Suburbanisation in U.K. and Counter Urbanisation in the Rural – Urban Fringe.

• • • • • Suburbanisation extends the size of the continuous urban area. Suburbanisation is at its greatest where urban growth is at it greatest. In the U.K. this means around London and in the south east. Because of the pressure this puts on the Green Belt this growth is a burning issue particularly since it has been estimated that we will need a further 1.1 million homes in the region by 2016. Towns outside the Green Belt and close to the south east region are also feeling the pressure and are themselves undergoing Suburbanisation: eg. Bicester, which is projected to grow from 25,000 to 38,000 between 2001 and 2011.

Counter urbanisation.
• • • • • • • • Counter urbanisation differs from sub urbanisation in that there is a clear break between areas of new growth and the existing urban areas. It leads to growth which is detached from existing urban areas either in the urban rural fringe or in the rural areas beyond By increasing the numbers of people living in rural settlements and the size of rural settlements, suburbanisation of the coutryside occurs. It blurs the distinction between urban and rural. It occurs most in MEDCs. It is more than just an overflow of people to the countryside who then become commuters back to their city jobs. Jobs have moved as well as the result of de-industrialisation. Rural areas and small towns have gained more than a million jobs, with companies following their workers to the countryside. Footloose industrial freedom has been gained by technological advances, so that a home computer linked workstation in a village can share global communications

Affects of couter urbanisation:
• • • • • • • • •

It affects the form and layout of rural settlements. Modern housing estates attach themselves to the edge of settlements Small industrial units may also grow alongside main roads in and out of the village. Open areas are infilled Old properties are modernised or converted from barns into homes Socio-economic changes happen as newcommers bring their urban wealth and attitudes with them New attitudes often don’t match the rural interests of the local community. Village growth can reduce village services because newcomers have the mobility to continue to use the urban services instead of the village’s, probably because they are cheaper and have a better range. Cost of housing rise sharply because newcomers are wealthier, putting housing ouit of reach of locals who have to move away.

Symptoms of decline in Rural Areas since 2000
• • • • •

The numbers working in farming have halved since 1945 Three quarters of rural parishes no longer have a daily bus Up to half of villages no longer have a school One quarter of villages are now without a post office During the last ten years over 1000 shops, 500 post offices and 100 churches and chapels closed down in villages

Factors Favouring Counter Urbanisation in MEDC’s. Causes
Negative Urban factors
• People are fed up with urban living and problems such as air pollution, grime, and crime, which seem to be getting worse. People want to escape further out than just to the suburbs. •

Positive Rural factors
Attractions include, more space, lower land costs, lower house prices, and a quiet pleasant clean environment.

Socio-economic factors
• Higher car ownership, greater affluence, allow commuting and improved public services in rural areas almost as good as those in the cities.

Encouraged by • Rising demand for second homes • Fuelled by greater affluence • Shorter working week • Earlier retirement • Greater personal mobility

Counter urbanisation
Allowed by • Relative decline in agriculture • Fewer farm workers • A need for farmers to diversify and seek income from other sources.

Affects
• • • • • • • • It affects the form and layout of rural settlements. Modern housing estates attach themselves to the edge of settlements Small industrial units may also grow alongside main roads in and out of the village. Open areas are infilled Old properties are modernised or converted from barns into homes Socio-economic changes happen as newcommers bring their urban wealth and attitudes with them New attitudes often don’t match the rural interests of the local community. Village growth can reduce village services because newcomers have the mobility to continue to use the urban services instead of the village’s, probably because they are cheaper and have a better range. Cost of housing rise sharply because newcomers are wealthier, putting housing ouit of reach of locals who have to move away.