CARGO CALCULATIONS
1
Cargo calculations
The volume of cargo on board can be determined by means of soundings or ullage measurements and calibration tables (tank tables) The purpose of the cargo calculations is to convert the observed volume into weight Calculation of trim, stability, freeboard, shear forces, bending moments is based on weights On the B/L the quantity of cargo is stated as a weight (Metric Tons , Long Tons, Short Tons, Pounds, etc. )
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When making the stowage plan a lot of information has to be gathered, a lot of factors have to be taken into account Cargo calculations are important because they are the link between the available space and the weight to be loaded
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Cargo calculations on board of a gas carrier
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Long Tons. freeboard. Pounds. bending moments is based on weights On the B/L the quantity of cargo is stated as a weight (Metric Tons .Cargo calculations
The volume of cargo on board can be determined by means of soundings or ullage measurements and calibration tables (tank tables) The purpose of the cargo calculations is to convert the observed volume into weight Calculation of trim. etc. stability. shear forces. )
. Short Tons.
Boiling temperature rises with the pressure and the pressure will never get higher than the relief valve setting.98 V dr/dt
Vl is the max volume to which the tank can be loaded V is the total volume of the tank Dr is the density of the cargo at ref. at this temperature liquid and gas are in equilibrium.
. temperature Reference temperature = boiling temperature at relief valve setting pressure (the highest temperature that can be reached during the voyage.Cargo calculation
maximum filling limits
IMO specifies maximum filling limits as follows: Vl = 0. Boiling temperature is determined by the pressure in the tank. highest temperature = smallest density) Dt is the density of the cargo at the loading temperature PS. Liquefied gas is always transported at the boiling temperature.
5765 / 0.97 V Thus tanks can be filled to 97%
. vessel loading propane at –42°C. temperature (corresponding to SVP.25barg (bar gauge = relative pressure)
Absolute pressure: 0.25 bar Ref. Relief valves set at 0.582 = 0.Cargo calculation
maximum filling limits
Example: Fully ref.25 bara for propane) = 37°5C Density of liquid propane dr = 0.25+1.5765 @ 37°5C Density of liquid propane dt = 0.582 @ 42°C Vl =0.98 V 0.0 = 1. 1. Saturated Vapour Pressure.
3169 Litre 6.S.54596 Litre 28.28981 U.S.Units of volume
1 U.S.78541 Litre 158.987 Litre 42 U.S. Barrel
8
.S. Gallons 4. Barrel = 1 U. Barrel = 1 Imperial Gallon= 1 Cubic feet = 1 Cubic meter =
3. Gallon = 1 U.
01605 Metric Ton 0.907185 Metric Ton 2240 Pounds 0.Units of weight
1 Long Ton 1 Short Ton 1 Long Ton 1 Pound
= = = =
1.453592 Kilogram
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Units of density
Density
True
is the relation between mass (weight) and volume
and apparant density Relative density and specific gravity Litre weight API
.
Temperature conversion
Degrees Celsius: C° Degrees Fahrenheit: F° Degrees Kelvin: K° 0°C = 32°F & 100°C = 212°F => °F=(°C32)x 5/9
°C = (°F x 9/5) + 32
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Cargo calculations
The
relationship between the volume and the mass/weight can be expressed by:
Density
True
density Apparent density Specific gravity Litre weight API gravity
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litre weight.) Density and volume change in function of the temperature The weight of a cargo is of course independent of the temperature but the weight in air (apparent weight) the 13 weight in vacuum (true weight)
. API.Cargo calculations
The
relationship between the volume and the mass or weight can be expressed by the density (specific gravity. relative density etc.
Density
Fundamentaly Density: Unit of mass per volume [kg/m3 or kg/litre ] When calculating cargo True density: Weight per unit of volume in vacuum Apparant density: Weight per unit of volume in air
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Mass
Mass
is the only SI unit not based on the fundamental atomic properties or the speed of light Reference standard is a small platinum cylinder with a mass of 1 kg made in 1880 and kept under inert conditions at the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures near Paris
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altitude or atmospheric conditions
Weight is the force with which a body is
attracted to the earth and varies from place to place with « g ». the acceleration of gravity
Standard
???? “g” = 9.81m/sec2
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.81m/sec2 Weight = Mass x 9.Cargo calculations
Mass (massa )is a measure of the quantity
of material in a body and is constant regardless of geographical location.
The term « weight » in general practice has been accepted as being the value secured when an object is weighed in air This weight or « weight in air » is often converted to « weight in vacuum » by the application of an air buoyancy correction (vacuum factor)
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.Cargo calculations
All commodities are sold by weight and this means weight in air.
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. force the magnitude of which is equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by the body.Principle of Archimedes
Physical
law of buoyancy. stating that any body completely or partially submerged in a fluid (gas or liquid) at rest is acted upon by an upward. discovered by the ancient Greek mathematician and inventor Archimedes. or buoyant.
Principle of Archimedes
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and so the magnitude of the buoyant force continuously matches the weight of the ship and its cargo. As the ship is loaded. it sinks deeper. displacing more water.
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.Principle of Archimedes
A
ship that is launched sinks into the ocean until the weight of the water it displaces is just equal to its own weight ().
Principle of Archimedes
P = Weight F = Force of Archimedes The ship floats if P = F If P > F => Submarine (ballast) If P < F => Air balloon (hot air or a very light gas f.i. hydrogen)
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The
bathescafe sinks because his own weight (light weight + ballast) > the weight of the water it displaces The Zepplin flies because his own weight (hydrogen gas is very light) < the weight of the air displaces.
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density is the weight of a unit volume of the substance. kg/lit). In simple language.Density and kg/m3 in air
Density is defined as « mass per unit volume ». weighed in the absence of air Density varies as temperature changes and is therefore expressed at a specific temperature (15°C) Density is sometimes referred to as « true density » or « density in vacuum » and will consequently give us « true mass »
. expressed in direct terms of mass and volume (kg/m3.
1 kg/m3. m3 Calculations of quantity by means of kg/m3 will give apparent mass (weight) instead of true mass (weight)
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.Density and kg/m3 in air
The
conversion between true density and apparent density can be carried out with table 56. The most commonly encountered HC fluids need a negative correction of 1.
Specific gravity and API
Relative
density and (American Petroleum Institute) APIgravity are commonly used in British and American publications.Relative density.
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. Relative density replaces the widely known term « specific gravity » which has been formerly used in the oil industry.
5 Rel. Specific gravity and API
Mass of a given volu me of substance at 15C Relative Density15/15C Mass of an equal volume of pure water at 15C Mass of a given volu me of substance at 60F Specific gravity 60/60F Mass of an equal volume of pure water at 60F
141. 60/60F
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.5 API gravity at 60F 131.Relative density. Dens.
Relative density. Specific gravity and API
True weight a given volu me of substance at 15C Relative Density15/15C True weight equal volume of pure water at 15C
True weight a given volu me of substance at 60F Specific gravity 60/60F True weight an equal volume of pure water at 60F
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at 15°C/ Weight in air H2O same volume at 20°C
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.Relative Density – Specific Gravity Apparent Relative Density – Apparent Specific Gravity
Relative
density 15°/20° = Weight in vacuum of a given volume prod. at 15°C/ Weight in vacuum H2O same volume at 20°C Apparent Relative Density 15°/20° = Weight in air given volume of prod.
spec.04 [kg/m3] (density H2O at 60°F)
. grav. It is possible to convert f. 60/60°F to density at 60°F by the following relationship Density substance at 60°F [kg/m3] = spec.i. 60/60°F x 999. grav. grav. Specific gravity and API
It should be noted that relative density (spec.Relative density.) is expressed as a ratio and no physical units are involved.
00000
0.True and apparent density of water at different temperatures
T°C 4 15 15.99805 0.99796 0.98702
1.56 (60°F) 20 25 50 True Density Apparent density 0.99913 0.99707 0.99717 0.99904 0 99823 0.99888 0.98807
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.99604 0.
Litre weight
Weight
in AIR of 1 litre of substance at a given temperature
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Dens. 20/4°C = Rel. Dens.99903 ( vacuum factor X litre weight ) / 1. Dens. Dens.99823 ( vacuum factor X litre weight ) / 0. Dens.99905 ( vacuum factor X litre weight ) / 0. Dens.99707 ( vacuum factor X litre weight ) / 0.5/15. 20/20°C = Rel.99913
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.00000 ( vacuum factor X litre weight ) / 0. 15. 60/60°F = Rel. Dens.5°C = Rel.00000 ( vacuum factor X litre weight ) / 1. 15/15°C =
( vacuum factor X litre weight ) / 0. 25/4°C = Rel. 25/25°C = Rel.Conversion factors
Rel.
0 Liter weight 0.00122 1.00161
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.9 Liter weight 0.00108 1.00139 1.Approx.7

1.8 Liter weight 0. vacuum factors
Liter weight 1.
LPG
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.ASTM 54 .
60°F or 15 °C 38
.Volume and density corrections
Weight = volume x density
Only true if volume and density are known at the same temperature 3 solutions 1) Correct the volume to the temperature of the density VCF = Volume correction factor Volume correction to 60°F or 15°C 2) Correct density to the temperature of the volume DCC = Density correction per degree centigrade 3) Correct both to the same reference temperature.
Volume and density corrections
Both
factors are based on the same physical phenomenon. Fluids or solids expand when heated but the mass or weight remains unchanged => the density decreases Relation between change in temperature and change in volume is expressed by the coefficient of volume expansion
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For a small temperature range curve can be replaced by tangent line.Relation between density and temperature
Coefficient of volumetric expansion is not linear – see curve. Inclination of this line is better known as the DCC coefficient DCC = Density correction per degree 40 centigrade
. Curve is described by the ASTMVCF tables.
00114 0.00100
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.00097 0.00079 0.00070 0.00063 0.Examples of DCC factors
Acetone Caustic Ethanol Glycerine ipentane Latex
Soda (50%)

0.
Volume correction factor
The
VCF factor (VCF) converts a volume or a density of a fluid at ambient temperature to a reference or standard temperature (15°C or 60°F) VCF factors are published in special tables – ASTMtables
ASTM
= American Standards on Technical Measurements
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Example ASTM tables
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ASTM tables
Table No Table 5A Table 5B Table 5D Description Correction of observed API gravity to API gravity at 60°F (gen. crude oils) Correction of observed API gravity to API gravity at 60°F (gen. Products) Correction of observed API gravity to API gravity at 60°F (gen. Lub. Oils) Correction of volume to 60°F against API gravity at 60°F (gen. crude oils) Correction of volume to 60°F against API gravity at 60°F (gen. products) VCF for individual and special applications Correction of volume to 60°F against API gravity at 60°F (gen. lub. oils)
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Table 6A
Table 6B Table 6C Table 6D
crude oils) Correction of observed relative density to relative density 60/60°F (gen. crude oils) Correction of volume to 60°F against relative density 60/60°F (gen. Correction of volume to 60°F against relative density 60/60°F (gen.ASTM tables
Table No Table 23A Table 23B products) Table 24A Table 24B Table 24C Description Correction of observed relative density to relative density 60/60°F (sen. products) VCF for individual and special applications
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products) VCF for individual and special applications Correction of volume to 15°C against density at 15°C (gen. lub. oils)
Table 54C Table 54D
Vol XI and XII contain 58 conversion tables
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.ASTM tables
Table No Table 53A Table 53B Table 54B Description Correction of observed density to density at 15°C (gen. products) Correction of volume to 15°C against density at 15°C (gen. crude oils) Correction of observed density to density at 15°C (gen.
EXXON BUNKER COLCULATION TOOL
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Cargo calculations going from total observed volume to weight in air using VCF
Met ullage en trim ga je in tanktabellen en vind je het geobserveerde volume. dan komt hier nog een vacuumfactor bij. voor de rest verder werken in air. Enkel met vacuum werken als men de hoeveelheden aan de wal bekend maakt. Vervolgens doe je een aanpassing voor de temperatuur en de densisteit. Vervolgens ga je met trim en dip nog eens in de tabellen en heb je berekend hoeveel water er onder je lading zit. je vindt zo de VCF factor. Hiervoor wil niemand betalen en ze wordt dus met het geobserveerde volume vermindert. deze moet je met de gross observed volume vermeerderen.
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. We bekomen zo ons volume. Dit is zonder rekening te houden met temperatuur of densiteit. Zo bekom je het gross observed volume. Als we nu nog een omzetting naar vacuum moeten doen.
These low temperatures have an influence on the volume of the tank itself and on the the ullaging equipment. being the floater and the perforated tape (in case of a mechanical ullaging device)
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.or semi refrigerated gas carriers temperatures are very low.or chemical carrier On board of a fully.Cargo calculations on board of a gas carrier
Calculations are somewhat different from the calculations on board of an oil.
Cargo calculations on board of a gas carrier
In
a loaded gas tank an equilibrium exists between the cargo in the liquid phase and the cargo in the gas phase. Consequently a not negligible part of the cargo is gaseous All the above mentioned facts make a gas calculation somewhat more complicated
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quantity o/b at departure Therefore calculations before AND after every loading or discharge operation
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.Cargo calculations on board of a gas carrier
On discharge one normally retains sufficient cargo on board to keep the tanks cooled fore the next loading quantity loaded/discharged = quantity o/b on arrival .
LNG . Calorific calculations are based on liquid volume and density at tank conditions
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. transportation and reception facilities LNGcarriers use the boiloff during loaded and ballast voyages as ship’s fuel Commercial quantification is usually done on the basis of the calorific value of the cargo delivered.calculations
LNG is traded within longtime projects with dedicated production.
Shore measurements versus ship measurements
Shore tank measurements are not as accurate as ship measurements
Shore tanks have a greater crosssection => greater relative error During cargo handling operations a certain pressure has to be maintained in the shore tanks => vapours of different origins can be used.
Vapour flow from other shore tanks Liquid vaporisers Vapour return line from the ship
=> Exact vapour quantity is difficult to calculate.
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.43 % (only for propane and butane in fully ref.Shore measurements versus ship measurements
Vapour quantification ashore is difficult Some terminals. therefore. The weightinair of the liquid change in the shore tank is evaluated from measurements before and after transfer and 0. condition) of the weightinair of the liquid transferred is subtracted or added to account for the vapor weight replacing the liquid transferred. use a simplified approach.
Shore measurements versus ship measurements
It is common practice to use ship’s figures to determine cargo volumes (contrary to crude or chem. trade where shore figures are used) Some customs authorities require the ship’s tanks to be calibrated by an approved classification society or by suitable independent cargo surveyors (custody transfer)
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If this is appreciably different from the cargo to be loaded => the density in the tanks after loading may be affected An independent cargo surveyor will be appointed to verify ship & shore volume measurements (shipshore difference)
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.Shore measurements versus ship measurements
On loading it is important to take account of the density of the remaining cargo (liquid heel in each tank).
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Cargo calculations on board of a gas carrier
Liquefied gas cargoes are carried as boiling liquids in equilibrium with their vapour in closed containment systems
The vapour phase above the liquid cargo must be calculated and included in the total cargo quantity
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Quantity of cargo in liquid phase Quantity of cargo in vapour phase
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.Cargo calculations on board of a gas carrier
Total quantity of cargo is equal to the sum of :
1.
2.
ullage on other tankers
.Liquid cargo calculation
volume determination Innage or sounding is measured on gas tankers.
Mechanically operated float gauges
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Mechanically operated float gauges
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Sonic systems
.
Sonic systems
.
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no list) Therefore corrections must be applied to obtain a CORRECTED SOUNDING
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. giving for each sounding the corresponding volume this table has been drawn up
under ambient conditions with the vessel being in upright position (no trim.Liquid cargo calculation
volume determination
A calibration table is provided for each cargo tank.
Liquid cargo calculation
volume determination
Corrections:
temperature corrections
Tape correction Float correction
not upright ship corrections
Trim correction List correction
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being the floater and the perforated tape (in case of a mechanical ullaging device) the volume of the tank itself
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.Liquid cargo calculation
volume determination
Low temperatures have an influence on
the ullaging equipment.
Liquid cargo calculation
volume determination
Tape correction or dip correction:
The float gauge tape passes through the cold vapour space Depending on the temperature it will contract It will therefore indicate a lower liquid level then actually present Tape correction should be added to the liquid level read
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and density are different from that assumed by the manufacturer’s zero determination a small correction for float immersion is required
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.Liquid cargo calculation
volume determination
Float correction:
The zero of the float gauge is determined by the manufacturer Immersion of the float depends upon the cargo density If cargo temp.
Liquid cargo calculation
volume determination
List correction
depending
on the actual list depending on the position of the liquid indicator on the cargo tank list is indicated in degrees
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No correction has to be applied
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.Liquid cargo calculation
volume determination
In an upright position. liquid level and ships bottom are both horizontal.
Liquid cargo calculation
volume determination
Depending upon the position of the liquid indicator a list correction has to be applied
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Volume in the tank has not changed
A B C A’ B’ C’
List = 0° A=B=C
List = 5° A’ > A B’ = B C’ < C
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Liquid cargo calculation
volume determination
Trim correction
depending
on the trim position of the ship depending on the position of the level indicator on the cargo tank trim is expressed in metres (centimetres)
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No trim correction in this condition
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.Liquid cargo calculation
volume determination
If the ship is even keel. the liquid level is parallel to the keel.
Liquid cargo calculation
volume determination
If the ship is not even keel, the horizontal liquid surface is not parallel to the keel anymore. The liquid level will be different depending on the place of measurement
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Liquid cargo calculation
volume determination
Sounding observed actual sounding
list trim Dip or tape correction float
corrected sounding liquid volume
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Liquid cargo calculation
volume determination
Shrinkage factor:
The cargo tank is calibrated at ambient temperature (mostly 20°C) If cold cargo is loaded, the tank will have a lower temperature and therefore a smaller volume Different corrections are applied to liquid and vapour phases because of different temperatures
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Liquid cargo calculation
volume determination
Liquid volume
x shrinkage factor
actual liquid volume
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Liquid cargo calculation
mass determination
observed sounding
dip and float correction
actual sounding
list and trim correction
corrected sounding
liquid volume at temperature
shrinkage factor
observed volume
ASTM D 1250  table 54 B VCF correction (old) ASTM D 2598  table 53 B density at cargo temperature density tables from an official surveyor (f.e. SGS) density at cargo temperature
standard volume x density at 15°C
1
liquid mass
2
liquid mass
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3
liquid mass
Cargo calculations going from total observed volume to weight in air using VCF
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liquid volume due to low temperatures in the tank.Vapour cargo calculation
volume determination Vapour volume = total tank volume . by using the shrinkage factor for the mean (or weighed ) temperature in the tank
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. the total tank volume has to be corrected.
))/Total height of the tank.Weighed average tank temperature
Weighed average tank temperature = ((liquid height x liquid temp.) + (gas height x gas temp. Used to obtain the shrinkage factor for the complete tank
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Vapour cargo calculation
mass determination
Due
to cargo operations. vapour and liquid are not in equilibrium in the tank therefore gas density cannot be obtained from the tables we will use the ideal gas law and Avogadro’s law
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Vapour cargo calculation
mass determination Basis: The ideal gas law
P1V 1 P 2V 2 T1 T2
The gas in a standard situation (P = 1013mbar en T = 288K) is compared with the gas in the tank atmosphere
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0221367 x 1023. which is the number of atoms determined experimentally to be found in 12 grams of carbon12. in chemistry.
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. 6.Some definitions
MOLE = also spelled MOL. The mole designates an extremely large number of units. molecules. or other specified particles. a standard scientific unit for measuring large quantities of very small entities such as atoms.
in honour of the Italian physicist Amedeo Avogadro (17761856). .MOLE or MOL
Carbon12 was chosen arbitrarily to serve as the reference standard of the mole unit for the International System of Units (SI). Avogadro proposed that equal
volumes of gases under the same conditions contain the same number of molecules. or Avogadro's constant. a hypothesis that proved useful in
determining atomic and molecular weights and which led to the concept of the mole. The number of units in a mole also bears the name Avogadro's number.
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equal volumes of different gases contain an equal number of molecules.0221367 x 1023 The volume occupied by one grammole of gas is about 22.4 l at standard temperature and pressure (0°C.645l/mol at 15°C or 288K
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.Avrogadro’s law
Under the same conditions of temperature and pressure. The volume occupied by 6. 1 atmosphere) and is the same for all gases. 22.4 l/mol at 0°C or 273K becomes 23.
645l/mo l Pv absolute pressure in the tanks Tv temperature in the tank expressed in K Vv n.Ps.I n aantal mol I 23.M m/Dv M m molecular weight in kg/mol Dv density of the gas M m.4l/mol if temp.n Pv.I Dv Ts Tv Ts Pv M m Dv Tv Ps I
Purpose = to calculate the vapour density at the observed temperature Starting point = the ideal gas law A volume gas = number of moles X the volume of 1 mole = 22. 273K(0°C) or 23. Ps.n.Vs Pv.Vv Ts Tv Ps 1013mbar Ts 288K (15C) Vs n.645 if temp. 288K A volume gas also = (number of moles x mulecular mass)/ vapour density 92
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Example
Volume vapour in the tank = 29.645m3 / kmol
dv = 2.4 kg/m3
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.1 kg/kmol
288K 1100mbar 44.097kg / kmol dv x x 243K 1013mbar 23.1bar relative = 1.952m3 Temp = 30°C = (273K30°C = 243K) Pressure = 0.1bar absolute Mm = 44.
Vapour cargo calculation
weight determination Vapour volume x vapour density = vapour weight
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cargo calculation
weight determination
Liquid weight + vapour weight = total cargo weight
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020 + 2m 0.temp Gas temp Vapour space pressure Molecular weight Density at 15°C
Propane 10.Cargo calculations .5° P 43°C 38°C 59 mbarg 44.data
Product Innage Trim List Liq.097 511 kg/M3
.
88M3 9.940m 5.893. temp. Shrinkage –43°C Shrinkage –38°C
127mm + 46mm + 1mm 0mm 9.Ship’s calibration tables
Trim correction List correction Level gauge correction Float immersion correction Corrected innage Volume at calibration temp 100% at calibration temp Volume vapour space at cal.63M3 4.451.99773 0.441.75M3 0.99791
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INNAGE corrections
Trim correction Innage –127mm
List correction Innage +46mm
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88m3 0.785 T
99
.216.441.52 m3 1.8 m3 511 kg/ m3 3.Liquid Calculation
Liq. Shrinkage factor Volume liquid at –43°C VCF –43°C > 15°C Volume at 15°C Density at 15°C (vac) Mass
5. at cal.176. temp.vol.99773 5429.145 6.
398 T 0.99775 3.389 kg/ m3 10.vapour at calib.180. at –38° Dens.45 m3 2.187.613 T 3.99791 4442.temp Thermal factor Vol.23 T
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.Vapour Calculation
Vol. at –38°C (see slide) Mass Vapour Total Mass Weight in air factor (ASTM 54) Weight in air
4451.75 m3 0.
Vapour density calculation
= 2.389 kg/M3
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this method allows flow rate and density to be continuously recorded at the flow temperature and. The equipment presently is expensive and requires complicated proving arrangements.
. However.Dynamic Flow Measurement
Some
modern terminals are being equipped with sophisticated liquid and vapour flow metering with associated inline sampling. by combining these outputs electronically. mass flow rate can be provided and integrated to give total mass 102 transferred.
Ultrasonic flow measurement
103
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turbines.Quantity calculations on board of LNG carriers
The quantity discharged is measured by an ultrasonic flow measurement device Ultrasonic meters have no moving parts.important advantages over conventional mechanical meters such as positive displacement meters (PDs). orifice plates and vortex meters
104
. they suffer no pressure loss and they provide maintenancefree operation .
Quantity calculations on board of LNG carriers
Ultrasonic flow measurement uses the transit time principle. whereby opposite sending and receiving transducers are used to transmit signals through the flow. The difference between the two transit times is used to calculate the flow rate. The signal travels faster when moving with the flow stream rather than against the flow stream. Measuring principle – Doppler effect
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Operating principle
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Metering Unit on board of the Excalibur
• Ultrasonic type flow meter and gas chromatograph • Applied extensively on land based plants (incl. Custody Transfer Systems on land) • No moving parts => very reliable
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Gas Chromatography
Used to establish chemical composition of the gas and the derived values such as density and caloric value of the sample
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Cargo documentation
B/L is the most important cargo document Enables the cargo receiver to assess if the proper quantity has been discharged Before departure from the loading terminal the shipmaster should ensure that the B/L quantities accurately represent the cargo loaded The master should be sure that cargo calculation records made at loading and discharge are properly prepared
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The Bill of Lading has three functions. It is:
The shipmaster's receipt for cargo loaded A document of title for the cargo described in it Evidence that a Contract of Carriage (such as a voyage charter party) exists
118
.Bill of Lading
A Bill of Lading is a document signed by the shipmaster at the port of loading. It details the type and quantity of cargo loaded. the name of the ship and the name of the cargo receiver.
the shipmaster attests to the apparent good order and condition of the cargo loaded. By signing the Bill of Lading.Bill of Lading
By signing the document. the shipmaster may be expected to issue a Letter of Protest at the loading port.
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. the shipmaster agrees to the quantity of cargo loaded In some circumstances. where the Bill of Lading quantities do not match the ship's figure.
Bill of Lading
Whoever possesses the Bill of Lading rightfully owns the cargo.
120
. the Bill of Lading must be endorsed by the original cargo buyer to show the new cargo owner. The old practice of issuing three original Bills of Lading has been largely superseded and now it is common to find only one being issued. Should a cargo be sold before it reaches its destination.
Bill of Lading
Due to delays in banking or trading chains. Accordingly. a receiver may issue a Letter of Indemnity (LOI) to the ship. an endorsed original is not always to hand at the discharge port.
121
. as an alternative to presenting the original Bill of Lading to the ship master.
B/L
122
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or on behalf of. However. the quantities as stated on the Bill of Lading remain the official record of the cargo as loaded.
124
.Certificate of Quantity
A Certificate of Quantity is issued by the loading terminal as. The certificate is of assistance to the shipmaster in determining the quantities to be inserted in the Bill of Lading. the shipper and the cargo quantities declared as loaded may be verified by an independent cargo surveyor.
Certificate of Quantity
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.
126
. It is issued by the loading terminal as. the data contained in the document assists the shipmaster in signing the Bill of Lading. the shipper or may be issued by an independent cargo inspection service. Again.Certificate of Quality
A Certificate of Quality provides the product specification and quality in terms of physical characteristics (such as vapour pressure and density) and component constituents. or on behalf of.
Certificate of Quality
127
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it is not complementary to or supportive of the Bill of Lading but its distribution to shipper. carrier and cargo receiver is similar.Certificate of Origin
A Certificate of Origin is a document issued by the manufacturer or shipper.
128
. countersigned by the customs authorities. which attests to the country in which the cargo was produced. It may be required by financial authorities in the importing country so that they may assess import taxes or grants. Unlike the previous two certificates.
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The Time Sheet is usually prepared by an independent cargo surveyor or the ship's agent and is checked and countersigned by the shipmaster and the shore terminal. from a ship's port entry until final departure.Time Sheet
The Time Sheet records all salient porttimes. Its purpose is to provide an agreed statement of facts relating to the timing of events and delays during the ship's port call and is used to facilitate demurrage claims.
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Time sheet
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NOR
132
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Its purpose is to provide readily available data for customs authorities and ships' agents in the discharge port. The appropriate preparation of the Cargo Manifest is controlled by the SOLAS & FAL convention.Cargo Manifest
A
Cargo Manifest is usually prepared by the ship's agent at the loading port or by the shipmaster and lists all cargoes according to the Bills of Lading.
133
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134
.
135
.Certificate of tank fitness
A Certificate of Tank Fitness is usually issued by a specialist chemist from a cargo surveying company and is issued where particular tank cleanliness conditions are required prior to loading.
Certificate of Inhibitor Addition
An Inhibitor Information Form is issued by the loading terminal or by the cargo manufacturer.
136
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Inhibitor addition
137
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