which are necessary to prevent danger of fire. The charge fire consists of a small quantity of fulminate pre- and a light smoke which quickly clears away. and not affecting the throat. and. which they terminate. of the 1 in gun barrel. 1. are driven from catches by means of slider. c. Avooden or otherwise. leaving no disagreeable odor. On account of these drawbacks. that is to say. fire. M. sion while at the same time avoiding the dangers and annoyances that have already beeu pointed out. By to the very simple contrivance of the spring. The a. our first engraving. the noise.STAGE EFFECTS. causing the charge to explode through a simple blow. a French dramatic author and pyi'otechnist. endeavored to produce a successful imitation of the effects of firing guns. which the stage director may wish to use. after great battles. of a Our second engraving represents a mitrailleuse formed by the juxtaposition number of short barrels of thin copper arranged in the same manner as in the firiug pins are left to the action of the spiral springs. The firing pin passes through the barrel. it is possible almost any gun. as shown in Fig. 309 THEATRICAL FIEEAEMS. as fit shown in Fig. in when the hooks. tlie guns described.

m. An English impresario adopted a rather novel plan of imitating the salt odor of the ocean for a marine scene. The penetrating odor of the coffee is soon experienced by the audience.310 MAGIC: STAGE ILLUSIONS AND SCIENTIFIC DIVERSIONS. it is thoroughly 2:)ulverized. A movable bar. The imitation of odors upon the stage is not very often attempted. prevents the springs from being set free while the cliargIn order to manipulate. in order to prevent its acting while the apparatus is being carried. j^laced back of the barrels. more realism is given by introducing such things as a French cofPee machine. is imitated with great exactness. THE IMITATION OF ODORS. to wliich it is affixed by a screw. Firing by platoons only necessary to cause the slider to move along the rod. and. as the persistence of the perfume of this delicacy is well known. after they have been set. which moves along a rod. and it adds considerably to the effect. it is ing is being done. He took a large number of old salt-lierring casks and disposed them in the flies and behind the orchestra. THEATRICAL MITRAILLEUSE. In some plays where a dinner is in progress. As soon barrel. . There is little doubt that they produced the desired effect. as the cork makes its exit from the and the discharges received at the end of the muzzle cause no inconvenience.

proj)erties. TEAPS. or devil who is to make his stands on a platform which is hoisted to sudden appearance upon the stage the stage level by means of winches turned by the stage hands. complicated stage settings. ballet performances. it will treat of traps. and it is one of the oldest and most primitive means of jiroducing stage in use to-day in most theaters and opera houses. The elaborate system of traps used in the "Asphaleia" stage has already beev described in Chapter 11. and In the present chapter the subject of theater secrets will be taken up. . it consists of which is much used in ojieratic and an inclined plane up which the actor or claiisetise is carried. singer. and will be understood by reference to the engraving. the inclined plane itself being masked by scenery. The ple is trap is illusions. The princi- very simple.CHAPTER IV. THEATER SECRETS. The actor. and the means of obtaining elaborate effects. also We show another variety of trap TRAP IN THB STAGB.

two entirely distinct trucks are used one for the first act. Between the river drop and the first set is space enough for the miniature figures of Lohengrin aud the swan to pass across the stage before the real Lohengrin and the swan come into view. THE SWAN ties. and so set that the swan and boat. when Lohengrin and his swan wind their way among the reeds. was to devise a method of projielling the truck which carried water row there — — — » . set will first be necessary to At the back tlie a river drop. next come water rows. are enabled to describe a graceful curve. DESCENDS INTO THE SEA. giving the effect of through. gradating in height to level of the bank. and the lost brother of Elsa takes its place. and one for the last act. IN "LOHENGRIN." The swan und the swan boat in " Lohengrin " are most interesting properThe apparatus which we illustrate is that used at the Metropolitan Opera House. In order to produce the effect. in fact give the idea of the sluggish Scheldt winding in through the weedy meadows. when the swan disa])pears.312 JIAGIC : STAGE ILLUSIONS AND SCIENTIFIC DIVERSIONS. and is the result of many experiments. in passing The foreground is a built- up bank the width of the scene. The problem which confrojited the property master in designing the first swan and car. New York City. the one which was to bring fjfihengrin. 'Y\\g drop and the set water rows everything. To it is understand the action of the Lohengrin swan describe the setting of the stage. FONTANA. that is to say. water rushes and reeds.

The first man steers by means of a handle bar which is secured to the vertical' rod which carries the front wheel. could be run in a curved direction. so that when the direction of the steer- . IN l.(>nEN(." being turned in a short space.KIN. whicli was concealed b}^ A men draperies painted to three-wheeled truck was built. the swan and the car so that it 313 greatly to the naturalness of the illusion. adding and rendering tlie truck capable of FIRST SWAN AND CAR IN "LOHENGRIN.THEA TER SECRETS. The truck is propelled by two seated within who shove the truck along THK DISAPPEARING SWAN by shuffling with their feet on the floor. it. The swan is fastened to this vertical bar. the top of match the Avater rows themselves.

in the last act is an entirely different mechanism is employed. and is drawn back is into the truck. so that it shows above the set rows and the bank of the river. out of the boat or car. Wellgunda. Avhile a third sits in front and steers." the scene represents tlie bed of the Rhine. We believe that in soine opera houses regular tracks have been provided upon which to run them. . Then a clockwork dove descends on a wire. The swan then takes his departure. suddenly appear upon tlie scene. In this arrangement a truck is mounted on four wheels and is pushed by the men. A is reference to our engraving will explain the mystery. remarkable that the Lohengrin swan must be regarded as one of the most successful effects obtained in Grand Opera. Flosshilda. ing wheel is The neck of the swan is changed the swan also changes its direction. It may be asked how it is possible for the "Rhine daughters to float in space while they sing. is Each of the singers supported upon a cradle which secured to a four- wheeled car by an upright post strongly braced. in front. drawing away the car. carrying the swan with it. a man at the rear of the truck lets go of the cords which hold the swan in position. normally held in position by means of cords. instead of being supported by a couple of rods. His duties. This is accomplished by means of lines which are invisible built to the audience. At the same instant Elsa's brother is raised by a trap which places him in precisely the same position as that occupied by the swan.314 31AGIO: STAGE ILLUSIONS AND SCIENTIFIC DIVERSIONS. Now. swimming with graceful movements about the rock which supports the Rheingold. and as the dove drops behind the set piece it takes the place of the swan. consist in inclining the head of the swan and operating the wings. Each of the cars is pushed around by two attendants. besides propelling the car. it sary to resort to an entirely different system. Lohengrin steps The changes are so into the boat. THE FLOATING RHINE DAUGHTERS When to the IN ''RHEINGOLD. but in order to ti'ausform the swan into Elsa's brother." which is the prelude music drama of the " Ring of the Nibelung. Lohengrin. around a steel spring. In this case not necessary for the swan to take a sinuous course. The second man has nothing to do with steering the car and the swan." a groat nugget of gold that glimmers on the summit of the rock. on reaching the steps at the bridge. In the center rises a high rock which supports the " Rheingold. and the dove carries it off from the stage. the jiarallel immediately drops. and it proceeds in a straight line across the stage. They are hidden from view by low scenes wliioh effectually conceal them. although it is the change not perceptible to the audience. it is necesThe swan. is supported on a parallel which is hinged. The three tlhine daughters. and the wings are actuated by levers and strings." the curtain rises on the opera of " Rheingold. gets and sings his farewell song. Woglinda. When the time has arrived for the transformation to be made.

come with a robe is similar chest. sparkle. is The third chest contains a robe of a celestial blue." describe is The illusion which we are about to the moon. Rhine daughters were suspended from steel cables by means of trolleys. swayed back and forth by men who were hidden from view of the audience by The arrangement was the set rows Avhich masked the lower j^art of the stage. This also luminous. 315 At the Metropolitan Opera House. and by means of an electric lamp the secret of the illusion is that the The . and the color of the sky brilliantly illuminated procession " employed in the " Peau d'Ane i)lay. The fabrics are moved by the porters to make them bottom of each of these chests capable of being opened over a trap. considered to be very satisfactory. The Danirosch. an entirely different device was used.THEATER SECRETS. and they Avere the stage. producing the fairy robes in the story — — required by the There the color of the sun. the color of the sun. when opened. come two porters carrying a large chest by Having reached the royal throne they place the is immediately seen a fabric Afterwards two other porters chest on the floor and raise the cover. a luminous golden yellow. exhibits a bluish -white phos- phorescent fabric. during the German opera season of Mr. THE for ''SUN ROBE. which. in the spring of 1897. the color of In the midst of a means of handles at the end." were drawn back and forth by means of wire ropes which ran to the sides of Ropes were also run down to the level of the stage. They THE FLOATING RHINE DAUGHTERS IN THE OPERA " RHEINGOLD.

The same is done with a and a white light. Our illustrations give macliinist and the property nuister to the utmost. and is superior to most of the ships in the "Corsair" and " L' Africaine. for the moon-colored fabric. making a graceful curve. upon a light and transparent fabric so that it electric light is directed really yellow light sufEuses the fabric of the same color and incorporates itself with it. and guided in its motio7\ by two grooved bronze wheels. the bottom is closed from beneath. An opera or ballet which requires a ship taxes the powers of the stage The ship which we illustrate was made for the ballet called the '"Tempest.316 MAGIC: STAGE ILLUSIONS AND SCIENTIFIC DIVERSIONS. and stops in front of the proni})ter"'s box. away by the porters. the locatioTi of which indicated in our second engraving. After the cover has been shutdown upon the stage. The is sea is repre- sented by four })arallel sot rows. detailed views of the vessel and the setting of the scenery. The is ship is carried by wheels that is roll over the floor of the stage. THE SHIP ON THE STAGE. As the ship advances. and the chest is IN THE FAIRY 8CENE OF THE " PEAU DANE. starting from the back of the stage. and by a rail formed of a simple reversed T-iron which bolted to the floor. advances majestically. " The vessel. the light is extinguished." at the Paris Opera House. the trap is shut seems to be on fire. . A THE SUN KOBE up. and then with blue tarleton and a light with a bluish tinge for the sky-colored carried slightly bluish-white fabric fabric.

THEATER SECRETS. As the vessel itself is covered up to the water line with painted canvas imitating the sea. . ni the set water rows open in the center to allow it to pass. and SETTING OF THE SCENERY 15EF0KE AND AFTEll IIIK ArPKAI!AN( E OK TIIK SMTP. The shifting of the inclined ^nece at the front is effected by simply pulling up the carpet which covers it. mmmm THE SHIP AS SEEN FKOM THE STAGE. water rows the others spread out and increase the extent of the sea. it has the When the vessel reaches the first of the apjiearance of cleaving the wave. The three strips of water in the rear rise slightly.

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In the rear there are two vertical trusses. moment the entire stage seems We now come to the details to be in motion. It begins to make its appearance before the vessel itself gets under way. there are nine on each side. The bowsprit reception of "supers.ET. The skeleton of the prow is which is bolted to the frame. Silken cordage connects is On each side of the vessel there are bolted five iron frames covered with canvas which reach the level of the water line. which are joined by ties and descend to the bottom of the frame. The mast carries three foot-boards. It is actuated in two parts." formed of a vertical truss of the vessel. above are placed those that cover the prow and the stern. painted.". The rest of the construction of the shij) will be readily understood by reference to the engraving. The visible hull of the ship was placed upon a large and very strong wooden framework formed of twenty-six trusses. tube. represent the hull. and a platform for the by a windlass placed upon the frame. we have already referred to. and the effect is very striking. They constitute the skeleton of the immense stern to which they are bolted. upon which are assembled perpendicularly seven other trusses. Upon these stand the '"supers" the naiads that are supposed to draw the ship from the beach. etc. who represent At the bow . which rior of is The is large mast consists of a vertical set into the center of the frame. In the interior there are six transverse i:»ieces held by stirrup bolts. At this of the construction of the ship. sixteen feet in height. and The entire at the end of each of these is fixed a tliirteen-inch iron wheel. Our engraving shows the boat while it was being built. the front portion is at first pulled back in order to hide the vessel entirely in the side scenes. In the center there are two longitudinal trusses about three feet in height and twenty-five feet in length. as shown the mast.THEATER SECRETS. bowsprit. There are two bronze wheels which structure rolls U2:)0n these twelve wheels. in the above engraving. one sliding into the other. SHIP OF THE NEW BALT. and in the inte- which slides a wooden spar Avhich capable of being drawn out for the final apotheosis. which enters the groove in the floor in front of the 319 prompter's box. ten feet high. "THE TEMPEST. Panels made of canvas.

the letters being lighted by lamps behind the statue. is and is carried along by the Avaves to the front of the stage." The moment that Don Juan appears in front of the monument.320 there 3IAG1C: is STAGE ILTA'SIOKS AND SCIENTIFJC a frame IH V HUSIOSS. which supports a diinseiise representing the living is drawn to the middle of the stage by a cable attached to its right side. MISCELLANEOUS STAGE EFFECTS. which now appears in brilliant letters on the base of the monument." . sails in upon the stage. This movement may be produced by means of a common sea-saw. cne of the stage hands removes a strip of some opaque substance from behind the transparent inscription. In aerial TlIK UUAVKVAUn Sl'KNK IN TUK Ol'KIiA " DOti JUAN. The boat As the vessel. fixed prow of the vessel. freighted with covered w4th painted canvas resembling water. harmoniously grouped spirits and uaiads. passing around a windlass placed in the side scenes to It is at the same time pushed by stage hands placed in the interior the left. ''Here revenge awaits the murderer. the effect really beautiful. and does great credit to the stage machinist's art. The trucks or chariots which support the boat are entirely of the framework. with fairies and gracefvd genii apparently swimming about it. puts about and advances. In ballets the dancers are frequently represented as floating in the air. A rather curious illusion occurs in ''Don Juan." The monument of the Gubernator bears the inscrijition.

" .IG.THE APrAIUTIONS IX THE OPEKA OK " FIJEISCHUTZ.OOK IN THE OI'EItA "HANS HEII." THE ENCHANTED 21 r.

by means of a powerful light. the mechanism nsually being in the form of a trolley.LET. and other like devices behind the scenes. and other hideous noises are produced by means of whips. . etc. is caused to sway in the same way. and in others the uncanny creatures are painted upon a canvas roll and are projected. and in the appearances of angels. screeching. special devices are provided in up-to-date theatres. Hissing. as shown The palm the stage. snapping. tree in the ''Queen of Sheba.IS (BAT. upon a scene representing clouds. clappers." which bends of the tree are in the sirocco. THE FLOATING WIIJ.) The enchanted book black thread which in our engraving.322 ballets MAQIC: STAGE ILLUSIONS AND SCIENTIFIC DIVERSIONS. in some cases a movable scene is used. is in the ojiera " ITans ITeilig " is operated by means of a manipulated by an attendant behind the scenes. rattles. schiitz The army of demons and ghosts which pass over the stage in the " Frei" manage in various ways. whistles.. by means of a black line whicli runs back of The branches mounted on steel spi'ings.

The stairs at the center right and the left give access to the various parts of the building. The two columns are and weight. The temple appears and be of great size. and with his outstretched arms hurls the columns piece of to the ground. as they are really of great size another rope runs over the pulley to the windlass." to The and stage setting is very comjjlicated. To the interior of each column is secured an This lever is iron lever which passes down underneath the floor of the stage. there is no danger of injury specially interesting. The demolition of the temple quickly follows. number of persons are on the stage during this act. most imposing. AVlien the moment has arrived for the destruction of the temple. 323 THE DESTEUCTION OF THE TEMPLE OF DAGOX. as in the destruction of tlie it is frequently necessary to represent the wholesale destruction of a building or city. A very COLUMNS large IN THE TEMPLE OP DAGON. so that to the artists or chorus. each scenery falling in the exact place arranged for in advance. In the pvoductiou of Grand Openi ways. To the end From the counterweight which passes over pulleys to a counterweight. Samson places himself between the two columns. Two columns in the middle of the scene are specially noticeable on account of their great size. In reality the columns are hinged to the stage. This is managed in various Temple is of Dagon in the third act of " Samat the son and Delilah. a rope is secured this lever of bent like the bascule of a bridge.THEATER SECRETS. When the columns are to .

in a blaze of and seem to strain every nerve. be overthrown." d'U MAOTC: STAGE ILLUSIOKS ASD SClEXTIFIC nrVERSIO^*S. the landscape. After an instant of darklight. The two principal plays in which the horse race has been used are Neil [son] Burgess's clever and popular play. When at last the finish is near. desired. but we think the American invention tlie At the proper moment is set large screw shown in the lower part of our engraving the horse race up to the level of the The lights It lifts the mechanism of had previously covered it. only a few feet. and is them The scenery back turned by means of an at motor arranged may be unwound any rate of speed. also in a direction contrar}^ to forward motion of the horses. . their weight is btikiuced by the counterweight secured to the end of the rope. is the actual movement The The space between the of pickets fence ant! the scenery of the horses. so that there is little shock from the fall. 'J'he number fastened to an endless is pickets run in guides Avhicli hold rigidly i)erpendicular during their passage over the stage. " The County Fair. one of the horses gradually Avorks forward and becomes the winner by a neck as he approaches the judges' stand. and after a few moments of inky in motion by the electric motors. very similiar. as well as the fences. in the theater are turned out. all restraint and really gallop. and the horses are pulled u]} in front of the judges' pavilion and the race is Avon. Avell matter of traces. but the ground disappears nnder their tiie moving in a direction opposite to that of the fly j^ast run. and it is doubtful if auy stage illusion is more ingenious. THE HORSE RACE OX THE STAGE. is The illusion in both of the plays is we have prefer- mentioned able. ness a flash of light follows. fourteen feet. The rapidity of the descent of the column is equal to the rapidity of the rise of the counterweight. and. is fact. ail ^^e have here a real effect plus iHusion. Fences and trees disappear behind them with startling rapidity." and aErench play called *" Paris Port de Mer. they are secured by Avire rope As the is race nears the finish. floor. The horses are free from feet. each ridden by a jockey. tlie horse race upon the stage was a decided novelty. fairly flying past the varied landscape. of course. instead of nu)ving forward. flexible endless This result is accomplished by means of three platforms as a passing over rollers at the sides of the stage. It will readily be seen that these weights can be adjusted to give any effect The same windlass serves to raise both counterweights. the platform on Avhich the Avinning horse stationed gradually slipped forAvard on a track provided for the purpose. These moving platforms enable the horses to be in rapid motion Avithotit actually moving forward. "When first introduced. race upon the stage without going out of sight of the spectators. In both of these plays three horses. Avhicli blackness the flying horses appear at the side of the stage. of the stage electric carried so by two powerful tliat it rollers. Avhich gives ample space for free action fence in the foreground consists of a belt. being.

The illusion is further heightened by the way in which the horses' manes are tossed about. of our engraving will is hand corner motor. In the extreme lower riglitbe seen a blower actuated by an electric to a large Air from this blower conducted funnel which discharges ." accomplislied in a very novel manner. ]\[uch of the effect of the scene is :}. due to the speed with which the electric from extreme darkness to brilliant light. lights are flashed KLECTKKAL UE VICES This is IN "TIIK tUUNTY KAIK.THEA TEll SECRETS.

the ordinary treadmill. scene An appropriate background be may be used. cause the rotation of the disk as in a horse power. by an air motor. Our engraving is from " The Electrical World. The belt is supported by wooden rollers which are i)Iaced very close together and revolve on The drum at the left of the stage is driven directly by the motor. Our other engraving shows the arrangement as used in the French play. on the surface of the turntable to turn the same. common The shaft so that they will rotate independently. taut by a third a series of pivots. In the meantime the jianorama is moving in the direction opposite to that in which the horses are supposed to be moving. One or more horses are placed upon the turntable at any desired point between the panorama and the front of the They are held back in the same manner as in stage. and the shaft carrying the disks it may moved across the so as stage by journaling to in a four-wheel truck. and works across the proscenium opening. An American. the flooring being removed permit of this horizontal movement. as in the Burgess illusion.326 MAGJG: STAOE ILLUSIONS AND SCIENTIFIC DIVERSIONS. Chapman. of course. invented another scheme for proillusion. This causes the horses' manes to be the air just out of sight of the audience. *' The tracks are formed of an endless matting of cocoaParis Port de Mer. relative positions may be governed by paying out which pass over windlasses. and are then started." Burgess himself. or turntable. and this gives the illusion of real running. Mr. or drawing in the The runners. " nut fibre. horses actinia. . jilan for producing the illusion of Two or more disks or wheels of appropriate size are secured to a contestants. operated by hand. This operation is accomplished by means of the gear connection between the rollers of the panorama and the the same as that used in horse powers. Neil[son] Burgess devised another a horse or other race. which is usually manipulated by Mr. and will not advance until the wire is slackened. All of the complicated electrical apparatus is driven from a single switchboard at the right. is Mr. blown in all directions. ducing the same He devised a circular track. The wheels are of different diameters. Frank M. which unwinds in a minute and a quarter. somewhat A panorama is carried by rollers. Tlie fence is mounted on an endless belt. so that the larger will afford a clear j^ath for the racers are held back by wires and their wire. and is operated The panorama. This belt runs over drums at each side of the stage and is made drum on a level M'itli tlie stage floor.

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Suddenly Siegfried enters. and Mime chuckles with delight when he thinks that after Siegfried has forged the sword and conception.from her long sleep on the fire-guarded rock on which she was put to sleep by Wotan as a punishment for disobedience in sheltering Sieglinde. JMime is seen hammering the sword." out to the forest." third evening of the " Ring of and adventnres of yonng Siegfried. clad in a dress of skins. It is called the " Welding Siegfried " is the second drama and the life the Nibehmg. and ])e<'uliarly Wagnerian . The young hero now begins to set to work to forge the sword. After Siegfried and ]\Iime have indulged in a dialogue. cave with openings leading A large anvil and a few tools the bellows alone appearing complete the equipment of the siegfiued's force. to be artificial. grasping it. ^fime retires behind the forge. from his childliood nnder the care of the dwarf smith Mime. and finally strikes it upon the anvil. forge. the former jumps up and goes towards tlie sword.MAGIC: STAGE ILLUSIONS AND SCIENTIFIC DIVERSIONS. The scene in its of the welding of the sword magniticent. killed is the dragon he will is ])()ison him.328 . but the result does not seem to be satisfactory. until he wakens Briinnhilde. whereupon it is broken. and accompanied by a bear wliich he captured." It is devoted to the of the Sword. THE EFFECTS '' IN "SIEGFRIED. As the curtain rises. he tries it with his hand. The scene is laid in a large rocky The forge is built out of rocks. Siegfried forces ]\lime to tell him the story of his parentage. Mime then brings out the pieces of the broken swoi'd which the dying Sieglinde had left as a legacy to the child. The first act of " Siegfried " is particularly charming.

it rises and rises nntil there is a roaring blaze. and. He now wishes to test its temper. faint idea of the realism of this scene. thfe stage AVhen Siegfried goes to the forge and heaps ou the . which the anvil to the ground. spectators by painted The top of the table is quite well hidden from the work which masks the front of the forge so that the The gas mechanism for obtaining the light effects from the top is disguised. the forge and anvil the forge. Mime. and then rivets on the handle. At each stroke of the fitfully npon Siegfried and upon the walls of the cave. breaks the mold which surrounds it. He then heats the blade of the sword in the forge and proceeds to the anvil. he heaps coals upon the open hearth. Siegfried places a crucible in bellows handle the fire rises higher and higher. files it. At last Siegfried finishes the sword and he says: " Rescue! Rescue! Welded anew! To life once more I have waked thee. Supported by a square frame of hewn timbers posed of hides fastened together with rings. Going to the forge. thou smith So smiteth Siegfried's sword! " flashest — T. producing a most realistic impression. and in it puts the pieces of the broken sword. P. the front of whicii covered with canvas to represent rocks.T<irl:>tnn'>t irrtion. by means of a lever secured to the top. He now places the sword in a vise. lilend thou the blatant Now with thy blaze! Fell thou the false ones. Rend thou the rogues! See. is raised it is not noticeable. he takes up the crucible with a pair of tongs and pours the fluid metal into a clay mold. When Siegfried judges that the sword has cooled sufficiently. . now be asked how the very clever illusion Our engraving gives an idea of the rear is of of It consists of a rough table. one of which is provided with a small burner which is kept constantly lighted. striking it a smart blow. sparks following Those who have never seen " Siegfried " can form but a which taxes the resources of the property It will master to the utmost. At each stroke of the hammer the sparks fly. thou fiercely and fair. The heated metal coming in contact with the water causes the steam to rise. is connected with the forge by means of two pieces of rubber hose. falls is 329 the bellows. as it is turned down until the flame coal. raising is it aloft. and gradually fans The light shines the fire. Before the curtain is l)lue. is produced.— THEATER SECRETS. Grasping the mold with a piece of cloth. giving a tremendous blow to the anvil. When the pieces appear to be melted. the midst of the fire. he takes it from the trough and. he l)rings it down. Dead hast lain Now In ruins long. cleft in twain. which is The leatlier cylinder rises comand Siegfried goes bravely to work. he carries it to the rough-hewn tempering log trough and throws it iu.

The lamps are arranged on two circuits those in tJie middle on one circuit. This is adTiiE DIVIDED ANVIL. As soon as the Are is supposed to rise to any height the glare of it is cast upon Siegfried's face. By hand pipe. This is accomplished by means of incandescent lamps which are arranged one on each side of the rose burner and three just in front. manipulating the valve. as required. and the electrician lights them and dims them. THE KOKGING OK THE SWOKD IN SIEGFRIED.. The instant the gas reaches the rose burner it is ignited by the jet which was kept lighted. called the '^ gas man " turns on the gas so that it flows through the other which ends in a rose burner at the top of tlie forge. The wires run into the Avings. . by means of rheostats. mitted by a stage hand in the wings. the quantity of gas is regulated so that the flame burns high or low as desired. and those on the back of the forge on another circuit. in the painted work which masks the front of the forge. Steam is used to give the effect of smoke. 330 31AGIO: STAGE ILLUSIONS AND SCIENTIFIC DIVERSIONS.

Mime showing the way to WwwQ then leaves Siegfried alone to his fate. A quantity of the powder was blown out at each stroke of the bellows. its under and outer side having the corner cut off for the purpose. he really strikes a spring which lets one half of the anvil fall. which gives the i)ossessor unlimited power. as shown in our It is arranged so that when the bow piece of iron at the top comes engraving. language. but the result is a failure. We have There are other interesting properties and illusions in " Siegfried. The anvil upon which Siegfried sword has one side covered by a piece of corrugated iron. and Avhen the flame Avas to rise. and another piece of iron is over it. ent way. and when he tempers the encases the which into the trough the mold drilled iron pipe. thus producing the effect of the gaseous flames from blacksmith's coal and its sparks. The quantity of steam admitted depends risen. sits down tliat beneath the linden tree and listens to the voice of the bird. of a a cave which shelters "Fafner. and at the left. Mime and Siegfried approach. He then takes up his silver horn and blows several blasts upon it. AYhen Siegfried sword and brings it down upon the anvil. " " series of begin a now sword Kescue. the steam The trough is also pipe is connected with the steam pipes at the side of the stage by means of a is hose Avhich from view. no comprehension as yet of the song of the birds. he blew lycopodium powder into it from a box underneath the top of the forge. pro- and steam. When Siegfried throws connected with a steam pipe. Under the top of the forge will be noticed a shelf on Avliich are kept two This enables Siegfried to substitute the swords as becomes necessary. which A man was placed under the forge. sword. he could understand its He wishes he nuikes a rude musical instrument with which he attempts to imitate the bird's notes. The l)urticles of the volatile powder caught fire when they came in contact Avith the gas jet. He has. greatest bined with the in a slightly differobtained effect was in the fire. six by twelve inches. The sword. cutting a reed. however. just seen how Siegfried has forged his " Gotterdammerung. the burned was House. but the sound of the horn has awakened Fafner." the his death in end with wonderful adventures which only ' ' The second linden tree. This from supplied a steam is rises. is act of " Siegfried " takes place in a forest in which is seen a great The whole stage is covered with rocks. aiul. carefully covered strikes in forging the in contact with the lower piece a at each stroke of the raises his momentary short is circuit is produced. swords. so that hammer a shower of sparks produced. Avhich include the mysterious ring and the Tarnlielmet.THEATER SECRETS. strike the anvil. 331 to -wliich the fire is is upon the height supposed to have It may thus be seen that the effect of the lighting electricity. as will be seen from our engraving." a giant who has taken the form dragon in order to protect the treasures concealed in the cave. which must be comold forge at the Metropolitan Opera In the possible art. and here is kept the sword with a firmly riveted hilt which he finally uses to duced by a clever combination of gas. The hideous creature moves forward from the cave and says: . at the back. Avho appears in the mouth of *" Who the cave. The youthful hero tlie cave. The new arrangement is considered to be more desirable.

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but the tendency the rear of the stage. The body of the dragon is of cloth. must be arranged so that it can be worked by two men. and finally sinks upon the ground. and each line and horny scale and boss was the result of careful calculation. it is is must be capable of considerable movement and must give the apjiearance of great size. unless we can admit there is a beauty of ugliness.ind Opera which are more interesting. with tlie intenin wounding him slightly. dragon as far as trate is is now to retire the The dragon which we illus- the creation of Mr. He puts his fingers to his mouth to is suck the blood. his hand becomes sprinkled off Avith blood. of course. Tlie now enraged dragon belches forth a snlphurons breath. The young Siegfried seems no match for the enorliis " Then. The dragon has almost seized Siegfried -when the latter succeeds The aninud rears up on his fore feet. In the i)resent instance the head of the dragon was modeled in clay. he exjioses his breast so that Siegfried is enabled to plunge his sword into the monster's heart. In doing tion of hurling himself upon the intruder in order to crush him. Siedle. from a scientific point of view. and somewhat resembles some It now animals of bygone geological times. tlie curse of the dwarfs. impossible along without the ugly beast. after a moment's teeth. but. used. He gives one the of idea of something half siuike. theproperty master of the Metropolitan Opera House. supremely ugly. Independently of this. and by means of this the the shoulders of the man who plays the hind legs moves the head up and down. hears the forest bird again. Avho are inside it.xtiuct is.TlfEATEn art thon ? SECRJ^T.'^. A long lever of iron runs from Fafuer's head through his body. it was painted dark green. half crocodile. this. however. different shades were. The feet and The claws of the dragon are pulled on by combination overalls and boots. and from this another plaster cast was made. the finest of his race. without doitbt. it is doubtful if there are any properties connected with modern Gr. He now matter is. tlie legs aiul feet are not attached to it. wliile his eyes gleam with a very wicked light. Fafner liis Siegfried seizes mous beast. fact of the it The written the music-drama so that would have been much better if Wagner had the dragon would have been killed off into the opera. After the papier mache work was finished. coiiversution. of course. upon which the actual head was built up out of papier mache. Fafner rears up still higher. and the dying monster sings of the race of the giants and At last he dies. it the stage. The problem which presents itself to the property master in As the dragon building the dragon is an interesting and ditficult one. but are put on by the two men who operate the dragon. uljj jaws. to get Having once been jmt 2:)ossible to was. man who takes the part of the fore feet wears a heavy belt with hooks on the side to carjT the Avires Avhich furnish the current for the electric lamps in the eyes. and as Siegfried withdraws the sword. . displaying opens liis tremeiitloiis sword and confronts Fafoer. cannot be said that the dragon Fafner a thing of beauty. After the head was modeled. and this time he able to understand the language. and a rubber hose by which the dragon is enabled to breathe a sulphurous breath. a plaster of paris mold was taken from it. the first man being the fulcrum. tlie Fafner e.

and the jaws are freely hinged. The scene is laid at night. as the enormous body is very difficult One man works the steam while the other to manage. The third act of " Siegfried " opens in a wild. who never appears " Siegfried. They then waddle along to the opening of the cave. to to Briinnhilde is actuated by clock- When starts. as does also the steam pipe which furnishes the breath of the monster. " with l^h'da. add- ing greatly to the terrible appearance of the monster. crosses the stage on is wire from right to seen at the left. the two men who are to act as the legs of the dragon get inside the body and are means of hinges. they are covered over with painted silk. m. and there is considerable thunder and lightning. The enormous red tongue can also be moved by the first man. Avhich appears to be left. to escape tail l)y The steam wood is allowed from the mouth and through the nostrils. Before the entrance to a cavern in the rock stands Wotan. the clockwork is set in motion and makes the wings the audience flap. The antennae can be moved by means \ upper jaw and the feelers. Behind this are incandescent lamps which are turned on and off fitfully by one of the stage hands behind the drop scene which represents the mouth of the cave. and a third one further away. attends to the lighting of the eyes. just as the curtain upon the wonderful scene. which adds to tlien ehiborately fastened the effect. This one Siegfried folfalls lows to the rock of the Walkure. still further back. or he may bo in the wings. The it bird which is seen going across the stage and leading Siegfried work. After Siegfried kills the dragon. the same. as a greater bore than in this act of After a seemingly interminable conversation she vanishes and Siegfried ajipears. Another bird. The eyes are set in what ajipear to be enormous saucers.ii"i in the fore legs moves tlio The painted cloth body might be likened to lows. In either case he sings through a speaking trumpet. After WOTAN 8 SI'KAll. rocky path at the foot of a high mountain. the stage hands go at once to extricate the two men from their uncomfortable position. assisted by several of the stage hands. The singer who takes the part of Fafner may Ije disposed in two ways. about over. The wires run to the tail. a camera belof cords. . considerable conversation between Siegfried and Wotan.334 3IA0IC: STAGE ILLUSIONS AND SCIENTIFIC DIVERSIONS. When the first act ' ^s^ by the stage hands. he may be either under the raised bridge upon Avhich the monster stands. The consists of a number is of sections of articulated It is covered with painted cloth.

rise flames and steam in front. into the scene plunges changes. in the shell of the top part of the spear. part rises. and a perforated section A perforated steam pipe is also provided. holding his sword. Now. some red. 335 Siegfried advances to the latter. follows. consists of a divided shaft. As the sandpaper ])asses the matches. " Siebel. At fierce glow the length the pales. Wotan's spear. Siebel plucks a golden tulip which shines as he lifts it up to him. as shown in our engraving. advances to a bed of tulips. put narrow section of flooring being taken up. and some gold. it lights matches secured by holders in the center of the lower part A piece of sandpaper is secured to a little door which opens of the spear. thus compressing a coiled spring. it lights them. jjrotected by the sea of flames. The illusion is very clever indeed. it is caught by a catch. No sooner does Siebel examine it than ." But. Concealed in the corolla of each flower is an electric lamp. as in the third act of the Walkiire. to pluck a bouquet that he would leave upon her window to speak for him. which has once before been shattered on the same shaft. which lights flash A lightning flash and a flash of paper concealed in the end of the spear. one part of which telescopes with the other The upper part of the spear is forced down over the lower. AVhen the spring is compressed sufficiently. and Briinnhilde is seen in deep sleep. a Arrangemeiits are provided at the Metropolitan Opera House so that an steam can be made to rise across the whole length of the in instead. when Siegfried strikes the spear Avith his sword. THE BED OF TULIPS AND THE ELECTRIC FIREFLY. A fearful flash of Siegfried fights with Wotan and hews the spear in pieces. thunder usually accompany the breaking of the spear. the would-be lover of Marguerite. Now Mephistopheles had long before warned Siebel " Every flower that you touch Shall rot and shall wither. Wotan presses a button which releases the upper jiart of the spear. entire curtain of stage. for a few inches. A " very pretty electrical effect has been introduced in the garden scene in Faust. but it was found that the matches were simpler and more reliable.: TBEATER SECRETS. Formerly an electric spear was used. setting fire to a small quantity of gun cotton. in order that he may reach the summit of the mountain upon which Briinnhilde sleeps. and Siegfried's horn is heard thunder fire. some white. unheeding. The coiled As the upper spring is sufficiently strong to throw it off from the lower part. he as and represents the summit of a rocky mountain peak. A fine wire which carries the current keeps the lamp aglow and is not seen as it trails along the foliage.

is easily produced. he transfers them back again. each glowing with a rich light for Mephistopheles may not raise his hand against the power of what has been blessed." a red incandescent lamp is placed in a tiu box which AYIien tlie light is turned on. the current is cut otT. and instantly they fade but they gleam again when. and discovers it to be Siogmund. or. is painted so as to represent a knot in the tree. This beautifnl illnsion . Tiny incandescent lamps are affixed to the reeds and rushes in a swamp. so that it would appear to be a single flrclly darting hither and. by pressing a number of keys. The operator. will they wither?" Then with his other hand he plucks a red tulip. remembering it was with the other hand that he had touched the holy water. " What. faded! Ah me! Thus the Sorcerer foretold That should I at the fair: touch a blooming flower. alternately lights up one and then another lamp. thither. and the flower grows dull and withers perceptibly. THK IJKD OF ET. The electric firefly " . In " Die Walkiire. it causes a red glow on the hilt of the sword. a white and a golden one and holds them up triumphantly. in It shall wither. Our engraving shows the manner of placing the lamp behind the weeds and rushes. through the medium of wires in a switchboard.— ooij JLiOiC: STAGE ILLUSIONS AND SCIENTIFIC rHYERSTONS. raises liaud. partly concealed. each lamp being connected by means of a fine wire to a storage battery. liis Mephistopheles. by pressing upon the keys of the switchboard. any number up to a dozen or more could be lighted. now. Then he . But my hand holy water FlI bathe See. in his hiding place. changes the flowers from one hand to the other. which has been used in the play of the " Kaffir Diamond depends upon a somewhat similar device.ECTIUC FLOWERS.

" 77/ AM 7'A7. the torch. the torch is of moderate size and elegant form. which the world is indebted to the Erench inventor M. conductors. have already given several interesting examples of electricity upon the We now The present some engravings of theatrical the electric torch and electric jewels for Ti-ouve. We stiige. of Genius in his liand. THE ELECTRIC TORCH AXH ELECTRIC JEWELS. The and accumulators are six in number. holding the torch. lamp A\ithont the use of ]\l. is They are of the Plante variety have lead plates. first three occupy the upper part of the and the three others the lower part. In the mythological ballet.' SECh'ETS 337 ELECTKIC FIUEKLIKS. Saint-Saens' " Ascanio. An incandescent lamp scarcely concealed under colored glass jewels solves the Tiie principal difficulty was to light this problem. electric torch Avas devised for use in ^[. Trouve constructed some portable accumulators which are placed in the torch. which should furnish the electrical current desired. and innst be brilliantly illuminated from twelve to fifteen minutes at each ])erformance. 23 Each of the elements ])laced in the interior of a cylindri- . Phoebus appears among the ]\Inses.

weighs four hundred and twenty grams (fifteen ounces). so that at the least pressure the lamp is lighted. and it is extinguished when the pressure ceases. and is capable of furnishing electricity to supply the torch for two presentations. H^^^^^m^^^giffWli'^J .338 MAGIC: STAGE ILLUSIONS AND SCIENTIFIC DIVERSIONS. A small contact button is placed above two buttons. Our engravijig cal piece shows Madame Torri in the rSle of Phoebus. The batfcei-y as a whole of thin glass covered witli gutta perclia.

Trouve.THEATER SECRETS. Wlien the two swords come in contact they cause bright sparks to flash.— EXTERNAL AND INTEUNAL VIEWS OF THE TORCH. the lamp . trie is upon the person. a fifteen candle-power lamp is lighted. but for a novelty in dress. The two swords and the two cuirasses are extremities of the poles of a bichromate battery carbattery carried also due to ried by the combatants. and when one of the swords touches the cuirass of the adversary. It is rather simpler than the device which we will show for producing sparks from the sword in the duel." and M. Another interesting effect which is produced with the aid of a small Fm. and remains lighted during the contact of the point of the sword with the cuirass. shows a number of these cal 339 theatri- electric jewels which are used not only for to a ballet costume. is used in the duel scene in " Faust. The jewels are very effective when attached give on page 341 an illustration of a danseuse as she appears and we when adorned elec- with this glowing electric jewelry. purposes. 2.

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FIG. 341 of course. the apparatus shows the location of the blows without the atus possibility of contesting it. in front of the cuirass. but has been tried in the fencing gallery during an assault.CTRTC JEWELS. . 4. lu furious sword ])]ay the two swords touch reciprocally the two opposite cuirasses.— DATVSKUSE WF.F. both lamps are simultaneously illuminated and give a considerable light around the combatants. This apparis not only useful in the theater.AKING RT. is.THEA TER SECRETS.

the devil. Our illustration which forms the frontispiece of the present work is designed to show the methods adopted to produce the wonderfully beautiful effects which have characterized the dance. a . stands by. The performance is executed in a darkened theater. nothing apparent to indicate the possession of supernatural powers by Mephistopheles. pane of heavy plate glass set in the floor of the stage permits the projector A beneath it to produce its effects. brother of Marguerite. whose reputation is now world-wide. Every time that Mephistopheles interposes the sword and strikes up the contending weapons. sword in hand. The duel takes place at a part of the stage where two plates of These plates are connected with the electi'ic Copper nails are driven into one shoe of Valentine and one shoe of When they draw Faust. comprising more arm movements than foot movements. perforated near its periphery Avith a number of apertures. ready to aid him. requiring. which are in contact. effect was obtained a few years ago It will be Valentine. As Faust is unfamiliar with the use of the sword. In the duel scene in " Faust. by slow motions. iuteri:)osing his weapon when Valentine In former productions of the opera there was presses the student too closely. copper are sunk into the flooring. current. over a hundred yards of material." a striking at the ]\Ietropolitan Opera House. and there is nothing to show the presence of any electrical connection.342 MAGIC: STAGE ILLUSIONS AND SCIENTIFIC DIVERSIONS. AN ELECTRICAL DUEL. and the wires run up their bodies to the swords. in the guise of Mephistopheles. THE SKIRT DANCE. The performer. so as to be adapted for flooding the figure of the danseuse with light. When Valentine receives his death wound. they are then connected with the copper plate. and the gi'eater control thus obtainable adds immensely to the effect. causes the light drapery to wave about in most graceful curves. it is said. wands are used to extend the reacli in the direction of the lines of the arms. and as he falls the sword flies from his hand. standing on the stage and dressed in voluminous attire. Each projector has mounted is in front of it a disc about three feet in diameter. The famous skirt dance may be defined as peculiar in the sense that it is not a dance as generally understood in stage parlance. four in the wings and one below the stage. their swords they insert the wire into the hilts by means of a plug. To add to the effect. This dance was made famous by Miss Loie Fuller. Colored gelatine fastened over most of these apertures. he throws out the plug connecting his sword with the electric current. fights remembered that the soldier with Eaust. The variety of shapes and contours that can be produced by a skilled performer is endless. the sparks fly furiously and the weird crackling sounds are heard as in lightning. A number of projectors are distributed.

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The filmy veil is pure white. The theater being pitch dark. is a comjiosite performance in the sense that the dancer fills only a part of the functions. skilled operators are absolutely essential at the projectors. except wliere one may be left for of tiie per- white liglit. The operators at the projectors follow the movements former. It is obvious that he mnst give great attention to his focusing. One projects of the prettiest effects is produced by a magic lantern operated from left hand in the cut. wind. using regular lantern slides. but as the dancer approaches the opening in the stage floor the veil turns to a fiery red. which suddenly changes to an ardent flame again^ as if the fire . and some very beautiful statues have been based upon its cloudlike variations of form. One of the most startling effects is the flame dance. The operator upon the drapery different figures and designs. She It is needless to say that it can appear in any color or combination of colors. tion of heavy black smoke. misty drapery act as the screen for his projections. and the flames wave to and fro as if they were being blown by the Shadows are then thrown on the veil and produce an exact reproduchad broken out anew. making the flowing. and can prodnce an almost infinitely extended range of effects by varying the colors thrown by each projector. different color being nsed for opening.oU MAGIC: STAGE ILLUSION'S AND SCIENTIFIC eiicli DIVEJi'SlON'S. the dancer can be brought slowly into view and can be made to slowly disappear by manipulation of the projectors. The slight idealization required in representing the soft forms of waving drapery in the solid material of the sculptor's art has given most graceful and characteristic the front of the stage and shown on the effects. The skirt dance has won the attention of artists.

'''' It is fill two distinct roles . When the arena is to be used for performances in the ring the plate is covered with a mat of esparto Aveighing about one thousand pounds. The circular hall is one hundred and ten feet in diameter. engraving. It is the tank then being the work of a moment to raise the then provided for horses and men.CHAPTER V. The building was originally used for a cyclorama. a prominent part go back to the time of the The Paris aquatic theater is is a very called ated in the liue St. A little catch is provided to secure the its proper height. by letting a little of the water escape. were flooded. B\^ this means the ends of the radial girders are brought over twenty shoes fixed to the twenty columns. plate. and mimic sea figlits took place in galleys carryi]]g gladiators who fought to the death. Spectacular entei'tainments in which water played Romans. was a few years ago one of the sensa- London and Paris. THE NAUTICAL ARENA. or sometimes the entire arena. Our engraving represents the removal ol the mat before sinking the staj^e. Avhen portions of the arena of the amphitheater. it is a circus for equestrian. and the plate is guided in its movement by guide firm floor is A bars fixed vertically around the outer plate in position. Over this gallery and the water are constructed tiers of seats. rail. while during the summer it becomes a huge swimming bath. and handsome building. This arrangement permits of the water being maintained at such a height as to provide a shallow tank for those who cannot swim. with a gallery running around it. This plate can be sunk below the level of the water. It is situthe " Arene Nautiqve. gymand aquatic performances. The tions of nautical arena. Ilonore. In the lower part of this hall is a circular tank seventy-nine feet in diameter. In the center is is placed a powerful hydraulic cylinder. as shown in our intended to nastic. or aquatic tlieater. To the top of the piston rod affixed a large iron plate forty-four feet in diameter. it When has attained a more than is caused to rotate slightly on its vertical axis . it by an endless screw. first. available for aquatic performances. The rise of the piston is caused by a compound pump. but was entirely remodeled when put to its new use. It is brought in on two iron trucks. The weight of the whole mass is about twenty-five tons. the radial girders settle themselves firmly down upon the shoes.

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. and at the moment of totality a Avonderful corona flashed into view. 1887.A1! IJKUI. As the sun ascended. Garrett P. tlie The scene gives the audience an idea of what astronomers mean when they attempt to describe ''W IMSi. the crescent diminished. and 19. near Berlin.IN. The lecture as nsed in the United States. AIICiUST I'. was rewritten hy Mr. IShT.CHAPTEli YL A TKIP TO THE MOOK title of an illustrated lecture which has heeu very popular in which was also produced in New York a few years ago. M<.t. The first scene is the reproduction of a solar eclipse as seen from t!ie shores of one of the small lakes called Ilavel. on the morning of August This is the Berlin. On this morning the sun arose with the greater jjortion of its disc obscured by the moon. Serviss. Its IIIK IIAVKI..

this The moon pas.ses t^lowly before the sun nntil the earth fully ilhiminated and the sky and are. imitations of celestial and terrestrial Interesting as these ])henomena so. ^ s:> \\Xc:. They a.T\A\^ ^ which they are effected is still more engravings give a peep behind the scenes and explain the means by which the illusion is produced. intercepts the The screen immediately below the horizon of the image luminary below that line. which carries and the other the corona slide. The trees and foreground are set in front of a transin 2Darent scene manner and our upon the back of wincli l)l. one of Two the crescent enly bodies. The waves that play niion the surface of the lake are '>UkM%. 340 THE PliOWUCTION OK THE SULAK wonderful phenomena.^\A'Qt .re mounted n2)on a box movable along the inclined side of a triangular frame by a drum and cord. is ECLU'SE.A TRIP TO THE MOON.ick. and are thus enabled to imitate the appearance and course of the heavoptical lanterns are provided. the opaque parts are silhouetted in leaving the sky and water translucent. the landscape assume a normal appearance.

and the development of full sunlight.850 MAGIC: STAGE ILLUSIONS AND SCIENTIFIC DIVERSIONS. This slide consists of glass screens upon which waves are painted. the sun. management of the foot and border lights. are perfectly coordinated to the changing condiThis part of the illusion is effected by the tion of their source. . produced by a slide in a third lantern. waves permits ribbons of light. The play of color and intensity of light produced by the revolutions of the earth and its passage througli the penumbra and umbra of the moon's shadow. to fall upon the screen and to give the effect of water ruffled by a breeze. of constantly varying position and width. These screens are actuated by three eccentricThe interference with these ally mounted rods set in motion by clockwork. MT. ARIHTAW IHIH. THE PLASTER IMAGE OP THE MOON.

showing the lunar mountains and other prominent features. The splendid scenes of Mt. five spective. These lights are red. permitting every possible combination and intensity of tint. the artist is enabled to represent the general features of the landscape with fidelity. The change of phase is produced from the light thrown from the lanterns.A TRIP TO THE MOO^. Our interest is intensified by a view froni a distance of thousand miles. By trigonometric mensuration of the shadows. and application of their values by persuccess of the scene. The plaster image of the moon. and the combined candle power is eight thousand SUNRISE AND EAUTU LIGHT. white. bunch lights and These scenes are lighted from behind by four arc lights. and blue incandescent electric lamps arranged in and controlled by a rheostat. . by footlights. as shown in the illustration. viewed through a circular piece of gauze set in a black drop. 361 CAPE LAPLACE. is ten feet in diameter. and to the intelligent manijinlation of which is due much of the series. Aristarchus and Cape Laplace are sjilendid pictures and are shown from the height of two and one half miles.

i) |. the earth always seems to SOI.352 MAGIC: STAGE ILLUSIONS AND SCIENTIFIC 1)1 VKh'SIONS. five tliis dead occupy the same The place.II-SK AS VIK\Vi.AK E(I. and reflects to the moon a part of the light received from the sun.|!(».M 'IIIK MOON. tlie This brings out the contrast cf tlie laudscape in world. llFSiilililil? BACK OP EARTH WITH GELATINE THE SUN BOX INTEUIOU AND THE BOX RISING. . ATMOSPHERE. From moon surface. phenomena of earthlight and sunligiit upon the moou are given by transparent Imndred oauclles.

In passing behind the earth. thus furnishing a continuous performance. the Tyrolean highlands. A modified arc liglit illuminates the front of the scene and gives the earth light. A coat of i)hosphorescent paint gives the glow. whose light is permitted to fall on the drop by gradually lowering the screen. The box hooks into a piece of leather with a circular aj^erture coincident with the sun's face. and suspended by two hooks set in a shelf extending across its back. raised by a windlass. is and as the sun accompanied by the stars. The surface of the moon is painted on canvas supported on hinged props having spread feet. A series of stereopticon views of great beauty are intersjiersed between the mounted scenes.A TRIP TO TEE MOOX. and a lunar eclipse are depicted with great accuracy. Probably the most unique of the cosmic phenomena is a solar eclipse viewed from the moon. The earth is an opaque disc with a red gelatine band attached to its circumference with white muslin. The gradual movement of a deep red gelatine film across the lantern-slide holder causes the moon to appear to enter and emerge from the earth's shadow. The sun consists of a box with a cover of gelatine on which the sun is painted. A stifE rod joins the hinges and forms the horizon. moonrise. 353 and lit up by a lantern. the sun imparts a crimson view to the earth's atmosphere. which the footlight transfers to the moon until the extinction of the solar disk. 23 . The return to earth is marked by a view of that part of the earth surface most resem- bling the moon's. The drop curtain carrying the sun box rises. places in the scene rejiresenting sky. The mountain on either side has each a lantern. a semicircular wooden arm incloses a reflector and supports six incandescent lamps set inwardly. Holes in the drop allow the light from an arc light to imitate the stars. A footlight is placed within this tent-like cover to illuminate is it. The afterglow of sunset. and sewed into the drop. A sunset on the Indian Ocean and moonrise on the first scene concludes the lecture. the footlight turned up.

hav^e exhibited a panorama in Paris at the beginning of the present century. the painting but curve slightly inward. Paul Philippoteaux. They arranged outside of their windows scenes Robert Fulton is said to painted on canvas that simulated extensive gardens. a twenty-five- pound weight The effect shape. The canvas was imported from Belgium. at the horizon line." which has been shown in New York. shown in our engraving. is of the stretching that the canvas loses the true cylindrical sides are no longer is foot in amount. The roller is held vertically in heavy framework which runs on tracks around the building. as From the roller thus carried around. the upper edge of the canvas is nailed to this cornice. Cycloramas have been on exhibition in many cities of the United States. the foregound. of the scene.. CYCLORAMAS. at Owing hand. Brooklyn. the most distant part about a foot nearer the vertical line than in the parallel. and other cities of the United States. to obliquity of the line of sight. its is hung at every third foot. is which seems so near really much further off than the horizon. and they are also very popular abroad. is foreground. The cyclorama which we illustrate is the " Battle of Gettysburg. As fast as it comes off the roller seized and held by pincers while the edge is being tacked to the cornice. at the center.CHAPTER VII. about one Thus. it is nine yards wide. The cloth is first rolled smoothly on an iron roller surfaced with wood. In absolute distance from the eye the difference still greater. and the seams run up and down. It was not. however. The lower edge is secured to a circle of gas pipes which run entirely around the building. necessary to have the scene portrayed with is The result that the landscape really an artistic tran- . the cloth is gradually it is j-jaid out. The immense canvas is supported from the sides of the building so as to form a C3dinder. none being manufactured in the United States which would answer the purpose. It was painted by M. The " Battle of Gettysburg " covers an immense sheet of canvas four hundred feet long and fifty feet high. As the pipe would not give sufficient weight to stretch the canvas. as is used in the cyclorama. The origin of the cyclorama is traced to the use of scenery by the Italians two or three hundred years ago. The building is circular. and the effect was not as illusive. it is is In a cyclorama of this kind the utmost fidelity. a cylindrical painting. and a cornice is provided which runs entirely around the building. fifty feet long.

Each view was divided into squares. one series being taken for the foreground. . of course. and caused a small stage to be erected at tliis point. as shown at the point B. script of photographic views of the field. Around the stage a line of pickets Avas driven in a circle. as shown in our illustration. The distance Avas measured from the top of the stage as a center. which was of the same height as that upon which the people were to stand in the completed cA'clorama. and the pliotographs were copied square by squnre. and selected one point of view. were devoted to the middle distance and background. while the other two. as shown in our illustration. The painting was (lone from a scaffold which traveled around on the same tracks which carried the roller frame. From the top of the scaffold three series of ten photographs each were taken. This series of photographs showed tlie entire field. the critical part of the perfornumce. the blending of the ten views and the aerial i)erspective was. their focusing by and exposure. 355 SECTION THROUGH A CYCLORAMA. the instrument being sighted by means of the posts.CYCLORAMAS. The artist first went to the scene of the great battle of Gettysburg. the canvas was marked off by corresponding divisions.

in fact. in oil. After the circular wall was covered. We give an interesting engraving of this method of construcfcinc. tufts of The continuation it wooden platform was huilt which extended all visitors stood.356 MAGIC: STAGE ILLUSIONS AND SCIENTIFIC DIVERSIONS. the foreground next claimed the attention of the A around the platform npon which the these boards. tinsel being occasionally employed. a realistic scene. I'llOTOUKAlMIING THE FIKLU. and earth and sod covered of grass. XA11. wheat.. see the line of was almost impossible to demarcation between the real and the painted foreground. The painting was done painter and his assistants. scene. lent their aid to fill up the the road was met almost perfectly on the canvas. etc. Fences. .N(^ ON TllK CANVAS.1.

the litter real. are seen carryiug a litter. A (. Once upon the platfigure resting The PAINTINC. The spectators occupy an elevated stage which they Jiiount ])V means of staircases running under the scatl'oldiug of the foreground. is Tlie the canvas.CYCLORAJIAS. on the litter and the nearer hearer are cut out of Other scenes are similarly jiainted. At night a number of electric suspended out of sight of the s2:)ectators. and cannot tell the points of the compass or have any conception of the size of the building. The sky is thus lighted up. Many of the details of the picture were obtained from eye-witnesses of the . and a peculiar luminous effect lights.Y( r. 357 Two men canvas. give about the same effect. favoring the aerial perspective results. two of its more distant soldier is painted ou handles passing through holes in the boards and ])ainted. Over the stage a circular screen is suspended so that it shades it from the light which enters from the skylight. form the spectators lose all idea of orieutatiou.()liA>rA.

the uniforms. their popularity seems to have been limited. the harness. a resident of Chicago. THE ELECTEIC CYCLORAMA. The to bring cyclorama we arc about to describe ought to be able panorama once more into fashion. Notwithstanding the fact that cycloramas of the pattern we have just described were the result of the most careful blending of science and art. thins: in modes of cari'ving the blankets. others into skating rinks One has been conand bicycle academies. details of battle. Chase. obliged to bow to tlie taste of the day. electric lighting. The idea of Mr. The possibility of causing a . verted into a circus. in numerous cases. the baildins^ combines to make a wonderful illusion. projection apparatus. still and the cyclorama has been.358 3IA0IC: STAGE ILLUSIONS AND SCIENTIFIC DIVERSIONS. Every- ^^^^HOW THE ILLUSION IS rHODUCED WITH KEAL OBJECTS. and the and the minor parts of the scener}^ were studied carefully. was to turn to account the most recent discoveries in the way of panorama photography. and the systems which permit of faithfully representing the phenomena of motion.

Upon the walls are thrown photographs placed in a projecting apparatus suspended from the center of the scenery. after the manner of a chandelier. circular platform. and is surrounded by an annular table supporting upon which are mounted the lantqrns. eight carriages. kineto- . Our second engraving shows the projection appara- An ordinary panorama building cylindrical tus. showing the lantern Nothing more is required to convert an ordinary cyclorama into an electric cyclorama than to paint the back canvas white and to suspend the carriages. The apparatus upon a is secured in the center of the panorama or cyclorama build- ing by a steel tube and guys of steel wire. Our first engraving gives a general view of the panorama as used at the " Chicago Fire "cyclorama. The operator stands in the center. gives the amount of time. platform in the center of the building. of imparting life diversity which cyclorama an animation and lacking in the ordinary panorama. cinematographs. and our third where a battery of lanterns are used. considerable 359 mimher is of views to pass before the spectator in a limited to tiiem. spectators stand upon the floor of a chamber one hundred feet in diameter aud thirty feet in height. is used.CYGL0RA3IAS. GENERAL VIEW OP THE CHASE ELECTRIC CYCLORAMA.

'i.kltion apparatus. TiiK . .o.PLATFORM FOR THE OPERATOR AND PROJECTION APPARATUS SUSPENDED IN THE CENTER OF THE HALL..

which permit of obtaining vanishing effects and night. suppress When the those parts of the views which would encroach upon one another.CYCLORAMAS. eight in number. The which support the lanterns permit of accurately adjusting views so that the registry is perfect. while the spectators are looking is The change of pictures not effected until everything in order. The eight positive slides produce a panorama three hundred feet in circumference and over thirty feet high. The rays which emanate from each of the projecting lanterns are such that they w^ould overlap did not a frame fixed to the lenses. are double. lanterns are properly arranged it is possible to project moving pictures upon any part of the canvas screen. one being ranged over the other. and ducing the transformation. and all arrangenieuts required for imparting life to the scene and proEach lantern i^ provided with an arc light. carriages . The annular table carries the rheostats by which the light is regulated. at another. ' 361 scopes. tlnis permitting and focusing is it. and carefully regulated. according to tlie effects to be produced with iris diaphragms. The projecting lanterns. or sunset of the preparation of a view. sunrise. the wires to furnish the current pass tlirough the suspension tube. effects.

SCIC. The love of show and the spectacular is inherent in human nature. An important factor in such spectacles is the display of fireworks.NKS KKADV KOI! I. As far back as 1879. and since that time tlieir popularity has been increased.CHAPTER VIIL FIKEWORKS WITH DEAMATIC ACCESSORIES. It perhaps more proper to speak of these entertainments as fireworks with dramatic accessories than to . one of New York's most popular resorts. so that now entertainments is of this chiss are given in comparatively small cities. .( )W KlilNO. Mr. in the love for which the Americans can sympathize with the Orientals. Games and entertainments on a col-ossal scale have always appealed to the popular taste. James Pain of London gave spectacular productions at Manhattan Beach.

.THE BURNING OF MOS( 0\V.

with these spectacles sometimes has as many as seven in use at one time. They LOW EKING A SCENE. of course. the stay An ami)hitheater is provided for tlie spectators in a rectangular enclosure which may seat as many as ten thousand persons. for the raison d'etre of the entire performance depends not upon the loosely hung together plot. The management.nds in which the scenery installed being of the This. greatly simplifies a same general dimensions in all cases. the refinements of acting would be entirely wasted. owing to the distance and darkness. move about from place to place. here will be found an artificial lake. The seats slope away until the water is reached. are as interchangeable as is those in any theater. call them dramas with fireworks. cities are visited. Strange as it may seem. change of perfoiunance. as regards the scenery. The performance is held in the open air. The company which has been prominently identified . . Behind the pond is a stage mounted with set scenes. these mammoth plays.3G4: MAGIC: STAGE ILLUSIONS A^'D SCIENTIFIC DIVERSIONS. so that in the course of a season thirty or forty varying from a week to a whole season.lily accessible. at either some popular resort or in some place where the grounds are rea. Of course. usually three hundred and eighteen feet long and one hundred and fifty feet wide. but on the gigantic display of fireworks. the gror. which is accompanied by enough of realistic stage setting and dramatic performance to give a good excuse for the performance. and the width of' the entire stage being three hundred and fifty feet. therefore.

The the fires. shells begin to fly over the doomed city. amid explosions. We scene select for the spectacles. Avhich has a sti-iking effect. burning serjients. SECTION THROUGH A SCENE. and. 365 depends almost entirely on the spectacular. The capital. The army of ISTapoleon now approaches. the band plays the solemn strains of the Russian national hymn. or some blood-curdling war scene. and after a gymnastic exhia true representation of the docks At each side appear arched stone bridges. The action of the drama is but brief. prisoners in the jails are liberated. The air is full of and the water is alive with incandescent . and the pyrotechnic display becomes The roar of the flames is heard. and collapse. the is " Burning purpose of illustration one of the most successful of these of Moscow " at the time of the French invasion. ings The conflagration now begins. the cast including companies of gymnasts and acrobats. and with torches prepare to light splendid. or clever a conflagration. the buildseem to be licked np by the fire. leaving charred remains. sentinels walk back and forth upon the walls of the Kremlin. and. while priests of the Greek Church render classical music of a somber character. The performance is so arranged as to lead np to some stirring catastrophe. The climax is generally awfnl cataclysm. the terrorized Russians rapidly disappear. as the beai'skins of the French grenadiers appear at the entrances at either side. bition of marching and countermarching by the actors.FIREWORKS WITH DRA3IATJC ACCESSORIES. and quays of the ancient Russian and the whole is surrounded by strong fortifications.

some parts turning on and all arranged so as to be quickly thrown down into such semblance of these spectacles the reader will ask of ruin as shall best carry out the idea the piece is iu- "^^ however. some of the best effects of the art of pyrotechnics are in the brilliancy lights shown and sustaining power of the various and colors given out by the rockets. as shown in the engraving. tliey i)roiluce fine effects. rear of pivots.^.K^^^ (j^'E. an aerial burst of rockets. The scenery is hinged and braced.366 MAOIC: STAGE ILLUSIONS AND SCIENTIFIC DIVERSIONS. Roman candles. Of course. The grand finale is figures. as shown in our engraving. Our last engraving shows how some of the firework effects are obtained. fire As they float around in the water. It is. only the work of a few hours to rehabilitate the entire scenery for use tended to represent. wheels. Having seen one effects are obtained. the next night. etc. stars. . other engravings show water serpents. water dolphins. how the i*emarkable Our illustrations show the scenery as viewed from the the stage. vast quantities of colored fire are also required to light the scene. The grand aerial bouquet of rockets consists of a battery of rockets which are Our discharged simultaneously from the stand. *V. and the floating fountains."o V-. In the performance which we have described.-\ FIHKWOIiKS. gold and silver rain.

" has been and quite a literature is centered about it. circular rack. AUTOMATO?^ CHESS PLAYEES. TOYS. entitled "Experimental Science. division of the work deals with interesting automata. George M. on a chest. We will first describe the one which operates by compressed air. which rests on a four-legged stool. The arm turning horizontally on the ])ivot. The subject of curious toys and science in toys is very fully treated in the excellent work of Mr. The present by the publishers of the present work. this chest is in turn supported on a glass tube. The bottom of chest and top of stool are covered with green cloth so as to make a toler- The right arm is extended as in the drawing. AUTOMATA. the card will be withdrawn from the pack aud ably air-tight joint. A very large number of devices and tricks of this kind have been published in the " Scientific American " and the "Scientific American Supplement^" and the ones which we select are among those which have been considered as the best." which is published toys. dressed as a Turk. automaton chess player. curious and miscellaneous tricks of an amusing nature. We present two forms of the "Psycho. A." is fixed by means of a bracket (not shown) in such a position that the edges come between the finger aud thumb. . and the other upon a small individual who is secreted in the cabinet. about twelve inches diameter and three feet long. in held in the air. AUTOMATA AND CURIOUS CHAPTER I. and a semiwhich are placed the thirteen cards dealt to " Psycho. Hopkins.BOOK IV. or " Psycho. sitting cross-legged (as shown by dotted lines) For a very long time tlie celebrated as the automaton. the hand can be brought over any jiart." one of which depends upon compressed air. Let us explain to those who have not seen " Psycho " that it consists of a small figure. aud by closing the finger and thumb and raising the arm.

la and lb (elevation and plan). . thus causA little higher on A will be seen ing the hand to traverse the thirteen cards. E and M have each a which would cause them to spin round if unchecked. however. drops l)etween any two of them.368 3IA0IC: STAGE ILLUSIONS AND SCIENTIFIC DIVERSIONS. is released. the wheels train of clockwork (left out for the sake of clearness) — — F/a. by depressing the end. it is obvious N. B will be set at liberty. bottle roasting-jack which turns A alternately to the left and right. edge of which are set thirteen little pins. p. thus causing the any desired card. has two pins. N. and the hand will move along the cards. In Figs. and by again to stop at that. The end hand of the lever. p p'.i % AN IMPHUVKl) PSYCHO. by raising it still more the i)in. 'The lever being pivoted at c. which catch on E' is a crown-wheel escapement like that in a a projection on the lever. by slightly raising it this motion will be arrested. 15 (see i»lan). and M l)egins to revolve. M. near the IS'. a (luudrant.

X. and Avhose health was j)layer that gravely compromised by this daily torture. the head appears to follow its motions. which is moved. if the hand moves round. France. the thumb closes and the card is lifted up. M train to regulate the speed. to balance the arm. 0.AUTOMATA. depreteing 369 N is this wheel will. has cogs cut. having a projection. On again raising N. the head also rises. Y Y. one of the attractions of it had been discovered that the manikin was motion. S and T. The figure should be so placed that the assistant can see the cards in the semicircular rack. B'. and then raising arm by pulley. it is N. and carries the catgut. continuing to exhaust. the arm will descend.is before. spiral springs to keep thumb open and head forward respectively. Russia. Vi. connected by a rod. in the jjosition shown. There should be a fan on each going accordingly. in which only one train of clockwork is used. In 1819 and 1830 a man named ^lelzer elbowed it anew in England. When N is raised. not by mechanical arrangements. will be raised or depressed. with an assistant with which behind the scenes. Robert-Houdin saw it in 1844 at the house of a mechaniciati of Belleville. by clockwork. iu its turu. named 24 . At E and R' are two pulleys connected by gut. X. \vithout the public succeed ing iu ascertaining its mechanism. . and stops the motion of A. T. which may be connected by a tube through the leg of the stool. pulls T and S. Z enters the cogs and stops the hand over a card. and connected with the head by and with the thumb by S. but by a youth of eighteen years. between which Z slides. and when raised by pulling S. Z. A is free to move. England. be stopped. By compressing or exhausting air throngh this tube it is obvious that the lever. AVhen X is slightly raised. inclosed within a cavity behind the wheel work. On the same axle as IT is fixed a lever and weight. and another tube beneath the stage. and the clockwork set is a crankpin set in M. forbidden the exhibition of the antonuiton the Exhibition Theater. Figs. jy' will catch and keep arm up. and exhibited i)i Germany. 2a and 2b show another and simpler arrangement. 1'his is connected with the tubular support. Near the bottom of the apparatus a bellows. The details of the clockwork we leave to the ingenuity of the reader. and b h. THE AUTOMATON CHESS PLAYER. and America. The lower j)art of X is connected direct with 0. If the lever is allowed to drop. A vertical rod. by means of T. This automaton recalls the famous Turkish chess iu was constructed Hungary by Baron Kempelen in 1769. which contains a spring tending to keep the lever. X. Hs a stop to prevent the elbow moving too far. The quadrant. because set in The newspapers announced some time ago that the police of Bordeaux had Az Rah. Thus. H. slides up and down iu guides. as shown. « catgut. the latter closing thumb. Further explanation seems almost unnecessary. but on exhausting air and drawing X down.

Our readers Az who have seen at the Exhibition will be enabled to decide the question after read- ing the description that we shall give. and placed behind a wooden chest on which was laid the chessboard. The empress took him at his word and expressed a desire that he should begin the Avork. then in great vogue. To show that there was nothing within but mechanism. and occasionally replaced certain mechanism after wheels. who stood near the automaton. and the mechanism appears wonderful only because all has been combined with great patience in order to produce the illusion. Since then is has been unknown. its fate Crouior. which was dressed in the Turkish style. one published and the other in 1789. on the other.370 3IAGIC: STAGE ILLUSIONS AND SCIENTIFIC DIVERSIONS. and The showman. in his own country. and. on the one hand. and as yet full of mystery. he shook his head. Kempelen was known as an ingenious amateur of mechanics.\periments which he had witnessed. as well as the four legs of in 1785. These two explanations gave a very imjierfect account of the facts. and two and onehalf feet high." the subject. doors were opened in the chest and body. The following is an exact description of the apparatus and the successive operations performed by the exhibitor: The chest was three and one-half feet long. that the Turk's body contained an extraordinarily snuxll dwarf. This automaton was a human figure of natural size. and in six months produced an automaton which played a game of chess against any one who offered himself. a Hungarian noble- Aulic Councilor of the Eoyal Chamber of the Domains of Hungary. and was provided with doors and drawers whose use will presently be seen. M. seated on a chair. he said that he believed he could make a machine that would be 'much more astonishing than anything that he had just seen. and else it is very probable the Eah of Bordeaux it nothing than the Turk of Vienna. and the persons man and an present having asked his opinion in regard to the e. De Kempelen returned to Presbourg. Baron Kempelen. and nearly always won it. two feet wide. that the showman acted upon the automaton from a distance by the aid of magnetic influences. were devoted to a discussion of them. He took the pieces up with his hand in order to play them. turned his head to the right and left in order to see them better. deposited it outside of the chessboard. removed the wrongly-played piece. There was also a magnet lying on the table to make believe that magnetism. being at Vienna. wound ujd the played his own. Many hypotheses were put forth on . De Kempelen was accustomed played a preponderating role in the affair. and nodded his head three times when he checkmated the king. Tbose that appeared to be most likely were. and two books. attacking the queen. and at every motion of the Turk were heard noises of moving wheelwork. to say: "The machine is very simple. every ten or twelve moves. was called to the court to be present at a seance of magnetism that a Frenchman named Pelletier was to hold before the empress. and the back part rested on the floor by two legs which. Tlie front part of the chair seat was affixed to the chest. and it was not until some years ago that the trick was unveiled in an anonymous book. and twice on If his adversary made a mistake. M.

.

A. opposite the it is door A. and opens the apertures. in front of the chest. he opens tlie door D. by a thick cui-tain. and containing two boxes. and the box M is stationFig. and 11). and shows a large closet lined at the sides with dark drapery. and it rested upon a cushion lying in a certain definite position. in fact. and is provided with a weight toward the interior of the closet sufficient to cause it to fall always in a vertical position. 2 A (Fig. 8). Finally the showman turns the Turk back to his former position. and a few belts and pulleys that seem to be designed for putting in motion the mechanism contained in the boxes. facing the spectator. held a pipe. eight in hoiglit. He opens the door (Figs. The box L is movable. The can. 1). He afterward locks the door B.r of the closet.: o72 3IAGIG: STAGE ILLUSIONS AND SCIENTIFIC DIVERSIONS. Next he turns the apparatus around so as to show the public the other side (shown in interior of the chest to Turk. and a cushion which he slides under the left arm of the automaton. from which he removes the chessmen. and. and then the game may begin. Tlien he passes behind and opens the door B and 8). at the beginning of operations. E and is hidden within. which was afterward removed. measuring fourteen inches in breadth. of unequal size. see the light shine show that it has not a false bottom. and serves to Jiide an aperture in tlic llo(. These doors remain constantly open afterward. This drawer seems to serve no other purpose than the preservation of these objects. This space is never shown to the spectator. IMie back part is empty and is sej)arated from the large closet that the doors C form. and introduces a light into spectators standing on the other side through the different pieces of mechanism through the dooi". The chessboard in front of the player was eighteen inches square. He then opens the two doors. provided with a light. We shall explain as clearly as possible how the game was directed by a man who succeeded in hiding himself by a series of movements when the different doors of the apparatus were successively opened The drawer C (J. when closed. 11. movable on the upper part of the chest that formed a table. by means of the same key. does not reach the back side of tlie chest. Tlie front part of the closet is entirely filled with the wheels that are thought to move the aiitonuiton. The little closet extending from A to B is separated into two parts by a dark hanging. L and M. removes the cushion and jiipe. that remains open. 10. and comes in front of the chest and oj)ens the drawer G. B. and allows to be seen a series of gearings that occupy the whole width of the chest. and two feet eleven inches in length (Figs. being only fixed at its upper ])art. 9. to show that no one — — . and raises the clothing of the F. The right hand of the manikin was the chest. and lowered when it is shut. but leaves between it and its back an empty space. Q. and introduces a light into the the interior to show that empty. of the bottom partition of the large closet C C the i)att in front of the 'J'urk is movable around a liorizontal axis. in the back and thigh. A part. and also the doors A and C. Then he closes this door again. which is raised when tiie door. which hangs freely. 2). C C. were provided with casters. 0. begins by allowing the interior of the ajiparatus to be examined by the spectators. Passing behind again. is opened. S (Fig. The exhibitor.

introduces a light is behind the mechanism. he will be able to assume the position shown in Figs. it is believed to occupy the whole width of The seen by the light that shines through the different pieces that they cannot serve to hide any one. During this time the confederate raises the movable partition Q. and. as well as the doors are opened. The box M serves for receiving his feet. In order that the confederate it is may easily introduce his arm into that of the manikin. It is said that this peculiarity was due to the fact that the chess . and.AUTOMATA. De Kempelen's automaton. which remains in the machine. 8. in M. the chest is turned around. and 11. S. L. The end of the chest to the riglit of the Turk slides Figs. remembered that the first operation of the exhibitor consists in opening the door A. ar3% but has 373 no bottom. both of wdiich are removed when the game A simple cord permits of moving one of the manikin's fingers so as to pick up or drop the chessmen. returning to the front. It is in such position that he awaits the beginning of the exhibition. A remains open. the exhibitor shows that the large closet has not The doors C being again closed with the same key. 6 and 7. S. 02)euing the door B. this being the reason for the addition of a jDipe in the hand and a cushion under the elbow. He then closes and locks the door B. It will now be seen that if a man of small stature introduces himself into the chest on this side. and seats himself on the box L. In reality. as shown in Figs. the pnblic sees only an The box L having been put back in empty space when place. and by pushing the curtain before him and removing the movable box. begins. introduces the upper part of his body into a portion of the manikin. It will be behind itor it. which has fallen. the dark curtain. in order to give his confederate time to take the position shown in Fig. 5. E and F. The exhibit. as to make believe that these different closings are due to the necessity of removing this key at every o})eration. the hidden player following his moves through the sufficiently transparent fabric that forms the Turk's clothalthough the door ing. he Avill be able to thrust his legs into the empty space hidden beliind the drawer. the two doors. 3 and 4. the wheelwork making considerable noise the while. and finallv the machine is wound up slowly. which curtain. necessary to give the latter a certain position. next passes behind the chest. and covers likewise a corresponding liole in the lower The interior of the Turk is arranged as indicated in space O. it was the left arm that moved the pieces. The game may then begin. at which time the public sees only the mechanism. whose distance cannot be estimated. and. is employe'^ :'a moving the head and in producing the noise of wheelwork at every motion. which is so arranged as to give his loins a convenient snjiport. hides the back of the confederate. takes his legs from behind the drawer. light The curtain S. and to place the rest of his body in the space K. the curtain R. as may be seen in Fig. 10. in horizontal grooves (})roperly hidden) in sucli a way as to give access to tloor over the the space K. and it is then tliat on introducing the through the door 1). opens the drawer and performs the operations already described. The left arm of the confederate. are opened before the public to show that the body of the Turk is empty. 5. being raised. so a double bottom.

374 player MAGIC: STAGE ILLUSIONS AND SCIENTIFIC DIVERSIONS. Then two white balls make their appearance on a new motion of the cups. The image. then to the left a red ball. it is made All of the details are exe- cuted with great care. which passes to the right and disapi)ears. was received by Kempelen. having been compromised in the revolt against Catharine the Great. to the effect that the hidden chess player was a Polish officer who. is eighteenth century. so well from the searches of the Russian police in the midst of her his sovereign in the game A CURIOUS AUTOMATON. and these are changed into red ones Kid.— AUTOMATON ItKrUliSKNTlNU A JUUGl-KU I'l-AYINCi WITH BALLS. and having lost his legs in fighting. and lift the cups. When the automaton in motion acts as a juggler. There has even been a touching romance related on this subject. seated behind a little table which is located in front of of pasteboard. 1. The arms rise alternately or in unison. who thus hid him that he could go to conquer court. is what appears it to be a brick and stone structure. and at every motion expose upon the table first to the right a white ball. who operated tlic automaton was left-hand ed. . The automaton which we illustrate has a peculiarity of being actuated by It is curious that it was made in the first half of the a simple flow of sand. clad in Oriental costume of bright colors.

H. teeth with the cylinder. The two levers.— INTERNAL MECHANISM OF THE AUTOMATON. B. D'. 2. B'. A. and opposite these. and the white balls are raised by the cams. . B'. the automaton to act as follows: Opposite the cylinder there are two series of levers of four each. and do not disappear. is placed under a small strip of cardboard. In this way the balls are in place when the arms rise. with the balls of different colors. and A'. D and D'. cause the red balls to act. on rising. strikes in turn one of the levers. ii|)on 375 The house forms a receptacle for fine sand which falls through the hopjier. when the cylinder revolves. If now we examine the cylinder. hinged by one of its exti-emities to the table.AUT03IATA. the extremities of D. B and B'. and thus diminThe wheel itself communicates through the medium of ish the rapidity. B. L L. To this Avheel are fixed six tappets which engage with the toothed wdieel. G. F. B. they act upon strips of cardboard that merely sup- extremity of each of the six others Each of these strips is D port obturators for the apertures in the table. The sand flows in a continuous stream. at the next motion. the other end. A and A'. C. which is thus given a slow motion. in order to be replaced by others. and during this period the smaller cams act upon the levers of the arms that hold the cups. which causes the wheel. As for the cams. and the FIG. E. and keep them lifted for some time. C. (J. lift the arms. places itself just beneath the small aperture in the table. we shall see that it is provided with a series of cams. until the arms have descended. C. C. and D'. C and C. J. other and smaller ones. which we suppose to be marked A. and causes the wheel. and A'. The larger cams lift the levers and consequently the hinged cards. to revolve with great rapidity. The cams. Each cam.

It is evident that by the arm is given a series of right and left movements. the arm. . giving the proper relative contours to the two edges of the cam. vertical shaft which passes up through the body of the figure. The pinion. may be made to trace any desired line upon the the toy. which rotates in a horizontal plane. cam causes a vertical up and down movement of the arm and the drawing The lower cam operates a system of levers by which pencil which it carries. as shown The upper lever attaches at the end of its long arm to a in the engraving. tup: toy aktist. edges. and is pivotally By this means the rotation of the attached to its right arm at the shoulder. being provided with two separate peripheral and each edge is engaged by the short arm of a pair of levers. is is provided with a couple of pins upon which placed one of the sets of removable cams which accompany The cams are double. and immediately below the figure. The mechanical toy shown in the accompanying illustration is one of the most original and ingenions things of its kind that have recently appeared.376 MAGIC: STAGE ILLUSIONS AND SCIENTIFIC DIVERSIONS. is a small pinion which is operated by a worm at the end of the crankshaft which is seen projecting through the side of the base. TliE TOY ARTIST. Within the base upon which the " artist " and his easel are placed. with the pencil which it carries.

- steam is connected to the end of a horizontal bar about waist high. or spurs. as his remains were seen quite recently in one of the downtown steam New York junk stores. In our sectional view ure is w^e show the combination of levers by which the fig- made to walk. Thus supported. the -. The model from which our of paper is held while tlie sketch artist is at Avork. Each of tiie double cams which are provided with the toy is cut so that its operation will cause the The levers are kept in snug contact figure to draw some Avell-known object. is man the man walks round in a circle at quite a rapid rate of progress. supplied with a gasoline Below the boiler is situated the engine. by the joint operation of the two. and the products of combustion escape from the top of the helmet. As exhibited. A STEAM MAN. from the knee downward. so as to give free access to the engine. The easel is hinged to the base and is pressed against the jiencil by means of It is provided with four projecting pins upon which the sheet a coil spring. The steam gauge is placed by the side of the neck. and a drawing which bore a strong resemblance to the familiar barnyard fowl. is the boiler. the combination of boiler and engine giving about one-half horsepower. a true ankle motion is given to the foot by the rod running down through the lower leg. The heels of the figure are armed with calks. which fastened to a vertical standard in the center of the track. The man which we illustrate was invented by Prof. finally. In the body this In our illustration we show the section and general view of the steam man. but finally the " steam man " presumably died. with the cams by a pair of spiral springs. Through the head the smoke flue is carried. by the action of the first 37'}' or second cam. and. While steam engine is not at all large. is accomplished by a similar system of levers and connections. or diagonal or curved. who exhibited him very widely in the Ignited States. a second swinging motion. engraving was made produced an easily recognized likeness of the Emperor William of Germany (the device is "made in Germany"). A good many years ago what was supposed to be a steam man was exhibited all over the country. . containing a very large heating surface which is fire. The main body of the figure is made of heavy tin.AUTOMATA. The skirts of the armor open like doors. George Moore. which catch on the surface on which it is walking and give it its power. it runs at a very high speed and is of high power. paper. whence the steam escapes when the machine is in motion. either vertical or horizontal. The engine imparts a swinging to the whole length of the leg from the liip. By reducing gear the engine is made to drive the walking mechanism of the figure at reasonable speed. From the engine the exhaust pipe leads to the nose of the figure.

THE STKAM MAN. .

and is to draw a wagon containing u baud. The present man. figure. which it is about six feet high. which is attired be thoroughly operative. and cuts Our ankle motion of the moves at a brisk human leg have been very faithfully imitated. and the hip. knee. when in full operation. said. The figure walk and can cover about four or five miles an hour. bnilt for heavier work. so that the long spring at the side of the figure an elastic t!ie figure sliall always have its weight supported is by the ground. expected to pull as many as ten musicians in his wagon. In the upper figure we indicate the method of attachment to the wagon which lias eight years the inveutor mail which he hopes to have iu operation sometime. By connection is secured. has been adopted. and which appears to The action is quite natural. it. be held back by two is men pulling against The larger man.AUTOMATA For the last 379 been at work ou a larger steam The new one is designed for use on the open streets. . cannot. show the general appearance of the in armor like a knight of old.

When the eye is applied to the end of oue of these cylinders. with a space between them. Willi AO X JiAY. The two cylinders mounted on the base. It is simply a reduced copy of an ancient trick. Objects can apparin the engrnviii^ lias iirinted the rather high-sounding title. . V-^^ XliAY . objects may be clearly seen through them. on the underside " X-Kay Machine. and when a coin is slipped between the ends of the cylinders. Wonder of the age! " But it is neither an X-ray machine nor a wondei'. it offers no obstruction to the light. as shown in the cut. are perforated axially and are supposed to represent coils.\1A( IUM. AN OPTICAL The gimple toy illustrated ILLFSTOX.CHAPTER II. CUFJOUS TOYS.

Till:: Mil. Fig. which throws it up to the fourth mirror. 381 The hole in each cylinder is intercepted bv a mirror. To the uninitiated this operation is a mystery. generally used in connection with a brick. had the and Avas same transparency as the coin.CURIOUS TOYS." the machine consisting of a pair of rollers in one side of which are inserted plain sheets of paper of the size of a bank note.NKV M AM. so that light entering at one end of the machine by the firtit mirror. . reflected downward at right angles entirely through the cjdinders. THE MONEY A sells ^rAKER.. and so on. A hole extends downward from the cenis hole of each cylinder. ently be seen through the coin. then another blank sheet is inserted. and the observer does not see through. of course. 1. which. few years ago a familiar sight on Broadway was the toy vender who little machine called the "Money Maker.arranged at an angle of forty-five degrees with the axis of the cylinder. and in the base are two mirrors arranged parallel with the first two. the coin. and to the the 1- K. and as the rollers revoWe. as tral shown. thence forward by the second mirror to the third. by which It will thus be seen that the light never passes it is reflected to the eye. The old device which jjreceded this was on a much larger scale. a bright new bill rolls out from the opposite side.K. and another bill rolls out. 2 affords an explanation. but around.

so as The gudgeons of the to about evenly divide tlie clotli* between tlie rollers. what you get you must pay for. the two rollers journaled in the standards are attached the ends of a strip of black cloth which is wound around botii rollers in opposite directions. jjj FIG. then the . To i)ropare the nuichine for operation. This machine is certainly as good as any device calculated to make something out of nothing.— CROSS SKCTION OK TIIK . the cloth it is is wound upon one of the rollers while partly unwound from the other. 2. of the device is made simple by the enlarged cross section.MONEY MAKKU. it is unprincipled apparently the device long looked for. as in other things. The explanation To rollers are squared to receive an ordinary clock key. by means of which either may be turned.383 MAGIC: STAGE ILLUSIONS AND SCIENTIFIC DIVERSIONS. but in this.

and is not seen by the persons to whom the to be shown. so that while the paper appears to be simply rolled through between the rollers. which consists of two wooden balls of the same diameter connected by a slender rub- ber band attached by staples. % tlG. momentum. or more bills are hidden in the roll. perhaps. people who see the toy realizes the composite nature of its action. and as it is turned. four. new bank bills are fed into the machine and are wrapped with the black cloth upon the roller between the convolutions of the cloth. "-'^-^. as shoAvn in the lower figure. it is in reality only is hidden by the it will After the first bill discharged from the rollers another piece of paper must be supplied in such a manner that enter the machine as the next bill emerges. 1. and friction are all concerned in the movement and yet. key is 383 transferred to the gudgeon of the jiartly filled roller. bill. one in a thousand of the Barring the well-known return ball. begin to and so on. a piece of plain paper of the width is and length of a bank note is inserted at the moment the first bill about to emerge from the layers of cloth on the upper roll. The key is shifted from the roller containing the bills (the upper one in the present case) to the lower one. the storage of energy. takes place aside. . The elasticity of torsion and tension. one bill after another is thus inserted until three. force. not centrifugal of the sim- ple toy illustrated in Fig. The paper begins to be rolled upon the lower roll under the outer layer of cloth.NG ]5ALLs>. as the lower roller turned so as to unwind the cloth from the upper roll.CURIOUS TOYS. EXPERIMENTS IN CENTRIFUGAL FORCE AND GRAVITY. This prepai'a- tiou. L— GYKATI. is Xow. coming out upon the opposite side a complete cloth on the lower roller. crisp and the trick is rollers present about the same appearance as to size. of course. nothing can be simpler than this toy.

Bv virtue of the acquired momentum. the ball is When rolled THE MAOTC An forms artificial its stalk. it does not take a straight forward course. which hollow. of this tube extends slightl}' One end . be placed over 1he floAver. if the upper part of the engraving.I-. it describes a curve like it is secured in place by thrown through the air with that indicated by dotted lines in is difficult. the free ball is grasped in the hand. In Fig. as the band is twisted. to on a plane surface. The untwisting of the rubber tions in a circular path. The is it. but in the opposite band overcomes the momentum of the resistance of as the soon As direction. the balls continue to rotate after the is again twisted. If the tube be l)lown into regularly.\r. and the other is ])r()longed in such a way that it can be held in the mouth. the flower being at a distance of about ten inches from the eyes. wliich is of i»aper. so that the band FIG. To the inner surface of the ball a piece of cloth glued over attached a weight which When this ball is a whirling motion. traversed ])y a metallic tube that beyond the petals of the flower. instant. is made of paper. and a small eUl<M--]iith l)all. 2 is illustrated another ball in which the center of gravity is is located near the periphery. ball. to which two artificiiil Initterflics are aflixei! by slender wires. so that catch it. and the operation is repeated until the stored energy is exhausted. it is only necessary to twist the rubber band by holding one of the balls in the hand and rolling the other round in a As soon circular path upon the floor by giving to the hand a gyratory motion. EOSE. but its course is very erratic. not imjwssible. 2.— UNB. To prepare the toy for operation. as indicated by dotted lines in the lower part of the flgure. then both are released at once.384 MAGIC: STAGE ILLUSIONS AND SCIENTIFIC DIVERSIONS. is rose. revolves the balls in the opposite direction. band causes the balls to roll in opposite direcand centrifugal force causes the balls to fly outward. the rubber band is untwisted.ANCKD BAI. when the band again untwisting an for rotation ceases the balls. as would be expected from a well-balanced ball.

and the plate is lifted from the table. a spark is produced. wheu well centered in the current of air. As the current of air is invisible. It is unnecessary to say that the blowing must be done with great regularity.SK. Tlie plate being excited. rubbed with the palm of the hand. and the butterflies. will remain suspended therein an inch or so from the flower. M'hich thus describe a circle around an axis. The vulcanite electrophorus of vulcanite shown in our lii'st engraving consists of a jilate about one-third of an inch in thickness. ELECTRICAL TOYS. after the manner of living ones. A glass vessel is mounted on a hollow base containing an electro-magnet providt'd with liattcry •io . incessantly in motion. and the hair of the one in the center stands out like the bristles of a porcui)ine. It sometimes happens that the ball revolves in the current and carries along the butterflies. on one side of the plate. the small elder-})ith figures are jilaced on the tin foil. The figures raise their arms. and the surfaces are successively the plate is raised from the table and approached by the other hand. appear to be engaged in rifling the flower of sweets. at ItO.CUinoVS TOYS. the effect produced is very surprising. Our second engraving shows some electrical bottle imps. A number of flgures of elder pith complete the toy and show the phenomena of electrical attraction and repulsion in the most comical numncr. 385 THK MAGIC the ball. one or more small pieces is of tin foil about the size of a inlaying card are pasted The electrophorus the tin foil is then placed on a If table.

lilAiVTHW BOTTl. .FIG.E IMl'S. ^. I' Hi. 1— ELECTKOPHOKUS WITH ELUEU-riTU FlGtKES.

. from the fishes. the figures will be tlie drawn shown is irresistibly to the bottom of the vessel. o. VM. or replaced by a small electro-motor which rotates from left to right. 38? One or two small figures surmounted by a hollow glass bulb have a small piece of wire attached to the feet and are placed in the vessel. but as soon as the current is turned on.— MAUXC I'lSUKS. of course. attracts the fishes and causes them to make a circular course around the small fish tank.CURIOUS TOYS. The electro-magnet right to left. connections. as soon as current interrujited the figures will rise rapidly. The air in the hollow glass bulb will draw them up to the surface of the water. as shown is in the engraving. fishes Tlie magic in our third engraving dejiend upon a similar trick. as the shaft carries a and causes a corresponding movement in magnet which.

388 MAGIC: STAGE ILLUSIONS AND SCIENTTFig DIVERSIONS. to a large it may is be the opinion that of jiersons. and of chance. is only one of the more happy forms given to true races with a view of prolonging the excitement of betting. and the game of the miniature horse race. tOlKSK AT M(. exploited in the racing mania. KI. 1. K. THE ELECTKIC RACE COUESE. none the less certain that number MCi. a just between genuine races and the miniature horse race. an always i:)opular pastime at bathing resorts. hobby horses. electricity.\< !•. "Whatever influence. it consists of a certain number of hobby horses. race course that we are now going to present to our readers occupies a place It is. and Taken as a whole. of the unexpected.KCrUK H. in fact. at times when genuine racing could be done only The electric with difficulty and would attract too small a number of persons. is hekl as to horse races and their moral they offer an irresistible attraction and that this growing passion prevails equally Bold innovators have seen a vein to be in all degrees of the social scale. happy alliance of genuine races. . the game just mentioned.

M. each 5S0 moving over a circular track. half natural size. can be regulated at will its of a rheostat interposed in particular circuit. Salle's race course constitutes an interesting application of the carriage and of the distribution of motive pow'er by continuous currents. under the influence of an individual motor.CURIOUS TOYS. by the surveillance of the electrician who acts as a sort of desThe horses are ridden by children and even by potic monarch over them.— MECHANICAL HORSE. and receiving the current of a single generator. FIG. When tlie circuit of the closed. moreover. all the horses start at once and take on relative speeds that dynamo is are so much by means all the greater in proportion as the circle upon which they are placed has a greater radius. of which the chances are just as certain as of the riders. but in an independent manner. is nothing peculiar. grown persons. although the possibility of imparting different speeds to them permits of their being j^assed by competitors and of passing the latter in turn. An interrupter permits the of stopping any horse whatever without stopping the movement of . those of the play of odd and even upon the numbers of the hacks traversing the boulevards of Paris. moreover. thus increasing the excitement Bets may be made. The installation erected in Nice (shown in Fig. qualified. and it is in this that they resemble hobby horses. The speed of each horse. which sends tlie current into six electric motors. An electric motor arranged behind each horse (Fig. About the motor and dynamo is there 2). thus securing a perfect autonomy to each courser. 1) comprises a twelve-horse-power gas engine that actuates a Eechniewsky dynamo with double winding. 2.

and to stop any one of the horses almost instantly if an obstacle falls upon the track. but the horses placed at the circumference can obtain a speed of sixteen or eighteen feet. weighs a little less than six hundred and fifty pounds. and finally an exciting rheostat of the dynamo machine that permits of varying the speeds of all the motors at once. The current is led to each motor by two rollers moving over two circular metallic bands in direct communication with the poles of the dynamo. who^ standing upon a lateral stage. in the same ratio. with which engage the two external wheels. Owing to these arrangements no tendency to derailment has shown itself. Each ing pair of wheels. and the feeling of dizziness that he might experience. in main commutator that cuts the circuit from all the horses at once then six individual commutators for each of the horses. and to mount the four wheels loose upon the axles. upon the horizontal rollmakes it necessary to employ but a single driving wheel. others. because of the arrangements made to prevent upsetting. along the vehicle.390 MAGIC: STAGE ILLUSIONS AND SCIENTIFIC DIVERSIONS. by maneuvering these different pieces. place. for npou a horizontally arranged board he has the all first . on account of the difficulty the rider would have in holding himself in equilibrium. Each of the four wheels has a different diameter. Two single small rollers placed upon the track tend to prevent an upsetting under the action of a lateral thrust or a strong impulsion. through the intermedium of the maneuvering board. thus permitting of varying the speed of each of the horses. The driving of the motive wheel by the motor is done by direct contact. the maneuvering ])ieces necessary for the play. All the motions are controlled from the post of the electrician. and can watch and regulate what takes place upon it. and the axis inclines toward the center. which. six rheostats interposed in the respective circuits of the six motors and permitting of regulating the angular speeds of each horse. It is therefore possible. This rail serves as a guide and suffices to prevent derailment. To this effect the large wheel is provided with a rubber tire. overlooks the entire track. The mean speed is thirteen feet per second. . Their two axles converge toward the center of the circular track upon which each horse moves. a These jjieces are. The track consists of a tram rail. Avhose apex passes through the central point of the track situated 2)lane. a velocity that it is not |)rudent to exceed. or if one of the riders becomes suddenly indisposed. therefore. or even reach. to regulate the general or particular gait of each horse. constitutes a true rolling cone. The vehicle upon which each horse is mounted merits special mention. even with speeds of from sixteen to twenty-two feet per second upon The inequality of the wheels naturally curves of thirteen feet radius. with the rider. and even of stopping the latter by interru})ting the circuit. against which the The friction thus obtained is sufficient to carry pulley of the motor bears.

etc. poles near the base. we will afterward give the We write upon twelve prejmred cards a series of secret of its accurate answers.'''' althougli from new. The base of the toy. ingenious. .— THE MAGNETIC OKACLE. '"' toy shown in tlie . questions relating to history.sn])joiued figure. and cleverly modernized b}' the constructor. we read an admirably exact and accurate answer.CURIOUS TOYS. and after some oscillations becomes fixed in a certain position. Nothing could be simpler than the process by which this result is obtained. customs. taken from La JSfatnre. as shown in Fig. nevertlieless. its magic wand pointing to one of the numbers by which it is surrounded. We may see that by varying at Avill the cards of questions and answers we may obtain from the oracle an indefinite nnmber of replies. FIG. One of the company takes one of these cards at random and reads one of the questions. 391 MAGNETIC The far OK' A CLE. whose robe conceals a vertical U-shaped magnet. is placed nnder the magician's feet. in a groove made to receive Immediately the oracle turns on its axis. bears a vertical pivot on Avhich rests the body of the magician. is. On referring to the corresponding number on a list. 2. science. 1. This is the way to make the oracle speak. having its two then the card it. into which the cards slip. geography.

393 MAGIC: STAGE ILLUSIONS AND SCIENTIFIC DIVERSIONS. N .

393 THE DANCERS. it is seven hundred years ago that Herrade de Lansberg. there is new under the sun. producing novel effects.'' drew the little combatants that are reproduced . much to the amusement of the spectator. and they Curved wires and a all move around the pin at a lively rate. and sometimes fall on top of one another." and which consists of two little weighted nothing and jointed figures tlmt are set in motion by a taut string. are also provided. entitled abbess of Hohenbourg. one side of which colored. 1) shows once again that. as regards manners and the details of life. ment. AX ANCIEXT COT^XTERPART OF A MODEEX TOY. it a movement around is its own axis. Every one has seen in the show windows of toy-dealer« a plaything called the "wrestlers. in a sort of encyclopaedic compilation "Hortus Deliciarum. The very curious engraving which wo reproduce herewith (Fig. At every tension of the latter these two little figures move about. and giving spiral. Xow.ruh'Tors TOYS. go through the motions of wrestling.

.

costume of wrestlers at fairs. Lansberg's This book little is a sort of abstract. llerrade de combatants are clad after the manner of the warriors of those — the wrestlers — the figures preserve the traditional FI6.CURIOUS TOYS. has been happily saved from absolute annihilation by the copies of M. and games have times. 1. in Fig. Avhicli was destroyed by Prussian shells in 1870. a buckler. 2.— A TOY OF 1897— THE WRESTLERS. i)e Bastard. Hohenbonrg only put into her drawings a costume . It is probal)le that this toy of rade. kept the puppets in a vertical position. and a coat of mail. just as in our toy not been forgotten therein. and upon maneuvering the strings an imitation of a sword was not a recent invention in the time of TTer- contest was obtained. of Alsatian life in the twelfth century. that are at present preserved in the Cabinet of Prints of the National Museum. and a sword complete their equipment. and that the abbess that was already ancient. which were probably weighted with lead. The two little warriors wear a helmet Avith nasal. in figures. 395 'J'his valuable MS.. Their feet.

Nothing takes better in the way of magnifying glasses. when the mercury again rolls to the lower end and causes another half revolution. and designated " McGinty. however. and he does a thriving business. others are not. They are both acrobats. forming semicircular end pieces on which the device may roll. and. Some of the toys are scientific. and various toys. any pleasant day may be found on lower Broadway and other down-town who sell almost anything in the way of novelties. then moves forward until it strikes the inclined surface. making money for himself as well as for the inventor. Among these may be seen culinary implements. This toy moves down the incline with a slow aud stately movement. with the tube parallel with the surface. If it takes well. causing that end to preponderate." aud sometimes " Little Tommy. chea|) microscopes." consists of a paper figure attached to a tube closed at both ends and inserted in })aper disks which are bent down on the tube.— ACROBAT WITH MERCURY WEIGHT. and looks for other wares.390 MAGIC: STAGE ILLUSIONS AND SCIENTIFIC DIVERSIONS. have a good run can be determined by these venders in a very short time. 1. scientific toys . The lighter end. A drop of mercury placed in the tube completes the toy. NOVEL TOYS. the article Oil thoroughfares venders is not wanted. actuated by gravity. We give two examples of which have sold very well. They are similar in character. FIG. 1. AYhen placed on a slightly inclined plane. Whether a toy will probably articles for this kind of trade than some new toy. crowds gather around him. toilet articles. If. so on. and illustrate what shifting the center of gravity can do. the vender very soon finds it out. the mercury rolls to the lower end of the tube. The one shown in Fig.

is painted red.iMr. there that has the is where the halves of the e:gg are soldered to- internally a partition form of a channel. tains a leaden ball hollow. The l^lain sections in Figs.CURIOUS TOYS.-coi. T. and conto fall is which causes it it over on its side. which is it is impossible to open. COLUMBUS'S EGG. This egg. Corresponding to the gether.— TUMBLER. and is bus's Egg. 2 is made upon the principle just described. The accompanying engravings represent an It is made of tin. 2 and 3 ex- the construction.r . and show is how the ball brought into the desired posij^oint tion to cause equilibrium. of semicircular section. object sold in the called " Christopher London Colum- ated at the base. B. when the egg is held vertically. The ball. i. is capable of revolving fio. and a bullet is used for the weight instead of a globule of mercury. which runs around the tube. 397 N FIG. unless (the ball) in the longer axis. 2. but the round ends of the figure furnish the rolling surfaces." because those who do not know how it is constructed canuot make it stand up on the projecting part situbazars. the body being simply a straight paper tube with convex ends. The toy shown in Fig.

The egg can stand upright only on condition that the ball be made to pass from the upper to the lower compartment. at its base. and that is sufficiently large Two small guides start from the side of to allow the ball to j^ass through. and as long as it arouLiJ this tube. and the egg's axis. small and scarcely visible point.3'J8 MAGIC: STAGE ILLUSIONS AND SCIENTIFIC DIVERSIONS. of showing the uninitiated how the trick is done. On giving the egg a slight angular motion. there is a tube. FIG8. and the hand being covered with a handkerchief. This result is reached as follows: The central tube B'". and thus run the risk. being kept in the plane formed by the point. If at this moment the egg be gently turned back in the opposite direction. that forms a communication between the two compartments. as in Fig. at the base of the egg. (I. T. B". will run along the guides and drop through the orifice into the lower compartrnent. it is not even necessary to look for the position of the poiiit. of operating will not be . B'. and the egg will then stand upright. 2 AND 3. remains in the chamiel will cause the egg to fall every time the operator endeavors to make it stand on its base. the ball will take the position. just beneath its upper extremity. the hand will feel the passage of the ball over the slight projection formed by the guides. tlie ball. When the egg is righted. in which case it will take the position. the ball may be made to enter the* upper com- partment again. B'". the egg. at the tlie beginning of guides leading to the orifice. and on the outside of the egg.— DETAILS OP CONSTRXJCTION. 3. and follow the contours of the partition up to the orifice in the central On a line with the orifice. and things will then be as before. o. the ])all will naturally seat itself upon the latter. the ball will take the position. B". With a little practice and skill. o. an aperture. Effected in this way. c. and the double motion above mentioned will accomplish the desired result. By turning the egg upside down. If the egg be sufficiently inclined toward this latter. contains. the mode perceived by the uninitiated spectator.

as the second block in reality only falls back to its original position in the series. 2. as shown in Fig. the upper end of the second block falls into an inverted position. . but in the operation reversed. reaches the bottom. it becomes what was before the lower end FIG. FIC4. nutil it pass the series. This effect is only apparent. 1.CURIOUS TOYS 399 JACOB'S LADDER. toy illustrated in the annexed engraving is very illusive in grasped by the edges. and turned so as to lift the second block in the series to the same height. 1. The simple action.— Jacob's ladder.— connections OF JACOB S LADDER. and appears to the upper block is When downward on the other members of first upon one side of the ladder and then npon the other.

which are of pine. is The stick of the umbrella in this case formed of a to tiil)o which held by the hand of the Mikado. 2. at the Avhich is attached to the center of the up^jer face of block 2. where 2. extends through the side of the figure grasps a fan. 'JMie its attac'luu] the und)rella top and passing through lower end resting upon a beveled wheel journaled within the beveled wheid carries a ci'auk pin working in a slotted atul arm that 2. The tape. and the crank projecting from the wheel . Block 1 has attached to it tliree tapes. 2f inches wide. s|iinuing. The tapes. which are each 4| iuches long and wide. This change of position of the second member brings it parallel with the third block. with figure. extends over the end of block this block. and 3. representing the left little "Mikado. over the upper end of block 2. and drawn off after the Inanner of the umbrella \)\\\ s[)ins. which is then released. when the fiftii block is released. A NOVEL TOY. block 2 is represented as falling away from block Avill 1. is attached upper end. 3 are shown the three upper blocks of the series. 1. the block. and inch tliick. a. sold on the shows how a device having little novelty finds sale in places traversed by the multitude. are fas\ tened at the ends to tbe blocks by means of glue and by a snuill tack driven ^ through each end of the tape. 'I'he In his right haiul beholds a Japanese umbrella. and so on throughout the entire series." a fan. fall When block 3 parallel with the fourth block will over in the left-handed direction. are each 3| inches long. It consists of the figure of a Japanese in sitting posture. and upward. a. extending downward. a. to the face of the block at the center. 1'he annexed engraving represents an streets of nmusing toy recently but it New York. and over the upper end of is 3. becoming the upper end. and the third member drops over on the fourth. When a cord is wound around toj) the reel at the top of the umbrella. In Fig. as shown. and in his umbrella is provided with a is reel at the top. The blocks. the front having exchanged phices with the back. The taj)es. giving a rotary motion to the beveled wheel. the tape. It is not particularly scientific. and the same manner as is block 2 block 4. downward underneatli secured. a. When block 2 reaches block 3. as shown in Fig. h. in the 3. b. be parallel with the face of block latter will be free to fall in a right-handed direction. end of this block. it is This arrangement of tapes observed through- out the entire series. are attached to the face of block 1. and extends over the rounded end of this block and under the rounded end of block 2. In Fig. the blocks being represented as trans2)arent and separated from each other a short distance to show the arrangement of the connections. and their connecting tapes. is falling in a left-handed direction. and a spindle the tube. h. h.400 3IAGIC': STAGE ILLUSIONS AND SCIENTIFIC DIVERSIONS. under the lovver The tape.

being slightly out of balance. forward or backward. No. gives a vibratory motion to the causes it to rock slightly and turn upon its support.CURIOUS TO IS. This simple toy for the diversion been patented by Mr. at the sion same time. The umbrella. imparts an oscillating motion to tlie arm carrying the fan. . figure.< TOY ( Airr. a whistling nuidc. Norfolk. 401 THE ' MIKADO.I." A NEW TOY. When either the cart is drawn along. Va. The 1-(»I. a deaf-mute of printer. by the compresand escape of air through beneath is drum-like pedestals or scpiawking noise 86 the figures in the cart body. which A TOY of children has CAPvT. Paxtou Pollard. 89 Main Street.AUI> . the figures are caused to bend or bow simultaneously and .

. One of the novelties which were introduced a few years ago was the talking doll. THE PHONOGRAPHIC DOLL. the images ing The pedestals.I. The doll's body inis made of tin. and the terior thereof is lilled with like mMMM^MM>^M^^i^^^^^^^^^^^^ TUK IMIONOdl'v \niir DOl. This interesting toy consisted of a good-sized doll which secreted a working phonograph. and in each a spiral spring normally holdupright. the two figures are connected by a transverse rod. made whereby the figures are to bend or bow as the cart is drawn along. while in each upper head is a small opening covered by a thin metallic tongue arranged to vibrate rapidly on the pas- sage of air through the openThe upper portions of ing. of that of the commercial phocourse.403 3IAGIC: STAGE ILLUSIONS AND SCIENTIFIC DIVERSIONS. but. mechanism very much nograph. figures any desired grotesque shape. and rod is this centrally connected by cord or rod with a crank in the central portion of the axle. formed of may be or of paper other suitable is material. is sectional view of which a shown in the small figure. each is and a coil spring. . have each an upper and lower head and a covering of thin skin or in something similar.

403 of the simple and doll is inexpensive. mounted on a is sleeve screw-threaded so as to phonograph of upon the shaft. .CURIOUS TOYS. and the flywheel tends to maintain a uniform the doll. The cylinder carries a ring of wax-like material upon which is recorded the speech or song to be repeated by Upon the same shaft with the recoi'd cylinder there is a large pulley which carries a belt for driving the flywheel shaxt at the lower j^art of the phonographic apparatus. The key is fitted to the main shaft. speed. by which the phonographic cylinder is rotated.. engagement with the segmental nut. and a si)ira] spring is provided for returning the cylinder to the point of starting. much more the talking sleeve being of the shaft. the cause the cylinder to move lengthwise which slides Tlie cylinder A key provided by which the cylinder may be thrown out of MECHANISM OP THE PHONOGT^APHTC DOI-I.

doll.VI'UIC KECOKDS. carrying a reproducing stylus.MAKING I'llONOOU. phonographic apparatus opens underneath the breast of the forated to permit the sound to escape. which is mounted on a lever The funnel at the top of the in the same manner as the regular phonograph. which is per- Jill." "Jack and . . taught to say in the phonograph factory. is Above the record cylinder arranged a diaphragm such as is used in tlie regular phonograph.404 3IAGIC: STAGE ILLUSIONS AND SCIENTIFIC DIVERSIONS. so to speak." or crank any child can make the doll say whatever it was. By the simple operation of turning the " Mary had a little lamb.

These sounds united with the sounds of the phonographs themselves when reproducing tlie stories make a veritable pandemonium. In passing through the works it is noticeable that order and system reign in every department." "Little Bo-peep. The tools and machinery here used are the finest procurable. so that when the parts are brought together. ." system. to be relocated this work. From this department the finished dolls pass on to the packing-room. no additional work is tiie doll. Every piece. of these girls are continually doing and the jangle produced by a number of girls simultaneously repeating "Mary had a little lamb. without regard to its size or importance. and are passed on to another room where they are placed in the bodies of the dolls. Here they receive the finishing touches. or '' piece. Our last 405 engraving shows the manner of preparing the wax-like records for They are placed upon an instrument very much like an ordinary phonograph.CUKtOVS TOYS. required to cause them to act properly. and into the month of Avhich a girl speaks the words the phonographic dolls." "Jack and Jill. some extent adjustable. by A large number Each one has a stall to herself. Everything is done upon the American. where they are carefully stored away in boxes having on their of the doll are to The works is necessary effected in labels the name of the story the doll is able to repeat. and any adjustment an extensive department in which the little phonographs are received from the assembling-rooms." and other interesting stories. is carefully inspected by aid of standard gauges. is beyond description.

. BCIENTIblC TKICKS Wrrii HIIJ. tors to of balls to be pocketed without any ai:)paient Suppose the number to be three. The in a clever trick with billiard balls success on a truly scientific principle. and when the hand of the player and one name a certain number disturbance of the others. MISCELLANEOUS TKICKS OF AN AMUSING NATURE. 1 and 2 depends for its A number of billiard balls are placed The player asks one of the spectathe table. of row against the cushion shown in Figs.CHAPTER III. Then at the will of the player three balls separate from the others and roll into the pocket.IARD BALLS AND COINS. interestinct teicks in elasticity. The number is perfectly controllable.

the first ball of the series in it drawn back and allowed to fall against the first one of those remaining contact. for any one familiar with the properties of basswood knows that it may be enormously compressed. The heart is made of one kind of wood and the arrow of another. also formed wood. of a single piece of a single perforated piece of wood having the form of and in the perforation is inserted an arrow. and rolling them forward against the end of the row remaining. so that the last ball will fly off without any apparent disturbance of the other is balls. one will drive off one. Our engraving shows a conventional heart. and the effect is produced by sliding the coins. and so on through the entire series. How did the arrow get into the heart? We have heard of the philosoj)her who was unable to rightly place a horse collar. and in its compressed state was passed through the aperture of the heart. is illustrated a method of repeating the experiment with coins in Dollars or half dollars may be used. An equal munber of balls fly off from the opposite end of the row and Three balls driven against one end of the series will cause roll into the pocket. in reality they are separated one at a time. The question is. two will drive off two. 3 lieu of balls. The principle of this trick is illustrated in the well-known classroom experiment in which a series of contacting suspended balls of highly elastic material are made to transmit a blow delivered on the first of the series to the last ball of the series. In this experiment. corresponding in num- removed. XOVEL PUZZLE. of balls number In Fig. harness a horse. and each ball in turn transmits its momentum to the next. but who could not is and we have seen j)hilosophers who could readily explain how the arrow got into the heart. Tlie feat is accomplished bv removing from one end of the series as many balls as arc to be projected from the opposite end. is It is so when the entire experiment visible. the trick appears mysterious. The puzzle illustrated one of many thousands distributed gratuitously upon the streets of Xew York as an advertisement. The impact of this ball will slightly flatten the ball Avith which comes in contact. three to roll off. . so that while the separation of the three balls at the end of the series is apparently simultaneous. after which it may be steamed and expanded to its original volume. end of the row of less 407 hardly balls iiS covered. The heart is of black walnut and the arrow is of basswood. the last of the series being thrown out as indicated. Xow we fear that the secret is out. One end of the arrow was thus compressed. after which it was expanded. and so on.MISCELLANEOUS TRICKS OF AN AMUSING NATURE. In the case of the experiment with the billiard balls ber to the it is found by careful observation that separate blows are given to the series. the barb and head being is much larger than tlie per- foration in which the shank of the arrow received.

E. boai'd are expanded by the steam. it is necessary to make an incision end of a match and iTisert the pointed end of a second match into this incision. Tiie compressed portions of the stand out in relief.4t»8 MAGIC: STAGE ILLUSIOXS AND SCIENTIFIC DIVERSIONS. Place them on the table. so that they SIMPLE MATCH TRICK. with a third match resting against them To in the A SIMI'I. \i\^^^^\. then the board is planed down to a level surface. A NO VET. lift three matches by means of one. this principle in the manufaetiii-e of certain kinds The portions of the wood to be left in relief are first compressed or pushed down by suitable dies below the general level of the board. and afterward steamed. . Advantage has been taken of of moldings. PUZZI.K MAI< II THK K.

is him to raise the three means match The solution given at the right of the figure. as 409 shown at the left of the figure. The nap retains the crystals so that the}' are FIG. sides. Bear lightly against the two nnitches that are Joined until the third falls Then raise it. Tlieu present a niatcli to an}' together Ijy one who of the may be looking on. which we find described in a French paper. Fig. The flannel should be attached to the wood and the cross should be suspended in a solution formed by dissolving a pound of alum in a gallon of warm water. and the holes in the top. by means of brass wire crystals. A beautiful ornament. and over the . Although this trick. After the crystallization the corks are removed. when it will be found covered with bright not readily loosened or detached.'''' is ])robably as ancient as the art of find it juvenile readers hour's may amusement at of interest. It should have apertures in the top.MISCELLANEOUS TRICKS OF AN AMUSING NATURE. " Ze Cliercheur. 1. and all three will be lifted against the one held in the hand. and crystallized by immersion in a solution of alum. 1 is a perspective view. tiie consists of a wooden cross covered with canton flannel. of a grotto formed by crystallizing alum in a box containing jagged points covered with canton flannel. and Fig. together. 2 a longitudinal section.— GROTTO. CRYSTALLIZED ORNAMENTS. and one end are covered with colored glass. nails. and ask in his hand. These apertures are stopped with corks while the box is filled with solution. and possibly it may making matches. our afford them a half recess time. The box may be of wood or metal. ends. which is very easily made. and sides. or wrapped about in various directions with coarse thread or twine. with nap side out. The cross should be suspended in the solution while it is still warm and allowed to remain in until the solution cools. for a support.

as the liquid is quite colorless.410 MAGIC: STAGE ILLUSIONS AND SCIENTIFIC DIVERSIONS. If. is The same solution used in this case the as that given for the cross. the interior should be allovved to dry thoroughly before clos- Vm. and upon the fact that the salts of silver and the chlorides of gold. the effect is fine. MAfiK Al. the same sheet of paper should be held over a little mercury. iridium. and some quite singular experiments have been devised. for instance. however. platinum. AI'l'AHfTION OK A DKAWING ON WIIll'K I'ArKH. based upon this knowledge.out on the paper in dark tints. It is well known that the vapors of mercury are very diffusive in their nature. tion of a figure or drawing on a sheet of paper which appears to be perfectly white is very astonishing to the spectator. the This magical apparimetal will be brought. 2— SECTION OF GKUTTO. If any one. is secured a convex spec- having a focus about equal AVhen the to the length of the box. and palladium are affected by these mercurial vapors. MAGICAL APPARITION OF A DRAWING ON WHITE PAPER. no mark would be visible. should write upon a sheet of white paper with platinum chloride. After is the crystals are formed and the liquid ponred from the box. . ing the apertures. interior of the box is illuminated by a strong light passing through the colored windows. front aperture tacle lens.

If the glass be breathed MAGIC POllTRATTS. Reversing the experiment. C. AVideman. a no tlie 411 expose At lirst less marvelous result is obtained. line for line. and then by simply bringing the drawing in contact . tinned. The makes no diflFerence as to is the final result. An able chemist. makes upon. so as to cover its surface with moisture.MISCELLANEOUS TRICKS OF AN AMUSING NATURE. drawing or writing to the gases of mercury the lines will become charged with mercury. A piece glass of glass is obtained similar to that used for maybe transparent. It is a square piece of transjiarent glass in Avhich absolutely nothing can be seen. a face like that shown in the cut its appearance. As soon as the moisture leaves the glass. the image dis- appears. even on the closest examination. with a sheet of paper previously sensitized with a solution of platinum. Drawings made in this way give a charming effect^ the tones being very soft and the lines distinct and clear. MAGIC PORTRAITS. has recently devised a curiosity m the way of engraving. the drawing will be reproduced. on the white paper. or silvered. that making mirrors. Then a small quantity of fluorspar placed in a porcelain the proper chemi- capsule and moistened w4th sufficient sulphuric acid to make .

A little practice will show the exact time necessary to leave the fluid lines on the glass. while the other tube arranged to give a view of any object at right angles to it. or considerably to the rear of trick tube has The no eyepiece. of our readers. ing or writing is executed on the previously well-cleaned is In about five minutes. One tube of the is opera glass is constructed in the ordinary manner. the glass dried with a cloth. Too long a biting of the acid would be accompanied by so deep an engraving of the glass that the lines wonld always be perceptible. A TRICK OPERA We presfMit ati GLASS. although the principle involved engraving of a trick opera glass which may be new to some is very old.41-^ MAGJC: STAGE ILLUSIONS AND SCIENTIPIC DIVERSIONS. being provided Avith lenses. japanned wood taking A done away with. to breathe The plate will washed in common water and then be ready. W ith tliis cal reaction to write Avith.ASS. or ten at the most. even on the dry glass. liquid uikI a quill pen the desired drawglass. the line of vision of the normal tube. and it will only be necessary to be upon it to see the figures that have thus been traced make their appearance. and the objective its place. . a piece of portion of the tube and its leather cover is is A THK K OI'KHA (iF.

as the operator pulls gently on the end of the supporting string over movement is of the wings. When the observer wishes to use the trick ghiss at short range/ he covers up a portion of the opening in the tube with his fingers. boxes. New York and other large which a surprising degree of skill and The cord leading from the aperture below the mouth some of A TOT BIUD THAT EFFECTIVELY SIMULATES A BIRD FLYtNQ. always attracts observers it which the bird moves. . but at longer range this precaution would not be necessary. but in reality they are observing the lady on the left of the center glasses turned a different aisle. The tov one of the latest of the many of novelties which are constantly being ex- hibited by the wide-awake salesmen in the streets of cities.MISCELLANEOUS TRICKS OF AN AMUSING NATURE. The naturalness and the easy movement of the wings of the little toy bird shown in the accompanying illustration. and a mirror 413 is inserted at an angle in the tube. and seats. cut away. of the gentlemen has his A TOY mill) THAT FLIES. ing shows a phin view of a theater. with the stage. in accordance with the Avhen this toy is shown on the streets. as has been by numerous venders within a short time. and in the construction ingenuity are displayed. Of course each way around. Our engravThe gen- tleman in the box and the one on the right of the center aisle both appear to be observing the actor on the stage. The practical uses of the glass are a])parent.

Prol)al)ly tlu. pulley passes over an idler and out rearwardly. Certain it is that planchette has performed some curious feats and has made for itself a jiosition in the world of mysteries. Marvelous tales were This curious toy was popular as far back as 1867. shaft. in s])ite of an unconscious ])ressure of the finger ti})S u])on the b(jard. THE PLANCHETTE TABLE. Btamj)ed over every movement of the planchette board. The larger pair of lazy tongs is pivotally connected to the outer portion of the wing. as shown in attached. and rests upon the paper. it. and causes the bird to move forward on what seems to be only a single length of cord. told by the credulous about sor Tyndall it. and the rotation of the same. having at and a cord from the larger its end a finger-piece. just under where the wings are hinged to the body. inner j)ortion passes over an idler and around a pulley. giving a longer sweep thereto than to the inner portion. and even as distinguished scientists as Profes- and Professor Faraday were drawn into controversies concerning is some hidden secret . on which the operator pulls in manipulating the toy. both pulleys being fast on the same shaft. and that one or the other of those whose hands bore upon it cons])ired with the little board in the fortnuhition of its reply. the crank being pivotally connected with an the pulley outer end of extension of a member of the inner one of two pairs of lazy tongs.il. and the j^ivotal connection of the lazy tongs with the bearing in the crossbar gives an oscillatory movement to the wings. the backward movement taking place by gravity when the pull on the The movement of the wings is effected by a crank on each string is released. All that is necessary is that it should stand firmly and move readily on its legs. winds up the cord on the smaller pulley.in the construction of the planchette table. which constitutes a very good simulation of the natural movement of the wings A high degree of mechanical skill is shown in the putting of a bird in flight. 2. with which the smaller lazy tongs are connected. most generally aece]ited explanatitui is that advanced by I^ewes and others. pen(. subjecting planchette to the influeiu^e. to which it is This pulley is a little smaller than another at its side. which serves Many believe that humbug was as the third leg. is attached at its outer end to a hook in the wall or other support. and in the point of the board an aperture of suitable size for the insertion of a lead pencil. of the still there is.414 31AGIO: STAGE ILLUSIONS AND SCIENTIFIC DIVERSIONS. together of this little toy. which directs at all un- the movement Nor does it seem that such can be . The cords are wound in opposite directions on their pulleys. that although tliei'o is no intentional movenicnt of the hands of Many think there tiiose wlio are tliis. so that the unwinding of the cord from the larger pulley. All that is needful is a heart-shaped cedar board with two nicely turned metal legs carrying well-oiled casters. and this member having also a pivotal bearing on a crossbar which turns in bearings on the outer side of the toy. of the bird while its Fig.

PLANCHETTE. has as little knowledge of the peril he has escaped. Under the influence of certain people of a highly nervous temperament. or whose steps by chance have led him to the border of a precipice. however. awakened him. J'erha})S the day will come. Secrets of whicli the person is in ignorance have been divulged in a remarkable way. and were it more generally truthful and less given to uttering remarkable sayings only occasionally. were planchette more consistent.MISCELLANEOUS TRICKS OF AN AMUSING NATURE. in which there will be occasion for looking u])on planchette more seriously. or having to a certain extent the qualities of touching planchette mediums. I . even while in a work has been finished would be unable to tell you the work which custom has taught them to perform Much. future events are said to be foretold. 415 movement is by no means an unusual phase of our The somnambulist who nightly takes a promenade from cellar to garret. and many anecdotes shrouding planchette in mystery are repeated and believed. there would be more reason for according it a place for thorough and systematic investigation. How often also in it mercantile pursuits do those unconsciously. and after the of who are accustomed to a certain routine perform many of the details of correctly. likely. has been said at times of state of abstraction. and of regarding it as a wonderful nu'ans of displaying a rational nervous action independent of conscious mental ('(M-c])i'ation. planchette's prophetic nature. as planchette is conscious of its movements. when the morning beams have for unconscious existence. Were the testimony. more universal. when mesmerism is understood and mind reading is more satisfactorily explained.

" I have since tried several mirrors as sold in the shops. At the back there are usually various devices. *"I have been nuable to find but a satisfactory explanation of this fact. a scratch with a knife or with any other hard body is sufficient. brightly polished.416 MAGIC: STAGE ILLUSIONS AND SCIENTIFIC DIVERSIONS JAPANESE MAGIC MIRRORS. It would is seem as if the pressure upon the back during polishing caused some change in the reflecting surface corresponding to the raised })arts . made of a Now. etc. Atkinson. of the Uuiv^ersity of Tokio. W. mode of on considering the manufacture I was led that the pressure to to suppose which the mirror was subjected during polishing. but had never seen. was concerned in the production of the figures. a bright line appeared in the image corresponding to the position of the This experiment part rubbed. light rcflectcd whereby the amount of was ureater. quite easy to repeat. and brightly a small round mirror about one-twelfth thickness. in making their ously heard of. to one-eighth of an inch in kind of speculum metal. and which is greatest on the parts in relief.lAi'ANKSK M. standing out in strong relief. to fall ground. which I had previTlie ladies of Japan use. and permitting the rays of the sun to be reflected from the front surface. and coated with mercury. R. Japan. badges. in a great many cases. if the direct rays of the sun are allowed upon the front of the mirror. to the test On putting this by rubbing the back of the mirror with a blunt-pointed instrument.. and in most cases the appearance described has been observed with more or less distinctness. toilet.vfiic Miuuoii. to Mv. the figures at the back will appear to shine through the substance of the mirror as bright lines npon a moderately bright polished like the front surface. and are then reflected on a screen. communicates " Nature " the following interesting account of these curious mirrors: " A short time ago a friend showed me a curious effect. Japanese or Chinese written characters. though not in all. or .

and filed until they are roughly finished.'' This box has on the top an opening into which the liquid bronze is poured after it has been melted in small fireproof clay crucibles. It is then roughly formed by the aid of a wooden frame into square or round cakes. Several of these flat molds are then placed in a melting box made of clay and chamotte. For mirrors of first quality the following metal mixture * ' ' ' ^ is used in one of the largest mirror foundries in Kioto: Lead Tin Copper ''For mirrors of itiferior quality are 5 parts. in the frame receives the concave designs by the aid of woodcuts. scoured.MISCELLANEOUS TRICKS OF AN AMUSING NATURE. The parts of the mold are put together in the frame and dried. the charcoal of the wood lio-no-ki {Magnolia hypoleuca) being preferred as the best for the purpose. which consists of the levigated powder of a soft kind of whetstone (fn-ishi) found in Yamato and many other j)laces. they are polished with a piece of charcoal and water. and mixes this with levigated powder of a blackish tuflf-stone and a little charcoal powder and water. 39: "For preparing the mold. amalgam is and a little lead. 417 aud the supposing that of the light which falls \\\)o\\ tiie surface. Geerts. They are then first polished with a polishing powder called to-no-ki. the workman first powders a kind of rough plastic clay. those parts corresponding to the raised portions on the back are altered by the pressure in such a way that less is absorbed. The amalgam rubbed . and appearing in their " Transactions" for 1875-7G. a part is absorbed rest reflected. till the paste is plastic aud suitable for being molded. which consists of two parts jiut together witi) their concave surfaces. 10 Copper '." of the The following account manufacture of the Japanese mirrors is taken from a paper by Dr. 27 tin. and consequently also the cavities of the moulds. and thereThis. phenomenon. Secondly. the blackish paste melting bronze or copper) and water. p. is not an explanation of the fore a bright image appears. but I j^ut it forward as perhaps indicating the direction in which a true explanation may be looked for. 15 " "' _80 100 taken: Lead Natural sulphide of lead and antimonv 10 parts. The liquid metal naturally fills all openings inside the box. of course. the surface of the latter is covered with a levigated half(old crucibles which have served for liquid mixture of powdered cliamottc Thus well prepared. the melting box and molds are crushed and the mirThese are then cut. cut in relief. " After being cooled. _80 " " 100 rors taken away. When the surfaces of the mirrors are well polished they are covered with a layer of mercury consisting of quicksilver. read before the Asiatic Society of Japan.

until the excess of mercury is expelled and the mirrors have a fine. where for two years he had been the colleague of Professor Ayrton. of various forms and sizes. exhibited several which he had brought with him from Japan. The following article on magic mirrors by MM. of the West. which We is them a disk of 15. name which signifies mirrors which are permeable to the light. One of the faces is polished and always slightly convex. the Chinese and the Japanese. "In the meantime I received a visit from M." MAGIC MIEROES. possess a wonderful property: when abeam of the sun's light falls upon the polished surface and is reflected on a white screen. Ayrton. He is brought back with him as objects of curiosity four t&mple mirrors. AVe can now receive the reflected rays on a screen at a greater distance. and even to-day they make They are made of speculum metal. Bertin and Dubosq outlines several interesting experiments. had it been properly made. three were circular. my former pupil.418 MAGIC: STAGE ILLUSIONS AND SCIENTIFIC DIVERSIONS. bright reflecting surface. and always has cast on it ornaments which are in Among the many mirrors thus constructed there are a few which relief. but always portable. was found to be slightly magic.' We. and he experimented with them as already mentioned. which mauipulation must be continued for a long time. because it was not a good one. Dybowski. only these. images which are reduced in size. tliese are far superior to those modern production. and we at once see distinctly the magnified image of the ornamentation on the back of the mirror. But to obtain the very best effects we must illuminate the mirror with a diverging pencil of light. in bygone times were acquainted with metallic mirrors only. The image thus made by our mirror was confused. antique mirrors. call them magic mirrors. this pencil is made still further divergent by reflection from the mirror. "To try such a mirror we reflect a sunbeam from its polished surface to a white cardboard about one meter distant. These raised designs appear on the screen in white on a dark ground.3 centimeters in diameter. " The people of the Far East. professor of the Polytechnic School at Yeddo. we see in the disk of light thus formed the image of the ornamentation which is on the back of the mirso that its reflection gives The Chinese have long known of these mirrors and value them highly. for their manufacture has been nearly abandoned by tried reason of the introduction of the silvered mirrors of Europe. together. the other face is plane or slightly concave. they call them by a ' ' " Very few persons had seen magic mirrors till Mr. the image . because its reflecting Burface is convex. that of to say. and the thinnest of them.' ror. who had returned from Japan. vigorously with a piece of soft leather.

Dubosq to associate himself with me in order. I 419 I then knew of no means by which first could make it give better effects. Several Japanese mirrors which Ave have pro- cured have given analogous results. but in ordinary gun metal. not in Japanese bronze. and it gave very magic ]\I. after the Japanese manner. Tlie first copy was roughly worked on the lathe. Dybowski. the surface was then polished and nickel plated. to repeat the experiments of the learned Italian. effects. and which gave confused images with These images became very sharply defined when we had heated the back of the mirror with a gas lamp. I proposed M.MISCELLANEOUS TRICKS OF AN AMUSING NATURE. . At first we had only at our disposal the mirror to THE MAUIC MIIUJOU. in the hope of being able eventually to reproduce them in his workshops. Govi in the second of his two j^apers. but it was not magical. and even retained traces of it after it had been repeatedly heated. but this was broken. true theory of magic mirrors. " We then made a mold and reproduced this mirror. first. jiointed " The means by which the mirror could have been improved were It is a consequence of the out by M. in order to render it magical. Govi. The theory was not reached at once. it acquired this property in a high degree when it was heated. would have been sharply defined. brought from Japan by the reflected solar rays. and then to study generally the interesting phenomena of magic mirrors. The second was worked carefully on an optical grinding tool.

by means of a rubber tube. the cone of the diverging reflected rays closes up. it not without lose inconveniences. We can also obtain the negative image. arranged as a condenser. Tiie mirror is mounted on the top of a column so that it can be made to face in any required direction. " These experiments require an intense light. and gave the design on its back in light surrounded by dark borders. the mirror became more and more convex. It the mirror often not heated equally. When we cut lines around the design on the back of the mirror. occurred to us that the change of curvature wliich was required could be obtained more uniformly by means of pressure. or the inverse of the preceding one. . especially is when tliey ha\o been amalgamated. brass. On then engraved' letters on the back of little rectangular Japanese mirheating these the letters appeared in black in the reflected image. but this now Bhows in shade edged with bright borders. First of all. so that the diverging pencil which falls on the mirror may not spread too much. the image of the design is reduced in size. on whose back was soldered tin-plate figures. changes its appearance. to a little hand pump. "This is what I call the positive image. and becomes an image of the design on the back of the mirror. and the images are deformed. in this case it is best to use a diverging beam. heat rendered them very magical. a few strokes of the piston sufficed to compress sufficiently the air in the shallow cylinder. Dubosq therefore con- structed a shallow cylinder of metal. for the design stood out. and at the other by a flat plate of brass. and which gave no result as ordinarily experimented with. framed in the black lines which bordered the figures. M. " Thus but also. nickel plated. became very magical by pressure. around whose borders were cut lines. and in the image on the screen the design on the back of the mirOur Japanese mirror when thus treated ror became more and more distinct. having in its center a stopcock which M'e could attach. and the copy which we had made. " Thus we have seen that we can now make copies of the Japanese mirrors. injures the mirrors. now became a magic mirror as 2)erfect A mirror in as any of those which Professor Ayrton had exhibited before us. When we expose the mirror to the beam of the parte-lumiHre it is generally not entirely covered by the light. which thus their polish. A jet of coal gas is insufficient. closed at one end by the metallic mirror. the cone of reflected rays became more and more open. On now working the piston the air in the shallow box is rarefied. by rarefying the air in the shallow as To do this we have only to attach the rubber tube to the pump arranged an ordinary air pump.i20 MAGIC: STAGE ILLUSIONS AND SCIENTIFIC DIVERSIONS. We iutercejit it with a screen box. the mirror becomes concave. perforated with a snudl hole. This pump could be made either to condense or rarefy aii\ If the rubber tube was attached to the pump. but the oxyhydrogen liglit is sufficiently intense. TJie effects arc most brilliant and the best defined when we experiment with the rays of the sun. gave very fine images. "We rors. it is it is seen that heat its is very efficacious in rendering mirrors magical. obtained by means of a lens })laced between the piirte-hiiiiiere and the mirror.

we take a cast of surface. certainly forms one of the most curions pieces of apparatus which is to be found in the cabinet of its mirror. and will produce by its reflected rays the image of a design which no longer exists on its back. I)iit 421 tlieni all may he rendered so hy making air. One of these days." will its magical under the influence of pressure. covers of the shallow box containing either conijiressed or rarefied pressure box and This Japanese style. while our mirror is and then reproduce this by means of galvano-deposition. however. some of whicli nuiy he magical. " We shall not. . This surface will have all the irregularities of that of the magic mirror. made in the physics. stop here.MISCELLANEOUS TRICKS OF AN AMUSING NATURE.

.

but it it is so interesting and so mnch of a historical curiosity that we reproduce here. and placed behind a piece of plate glass supported in a frame secured to the back of the chair. SPECIMENS OF SILHOUETTES OBTAINED BY LAVATER. This is not a photographic diversiou. LAVATER'S APPARATUS FOR TAKING SILHOUETTES. one of the wonders of the age. Behind this glass the artist stands." says Lavater. the silhouette attracted the attention of the learned." A candle was used to furnish the necessary light. PHOTOGRAPHIC DIVERSIONS. in his celebrated work on physiognomy. . TRICK PHOTOGRAPHY. ''The shadow. describes an accurate and convenient machine for drawing silhouettes. All of the forms which deviate sensibly from this rule are so many anomalies. draws with the other. and was regarded as Lavater. The engraving is almost self-explanatory. and holding the frame with one hand. well oiled and dried. CHAPTER I. When first introduced. "is projected upon a fine paper.BOOK V. The proportions of the silhouette must be judged principally from the length and breadth of the face. A horizontal line drawn from the point of the nose to the back of the liead (provided the head be erect) should not exceed in length a perpendicular line which extends from the top of the head to the junction of the chin and head. a correct and well-proportioned profile should be equal in breadth and height.

.

Nos. In Fig. Where is a kneeling girl is represented as a statuette upon a table. The annexed diagram shows the arrangements which may be used. is assisting in as is . we closelv examine the child who. FRi. We even temper. PHOTOGRAPHY UPON A BLACK GROUND. the infallible In No. the operator in seen in. in No. In support of these observations Lavater gives a iminber of siiecimens of siland insists upon the conchision Avhich he deduces from their study. manipulating the rubber bulb which controls the shutter. an objective so as to preserve intact for subsequent exposures the unused portion of the sensitized plate. a piece of blackened cardboard was used. 3 we have clearness of judgment. and No. the rear.TRICK PHOTOORAPHY 425 lionettes. in No. -KXPLAiNATUltY DIAUKA.M. su])ported by a violin stand to the right of the figures. using as a black background the opening of a large coach house. Now. if shown. Some of the most interesting trick photographs are obtained by the use In brief. 2 the contour of the nose carries mark of a good temper. the process consists in limiting the field of of a black background. 3 is shown a picture taken open daylight. ])ermits of taking a number of ])liotographs analogous to the one that we reproduce in our second engraving. take a few examples of them. 1. lY. in front of the cart. I. to IIL are the ones most frequently used. taste. 1 Lavater sees an upright soul. and to be able to obtain upon the latter such combina- tions as may be desired of any number whatever of successive poses. as a screen. an and frankness.

ON THE SAME PLATE.-GnOUP IN OPEN AIR. FIG. IN TWO DIFFERENT POSES ON ONE PLATE.— COMPOSITE PHOTOGRAPH IN TWO POSES. AT DIFFEREINT DISTANCES.PIG. 3. . 3.

—A DECAPITATION. 4.— FACSIMILE OF A COMPOSITE PHOTOGRAPH. FIG. .FIG. 5.

is and at the moment of focusing. reflection is '^Fhis tures in the screen and in process is the most any longer possible. we shall find that it \a traversed vertically by a that a slight veil was prodnced'at the first exposure indicating shadows. such sharpness is inversely proportioned to the distance that separates the screen from the sensitized plate. and the preservation of the plate is absolute. A blackened piece of cardboard is aperture nearly corresponding to the place ]) reserved in the definitive picture This screen is slid for the object. own head. which permits of the most delicate junctions..428 3TAGIC: STAGE ILLUSIONS AND SClENriFIC DIVERSIONS. that is to say. bust. etc. sensitized plate.— ANOTIIKU 1)Kc:aPITAT10N. We ])resent a numl)er of engravings of photographs taken upon a black background. is rapid and the surest. head. into the first fold of the bellows of the camera. the position of the apparatus 80 regulated as to make the imago of the subject appear through the aperthe proper position. No . for producing the composite photographs The apparatus ground is upon a black backprovided with an very simple. ti. very close to the FKi. that one desires to isolate. What is no less advantageous is the sharpness of the outline. line of upon all that portion of plate tliat was exposed by the incompletely drawn If the plate had been entirely exposed it would be difshutter of the frame. the delivery of Lis ficult to suspect anything.

FIG.— THE HEAD UPON A PLATE. 7. . FKi. «.— THE HEAD IN THE WHEELBAKKOW.

FIG. 10. .— TUE EEDDCTION.FIG. 9.— THE SAWED-OFF HEAD.

The most curious illusion of all is the one in which a nuin is seen inside of The individual represented was first photographed on a sufficiently reduced scale to allow him to appear to enter the bottle. FIG. Fig. and the diaphiagm occupying about two-thirds of the plate. The sawed-off head is one of the best of these photographs. 431 Our next engraving represents a decapitation by means of a saber. trick By the same process the following photographs are made. 10 gives the same individual photographed twice on two different scales. This kind of reduction gives very astonishing results. the diaphragm is placed on the other side in order to conceal the head. . The bottle was then photographed on a large scale. 11. the man is seen in the bottle. and the body is photographed in the second position along with the person rejiresentiug the executioner. completely masking the body up to the neck. It would have been possible by a third exposure to so arrange things as to nuike the executioner the decapitated person. and the result is. without changing the position of the apparatus. a bottle. Tlie diaphragm was arranged around the subject. the subject inclining forward upon his knees. and it is taken by means of an exposure in Avliicli the head was placed upon a block.TRICK PnOTOGRAPHY.— MAN IN A BOTTLE. Then.

but about ten years ago a work was published. Scovill *From "Photographic Amusements. as they were called. strangely enough. It is quite possible that a person entirely ignorant of photogra[)liic Eye. could often be image has never.432 2IAGIC: STAGE ILLUSIONS AND SCIENTIFIC DIVERSIONS. In this case the glass had jireviously supported the negative image of a lady dressed in white. so easily gulled by the professional spiritualist. but." by a Miss Houghton. make its appearance during the nocturnal hours. only making their appearance when they felt so inclined. often made again. being of a non-actinic color. their appearance 'Y\\e when It old negatives were cleaned and the glass used precise action producing the isfactorily explained. i)lates had a convcnYork. a well-known photographer The apparition did not was one day surprised by the visitation of a spirit. the custom of these ladies and gentlemen from the other world. but not so plainly as in the positive. SPIKIT PHOTOGRAPHY. in broad daylight. but upon the photograph he was in the act of producing. altliough hardly visible in the negative. The explanation of the whole matter was soon made easy. methods might be tlie led into the belief that they were actually tliat photographic images of dead. it is possible that he would not have done what he did. given quite a distinct image in the positive. but we fear the book is hardly well enough written to deceive tlie experienced ])h()t()grapher. of this do not know if any enterprising humbug ever took advantage of producing spirit photographs to extort money from the unwary. which was to make a thorough and scientific examination as to the probable cause of the phenomenon. At certain and most unfortiiiuite })eriods in the process employed.* Many years ago. In those days glass was not so cheap as at j^resent. The case was not an isolated one. we think. publishers. The case was this: A gentleman sitter had been taken in the usual manner upon a collodion plate. New The i . Upon examination of the negative. and all new or spoiled negatives were cleaned off and freshly prepared with collodion for further use. turning the latter slightly yellow in some parts. the image of the figure was also visible. been satmade more distinct by breathing on the glass. Woodbury. he was surprised to fmd a dim white figure of a lady apparently hovering over the unconscious sitter. Some chemical action had evidently taken place between the image and the glass itself. as is." by Walter & Adams Co. had. as these spirit photographs. Upon taking a positive print from the negative. 1896. some of the E. the "spirits" being apparently of very independent natures. and not by his bedside to disturb his peaceful slumber. we have been given to understand.. entitled " Chronicles of We method the Photograj^hs of Spiritual Beings and Phenomena Invisible to the Material In this a number of reproductions of photographs of "spirits" were given with a detailed explanation of how they were obtained and the difficulties attending their production. Had this gentleman been of that soft-brained kind. This faint yellow image. in the old wet-collodion days.

would then only be necessary for the '" si)irit.' TRICK PHOTOGRAPHY. as he might turn round suddenly at an inconvenient moment and '* detect the mothis operandi. over whom the operIt tlie matter would Ije in no wise a difficult one. ' A "spirit" photograph. There are With a weak-minded sitter. the method described would be rather a risky one. If. have a very high opinion of an operator who was in the constant habit of " smudging " negatives with his fingers so as to entirely spoil them. we fear. It is not difficult to explain quite a ator number of methods. ieut habit of slipping into the 433 according to the author. nor can we quite understand what brand of plates was used that " got spoiled by falling into the becoming utterly ruined. we learn that many were ruined by being accidentally smudged by the photographer's fingers. how these pictures Avere produced. We should not. the sitter be of another kind. however. also water. The ghostly image can be preparetl upon the plate either before or after the sitter. washing tank and tliere." suitably attired for the occasion. In such a case it necessary to find some other spirit" to method where it sometimes becomes would not be requisite for the make its appearance during the j)resence of tlie sitter. had complete control. exposure of the The method is figure to represent the spirit 38 is this: In a darkened room the draped posed in a spirit-like attitude (whatever that . to ap^iear for a few seconds behind the sitter during the exposure and be taken slightly out of focus. so as not to a2)pear too corporeal. anxious to discover how it was done and on the alert for any deceptive practices.

after some mysterious maneuvers. of discretion in this part of the performance . exposure is made and SPIRIT PICTURE. which Upon developing we get the two again used to photograph the sitter. better still. and. somewhat astonished. as it up Avith the figure. we fancy. "What "Indeed!" replied the gentleman. less easy for The '' sjjirit " should be as in- will then be the subject to dispute the state- ment Some amouut must be used. An elderly gentleman had come for na seance. the " spirit " mixed distinct as possible. or. otherwise the same disaster might happen as did to a spiritualist some little time ago. indistinct appearance to the image. that it is the spirit-form of his dead and gone relative. the gentleman was informed that the spirit of his mother was there. a fine piece of muslin gauze is placed which gives a hazy.434 MAGIC: STAGE ILLUSIONS AND SCIENTIFIC DIVERSIONS. be) in front of a dark may light background with a suitable magnesium or other arrangement thrown upon the figure. The the latent image remains upon the sensitized plate. images. is close to the lens. which is then focused in the "naturalistic" style.

TRICK PHOTOGRAPHY. and. to expose who practice on the gullibility of inexperienced persons. nearly black. we only hope that they will be made merely for amusement. We hope that it will not be inferred that we desire to explain how persons with regard to photographs of "spirits. — collapse of spiritualist." " Quite riglit." replied the old gentleman "I'm going round to lier house to tea to-night. can also be emThis compound. does she say?" 435 ''She says she will see you soon/' informed the medium." Total . The engraving on page 43G is a reproduction of a "spirit" photograph made by a photographer claiming to be a "spirit photographer. ])hotographs SPIRIT PICTURE. excejit to deceive on certain parts. such as bisulphate of ployed. if possible." for this is not so. " You are getting old now and must soon join her. Fluorescent substances. the latter only will appear white in the picture. although almost invisible to the eve. quinine. If a white piece of paper be painted with the substance." and to have persons .

' .IMIOTOOUAPn OF " Sl'IHITS.

called our attention to the similarity between one of the "spirit" images and a portrait painting by Sichel the artist. Fortunately.TRICK mo TO a RA pn Y. M. the following novel ' it will bo seen at In a recent number of " The Australian Photogi'aphic Journal " we read of method of making so-called " spirit " photographs: '* Take a negative of any supposed spirit that is to be represented. clamp in place the back of the printing frame and expose to the sun for half a minute. phers of a prominent member of the Society of Amateur Photogra- Xew York. lay on the glass side a piece of platinotype paper with the sensitive side u]v. W. Murray. however. Now place in the printing ' . 437 the power to call tliese ladies and gentlemen from the "vasty deep " and make them impress their imago upnn tlio pensitized plate by the side of the portraits of their living relatives. A reproduction of the picture is given herewith. SIC 11 EL. put it in the printing frame with the film side out. we were in this case able to expose the fraud. and once that the " spirit " image is copied from it. PAINTIKG liY N. ]\rr.

then develop in the usual way. As the upon two vertical axes. Fio. and the " eye " of the photographic instrument is so placed that the visual ray may be said to graze the plate. The i^late is heated very uniformly and sprinkled with sand. and the blurred spirit photograph will ajipear faintly to one side or directly behind the distinct image. join very accurately. A sliding steel E permits of keeping the two shutters closed before and after exposure. Sheets of paper Avith different ghost exposures can be prepared beforehand. is focused on i. their M. and would necessitate -the use of so much costly apparatus that we will content ourselves with the simple mention of the possibility. especially in tropical counOur engraviug shows an intei'esting experiment which permits of repro- tries. edges. however. Due affixes asbestos paper to plate. it ' ' AETIFIOIAL MIRAGE. The mirage can be photo- graphed as shown in our engraving. instead of having a sliding provided with two shutters that operate like the leaves of a door. Grenoble. A very even plate of sheet iron is taken and placed horizontally upon two supports. is is pointed out by M. parts by a pencil line that exactly tallies with the junction The subject glass. film side down. considerable expense. shutters must i). A small. entail dry-plate without uncovering the shutter. DUPLEX PHOTOGRAPHY. of a special frame which. and over put the previously exposed sheet. The following very ingenious method It consists in making use of sliutter. oue of the halves of the and then the .-PLATE FKAME. B B (Fig. The ground glass is divided into two line of the shutters. painted Egyptian landscape is arranged at one end of the ])late. ' ' frame the negative of another person to whom the spirit is to appear.438 MAGIC: STAGE ILLUSIONS AND SCIENTIFIC DIVERSIONS. whose upper extremities 2'>i'oject from the frame so that they can be maneuvered from the exterior. ducing a mirage by photography. expose to the sun for two minutes until the image is faintly seen. Due. A A. l)ivot These shutters. 1). The mirage is a well-known natural phenomenon." " Spirit " photograi^hs might easily be made by means of Professor Roentgen's newly discovered process of impressing an image upon a photographic The process would. This is removed when the frame is in the camera. H.

.

440

MAGIC: STAGE ILLUSIONS AND SCIENTIFIC DIVERSIONS.

After exposure the model corresponding side of the frame is unmasked. changes place, and then the other side of the frame is opened.

The photograph reproduced

in Fig. 2

was taken

in this

three representations of the same person.

The

easel, stool,

manner. It contains and artist having

FIG. 2.— COPY

OF A PHOTOGRAPH SHOWING THE SAME PERSON THRICE REPEATED.

been arranged, an image is taken on the left side of the plate, then the painter moves his position to the right and a second exposure is made. The portrait on the easel is that of the same person, but was taken afterward on the jiositive by means of the negative and a vignetter (Fig. 3).

The other photograph
the same apparatus.

(Fig. 4)

is

likewise very curious, and was taken Avith

A liat was

fixed firmly to a

head

rest,

ami the same person

then glided under

it

and presented his two

profiles.

Fin.

:!.

vi(;netteu.

TRICK PHOTOGRAPHY.

441

FIG. 4.—COPY

OF A PHOTOGRAPH GIVING TWO PROFILES OF THE SAJIE PERSON.

ILLUSIVE PHOTOGRAPHY.
The amnsiug examples
due
to

of illusive

photography which we show herewith are

Mr. Frank A. Gilmore, of Auburn, R. I. The camera is so arranged that the j^ictures which are reproduced suggest the story of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde. The porter with the sack and the gentleman who is about to give him some money are one and the same person. The pedestrian is walking with
prepared to annihilate himself. A black-lined box is is very simple. fitted to the back of a " kodak " or any other camera; the front of tlie box is closed by two doors. On opening one door a picture may be taken on one side of the plate; on closing this door and opening the other, the other half The subject poses in one position and his of the plate is ready for exposure.
is

himself, and the fighter

The method

of producing the illusion

photograph

taken with one door open, care being taken to bring the figure A good finder enables this detail to be attended to. Then one door is closed and the other is opened, and The plate holder the exposure of the other half of the plate is accomplished.
is

within half of the area of the sensitized plate.

is

not removed during the dual exposure.

If possible,

instantaneous pictures

443

MAOIC: STAGE ILLUSIONS AND SCIENTIFIC DIVERSIONS.

"^w^x.
ATTACHMENT TO KODAK FOR DUPI.EX rHOTOGHAPHY.

should be taken, as time exposures are rather risky, involving danger of shaking the camera, and the length of exposure may not be the same for both sides
of
*'

the plate. Our engravings were taken with an ordinary four by five kodak," and the box was an ordinary cigar box cut down to fit, and black-

ened inside.

SHOWING TWO IMIOTOOKAI'HS OF SAMK I'EKHON ON A SINGLE NEGATIVE.

OTHER ILLUSTRATIONS OF DUPLEX PHOTOGRAPHY.

444

MAGIC: STAGE ILLUSIONS AND SCIENTIFIC DIVERSIONS.

PHOTOGRAPHING A HUMAN HEAD UPON A TABLE.
iu the following way: A table is provided with a top The person whose head is to be photomovable at B, graphed sits in a chair underneath the table. The board is removed to allow The board is again placed in posithe person's head to pass above the table. tion on the table, and the closer the person's neck fits the hole in the table the The camera is arranged with a box, as in the illusion we have just better. described; but in this case the camera is turned so that the two doors, C and D, open lip and down instead of sideways. The camera is raised or lowered until the crack between the two doors of the box is on a level with the edge of the The upper door, C, in the box is opened wide, so as to expose to the table. sensitized plate, when the shutter is worked, the head above the table, and all of the objects within the range of the lens above the edge of the table.

The

picture

is

made
it

having a portion of

ril()r(><!l!AI'lllN(i

A

lir.MAN IIKAI) lU'ON A

'I'AIJI.K.

TRICK PHOTOGRAPHY

445

UIAGIJAM SHOWING APPARATUS.
is made, then the person no longer required. The top door, C, is now closed, and the bottom door, D, is opened wide. By this means the upper part of the plate is ])rotected from a second exposure and leaves the way The shntter clear to expose the lower, and as yet nnexposed, part of the plate. is again opened, and this time everything in range of the lens below the edge of the table is photographed, and, of course, does not show the person nuder the table. The illustration which we give, as well as the diagram showing how it may be produced, are the work of ^Ir. James Burt Smalley, of Bay Citv, Mich.

After milking these arrangements an exposure
liead has

whose

been photographed

is

PHOTOGRAPIII^TI A

HEAD ON A PLATTER.

We have already shown how a photograph may be made npon a table, and we now show how one can easily take pictures of the same person in different attitudes on one plate. This trick is performed by Mr. Frank Gilmore, of Auburn, R. I. Pictures made in this manner seem extremely puzzling, when in

lIlfiAU

OK LADY I'HUTUUHAl'llKU U^ A

1-1,ATTEU.

44G

MAGIC: STAGE ILLUSIONS AND SCIENTIFIC DIVERSIONS.

I

PAN CUT AWAY TO KEPKESENT PLATTER.

reality they are very simple to

make.

An

ordinary extension dining-table
Tiie tablecloth

is

\

used, the person to be ijhotographed being seated in an opening between the

two ends

of tbe table, caused

by the removal of a

leaf,

is

then

If necessary, the table arranged so as to cover the gap. cloth and other articles. support the boards so as to

may be built up with To make the illusion

complete, a pan, cut away so that

it

may

be conveniently placed around the

This gives the appearance in neck, as shown in our engraving, may be used. the photograph of being an ordinary platter bearing the head of a living
person.

now THE

I'lIOTOGUAPII IS MADE.

TRICK PIIOTOORAPHT.

447

PHOTOGRAPHING A CATASTROPHE.*
On this page we reproduce a curious photograpli by M. appeared some time ago in the '' Photo Gazette."
Despite
all

Bracq, which

the terrible catastrophe Avhich
fall,

along with him in his
not even so

much

it represents, carrying pictures the subject has not experienced the least uneasiness, as will certainly be felt by our readers at the sight of the

tumble represented.

FIG.

1.— A

CATASTROrHE.

The mode

of operating in this case

is

very simple, and we are indebted to

"Za

Nature''''

for the description of the

method employed by M. Bracq.

The photographic apparatus being suspended at a few yards from the floor of the room, in such a way as to render the ground-glass horizontal (say, between
the two sides of a double ladder a combination that permits of easy focusing and putting the plates in place), there is spread upon the floor a piece of wall*

From " Photographic Amusements," by Walter

E.

Woodbury.

448

MAGIC: STAGE ILLUSIONS AND SCIENTIFIC DIVERSIONS.
paper, about six feet in leugth by five feet in width, at tlie bottom of wliieii a waiuscot has

been dravvu. A ladder, a few pictures, a statuette, and a bottle are so arranged as to give an
observer the illusion of the wall of a
of a dining-room,
for

instance.

A

room that hammer,

some
to

nails, etc., are j)laced at the

proper points.

Finally a five by two and one-half foot board,
wliich a piece of carpet, a cardboard plate,

etc.,

have been attached,

is

jilaced

under the foot

of a chair,

which then seems
being
ready,

to rest

upon

this

-ARRANGEMENT OF
CAMERA.

false floor at right angles

with that of the room.
the
operator
lies

Everything

down
that he

quietly in the midst of these objects, asto

sumes a frightened expression, and waits until the shutter announces

him

may

leave his not very painful position.
will be able to

This, evidently,

is

merely an

example that our readers

modify and vary

at their will.

NEW TYPE
Our engraving shows
effect of a

OF PHOTOGRAPHIC PORTRAIT.

a new type of photographic portrait which gives the marble bust. The model is placed behind a hollow column or thin pedestal of painted wood. If it is desired to represent a man in classic cos-

face

tume, a helmet of white cardboard is placed upon the model's head, his hair and is whitened with rice powder, and those portions of the body it is desired to render visible are surrounded with white flannel. The background should
be formed of black velvet.
desired to preserve
is

After the negative

is

developed, the figure that
all

it is

cut around with a penknife, and the arms and

the

portions that arc not wanted are scratched out.

The

glass thus

becomes trans-

parent when the scratching has been done, and in the positive the bust stands
out from the background.

ii

29

450

MAGIC: STAGE ILLUSIONS AND SCIENTIFIC DIVERSIONS.

A MULTIPLE PORTRAIT.
The
tinople,

portrait

Mr. Baboudjian.

which we reproduce was taken by a photographer of ConstanThe subject of the photograph is represented a

FIG. 1.— KEPRODUCTION

OV A PHOTOGRAPH OF A MULTIPLE PLATE.

of a

number of times, so that the whole presents the aspect number of persons standing in a line. Two mirrors,

A and

B, are placed parallel to each other, and
interval of about two feet.

are separated by an

In

the narrow corridor thus formed he places the subject to be
1)0

photographed.

One

of the mirrors

must
is

a little taller

than the other, and the apparatus
is

turned toward the shorter one and

slightly inclined

toward the

floor.

The

mirrors are without frames.
is

The
r(i.

result of this

arrangement

shown

in

our en-

3.— DIAGRAM

SHOW-

graving, the same person being represented a
of times.

number

INfl

THE ARRANGEMENT

There

is

considerable ditliculty in lighting

Of TlIK AITAUATU8.

the subject properly.

451 MULTIPHOTOGRAPHY. theoi'ctically. an infinite number Jll Jiiiii|i!iisiliiiji!f'in.mi'.iffiiiilill:. the instrument called the multiphotograph. at sixty degrees.!lll|!iiiiiliiiiiilp ' . . mSW vn\4V III™ mill l. \\\\\\\-i ' .-_ . and if an angle of ninety degrees.«• ' Blllllii. at forty-five degrees._ Jii!b_„ -'' --- --*''''' ''" ' '"' '' ra'''-™™ BJllllHI GALLERY ARRANGED FOR MULTIFllUUKiUAlUV. A\v.. to each other at the mirror. seven images. the mirrors ai'e parallel. The system '• of photography which we If illustrate gives un excellent opportuis nity for a great range in the art of posing." an image is placed in front of two mirrors inclined DIAGRAM OF THE rHODUCTION OF FIVE VIEWS OF ONE SUBJECT BY MULTIPHOTOOUAPHY. Mi i l iW « iilimnt«| [ iii iiiiilii|i|i m M .ill\ ! • .TRICK PHOTOGRAPHY.'L„. three images will be produced in five images will be produced.\« .: |iiil\!ljJi.

.

In the diagram the ravs to the mirror. of 453 images will result. four images are produced. and on the nega- tive appears not only the back view of the subject. We also give an engrav' ing showing images of a full-length figure. these mirrors are inclined at an angle of seventy-two The exposure is made. giving a good idea of the relation of the images to the subject and of the five images to the focal plane. In the case illustrated. is In the jirocess of the photography whicli we illustrate. the virtual jiosition of the images being further from the instrument than the subject proper. degrees. The courses taken by the rays of light are determined by the law that the is angle of incidence equal to the angle of reflection.TRICK PI in TOGRA PH V. to the instrument. . taken of this to produce at one exposure a number of different The person to be photographed sits with the back views of the same subject. but also the four reflected images in profile and different three-quarter positions. while in front of the face are two mirrors set at the desirerl advantage angles to each other. IMAGES OF A FULL-LENGTH PORTRAIT. and back of light are traced in their course from the subject and forth. the inner edges touching.

The foil was taken from a button card. Castor oil or vaseline was used to make it transj)arent. was done in the absence of actinic light. glass negative. where it extended across the hole in the box cover. of course. Small mother-of-pearl buttons are generally mounted on pieces of pasteboard with this foil under them. the negative shown in the sketch was taken. Pa. Jefferson. was placed in it against the bottom. It might often . noitlier paper. Through the foil. this process of pinhole nor developer. its point could be just felt by the finger held against the opposite side of the foil. a hole was made with a No. was used. It was developed with oxalate developer. It is a little tin box two A hole was inches in diameter and three-quarters deep from cover to bottom. Mt. cut circular so as to fit in the box. at a distance of about ten feet from the object. so as to adapt it for printing from. with an exposure of four minutes.454 MAGIC: STAGE ILLUSIONS AND SCIENTIFIC DIVERSIONS. PINHOLE CAMERA. photography deserves special mention. 10 needle. Then. punched in the center of the cover. This made an aperture one-sixtieth inch in diameter. camera for photography in which the ne plus be attained. A piece of Eastman's " A " bromide paper. The interior of the box was blackened. The needle was pressed through until illustrate We in the cut a ultra of simplicity may fairly be said to PINHOLE CAMEHA. and the cover put on. and over this a piece of foil was secured by varnish. The sul)ject of the negative was the old armory at Summit Hill. As nothing special. This.

In order to change the plates it is only necessary to turn the small springs. The necktie liaving been adjusted. which has been introduced into the buttonhole of the vest and which simulates a button of that garment. back of The metallic camera is flat and very light. as paper can be cut to any size or paper instead of glass shape of box. frames which are capable of These frames each hold a sensitized plate or film. it is The . the shutter is set by a pull upon the button. The general appearance is seen in our second engraving. B. and is hidden under the FIGS. something like an ordinary bicycle chain. which passes under the vest. the first figure showing the it. The special novelty that presents itself is the use of fit for the negative.TRICK PHOTOGRAPHY.— PHOTOGRAPHIC NECKTIE— FRONT AND RAf'K VIEW. The brand of paper employed is slow paper. 455 be of considerable use in emergencies that sometimes will present themselves to the photographer. A PHOTOGRAPHIC NECKTIE. which is operated by the button. only necessary to press the rubber bulb. In order to open the vest. of the necktie This ingenious apparatus is a French invention. The frames are attached to a link chain. The interior mechanism comprises six small passing in succession before the objective. 1 AND 2. In order to change the i)late it is necessary to turn from left to right the button. shutter pocket. A. which may be placed in the shutter is tripped pneumatically by means of the bulb and tube.

develops a employed is very simple and consists in preparing a small photograph on chloride of silver i)aper. They are then washed with great care in order to free the fibres of the ])aper from every trace of the salt.450 MAGIC: STAGE ILLUSTONS AND SCIENTIFIC DIVERSIONS. The jsrocess coming in contact 'vvith it. at first gradually fade The images and finally disappear altogether. concealed in the scarf piu. The smoke of the tobacco. The paper can be purchased ready prepared. or merse the print in THK piTOTo. purpose. bath of bichloride of mercury.oiMN(i In order to make the latent it is only necessary to ima weak flve-per-cent. before an orifice arranged for the PHOTOGRAPHIC CIGAR HOLDER. image appear. The prints are fixed r\ a bath of sodinm hyposnlphite (eight to ten* per cent. G G The sensitized plates or filnis arc put in the frames. DKVKi. solutlon of sulpliite hyposulphite of . One of these papers is placed in the interior of the holder. A recent novelty is a cigar or cigarette holder accompanied by a small package of photographic paper abont the size of a postage stamp. MAGIC PHOTOGRAPHS. G. The lens is. of course. Tlie jarint is now taken and floated on a five per cent. which would cause a yellowing of the print after it was finished.). without hav- _ ^rr^' ^r^ ing been toned with gold. portrait or other subject. the}^ are Avashed in water and lowed to dry. and the springs ure turned back to their former position. After the prints are thoroughly al- bleached.

The device which we illustrate has been very successful in secnring photo- graphs which have led to the identification of the perpetrators of petty thefts. . AN ELECTRO-PHOTO DETECTIVE THIEF CATCHER. A cigar dealer of Toledo. so he and the detectives were foiled in their attempts to discover tliese thieves. the property of coloring black the chloride of mercury contained in the pre])ared paper. sodium. Ohio.TRICK PHO TOGRA PIT Y. 457 they are When the prints ure to be developed photographically.—TIIK rHOTO DKTKCTIVE. had for some time lost cigars from his showcase. The ammoniacal vapors coutaiued in tobacco smoke possodium hyposulphite. placed in the cigar holder so that the lateral orifice in the holdei' will admit the smoke to the sess. I. had recourse to the proprietor of the photographic apparatus shown in FIG. like j)riiit.

The side and end of the camera are removed so as to show the mechanism. and upon the evidence As the boys opened the case they thus obtained they were sent to prison. in and. set in operation the appaplace.458 MAGIC: STAGE ILLUSIONS AND SClJSNTlMC DIVERSIONS. so doing. ratus. closed an electric circuit which released the camera shutter. tograph being taken. I . which made a permanent record of their deed. and at the same Our first engraving shows the phoinstant operated the flashlight apparatus. our engravings. The camera is placed in a box which is provided with a shutter operated by the spring seen at the front of the box. The apparatus was set up and arranged in working order. Early one morning two boys entered the It was then left to do its work. opened the showcase. 8— DETAILS OK THE I'UOTO DETECTIVE AI'I'MtATUS. and our second shows the mechanism. The shutter is tripped by an electro-magnet. On the top via.

The result remained constantly tiie same. expressed in seconds and divided by the number is of the objects which are to be photographed. current which lets olf To secure the closing of the shutter. but changing the order of the subjects. as may be readily seen by glancing at the four composites. the result obtained is ble trace along the sensitized plate. of the 459 arranged another electro-magnet. features of the portraits. is the wire or coil is melted. so as to close automatically. A match is placed in a spring-pressed holder which rests against the roughened disk. but. the shutter of the camera is opened by the action of the magnet connected with the escapement. young and some middle-aged. and the detent magnet at the top of tlie box is operated with the shutter. alone leave a Therefore. that is to say. equal to such exposure vidual portraits into a single one. B.TRICK PHOTOGRAPHY. The detent is then released and allows the vertical spindle to revolve. having been given a proper exposure. . and is camera box carrying at the top a roughened disk. When the flashlight powder burns. ing with the showcase. COMPOSITE PHOTOGRAPHY. 13 to No. When the circuit is closed by tamperabove the disc is supported a flashlight. and a vertical spindle the electro-magnet being connected with a detent which engages an arm on the vertical spindle. 13. and then from some whom are quite A man and a woman were 1. as may be readily seen. beginning with the youngest woman and ending with the oldest man. the circuit broken. 1 to No. thus destroying tographic record of the crime. limited value. and the experiment was renewed. of course. and the visi- common to all. the power for the purpose being stored in a volute spring connected with the spindle. of only of Our engraving shows twelve portraits. interposed. giving each of them a fraction of the long exposure. A. may be considered as the type of the race or the family. and No. and the shutter released. the is the igniting mechanism is taken through a fusible Avire or strip located in the flashlight chamber. by the work it has done. Composite photography Theoretically this is interesting : when applied to photo- graphs of persons. An exposure was made in succession of No. what occurs Features peculiar to each do not take. in inverse order. that is to say. The effectiveness of the apparatus is clearly proved At the same time there seems to be no good reason all 2)ho- why the burglar could not smash the whole apparatus. C. and as the disk comjiletes its revolution. match projects through the aperture and All this occurs in a fraction of a second. six men and six women. The match is ignited. and as is soon as the shutter is opened and closed the image on the sensitive plate pre- vented from being further acted upon. Composite photography consists in the fusion of a certain number of indiThis is effected by making the objects which are to be photographed pass in succession before the photographic apparatus. the ignites the flashlight powder. preserving the same arrangement. not having been sufficiently exposed.

the composite H obtained from the six women of the preceding group joined with the six women figured Nos. would give a type analogous is to the first. Here the change prodnced It is always the same liead.•4G0 MAGIC: STAGE ILLUSTONS AND SCTENTTFTC DJVERSTONS. we find here. . and on the other. moreover. Hence the slightest increase in the length of one of the three exposures assumes considerable importance. This observation proves (what was to be foreseen) is tliat the more the numthe contrary. of six women (composite F). but their superposition. of indeterminate sex. but while before we had a being is very percejitible. 3. 4. On when but a tliird three are taken. taken from the same population. G. The experimenter wished to see whether twelve other persons (six men and six women). As may l)e seen (composite G). a man on one side and a woman on the other. it In this case. 1. the greater will be the prob- ability of obtaining the true type of the population studied. ber of subjects for each experiment increased. but the character of the F. a great risk will be is is run of generalizing too much. there head is the same. since consists of normal exposure and no longer the resultant of the three heads. D. which alone gave the composite a slight difference. Upon one side the type of six men (composite E) was made. of tlie engraviiiij. each exposure of the necessarily too long. with perfect distinctness. 5. 2. the difference The same remark may be made as to existing especially in the physiognomy.

.COMPUSITK PHOTOGUAl'IIS.

Marey 's researches. Marey that we are indebted Chronophotography consists for the most valuable researches on the subject. fee- would otlierwise be inaccessible to observation. Chrono- .'''' and their publication in the "Scientific American Supplement" extended over Subsequent to this publication M. useful for many purposes. Marey wrote a a period of several years. In brief. Now. which has been termed '' chronophotography. or their speed. If the dashes should be equidistant it shows that the periods of contact follow one anotlicr at e(|ual intervals of time. M. ]\Iarey describes the rudiments of chronography by supposing we take a strip of paper which is made to travel by clockwork at a uniform rate. CHRONOPHOTOGEAPHY. " It is to the investigations of Mr.'''' which has been translated by Mr. which were originally published in " La Nature. Instantaneous photography has been of especially that tlie greatest possible nse to science. book called " Le Mouvement. and for a more extensive and scientific treatment of the subject than we are able to give here. we refer our readers to this excellent work. and laborious statistics obtained by computation almost every branch of have been replaced by diagrams in which the variation of a curve expresses in the most striking manner the various phases of some patiently observed phenomena. this is the principle of chronography. traces the curves of such physical or physiological events which. Eric Pritchard under the title of ''Movement. it is an easy matter to obtain an accurate measurement of the duration of contact and of wliich the intervals between.CHAPTER 11. the various periods and intervals. Furthermore. in taking a number of photographs of any object at short and regular interThis is accomplished in many ways. as it rises and falls alternately. by the methods of modern science. The development of these methods of analyzing movement by photography have enabled the researches of physiological laboratories to become of the greatest possible value. by reason of their slowness. The graphic method has been of great service in science. and results obtained are vals of time." It is published in the International Scientific Series. When the pen comes in contact with the paper it leaves a record in the form of dashes of different lengths at varying intervals. The matter in this chapter is very largely an abstract of M. Avorking automatically. as it is known that the speed at the paper travels is so many inches or feet per second. bleness. A pen affixed above the paper nuirks. a recording branch of it apparatus has been devised which. Muybridge and M.

trotting. They therefore showed the animal in the various attitudes he assumed at different instants during his passage across the field covered by the instruments. there need be no material limit between the visible point and tages. the shutters of the lenses opened As fast and permitted the taking of negatives of the animal. in our first engraving.— ARRANGEMENTS ADOPTED BY MR. of course. different from each other. The dazzling white light . rendering the sensitized plate. FIG. Muybridge's experiments on the gaits of the horse are famous. as the animal advanced. because they were taken in succession. These were. Some of the results obtained are shown in Fig. a battery of cameras as He used shown 2. Muybridge's arrangement.CHRONOPHO TOGRAPHY. 1. MUYBRIDGE OF A HORSE. photography is 403 simply an amplification of this system and has many advan- measurements possible where the moving body is inaccessible. of which each one took an image. Mr. On the right is the series of photographic apparatus. IN HIS EXPERIMENTS ON THE GAITS On the left is the reflecting screen against which the animal appeared en silhouette. In Mr. photographic instruments faced a white screen before which passed an animal walking. In uther words. or galloping.

Ch .

Threads may be observed across the road. breaking these threads one after the other. Eacli shutter is actuated by is opened as the animal advances.— CHRONOPHOTOGRAPHIC T1{A. 3.s the position of tiie disk.— CHRONOI'IIOTOGHAIMIH Al'I'Al! All S I'i.IANT IJAI. brought out en silhouette the body of the animal.S The ajjpaiatus 30 is open and show. the shutter Mr.( )l)l ( I N(t 1 I'dN til' ONK TIMK.JK( TO]{Y OV A BHIIJ. Muybridge varied his experiments most suc- He studied the gaits of different animals. men in jump- ing. cessfully. I . I'l. INTKKVAl. 405 FIG. opens the shutters.I. with its opeuiugs moving in I runt of the plate. a powerful spring. and in the handling of various But since this time the FIG. TllKftWN At HOSS THE BLACK SCREEN. and those of utensils.ATK A SKHIKS OK PlIOTOGRAl'llS AT Kt^CAI. vaulting. 4.CIIIioyoPIIOTOGRAPHY. the animal.

.

6. develop from a series of images the trajectory of each leg of a horse. if an athlete in motion is photodesired relief can be obtained. all of the muscles of the body are perfectly traced in relief. Muybridge would always suffice to illustrate the successive phases of the displacement of the members if they were taken at equal intervals of time. the objective can be uncovered without effect on a sensitized . threads give more or less before breaking. moreover. but the A curves obtained in these laborious attempts had not sufficient precision. the progress of the horse is Nevertheless. Mr. and at the present animals and men can be obtained. graphed. If the photographic apparatus is directed against a black plate. with perfect fidelity. FIG. used by Mr. very simple method enables us to obtain. it is the photographing of this body in front of a black surface. 467 progress of photographic chemistry has wonderfully increased the sensibility day more than mere silhouettes of moving In a good light full images Avith all For example. indicatThe methods ing the parts taken by each of them in the movement executed. Muybridge endeavored to not at an even rate of speed. but the arrangements adapted for bringing about the formation of tlie The successive phases cause irregularity in the extent of these intervals. of the plates. as screen. the trajectory of a body in movement.CnRONOPHOTOGRAPHY.— DARK CHAMBER ON WHEELS.

As soon as the disk obtains a speed of ten turns a second. but if it will receive a white bull strongly ilhuninated by the sun its if? thrown across the j)lane of this screen. and parallel with it.iiu this quickness. may be analyzed by With ordinary shuttei's it is would l)e difficult to ol)t. Fig.468 MAGIC: STAGE ILLUSIONS AND SCIENTIFIC DIVERSIONS. as exposures were only produced each fiftieth of a second on account of the speed of the rotation of the disk. reproduced upon the plate. of fire when a FIG. just as the eye receives a image will be ball in its trajec- lighted piece of charcoal is momentary impression of lines waved through the air at night. then. but it is thrown across the discontinuous. 3 shows the iiarabolic trajectory of a brilliant ball face of a dark screen. but the perforated disk which used in chronophotograpliy gradually ac<]uires a speed of rotation that this disk may be very great.— INTERfOR AKRANGEMENT OF THE DARK CHAMBER. The disk moves in front of the sensitized plate a few millime'ters only. 7. the regulator maintains this speed with perfect uniformity. which will show the track of the tory. number of the openings and the This is only an example which shows the almost limitless number of varieties of movement which chronophotography. Fig. knowing . no light. 4 shows the arrangement of by which a rotary movement is imparted by a powerful gearing controlled by a regulator.

8. tlie 409 uiigiilcir value of each of the openings. I'ASSIXO ACKOSS THE FIELD. The interior of the chamber was completely blackened. screen before which the phototrraphs are taken. exposed to the sun. which would tend to the A wall painted with any black jiigment. cavity. the period of exposure is easilv deduced therefrom." To obtain these favorable conditions. one face of this chamber was open. and restricted by movable frames to the exact height necessary. the ground was coated with pitch. or even covered reflects too is Avith black velvet. being in truth what is The term '"black screen" In reality the work is done before a dark* known as '" ChevreuTs black. much liglit for a plate to withstand.OTUKI) IX WIIIIK. used in a metaphorical sense. CI. screen might reflect npon this sensitized plate. f(jg during a single exposure.CHRONOPHO TOOK A PEY. The condition most difficult of fullilhnent is the absohite darkness of the Little light as there is. and the back hung with black velvet. the FIG. a chamber nearly thirty-three feet deep and of equal breadth was constructed. . small ])Iate. quantities of light.— WALKING MAX.

thirteen feet wide. This chamber way in such a way tliat it chamber in which the experimenter mounted upon wheels. we shall point out the general arrangement of the Physiological Station of Paris. represents the photographic places himself. say about 1G4 feet. by means of which we ascertain at every instant the sjoeed of the walker. 5 gives a general view of the grounds and buildings. it is As a general the exterior of this chamber are seen the red windows through which the . the variations therein. From thing. and runs upon a railcan approach or move away from the screen accordis it is ing to the objectives that are being used and to the size of the images that desired to obtain. FIG. these grounds. 9. From this distance the angle at which the subject whose imago is being taken does not change much during tlic time it takes to pass before the black screen. likewise. From the center of the circle.470 MAGIC: STAGE ILLtJStONS AND SCmNTll'lG DIVERSIONS. G Fig. and this is inscribed in one of the rooms of the principal building. and even the frequency of his steps. Every time that a person walks in front of a pole a telegraphic signal is given. On there is which were laid out by the city of Paris as a nursery. and which is actuated by a sperunning from one of the rooms in the large building. designed for the exercise of horses. Further on we shall speak of this sort of automatic inscription. All around this road there runs a and. Fig. telegraph line whose poles are spaced 164 feet apart. wherein the rhytlim regulated by a mechanical interrupter.— INSTANTANEOUS PHOTOGRAPH OF A MAN JUMPING OVER AN OBSTACLE. a circular road. In the center of the track there regulates the is a high post that carries a mechanical drum which cial telegraph line is rhythm of the gait. a footpath for men. advantageous to place the photographic apparatus quite far from the screen. there starts a small railway upon which runs a car that forms a photographic cliamber. from the interior of which is taken a series of instantaneous images of the horses or men whose gait we desire to analyze. Before entering into a detail of the experiments. outside of this.

and at D is a cut-off which is raised vertically at the beginning of the experiment. plates that exactly hold an entire image of the screen. actuated by a weight of one hundred and The motion of the disk is arrested by a brake. three-quarters feet in diameter). a portion of one of the sides being removed to show the photographic apparatus. operator can follow the different motions that he different acts All is stud}ing. 10. naked. Fig. and Avhich is allowed to fall at the end so as to allow light to enter only during the time that is strictly E is a wide slit in front of the objective. A. It follows this that the disk makes ten revolutions per second.CBRONOPBOTOGRAPHY. or clothed in white. a man placed in full light. 6 in order to show a revolving disk provided with a small window through which the liglit enters the photoThis disk is of large dimensions (four and graphic objective intermittently. and the window from in it represents only one if hundredth of its circumference. The darkness that reigns in the rolling chamber permits of manipulating the sensitized plates therein at ease. Against the dark field just described. is wound up with a winch and which is fifty kilograms placed behind the chamber. gives a sharp image on the sensitized plate. 'J'he front of tlie chamber is removed in Fig. . To have the performed he gives his orders through a speaking trumpet. 7 shows the inner arrangement of the chamber. instead of FIG. and of changing them at every new experiment.— INSTANTANEOUS PHOTOGRAPH OF A MAN WALKING. placed npon a This apparatus receives long and Jiarrow sensitized bracket before the screen. At B is the revolving disk which produces the intermittent illuminations. The results in running and jumping which are obtained by this means are very satisfactory. for allowing the latter to necessary. For scientific purposes it is found that the results are better if. the duration of lighting will be but one thovsandlh Motion is communicated to the disk by a train of wheels which of a second. take in the field in which are occurring the motions that are being studied. and a bell maneuvered from the interior serves to give orders to an aid either to set the disk in operation or to stop it.

the runner is clothed in black If velvet.4^2 MAGIC: STAGE ILLUSIONS AND SCIENTIFIC DIVERSIONS. and serve to Below the figure is a scale whose divisions are 0. I . 11. FIG. The axes of tbe limbs are traced by white cords is is the point of rotation.— CHKONOrnOTOGHArillC IMAGER OF A KUNNRR. white clothing. white cords are attached to this costume. inches) long. give the extent of tlie movements. pletely hides it. and white buttons used for the principal articulations. .. the white parts are reproduced and reobtained on the sensitized plate in an almost unlimited number of positions.— MAN CLOTHED IN BLACK VELVET.^.50 meter (19. The head which and to the joints carry white buttons placed at covered by a helmet ot black velvet which comaffixed a bright ball at the level of the ear. FIG. following the direction of the axes of his limbs. 12. By this means lie becomes nearly invisible before the black area.

kixg max. the result shown in Fig. Every fifth image is a little stronger than the others. U. which shows in full detail the movements of the left half of the body. arm.— SUCCESSIVE POSITIONS OF THE I. i:{. and the intensity of the image \ M^'i"^ '\<'' ' / \ -^x . was obtained by this method for the action of running. This is effected others. head. \.' \>. Usiug a disk pierced with five holes.CHRONOPIW TOGRA PHY. and leg.i>ATioxs of the leg of a wat. 12. V'N FIG. by making one of the apertures in the disk larger than the The time of exposure is thus increased.11.IMBS IX AX ELASTIC .Ml' L I'OX THE IJAI. which gives tweuty-five images per sec- ond. 473 v\u. I .^oscn.L OF THE FOOT.

which implies a severe shock by the ground. The practical applications of chronophotography are soon seen. so a effects so as to obtain a useful effect at tlic smallest expenditure man can govern his movements so as to produce the wished-for with the least waste of energy. Our next two engravings show two kinds of jumps: the first. . this disposition is to greater. the flexure of the legs and the reduction of tlie the shock.— INELASTIC JUMP UPON THE HEELS. by means of which always easy to recognize traces corresponding to the same image. in jumping from an elevation the shock be discerned by the eye.An MAGIC: STAGE is ILLUSIONS AND SCIENTIFIC DIVERSIONS. The object of furnish base marks. to a given attitude of the runner. consequently. Just as machines are driven of power. These diagrams are very Avell the image is screened. For detailed studies a part of that is to say. the second. 15. caused by the feet striking the ground is reduced in intensity by bending the legs. while the extensor muscles operate to sustain the weight of the falling body. fatigue. it is adapted for the comparison of two sorts of movements whose difference cannot Thus. with the least possible Of two gaits which can carry us over a definite space in a given time. and. 13. as shown in Fig. FIG. Chrouophothe one should be preferred which costs the least possible fatigue. with feet striking the leg almost straight.

while not final. We give one engraving showing the oscillation of the fore leg of a horse in a gallop. 16. as. M. at a greater expenditure of the work. the step should be nearly two hunFewer or more numerous steps will give less ellect dred and forty a minute. by the balancing of which we can determine the masses in movement. and the length of the of the j^ath tized plate sufficiently sharp images. have shown Experiments have confirmed that that the true method has been found. for example. The direction. The posure analysis of the flight of birds presents special difficulty. . to include on the sensiadd to the difficulty. which must be followed. of the flight of the bird. for running. Owing to the extreme rapidity of the is movements of the wings. FIG. the most favorable gait is one where step succeeds step at the rate of about one hundred and twenty a minute. which the laws of mechanics could not foretell when the dynamic conditions strength in the severe trials to which they are subjected. important conclusions can be drawn. Our engravings show the mechanism of the photographic gun and the method of usiuff it. Several repetitions success.CHRONOPEOTOGliAPlir. studies have been followed out at great length. Marey's studies of the legs of the horse are particularly interesting. same experiment are generally required before The photographic gun is particularly valuable for taking photographs of birds. using a considerable number of subjects.— OSCrr-LATION OP THE POKE LEG IN A GALLOP. and the results. an extremely short ex- required. giving exactly the velocity of the difEerent parts of the body. often capricious. The applications are therefore obvious. they enable us to sible their fix the rate of steps of soldiers to economize as much as pos- These under varying conditions. m : tography furnishes the missing elements of the problem. the following in walking. INTERVAL BETWEEN EXrOSniES ONE TWENTY-FIPTH OP A SECOND. From a long series of comparisons. of the work of man were incompletely knoAvn.

. The photographic gun and is which the reader is understood by reference to the engraving. present a photograph of a gull taken during will be its We flight and an enlarge- ment of the same.476 MAGIC: STAGE ILLUSIONS AND SCIENTIFIC DIVERSIONS. 386. fully described in the "Scientific American Supplement." No. is Space forbids ns to more than state that the analysis of the flight of birds a most interesting and important subject. 17.— MODK OK US1N(J TUK rilOTOGKAPllIC GUN. KlU. flight We also give photographs of a ])igeon rising in and the successive attitudes of a gull. to referred. and the results obtained by chro- nophotography are most gratifying.

^ r- /. u cs "^j « > a. ^ 7: e^-1 rr* ? C^ s < * = « £ c ^ sill w tT-c 'c ^ n oi . J.C r- . - ~ .

21. aquarium fitted in an aperture in a wall.— ENLARGEMENT OF AN IMAGE TAKEN BY TUB PIIOTOQRAPHIC GUN. 20. FIG. then. Sometimes the external glass of the aquarium was covered by letting down an opaque shutter. as shown in our engravThe aquarium was directly illuminated by the light of the horizon. 19. FIG. FIG. . is one of the most interesting developIn order to study locomotion in water it was necessary to modify the method. placed above the water. The animals experimented with swam in a The analysis of locomotion in water ments of chronophotography.— ENLARGEMENT OF ANOTHER IMAGE OF A BIRD TAKEN BY THE SAME APPARATUS. the brightly illuminated animals were seen standing out from the black field.— PIIOTOGRArH OP A GULL TAKEN DURING ITS FLIGHT. glass-sided ing. forming a very clear field upon which the animals were outlined as silhouettes. upon opening another shutter.478 MAGIC: STAGE ILLUSIONS AND SCIENTIFIC DIVERSIONS.

The film was cut into a long and narroAV strip which in the camera passed along at the focus of the objective. When the small diaphragm makes one revolution the large one makes five revolutions. 479 FIG. traced from the originals. 23. A flexible gelatino-bromide-of -silver film was used. allows the light to pass intermittingly. so was not j^ossible to receive several successive images upon a removable plate. 22. and unwound from a supply bobbin. films is effected in FIG. of course. Jo this series of images. The focusing is done by means of a small telescope or spy glass. The successive images correspond to less and less advanced phases of the wingr's revolution. tightly closed. . the light by of bobbins and the substitution of rolls of upon which the film is rolled.— ELEVEN SUCCESSIVE ATTITUDES OF A FLYING GULL. in revolving. and it is then only that the apertures meet and the light passes. so as to bring before the objective points which were always new for each new image that is to be formed. The bellows behind the objective allows the light to reach the sensitized film. most cases it was found necessary to ojierate before tlie luminous ground. It is necessary at each new experiment Ill it to use a new band means of film. the distances representing the positions of the bird in space are exaggerated to avoid confusion.CERONOPHO TOGRAPHY. but it was necessary to cause the sensitized surface to move by starts. and wound around a receiving one.— PIGEON RISING IN FLIGHT. The objective turned toward the right has a slit in the center for the })assage of the diaphragm which. The box is.

The motion the movement of is of the particularly in Fig. interesting. I . AtJUAKIUM FOR THK STUDY OF AQUATIC UX'OMOTION. crusis taceans. Special devices are employed iu the camera to render the film immovable for an instant while it receives the impression from the object. as one not liable to confouud a bobbin which has been used with oue that has not. the uml)r(!lhi are shown The ])ropulsion of this mollusk its effected through the alternate contracsufficient to tion and dilation of umbrella. the color of the roll beiug different. Ten images per second were These images gain much by being examined in the zoetrope. is Having the two colors makes it almost impossible to reexpose a film.MKNT OF TIIK. Each of width.se of tlie apparatus which we have just described peruiitted of seeing with what a variety of means of locomotion the various kinds of aquatic auinuds — fishes. medusa mollusks. Arrangements FIG. 'Vhe u. etc.480 MAGIC: STAGE ILLUSIONS AND SCIENTIFIC DIVERSIONS. obtain a pretty complete series of the ])hases of this motion. them is about tweuty iuches in length. wherein they reproduce with absolute perfection the aspect of the auimal iu motion. are also provided for obtuiuiug a uuiforui velocity. ami the phases of 30. At the extremity of each baud of film are glued paper bauds of the same Oue of these prolougations is red and the other is blaclc. 24. — propel themselves.— ARRAN«!F.

})ut if the nothing but vague animal be excited means of a rod. The principal propeller of it is animal is a dorsal fin which vibrates with such rapidity that almost and has an appearance analogous to that of the branches of a tuning With twenty images per second it is seen that this vibration fork in motion.ikos motions of the arm. they diverge in order to obtain a purchase upon the water. anil while upon those that descend. The comatula jtlant is fixed to is habitually fixed to the Ijottoni of the arjuuriuni." affords another interesting example of aquatic locomotion. midis undulatory. it will be observed to begin a strange motion which carries it quite a distance. . nately. In this kind of locomotion the ten arms move alter- and keep tightly pressed against the calyx. The hippocampus. the cirri are invisible. invisible. which by the it rolls up aiul unrolls. the earth by It therefore m. and the from it. place from the bottom upwards. These motions of the cirri seem passive.VnilO APPARATUS. Upon the arms that rise. In the present case the undulation takes dle. and upper rays of the film. just as a its roots.— PjrOTOt'HHONOOIl. five of rise them other five descend and separate like those of 31 a valve that obeys the thrust of a liquid.CRRONOPROTOGRAPET. 25. FIG. "We have before us the successive deviations of the lower. which this is 4S1 otherwise known as the "sea-horse.

and the results obtained go a long way towards making up a satisfactory theory of insect M. however. M. Its action is always that of an FIG. ered in their relations with the conformation of the different species. be a new element for the interpretation of the laws of animal morphol- ogy. 36. These experiments are most delicate and interesting. These types of loco-. The flexible membrane which constitutes the anterior part of the wing presents a rigid border which enables the wing to incline itself* at the most favorable angle. compared with each other. etc.— MOTIONS OF THE UMBRELLA OF THE MEDUSA. effects those changes in surface obliquity which . The scull used by the waterman offers a rigid resistance to the water. and considaquatic species. the skate. The muscles only maintain a to-and-fro movement. and utilizing that part of the resistonward progression. which. each time communicating an impulse to the boat." M. ous directions by the resistance of the air. There is. and the operator has to impart alternate rotary movements to the scull by his hand at the same time taking care that the scull strikes the water at a favorable slant. a difference between these two methods of propulsion. is obliquely inclined in opposite directions. The mechanism in the case of the insect's wing is far simpler. Marey says that the wing in its to-and-fro movements is bent in varilife. namely.483 3IA0IC: STAGE ILLUSIONS AND SCIENTIFIC DIVERSIONS. Marey has also investigated the flight of insects by means of clirouo- photography. is ance which favorable to its — the air does the rest. the It will. The resistance to inclined plane striking against the fluid. This mechanism is the same as tliat of a waterman's scull (reference of course being to " sea sculling " and not to "river sculling"). I hope. Mareysays: "I have obtained images of a certain number of other swimming of the eel. as it moves backward and forward. motion ought to be studied methodically. which are very obscure.

tadpoles. gold spangles passing through his wings described a trajectory which was easily photographed. toads. birds. snails. The researches of M. frogs. leaving between it and the central disk an annular track covered with It was around this annular track the insect was ma^e to fly. was placed in position. A black velvet. eels. also The chronophotography accomplished by means of insects by the use of a moving film has been of very ingenious apparatus. 27. Marey upon the mammals. 483 determine the formation of an 8-shaped trajectory by the extremity of the wing. could fly at a comThe photographs of the trajectory of the wing paratively high rate of speed. It supplements the information obtained by the graphic methods. drawing the straw after it. new science. fish. as well as the determination of the centers of movements in joints. FIG. black velvet. The dragon fly commenced The flying around the track at a very rapid rate. was fixed a light pair of forceps to hold the insect. and in other cases they were allowed free flight in a cardboard box. insects. needle stuck in the middle of the disk served as an axis for a revolving beam This beam consisted of a straw. It has been found that chronophotography could be ajiplied not only to I . tliough not absolutely at liberty. and arachnids are of the greatest possible value and interest. and at the end of it and its counterbalance. which. "Comparative locomotion. It has rendered possible the photography of the successive phases of cardiac action in a tortoise under condition of artificial circulation. lizards. Marey states tliat he succeeded in obtaining a photograph of the gilded wing of an insect. The mechanism of cardiac pulsation has also been studied by its means. The bottom of the box." which raphy. an important adjunct to the studies of the zoologist. a simple disk supported by a foot piece. tortoises. In some cases the insects were held in forceps. the periphery of the space was covered with a white material. The applications of chronophotography to experimental physiology are numerous.CSRONOPSOTOQRAPSY. A wooden box was lined throughout with of an insect are very interesting. might almost be called a different terrestrial is rendered possible by chronophotogIt is. M.— MOTIONS OF THE DOJfSAL FIN OF THE SEA-HORSE. at any rate.

- I I ifc i FIO. ' r\ iijs^tea ac«! WX_^M FIG. and the movements of the zoospores in the cells of conferva have been determined. f . arrangements of apparatus are necessary for this purpose. Special objects of considerable size. or its movements cannot be mechanically U J. know inaccessible to us. 2H.484 MAGIC: STAGE ILLUSIONS AND SCIENTIFIC DIVERSIONS. the movement of the blood in capillary vessels. but to those of microscopic size as well. The is great value of chronophotography is nn questionable for use in every to case where the body whose rapid changes of jiosition or form we wish traced. By its means the retraction of the spiral stalks in vorticellae. TUKl'IiUO liAULV KIRED. TOKI'EDO I'KOl'EHLV FIKED. 28.— MUTIONS OF THE COMATDLA.

As the net cost of a tor- pedo front is considerable. the motion of automobile torj)edoes. In the second series. . a succession of well-separated images whose number depends only upon the length of the band employed. 485 Chronophotography has beeu used in J'rauce for studies touching the military art. it is essential that the conditions which influence the reguIf it inclines in larity of its submarine flight shall be known with precision. present a diagram showing the results obtained by photographing the Although the velocity of these projectiles is not very great. is employed. and they are unadapted for the use of the amateur. The difficulty in using a sensitized band consists in arresting it for tlie very brief instant in which each image impresses the plate. torpedo. gradually inclining. the results will be Our engraving shows the torpedo starting from the tube and very different. In the first half the traversing the different panels in the field of firing. which we illustrate. and. The apparatus of M. its will be put to on the contrary. the recoil of Special arrangements are proguns. images. in two of which a single objective. such as the explosion of stationary torpedoes. is. falls point foremost. very The reader needs to be reminded that there are three types of chro- nophotographic machinery in use.CHRONOPHOTOORAPHY. and with a single objective. while in the other the and the movable sensitized surface gives well-separated which is the least interesting. moving always parallel with itself. A wooden box having about the dimetisions of an ordinary seven by nine inch apparatus is provided with an objective of wide object is stationary. The apparatus No. The third metliod. about sixty feet per second. the regularity of running hazard. reached. consists in taking as many objectives and plates as it is desired to have images. and gives several images from an immovable plate. in a manner. it is yet very difficult for the eye to take exact account of what is occurring during the launching. or less in plunging. with a disk shutter revolving at great speed." We firing of torpedoes. 743. it falls flat upon the water. vided to permit of electrically controlling the phenomenon to be photographed. The Demeny apparatus which we are about to describe is very simple. Under such circumstances it falls flat and starts off normally and regularly to the object to be This shows the great utility of chronophotography. Georges Denieny. however. the torpedo is maintaining itself horizontally. In one the object shifts. The experiments which Ave have been describing necessitate apparatus of the most expensive kind. etc. more if. on the contrary. AN AMATEUR CHRONOPHOTOGRAPHIC APPARATUS. and in freeing the shutters of each objective. The most scientific solution of the problem is that which permits of obtaining upon a baud of film. simple. being employed for registering the firing of projectiles having a relatively slow motion. is described in detail in the " Scientific American Supplement. it has been badly fired. one after the other.

486 MAGIC: STAGE ILLUSIONS AND SCIENTIFIC DIVERSIONS. Because the disk. are each mounted upon an axis passing through their centers. having one of its extremities attached at B. upon a spindle mounted eccentrically to such axis. and the other at P. bobbins that carry the films are fixed. become interdependent. as the winding . C. revolved by means Up to this point there is really nothing new in the apparatus. is and as near as possible to the sensitized surface. they and the and P.— amateur's chronopiiotoguaphic apparatus. Despite this. in consequence of the eccentric position of this bobbin upon the disk. the method of fixing which is adopted. Back of this objective. 1. the two bobbins cannot have any jsroper motion position that chiefly constitutes the invention. It is this eccentric Let us suppose that the two bobbins are in place. P. The film wound upon A. R and P. aperture. of which only the center is utilized. S. upon a spindle mounted in the axis of rotation of the disk. Number 1 of our first engraving represents the principle of the system. R bin. FIG. the disk shutter of a crank. that support them. follows the course. approaches A as closely as possible. during which it passes behind the objective. traction will cease to occur for a very brief instant at the moment at which the bobin consequence of disks. the film coming from A will wind around B. Two disks. as shown in cut. but the principal improvement consists in the unwinding and arrest of the sensitized film. but. one of them at R. B. revolves.

sets the disk in covers the objective for an instant. 487 perfectly taut. Each film terminates in a strip of black paper glued to it. Twenty of them can be stored in the spaces in the box left by the mechanism. the simplest and one of the surest known. The solution offered by the Demeney apparatus is. unIt will be understood that the crank. as shown in our second engraving. by holding it in the arms. therefore. cal coincidence between the arrest of the film and the passage of the window.CHRONOPHO TOGRAPHT. sensitized j^art from the light. for in this case a sliding might occur which would produce a blurring of the image. The simplification of the mechanism has permitted of constructing an ajiparatus light enough to allow of operating without a tripod. that conThere is. motion. an exact mathematitrols the operation of the bobbins. through a mechanism of gears. the film remains It is at this moment that the window.— METHOD OF USING THE DEMENY APPARATUS. and forms a complete This arrangement protects the covering after the winding upon the bobbin. . always proceeds to a degree proportional to the unwinding. M. and this is essential for the sharpness of the image.. L. 2. and permits of changing the bobbin in daylight. therefore. FIG. H. and it is this. of the disk. r This would not always upon for the rest of the film. if occur a friction device was depended so that one may always have a large supply on hand.

by wliich the words of a speech or phxy were to be recorded simultaneously with photographic impressions of all the movements of the speakers or actors.f^ ^^ 4r^ 4^%-. It was found that the stopj^ing and starting of the film forty-six times a second required about two-thirds of the time. for the stopping and starting of tiie film. This was found necessary because the phono- graphic cylinder must be in exact synchronism with the shutter-operating and film-moving devices of tlie camera. THE EDISON KINETOGliAPlI.CHAPTER III.^ <. The celluloid film upon which the photograjihic impressions are taken is perforated along one edge with a series of holes. The 2)honograph and camera mechanisms are driven by the same motor and controlled by the same regulating The greatest difficulty was experienced in devising mechanism mechanism. The " kinetograph. Tiie corresiionding exactly to the motion of the negative strip in the camera. the remainder being utilized for the exposure of the plate. The photographic impression is taken at the rate of forty-six per second. niOTO-KNGRAVING OF A I'OUTIOK OF TIIE STRIP NKGATIVE OF THE KINETOGRAPH (ACTUAL SIZE). take these pictures special camera lenses of large aperture had to be constructed. to secure perfect registry. The kinetograph as first proposed consisted of a clever combination of a photographic camera and the pliono- graph. 46^4 4f. arranged at regular intervals with as much precision as can be secured by means of the finest perforating mechanism. THE PKOJEUTlOiN OF MOVING PICTUKES. is of great interest. The reproducing apparatus is practically a reversal of the camera. and mechanism for moving forward the strip with an intermittent motion. To is." which is the precursor of the apparatus for showing moving photographs. lantern is furnished with a light interrupter which eclipses the light during the i <f. . that a superior form of projecting lantern is employed which is provided with a strong light.

the apparatus that pro- duced the synthesis of the successive phases of an action were limited to reproduction upon a very small scale. The wheel is arranged upon a rigid standard. which change their posture according as the is revolved by the operator. Another amid painted band. and provided with a series of jiins which register exactly with the picture. The apparatus the invention Ottamar Anschuetz. mirror. The produced by using a crystalloid band upon which the images are painted as represented at A in our engraving. cigar stores. E. Upon the standard behind the wheel is located a box containing a spiral Geissler tube which is connected with the terminals of a Ruhmkorff coil. The primary coil is provided with a contact maker and breaker adapted to be operated by the pins projecting from the wheel. effect is had not up to this time been realized by any projecting apparatus. A. which projects them upon the transparent projection lantern. so that every time a picture comes before the Geissler tube it is illuminated by an electrical discharge through the consists of ." an iron wheel of sufficient diameter to hold an entire series of positive prints on the periphery. but were upon a ground-glass plate which the observer looks at. B. etc. causes the appearance on the screen of the scene. A special camera was used. ELECTRIC TACHYSCOPE. C. which appear the characters. of Lissa. The apparatus which we of are about to describe is an important link is in the history of the synthesis of animated motion. scale.THE PROJECTION OF MOVING PICTURES. brief period required for shifting the film forward to a 489 the succeeding picture. In this case the pictures were not projected upon the screen. The continuity of the image obtained by the praxinoscope. upon an inclined screen. Eeynaud. The instruIt ment for displaying the pictui'es is called the "electrical tachyscope. The operator can revolve it in The images pass before the the objective. The object of the optical theater was to provide an apjiaratus for the reproduction of a series of actions upon a considerable scale. which can only be enjoyed by a limited grouj). one direction or the other by means of two lantern. Prussia. B. for use in railway stations. The apparatus was largely new position to show manufactured on a small without the phonograph. adapted to take a number of photographs in quick succession. and are projected by the aid of reels. invented in 1877 by M. M. Up to the time of the invention of this theater. was found to be almost im2)ossible to combine the two instruments. It EEYNAUD'S OPTICAL THEATER.

.

.ANSCHUETZ'S ELECTRICAL TACHYSCOPE.

492 tube. and it was by means of this disk that the projection was made. shows each picture iu an apparThese pictures succeed each other so rapidly that the retinal image of one picture is retained until the next is superimposed upon it. ently fixed position. Arraiigomeut for stopping the strip of . The cbronophotographic apparatus which we illustrate was invented by M. M. 3IAGIC: STAGE ILLUSIONS AND SCIENTIFIC DIVERSIONS. Demeny was able to project upon a screen figui'es which simulated the motion of animal life. being instautaueous. Denieny. G.IECTION Al'I'ARATUS. 1. Strips of sensitized films from sixty to ninety feet in length were not availaImages were ble at this time. whose work in chronophotography we have already described. filua. Marey. and were printed as positives upon a glass disk sensitized by chloride of silver. THE DEMENY CHRONOPHOTOGRAPIIIC APPARATUS. Arranged for use without electricity or gas.—TUK DEMENY I'UO. aud it was necessary to employ some makeshift. The FIGS. taken from the chronophotographic aj^paratus upon a strip four or five yards in length. This discbarge. As long ago as 1891. 1 AND 'i. thereby giving to the observer the sense of a continuous image in constant motion. wlio is the assistant of Dr. 3.

The lantern is so regulated that the luminous rays will fall exactly upon the aperture as the image passes behind the o1)joctive. one and one half hy one and three quarter inches. Demeny. all that has to be done is to turn the At P and R are seen guide bolibins that serve to put in their noris of all projecting apparatus of this mal direction the films that have been used. with the electric light. the principle of arresting the film for an FIG. is The lantern is provided with an ordinary condenser. crank. which we show in our engraving. For a small screen the oxyhydrogen light will be sufficient. The apparatus of M. 3. but at present the longest that have been used This gives about one thousand images of are one hundred and fifteen feet. DEMENY'S KEVEKSIBI>E TKOJECTIOK APPARATUS. This wide surface of the image has an immense advantage. After the focusing has been effected.THE PROJECTION OF MOVING PICTURES. At the opjiosite end of the table stands the chronophotographic projector Avhich carries the film wound around its 1)obbins. number of images 493 was limited to forty or fifty. but the advent of the long strips of sensitized film induced the inventor to so modify tlie apparatus as to be able to take images in long series and for projecting them. according to the subject. employs strips of any length. As kind consists well knoAvn. in front of which placed a water tank to absorb a portion of the heat. since. 0. the dimensions adopted by the inventor.— INTERIOR VIEW OF M. . M. it permits of throwing the moving pictures on a screen sixteen feet high.

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and then over a rod. All these parts. is situated at the other side of the aperture. C. designed for causing the images to register accurately. producing the same effect of motion as in the kinetoscope. 3 of our engravUpon coming from the bobbin the film passes over a guide roller. The mechanism is entirely enclosed in a box. The successive motions of practicing " putting . and the stopjiage of the films is prepared for by a graduated diminution of the velocity. It is tliis roller which is moved by gearing that causes the film to unij'iud in a continuous manner. THE KINETOSCOPE STEREOPTICON. that the film roller. The film then reaches the magazine roller. It is shown in Fig. then runs over the toothed the bobbin. and embraces a thousand images. One advantage of this apparatus is that it is very tender with the films. H with an aperture F. that are provided thence. B. This strip is one hundred and fifteen feet long. pleasing. B. F. In the kinetoscope the successive images are illuminated by reflected light. which is not shown in the engraving. F. and are connected by gear wheels motion by ]\r. are interdej^endent. many inventors have been striving to perfect ap- paratus for successfully projecting these miniature pictures upon the screen by means of a stereopticon. The two factors which aided in solving the problem were the use of the electric lamp as an illuminant and of continuous Our first engraving shows some kinetoflexible transparent celluloid films. and secure sufficient illumination upon the screen to make them aj^jiear distinct and clear. Beneath the bobbin. Our last engraving represents a few images on a strip made for a spectacular drama at the Chatelet Theater. guide. moment it is uncovered by the shutter.TSE PROJECTION OF MOVING PICTURES. mounted upon a spring in such a way that it will bear against the film. S. and passing over the The taken up by the rod. kinetoscope stereopticon was to successfully project these little images several thousand times. Paris. and thus prepares it for the eccentric rod. All of the parts of the mechanism have uniform rotary motion. C. S. and are seen through a lens enlarging them considerably. " scopic pictures taken directly from the negative film. is a rubber roller. mounted eccentrically. whatever be the thickness of the ribbon on the bobbin. which pulls upon a portion of the film already unwound. thence it goes to the toothed roller. exclusive of set in and finally over the shutter. upon making its exit film passing under the and T. S. D. Jenkins. guide. C. passes between two velvet-lined frames. E. but does not screen It is is it. instant at the in the 495 ing. The effect is very the crank. and the shutter disk. each of which was colored by hand. The process employed Demeuy apparatus is very simple. D. Since the time the " kinetoscope " brought the art of moving jihotography prominently into notice. by the "phantoscope invented by Mr. say The problem of the from half an inch in diameter to about four inches. Xone of them have a jerky motion. A. D.

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1. respectively behind tlie the lenses are brought opening in the front of the box and transmit tlie \ momentary the the FIG. in an upper gallery. and one-quarter of an inch ai^art. 1. tlie PICTrh'ES. etc. •" VITASCOl'E. illuminated by rotating condensers. its edges. Our second engraving is a view of the stand comjdete. the images being thrown forward upon a screen upon the stage. being projected by the electric light in the rear. through a small screen. In advance of that is the motor for operating the feed mechanism. is Avound up on the reel below. 407 may l)e traced by beginning at lower left-hand corner and reading upward for each column of pictures. The device for taking tlie phantoscope pictures is shown in Figures 5 0. in The lamp projecting apparatus 33 . they are made at the rate of twenty-five to the second. one for each lamp. The exposed film is at With the same apparatus the three-quarters of an inch in diameter. which the sprocket wheels of the projecting is shown in Fig. tized film whicli goes in the same direction as the moving and at the the same time positive spool to the other. on a continuous sensitized celluloid strip about one and a half inches wide. It is placed in a cabinet surrounded by curtains. showing the rheostat. The pictures may be looked at in the box. and in fi'ont of all is the film traveling device and the objective.— THE imto ages as they pass opening moving sensi- EDISUX lens. Our third engraving shows the use of the apparatus in the theater. tlie and geared to the shaft is a vertical shaft engaging a bevel gear on the shaft is axis of the fihn-Avindiug reek As revolved by the handle on the outside. pictures may be' reeled oif of one same speed. and consists of an electric arc in front of which is a condenser. hav- ing perforations in device engage. and On a sliaft is fixed a disk sujiporting four lenses. after passing behind the lens." shown in these fifteen iiictures. for regulating the current. The film. and are about wound up on the top reel.." THE PROJECTTOK OF jVOVTNG the sliot. switches.

on the end of which fixed thereto.US 3IA0IG: STAGE ILLUSIONS AND SCIENTIFIC DIVERSIONS it has been usual to employ slmtters In projecting pictures of this kind After a series of the picture ribbon. Behind tliis is is fingers behind the leus. in detail at Fig. tric The elec- motor operates a THK KDISON " VITASCOPE. As the film disk having a roller eccena standard supporting spring-tension drawn forward by the main sprocket . operating in unison with the movements be produced could motion of effect same the of experiments it was found that without the movement intermittent an have by causino.4.the ribbon itself to film-working A apparatus. a worm engaging a gear on the shaft at pulley. trically is geared. intended to rotate rapidly. and draws the picture ribbon downward of this shaft maybe is seen the a mam shaft. the simplifies use of shutters at all. muin shaft to which it witli the main sprocket Back a uniform speed. which greatly apparatus based on this idea is shown 4.

it is quickly pulled eccentric roller on the disk.THE PROJECTION OF 2I0VINO PICTURES.— THE •• \ ITASCOPE IN THE TUEATEli. pulley. downward by each rotation of the rapidly moving The sjirocket pulley meanwhile takes up the the change. 40'J I FIC4.— FILM PROJECTING APPARATUS. so that at the next rotation the eccentric roller quickly pulls the film is down and makes carried to the winding wheel operated automatically from the main shaft by FIG. 3. 4. from the sprocket pulley the film slack of the ribbon. .

7. 5 AND 6. Mr. with a roller on the upper end. during the interval the picture is is projected on the screen. The clamp released. which has been successfully operated in Loudon. between a stationary and swinging clamp operated automatically from the shaft of the shutter and which holds the film stationary Avhen the opening of the shutter is behind the lens. the endless film allowed to drop into folds in a box lo. when is it is desired to repeat the subject over and over tlie again. means of pulleys. then the pivoted lever below. The film passes over both sprocket pulleys at a uniform speed. 7 is a diagram of a film-moving mechanism of an English inventor.— aches' projecting DEVICE. The picture film is drawn from an npper reel.500 MAGIC: STAGE ILLUSIONS AND SCIENTIFIC DIVERSIONS. and over a second jnilley to the bottom or winding reel.— THE JENKINS " KINETOSCOPE " « AMK1{ A. passing out at the rear. downward between them again to the main Fig. by such sudden movement. ately takes is pulled inward at tlie other end by a spring and immediup the slack (as shown by the clotted lines). . npward over pulleys arranged above the spring-tension fingers. FIGS. the bringing of the next picture into position. FIG. and causes. then pulley. Birt Acres. or. downward through a retaining clamjj. passed over a sprocket pnlloy.3ated under sprocket pulley.

and usually about one hundred and sixty feet in length. Ujion the top of the frame is bolted a two horse-power electric motor which is driven by a set of storage batteries. The film is led through a series of rollers. In the front of the camera is fixed a lens of great light-gathering quality which produces an image of exceedingly clear detail.THE PROJECTION OF MOVING PICTURES. Inside the camera is a strip of gelatine film two and three-quarter inches wide. and starts again as the shutter closes. The film comes to a rest just as the shutter opens. but the difficulties are increased when it is remembered that the impressions are taken at the rate of forty per second. and is finally wound upon a drum. which is running at the rate of seven or eight feet a second. which may be placed upon any suitable support. . the combination of the turntable with a vertical adjustable enables the camera to be shifted so as to take in the required field. which is wound upon a small pulley and drum. The camera frame is mounted. and that the film." The " mutograpli" and '' mutoscope " are names of very interesting machines for presenting moving photographs. In case of a prolonged scene it may extend several thousand feet. and is caused to pass directly behind the lens of the camera. upon a triangular turntable. by means of three adjustable legs. The object of the rollers is to cause the film to pass behind the lens with an intermittent instead of a continuous motion. has to be stopped and started with equal frequency. The length of the film varies for different subjects. 501 THE "MUTOGRAPII" AND '' MUTOSCOPE. The impressions vary in actual exposure between one one-hundredth and one four-hundredth of THE JJAllK ROOM ANU KEEL FOK UEVELOriNG FILMS. At ordinary speeds this could be easily accomplished.

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have aready described. The done highest speed would be used in j)hotogra23hing the flight of a projectile or other object which was in extremely rapid motion. its After the mutograph has work. It consists of a floor of steel I-beams wlii(. forty a second. the mutoscope can take if it is equally good pictures at the rate of one hundred per second. the axes of the reels The films are being journaled in brackets attached to the end of the trough. where they are carefully dried. the interior of which each side of this room is is shown in our engraving. Upon this rotates the massive fiiime at one end of which is a stage suijplied with the necessary scenery. the reels being transferred from bath to bath until the films are ready to go to the drying-room. Upon the roof of the New York establishment of the company there has been erected a large movable stage for taking photographs of celebrated scenes from plays or of individual performance's in which it is desired to reproduce the motions as well as the features of the subject.. the films are carefully packed and sent to the New York estabHere they are taken to tiie lishment of the American Mutoscope Company. Here also is carried on the work of retouching the films aiul 2)reparing them for use in the biograpli and mutoscope pictures. in which . wooden drnms about the same size as At the far end of the room are seen the machines for cutting up the bromide prints. ATCHLH STUrrEMS :^H!': AGE FACTORY ~1 THE SAUSAGE FACTORY. tive transparent strips for use in the In this room are also prepared posi- biograph and the bromide prints for the m utoscope. The annexed engravings show pictures" of clay-jiigeon shooting and of the firing of a ten-inch disappearing gun at Sandy Hook. the action of solntions for to the various snbjected reels and wound upon the developing. dark room. Arranged along a series of troughs^ above which are suspended large skeleton reels three feet in diameter and seven feet long. The biograj)h is somewhat similar to machines which we films are to large The unwound on the reels. and at the other end a con-ugated iron house. necessary. While the ordinary speed is a second. etc.504 MAGIC: STAGE ILLUSIONS AND SCIENTIFIC DIVERSIONS. fixing.h carries a series of three concentric steel tra])s.

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so that may be moved from the stage so as to as required. and may make the operation as quick or as slow as he desires. but the house to or travels upon a track. throw the light INTERIOR OF THE "MUTOSCOPE." The " mutoscope " is compact. The enlarged bromide prints. and can stop the machine at any particular picture at will.506 3IAGIC: STAGE ILLUSIONS AND SCIENTIFIC DIVERSIONS. In the operation of the mutoscope the spectator has the performance entirely under his own control by turning a crank which is placed conveniently at hand. Each picture is momentarily held in front of the lens by the action of a slot attached to the roof of the box. as shown in the illustration. are mounted in close consecutive order around the cylinder and extend out like the leaves of a book. . meas- uring four by six inches. The frame carrying full the stage and house rotates about the smaller circular track located beneath the house. bolted to the frame. It is not any larger than the cover of a sewing machine. and the pictures are large. upon the scene at and may be swung around any hour of the day. Tlie stage it is is located the mutograpli. wliich allows the pictures to slip by in much the same way as the thumb is used upon the leaves of a book.

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D. piece then raises the prongs. which are bent in opposite directions. The rotating bar. and forces the fork. is given a vertical secured to the main shaft. which is secured to the rapid reciprocating motion. which rotates The "cinematograph" camera. The film-moving device. and-down motion of the film is accomplished by the aid of a cam which is The reciprocating yoke piece. 1 and 3. strike on alternate sides of the wedge-shaped piece which is secured to the The upfork. A. A. :i. motion when the crank shaft is rotated. principle different on somewhat works a In this camera the film is carried forward intermittently. AN|) :t. C. The arm. Messrs. On the main shaft is also arranged the shutter. When the film has been lowered the distance of one exposure. through the apertures in the film. 1. has really a shuttle movement. E. B. the rotating The yoke bar. invented by the KIOS.M-M()VIN(i MIOCUANISM. D. through or withdrawn from the perforated ribbon by the aid of a rotating bar. is attached to the yoke piece. is so arranged that its ends. a fork. and thus impart to the latter a reciprocating motion. D. no sprocket wheel The film-moving mechanism is fully illustrated in Figs. The film-moving device consists of two prongs which somewhat resemble The prongs are alternately pushed It is shown at D in Fig. strikes the fork and removes the prongs from the film. having a C. " CINEMATOGEAPH " CAMERA. and the other arm of the rotating bar strikes the wedge-shaped piece. l<ll. and this carries down the film through the medium of the fork. Lumiere & Sons. C. being used. from those we have ah'eady described. D. main shaft. . 3.508 MAGIC: STAGE ILLUSIONS AND SCIENTIFIC DIVERSIONS.

the radial apertures. 4 is a general view of the instrument. 5U9 FIG. its reciprocating motion. F. support. that the camera is very portable.— DRIVING GEAH AND FILM 8UITOKT. which passes downward between guides before the lens opening." which we have already described. 4. Instead of using a rotary disk shutter. Fig. 3. Jenkins. which give the fork. and a . D. C. On tlie npper end of the box is the sensitized ribbon. CAMERA FOR RIBBON PHOTOGRAPHY. The same camera can be converted into a projecting apparatus for throwing moving pictures upon the screen. showing the driving gear and film It will be seen Fig. The images are about an inch square. 5 shows the cinematograph camera in operation. are shown in Fig. The bent ends of the cam operating bar. The camera for ribbon photography which we illustrate is the invention of Mr. Fig. with the film-moviug mechanism. the inventor of the '* vitascope. 2 shows the simplicity of the camera.THE PROJECTJOK OF MOVING PICTURES.

iiw^^^ .iiii|iiiiiiii''iP''"Tiiiiii|iiii!iiin!'w:.

suitably geared to the main driving shaft. in front of the exposure tension plate. under an exposing chamber illuminated by any source of white an incandescent lamp or a Welsbach incandescent gaslight. is the battery of lenses. The main shaft may be operated by a crank on the outside of the box. at exactly the same speed at which the lenses rotate. after exjiosure. tlie size of tlie aperits rear end by a diaphragm disk having radial slots Tlie oi)erator is of varying widths cut therein. and both pass in contact. and and film both move in unison. It consists of reels supported on suitable upright standards holding respectively the sensitized ribbon film and the negative film. it follows that a sharp 2)ictare will be the result while the brilliancy of the illumination is at its maximum. by reference to our detailed diagram of the mechanism. The operation The camera rotated. The film from the negative supply wheel is carried along over the sensitized film wheel. It will be noticed that the reels are interchangeable. so that at every fraction of a second tluit it takes for each leus to pass behind the camera aperture an impression of light as the lenses is made on the downwardly moving film. Tliis disk is rotated by Back of the diaphragm disk hand. this 511 ture being regulated at camera has a single opening in the front. thereby enabled to govern the amount of light admitted to the lenses according to the subject to be pho- tographed and the length of the exposure desired. by hand or by any suitable motor. arranged is in a circle. the square aperture in which is exactly in line with the front aperture in the box. and hence. which is rotated by belt-connection to a pulley on the upper shaft and takes up the film ribbon as rapidly as it is exposed. to make duplicate cojnes it is only necessary to remove the negative spool from the winding-up end to the supply-spool standard of the apparatus. upon a rotating disk which secured to a shaft which extends rearward and terminates in a bevel gear wheel which meshes Avitli a side bevel gear wheel fixed upon the main shaft.THE PROJECTION OF 3tOVlNG PICTURES. Our next engraving shows how the positive ribbon pictures for the vitascope and other forms of apparatus are printed. this is also the invention of jMr. over the winding be readily understood. thence over the toothed sprocket driving wheel to the winding This Avill be better understood wheels. reel. the crank on the outside is which causes the film to travel downwards con- tinuously. fixed leus. passes downward between the sprocket wheel and pressure roller to the winding reel in the rear end of the camera. as . the exposed film being wound first. In practice it is found that the motion of the hand-operated crank is sufficiently uniform to permit of the proper reproduction of motion by the positive pictures projected upon the screen. Jenkins. and begin over again. each of the same focus. like an ordinary stop in a wide-angle lens. The perforalight. joining each other. A feed roll for the supply of unexposed film is not shown. The camera can be carried about as readily as any other camera. in continuous motion. From this point the film. is placed upon the tripod or stand. but may will be located at the rear of the camera. The sensitized celluloid perforated ribbon film may be noticed passing downwards near the front end of the camera.

l|'||n\||ilIi.m l.iHf« .

as shown. and are for the purpose of regulating the 33 amount of light that acts on the negative. this is motor. two slotted diaphragm cards will be seen.THE PROJECTION OF MOVING PICTURES. The axle of the RIBBON PHOTOGRAPHY — EXPOSING AND PRINTING APPARATUS. and at all times to keep in perfect registry. 513 tions in the edges of the fihn are of a siDecial square shape. obtained by propelling the sprocket wheel by an electric motor or by a spring The electric motor is seen in the large wood cut. causing both to move at exactly the same time. at the bottom of the light chamber. The speed of the film passing under the exposing chamber must be absolutely uniform. and give the square sprocket wheel of the propelling pulley a better tension on the film. These are placed over the ground glass just mentioned. If . motor has worm gear operating a cog wheel on the main shaft. To the left of the liglit chamber is a supplementary tension adjusted by screw nuts. Eeferring to the diagram. The teeth pass through the perforations of both films. The V-shaped elastic band holds the frame in which is a ground glass in contact with the film. producing a kind of tension on the film.

The instrument. THE MICROMOTOSCOPE. which allows a larger volume light to act large open reels upon the negative from a spool and film. kill. with some interesting results. The novelty in the device which we illustrate consists in the fact that the film moves continuously under a uniform source of light. which allows a short exposure to be is made if the negative and film are passed under of it. the * By D. the negative film. Every electric lamp in the market. by Dr. St. is The exposed wound around developed by passing through cloths of developer solution. The greater the magnification. F. of New York City. and the wider slotted card substituted. will. Watkins. Clair. under any intermittent motion or the use exposing the film is carried out in a The operation of of shutters. Robert L. was made many experiments and failures in adjusting the objective a line with the right sort of light a success only after of the microscope in and a rapidly moving film. . RIBBON PHOTOGRAPHY — DIAGRAM OP THE PRINTING DEVICE. though simple. as a wliole.* The principles of the kinetoscope or mutoscope have been applied to the microscope. then a card with a narrow slot used. or impair almost any kind of life in the microscopic field.514 MAGIC: STAGE ILLUSIONS AND SCIENTIFIC DIVERSIONS. after a short time. when its light has been concentrated sufficiently for photography. The principal difficulties in making a mutoscope out of so delicate an instrument as the microscope are the light and the lens. should be thin. with its heat. then the narrow card film is is removed. room illuminated by the usual ruby light. dry up. If the negative is fall of density.

but not with the All such phenomena can. They same fact is will also seek food with avidity and reject poison with true instinct. of bacteria cells.000 or 2. and blood numerous families of bacteria will readily seek the negative j)ole of the battery. or neither. The advantages of mutoscopic photography to microscopy especially as regards the action are quite evident. however.j<w^ 1 A KOTIFEH AS SEEN IN THE MICKOMOTOSCOl'E. after a number of trials. detail in the micro- scopic field as in a series of clear photographs. He simply needed a larger wheel. more intense the litjht must be and the nearer the microscope. many having motion that the eye cannot always follow clearly. most needed for the investigator. sensiThe film runs like a belt. This may not be of much importance either the motion of some bacteria it way. Some kinds a flash of bright light will suddenly drive some kinds to cover. It has already been discovered that the same kind of bacteria will act very differently under different circumstances. on wheels.000 or even less per minute will record every motion taking place in most cell life. The books have had to depend upon the eye and hand of the draughtsman and upon vague description. It is possible to increase it to 2. under the proper circumstances. so far as it can be is observed with the microscope. can be only moving photography.^. of course. but most of the pictures taken were good. and its ordinary capacity is about 1. . and show well the various characteristics of the action taking place in cell life. For instance. the other end Near one end of the microscope placed an on the object. that he could not tarn the machine fast enough to photograph the motion of the blood circulating in the web of a frog's foot. This difficulty was often enhanced by the length of time it took to get a focus on the sensitive film. This machinery is turned by a crank. The that on account of has been well nigh impossible to photograph them. Xear moving the long. or its results. Pho- tography. a tiny window in the box and on a direct line with the lens and light. Watkins found.THE PROJECTION OF MOVING PICTURES. is adjusted to a horizontal plane. Whatever is to be photographed. Dr. but for most purposes 1.600 electric lantern containing a small arc light concentrated is the box that covers the ajiparatus for pictures per minute. Nearly all the have motion. and passes in front of tive gelatine film. be followed with the eye. It is not yet known whether they and it are the cause of disease. once it is put in the field of the lens. 615 :>Tj . but as yet comparatively little is known about is bacteria.500.

The offices that the blood performs in the due mainly to the action of the white cells. to be and pathologist. white cells. Watkins himself has made a close study of them in the web feet of some birds and the tails of fishes. continuing to flow across the an hour after the blood was drawn.OOD CORPUSCI. ring in the white cells are certain to escape attention. They stuck to the glass. The capillary or circulatory motion of the blood cells. is the character of their amoeboid action one of the surest indications of health But with the micromotoscope it need no longer be impossible to photograph the blood in actual circulation. it will be perceived. With a better light the cells may be They have often seen in the thin tissue of the ear or the web of the fingers.516 3IA0IC: STAGE ILLUSIONS AND SCIENTIFIC DIVERSIONS. and Dr. after the blood has but the amoeboid movement of been drawn. while the red cells. field for retain something of their motion. . though they are as yet imperfectly understood. half MOVRMRNT OF lU. been examined in the peritoneum dui-ing an operation. but all of them will be These motions in tlie clearly recorded on the rapidly moving sensitive film.ES SHOWN BY THE MTCHOMOTOSCOI'E. is comparatively slow at best the white cells and the changes taking place in the nuclei are complicated. are full of meaning . Certainly. white Unfortunately. the illustration of blood here reproduced does not show the cells. to the physiologist body are believed or disease. and Many of these changes occuroften hard to intelligently watch in the field.

.APPENDIX.

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This nail is not noticed by the audience. The table can then be lifted with great ease. The secret of the trick will be easily understood by reference to our engraving. .APPENDIX. This was a trick of the stage is late Alexander Herrmann. A small nail is driven in the center of the table. THE MAGIC TABLE. ADDITIONAL TRICKS. and the plush top tends to hide it. The magician wears a ring w^hich is flattened on the inner surface and a small notch is filed in it. THE MAGIC TABLE. and it appears to follow the hand of the conjurer in obedience to the magic wand. The prestidigi- tateur moves his hand over the table suddenly it rises in the air and follows his hands wherever he moves them. . . The ring is placed on the middle linger of the right hand the hand is spread over the table until the notch fits under the head of the nail. lu the center of the placed a light table with three legs and a plush top.

Wires are now secured to the unfortunate lady so . tlie assistant Herrmann the Great. Robinson." This very clever illusion was desigued by Mr. is a windlass. to a crossbar in the upper part of the frame. It lias been exhibited in several of the lai'ge of the late cities. over pulleys. within easy reach of the prestidigitateur. W. lady is now brought upon She is the stage and for some terrible crime is sentenced to be electrocuted. is always a great success. "GONE. THE LADY KKADY KOK KLECTKOCUTION. which she grasps tightly. When the curtain is raised the square frame of the seen this frame is braced laterally by side pieces. with its fair occupant.530 APPENDIX. At the lower part frame. Hopes pass from A this windlass. seated in a chair. The prestidigitateur now secures the chair. E. She is then tied tightly to the chair with ropes. by means of hooks which fasten to the top frame of the chair. to the ropes which are connected with the windlass. and her hands are chained together. is and .

according Pepper Ghost " which we have already described. .APPENDIX. He then discharges a pistol. Directly below this and carefully shielded from the observation of the spectators. these lights are extinguished by a stage hand in the side scene. and while she being lamps are kept lighted. the background of the stage. but the instant the pistol is fired. in brief. The front of the frame. these up %yl^y.V. while to the princi])les of the those in the frame are extinguished. magic now winds away at the windlass and raises the chair of the victim is the head on a level with the crossbar. is a row of As the pistol is fired incandescent lights.l KAISIKG TUE LADV BY MEAKS OF TUE W1NI)]-ASS. that it 521 really Tlie professor of until seems as though she was to receive the death-dealing curreut. is covered with a sheet of glass Avhich is not apparent to the audience. Xow. and at the same instant the lady disappears and the chair Such is. '• Gone. being secured to the chair. engraving will show that at the sides of the frame AVhile the lady is A is first a row of incandescent is lights." In reality the illusion is a clever atla^jtation of the "Pepper (Jhost" reference to our of Avhich we have already described several variations. Up over the proscenium arch is arranged a background which corresponds to hoisted to the crossbar. Two wooden bars cross it. screen. the mode of operation of the trick called drops to the floor. from the windlass to the horizontal cross piece. '' these lights are turned on. the person or thing which is brilliantly lighted has its image projected on a sheet of glass and appears to be real.

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The steps are encased by side walls. curtain rises. and the spectator is surprised to see this web. and it is drawn down quickly by means of rubber bands. and scenery such as drop. which falls to the floor with a loud noise. lead to the doorway of the house . and a person starts to descend. The mirror lies at an angle of 45° and runs from the base of the posts . She holds a heavy chair with her hand tightly. or. The steps walls are surmounted by vases of flowers and handsome lamp posts. the lady from view. Avliich extends from post to post and to the side walls of the steps. The story runs that the house was deserted for such a long time that the steps were covered by a gigantic spider's Aveb. however. When the pistol is fired. The house is approached by a set of stone steps which are built out from the scene proper. You can see both above and below if it could not be produced by a mirror. The steps leading to the part of the trick is the question of the whereabouts of the lady's body. as there is no glass to break. The audience is usually deceived as easily by this illusion as by the more comis the backgrouud projected upon this glass. better adapted for a traveling company. and these that is. plicated one. which is somewhat similar. its lower edge being hidden from view by the windlass. one of the most interesting of the series of tricks which depend AVhen the of which the '" Decapitated Princess " is a type. AV. called " Out of Sight. the lady being tied to the upper. thus deceiving the audience." and can be opened and shut. Eeference to our second and third engravings will give the secret of the trick. is usually used in theaters. and retreats after taking three This adds greatly to the illusion. the These are what is known in theatrical parlance as " practical " steps . but is not as interesting from a scientific point of view. The chair is made in two sections. or skeleton chair. THE SPIDER AND THE This is FLY. as it looks as or four steps down the stairs. and at the instant when the pistol is fired she releases the chair. E. It is. in other words. In the center of this gigantic web head. The puzzling the head. the scene shows a gentleman's country house set upon the embankment and surrounded by grass plots and shrubbery. is seen a spider's body with a woman's doorway of the house are open. but stops on seeing the spider. seen at any angle you choose." invented also by Mr. the large sheet of plate glass in the front of the frame being entirely dispensed with. a curtain of the same color as the background is released by theprestidigitateur. There is another illusion. Eobinson. This is painted upon mirrors. they may be ascended. and the steps may be. It takes only an instant for the curtain to descend. although she is immediately behind it. the door is also "practical.APPENDIX. The image of 523 which hides and the pieces of wood and this artificial background take the place of the back posts of the frame.

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visible. and the entire flight seems unbroken. This is tricic requires the most careful prejiaration and adjust- ment. In our diagram. . the mirror . this is to receive the lady's head. No. as usually cemented to tlie glass. and the illusion as the comis jjletc. he must 1)0 careful not to come THE ILLUSION EXPLAINED. body of the lady concealed behind the glass. but when this accomplished. 1 represents the steps 2. 3. The mirror extends the full cut out of the center of the mirror. top edge of the glass of it. and the lady. so that this reflection really appears to bo a coutinnation of the steps. as his legs is is Avill not be it is The concealed by a rope of the web. The to the spider's bodj' is . l)elow the line of reflection. . A\ hen the person appears at til e door and descends the steps. fastened network of rope affix the lady to has simply to lior this Ixtd}' is head. The mirror reflects the lower steps. the results arc extremely satisfactory. at the top edge . to the rear of b-ib one of the treads of the lower width of the steps. the web. DIAGUAM SniJAVING AUUANGEMENT <»F MIIilJOK. directly in front and for safety 4.APPl]NDtX. A semicircular hole is steps.

and was presented in England long before it was introduced The experiment consists of having a trunk examined. securing a cover over it. and then inside of showing that in a few seconds a young East Indian has succeeded in getting it without unfastening the cords. tying it a second time. sealing it with wax. THE TRUNK TRICK. THE TRUNK TRICK. is of English origin. or opening the trunk.526 APPENDIX. This trick. which attracted the attention of the world for montlis. breaking the seals. tying it. into Paris. .

and then unties it slowly and presents the mysit falls terious traveler to the audience. To raise the trunk to its proper position. and placed under a canopy. The assistant who enters the trunk has concealed under This is a variation of the trick. and the trunk is secured as above. and seals the knots at the same time. it . lays the ing. As soon as the trunk has been tied.APPENDIX. light or soft material. The bag is then placed in the trunk. who is also inserting a trunk down as shown in our second engravdown. opens the trap door. and then closes the trap door. from his pocket. the curtains of which are let down so as to hide the trunk from the spectators. who immediately draws back the curtains. he takes a long screw. is made of some mouth. The bag and is provided with a hem at the PUTTING ON THE COVER. and when it has reached its point of equi- back suddenly on its bottom. sealed. . something like a gimlet. takes his key. . the trunk rises slowly. 527 TRAP DOOR IN TRINK. In this hem runs a cord or tape the performer draws the string tight. unbuckles the cover and slides it and turns librium. puts the cover in place. invisible to the spectators. Half the bottom of the trunk constitutes a trap door which is opened by round key in one of the ventilating apertures. buckles it. The noise thus made is the signal for the operator. It will be seen by one of our engravings that the Indian appears tied in a bag in the trunk. inserts it in one of the holes under him. the East Indian. finds by the weight that something is in the trunk. gets into the trunk.

placing the original bag in the place of the duplicate. METHOD OP RAISING THE TRUNK. tied and sealed as the oridnal. his blouse a similar bag. inserting his four fingers into the opening in the hem. When he enters the trunk he removes bag from his blouse. which is. and.b28 APPENDIX. the string of which is long enough to correspond in appearance to that of the otlier bag when it is tied and sealed. goes into the duplicate bag and places it up over his head. of course. leaving space enough for the assistant to insert his fingers. this He now REMOVING THE RAG FROM THE INDIAN. draws in all the slack of the string. to all apj)earauces. . There are a couple of stitches missing on each side of the hem. thus closing the bag.

upon the plank his wrists and ankles are manacled and locked by a committee from the audience. made jiopnlar a few years ago by the late A. In less than a minute the curtains are withdrawn again. who can furnish. by the inventors of it. — '"LA STltOBElKA I'KKSANE. stand four upright posts about eight feet high. The trick is supposed to take phice in a prison or dungeon. from the four corners of which are chains supporting a plank about an inch and a quarter Curtains hang from the framework to thick." Tliis illusion. rings being sewed on them to A man supposed to be a prisoner is stretched allow of this being done easily. two Germans. FIG. Herrmann. Ilis neck is also enclosed in a steel collar and locked to the plank. 529 '^^A STIIOBEIKA J'EKSANE. and. about a foot bohjw the level of the board these curtains can be opened or closed b}' sliding them back and forth on the frame. quite near the back scene. locks of their own." 34 . and a young lady is seen to . if tliey desire. and set about eight feet apart on tlio long side. In the center of the stage. under the name of ''Strobeika" was originally produced at Iloudin's Little Hall. These posts are made fast to a rectangular iron frame at the top. as they reach only a little way below the plank. llerren Lutz and Markgraf. 1. to the rear wall of the stage. in Paris. At a signal the curtains are closed. and four ou thesliort.APPENDIX. all in full view of the audience. . permit of a full view underneath.

that does not go through firm. trick is accomplished.— TOP OF BOARD. 3. SHOWING LOCKS AND HASPS. it is all riveted to one of the short levers. FIG. four in number. go into the board and are held fast by the ends of these levers. which move simultaneously. There all from is no deception about the keys. is Now. locks. however. have taken the phice of the man. or manacles. as the case piece may . who. in all the eye. The eyes that the manacles slip over. p^^= . since sary to the decej)tiou that there should be. which enter a hole or notch. making There is one bolt. be. and to which the locks are fastened. and by its means the system of levers is . not at neces- The board hollow and contains cunningly concealed levers. let us see how this strange seen running down the aisle of the theater. The and their respective eyes are made fast to shackles and neck an iron plate or bed a bolt at each corner of the plates goes which is bolted to the board through the board and secures another plate at the bottom of it. at the instant of the girl's discovery.530 APPENDIX. It jirincipally lies in the construction of the board. first The thing is the explanation of how the man hecomes it is is released the shackles.

4-7 I -DETAILS OF THE MECHANISM. ^ FIG. . by which to susjiend the board. and appearing as if the board was solid. pushed backward or forward. The levers run in grooves made in any suitable part of the board and covered by a strip of wood or other material.APP^NMX. the same as the others.— THE ESCAPE OF THE I'lUSONEU. At each corner of the board is a ring or screw eye. There is a nut on the bottom plate to make it appear as if this identical bolt went completely through. into which the chain proThe four levers vided with a hook is secured. thus rendering the mechanism invisible. 8. 631 FIGS.

Through the center of the rear drop scene is seen a small chamber in which is a suit of armor standing upright. Upon being told. and kicking him all over the st.ige. America. and appears a minute later from the front of the theater. thus shoving the levers back into tlieir notches in the e3'es." The first effect produced upon the spectator after witnessing the illusion is that he has been tion of Messrs. for it seems utterly impossible for man to accomplish the wonders produced by it. or seeing ghosts or spirits. dreaming. The trick is varied sometimes by using double curtains at the back. of London. wliicli pivoted. where the lady moment to climb out through an opening in who is to take his place is now waiting pushed out through the opening in the scene. It was devised by the former gentleman. lever free. to prove that he was mistaken. of course. It is probably the most It has of late years been shown in mystifying of any of the optical tricks. moves the bolt back. is are i^ivoted to a rocking lever in the center of the board. it returns to its original position in the small chamber. and the prisoner is then. cleans and dusts it. whom brought there by the noise and cries of the servant. on the trick board. and another man. When the curtain is I'aised a servant makes his appearance and begins to dust and clean the apartments. stage The floor of this apartment is raised above the level of the approached by a short flight of steps. Wlien the suit of armor considers that it has punished the servant sufficiently. No sooner is the suit of armor perfectly articulated than and is the soulless mailed figure deals the servant a blow. lie finally comes to the suit of armor. throwing it piece by piece upon the floor. makes his escape through the scene. with a cry down the steps into the large room. taking it apart.633 APPENDIX. by Kellar. drops his duster. This is only one the countless effects which can be })roduced by this interesting illusion. of fear. . and but the work of a the scene at the back. just as the master of the house enters. on the end of a long board The lady gets " METEMPSYCHOSIS. Our first engraving shows the stage set as an artist's studio. his exact counterpart. is the one who makes his appearance in the audience. and finally reassembles it. wrestling with him. takes the suit of armor apart. By this means all the levers are moved simultaneously. and. is likewise When the moved it is it releases all the shackles. flies The domestic. again making everything fast. and the latter assisted in perfecting it." "Metempsychosis" is the name of an illusion which was the joint invenWalker and Pepper. the man slams the shackles into place. he of derides the servant's fear. same place. from he demands an explanation of the commotion. under the title of the "Blue Room. conAfter the exchange the man hides in the cealed between them is the lady. the suit of armor pursuing him.

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which wings close in the scene from the front shoved forward. and to of course exposing the suit of armor. both the armor. diagram. tion. E'. so that a suit of armor is always visible. E'' and E*. the proscenium opening understood by reference to the diagram. revealing the sides of the room. the mirror is to the steps. and assumes the same place himself. The walls in which all the changes occur. If the walls. of the chamber are lettered E'. and capable of being wheeled back and forth on a truck or carriage. suit of armor is marked H. H. It is placed so that. When this mirror is withdrawn. H. C. When the servant now dusts the armor. as seen at the dotted lines. removes the dummy armor. H. the spectators see through the openThe ing of the chamber to the rear wall. It can thus be seen that the reflected article gradually appears . when it is reflected in the mirror. are correctly placed as regards reflec- he can pass the mirror and fro at will. a distinct vertical line. and v/e suppose at the real object. it suddenly seems to become endowed with life and chases him around the room and when it again mounts the stej)S in the smaller room. the actor making his escape in time to place the first suit of armor where it formerly stood. back of the glass at the end which first passes across the field of view. and the walls of the chamber at E' and E'^ are reflected so that they appear to be the walls E' and E\ There is another suit of armor at I. which in their turn lead up to the small chamber. which would seem to wipe out it ])asses. an actor dressed in a similar suit enters behind the glass by a secret door. . and the rear wall disappear. G. E'. F is a large mirror extending from floor to ceiling. without any change being detected. and the suit of armor which the actor wears is seen. lines in the silver They etched vertical FIG. beginning with thick silvered spaces close together. The working of the At A we have ilhision will be Fig. D. H. Now. When the mirror is shoved forward and hides the suit of armor. All this time the suit of armor at I is reflected in the mirror. Fig. we are looking As the edge of of the mirror jiasses the suit armor a hard line is to be seen. it will occupy the exact position of the other suit of armor. I. at the back. To avoid this. if the mirror be pushed across the chamber. with the lines farther apart as shown in our 3. and tapering. Now the mirror is again drawn out.534 APPENDIX. The mirror is now drawn back. B B are two flats of scenery . 3. as the reflection takes the place of the reality. the inventors hit upon a novel and purely in- the object as genious expedient. E' and E^ and the armor. E'. 2.

A person seen sitting at the table. 4. This is arranged by providing the table with a slot which runs diagonally from corner to corner. many changes can be made. is The slot in the top of the table covered with sheet rubber or other material. flowers growing on an empty bush. In order that the edges of the glass forward or backward. man into a woman. the ap2:)aratus described above. behind the glass. instead of 535 coming suddenly into view. which leaving them to be seen upon the table. etc.APPENDIX. the edge is may be better disguised as moves By cut or ground into steps. half of the table. a painted picture into a living one. now withdrawn. is This allows the glass to travel through it. and thus shuts off oneArticles are placed on the table. to is all appearances tlie common is square . . and when the mirror is moved away it the real article gradually appears. as a livino^ man some a change of a effects appearing in a previously empty chair. FIG. which empty sud- denly there appears before hiiu a large dish of oranges or a meal. as shown in Fig. 4. kitchen table. In a table is employed.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY OF NATURAL MAGIC AND PRESTIDIGITATION. .

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Second Sight. 17477. F. 1857. of Conjuring. (About 1260. ENGLISH. J. Ball. Bancroft. Discovery of the Miracles of Art. and Ventriloquist. Berkeley. 16mo. Nature. Journal of Education (Boston). Card Tricks. Brewster. Arnold. in India. Cliautau(iuan. Washington Irving. vol. Necromancer. Roger. sional Life. his Fifty Years in the Magic Circle. 4to. Around the World with a Magician and a Juggler. 172 pp. Blitz. Breslaw. p. I. 8vo. 1896. 17845. xliv. 378. Charles. tlie Wliole Art New York. Bacon. " Isn't it London. Scientific American Supplement.\dventurea Hartford. xi. London. M. 1880. la Ids Matlienuitical Recreations. Letters on Natural Magic.) Hindu Jugglery. W. 1785. Frank. 1896. Natural Magic.) its Benjamin. ! Bertram. H. London. 1892. Modern Magic and Explanation. or. or. with notes. Antonio. W. Last Legacy . Frederick. p. 8vo. compiled. History of Inventions. Sir David. 731. 363 pp. An Account of the Author's Profes- Wonderful Tricks and Feats. Wonderful " A History of Magic and Mystery. 1871. with Laughable Incidents and . and Magic. Beckmann. vol. 17478. Philip. H. Edinburgh. 300 pp. vol. J. Card Tricks and Puzzles. Burlingame. .BIBLIOGRAPHY OP NATURAL MAGIC AND rRESTIDIGlTATIOX. L(mdon. (About 1770. xlii. 8vo. AsTLEY. The Magical Companion. Bishop. London. George. p. 8vo. vol. Houdin and Heller's Second Sight. TLe Magician's Own Book. 1784. Bailey. pp. and Cahtll. as a Magician. Rouse. Yogi Magic Scientific American Supplement. xliii Bartlett. 1832. by Henry Ridgely Evans. Chicago.

W. perhaps. liondon. Daveni'OKT. 1790. 274 pp. Of great vol. Cagliostro made adroit use of hypnotism. 8vo. : A Thought-Reader's Thoughts 8vo. xix. Reuben Briggs. vol. . and is. 1888. Magical Table. CuMBEULAND. The Magician's Own Book. : Cremer.vkt. The Psychology of I^egerdemain.. 1895. Tue etc. its Chicago. rare A portraits of Dessoir. tlie Magician. under the title of Le Tie de Joseph Balsamo. cliarlatans tiie Caulyle. In the year 1791 the Inquisition biography was translated into French. 12mo. Modern Magicians and Works. Ixxviii. pp." " Cagliostro's Cabinet. Being the true story of the Fox sisters as revealed by authority of Margaret Fox Kane and Catherine Fox New York. 41 j)]!. Second series. Consisting of Novel and Hand-shadows to be thrown upon the Wall Amusing Figures formed by the Hand. D. p." " Cagliostro's Casket and Cards. vii. H. Axon. from Original Designs. Rbbert-Houdin's memoirs. of Washington. 8vo. BIBLIOGRAPHY. see the concluding chap- The Aissaoua ter of are the miracle-mongers of Algeria. The Death-Blow 8vo. This is Count Cagliostro. with mediums of American spiritualism. 1790. such as the " Mask of Balsamo. Herrmann. Glasgow. He was past master of the art of deception. Margaret Fox Kane and Katie Fox Jencken. the Scottish Rite Library. — . also thy full Inquisition sentence pronounced against him. It has for a frontispiece a steel -engraved portrait of Cagliostro. Original editions of this rare and curious old work may be seen in the Peabody Library. Open Court. contni sous le nom de Comte Cagliostro.. 8vo. in one . — In his Miscellaneous Essays.) their Leaves Chicago. from Conjurers' Scrap-Books or. interest to psychologists. vols. . Monist. of Baltimore.t. 1888. their tricks. Thomas. J. Conjurer's Guide. published in the Dublin University Magazine. of the great magician's system of Egyptian masonry. — . Jencken. It is written in more of a philosophical study of the genus quack than an imparA more detailed account of Cagliostro's tial biography of the celebrated necromancer of the old regime. 247 pp. London. H. Hanky-panky A Collection of Conjuring Tricks. 250 pp. and the Masonic Library of Grand Rapids. : Modern Magical Marvels sionals A Practical Treatise on Magic and ('onjuring for Profes- and Amateurs. Carljle's characteristic style. A. 1872). 1897. A series of eutertaiuiug works ou modern magic and professors. optical illusions. Iowa. 8vo. The Magic Mirror. His Life . and Ixxix. romantic career is to be found in the series of articles by William E. 409-411. : (In preparation. Chicago. Impressions and Confessions of a Thought-Reader. the pioneer and interesting work. New York. (Pamphl<. Cakpenter. Max. 540 BuKLiNGAME. For explanation of Conjurer Unmasked." etc. History of Magic and Magicians. and chemical tricks. under the auspices of the Holy Apostolic Chamber. Chicago.) Tricks in Magic Illusions and Mental Phenomena. BuRSiLL. Stu. i. H. His Secrets. At an Algerian Aissaoua. (1871. to Spiritualism. — . : With the Tricks of the Divining Hod. Current Literature. vol. This highly interesting product of pai)al jurisprudence makes strange reading for the nineteenth century. Md. 87. 8vo. C. London. volume. — . Seriea of arlicluB translated from the German. Modern professors of conjuring are fond of using the name of Cagliostro for all sorts of magical feats. 1850. William H. a fascinating sketcli of most famous of and pretenders to magic. All biographies of Cagliostro are founded on the work published The Italian life contains an elaborate expose in Rome.

etc. xi. Evans. 1897. 8vo. The Art of Second Sight.BTBLIOORAPBY. De Vere. ('cntiiry Witclicraft. Card Deceptions. ISSL Gai. Chicago.iKEi-ii. Mr. with Ohservations on Various Sul)jects connected with the Mechanic Arts. Les Tricheries des Grecs. 1869. Scientific The Methods of Mind-Readers. Prof.e. ])p. had with such famous mediums as Pierre Keeler. Gatthell explains many of the devices used by charlatans to imitate clairvoyance. Sladi. As regards the second phase. and Dice London. 1893. Translated by Prof. 1876. London. T. 192-204. 541 Modern Magic. Forum. Tlie Old The Lives of the Conjurers. their Tricks Exposed. Washington Irving Bishop." and Sid. 65-69. IIenky Ridcki-Y. with chapters on Hypnotist. Dr. EwBANKS. Henri. XIX. Practical Ventriloquism London. Magic. H. vol. M. 1803. Hart. Magic. Cuart. its Ganthony. A Chat with Mr. Illusions. Svo. and others. he takes a decidedly negative view. not to spirit intervention. 212 pp. — . London. ])p. p. Svo. with professional and non-professional subjects. Ernest. Mesmerism. to telepathy.. Hattox. 1783. the author ascribes the manifestations witnessed by him in test seances. Concerning the first. 198. in the main.es. showing them to be muscle-reading. vol. 1890. Worked in conjunction with certain conjuring tricks. Edited by W. and the New ^A'itchcraft. pp. is a critit-al study of tlio phenomena of modern spiritualism. 1875. Gatcheli>. Magnetical and Magical and Sister Arts. "The Eternal Gullible. etc. biographies of Madame Blavatsky. IIalt-e. The Art of Modern Conjuring. . Henry. John. II. Svo. 1891. Performing Animals. Svo.\RENNE. tigations into the Phenomena Hours with the Ghosts or. (J. Maskelyue and Mr. Thomas. Henry Slade. Macaire's " Mind-Reading. ." " The Confessions of a Professional Scribners. Magic Writing. etc. A Bibliography of the leading critical treatises on psychic phenomena is appended to the book. Arthur. etc. Frost. vol.-. (Translated from Robert-Houdin's Hanky-panky : : A Book of (\jnjuring Tricks. vi. 8vo. Home. account of the so-callel mind-reading feats of Stuart Cumberland. 12mo. Magic at Home Book of Amusing Hoffmann [Angelo Lewis]. Mnemotechny. 1881. Fi.) London. A Practical Treatise on the Art of Parlor and Stage Magic. 8vo. umscleroading has an all but supernatural effect. S. R. Kxpoxen are given of psychography. This work. With Mechanical. Svo. and Illusions. The Interesting features of the book are the alleged miracles of modern theosophy are also treated at length. T). Secrets of Conjuring. London. Spiritualism. 1893. Ventriloquism. 304-306. I). London. etc. Liidgate Illus- F1TZGERAT. Magic no Mystery Conjuring Tricks with Cards.D. Londcm. etc.. Scribners." and notes on the hypnotism of Trilby. Ancient and Modern. Invesof Spiritiiahsni and Theosoi)hy. Berlin. trated Magazine. : London. Contains New York. vol. xxi. S.17). and the history of the Theosophical Society from its inception to the present tiiie (18. A new and enlarged edition. New York. Cabinet of Knowledge etc. : Science. Showmen and the Old London Fairs. many descriptions of magical automata of ancient Greece and Rome. Dr. A Descri]>tive and Historical Account of Hydraulic and Other Machines for Raising Water. Card-Sharpers. Cremer. Forces. Thought-reading. G. See also chapters on similar subjects in Burlingame's " Leaves from Conjurers' Scrap- Books. ^Mesmerism. xxi. It is divided into two parts— psychical phenomena and physical j)henomena. or Muscle-Reading : "' Good." Carl Wilhuann's "Moderne Wunder. Balls. Ex])eriments. J. Hypnotism. . 1851. or slate-writing tests. Charles Bertram.

Reprinted in " Scientific American Supplement. 721-732. p. quickness of movement. See also under Robert-Houdin. Hellerism it ? : London. United States fourteenth annual rejjort. Prof. Indian Magic. 418. vol. iii. — . Herrmann and Kellar to a series of careful tests to ascertain their tactile sensibility. p.642 BIBLIOGRAPnt. 1879. More Magic. North American Review. A Mystery A Complete Manual for Teaching 16mo." Robert-IIoudin's memoirs and magical revela- and Max Dessoir's fine papers. 123 pp. vol. his personal experiences as a magician. Part 1. vol. pji. Hermon. xiv. and the Testimony of Conjurers. Jr. civ. Supernatural Vision. the conjurers Professor Jastrow. Popular Science Monthly. Drawing-Room Conjuring. 97-100. 145-157. 267 pp. Henry. Harry. The Anatomy Fourth edition. and Cooke. London and New York. the tions. pp. giving of Legerdemain. 179 pp. Bureau of Ethnology Juggling Tricks among the Menominee Indians. Hocus-pocus. 578 pp. The Revelations of Lulu Hurst. Jastrow. E. 457 pp. London. Interesting magazine articles by the great Herrmann. Part 25. vol. London. North American Review. vol. p. 17488. as well as stage illusions. Science. with a review and criticism of the so-called spiritualistic phenomena artificially of spirit materialization. A fine expose of Robert Heller's second-gight trick. J. 1654. cliii. H. 1892-93. vol. 1887." vol. What is sight. p. sensitiveness to textures. Boston. Alexander. the Georgia Wonder. Walter HoLDEN. of a Necromancer. Some Adventures The Art of Magic. accuracy of visual percep- experiments. . Lulu]. vol. . With an appendix Maskelyne containing explanations of some of the best known specialties of Messrs. . 354. Harry. 1886. London and New York. A Practical Treatise on the Art of Conjuring. 12mo. Kellar. Modern Magic. Hoffmann. North American Review. They not only out-Herod Herod. Hercat. 75-86. 1896. subjected tion. A Wizard's W^anderings. Read in conjunction with the highly interesting series of articles on the " Psychology of Dece])tion. 475. viii. Lippincott. p. 482. pp. I)restidigitateurs. 8vo. Palmistry in all its An elaborate treatise on prestidigitation. the prince of . p. these studies of Tliere are Herrmann and Kellar are of great interest to all students of experimental psychology. ^ Light on the Black Art. Joseph. at his i)sychologioal laboratory. xlii. but out-Haggard Rider Haggard. xxxiv. mental processes. High Caste Indian Magic. or Second-' this Peculiar Art. p. T. 1884. Necromancy Unveiled. [Angelo Lewis]. vol. Proceedings : Hodgson. 92. Herrmann. Very useful to students. viii. Confessions of an Assistant Magician. pp. In this entertaining paper. 12mo. [Hurst. Heather. Herrmann. 12mo. Card Tricks and Conjuring up to Date. 685-689. 208. London and New York. London. branches explained. — . Cards and Card Tricks." A record of research and experiment in a muchtalked-of realm of mystery. Richard. Shekleton. Kellar the conjurer describes some of the magical i)erformances of the Hindu fakirs and Zulu wizards. no finer illustrations of mental and visual deception than the tricks of Psychology of Deception. Lippincott. "-Spookland. and hints and illustrations as to the possibility of producing the same. 1890. In " Science " he details the results obtained by him in his first of the kind ever made with magicians as subjects. Psychological Notes upon Sleight-of-Hand Experts. Addie. Second-sight Mystery . etc. 8vo. Cosmopolitan. Society for Psychical Research. clvi.

" Madame Blavatsky and her Theosopliy. Naude. — . 1875. by way of A])()Iogy for all the Wise Men who have been Unjustly Reputed Magicians. KuNARD. P. for amusing revelations of theosophical marvels. W. 8vo. pp. Frederic. A Human Magnet Demagnetized. Advanced Prestidigitation. 8vo. F. Being an appendix to Loudon. 1894. 1657. 1894. Morton. 5-204. 75. and produced his weird phantasms by some occult influence. Pepper. Iv. pp. The King of Conjurers [Robert-Houdin]." arc unquestionably true. 16 pp. R. 8vo. a Book of Conjuring for Amateurs. Sid. and Garnier. 1888. 591-600. p. skill. pp. G. which has puzzled in thousands of spectators. 12mo. 8vo. London. 1869. 1848." etc. and about Metempsychosis. vol. Magic and Pretended Miracles. See her "Caves and Jungles of Hindustan." London. Madame Blavatsky's works are full of absurd stories of Oriental magic. hypnotic in character. inventor of the famous "Ghost. London. London. for weirdnees and improbability. There were spiritualists in London who asserted that Professor Pepper was a powerful medium. London. Some few of them. Hanson. London. trated Magazine. Translated by London and modern New circus York. 1897. from the Earliest Times to the Present Age. The illusion known as " Metempsychosis " is the basis of Kellar's ingenious " Blue-Room " trick. London.) Leisure Hours. 543 romancerB. . Nortli American Review. Natural Magic. An expose of the multifarious devices used in cheating at games of chance and One of the best works on the subject. Macaire. such as the feat of '• imitation death. Loudon. 1889. Professor Pepper. T. The article reads as if it had been " written up " for effect. Mind-Reading. Marion. Natural Magic. or. 110 pp. illusionist. 817-831. — . all London. Book of Card Tricks for Drawing-Room and Stage.. John Henry. But also see Arthur Lillie's work. xii. A capital little second-sight. London. as witness the evidence of Sir Claude M. 8vo. Modern Spiritualism. — . The Magnetic Lady " The Supernatural. The True History 8vo. of the Ghost. English Illus- LocKHART. 46 pp.^ISLIOGRAPHT. York. for example. N. London. xxvii. Macc. Le Roux. or Muscle-Reading work on muscle-reading and pretended ? London. Olive. The Great Wizard vol. No. History of Magick. Harper's Magazine. Hugues. Chambers' Miscellany. Jules. 1890. The Art of Ventriloquism. (Pamphlet. John Nevil.\be. Prof. Logan. Sharps and Flats. to his apotheosis in the splendid Lewis. 506 pp. Maskelyne]. and vaudeville A very entertaining work. vol. together with many amusing personal experiences connected with its stasre production." gives full details in this little book of the apparatus used performing the startling optical illusion. though Kellar claims to have been an eye-witness of all the marvels he describes." " Isis Unveiled. who traveled over India. They deluged him with letters on the subiect. 82. Wade and other eminent Anglo-Indian investigators." . 4to. The Play-Book of Science. tracing the history of the mountebank from his inception in the nomadic caravan theatre. Magic among the Red Men. Modern theosophists have done much to exploit the so-called miracles of Tibetan and Indian necromancers. Acrobats and Mountebanks. Modern Magic . vol. clviii. A. 1888. of tbe West [J. the eighteenth-century ghost Maskelyne. The magician Herrmann. Wonders of Optics. had but a contemptuous opinion of Hindu fakir tricks. New Contains interesting translations from the memoirs of Robertson. 8vo. being the product of an elastic and brilliant imagination. 1890.

{Comjnhr). 122 pp. to xi. also a great deal of scientific and historical informa" The Secrets of Conjuring and Magic " {Les necreis de la preslidigUation et de la mag'ie). London and New York. The Modern Wizard. ROTERBERG. Shaw. Tonini. Stanyon. 61pp. Conjuring Modern Tricks. by Professor Hoffmann. etc." says Angelo Lewis. 645-650. 122 J. 8vo. Translated from the French by R. of Robert-Houdln. Robinson. Latter Capital Day Tricks. its Chicago. II. ICmo. ROCHAS. 104 pp. 1882. mann. T. of Magic. such as Philippe. tion relating to early inventions. 8vo. contains interesting sketches of old-time magi- Comte. vols. Gambling Exposed. Revelations of a Spikit-Medium Minn." sleight-of-hand performers. Palmistry carefully explained. liondon. 408 pp. By A Medium. 'Thomson. 1865. Skinner. : New York. to June 11. S. W. . 12mo. Students of psychology will find much to interest them in this clever book. 1897. 1896. London. Ajjjiarent A. 1891. With detailed illustrations of all crooked gambling appliances. A. 316 pp. with notes. and Fire Jugglers. Miracles. . Society for Psychical Research Contain Proceedings. W. .. Sleight of hand. Author. Ambassador. Tliird edition. E. How edited. pp. Manual of Legerdemain for Amateurs and Others. Robert-Houdin (Jean-Eugene). London.544 PiESSE. No more fas- was ever written tlian Iloudln's Memoirs. The French edition is out of print. QuiNN. W. xxi. vol. Ohymical. — . 373 pp. January 17. Card-Shari)ing Exposed. 1882-83 to 1895. E. and Conjurer. 12mo. "was regarded among professors of magic as a boon of the highest possible value. Natural. London and New York. 1896. Prodigies. published in 1S68. A sequel to latest The Modern Wizard. for Amateurs. John Philip. Philadelphia. and Physical Magic. classics. with 12rao. is an admirable treatise on sleight of hand. The Secrets of Conjuring and Magic . London. W. marvels in the magical Sachs. Exposed. cians. G. London. — Wehmann's Wizard's Manual. 1893. 1846. 2 and vols. E. 1896. An excellent work' for students. 252 pp. written by himself. Albekt de. Popular Science Monthly. 12mo. by Professor HoffYork. Containing an essay on " The Art of Magic. Paul. Robert-Houdin's works on magic are genuine cinating biography and are so regarded by It all conjurers. BIBLIOGRAPHY. or." by 120 pp. Memoirs 445 pp. Edwin Modern Theater Stages. Translated and edited. Engineering. The Secrets of Stage Conjuring. 104 pp. 324 pp. 8vo. A Practical Treatise on How to Perform 1897. little manuals of the O. notes. 1892. a Practical 1885. Salverte. Shelton Mackenzie. and Pinetti. etc. or. Bosco. Chicago. 1881. St. i)p. 8vo. Trials by Fire. 12mo. 1859. 12mo. 8vo. i. Chicago. London and New Translated and edited. by Professor Hoffmann. 8vo. The Occult Sciences Philosoj^hy From the French. Spiritualistic Mysteries A explanation of the methods used by fraudulent mediums. 18T8. or. Chicago. many exposes of iinleiidcd iii('(liunit<liii). line. Nineteenth Century Black Art . " The possession of a copy of this book. It is unquestionably the most scientific work ever written on the art of The English translation has been received with the greatest favor by amateur and professional conjuring. Translated and to Become a Wizard. Ellih. with notes. with notes l)y Magic and Mysteries. •- 12mo.

1883. Welton. White Magic. Mental Magic 4to. atlas. Cepak. By an Oxonian. etc. Exposes of slate-writing feats and cabinet A valuable work. 1835. History of the Art of Magic. T. 331 pp. With a Sketch of Alexander Herrmann. fortune-telling. New Illustrated Magazine. 48 plates and London. Tresor des jeux. 900 pp. History of Playing Cards.. II. Dictionnaire encyclopedique." Trewey. Astronomy. with many additions. Tricks with Pennies. etc. Collection complete et variee des experiences faciles et amusantes pouvant gtre executees par tout le monde avec des ceufs. This monumental work is a translation of Tissandier's Les recreations sciefitiflques. 1865. 4to. Carlo. The Supernatural ? With chapter on Oriental Magic.. 8vo. Paris. a Rationale of Thought-Reading and its Phenomena. 1792-1799. Amusement . and card-sharping. and Theosophy. illustrated. S. E. which ran apparently without works. Abel. 1897. Hocus-pocus Laid Open and Explained. 12mo.Bibliography. 12mo. 373-376. Paris. 884 pp. 1887. TniAYENNis. Thomas. A work devoted solely to conjuring tricks performed with eggs. — . [Anon. Taylor. 1769. TisSANDiER. vol. August. Gaston. as explained in the introduction— " The Mysteries of Modern Magic. 12mo.] Philadelphia. 8vo. or. 163 pp. 1889. It contains a few conjuring feats of a very simple nature. 545 woodcuts. N. the reader will find an interesting description of Robert-Houdin's famous magical timepiece. Rev. are Explained and Illustrated. . It will be remembered that one of these wizard clocks was the means of introducing Houdin to the French public as a prestidigitateur. The Bottom Facts Concerning the Science of Spiritualism derived from careful investigations covering a period of twenty-five years. 207-211. Contains anecdotes of the uses of cards in conjuring. In the chapter on clocks. Geology. etc. pp. London. 8vo. TiiAUMATURGiA . ball conjuring. Popular Scientific Recreations. Felician. 1893. — . a Storehouse of Instruction and which the Marvels of Natural Philosophy. . xv. tricks with cards. Trxjesdell. to industry. Whole Art op Legerdemaln 18mo. Mainly by Means of Pleasing Experiments and Attractive Pastimes. Pinetti. Marcus. and conjuring tricks. 273 pp. 12mo. are largely drawn upon. Spiritualism. T. (Pamphlet. 8vo. Ozanam. Elucidations of the Marvelous. arts. Weatherby. TiNDAL. or. New York. Cup and The Hague. London. 1852. a. Paris. Encycloptedia Britannica. illusions. principaux songes. 35 . Veritable explication des six cents Figures noires et coloriees. FEENCH. New York. and an expose of the ghost illusion and decapitated-head trick. Ce qu'on pent faire avec les oeufs. 4to. Shadowgraphy : How it is Done. London and New York. Avec Scientific recreations. Maskelyne. Antonio. by J.) : Johx W. and Montucla. etc. London. Guyot. Chemistry. L. London. 1884.. ingenious applications of science The works of Decremps. in — . pp. CoMBiNAisoN Egyptienne du cklebre Cagliostro.

Codicile de plusieurs tours. DiCKSONN. avec des eclaircissements sur les artifices des joueurs de profession. Eclaircissements a la Magie blanche devoilee. Faideau. Paris. ou explication de tours surprenants qui font depuis peu I'admiration de la capitals et de la province. 1793. Supplement a la Magie blanche devoilee. Bvo. Etienne. 1790. baguette divinatoire. 1855. Its author did not fall a victim to the guillotine. a. pour servir Magie blanche. les cadrans sympathiques. le mouvement perpetuel. Paris. DrnoT. avec des reflexions sur la Figures explicatives. 1788. The Codicile de Jerome Sharp was published during the "Reign of Terror "of the French Revolution. 8vo. Paris. Avec 18 figures grav. les ddcouvertes de la cbimie. F. Nouvelle biographie g^ndrale. — La seconde vue devoilee. F. Paris. anciens nouveaux. Paris. dying in the year 1826. 1794. magie blanclie devoilee par Paris. DucRET. according to Larousse. des exemples sur I'art de faire des chansons impromptu. Sorciers. Les petites aventures de Jerome Sharp. Dictionnaire de trucs steel plates). Decremps was a pioneer in this line. les automates dansants. Paris. Paris. Bruxelles et Paris. They are gennine curiosities in domain of magical literature. ouvrage contenant autant de tours ingenieux que de le9ons utiles avec quelques petits portraits a la maniere noire. 1791. les ventriloques. and hundreds of authors. professeur de physique amusante. Original editions of the works of this ingenious writer are exceedingly rare. Paris. This work the contains a portrait of Decremps. and German. 1792. ou ]a COMTE. 1792. Figures. but lived to a good old age. 4to. . Tours d'escamatoge. et de la mecanique. 1789. Manuel des Paris. English. Mes trues. 1786. en bois. De Muson. JuLiE DE. . — ou erreurs des Les amusements scientifiques. — CoMUS. (with one volume of Paris. 546 BIBLIOGRAPHY. Paris. Paris. 1784. Figures. professeur de physique amusante. and FoNTENELLE. Physique amusante. 1802. Bvo. 570 pp. pour servir de suite et de complement a la Magie blanche devoilee. lie exposed the tricks and illusions of the eigliteenth-century wizards. 1788. devoilee. ou Ton trouve parmi aux sciences et beaux-arts. French. — . recreations sur les illusions. La Magie blanche sorciers. les sabots elastiques. 1 vol. Paris. Dictionnaire des Ana. 8vo. les poupees parlantes. les chevaux savans. 1893. did much to dispel by his revelations the pretended sorcery of Cagliostro. sens. 878 pp. and. 1793. Paris. 1801. 1828. Gandon.. 1793. 8vo. La magie blanclie devoilee. diverses recreations relatives de suite a la Jerome Sharp. Grandpkb. de la physique. Paris. et See article Robert-Houdin. ou Ton trouve parmi plusieurs tours de subtilite qu'on pent executer sans aucune depense. I . 8vo. 1785. des preceptes. illusions de physique amusante. 1788. are indebted to him for material for their books. N. 1785. DECREAfPS. . Testament de Jerome Sharp. 1793. contenant Fexplieation de plusieurs tours nouveaux jou«^s depuis peu a Londres. 1788. professeur de physique amusante. Figures. les automates joueurs d'ecbecs. Paris. 1859. being the first scientific treatises on the art of sleight of hand written in the French language. 1789. Paris. 1849. Recreations de physique. Magicien moderne.

Paris. 1790. etc. professor of mathematics and natural philosophy. Paris. OzANAM. 1816. le Professeur Piuetti dans le temple des arts. Grand tratte des turnes. Magie blanche en Paris. and died without making any revelations. contenant les tours de Pestb. Lyons.ION. MoYNET. I'art L'Escamotetjr Habile. is a little handbook of very simple experiments in natural magic. 1749. 8vo. Germain. Contains 2 vols. : . pensioned by the : court of Prussia. 1791. 352 pp. Paris. Two winged cherubs are depicted. pratique des celebres pbysiciens et prestidigitateurs. M. • 8vo. 547 et songes. 2 vols. 1723. 1869. Hatin. Paris. de Wildalle. Jacques. ses ORuvres. 1786. Hei. pyrotechny. 1660. 17fi9. 1782. famille. Cinquieme Edition. ou optique amusante. The Same. 12mo La magie naturelle. L'Envers du theStre. Amusements physiques. 324 pp. Petit magicien. 8vo. son tlicatre. Nouvelle Edition augmentee par I'auteur de six nouvelles grav. It contains no sleight-of-hand experiments. Knight of the German Order of Merit of St. Georges. L'Ai-bert moderne. 1778. 1626. J. Tlie Same. Paris. etc. Naude. grands homnies qui ont este accusez de magie. Marion. 16mo. explication complete des visions inspirations noc- Paris. 8vo. F. Pinetti. 1800. le leurs penitenas." all Bordeaux. tours de cartes et gibeciere suivi des petits jeux Paris. . Manuel des sorciers. An edition in English of Pinetti's book was published in London.BIBLIOGRAPHY. aggregate of the Royal Academy of Sciences and London. 95 pp. sa vie. Marly. etc. y)hysiques. 1875. however. 1784. 1784. Amusantes grande initiation a la vraie Par un amateur. placing the bust of Pinetti in the temple of arts. Troisieme edition augmentee de quelque nouvelles experiences physiques Paris. 1750. Paris. 1799. 1694. 1831. de recreations mathematiqiies. Trues et decors. evidently designed to be sold in the theatre. Recreations mathematiques et physiques. or anything of value to a professional. au milieu des instruments de physique et de mathematiques. 1669. In his Optique. Nouvelles recreations pliysi<jues et matbt'inatiques. La Nouvelle Magie Blanche Devoilee. By Signor Giuseppe Pinetti. d'amuser agreableraent une Societe. de Wilidalle. avec figures. king of conjurers of the eighteenth century. Nouvelles recreations physiques et mathematiques. 1787. Robert-Houdin. 1810. many curious scientific diversions. 1895. Philip. 1857. The motto reads "Desgenies placent le buste de M. Landau. 1820. 1855. Magie naturelle. Pinetti carefully preserved the secrets of his tricks. This work by the famous Pinetti. Paris. 16mo. The most interesting thing about this insignificant booklet is a steel-plate frontispiece containing a portrait of the great magician. 1741. ou cartes. Paris. ou cours . Paris. de societe et 293 pp. 24mo. 1775. 1735. 1895. 8vo. Decremps. 1725. 1799. Mathiot. Apologie pour tons les Paris. 1785." 65 pp. Paris. and in London. G. Figures. 8vo. GuYOT. Magus. Jean-Joseph. ou ISuio. Physique amusante. besides tricks with cups and balls. page the conjurer expresses himself as follows " Physical amusements and diverting experiments composed and performed in different capitals of Europe. Other editions published in 1720. has sufficiently acquainted us with them in his On the title3fagie Uatiche devoilee. 1790. Paris. patronized by Belles-lettres of the royal family of France. et de gravures. Physique amusante.

1793. Robertson. 1864. Hellseher. Der junge Tausendkuenstler. Anders. et un grand nonibre de tours d'un effet surprenant. mit Kpfr. Raynally. 8vo. von Philadelphia. Nouvelle magie blanclie devoilee. . Paris. DrE Kunst Zauberer zu werden. 313 pp. Paris. als Orakel. — 2 vols. 2 vols. Ghost Histoire des spectres vivants et impalpables 4to. Paris. Magie et physiques amusante. . etqui n'ont pas encore dtd publids. J. blinder 8vo. 8vo. et cours complet de a ce joursur les theatres ou ailleurs. Les propos d'un escamoteur. N. Stuttgart. GERMAN. des zum Unterricht und zur ITnterhaltung. 8vo. COMTE. Beitrag Mit 12 Tafeln. Paris. optical tricks. E. et tout a fait incouuus du public 8vo. Leipzig. Paris. Cumberland. Paris. Halle. 1868. 1840. Mit Kpfr. Albert de. 1782. — — Verschiedenes tasche. Memoires physiques et 2 vols.. coins. illusions explained. 8vo. Etienne-Gaspard. Paris. Spiritigm exposed. etc. 1884. Memoires recrdatifs 1830-84. CoNR. Mystische Maechte oder der Schulessel zu den Geheimnissen des Wunderbaren Nachtrag zu den Aufschluessen der Magie. Muenchen. contenant tous les tours ete executes jusqu' Sleight of nouveaux qui ont hand with cards.OCHAS. Paris. monthly magazine. Paris. Scientific recreations. d'une execution facile. Very interesting exposes of ghost phantasmagoria. phantasmagoric. A very elaborate treatise ou the natural magic of ancient times. physique occulte. illusions.) 8vo. ROBERT-HOUDIN (Jean-Eug:ene). Karten Kiinstler. 4 Bde. tricks Figures. by Pepper in " The True Story of the Ghost. et des professeurs. die zur natuerlichen Magie. Zaiiber Sj^iegel. Eckartshausen.\Di. 1858. 1895. Aufschluesse der Magie. Les confidences d'un prestidigitateur. 8vo. Les triclieries des Grecs. 125 pp. Das Gedankenspiel oder dieKunst der Menschen Gedanken zu erforschen. with cards. 2 Bde. Geheimnisse der natuerlichen Magie. 288 pp. Arthur W. prestidigitation. (With a volume of plates. Paris. Prestidigitation moderne. Leipzig. fuer Liebhaber der GaukelMagnetismus und auderer Selteuheiten. etc. 1791. Fritz. III. la prestidigitation et Les secrets de de la magie. . Handbuch der Taschenspielerkunst oder 2 Bande mit 3 Tafeln. 8vo. " 64^ PONSIN. primitive science. Robin. D. cups and balls. About 1790. 1853. et anecdotiques. 1834. V. Muenchen. 1861. Der Experimental-Spiritist Rechner und Gedaechtnisskuenstler. Paris. etc. 1870. Les origines de la science et ses premieres applications. ^IBLIOGRAPHi'. 1894. 8vo. 1877. Illusions similar to those described secrets de la physique amusante.

Das Ganze der Salon-Magie 13mo. 1889. Sammlung neuer Stuttgart. Recbnungs-u. mit 58 Tafeln. RocKSTROH. Wien. 1772-77. Kunststuecken in privaten Kreisen. Ausfuebrlicbe und genaue Anleitung zur Vorfuebrung von ZauberZauber-Soiree. in 126 Piecen Kerndorpfer. Illustrierte Zauber-Soiree. mit J. Moderne Wunder. Carl. Tbird Edition. Sebr saltan juteressant. Figuren erlautert warden. u. 8vo. natuerl. mit den Zablen. 1890.. Spiele bescbrieben u. J. Wein u. 8vo. . WiLLMANN. 1799. 94 pp. matbemat.BIBLIOeRAPHY. 8vo. Die Magie im Salon. neu erOffneter und pbysikal. clairvoyance. mit vielen Kpfrn. 8vo. Leipzig. Das Buch der Kartenkuenste 158 pp. 1891. 1768. 7 Thle. 1794. leicbt ausfuebrbarer Zauber-Kunststuecke obne Apparate. 460 pp. leicbt ausfuebrbarer 125 pp. Stuttgart. Neuestes Zauberkabinet J. F.etc. SuHR. und matbemat. in 169 Vortraegen und 220 lUustrationen. 8vo. 8vo. Auswabl von magiscben. pretended mediumship. H. Prof. Leipzig. mit und obne Ai)parate. 1895. : Marian. Zauber-Cabinet. Leipzig. Die moderne Salon-Magie. 8vo. Wien. so zu Hausbaltung. Stuttgart. 753 pp. Mecbanemata. welchem alle Karten-. 1874. mit dem Magnete. anderen Kunststuecken. 1897. Wien. 1831. oder der Tausendkuenstler. Feldbau geboeren. 4 Bde. 8vo. Tromboldt. oder Tascbenspieler-. Karten. Eine Karten-Kunststuecke. exposes of 330 pp. 8vo. C. darzu gehoerigeii Maschinen fiier Liebhaber belustigender Kuenste. Gaertnerey. Natiirlicber. Belustigungen oder Samrahing. 8vo. 1809-JO. second sight Zauber-Welt. Stuttgart. . Neue physikal. Streicbbolzspiele. der Optik und Chemie. 1895. GuETLK. Augsburg. entlialten viele Jacoby-Hakms. 3 Bde. Wiirfel. 117 pp. Zauberkuenste oder aufrichtige Entdeckungen bewaebrter Gebeimnisse nebst vielen Kunststuecken. Kunststuecken zum Vergnuegen. von neuen Gdyot. 240 pp. Sammlung. Jahrg. edited by Willmann. 1895. 1893. Magie oder Kunst und Wunderbucb. . Heinbich. in Kilnste. HiLDEBKAND. 104 pp. Nuernberg. 8vo. aus. A monthly magazine of natural Zauber-Buch. Rudolph. 1890. "Moderne Wunder" contains interesting automata. Das Bucb der alten natuerl. Wallbergens. Wagner. 8vo. and stage illusions. Kunststuecke. Leipzig. magic and prestidigitation. Eine Auswabl neuer. 344 pp. und 75 lUustrationen. Carl Bosco. 1763. Berlin. 649 Zaubermeclianik oder Beschreibuug mechanisclier Zauberbelustigungen. Leipzig. F. MoLWiTZ. etc. Baltimore. darin wunderbare Geheimnisse. mit vielen Niirnberg. Spielplatz rarer Klinste. Der Kartenkuenstler. Magische Unterbaltungen oder Tasclienbucb faer magische Unterbaltungen.

Ref. IV. 1667. Magise Naturalis. Om. Haer. Juegos de manos. SPANISH. W. 8vo. HiPPOLYTUS. YI. Karl. SCHOT. V. S. 1780. iv. Valencia. R. Hildebrandt. 16mo. sive de miraculis rerum naturaPorta. 1887. blanca. 3 1. Libri iv. R. Thaumaturgus Physicus sive magise universalis naturase. Paris. 8vo. curiosos. MiNGUET E Yrol. K. 1610. Rovillium. 1733. 1814. apud G. . Magise Naturalis. The Same Napoli. Gomez. 283 ff. . Nuevo manual de magia P. Palonca. Albert! Bolognese seconda edizione adornata In Venezia. El moderno prestidigitador. 35. da Giuseppe Antonio di figure. 1561. GioCHi NuMERici Fatti Arcani Palesati. lium. Lugduni. Los divertidos.550 BIBLIOGRAPHY. 1888. 1659. ITALIAN. LATIN. Physica Curiosa. 2 vols. D. Madrid. Giovanni Battista della. Krespel. 34. juegos de escamoteo.

.INDEX.

I .

curious. Acrobat. Death's head. 203-250. 376. 532. 106-138. 330. Cagliostro. Aquatic locomotion. 229. Amphitrite. the skirt. 480. Houdin's magic. 55. Dark chamber. Beugnot Birds. Chronophotographic camera. Caulk. 448. 196. 304. Collar. the dissolving. Curious toys. 48.INDEX. the. Benvenuto. 122. 397. Curtain. disappearance Aquarium. Bottle and glass. Altar. photo thief. the traveling. see Cagliostro. Catastrophe.. amateur. the mysterious. 467. Automaton. experiments Chariot and pole. Burlingame. marvelous. a. pinhole. invokes sorcery. Thorn's. the Indian. Ball. the spirit. Carlotti. 181-183. Coins. Crash 7. Coins. electric. Cabinets. Boiler. Battle scenes. 268. Coin. Borders. 100. Camera for ribbon photography. 462-487. Bridges. Houdin's magic. photography upon. 465. effect. 409. . 383. D'Ache. Day to night effect. 241. Black ground. 61. Cycloramas. 137. . 53. photographic. 237. Cybele. Cabaret du Neant. Automata. Comatula. Cellini. 374. 3. Artist. 367. 457. 447. 117. 459. ink converted into an. 5. 50. 19. Cabinet. Acres' projecting device. enchanted. Caran. Cart. 268. Automata and curious toys. the multiplication of. 508. 425. toy. the oldest. H. magic. Heron's tubular. Automaton. an ancient. Cake baked in a hat. Balsamo. D'AfEre. 413. 6. 64. Anvil. 81. photography of. 46. Basket trick. 6. Arena. 12. Automaton. 121. 401. Dancers. Comus. J. Decapitfttjon. 38. Blue-room trick. 345-347. nautical. Siegfried's. 256. in. Houdin's magic. 478. Altars. 454. 342. Ancient magic. 354-361. Bii-d that flies. 211. Centrifugal force. 255. Cinematograph camera. Chronophotographic 485. 19. Bacchus. automaton. apparatus. M. 308. shrine of.. 392. Black art. 307-406. 500. 130. Curtain. 297. Chest. the statue of. 131. Heron's marvelous. fan drop. Columbus's egg. cited. the. William B. Bust. Ball. 17. Chess players. weighted. 120. 146. Cassadaga propaganda. 204-208. Baldwins and second sight. 206-208. 509. 35. Camera. Monseigneur. 3-6. cited. 129. of. 484. toy. 209. 380. Composite photography. 396. 367-379. toy. Dance. photographing Catcher. 210. Blitz. 236. 259. Crystallized ornaments. Bottle magic. Conjurer's tricks. Signor. Apple and ninepin. Chronophotography.

470. Electro-photo thief catcher. Kolta's appearing lady. Egg. 131. etc. 114-119. photograph of. Ghost. Herrmann. 220. 1. 488. 132. Carl. 109. tlie appearing. Demeny chronophotographic apparatus. Escalopier. Firefly. perpetual. 69. of. 113. "Gone.554 INDEX. the decapitated drinking. 358. Leon. 152. Egypt." 74. 335. magic in ancient. 185. 1. 495. Jugglers and acrobatic pei'formances. Fireworks. 141. 491. Lavater. Alexander. Heron cited. photographing a. 115. Jewels. Isola brothers. 103. tricks in. Houdin's magic ball. 337. origin of the steam. b. 339-250. Heron's. and Comte de Grisi. Houdin's magic cabinet. Fire eaters and sword tricks. Ink. invisible journey of a. 31-22. the queen of. 149. Electric cyclorama. 303-350. 303. Siegfried's. the cone Kellar. experiments in. 476. Handkerchief tricks. Half-woman. Harps. Hat tricks. 317-319. Fire and smoke effects. 239-250. Japanese mirrors. goblet of. Horse. Flowers. Introduction. magical. 8-10. Robert. Flood. 384. 106. magic. Lightning effect. vs. Gull. Electrical toys. 131. Electrical stage effects. Gridirons. Heller and second sight. Head. Greek lamps. Detective thief catcher. Lady. Fafner.. 397. 19. 153. 119. Glass. Lohengrin's swan. 333. photograj^h of. Illusion. Lady. the talking. 457. Duplex photography. 55. Robert. 39-42. Engine. Flowers. Horse race on the stage. B. theatrical. 133. 239. Jacob's. 444. toys. Kinetograph. electric. electric. 441. 406. 105. Louis XVIII.d. 74. 423. the living. 399. the mystery of Dr. 19. 139. Forge. 149-163. Heron's. 312. 10. Drawing. 244.. 31. Drops. 353. in the East. 410. 149. 343. 274. after the. Flies. de. Herrmann. photograph of. Kinetoscope. Glass of wine. Gravity. 479. Jugglers. Elasticity. 31-33. 305.. 139148. Egg tricks. 81. 42. . 69. optical. 100. Illusive photography." 530. Horse's gallop. stereopticon. Herrmann. 324. 23. 24. 219. Lynn. Gun.c. 334-338. magic. 137. 275. 362-366. phonographic. Drinking horn. Flowers. Lamps. photographic. Hagen's theatrical system. Heller. 1-36. tricks with. 488. 373. 380. 13-15. Dragon in " Siegfried. Lamps. 24." 332.. 359. platinized. 416. 403. 354. 399. Firearms. Eolipile. 335. Mackaye's theatrical inventions. 313. 385-387. Heller. Invention a. Doll. 39-42. Kircher cited. 105. Grisi. 133. photograph of. etc. the birth Flowers. 475. Columbus's. electrical. 464. toys. Comte de. Jumping. Duel. of. H. Fire eaters. Kolta. Head. 457. 239. 338. Kellar's " Queen of Flowers. the disappearing. Lustral water vessel. Ladder. Jacob's ladder. Horse. 309. Pepper's. 86. 43. Fire. 63. 338-344. 335.

94. Opera glass. 24. 251-267. G. Metempsychosis. magic. 476. J. 348-353. Scurimobile. beginning of natural. 414. 441. mysteries of modern. Magnetic oracle. photograpliy of. 438. 456. Multiphotography. 451. . Scenes. women in. Moon effects. trick. photograph Pinetti. 456. Portrait. Pigeon. Physiological station. crystallized. 509. jthotographic. 34. 467. 6. 300. j)rojectiou of. 401. Nostradamus. 447. magic. 455. Japanese. Platinized glass. 8. Rainbow effect. 423-516. Property room. Match trick. Ornaments. 5. electrical. 377. 412. W. Rollin. Organs. 135. 298. 96. 136. the magic. Photography. 501. Magic photographs. a steam. 459. 479. Portraits. 265. 4. Maze. 455. mystic. 184. Magic cabinets. 247-250. 265.. Mental magic. Psycho. Oracle. Robinson. Mutoscope. 1-26. Moon. 293. Odors. 408.*^. Pepper. 555 Palladio's theater. Saint-Amand cited. 21. Piiotograplnng a head. 299. 263. a 381. Photography upon black ground. Photographic diversions. 432. Paint bridge. Pictures. 391. 170-172. 230-233. 418. Necktie. the magic. Rochas. Magic. Puzzle.. 2. animated. 128. Marvelous vessels of the Greeks. Multiple portrait. Photographic necktie. 314. 27-54. ancient. Post test. cited. 466. 454. Magic boxes. the. 3. 391. composite.' INDEX. Scene painting. Money maker. 251-366. pliotograph of. magnetic. 2. Magic table. 411. 84. Photography.. Phonographic doll. Medusa. Pinhole camera. 532. the animated. Robert-Houdin. Magic portfolios. 310. Mutograph. professor. second Odometers. Photographic gun." floating 388. Ribbon photograpliy. Rain effect. Planchette table. A. Maskelyne. Photographs. 444. 264. Organ. Man. Photography. 409. magic. Sand frame trick. 127. E. 345-347. the. Nautical arena. 127. 450. 519. 488-516. projection of. 501. Race course. Plioto thief catcher. moving. Mikado. 402. Robertson. 7. 514. 407. 100. behind the scenes of an. Mirage. Neoocultism. duplex. Muy bridge's experiments. Magic. Robert-lloudin. spirit. Magic envelope. 488-516. artificial. multiple. trip to the. Race on the stage. 324. Palanquin. 425. the decapitated. 77. Mirrors. 184. Opera house. electrical. changing. siglit. of. Rosebush. 450. 108. Puppets. Mirrors. de. 221-233. 52. illusive. Running. E. 128. Photographic portrait. 86. " Rheingold. 472. imitation of. spiritualistic. 448. Mask of Balsamo. 289. Mouse. 184-202. Optical tricks. Mysterious disappearances. 368. Princess. Moving pictures. M. 482. 456. Photographing a catastroplie. 438. Micromotoscope. Science in the theater. 11-19. Photography. 416. 55-88. novel.

American. 89. Ties. 283. miscellaneous. Sun effect. revolving. 252. " Asphaleia. 164173. at. Ship on the stage. Woman. Theater. Slates. Transformation. Target. ancient. 79. Trick photography. miscellaneous. Tachyscope. magical. 144. 311-344. 91. 316. Stella. Spider and the fly. photographic. Spirit photography. the three-headed. photographs of. 471. 143. electric. Trapeze. the illusion of. Statue giving a double image. 335. 96. 489. Vanity Fair. E. Stage inventions. French. Tricks.556 Sea horse. 407-421. 276. Vessels. 38. electric. 307. Stages. Skirt dance. tricks of the Greeks. Second sight. the. 484.. 125. Woman. 181-183. Temple Temple of Dagon. Wine changed to water. 156-161. the machinery 213-317. Sun robe. a Greek. 523. Stages. Strobeika Persane. Palladio's. spiritualistic."). 152. Stars. 393. Stage. the mysterious. 271. of. La. the invisible. Temples. Steam engine. 103. Toys. 342. 173-181. see Grisi. 39. 161. 423. Wave effect. 423-516. Thief catcher. 123. Torrini. Snow effect. Trilby. Swing. Switchboard. Tumbler. The dicaiometer. 293-310. the. "Walking on the ceiling. origin of the. Sword walker. photograph of. 255. 63. 55-88. Theater with two auditoriums. 304. Stage tricks. 88. theater Vitascope. Tricks. the haunted. 221. Sword trick. 301. Shadovvgraphy. 489. 328-355. 268-293. 315. 287. Trewey the shadowgraphist. Stage effects. 481. 385-393. Thought Thunder Torch. apparatus for taking. 304. 457. revolving." 72. 163. Tulips. 234-238. Sliders. 173-181. gradual. 44. 50. transference. 397. Theater secrets. 237. 60. Toy. 337. 497. 273-276. 389. Sword swallowers. "Siegfried." effects in. Stage. optical. electric. 536. Thorn. Torpedo. 261. the human. 289. theater. 529. curious pivoted. 134. " She. Theater. Stage. 203-220. 197-202. X-ray illusion. opera. 297. 323. 243. ancient and modern. Lohengrin. Spear. Vicenza. Walking. ." 280. Silhouettes.. effect. construction of. 334. optical. Shadows. 27. 153. Sunrise effects. 101. 89-104. Wotan's. elevator. 2. 255. Trunk. 312. Table rapping. Traps. the spirit. Suspended head. 311. INDEX. 432. Trunk trick. 295. Toys electrical. Theater. Ventriloquism and animated puppets. 298. Swan.

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