Applied Chemistry-Sem-II

Dr. Payal Joshi

Composite Materials
Modern technologies demand materials with unusual and extraordinary combinations of properties that cannot be provided by conventional metal alloys, ceramic and polymeric materials required for aerospace, under water & transportation applications--Structural materials having low density, stiffness, high strength, abrasion resistance, impact resistance & corrosion resistance. Such combination of properties is difficult to achieve in conventional materials. New class materials are called “Composites”. Composite materials may be defined as a multiphase material system consisting of a mixture of two or more macro-constituents, which are mutually insoluble, differing in form &/or composition & forming different phases. Composite materials process such combination of properties, which were not within the easy reach of energies either because – such basic materials were not available or were too costly. Stiffness (ability of materials to resist elastic deformation or deflection on loading) is increased, without the disadvantages of brittleness. By using composites; it is possible to have combination of properties like high specific strength, lower specific gravity, higher stiffness, maintain strength up to higher temperatures, better toughness, impact and thermal shock resistance, easy to fabricate, better corrosion and oxidation resistance. Examples: Wood: Composite of cellulose fibers & lignin; Bone: Composite of protein, collagen & apatite; Rain- proof cloth (cloth impregnated with water proof material). Combining two or more distinct materials one can engineer a new material with desired combination of properties. Better combination of properties can be achieved by Principle of combined constitution action. Mixture gives “averaged properties.” Composite material comprises of two phases namely matrix which continuously surrounds the other phase called the dispersed phase. Composite is an artificially prepared multiphase material in which chemically dissimilar phases are separated by a distinct inter phase e.g., wood consist of strong flexible cellulose fibers surrounded & held together by different material called Lignin. Properties of composites are determined by three factors namely; materials used as component phases in the composite, geometric shapes of the constituents and resulting structure of the composite system and manner in which phases interact with one another. Matrix Phase: Continuous body constituents that encloses the composite & give its bulk form. It may be metal, ceramics or polymers. Composites using these matrix materials are known as, 1. Metal Matrix Composites (MMCs) - Mixtures of ceramics and metals, such as cemented carbides and other cermets. 2. Ceramic Matrix Composites (CMCs) - Al2O3 and SiC imbedded with fibers to improve properties, especially in high temperature applications. 3. Polymer Matrix Composites (PMCs) - Thermosetting resins are widely used in PMCs; Examples: epoxy and polyester with fiber reinforcement, and phenolic with powders.
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mica. metal. Fiber: Long thin filament of any polymer. high tensile strength. Aramid fibers: made by spinning liquid crystal aramid oligomer (Kevlar). Use along with polyster/epoxides. High performance. Due to small size they exhibit high degree of crystalline perfection (free of flakes). SiC . intimately mixed with polymer matrix to get a composite. cost of composite is reduced. Silicon nitride are generally used.Ready availability. However. Particulates /particles: Small pieces of hard solid material (metallic/nonmetallic) – metal powders. 2 . resistant to creep & fatigue failure. stability at high temperatures.to. Sensitive to moisture. silica. ceramic having high length to diameter ratio. can be coupled with polymer matrix to achieve chemical inertness. possess extremely large length / diameter ratio. thermal & electrical conductivity modified. Dispersed phase: It is a structural constituent determines internal structure of the composite.eg. Glass fibers are high performance materials:. high tensile strength. high tensile strength & stiffness. Important Dispersed phases are. Important dispersed phase properties are. Special types of fibers – Very thin single crystals possessing extremely large length. bases & number of solvents. Payal Joshi Functions of Matrix: binds the dispersed phase together. Monofilaments (diameter of 8 µm. Carbon fibers: obtained as continuous filament by pyrolysis in an inert atmosphere of organic fibers like cellulose or polyamylonitrile. 1. carbon black. metal oxides. corrosion resistant. Al Oxide . 2. Flakes: Thin solids with 2-D geometry. Metals like Al. 3. flame free (critical surface flaw free which otherwise leads to fracture). Prevents propagation of brittle cracks due to its plasticity & softness. easy to draw from molten phase. Mica flakes. Strongest known material – Extreme use as reinforcement medium is prohibited due to high cost. Characteristics: high length to diameter ratio. a. b. acids. performance at elevated temperature improved. Individual fiber (diameter of about 10 µm)—“Monofilament”. c. Effect of adding particulates to matrix materials: Surface hardness is increased. But they are susceptible to degradation by acids & strong bases. & certain commercial thermoplastic & thermosetting polymers are used as matrix materials.diameter ratio. thin single crystal. Whiskers: Thin strong filaments/fibers made by growing a crystal. Graphite. rapidly pulling followed by cooling the emerging continuous filaments. metal carbides.Applied Chemistry-Sem-II Dr. possess high bonding strength between matrix and dispersed phase. protects dispersed phase from chemical action & keep in proper position & orientation during application of load.): Used as reinforcing material with epoxy/polyester resins to form composites. extraordinarily high strength. excellent loughness & impact resistance. Cu. acts as a medium to transmit & distribute externally applied load to the dispersed phase. high performance fiber but costly. Glass fibers: obtained by forcing glass melt through number of small orifices/openings of a spinneret. low cost. one faces difficulty of incorporating them in to matrix. 4. Requirements of a good matrix phase: Ductile.

’ Alloys like Cu-Sn. ‘precipitation hardening’ or ‘Age hardening. LPC are used with all three major types of materials namely metals. It is made by adding particles to a liquid matrix material. Interface can serve as: locus for chemical reaction. 3 . which bears a fraction of the load. Matrix transfers some of the applied stress to the particles.Commonly used cermets: cermented carbide composed of extremely hard particles of refractory carbide ceramic such as tungsten carbide WC or TiC embedded in matrix of a metal like Cobalt or Nickel. Large particle Composites: In these composites. Strength of bonding at matrix – particle interface dictates the degree of reinforcement & the mechanical properties. Cu-Be. Examples of large particle composites (LPC): Cement matrix + particulate of sand gravel forms concrete. polymers & ceramics. Metals and alloys are made into extremely small particle size in a given range and are dispersed in the matrix phase. Ceramic metal composites is known as Cermets . These reinforcing particles help to restrain the movement of the matrix phase in the vicinity of each particle. This is due to the differences between thermal coefficients of two constituents of composites and cure shrinkage (in thermoset) crystallization (in thermoplastics) when polymer is used in matrix. the particle size is smaller (10-100nm). which later solidifies or may be pressed together. This is achieved by appropriate heat treatment called as. Composite Classification Particle – reinforced Composites: It is made by dispersing particles of varying size & shape of one material in a matrix of another material. ferrous alloys are hardened and made into composites with ceramics. particulate phase is harder & stiffer than the matrix. Al-Cu. site for preferential adsorption. site for nucleation.Applied Chemistry-Sem-II Dr. Payal Joshi Role of interface in Composites: Transmission of stress from matrix phase to reinforcing dispersed phase depends on interfacial bond strength – failure is resisted if this bond is strong. Dispersion strengthened composites: In this case. Mg-Al.

(a) Continuous and aligned. Payal Joshi Cermets Classification: (Ceramic bonded with metals) Oxide based Carbide based eg. However in transverse direction. CrC & Co matrix cermets Resistant to abrasion corrosion Application involves spray nozzle pump parts. Al2O3 dispersed in WC & Co matrix cermet Cr matrix. fiber reinforcement is virtually non-existent – hence fracture usually occurs at relatively low tensile stress.e. It involves three components namely. a polymer matrix (encapsulating agent for the filament) & a bonding agent (that ties fiber filament to polymer). (b) discontinuous and aligned.Applied Chemistry-Sem-II Dr. they depend on the direction in which they are measured. Continuous & Aligned fiber components: Properties of such components are highly anisotropic i. Glass fiber & metallic fibers are commonly employed for this purpose. These composites provide high strength & stiffness on a weight basis. wire drawing Good thermal shock values & machine parts -resistance. Good strength. (c) discontinuous and randomly oriented 4 . filament. Maximum strength & reinforcement are achieved along the alignment (longitudinal) direction. Fig: Schematic representation of different types of fiber-reinforced composites. Fiber-Reinforced composites: Dispersed phase is in the form of fibers.

4. abrasion resistance. Carbon Fiber-Reinforced polymer composites: Also known as advance polymer matrix composites providing excellent resistance to corrosion. They are used in fabricating automobile parts.Applied Chemistry-Sem-II Dr. etc. Payal Joshi Discontinuous Fiber Composites: Reinforcement efficiency of discontinuous fibers is lower than that of continuous fibers. lighter density and retention of desired properties. It is generally used in structural components of aircrafts and sport goods like golf clubs. Aramid Fiber-Reinforced polymer composites: They are generally of two types:   Short (discontinuous) aramid FRP composites: They have high aspect ratio. 2.g. Eg. 3. but still they find wider applications. Alumina and/or carbon FRP composites: They possess improved strength. the properties of which depend not only on properties of constituent materials but also on their geometrical design. Successive oriented fiberreinforced layers are stretched & then cemented together in such a way that orientation of high strength varies with each successive layer. They are excellent structural and advanced engineering materials used in aircrafts. Long (continuous) FRP composites: They are metal ductile and respond non-catastrophically to compressive stress. It is used in fabricating automobile parts like clutches and brakes. These composites possess lower density. Structural composites / Layered Composites: These composites comprise of both homogenous & composite materials. carbon & aramid discontinuous fibers are employed. Laminar Composite: It consists of 2-D sheets/panels that have preferred high strength direction as found in wood & continuous & aligned fiber – reinforced plastics. fishing rods. high surface area. higher tensile strength.Al2O3 (dispersed) or carbon fibres + Al alloy (matrix): Used to fabricate engine components. Important types of FRP are as follows: 1. inherent toughness and high wear resistance. Glass Fiber-Reinforced polymer composites: It employs glass fibers as the dispersed phase and polymer is the matrix phase. high impact resistance and excellent resistance to corrosion and chemicals. Chopped glass fibers. Plywood is a laminated composite of thin layers of wood with alternate layers glued together so that the grain of each layer is at right angles of 5 . creep resistance and dimensional stability. pipes and transportation industries. e. stiffness.

The choice was dictated by properties like low cost. plywood. etc. buildings. Use of fibre-reinforced composites has become increasingly attractive alternative to conventional metals for many aircraft components mainly due to their increased strength. Composites are an alternate material replacing timber. reinforced plastics are the kind of composites used because of their huge size. tanks. A modern civil aircraft must be so designed as to meet the numerous criteria of power and safety. In surface transportation. bridge components and complete bridge systems. formed polymers & inorganic cement. It separated “faces” & resists any deformations perpendicular to face plane. Construction holds priority for the adaptation of composites in place of conventional materials being used like tanks. Typical “ face” materials include fiber reinforced plastics. Composite materials used in aircraft industry are generally reinforced fibers or filaments embedded in a resin matrix. Applications range from non-structural gratings and claddings to full structural systems for industrial supports.Applied Chemistry-Sem-II Dr. The “core” serves the following two structural properties: a. Commercial aircraft applications are the most important uses of composites. steel & Al alloys. Ti. make them the obvious choice for applications in surface transportation. aluminium and concrete in buildings. materials and processes. Polyester resin with suitable fillers and reinforcements were the first applications of composites in road transportation. resistance to fatigue and damage tolerance characteristics. steel. These layers are joined by an adhesive. unlike other vehicles. Typical “Core” materials include synthetic rubbers. aramid. b. ease in designing and production of functional parts. Payal Joshi its neighbors. Their stiffness and cost effectiveness offered. Provides certain degree of shear rigidity along planes which are perpendicular to the faces. They provide ample scope and receptiveness to design changes. The most common fibers are carbon. large signages etc. Popular core material: Honeycomb structure: Thin foils formed in to interlocking hexagonal cells with their axes oriented in perpendicular to face planes. with the 6 . Layered composites possess high strength in both directions of reinforcement. Components made of composite materials find extensive applications in shuttering supports. Aircraft. Composites have long been used in the construction industry. glass and their hybrid. The “faces” bear most of the in – plane loading as well as any transverse bending stresses. Sandwich panel consists of two strong outer sheets (faces) & an intervening layer of comparatively less dense “core” material. but their strength is comparatively low. need to lay greater stress on safety and weight. The strength-weight ratio is higher than other materials. bridge systems. corrosion resistance. long span roof structures. Applications of Composite Materials: Composites are one of the most widely used materials because of their adaptability to different situations and the relative ease of combination with other materials to serve specific purposes and exhibit desirable properties. apart from easy availability of raw materials. special architectural structures imparting aesthetic appearance. durability.

by fitting them with artificial supports. composite material has been identified as the new class of synthetic bio-materials. An important development has been the usage of carbon-fiber reinforced polymer-matrix for composite limb. Bamboo offers good potential for processing it into composites as a wood substitute. wood and aluminium and can be assembled locally. Prosthetics and Orthotics help people who acquire disability or were born with physical defects. Molecular hybrid materials formed from polyoxometalates dispersed in conducting polymers represent an innovative concept in energy storage. Most of the coach (exterior & interior) is made of composites & plastics.Applied Chemistry-Sem-II Dr. they are also being considered as an economic solution for new bridge structures. For mass transit systems. biologically and chemically stable with sufficient mechanical integrity and strength to withstand physiological loads. low maintenance. easy workability. wardrobes. It is made of rubber. Apart from these. Payal Joshi advantages like corrosion resistance. Usage of composites for damage repairing. partitions. Conducting polymer composites in energy storage applications: The electrochemical activity of the inorganic metal oxide cluster can be harness by integrating them with conducting organic polymer matrix to form a composite material. which is all set to bring in a revolution in mass transportation system was conceptualized by Konkan Railway that would run on overhead rails along the length and supported over vertical columns at regular intervals in the road median. seismic retrofitting and upgrading of concrete bridges finds increased adoption as a way to extend the service life of existing structures. Composite materials for microelectronics: Organically modified resins retain important roles in electrical component coatings such as resistors and molding compounds. Energy storage devices such as fuel cells and renewable energy devices. economical and comfortable to walk. fire retardancy etc. such as photovoltaic or dye sensitized solar cells. longer life. flooring etc. A unique idea in mass transit: the ‘Sky Bus’. 7 . Bamboo laminates could replace timber in many applications such as furniture. doors and windows and their frames. The classic example of prosthesis or artificial limb is the Jaipur foot. Materials used for such prosthetic aids must non-toxic. Bio-medical prosthetic devices are artificial replacements that are used in the human body to function as original parts. will need the support of efficient energy storage technologies. thus making it a highly attractive natural resource compared to forest hardwoods. lighter bodied coaches are instrumental for achieving higher speed. Rechargeable lithium batteries and electrochemical super capacitors are two of the most prominent alternatives in this respect. Composite materials are increasingly being used in the railway industry especially passenger coaches worldwide for excellent structural properties and improved aesthetics. FRP has been found quite suitable for repair and upgrading of concrete bridges as a way to extend the service life of existing structures. as well as spin-on dielectrics in microelectronic interlayer and multilayer dielectric and planarization applications. The foot is light in weight. cabinets. Bamboo is one of the fastest renewable plants with a maturity cycle of 3-4 years.

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