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Suburbanisation in U.K.

and Counter Urbanisation in


the Rural – Urban Fringe.
• Suburbanisation extends the size of the continuous urban area.
• Suburbanisation is at its greatest where urban growth is at it greatest.
• In the U.K. this means around London and in the south east.
• Because of the pressure this puts on the Green Belt this growth is a burning issue particularly since it
has been estimated that we will need a further 1.1 million homes in the region by 2016.
• Towns outside the Green Belt and close to the south east region are also feeling the pressure and are
themselves undergoing Suburbanisation: eg. Bicester, which is projected to grow from 25,000 to
38,000 between 2001 and 2011.

Counter urbanisation.
• Counter urbanisation differs from sub urbanisation in that there is a clear break between areas of new
growth and the existing urban areas.
• It leads to growth which is detached from existing urban areas either in the urban rural fringe or in
the rural areas beyond
• By increasing the numbers of people living in rural settlements and the size of rural settlements,
suburbanisation of the coutryside occurs.
• It blurs the distinction between urban and rural.
• It occurs most in MEDCs.
• It is more than just an overflow of people to the countryside who then become commuters back to
their city jobs. Jobs have moved as well as the result of de-industrialisation.
• Rural areas and small towns have gained more than a million jobs, with companies following their
workers to the countryside.
• Footloose industrial freedom has been gained by technological advances, so that a home computer
linked workstation in a village can share global communications

Affects of couter urbanisation:


• It affects the form and layout of rural settlements.
• Modern housing estates attach themselves to the edge of settlements
• Small industrial units may also grow alongside main roads in and out of the village.
• Open areas are infilled
• Old properties are modernised or converted from barns into homes
• Socio-economic changes happen as newcommers bring their urban wealth and attitudes with them
• New attitudes often don’t match the rural interests of the local community.
• Village growth can reduce village services because newcomers have the mobility to continue to use the
urban services instead of the village’s, probably because they are cheaper and have a better range.
• Cost of housing rise sharply because newcomers are wealthier, putting housing ouit of reach of locals
who have to move away.

Symptoms of decline in Rural Areas since 2000


• The numbers working in farming have halved since 1945
• Three quarters of rural parishes no longer have a daily bus
• Up to half of villages no longer have a school
• One quarter of villages are now without a post office
• During the last ten years over 1000 shops, 500 post offices and 100 churches and chapels closed down
in villages
Factors Favouring Counter Urbanisation in MEDC’s.

Causes

Negative Urban factors Positive Rural factors Socio-economic factors

• People are fed up with • Attractions include, • Higher car ownership,


urban living and more space, lower land greater affluence,
problems such as air costs, lower house allow commuting and
pollution, grime, and prices, and a quiet improved public
crime, which seem to pleasant clean services in rural areas
be getting worse. environment. almost as good as
• People want to escape those in the cities.
further out than just
to the suburbs.

Encouraged by
• Rising demand for second homes
• Fuelled by greater affluence
• Shorter working week
• Earlier retirement
• Greater personal mobility
Counter urbanisation

Allowed by
• Relative decline in agriculture
• Fewer farm workers
• A need for farmers to diversify and
seek income from other sources.

Affects
• It affects the form and layout of rural settlements.
• Modern housing estates attach themselves to the edge of settlements
• Small industrial units may also grow alongside main roads in and out of the village.
• Open areas are infilled
• Old properties are modernised or converted from barns into homes
• Socio-economic changes happen as newcommers bring their urban wealth and attitudes with
them
• New attitudes often don’t match the rural interests of the local community.
• Village growth can reduce village services because newcomers have the mobility to continue to
use the urban services instead of the village’s, probably because they are cheaper and have a
better range.
• Cost of housing rise sharply because newcomers are wealthier, putting housing ouit of reach of
locals who have to move away.