Although harmful in excessive amounts, the synthesis of steroids depends on: a. insulin. ***** b. cholesterol. c. heavy metals. d. ethanol.

correct: b -------------------------------------------------------------------------------2 Two major classes of sex hormones are: a. luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone. b. dopamine and serotonin. ***** c. androgens and estrogens. d. steroids and thyroid hormones. correct: c -------------------------------------------------------------------------------3 Wolffian ducts are found in: a. genetic male fetuses only. b. female and male fetuses until shortly before birth. c. genetic female fetuses only. ***** d. female and male fetuses early in development. correct: d -------------------------------------------------------------------------------4 What would cause a young mammal's external genitals to have an appearance intermediate between a male and a female? ***** a. More testosterone than other females in a genetic female. b. Extra estrogen production in a genetic male. c. Normal levels of estrogen in a genetic female. d. High levels of both testosterone and estrogen in a genetic male. correct: a -------------------------------------------------------------------------------5 The overall mechanism of early sexual differentiation has been described by saying that nature's "default setting" is to make every mammal: a. intermediate between male and female. ***** b. female. c. fully both male and female. d. male. correct: b -------------------------------------------------------------------------------6 The sexually dimorphic nucleus is located in the: a. thalamus. b. Wolffian ducts. ***** c. anterior hypothalamus. d. male brain, only. correct: c -------------------------------------------------------------------------------7 The estradiol normally found in the bloodstream of a female rat fetus neither masculinizes nor feminizes its development because it: a. is chemically converted to testosterone. ***** b. is prevented from entering the developing cells. c. would have no effect on cells even if it did enter them. d. is chemically unstable at the body temperature of a fetus. correct: b

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------8 By blocking dopamine release, some antidepressant drugs that increase serotonin levels also: ***** a. decrease sexual activity. b. cause permanent organizational defects. c. increase sexual activity. d. shrink the SDN. correct: a -------------------------------------------------------------------------------9 Sildenafil (Viagra) works by: a. increasing sensitivity to female's pheromones. b. decreasing dopamine release in the hypothalamus. c. blocking pain receptors in the spinal cord. ***** d. increasing release of nitric oxide in the hypothalamus and penis. correct: d -------------------------------------------------------------------------------10 In women, which hormone stimulates the growth of a follicle in the ovary? ***** a. FSH b. prolactin c. TSH d. ACTH correct: a -------------------------------------------------------------------------------11 Pregnant women often experience nausea because of the heightened activity of the ________ receptor. ***** a. serotonin 3 b. progesterone c. estradiol d. dopamine 2 correct: a -------------------------------------------------------------------------------12 At what point in the menstrual cycle, if any, are women who are not on birth-control pills most likely to initiate sexual activity? a. Just before the next menstrual period. b. At any point in the menstrual cycle. c. Just after the end of menstruation. ***** d. About midway between two menstrual periods. correct: d -------------------------------------------------------------------------------13 Many female mammals become very attentive after delivering their babies largely because of a sudden: a. decrease of prolactin and increase of oxytocin. ***** b. surge of prolactin and oxytocin. c. drop in testosterone levels. d. increase of prolactin and decrease of oxytocin. correct: b -------------------------------------------------------------------------------14 Which of the following tends to be more important for women than men in choosing a mate? a. physical attractiveness b. intelligence c. health ***** d. earning potential correct: d

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------15 Excessive androgen secretion from the adrenal gland is known as: ***** a. congenital adrenal hyperplasia. b. androgen insensitivity syndrome. c. testicular feminization syndrome. d. hermaphroditism. correct: a -------------------------------------------------------------------------------16 A hermaphrodite is an individual: a. with too much testosterone. b. who dresses and lives as the opposite sex. c. with no sex drive. ***** d. whose genitals do not match the usual development for their genetic sex. correct: d -------------------------------------------------------------------------------17 In the Dominican Republic, certain genetic males who were regarded in early childhood as girls have developed into boys at puberty. What happened to their gender identity? a. Most developed a confused gender identity. b. Most retained a clear female gender identity. ***** c. Most adopted a clear male gender identity. d. About half developed a clear male identity; the other half developed a clear female identity. correct: c -------------------------------------------------------------------------------18 Sexual orientation has been linked to all of the following EXCEPT: a. prenatal stress. b. the mother's immune system. ***** c. adult hormone levels. d. genetics. correct: c -------------------------------------------------------------------------------19 Most homosexual men, as compared to heterosexual men, have: a. higher levels of testosterone. b. lower levels of testosterone. ***** c. testosterone levels within the same range. d. higher levels of estrogen. correct: c -------------------------------------------------------------------------------20 What has been found in studies that relate male homosexuality in humans to prenatal stressors? ***** a. The findings are inconclusive. b. There has been no evidence linking prenatal stress to homosexuality in men. c. Stress during delivery is weakly related to homosexuality in men. d. Prenatal stress is consistently related to homosexuality in men. correct: a