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Chapter 3, CFD Theory

Chapter 3, CFD Theory

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What is Computational Fluid Dynamics? Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is a computer-based tool for simulating the behavior of systems involving fluid flow, heat transfer, and other related physical processes. It works by solving the equations of fluid flow (in a special form) over a region of interest, with specified (known) conditions on the boundary of that region. Essentially there are three methods for determine the solution to flow problems viz. Experimental, Analytical and Numerical. The Analytical methods aim at getting a closed form solution in the entire domain assuming the process to follow continuum hypothesis. These are generally restricted to simple geometry, simple physics and generally linear problems. Once the problem becomes complex, the various assumptions that are needed to be made to obtain a closed form solution, entails loss of accuracy of the critical parameter of interest. This leads them to be used as a check on the accuracy of a numerical procedure but makes them mainly unsuitable for the analysis of real engineering problems but makes them mainly unsuitable for engineering analysis. However, they give the direction and general nature of the solution. Hence over the years, scientists and engineers have resorted to experimental techniques concentrating in the regions of interest. These experimental techniques have their inherent problems viz. that they are equipment oriented, and they need large resources of hardware, time and operating costs. Their applications are also limited due to scaling considerations. Further theses involve certain measurement difficulties and handling of large quantity of data. Numerical methods have emerged as a third method and have overcome the restrictions in both experimental and analytical methods. They involve the discretization of the governing mathematical equations in a way such that the numerical solutions can be obtained. This approach forms the core of Computational Fluid Dynamics, commonly known as CFD. The

popularity of CFD has been possible due to great developments in computing algorithms that have enabled fast Graphic User Interface that makes the interpretation and Visualization of the results easier. CFD methods have their own disadvantage in terms of specifications of proper boundary conditions, truncation errors, convergence problems, right choice of turbulence models and parameters, right choice of discretization method etc. This applications of CFD to practice problems need understanding of basic theory to overcome the above mentioned problems.



The below table 3.1 shows the advantages & disadvantages between different approaches Table 3.1 Comparison of Approaches Approach Advantages 1. Capable of being most Experimental Realistic Disadvantages 1.Equipment required 2. Scaling problems 3.Tunnel corrections 4.Measurement difficulties 5. Operating costs 1. Restricted to simple geometry and physics. 2. Restricted to linear Problems 1. No restriction to linearity 2. Complicated physics can Computational be treated 3. Time evolution of flow can be obtained 1. Truncation errors. 2. Boundary condition problems 3. Computer costs

1.Clean, general information, which is Theoretical usually in formula form.

3.3 COMPARISION OF COMPUTATIONAL AND EXPERIMENTAL METHODS Comparison between computational and experimental methods is shown in Table 3.2 Table 3.2 Comparison between Computational & Experimental Methods Area Computational methods 1. Software used for all flow types. 2. Turbulence rarely resolved except through use of simpler models. 3. Enable physical situations to be modeled where experiments would be unsafe. 4. Allows geometry variation to be achieved quickly. Experimental methods


1. Exact simulation if fullscale situation can be used. 2. Experimental situation also being a model of desired flow situation.


1. Depends on algorithms used. 2. Depends on mesh density.


1. All variables are calculated at every mesh point or cell. 2. Variables can be integrated to find overall properties. 1. Solutions can take long time to iterate. This depends on the problems being solved and the speed of computer being used. 1. Requires relatively cheap hardware but expensive software. 2. Time and care is needed to get good results. 3. Specialists are required to achieve good results.

1. Should be correct within the limits of experimental errors, if geometry and scale effects are realistic and equipment is appropriately designed and calibrated. 1. Easy to find overall properties such as pressure drop, forces and moments 2. Difficulty and expensive to instrument so that anything more than a crude sample of the data is produced. 1. Time needed for setup and calibration. Results are usually quick to gather once this is done. 1. Instrumentation is expensive in many cases. 2. Raw experiment is cheap to carry out but data achieved is limited.



Consequently CFD was a tool used almost exclusively in research. The . or specific classes of problem. which enable robust solution of the flow field in a reasonable time. Computational Fluid Dynamics is now an established industrial design tool. together with powerful graphics and interactive 3-D manipulation of models mean that the process of creating a CFD model and analyzing the results is much less labour-intensive. There are a number of different solution methods which are used in CFD codes. the region of interest is divided into small sub-regions. heat and mass transfer are known as the Navier-Stokes equations. From the mid-1970’s the complex mathematics required to generalize the algorithms began to be understood. Often. can also be solved in conjunction with the Navier-Stokes equations. and the one on which CFX is based. Numerous programs have been written to solve either specific problems. These began to appear in the early 1980’s and required what were then very powerful computers. reducing the time and therefore the cost.3. as well as an in-depth knowledge of fluid dynamics. These are partial differential equations which were derived in the early nineteenth century.4 THE HISTORY OF CFD Computers have been used to solve fluid flow problems for many years. called control volumes. The most common. Recent advances in computing power. helping to reduce design timescales and improve processes throughout the engineering world. Advanced solvers contain algorithms. and large amounts of time to set up simulations. offering obvious advantages. turbulence models being a particularly important example. such as combustion. They have no known general analytical solution but can be discretised and solved numerically. an approximating model is used to derive these additional equations. and general-purpose CFD solvers were developed. CFD provides a cost-effective and accurate alternative to scale model testing. As a result of these factors. Equations describing other processes. with variations on the simulation being performed quickly. is known as the finite volume technique. 3. In this technique.5 THE MATHEMATICS OF CFD The set of equations which describe the processes of momentum.

1 explains the optimization problemit is recognized that experiments remain essential during the final design stages. In this way. CFD based modeling however has many advantages during preliminary design. The block diagram in Fig no: 3. because it is less timeconsuming than experiments and because it allows greater flexibility.1. Any kind of CFD computation requires the specification of inlet and boundary . one derives a full picture of the behavior of the flow 3. including reaction Engineering. For example. The design optimization flowchart. CFD is a method that is becoming more and more popular in the modeling of flow systems in many fields. At present. in order to shorten product development time.equations are discretised and solved iteratively for each control volume. there is a strong tendency to perform design using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tools instead of experiments. the pressure drop through a component may be considered excessive. 3. As a result. Early experience with CFD based modeling has shown that these computational tools should be used carefully.6 CFD METHODOLOGY CFD may be used to determine the performance of a component at the design stage or it can be used to analyse difficulties with an existing component and lead to its improved design. an approximation of the value of each variable at specific points throughout the domain can be obtained.7 THE DESIGN OPTIMIZATION PROBLEM Objective Design CFD Solver Parameter s Constraint s Response Parameter s Constraint s Figure 3.

The equation that results from applying the conservation of mass to a fluid is called the continuity equation. 3. The end product is a collection of numbers. In CFD the physical aspects of any fluid flow is governed by three principles. In addition to the equations developed from these universal laws.8 GOVERNING EQUATIONS OF CFD CFD is playing a strong role as a design tool as well as a research tool. Conservation of momentum is based on application of Newton's Second Law to a fluid element. The conservation of Energy is based on the application of First Law of Thermodynamics to a fluid element. it is necessary to establish relationships between fluid properties in order to close the system of equations. In CFD approach. These equations and their derivatives are replaced in CFD by discretised algebraic forms. The specification of inlet and boundary conditions requires appropriate measurements or available data onsite. Conservation of energy These fundamental physical principles can be expressed in terms of basic mathematical equations. which yields a vector equation. Conservation of momentum 3. Numerical methods have evolved especially FDM. Conservation of mass 2. Obviously these conditions determine the flow and temperature field resulting from the CFD computation. These equations are generally in integral or partial differential form. An example of . in contrast to closed-form analytical solution. FVM algorithms for solving ordinary and partial differential equations. The fundamental equations of fluid mechanics are based on the following Universal laws of conservation: 1. the equations that govern a process of interest are solved numerically. which are in turn solved to get flow field values at discrete points in space and/or time. which is also called Navier-Stokes Equation.conditions.

A viscous flow is one where transport phenomenon of friction. These are mathematical statements of three fundamental physical principles upon which fluid dynamics is based shown as flow chart in fig 3. The required constants of proportionality between stress and rate of strain and heat flux and Temperature gradient (which are called Transport Coefficients) must be determined experimentally. the fluid dynamic equations are obtained with the transport coefficients defined in terms of certain integral relations. phenomenological approach and kinetic theory approach. and the fluid dynamic equations are then developed from the conservation laws.such a relationship is the equation of state. Historically there have been two different approaches taken to derive the equations of fluid mechanics viz. For this type of viscous flow modeling the “Navier-stokes” equations are applied. These transport phenomena are dissipative. Fundamental physical principles Mass is conserved . density ρ.2. which involves dynamics of colliding particles. In the kinetic theory approach also known as the mathematical theory of non-uniform gases. heat flux and temperature gradient are postulated. which relates the thermodynamic variables pressure p. and Temperature T. thermal conduction and/ or mass diffusion is included. So they always increase the entropy of the flow. the flow is called “inviscid flow” and for this “Euler” equations are applied. In the phenomenological approach certain relationship between stress and rate of strain.. If these phenomena are neglected.

Newton’s second law Energy is conserved Models of flow Fixed finite control Moving finite Fixed infinitesimall y small volume Moving infinitesimally Governing equations of fluid flow Continuit y equation Moment um equation Energy equation Forms of these equations particularly suited forCFD Figure 3.9 CONTINUITY EQUATION The basic continuity equation of fluid flow is as follows: .2 Block diagram of physical and mathematical basis 3.

In the alternative Lagrangian approach. In this approach. the continuity equation becomes ∂ρ ∂ ( ρu ) + ∂ ( ρv ) + ∂ ( ρw) = 0 + ∂t ∂x ∂y ∂z …. a fixed control volume is defined and the changes in the fluid are recorded as the fluid passes through the control volume.3. Eulerian approach is more commonly used in fluid mechanics. an observer moving with the fluid element records the changes in the properties of the fluid element. (ρV)=0 ….2 A flow in which the density of fluid assumed to remain constant is called Incompressible flow. fixed control volume yields the following momentum equation: .Net flow out of control volume = time rate of decrease of mass inside control volume The continuity equation in partial differential equation form is given by. The continuity equation reduces to ∂u ∂v ∂w + + =0 ∂x ∂y ∂z …. w represent the x. z components of the velocity vector.3. (ρV)=the rate of mass flux passing out of control volume. 10 MOMENTUM EQUATION Newton's Second Law applied to a fluid passing through an infinitesimal. ∇. For Incompressible flow. y. which surrounds the control volume. This equation is based on Eulerian approach. The first term in this equation represents the rate of increase of density in the control volume and the second term represents the rate of mass flux passing out of the control surface. For a Cartesian coordinate system. where u.3.3 3. δρ/δt +∇. ρ =Constant.1 ρ = Fluid density δρ/δt = the rate of increase of density in the control volume. v.

11 ENERGY EQUATION . π ij π ij → → represents the body force per unit volume. i. If the flow is considered as incompressible and the coefficient of viscosity is assumed constant the equation becomes. 3. While solving the equation.ρ VV = ρ f +∇ . ρ DV = ρf −∇ p +µ ∇2V Dt …..5 This equation is good approximation for incompressible flow of a gas.e. the fluid is considered as Newtonian fluid.3.∂ (ρ v ) +∇ . represents the rate of momentum lost by convection through the control volume surface.4 Where. stress is directly proportional to the rate of strain. δ/δt(ρν) ∇ρ V → → represents rate of increase of momentum per unit volume. represents the surface force per unit volume and → stress tensor. τij ∂ t ….3. ρf ∇.

q + φ Dt Dt δt ….V + ∇. Represents the work done on the control volume by the body forces Represents the work done on the control volume by the surface forces. In terms of enthalpy.3. ….EtV = − ∇. increase in energy in the system is equal to the heat added to the system plus the work done on the system. is known as dissipation function and represents the rate at which mechanical energy is expended in the process of deformation of the fluid due to viscosity. .7 Where. Rate of change of energy inside the fluid element = Rate of work done on element due to body and surface forces Net flux of heat in to element + δEt δQ = ∇.The first law of Thermodynamics applied to a fluid passing through an infinitesimal fixed control volume yields the energy equation i.V ) δt δt Where.6 Represents the rate of increase of Et in the control volume Represents the rate of the total energy lost by convection (per unit volume) through the control surface Represents the rate of heat produced by external agencies Represents the rate of heat lost by conduction per unit volume through the control surface.(πij .e. the final form of Energy equation is ρ Dh DP δQ = + − ∇.3.q + ρf .

the mesh are designed to fill a large scale geometry. have been known for over a century. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is the science of determining a numerical solution to the governing equations of fluid flow whilst advancing the solution through space or time to obtain a numerical description of the complete flow field of interest. These equations are modified per case to solve a specific problem. 3.1 FLUID FLOW FUNDAMENTALS The Physical aspects of any fluid flow are governed by three fundamental principles: Mass is conserved. Too fine meshes will unnecessarily increasing iteration time. the unsteady Navier-Stokes equations. The density of these elements in the overall geometry is determined by the user and affects the final solution. The balances. are based on the Navier Stokes Equations for conservation of mass (continuity) and momentum. described in a CAD file. dealing with fluid flow.3. The control volumes (or) elements.12THEORY Solutions in CFD are obtained by numerically solving a number of balances over a large number of control volumes or elements. The numerical solution is obtained by supplying boundary conditions to the model boundaries and iteration of an initially guessed solution.12. which in their most general form are usually non-linear partial differential equations. After boundary conditions are set on the large scale geometry the CFD code will iterate the entire mesh using the balances and the boundary conditions to find a converging numerical solution for the specific case. momentum and Energy is conserved. possibly obscuring essential flow characteristics. However. the analytical investigation of reduced forms of these equations is still an active area of research as is the problem of turbulent closure for the . These fundamental principles can be expressed in terms of mathematical equations. The governing equations for Newtonian fluid dynamics. Too coarse a mesh will result in an over simplified flow profile.

This situation has led to an increasing interest in the development of a numerical wind tunnel. as a piece of experimental equipment. Experimental fluid dynamics has played an important role in validating and delineating the limits of the various approximations to the governing equations. In the governing equations define the variables in the discrete form. Traditionally this has provided a cost effective alternative to full scale measurement.13 THE STRATEGY OF CFD The strategy of CFD is to replace the continuous domain with a discrete domain using a grid. Coupled algebraic equations in Discrete variables In a CFD solution. In the continuous domain. x2…Xn x=0 x=1 x1 xi xN Grid point Coupled PDEs + boundary Conditions in continuous variables. one would directly solve for the relevant flow variables only at grid points. chemically reacting flows and multiphase flows theoretical developments are at a less advanced stage. The discrete system is a large set .Reynolds averaged form of the equations. The wind tunnel. The values at other locations are determined by interpolating the values at the grid points. full scale measurement as part of the design process is economically impractical. for example. Continuous Domain 0≤x≤1 Discrete Domain x = x1. However. In the discrete domain. For non-Newtonian fluid dynamics. in the design of equipment that depends critically on the flow behavior. each flow variable is defined at every point in the domain. 3. each flow variable is defined only at grid points. for example the aerodynamic design of an aircraft. So in the discrete domain. provides an effective means of simulating real flows. the variable would be defined only at N grid points.

. The unsteady Navier-Stokes equations are generally considered to govern turbulent flows in the continuum regime. even LES is beyond present day computing power. in which large-scale structure of the turbulent flow is computed directly and only the effects of smallest and more nearly isotropic eddies are modeled. The computation needs to be 3-D even if the time-mean aspects of the flow are 2-D. Now these are replaced by approximated modeling methods used as the primary design procedure for engineering applications. A turbulent boundary layer can normally negotiate a more extensive region of unfavourable pressure gradient prior to separation than can a boundary layer.15 MODELLING TURBULENT FLOWS The method to solve turbulent flows by direct numerical simulation (DNS) requires that all relevant length scales be resolved from the smallest eddies to scales on the order of the physical domain of the problem domain. and the time steps must be small enough that the small-scale motion can be resolved in a time accurate manner even if the flow is steady in a time-mean sense. The diffusion rate of a scalar quantity is usually greater in a turbulent flow rather than laminar flow. This idea can be applied to any general problem. Another approach is large-eddy simulation (LES). The computational effort required for LES is less than DNS. and turbulent flows are usually noiser. The grid models required for LES is an order of magnitude less than DNS and for practical engineering problems. 3. 3.14 TURBULENT FLOW Turbulent fluid motion is an irregular condition of flow in which the various quantities show a random variation with time and space coordinates so statistically distinct average values can be discerned.of coupling algebraic equations in the discrete variables. The differences between laminar and turbulence flow: higher values of friction drag and pressure drop are associated with turbulent flow. Setting up the discrete system and solving it involves a very large number of repetitive calculations.

Two types of averaging is presently used. turbulence quantities. electric charge etc.16 THE GENERAL DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION A generalized conservation principle is obeyed by all the independent variables of interest. so the basic balance or conservation equation is (Outflow from cell) – (inflow into the cell) = (net source within the cell. The terms appearing in the balance equation are convection. the two formulations become identical. the general differential equation or the general purpose CFD equation is given as . 3. which can be interpreted as "apparent" stress gradients and heat flux quantities associated with the turbulent motion.The main thrust of present day CFD for turbulent flow is through the Time/mass (Favre) averaged Navier-Stokes equations In computational fluid mechanics and heat transfer in turbulent flow is through the time averaged “Navier-stokes” equations. This process introduces further assumptions and approximations. momentum. These equations are also referred as Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations (RANS). since additional assumptions must be made to close the system of equations. mass of a chemical species. the classical Reynolds averaging and the mass-weighted averaging suggested by Favre. If the dependent variable is denoted by φ. These new quantities must be related to the mean flow variables through turbulence models. For flows in which density fluctuations can be neglected. The Reynolds equations are derived by decomposing the dependent variables in the conservation equations into time-mean and fluctuating components and then time averaging the entire equation. Thus this method on the turbulent flow problem through solving the Reynolds equations of motion does not follow entirely from first principles. energy. time variation and source terms. diffusion. Time averaging the equations of motion gives rise to new terms.) The quantities being balanced are the dependent variables like mass of a phase.

…. £ =Dependent variable. u. v. .3. h. J) Grad =gradient (Vφ) 3. following Reynolds. z =independent variable Γ=Exchange coefficient β=Scalars S =source terms = Boundary conditions sources Div =divergence (V. w.3. x. but small with respect to the time constant for any slow variations in the flow field associated ordinary unsteady flows. y. we define a time averaged quantity f as …. k. (φ) t.17 REYNOLDS AVERAGED NAVIER-STOKES EOUATION In the conventional averaging procedure.8 Where.9 We require that ∆t be large compared to the period of the random fluctuations associated with the turbulence. p.

By definition. thermal conductivity.. f' 0 .3.In the conventional Reynolds decomposition. For Cartesian coordinate system. not equal to zero. and specific heat are usually small and will be neglected here. where f' = 0. . the randomly changing flow variables are replaced by time averages plus fluctuations about the average. the time average of the product of two fluctuating quantities is.e. f. i. the average of a fluctuating quantity is zero …. the root mean square of the velocity fluctuations is known as the turbulence intensity.11 It should also be clear that.3. we may write Fluctuations in other fluid properties such as viscosity. the following relations hold: ….10 It should be clear from these definitions that for symbolic flow variable f and g. in general.In fact.

.3. mass-weighed averaging is convenient. …. v. we define new fluctuating quantities by ….For treatment of compressible flows and mixtures of gases in particular. in general. In this approach we define mass-averaged variables according to f.) are not equal to zero.3. ….12 We note that only the velocity components and thermal variables are mass averaged. To substitute into conservation equations. In fact. etc. unless p'=0. Fluid properties such as density and pressure are treated as before.3. the time average of the doubly primed fluctuation multiplied by the density is equal to zero.13 It is very important to note that the time averages of the doubly primed fluctuating quantities (u.14 Instead. it can be shown that.

3.3.15 For compressible flow the continuity equation becomes ….17 For compressible flows the momentum equation becomes ….3.3.18 If we compare the original N-S equations with dependent variables based on instantaneous velocities with Reynolds average N-S (RANS) equations with dependent variable based on time averaged/mass averaged velocities we find an additional term namely. .18 REYNOLDS FORM OF CONTINUITY EQUATION Reynolds form of the average equations of continuity for incompressible flow is as follows.16 Reynolds form of the momentum equation for incompressible flow is ….3. ….

3.19 K-EPSILON MODEL Boussinesq suggested that the apparent turbulent shearing stresses might be related to the rate of mean strain through an apparent scalar turbulent or "eddy" viscosity. k is is the kinetic energy of turbulence given by. Similar correlation functions for turbulent heat flux will correspond to the averaged energy equation.21 Where VΤ and l are characteristic velocity and length scale of turbulence respectively.19 Where the turbulent viscosity. 3.3. For the general Reynolds stress tensor the Boussinesq assumption gives …. These Reynolds stresses and other correlation functions need to be modeled for closure of the RANS.20 By analogy with kinetic theory. Modeling these is the subject of turbulence. The problem is to find suitable means of evaluating them.3. by which molecular (laminar) viscosity for gases be evaluated with reasonable accuracy. . ….These apparent stress gradients due to transport of momentum by turbulent fluctuations are called Reynolds stresses. we might expect that the turbulent viscosity can be modeled as ….

There are other models. In the above equation. The length scale is prescribed by an algebraic formulation. and y is the coordinate transverse to the primary flow direction. somewhat on the order of a mean free path for the collision or mixing of globules of fluid.Algebraic turbulence models invariably utilize Boussinesq assumption. The most common turbulence model generally used is the two-equation turbulence model or k-Є model.22 Where a mixing length can be thought of as a transverse distance over which particles maintain their original momentum.3. ….E in Flow) . The product can be interpreted as the characteristic velocity of turbulence. The most commonly used variable for obtaining the length scale is dissipation rate of turbulent kinetic energy denoted by E. VΤ. In these models the length scale is also obtained from solving a partial differential equation. Generally the turbulent kinetic energy is expressed as turbulent intensity σ as defined below. There are so many variants of this model. which use one partial differential equation for the transport of turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) from which velocity scales are obtained. One of the most successful of this type of model was suggested by Prandtl and is known as "mixing length hypothesis".23 K= (Actual K. …3.E in Flow) – (mean K. u is the component of velocity in the primary flow direction.

This analysis phase is referred . we have to solve in addition to continuity. temperatures.20 TURBULENCE MODELING Special attention needs to be paid to accurate modeling of turbulence. reaction. which are functions of time and position. The turbulence model chosen should be best suited to the particular flow problem. It is understood that these models are not used when modeling laminar flows. and comparison with experimental or plant data. A wide range of models is available. reaction rates.24. and volume fractions of the various phases. The objective is to represent the Reynolds stresses as realistically as possible. and multiphase calculations will be a detailed map of the local liquid velocities. and type of model that is chosen must be done so with care. These Reynolds stresses govern the transport of momentum due to turbulence and are described by additional terms in the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations. contribute a mean momentum flux or Reynolds stress for which analytical solutions are nonexistent. …. The final result of the flow. heat transfer. momentum and energy equations. two equations for transport of TKE and its dissipation rate.…3. The purpose of a turbulence model is to provide numerical values for the Reynolds stresses at each point in the flow. while maintaining a low level of complexity. The presence of turbulent fluctuations.3. These outcomes can be analyzed in detail using graphical visualization.27 3. chemical reactant concentrations.26 Thus for any turbulent flow problem.3. turbulence. 3. calculation of overall parameters and integral volume or surface averages.25 The transport PDE used in standard k-ε model is as follows ….

The nature of the resulting algebraic system depends upon the character of the problem posed the original PDE. it is now much easier for CFD analysts to create animations of their data. y. Because of improvements in computer power and enhanced graphics software. Finite control volume method. Thus a problem involving differential calculus has been transformed into algebraic problem. Marchingproblems result in algebraic equations that usually solved one at a time. so that the dependent variables are considered to exist only at discrete points. The discretization (numerical simulation) techniques used in CFD are shown in Fig 3. These are known as parabolic or hyperbolic problems. 1. These are mathematically known as elliptic problems. 3.to as post processing. These often help in understanding complex flow phenomena that are sometimes difficult to see from static plots.3 . Equilibrium problems usually result in a system of algebraic equations that must be solved simultaneously throughout the domain in conjunction with specified boundary values. resulting in algebraic representation of the PDE.21 DISCRETIZATION OF GOVERNING EOUATIONS The above governing partial differential equations are continuous functions of x. Finite element method. In the finite difference approach. 2. Finite difference method. Three methods are generally used for discretization. Derivatives are approximated by differences. the continuous problem domain "discretised". z. 3.

3.Discretization techniques Finite differenc Finite volume Finite element Basic derivations of finite differences: Basic derivations of finite-volume equations Finite-difference equations: truncation errors Types of solutions: explicit and Stability analysis Figure 3. Block Diagram of Numerical Solution Techniques in CFD .

v or t). Discrete values of fluid velocities.g. S.21.1DISCRETIZATION To solve the non-linear partial differential equations from the previous section.4. w) in Fig. To obtain a matrix of algebraic equations.∑ AC Фc = C …3. W. A complex process of formal integration of the differential equations over the control volume. e. a pressure difference).3. are stored at each grid point (the intersection of two grid lines). and B and C are. Ф is a general symbol for the quantity being solved for (u. E and W. see Fig. respectively. pressure and temperature. e. S. 3. the implicit and explicit source terms (and generally represent the force(s) which drive the flow. A and Ф refers to a summation over neighbor nodes N. N n W w s e P E S δx δy . E. followed by interpolation schemes to determine flow quantities at the control volume boundaries (n. finally yield a set of algebraic equations for each grid point P: (AP – B) Фp . a control volume is constructed (shaded area in the figure) whose boundaries (shown by dashed lines) lie midway between grid points P and its neighbors N. are the combined convection-diffusion coefficients (obtained from integration and interpolation). etc. 3. it is necessary to impose a grid on the flow domain of interest. properties. s.28 where the subscript c on ∑. AP.4.

Fig 3. the integral form of the continuity equation for steady. cells are usually hexahedral.v2) Y ∆x X Fig 3. tetrahedral. the integral form of the conservation equations are applied to the control volume defined by a cell to get the discrete equations for the cell. In 2D. one could also have triangular cells. n → ∧ dS = 0 …3. incompressible flow is ∫ S V . Consider the rectangular cell shown below in fig 3. v1) face 3 (u3.29 ∧ The integration is over the surface S of the control volume and n is the outward normal at the surface.21.5 Rectangular Cell . quadrilateral/triangle is commonly referred to as a “cell” and a grid point as a “node”. In 3D.4 Control Volume on Grid Point 3. In the finite-volume approach. Physically.2 DISCRETIZATION USING FINITE-VOLUME METHOD In the finite-volume method. or prisms.v4) face 1 ∆y (u1.5 face 4 (u4. this equation means that the net volume flow into the control volume is zero. v3) Cell center face 2 (u2. For example.

Integral forms of governing equations are discretised in space.e.21.3 SALIENT FEATURES OF FINITE VOLUME METHOD 1. …3. 3.Diffusive and convective flux Q. Basic qualities such as mass. It is equivalent to summing up the net mass flow into the control volume and setting it to zero. 2.Volumetric source of U .The velocity at face i is taken to be V i = ui i + vi → ∧ ∧ j . momentum etc.Surface enveloping Ω U. are obtained by suitably interpolating the cellcenter values for adjacent cells. that mass is conserved for the cell. etc. Conservative discretization.v2 ∆ y +v4 ∆ x + u3 ∆ x =0 -u1 ∆ …3. The face values u1.29) to the control volume defined by the cell gives y . Similarly. Usually the values at the cell centers are stored.30 This is the discrete form of the continuity equation for the cell. Applying the mass conservation equation (3.d S = ∫ QdΩ ∫ ∂t Ω S Ω Ω. So it ensures that the net mass flow into the cell is zero i. Can be used on arbitrary mesh.Control volume S. Flexible and fundamentally conservative for complicated geometry. one can obtain discrete equations for the conservation of momentum and energy for the cell. 3. v2. Definition of control volume arbitrary.31 ∂ UdΩ + ∫ F . 6. are conserved at discrete level. 5. 4. One can readily extend these ideas to any general cell shape in 2D or 3D and any conservation equation.Conserved scalar F.

one wants to focus attention on a few essential parameters and eliminates all irrelevant features. With the ability to reuse information generated in other stages of the design. For this reason. Ability to simulate realistic conditions: In a theoretical calculation.It can provide the values of all relevant variables (such as velocity. 0 Speed: A computational investigation can be performed with remarkable speed. realistic conditions can be easily simulated.22 BENEFITS OF CARRYING OUT CFD ANALYSIS Low cost: The most important advantage of computational prediction is its low cost. turbulence intensity) throughout the domain of interest. Ability to simulate ideal conditions: A prediction method is sometimes used to study a basic phenomenon. there is little difficulty in having very large or very small dimensions. Complete information: A computer solution of problem gives detailed and complete information . rather than a complex engineering application. in handling toxic or flammable substances. or in following very fast or very slow processes. a corresponding experimental investigation would take a long time. Further whereas the prices of most items are increasing. Thus . even when an experiment is performed. On the other hand. Through a computer program. This can reduce or even eliminate the need for expensive or large-scale physical test facilities. rapid evaluation of design alternatives can be made. temperature. This provides a better understanding of the flow phenomenon and the product performance because knowledge of such values is not restricted to those areas that can be instruments during testing. computing cost is likely to be even lower in the future. There is no need to resort to small scale or cold models. In most applications. A designer can study the implication of hundreds of different configurations in less than a day and choose the optimum design. in treating very low or very high temperature. pressure. there is great value in obtaining a companion computer solution to supplement the experimental information. In the study of phenomenon. This factor assumes increasing importance as the physical situation to be studied becomes larger and more complicated. the cost of a computer run is many orders of magnitude lower than the cost of a corresponding experimentation investigation. concentration.3.

 Meteorologists and oceanographers to foretell wind and water currents. two dimensionality. reduce or eliminate the cost of problem solving during installations. Hydrologists and others concerned with ground water to forecast the effects of changes to ground-surface cover. Heat  Aerodynamic design of transportation vehicles likes cars. motors. constant density. such conditions can be easily and exactly setup. Gas and Hydro turbines. In a computation. Pulverizes. NOx Metropolitan authorities can determine where pollutant-emitting industrial plant may be estimation.  safely located. etc. This can often provide confidence in operation. Turbo machinery viz. or infinite reaction rate.   Fluid flow in electric equipment like computers.  Exchangers. 3. an adiabatic surface.  Petroleum engineers to design optimum oil-recovery strategies and the equipment for Automobile and engine applications: To improve performance means environmental putting them into practice. Transformers etc. Boilers. CFD has become a powerful influence on the way fluid dynamicists and aero dynamicists. whereas even careful experimental can barely approximate the idealization. and under what conditions motor vehicle access must be restricted so as to preserve air quality. Fluid flow pattern and conditions in common engineering equipment like. aircraft. Reduction of failure risks: CFD can also be used to investigate configurations that may be too large to test or which pose a significant safety risk. Ducts.  quality. . or the internal flow through the internal combustion engines. Steam. including pollutant spread nuclear accident scenarios. Stirred reactors.many idealizations are desirable for example. Heat transfer equipment including reactions and radiative modeling like burners. It is study of the external flow over the body of a vehicle. fuel economy of modern trucks and cars. reduce product liability risks.23 APPLICATIONS OF CFD The major applications of CFD are in the following fields of engineering to simulate Various parameters. control panels etc. of the creation of dams and aqueducts on the quantity and quality of water supplies. Cooling of Generators.

It uses the finite-volume method to solve the governing equations for a fluid. Another example is the manufacture of ceramic materials. GAMBIT is a software package designed to help analysts and designers build and mesh models for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and other scientific applications. Geometry and grid generation is done using GAMBIT which is the preprocessor bundled with FLUENT. Another example is fluid burning in furnaces. enabling solutions for a broad array of fluid flow and heat transfer phenomenon. yet it is versatile enough to accommodate a wide range of modeling applications.  Civil engineering applications: Problems involving the theology of rivers. GAMBIT receives user input by means of its graphical user interface (GUI).24 OVERVIEW OF FLUENT There are many CFD packages in the market now. Example is filling of mud from an underwater mud capture reservoir. It provides the capability to use different physical models such as incompressible or compressible. laminar or turbulent. FLUENT. . is the world's largest computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software provider. Inc. FLUENT is most widely used and this package has been used in this project for the simulation. The liquid flow field is calculated as a function of time.  Environmental engineering applications: The discipline of heating. It also provides tools for checking the quality of the mesh. inviscid or viscous. air conditioning and general air circulation through buildings. Industrial manufacturing applications: A mold being filled with liquid modular cast iron.  Bio-medical Engineering applications: Used to analyze the blood flow through grafted blood vessels 3. etc. meshing. and assigning zone types to a model simple and intuitive. lakes etc are also subject of investigations using CFD. The GAMBIT GUI makes the basic steps of building.

The user simply tells the program how many calculations to perform and activates the solver. Step 2 – Grid Generation: This step is used to specify the geometry of the system. In each of the following steps. true dynamics memory allocation. such as density and viscosity are very important to the CFD simulation. including FLUENT. From combustion to plastic extrusion. Each simulation using CFD. Step 1 – Preliminary Inputs During this step the user allocates memory for the CFD simulation and prepare them to be entered into the CFD software. It is also during this step that the user sets the boundary conditions. FLUENT uses client/server architecture. Step 4 – Solve This step many times proves to be the easiest for the user. consists of five basic. FLUENT provides the physics and numeric needed to get accurate answers and stable calculations. Both are key in understanding the flow results. which control the execution of the code and post processing of the results. At this point it is also helpful to gather the inputs needed for the rest of the simulation . FLUENT provides output in both visual and numerical form. but important steps. such as radius of a pipe that is to be modeled. lower risk and faster time to the market place for your product or process. as well at the mass flow rate. These steps are described below. Step 5 – Post Processing The final step consists of the analysis of the results as well as interpretation. In that is going to be performed. Step 3 – Flow Parameters The fluid characteristics. It is during this step that these two parameters. efficient data structures and flexible solver control are all made possible in addition. Consequently. FLUENT’s CFD solvers provide a wide range of physical models and numerical techniques. from supersonic airfoils to fluidized beds.FLUENT is written in the C language and makes full use of the flexibility and power offered by the language. The benefits of using FLUENT and CFD are better designs. will be set. the user has to specify the input parameters.

if used correctly. It is of the utmost importance that care be taken while entering the input in each ofthese steps to ensure quality results. these five basic steps are followed.every CFD simulation whether simple or complex. . CFD. is as very useful and powerful tool.

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