WARGAMING RULES FOR THE PRE-FIREARM ERA
By Nicolas Protonotarios
Edited by Paul Ashton Front Cover Artwork: George Hatzopoulos This edition 3 November 2003
I wish to dedicate this rule set to the professional figure painters of Greece: Andreas Panagopoulos, Antonis Lyberopoulos, George Hatzopoulos and George Pistov, without whose excellent work wargaming in Greece would have been much poorer to look at and much slower to grow. I also wish to thank Dimitris Nikolaou, Miltos Yourgis,Antiohos Barzoukas, George Hatzopoulos, Panagiotis Binaris, Vangelis Tsaras, Nikos Raphaelides, Christos Sourlis and last-but-not-least, Steve Higgins, wargamers who gave their precious time and attention in order for HOPLON to be play tested and improved. They form only a tiny minority of the wargamers at home, but in understanding and courage are head and shoulders above the rest.
UK Edition published by Amazon Miniatures 200 Monton Road, Monton, Eccles, Manchester, M30 9PY, England www.amazonminiatures.com
Website: http://www.geocities.com/hoplongr/ Hoplon Discussion Group: http://groups.yahoo.com/group/AMS_Hoplon
TABLE OF CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION............................................................................................................. 1 1. GROUNDWORK .........................................................................................................2 2. BASIC RULE FEATURES...............................................................................................2 3. ARMY STRUCTURE- COST ..........................................................................................3
3.1. Army Structure ..............................................................................................................................................3 3.2. Cost................................................................................................................................................................. 4
4. ELEMENTS - UNITS.....................................................................................................5 5. COMMAND ELEMENTS - COMMAND CONTROL & INITIATIVE..............................6
5.1. Ally Commands........................................................................................................................................... 7
6. TROOP TYPES – BASING .............................................................................................8
I. Foot.........................................................................................................................8 II. Mounted................................................................................................................ 10 6.1. Troop Type Distinctives .............................................................................................................................12 Self-confidence, Motivation and Quality of Materiel (Mandatory): .................................. 13 Training Status (Mandatory): ...................................................................................... 13 Function (Mandatory):................................................................................................ 13 Level of Training - Experience: ................................................................................... 13 Protection Against Missiles: ....................................................................................... 14 Special Abilities: ........................................................................................................ 14
7. SETTING UP FOR BATTLE ......................................................................................... 15
I. If the game is a competition game or non-scenario driven ......................................... 15 II. For scenario-driven games or re-enactment of historical battles ................................ 17 7.1. Deployment Mode......................................................................................................................................18 7.2. Outflanks......................................................................................................................................................18
8. TERRAIN TABLE........................................................................................................ 19
8.1. Rivers - Coastline - Naval Support ....................................................................................................... 20 8.2. Engineers - Fortifications....................................................................................................................... 20
9. GAME SEQUENCE..................................................................................................... 21 10. MOVEMENT............................................................................................................ 21
10.1. Group Movement .................................................................................................................................... 23 10.2. Movement by Type of Troop............................................................................................................... 23 I. Foot....................................................................................................................... 24 II. Mounted................................................................................................................ 24 III. Professional ......................................................................................................... 25 IV. Impetuous............................................................................................................ 25 V. War Engines ......................................................................................................... 25
..............................................31 11..................... Target Priority & Shooting Priority ...................Pursuing.................................Following up ..................................39 12...............................3................................1............................................................................................................................................................... Support Shooting and Charge Test ....................................................................... Rallying..Effects .........31
12...........6................................................................. Routing ............................................................. Compulsory Moves.........................4..................................................................................................... TABLES ..........5............ 45 II.....................................................................3............................................................................................. Shooting at Flanks and Rear...... 42 16...........................................................32 12...41 14......................................................................................................4...................28 11.......VI........ 45 I......................................................................................... Charge Reaction...................................................... 36 12........................... DEMORALISATION & WITHDRAWAL.....................................................................................................................................................................5.................................. Naval Units ..........................3............................... AMBUSHES............... 51
.......26 10.......... BAGGAGE..Breaking off .........................COMBAT.... Interpenetrations............................................................. SHOOTING.............................................................................................................................................. SPECIAL COMBAT FORMATIONS.................... FIGHTING IN BUILT-UP AREAS & FORTIFICATIONS ...... 31
12. Moving into Contact ...............................28 11............................................................ Cover ................................................... 30 11.............. CHARGING ...............2..................................................................27
13.....41 15... Recoiling ........................................Evading ..................6.................. Melee ...... 33 12........................29 11...........................................................................4......................................Flanks & Rear................................ 25 10.....................1................................................................ Shooting Mechanics ....................................................................................................27
11.....43 17........................2............... 45 I...................................................35 12................ Visibility for Shooting (Kill Zone ) .................................................... WINNING A BATTLE.................................. APPENDICES ................................
and all may flee and pursue. the main reason for having wargames in the first place. although much larger. era-specific characteristics. the ability of cavalry to shoot from a distance and evade heavier opponents. often with devastating results. but both will ‘do the business’ when asked to do so (or could die in vain if used improperly). and all this without additional investment in time or money. Shooting has been given special attention and all troops that could do so may use this to their advantage. The scope of the game changed. The flexibility of the element is incontestable and the introduction of the PIP-based command and control. is that every historical period played has a distinctive flavour: a mainly infantry battle. presents a totally different image and flow than a mainly cavalry battle. What has been achieved with HOPLON. could not be represented accurately. Well-trained armies of antiquity. without having to sacrifice their competition-designed armies. due to the inherent inflexibility of the unit block. The result of this is that while competition rules work admirably for championships. various troop types may evade or break-off. Apart from historical re-enactment. it leaves much to be desired in functionality. the so-called 'national characteristics' are incorporated into the accompanying Army Lists to make armies even more realistic. The HOPLON rule system was designed to use as many of the troop types. mechanisms and army composition lists of DBM as possible. as units or as elements. would not find this amusing). making the battlefield far more fluid and. and along with the welcome simplifications came the tendency to even out the performance of the few troop types and classes available to cover a 3000 year + history. HOPLON is a general rule system and any special. while Command Elements may have the ability to influence the performance of their troops beyond the roll of a single die –all at a price.I NTRODUCTION
The rationale for the HOPLON Rule System Early wargame rule systems attempted to simulate reality on the table by basing their deployment and combat operations solely on units –groups of figures arrayed in rigid formations . Parthians etc. they are inadequate for re-enacting historical battles or simply wargaming for the fun of it without substantial tweaking of both the rules and especially the army lists. and then reverted to. but may be limited in hand-to-hand combat. the rules also come with a comprehensive costing system to allow ‘balanced’ or competition battles to be played. Mongols. With the appearance of the Wargames Research Group th 7 Edition and the subsequent DBA and DBM rule systems. success in competition wargaming has resulted in the loss of historical realism and fun – for many players. the new. This allows players who wish to wargame utilizing realistic tactics. elements. however. NICOLAS A. as between Romans and Gauls. will be relatively immobile. Commanders also have variable abilities and Alexander the Great may not need much luck in moving his troops about. while re-introducing those aspects of ancient warfare that have been lost through the pursuit of championship competitiveness. to do so. In other words. For example. cup matches etc. less predictable. accounting-free combat mechanisms brought instant success. has become marginalized on the wargames table (Huns. HOPLON is by no means a DBM derivative in that it differs in a number of crucial areas: opponents move and fight ‘simultaneously’. simplified troop types and the undemanding. as between Byzantines and Turks. Most wargame armies are designed today around the DB(x) systems allowing players from around the world to standardize their armies and find opponents more easily. Turks. This is not a simplified affair and great effort has been put into the evaluation of every troop or command capability: a Spartiate hoplite element may cost 13 points compared to 4 points for the average Persian infantryman and a Mongol horse archer 16 points compared to 12 points for an armoured Russian knight. elite troops are truly capable when compared to untrained levies and can be devastating if handled properly.PROTONOTARIOS
. which relied on their flexibility to win battles. While this is realistic for the deployment and appearance of troops on the wargames table. hardly characteristic of what most ancient battles were about. In addition. the over-simplification of morale has led to the ‘pursuit of that last element kill’ in order to defeat an opponent. As for the battle objectives. at times. while Darius’ army. the operational basis began to use.
flank attack. have a lesser ZOC of 3cm. 200-250 men for Loose Order troops (Peltasts. Unsuitable terrain. Troops may enter this zone only by tactical move. swamps. or in rout or behind uncrossable rivers. as in the case of a partial follow-up after combat.) Rallying from unformed requires a commander’s intervention. differing only in depth depending on troop type. 4. • Element: The smallest component and the basic combat entity on the table. with Command Elements. regular dice (D4 = 2. • Cohesion-Disorder: Cohesion is an indicator of unit integrity that allows most troop types to fight better than they would as individual elements. • Zone of Control (ZOC): This is a zone of 10cm around every unit which interdicts march moves. by using their cohesion bonus . Cataphracts). uncontrolled advance. rough. break in the line etc. in which case it is automatic. A number of elements build into a combat unit.
. • Combat Unit: The combat unit (or unit) is composed of elements. hills. 5) and half-dice (D3 = 1. A disordered result is best represented by placing one of the rear elements of a disordered unit crookedly to mark the unit as such. MELEE TABLE Except Command Elements. 6). 4. except if demoralised or withdrawing in which case they ignore it and may retreat through it. buildings etc. Rallying from disorder is automatic at the end of the round as long as the causes are removed (terrain. When fighting or shooting as independent entities (not as part of a unit) elements fight with their respective combat factor 1s. divided into Commands. An unformed result is best represented by a flag marker (preferably coloured to distinguish different armies etc. 2.1. except if the unformed unit is victorious in melee. 3. All elements have a frontage of 4 cm. morale fatigue and lack of cohesion and its elements may fight with a handicap. having no cohesion bonus. Open Order troops. Swordsmen.) Normal dice (D6 = 1. 2. 3. A number of units constitute a Command. but may also become disordered or unformed. The severity of the unformed effect on a unit varies by troop type. BASIC R ULE F EATURES
Below is a short list of the rules’ basic features to better understand the game system introduced with HOPLON. 1. Independent elements are never unformed. 3) Multi-coloured flag markers (optional) Armies. defined in width by its own width (4cm) and in depth depending on the type of element (3cm for foot. Light Horse). troops inside built-up areas. are never disordered. The number of elements per unit varies according to troop type and regular or irregular status of the troops. 4. are all causes for disorder and result in the loss of the cohesion bonus. 3. Elements fighting as part of formed units have advantages in combat (cohesion bonus ). without cohesion bonus or unformed handicap. Elephants and War Engines . G ROUNDWORK
To play the game: • • • • • Wargames table 200 x 140 cm divided into 12 sectors Terrain features (woods. Units become unformed either by sustaining casualties or when defeated in melee. single elements outside friendly ZOCs 2. Cavalry. Elements each represent between 100-150 men for Open Order troops (Psiloi. see Table 3. • Combat Zone: This is the -unoccupied. Enemy elements within this zone or passing through it may not move freely and may never voluntarily expose their flanks or rear to it: they may only move to contact the element itself or retreat directly away from it or move to provide support
For Combat Factors.area immediately in front of each element.) • Unformed: An unformed result on a unit denotes significant combat losses. 4cm for mounted and War Engines ). 5. Barbarians. 2. Fast foot ) and 250-300 for Close Order troops (Spearmen. 3. casualties from shooting and any break in the line of a unit’s front. Individual elements.
Those out of control may still move. The initiative of each Command is determined at the beginning of each round. Units under control move and react expending normal CoPs. Two or more Commands are necessary to fight a medium-sized battle.
. It is the same number that determines the Initiative of each Command for that round by adding a D6 die roll to the commander’s BIF.for any adjacent friendly element. • Basic Initiative Factor . The structure of a Command may be restricted by the army lists. Securing the initiative gives a commander priority status in deciding whether to move and attack before or after his opponents. but at higher CoP cost. Ally Generals and Sub-Generals) before the start of the game. • Command Range: Every Command Element may control any troops under its Command to a range of 30cm. with each commander having been allocated a Basic Initiative Factor (BIF) before the start of the battle. depending on the quality (BIF) of the commander. The breakdown in sectors aims at facilitating arrival of reinforcements etc. • Command Points (CoP): This is the cost measure for relaying and executing orders. Commander BIFs may be restricted by the Army Lists. • Sector: The wargames table is split into 12 sectors (3 depth x 4 width) with terrain features and troops allocated to each. A Command is led by a Command Element representing a General. within 4cm. and some types (Inferior class troops) may not advance closer to the enemy. • Command: A Command is the main formation on the table and is composed of infantry and/or cavalry units or elements. ARMY STRUCTURE
The deployment of each army takes place by Commands .Initiative: The Basic Initiative Factor (BIF) ranges from 0 to 3 and is allocated to Command Elements (Generals. The structure of each Command may vary from army to army and is given in detail in the accompanying Army Lists book. with or without war engines. the rules provide a fairly comprehensive costing system to allow a balanced game in points. the number of CoPs also determines how many actions a player’s troops can execute each round. or 50cm. The general rule is that any army under 700 combat points (net -not counting any BIF costs) cannot have more than three own Commands or reliable Ally Commands.1. by adding a D6 die roll to the BIF of the respective Command Elements and is calculated immediately after the Command and Rally phase. If there is no scenario for a battle.
3. but can have any number of unreliable Ally Commands.COST
3. 40cm. The total number of Commands is limited by the Army Lists and by the size of an army. Fortifications and Wagon Laager do not negate the combat zone. A RMY STRUCTURE. The BIF is crucial to the game system and simulates the command ability of each commander as well as the ability of his staff to relay orders and of his troops to obey them. Sub-General or an Ally General and is part of a Field Army or an Army Corps.
Shk/Msl [Jav] 6 x 10 p Sub-General (as S w) 1 x 26 p A BIF of 1 would increase the total cost by: 278 +10% = 306 points An Early Sassanid Command of 380 AD will cost: Noble Cavalry: 12 x Irr Cv S. F. Msl/Shk [Bow] Slingers: 6 x Irr Ps O. (Pro1). Shk/Msl [Bow] 8 x 13 p Auxilia: 6 x Reg Plt O. Shk/Msl [Bow] 6 x 11 p Ala Quingenaria: 6 x Reg Cv O. If the Command Element has a BIF other than ‘0’ the cost of its Command will be augmented by a percentage equal to its BIF x 10. (H). doubled) 1 x 30 p A BIF of 2 for the CE would increase the total cost by: 352 +20% = 422 points A Sarmatian Command (Iazyges) of 105 AD will cost: Lancers: 8 x Irr Kn O.3. Msl. Shk/Msl [Pilum] 21 x 15 p Light Horse: 1 x Reg LH O. (H). (S w as above. H. Shk/Msl [Jav] 1x7p Sub-General. (as Kn) A BIF of O adds no cost to the Command A Late Imperial Roman Command (2 Legions) of 360 AD will cost: Legiones: 8 x Reg Sw O. Examples An Imperial Roman Command (1 Legion) of 69 AD will cost: 1 Legio: 21 x Reg Sw O. Pro2.2. Pro1. H. Command Elements have double the cost of their respective troop type (rounded up). Msl [Sling] Sub-General (as Cv) 315 p 7p 30 p 352 p
8 x 17 p 6x7p 1 x 34 p
136 p 42 p 34 p 212 p
104 p 78 p 60 p 26 p 278 p
12 x 14 p 4x8p 6x3p 1 x 28 p
168 p 32 p 18 p 28 p 246 p
A BIF of 1 would give it a total cost of: 246 +10% = 271 points
TROOP COST TABLE
R EGULAR MOUNTED Knight – Kn Cataphract – Cat Heavy Chariot – HCh Light Chariot – LCh Cavalry – Cv Light Horse – LH Camels – Cm Light Camels – LCm Elephants 2 – El Wagon Laager – WL Scythed Chariot – SCh +3 +2 +3 +1 +2 +2 -
SUPERIOR ORDINARY INFERIOR
15 15 14 9 10 9 10 9 22 10 10
12 12 11 6 7 6 8 6 18 7
10 10 9 4 5 4 6 4 16 5
. The total cost of each Command is calculated by adding up all the individual points of its elements plus the cost of its Command Element . Msl/Shk [Bow][L] Light Horse: 4 x Irr LH O/F. Pro1. [Bow] Sub-General. Shk/Msl [Bow] Horse Archers: 6 x Irr LH O. Totals are rounded up [see examples below]. C OST
Each element of a troop type has its combat value expressed in points [see Table below].
but will then have only limited fighting and staying power. The absolute minimum is 2 for regulars. all troops.) cost 1 point extra. in accordance with the army lists. Special Combat Formations . Elements may be detached from units and fight independently if necessary.
High Trajectory. count rear elements as half.FOOT Foot Knights – FKn Swordsmen – Sw Spearmen – Sp Sarissae – Ss Barbarians – Bb Bowmen – Bw Peltasts – Plt Psiloi – Ps Rabble – Rb War Engines 2 – WE Baggage – Bg
+1 +2 +2 +2 +2 -
9 7 6 8 6 6 5 5 2 18 3
Fast – F Untrained – Unt Professional – Pro1 or Pro2 Double armed – Shk/Msl or Msl/Shk Wedge or Skythian capable – W or Sk Dual role (only if intending to dismount) .
For the total cost of 2E elements. To maintain unit status .
7 5 4 6 4 4 3 3 1 20 3 1 MODIF IERS -1 +3 or +5 4 +1 . Any troops with multiple shot capability like archers.
. light troops and bodyguards and 2-4 for irregular troops. Heavy) and War Engines (Pro) cost double.UNITS
Depending on the troop type and status. through the cohesion bonus . must initially be formed into units.
In case of mandatory double-depth elements. The maximum number of elements per unit is 9 for regulars and 12 for irregulars 3. Elephant crews in howdah Double depth element 6 – 2E Minimum cost for any troop type is ½ point. slingers etc. +2 or +3 5 +2 +1 -2
5 3 3 4 3 3 2 2 ½ 24 3
The additional features of Elephants ( Double-armed. Elephant or Camel trained horses Cavalry with Lance. Units should include an element with a standard and/or musicians and a unit commander to denote their unit status. Pro2 refers to double-armed troops that count their Pro bonus in both combat roles and cost 5 points extra. cost 2 points. ELEMENTS .Dmt Heavy – H.
Pro1 refers to single-armed troops or troops that only count their Pro bonus for their main combat role (Shock or Missile) and cost 3 points extra. Any (like Chariot or Elephant crews) that have all-round shooting ability +3 points. Mounted foot – Mtd Greek Hoplites. CO or LO troops that have only a single shot with hand-hurled weapons (pila. The size and composition of each unit varies between regular and irregular troops and is given in detail in the Army Lists. bar a few exceptions.
4. like Sp/Bw combinations or Psiloi -supported elements like Sw/Ps or LCh/Ps. see Appendices I. Low Trajectory and Fast War Engines respectively. Elements as part of a unit move and fight together expending CoPs as a group and have better staying or offensive power than independent elements or groups of elements. javelins etc.
who thus act as a full unit. If a CE of BIF = 1. or a group of independent elements (often an under-strength unit that has lost its unit status) or.
Any unformed or disordered markers are removed automatically when a formation can no longer operate as a unit. accompanied by banners. Independent elements of a Command may move as groups only of the same troop type [see 10. CEs constitute a Command’s HQ and are crucial for relaying orders.
The elements on the right have lost contact with their unit. Different types of units of the same Command may move together as a group as long as they can all move at the slowest unit’s pace. the term formation is used to describe either a unit. a unit’s elements are affected morale-wise.e. A unit at under two thirds strength loses its unit status and its constituent elements become independent 4. In the rules. However.Melee Table].Movement by Type of Troop]. a single independent element .a unit must keep at least two thirds of its elements in side or rear contact with each other. A CE may join any friendly unit by moving into contact with any of the unit’s elements. even if detached from each other. even if not Bowmen. that costs double the cost of the respective troop type. The BIF plus a D6 dice roll. the entire unit will be upgraded by one morale class for as long as the
The effect of this is that larger units may sustain more losses or detach smaller sub-units or single elements to fight separately if necessary. thus losing its cohesion bonus .
5. once every round. COMMAND ELEMENTS . or by being defeated in combat. CEs may move. but also no cohesion advantages 5. Some armies either have mandatory Double-depth elements of different troop types or may support their Shock (hand-to-hand) troop elements with different types of troops ( Shock or Missile types). rallying troops etc. the unit may fight at a disadvantage. at the speed of their respective troop type. A CE may be attached to any formation under its command or may have its own bodyguard troops. even of the same troop type. Detached elements may rejoin their parent unit at will during the Charge and Normal Movement phase. in which case. with a leader figure.
. or by suffering an element killed.2. This is represented as an element of (usually) the main troop type of each army. standards etc. A unit with an attached CE may use its free CoP to move if it has not already been used in the Command and Rally phase. but the other six are still over 2/3 of unit strength and may continue to fight as a (disordered) unit. However. determines the Initiative of the whole Command and its CoPs available for each round. Any additional movement costs accordingly. The smallest operational ‘unit’ on the table is the Command Element . ad hoc elements from different units. 2 or 3 is in the front rank of a unit of its own Command. or flank-charged. In cases of detached elements. In these cases. while the combat and morale performance of the combined element depends on the specific army and/or period as dictated in the Army Lists. while to maintain order (i. for free (no CoPs expended).
It can also become unformed by enemy missile attack. A unit may become disordered by breaking its formation through movement over uneven terrain or following-up or being partially pushed back in a melee. the Missile supports may shoot from a rear rank. in addition to its losing its cohesion bonus .CE. may not be reformed into a new unit. if applicable. Independent elements and groups from decimated or dispersed units have no unformed or disordered effects. either at the Command and Rally phase or during the Charge and Normal Movement phase.COMMAND CONTROL & INITIATIVE
Command Elements. cohesion bonus ) a unit must maintain its front in an unbroken line. only the parent unit retains its unit status.3. the severity of which depends on its troop type [see Appendices II. or due to enemy shooting. CEs have a Basic Initiative Factor (BIF) ranging from 0-3 [see Army Lists]. The only other reinforcement that can augment a unit is the Command Element itself.
if it does so without its troop type normally allowing evades (like LH. the commander spends 2 CoPs to rally units. If the same troop type is not available then a different troop type may be designated. 40cm or 50cm of its own CE. taking into account the routed allies. If.
. except allied Commands. after subtracting CoPs used for rallying troops. If the troops of this should break. at the beginning of a round.1. 40cm if BIF=1.
5. In HOPLON .) its Command must test for morale as if the CE had routed. The new CE must be of the same troop type as the one lost and preferably not in contact with enemy troops at that point. Reliable Commands may be fielded independently (in which case their CE will be treated as a Sub-General) or may be incorporated into a larger Command. Cautious in which case they may refuse to fight. If the BIF was originally 0. Initiative for movement means that a player may allow other Commands of lower initiative to move first. unformed etc. Troops in rout cannot be rallied if out of Command Control. so the Command's Initiative Factor for that round is 2. The same will occur if a CE attempts to break-off after defeat in combat. If these are of Inferior class they may not charge enemy units or approach voluntarily within the enemy’s ZOC. within a distance of 30cm. On subsequent rounds. if its Command passes the morale test successfully. but not necessarily when they end their move. movement takes place for both armies on the same round. Command Control & Initiative. i. its contingent must take a morale test separately. the CE is still in combat or is lost or routed.) A CE may charge and fight on its own with a melee advantage of +1. not the entire army (in case of the C-in-C being lost).
For a unit/element to receive its orders normally (expend n ormal CoPs) it must be under Command Control. This determines both the Command’s initiative and the number of CoPs available to the commander for that round. Demoralisation & Withdrawal]. (30cm if BIF=0. or Unreliable. however. in which case they are treated as normal troops. the die roll will be a D3 instead of a D6. it must temporarily react as unwilling and may not voluntarily approach enemy troops for the entire round following the CE loss (see 16. This is only necessary for the Command of the CE lost. If. The line of communication must be unimpeded or must be able to trace a path around any intervening enemy units or impassable terrain. In case of a CE being lost. as above. A CE may evade enemy charges regardless of its troop type. However. Units out of Command Control must expend an additional 1 CoP for each tactical or rally move they make. the player may designate another combat-capable element with the same BIF as before minus one (even if it was originally 0). ALLY COMMANDS
Ally Commands are led by Ally Command Elements that may only command their own troops. The Commander in Chief (C-in-C) may join and support any Command in addition to his own. the rest of the Command must take a morale test as well.commander remains there and is combat-capable (Inferior and Ordinary Missile troops will react as Ordinary Shock and Superior Missile and they in their turn as Superior Shock. by Command. the CE will be affected by the results of the whole unit (disordered.e. The loss or rout of a CE is cause for morale test [see 16. The initiative of a Command is determined just after the Command and Rally phase. The Command with the higher initiative for a given round decides whether to charge or move before its opponents. 50cm if BIF=2 or 3). They may be Reliable. A Command Element has a BIF of 1 and throws a (D6)=3 for an Initiative Factor of 4. it will not be able to add any BIF of 1 or above to the die roll and the Command will only have a D6 to determine its CoPs and Initiative. Ps etc. this CE should be lost or routed. Of the 4 CoPs available. as a national contingent. When part of a unit. in which case they may even become hostile and turn against their former allies. if the Command passes its morale test successfully. Demoralisation & Withdrawal). in which case their CE will not have its own D6. Elements/units need to be in Command Control before they move.) CEs always allow inter-penetrations regardless of their respective troop type and may always exchange ranks with one of the unit’s elements.
When shot at by War Engines. They are also destroyed automatically. (+2 if Untrained). if they are forced to recoil by Elephants in addition to the above. however. or 6 will withdraw from the battlefield. Their advantages are mainly against heavy mounted troops. Peltasts (Plt) and Barbarians (Bb). it will declare automatically against the side that attacked it and remain firm in its commitment for the rest of the battle. If attacked or shot at by anyone. at any point of the battle. They fight in single rank with a cohesion bonus of only +1 and have –1 when drawing against foot. In wargaming terms. not as independent elements. any unwilling. Sarissae (Ss). requiring space to wield their weapons. Peltasts. but if Spearmen charge such mounted troops themselves they can only cause them to flee (including their rear supporting ranks). 3. 2. Swordsmen (Sw). Untrained Spearmen can only initiate charge as units. plus Baggage (Bg) and Rabble (Rb). poleaxes. When shot at by War Engines. Open Order (OO) (Psiloi)
Foot Knights (FKn) represent heavily armed and armoured troops. An Unwilling Command will then refuse to advance or shoot against its former enemies until any enemy Command becomes demoralised.
Spearmen (Sp) represent the most common form of foot troops armed with a relatively long thrusting spear that were better in defence than attack and mostly against mounted troops. but are also inherently flexible being able to break formation or become unformed without any additional penalty. they count as a Vulnerable target. Spearmen. If Cautious it will become unwilling on a D6 roll of 1. and have a –1 penalty when unformed. If. at the beginning of the game. but their basic combat factor is more than adequate. Spearmen (Sp). like warriors that formed elite bodyguards. Unreliable Ally Command. halberds or heavy spears.
6. that are mainly Missile. Cautious Ally Command will withdraw from the battlefield. Sarissae. in which case it will become operational once more.Once.
Swordsmen (Sw) represent troops that fought primarily using swords or similar hand-t ohand weapons and did not rely solely on their combat formation to beat their opponents. they have a high basic combat factor against foot and a cohesion bonus of +2. Psiloi (Ps). depending mainly on their weapons and method of fighting: Foot Knights (FKn).
There are ten foot troop types. which they destroy automatically. may become treacherous and must test for reaction. They invariably fought with heavy swords. they count as a Vulnerable target. that are mainly Shock and Bowmen (Bw). TROOP TYPES – B ASING
I. with a cohesion bonus of +3. fighting at up to two ranks deep only in defence (except Greek hoplites). A treacherous ally throws a D6 and on a roll of 5. They can be double-armed either with javelins or with heavy throwing weapons like the Roman pila. Foot deploys in three basic combat orders: i. Unreliable ones 30% less. if Unreliable on 1 or 2. Fast) iii. or 4 it will change sides and will come under the command of the opponent player. each Cautious or Unreliable Ally Command must test for fidelity. They were usually the elite of shock infantry being inherently flexible and thus capable of quickly adapting to rapid developments on the battlefield. in LO formation. When defending they can fight in two ranks but risk losing both ranks if they suffer a kill. Close Order (CO) (Swordsmen. Barbarians. they are slow moving. Bowmen. Rabble) ii. In wargaming terms. Byzantine menavlatoi etc. dismounted knights. An unwilling. the friendly C-in-C’s Command becomes demoralised before any of the opponents. Cautious Ally Commands cost 10% less than their normal total cost. Foot. but are flexible in manoeuvre and rely less on their formation than other troops. Loose Order (LO) (Foot Knights. like non-Fast Knights and Heavy Chariots. Spearmen can destroy Cavalry and Light Horse opponents only if charged by them. All mounted and all
. axes. on 1. In wargaming terms they rely mostly on unit cohesion for effect. however.
Ss can destroy Cavalry and Light Cavalry opponents only if charged by them. they count as a Vulnerable target. When shot at by War Engines.
Bowmen (Bw) represent those units armed primarily with missile weapons such as bows or longbows. melee without rear support and have a weak melee factor. NonInferior or Untrained Peltasts. but are always based as LO. not as independent elements. In wargaming terms. Superior LO Barbarians react differently to Superior CO Barbarians. Spearmen. against their opponents to overcome them by sheer momentum. screening and other tasks. Bowmen and Sarissae elements if they push them back in any terrain. When doing so they may interpenetrate any friendlies as Psiloi. the latter have the +1 bonus when defeated as all Superior troops. Difficult terrain. fighting with a –2 penalty when unformed. although when double-armed they could be dangerous. In wargaming terms. They can be fielded either as CO or LO foot. they count as a Vulnerable target. Pike phalanges relied almost entirely on their combat formation for effect and thus had to have well-protected flanks and rear. They have no cohesion bonus but also no disorder or unformed effects and are unaffected by any terrain. slow-moving opponents with missiles. Non-Professional pikemen can initiate charge or advance to provide overlap only as units. They could be very specialised depending on their skills and weapons and their uses range from hand-to-hand combat in difficult terrain. often impetuously. Rabble. Ss are very inflexible and vulnerable. Barbarians cannot be Regular and must always make full moves up to an enemy ZOC. they count cohesion bonus of +1 in melee and may also charge any opponents. in which case. Their main aim was to destroy opponents at long range and were often unwilling to join a melee. They fight at up to three ranks deep. Bowmen and War Engines in any terrain. performing harassment.
Peltasts (Plt) represent those troops trained to fight in loose order in mountainous or difficult terrain. but have a penalty of –1 when unformed. especially against mounted troops. When shot at by War Engines. Purely Missile Psiloi may only charge
Sarissae (Ss) represent the development of the spear phalanx with the adoption of the longer pike. their commander needs 2 CoPs for each formation. On the other hand. If Sarissae charge such troops themselves they can only cause them to flee (including any rear supporting ranks). sacrificing protection and cohesion for speed and manoeuvrability. Baggage. they shoot with one rank of rear support. To hold them back or to rally them when impetuous. In wargaming terms they may evade enemy charges and may inter-penetrate freely with other troop types. Like Spearmen. Bowmen may attempt to break-off if defeated in melee. or heavy losses from missile weapons could prove disastrous. they count as a Vulnerable target. they rely on their unit cohesion bonus only for shooting (+1 per target) and may only charge Missile opponents. with or without a secondary hand-t o-hand capability. the sarissa. to supporting CO infantry and harassing heavy. They combine moderate hand-to-hand performance with excellent speed and adaptability to changing requirements. If they have a Shock distinctive. They disliked fighting against mounted troops when in good going and were thus brittle against such opponents.LO foot facing ordered Spearmen –on level ground– have a –1 handicap. If purely Missile. they may charge anyone. When shot at by War Engines. Barbarians are dangerous opponents when in order. Barbarians relied primarily on the rush of their charge to cause disorder in their opponents’ ranks and burst through. but suffer the same –1 penalty as all Fast troops when defeated. Sarissae are always Regular and cannot be Doublearmed or Fast . If Double-armed.
Psiloi (Ps) represent the various types of light skirmishing troops. and were the most powerful troops in a frontal engagement. Peltasts fight in two ranks in good or in rough terrain and have a cohesion bonus of +2 if Regular. they fight at up to three ranks deep and have a +3 cohesion bonus (+2 if Untrained ) while all opponents facing ordered Ss –on level ground– have a –1 handicap. In wargaming terms. destroy Elephants automatically. When within an enemy ZOC or when shot at they become impetuous and advance out of control against their closest enemy.
Barbarians (Bb) represent the massed tribal infantry formations charging. In wargaming terms. they are momentum troops and automatically kill CO Swordsmen. They fight in double rank against any in rough or difficult terrain and against Psiloi. All operate without any additional penalty when unformed. but are disadvantaged when unformed or disordered. with +2 cohesion bonus . or in rough terrain and +1 if Irregular in the open. they become automatically disordered and lose their cohesion bonus. The former have their automatic kill against CO foot even when drawing.
Mounted deploy in three basic combat orders: i. with few exceptions. their commander needs 2 CoPs for each formation. When shot at by War Engines. or entire camps that accompanied most armies. with a shock distinctive. always benefit from a +1 bonus when defeated in melee (even if not Superior ) and are momentum troops destroying any foot they push back. but they are automatically destroyed by Elephants or Foot Knights and have a –1 handicap when unformed. In some cases. up to an enemy ZOC. they can fight in two ranks when formed and are momentum troops destroying any foot troops they push back. Needing excellent terrain to operate. they count as a Vulnerable target. In wargaming terms. Scythed Chariots (SCh). If they cannot evade and have to fight.
Baggage (Bg) are not strictly foot troops. destroy Elephants automatically. they become impetuous if shot at by missiles or if within an enemy ZOC. To control their impetuosity. Professional. they were d isadvantaged by troops that were more flexible and more manoeuvrable. In wargaming terms Baggage elements are weak. they can never attack or move (unless specified as mobile in the Army Lists) and are captured if forced to recoil. Light Horse (LH). they charge at the gallop. Chariots. but are represented by lightly defended elements of baggage train. Light Camelry)
Knights (Kn) represent heavily-armed and armoured cavalry on massive horses that excelled primarily in the charge. Cataphracts (Cat). inadequately trained and equipped civilians. They must always make full moves when moving. They are automatically destroyed by Elephants (without the above +1 bonus) or when forced to recoil in unsuitable terrain.
II. Light Chariot (LCh).
Rabble (Rb) represent. Camelry (Cm). moving like Fast troops.
Cataphracts (Cat) represent heavily armoured cavalry. In wargaming terms they are limited compared to normal combat infantry in every aspect and can be unreliable or difficult to control. they count as a Vulnerable target. even of Psiloi. Wagon Laager) ii. In a few cases they represent fanatic mobs that were enthusiastic and aggressive. with emphasis placed on protection against missiles. Open Order (OO) (Light Horse. Camelry. Light Camelry (LCm). but can draw enemy troops away from the battle. Cavalry. Elephants) iii. Knights Fast may always evade Elephants. In wargaming terms. in dense formation. They were slow-moving. To hold them back or to rally them when impetuous. All other Psiloi must evade (for free) if their formation is defeated in melee. but ill-equipped and untrained. Close Order (CO) ( Cataphracts. NonInferior or Untrained Psiloi. mostly encountered in the East. and may charge out of control. Double-armed or Heavy and if Superior (fanatics) they become impetuous when shot at or when within an enemy ZOC. Missile Psiloi are automatically destroyed by mounted troops when defeated. When unformed they have a –1 handicap.
There are eleven troop types depending mainly on their weapons and method of fighting: Knights (Kn). but they are automatically destroyed when forced to recoil in unsuitable terrain or on any terrain by Elephants or Foot Knights (except if Fast Knights). the baggage train can be protected by a palisade or a ditch or even a wagon laager or can even form an entire camp. They were especially effective when used in conjunction with mounted archery. cannot be Regular. Cavalry (Cv). 2 CoPs are required for every formation. Scythed Chariots and may evade foot charging their flank or rear. When shot at by War Engines. In wargaming terms.other purely Missile troops or routers and must evade when charged. Loose Order (LO) (Knights. they fight in two ranks against foot. have a cohesion bonus of +2. they become impetuous if shot at by missiles or if within an enemy zone of control and they must always make full moves when moving (up to an enemy ZOC). If Irregular. They have no rear support. If Irregular.
Heavy Chariots (HCh) represent chariots that used more than two horses and a heavier chariot frame relying on shock of impact to defeat other lesser chariots and infantry. Elephants (El) and Wagon Laager (WL). If their crew
. they have no rear support and are momentum troops destroying any foot they push back. Mounted. often unwilling to fight. did not charge at the gallop and used a variety of weapons from lances to maces to split up enemy formations. Heavy Chariot (HCh).
They become uncontrollable on a D6 roll of 1. Purely Missile Light Horse may not charge any but purely Missile troops or routers and must evade if charged by any Shock opponents. In wargaming terms. only their crews can be Professional or Untrained and they fight without rear support. but can evade any foot or Heavy Chariots charging them and primarily Missile Light
Not Untrained or Inferior
. 4. they count as a Vulnerable target. even if Irregular.
Light Camelry (LCm) were essentially as above. They have a +1 cohesion bonus .
Elephants (El) represent the animals and crews that range from the simple crews sitting on the back of the beast. but fight only in single rank and have a –1 handicap when unformed. but slower moving and with emphasis on missile weapons. screening. Their main function was to harass enemy troops but were often expected to come to grips with their opponents when the opportunity arose. regardless of their role. usually light-armed and unarmoured cavalry that performed a multitude of tasks. Elephants may also be killed if pushed back by good quality 6 Shock Psiloi or Peltasts. raiding etc. In wargaming terms. but a –1 handicap when unformed. unless speciallybred. Their main disadvantage lay in their unreliable reaction when hurt. Their weapons would essentially be the same as those of the cavalry described above with a heavier bias towards missile weapons. enemy horse troops cannot provide overlap or rear support against camels and react as Inferior when fighting against them. but slower-moving. Light Camelry fight only in single rank against all. above. may not provide overlap support. In wargaming terms. due to the inherent stamina of camels over arid and sandy terrain (to be taken into account in campaigns). bows etc. In tactical use Camelry was more effective against horse troops since they tended to scare uninitiated horses. Their main advantage lay in strategic terms. they can evade charges and if Shock can fight in two ranks against any mounted troops in rough terrain and against Psiloi. they can fight with one rank rear support against both mounted and foot and are relatively flexible to manoeuvre. they have no rear support. Scythed Chariots and. If Missile LH cannot evade and is forced to fight it routs automatically if defeated. may evade foot charging its flank or rear.
Cavalry (Cv) is the main type of mounted horse troops armed with a variety of weapons like lances. cannot provide overlap or rear support against them and react in morale as Inferior. non-Fast Knights. In wargaming terms. they cannot be Regular. but neither can such friendly horse units provide overlap support for them. Rabble and Baggage in good going. treat as Light Horse. Light Horse. Bowmen. Elephants affect horses and camels. Cv may always evade Elephants. regardless of their role. and are killed at 5 or 6. but were vulnerable to missile attack and light infantry troops that could literally maim them if they were left unprotected. 3. Otherwise. They would be at a disadvantage if used against heavier chariots and usually lacked the ability to break up dense infantry formations. Uninitiated enemy horse troops cannot provide overlap or rear support and react in morale as Inferior against them. Cataphracts or Heavy Chariots they push back. which made them equally threatening to friend and foe. War Engines.includes missilemen. If their crew includes missilemen. 2. If Elephants sustain any kill from War Engines they are eliminated. Friendly horse troops. missile support.
Light Horse (LH) represents the speedy. javelins. likewise. but they in turn destroy any Foot Knights. When shot at by War Engines.
Camelry (Cm) is as above. Enemy horse or camel troops facing Elephants are automatically disordered. However. have a +1 cohesion bonus and no unformed penalty. like reconnaissance. spears. In wargaming terms. when not in contact. Lancer Cavalry must be specified as such because non-lancer Cavalry fight at –1 when fighting against advancing lancers . they can shoot all-round with no angle limitations and at all times. but the first time they sustain a kill from other missile shooting they must dice for the result. to the heavily protected elephants with howdah-protected crews. All other Light Horse formations must evade (for free) if defeated in melee. Elephants without a howdah are at a disadvantage (-1) against Elephants with howdah. they can shoot all-round with no angle limitations and at all times. They were relatively resilient and particularly effective against cavalry.
Light Chariots (LCh) represents the lighter types of chariots that were mainly used to transport missile troops with limited shock ability.
TROOP TYPE DISTINCTIVES
All troop types are distinguished by their: overall self-confidence. except Elephants and Wagon Laager. Other mounted than Elephants may not charge Wagon Laager. They also do not count enemy or friendly overlaps. or Inferior]. 3. However. it attacks them immediately. Fast. level of training
. High Trajectory (Large stone throwers) used mostly in sieges or against stationary targets. In Column. If it encounters further troops behind. friend or foe whom they meet. like fortifications. training status [Regular or Irregular]. In Wedge with advantages in both mobility and combat. In this case. cohesion bonus. War Engines negate the protection of their targets.
Wagon Laager (WL) represents mobile or stationary wagon trains that were used as temporary fortifications by a number of nomadic peoples. it passes through causing unit to become unformed. a ny Light Chariot element defeated by Heavy Chariots must break-off. When they charge or are within an enemy ZOC they may only go straight ahead in the direction they were already pointing at.Chariots may evade all. iv. 6. they can be used as mobile fortifications being strictly defensive and may not charge. regardless of their role. At 1. fight as Heavy Chariots without cohesion or unformed modifiers. motivation and quality of materiel [Superior. except by Psiloi. In wargaming terms. In general. Wagon Laager are well protected against missiles and their opponents count no overlaps. In Skythian with advantages in skirmishing. but Wagon Laager are automatically destroyed if defeated by any foot or Elephants. LO troops fight normally against them and OO troops may simply allow them to pass through.
There are two types of War Engines :
Low Trajectory (Stone or dart -throwing ballistae. Heavy ).
Low Trajectory War Engines shoot effectively against all targets. ii.1. CO troop types may open ranks to allow them to pass through [see Army Lists] without fighting.
6. otherwise. When advancing –in good going– against any. Scythed Chariots are considered expendable and do not count towards demoralisation of a Command. They may be destroyed by War Engines . available to a few types only. If they sustain a kill result from missile fire. Ordinary. at 2. they can shoot all-round with no angle limitations and at all times. the Scythed Chariot makes one additional move passes through and destroys any elements it encounters. or rear support against them in melee. iii. Wagon Laager cannot be killed by normal missile fire but they may become unformed. There are four combat formations that can be adopted by most mounted troops. Wagon Laager missile crews may shoot all round. Non lance-armed Light Chariots have a –1 handicap when facing lance-armed Light Chariots. Medium. SCh are automatically killed if defeated by any. attacking anyone. available to a few select horse archers only. In Depth with advantages in combat. In wargaming terms. they have a +2 bonus for the scythes. High Trajectory War Engines are effective mostly against stationary targets. i. they react like Elephants and have to dice for their direction. but may move only when outside a known enemy ZOC. at 4. the may manoeuvre like mounted troops as long as they are outside enemy ZOC. 5. Light. War Engines. destroying enemy elements to the depth of their base (4cm).
III. the CO unit that is attempting this throws a D6. with advantages in mobility. Certain Regular.
Scythed Chariots (SCh) represents chariots equipped with scythes used by a number of eastern armies to attempt to break-up dense enemy foot formations. it passes through without effect and exits out the back. If their crew includes missilemen.
and experience [Professional, Untrained]; function [Shock and/or Missile]; protection against missiles [Heavy]; specialised abilities [Fast].
Self-confidence, Motivation and Quality of Materiel (Mandatory):
Troops must be classed as either Superior, Ordinary or Inferior.
Superior (S) troops represent troops that benefited from a combination of better than average training, equipment and morale. They would be more reliable than the average soldier and better equipped to survive in combat. In wargaming terms, Superior troops have a +1 advantage when losing in a melee (exception see Fast), are very reliable when charging or standing to receive and have great stamina. Ordinary (O) troops represent the averagely equipped and motivated soldier of all times. In wargaming terms they have no particular disadvantages or advantages and can, depending on troop type, be more cost-effective than their Superior counterparts. Inferior (I) troops represent the negatively motivated troops that often made up the bulk of many armies. They cannot always be relied upon to stay and fight when things are dicey, but they are quite cheap and when the battle is favourable they provide a useful support for the better troops. In wargaming terms, they are more brittle to losses sustained from support shooting or melee and they also have to test for morale on several occasions that other classes ignore.
Training Status (Mandatory):
§ Regular or Irregular (Reg or Irr) Troops must be classed as either Regular or Irregular.
Regular troops were those that had received substantial training and drill in their nation’s preferred way of waging war, not solely as individuals, but as part of a structured command system. As such, organized into tactical units, they would be capable of carrying out orders through the chain of command, regardless of their priorities as individuals. In wargaming terms, Regular units are better able to manoeuvre, rally from unformed and operate with lower CoP expenditure than Irregular troops. In combat, some Regular units benefit more from their unit cohesion than Irregulars , but may also be more vulnerable if cohesion is lost. Some types of Irregular foot, Knights and Heavy Chariots are less capable of t actical manoeuvres, must make full moves, or expend extra CoPs, and are prone to uncontrolled advances and impetuous charges, but are cheaper and generally equally effective as regulars in their initial clash.
§ Shock-Missile (Shk-Msl) Troops must be classed as either Shock or Missile or both if
double-armed. The double-armed distinctive denotes troops that used a primary and a secondary weapon, which also determined their function and performance on the battlefield 7. Primarily missile troops are less reliable for charging or standing to receive a charge, reacting as troops of a lower class, but may shoot at any time. Primarily shock troops are better suited for charging, but can only use their missiles for support shooting only in support or against charges 8. Purely missile troops use their cohesion bonus only in shooting and are not allowed to charge or counter-charge certain troop types.
Level of Training - Experience:
§ Professional (Pro1 or Pro2) denotes veteran troops that considered war as their main or
sole occupation. They are either of a purely warrior class or expertly trained full-time soldiers and could -although not necessarily- be employed as mercenaries. As soldiers they were very skilled in their tasks and would be expected to perform their duties far more expertly than other troops, although they need not necessarily be enthusiastic or heroic.
For example: Nikephorian Byzantine troops classed as Cavalry ( Shk/Msl) are primarily a shock type with a secondary missile capability. Early Sassanid noble Cavalry ( Msl/Shk) would then primarily be a missile type with a secondary shock capability.
Except Double-armed crews of Elephants, Chariots, Wagon Laager, and 2E elements with Bowmen which can shoot at any time.
Such examples would be Alexander’s Macedonian army, the Imperial Roman armies, which can be fielded almost entirely as Pro. Also, most horse archer armies could field mainly Pro Light Horse troops as would most feudal armies, which would be based around a core of Pro knights. In wargaming terms, their main advantage lies in their ability to voluntarily continue the same move of the previous round or react to enemy actions on their own initiative without CoPs. In combat, Professionals add a +1 bonus, per element, either to their shooting or melee factors (depending on their main role), if Pro1, or to both if Pro2.
§ Untrained (U) represent those troops that were hastily assembled without being
adequately trained for battle, but not necessarily badly motivated. In wargaming terms, they manoeuvre as Irregulars of their type, have a –1 modifier in melee (making it easier to destroy them) and a –1 modifier when shooting (per target). They may be Superior, Ordinary or Inferior for morale purposes, the Superior and Inferior distinctives affecting only the morale of the unit not their combat performance.
Protection Against Missiles:
§ Heavy (H) This is a distinctive which denotes those troops that had a superior level of
protection due to their better armour or armour of their mounts or large, portable shields. In wargaming terms they benefit from a +1 defence factor per element when shot at by most missile weapons.
§ Vulnerable (V)
is a special distinctive for shieldless, dense formation troop types that presented a good target to missiles. Vulnerable troops have a Target Factor of ‘1’ regardless of troop type and any other distinctives.
§ Fast (F) represent those troops capable through training, formation or equipment of
moving faster than average troops and, if foot, operating in rougher terrain. This is partially offset by lighter armour and/or equipment, which makes them more vulnerable to missiles and melee. In wargaming terms, they count a –1 handicap (per target) when shot at and also when losing in melee. They are considered Loose Order troops and may be Inferior, Ordinary or Superior for morale purposes, the Superior distinctive affecting the morale of the unit not its combat performance. Fast/Superior Barbarians are an exception and have a +1 advantage when drawing, but also the –1 handicap when losing. Also, Fast and Untrained troops will only count the Untrained handicap not both; if both Fast and Professional, they will count both modifiers, the Pro bonus never being negated.
Swordsmen, Spearmen, Sarissae Foot Knights, Barbarians Peltasts, Fast foot, Bowmen Psiloi Rabble Baggage, Double-depth elements Cataphracts Knights, Cavalry, Camelry Light Horse, Light Camelry Chariots, Wagon Laager Elephants Light, Medium War Engines Heavy, Siege War Engines
3-4 3-4* 3-4** 2 5-8 6-8*** 4 3 2 1 1 1-2 1
4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4
1.5 2 2 2 3 4 3 3 3 4-8**** 4 4-5 6-8
* Superior Barbarians are 4 figures to a base, Ordinary or Inferior 3. Foot Knights may be fielded as either 4 or 3. ** Regulars are 4 figures to a base, Irregulars 3. *** Baggage elements can depict supply-carrying carts etc, with or without armed guards.
**** Heavy and Scythed Chariots 5cm, Light Chariots 4cm, Wagons up to 8cm depth.
7. S ETTING UP FOR BATTLE
I. If the game is a competition game or non-scenario driven
1. Designate Commands. Players start the game by designating their Commands, calculating points' value (optional for a balanced game) and allocating a Commander-in-Chief to one of them. They also calculate Demoralisation levels for each Command (2/3 of total value) and scouting capacity [see below]. 2. Determine type of engagement – Scouting Factor. The players must then decide on the type of battle: meeting engagement or set battle. This may be determined by adding an average (D4) dice throw to the Scouting Factor (ranging from 0 to +2) of each army for the specific engagement. If the final scores are equal or within 1 point of each other, the engagement will be a meeting engagement with both armies entering the table, one Command at a time by order of initiative. If one is greater than the other by more than 1 point, it will be a set battle with the one with the highest score, the initiative player, deciding whether to deploy before or after the outscouted player. He who deploys first, will have his troop positions observed by his opponent, but will have more terrain points and the possibility to set up ambushes. To determine the Scouting Factor of each army calculate its scouting capacity by adding 3 points for every Light Horse or Light Camelry element, 1 point for every Knight Fast, Cavalry, Light Chariot or Camelry element and ½ point for every Psiloi element. Also, the C-in-Cs’ BIF augments the Scouting Factor by a factor of BIF x 10. (i.e. if an army has 56 scouting points and its C-in-C is a BIF=2, the total scouting ability will be 56 + 20 = 76 points. If scouting capacities are within 10% of each other, both sides will have a Scouting Factor of ‘0’; if one is greater than 10% than the other its army will have a Scouting Factor of +1; if the difference is greater than 50%, it will have a Scouting Factor of +2. 3. Allocate terrain features. When the type of engagement has been determined, players decide on terrain features for the battlefield. All terrain features have a cost in points (see 8.Terrain Table) and each player is allocated 12, 14, or 16 terrain points9 . Terrain features on the table may not exceed 12 in total, 6 for each player. Terrain features must be placed in at least four different sectors with up to two per sector. Open spaces (of up to half a sector) can also be 'purchased' by using up points. An open space cannot be covered by a feature of an opposing player, except if a road. Roads do not constitute terrain features for the above limits, but when placed they must lead from one table edge to another or from one table edge to a town. As such, they may end up serving both opponents. Terrain sizes and shapes are not strictly determined, but each should generally cover no more than (approximately) a third of any specific sector (i.e. 25 x 20cm for a hill or swamp, 30 x 10cm for a ridge and so on). It is suggested, however, that roads and bridges have a width of at least 4cm to allow elements to pass. The terrain features are placed, two at a time, successively by the two opponents, in three rounds, who must roll a D6 for their exact placement in each sector (except roads)10. A 6 places the feature anywhere in the sector; A 5, in the front-half left; A 4, in the front-half right; A 3, in the rear-half right; A 2, in the rear-half left; A 1 means the feature is lost (but the player may try again by expending terrain points.)
In set battles, the one to deploy first has 16 points, the second, 12 points. In meeting engagements, both have 14 points.
If in placing two features in the same sector, their exact placement coincides, place the second adjacent to the first at will
In non-scenario games. SP2b (hills) at 2 p. costing 2 p. running along the side of the table. the initiative lies with the highest BIF. and SP2a. with the order of deployment determined by the respective initiative of each Command for that round (the Commands with the higher initiative always choose whether to deploy first or not). at 4 p. the army to deploy first must deploy all its forces (or mark any Outflanks). the first player places his two last ones anywhere on the table (on any of the twelve sectors) followed by the last two of the second player. through having thrown a 1 on the D6. SP1b costing 2 p. Deployment Mode below]. a. C. swamps. Rivers are an exception: rivers running across the wargames table can only be included in scenario-driven games 12 or by common agreement by the two players. but not in a sector chosen by his opponent. They continue in succession with FP2a (woods). Loose (LO) or Open Order (OO) troops [see 13. rivers may only be placed in the flank sectors. SP1a. No hidden troops are allowed. the FP placing another woods FP3a and the SP two more at SP3a.
In case of a meeting engagement the opposing players can determine the order of terrain allocation by dicing for initiative. woods) placed in the two central sectors (shaded area in the sketch) has its cost increased by 5 points. FIRST PLAYER A. If these are equal as well. If these are equal as well. each. In a set battle. The SP was forced to place 2 features in one of his sectors.1. in Deployment Mode [see 7.to deploy first.+5 for the central sector =7. Towns may never be placed in central sectors but must be placed within 10cm from a table edge. has the right to start first and places his first two terrain features 11 on any of the eight sectors on his side of the table. Troops in ambush can only consist of Fast. since his first one was lost. at any depth. The opponent deploying second must then enter the table (or mark any Outflanks) in Deployment Mode. But SP2b is lost. one Command at a time. B. Then. one Command at a time. SP3b at 2+2 points. his opponent does the same from his side. They complete the terrain allocation by placing the remaining features anywhere on the table allowed.
. the advantage lies with the BIF of the C-in-C. the only exception being roads and open spaces. the greatest being the ‘initiative player’. FP1a.
4. then the Commands in question may simply dice to determine their initiative for that round (highest wins). Both sides then throw a D6 for each of their Commands -added to the Basic Initiative Factor (BIF ) -to determine their initiative for the set-up round. b. In a meeting engagement. both players deploy their troops (or mark any Outflanks). A player may place a terrain feature in a sector already chosen before. the player who decides -or is forced by his opponent. The two players repeat for the second round and finally. up to 40 cm from its own table edge. The first player (FP) places a gentle hill. followed by the second player’s (SP) gentle hills.Ambushes ].determine the type of engagement to such an extent that they should not be part of any simplified costing system. at up to the middle of the table. each. in depth. Deploy forces.In set battles.
Rivers -and bridges or passes over them. In case of equal total scores. [See example below] Any terrain feature other than road or open space (hills. but may also place hidden troops in ambush ahead of the main body.
built-up areas. but must also specify their exact marching order necessary for their deployment for battle. [See Scouting Factor above] 4. due to road networks. In the example there is no scouting advantage for any of the two. This will depend on whether there is an invader. If any outflanking force has been despatched. Thus. both players must announce which sector their main force is in after the fourth round. Sectors with built-up areas allow double speed for both mounted and foot. rocky. the initiative player may demand the outscouted player to reveal the sector his main force is in (without further details). have rivers. with provision for any sea coast. while the Egyptians are on the seacoast. its round of test for arrival will be delayed by the number of rounds it must move on the strategic map to reach the battle sector. Each battle sector represents a wargames table. while rough desert terrain and difficult swamps would prevail where so Û marked. a hilly battle sector terrain must have at least four hills. must follow these general guidelines and must have the maximum allowable terrain types of one player. Draw strategic map. one segment at a time or may stay put on any map segment (diagonal moves are only allowed from segment to segment not from sector to sector). strong-points etc. in which case most of the prevailing terrain would be that of the player being invaded. the games master or the players themselves may determine the general geographical characteristics of each sector in accordance with the prevailing terrain for each army. Designate Commands. The square strategic map drawn should be split into sixteen (4x4) battle sectors. If any sector has other than good going.2. Normally. If the game is scenario-driven. where the opponents will meet. The eastern side of the map could be include a coastline. Example: In the example. desert. Both opponents should have identical map copies and they should choose a point of entry at opposite ends of the map. as specified in the Army Lists. Battle will be joined when both opponents find themselves in the same sector at the end of their move. Deploy forces. the two sectors with Egyptian built-up areas on them would include a town or a fortification. Each player may secretly move his main force on the map. After the fourth round of march and on each round thereafter. Players may also despatch a separate outflanking force along a different route. one town or fort. as specified by the Terrain Table below. the invaders’ entry sectors could be primarily hilly. 3. Determine Scouting Ability. wooded. the marching speed is halved (i. with crossing points. The actual allocation of terrain features for any specific battle sector. but upon meeting opponents these will have to fight the main battle and their main force will automatically become the outflanking force with the limitations outlined below [see 7. as in the case of competition games. If there is no scouting advantage for any of the two. rivers. 2. the central sectors could have a river -with crossing pointsrunning to the coast. wetlands. swamps and desert EGYPTIAN ARMY (DEFENDING) terrain. Finally. Thus. Their exact placement would follow the method described above. Make strategic moves on the map. the invading Assyrians have primarily hilly terrain. This can be in the form of a general description: steppe. On the first three rounds both opponents decide to enter ASSYRIAN ARMY (INVADING)
.II. a swampy or wooded terrain at least three swamps or woods and a sector with a built-up area. 5. The two players must then designate Commands and allocate units to each. but only across good going. right.e. For scenario-driven games or re-enactment of historical battles
1. each of which is further split into 4 segments. one segment every two rounds.Outflanks].) Mounted-only Commands may move at double speed. hilly.
to see which force arrives and at what strength. Commands with irregular commanders must deploy at least one of their units at the full extent required by the D4. This force must represent no more than a third of the total value of the army and must be led by a Command element. the Command is considered lost or terminally delayed. Once outflankers have completed their one mandatory move. The entire Command advances at 1 CoP per movement bound. i f the Command is entirely mounted. Commands in deployment mode roll a D4 die (to determine the number of CoPs for deployment) and move all their units as a group. regardless of the round of arrival. the Assyrians arrive in the same sector and both deploy for a meeting engagement . (The outflank move will thus be considered as a charge from ambush). expected time of arrival and entry sector must be clearly noted beforehand. Units deploying in this way cannot breach an enemy ZOC unless they are part of an Outflank [see below] and may not end up in contact with enemy units. the outflankers must deploy at least 3cm away from them. or 15cm. its units must deploy on the spot. The Assyrian cavalry moves east at double speed onto open ground. On its first attempt an outflanking force will enter on a D6 roll of 4. The one with the greater value of mounted troops in points may attempt to arrive as an outflank in its chosen sector. Commands with regular commanders may deploy for combat on any bound of their round of entry (i. the normal ZOC rules apply. OUTFLANKS
To attempt an Outflank a player may send off-table an entire Command to arrive in any one of the side sectors. the Egyptians arrive in the town sector and wait. calculate the points of each outflanking force. if time and space is available. The Assyrians also send an outflanking cavalry force ahead of their main force. The minibattle can be fought on a table up to half the size of the original table and lasts no more than
. the Assyrians continue north to cross the hills and threaten the town in the centre. while the other will have to attempt to arrive behind the nearest own side sector. Alternatively. while the Egyptians also move straight south to cross the river. On the two (2) subsequent rounds on 5. The player must inform his opponent of the outflank attempt at the start of the round it is due to arrive and the attempt to enter will take place during the Normal Movement phase of the specified round. may test for arrival as an outflank from the first round onwards or as required. the players may choose to fight a separate mini-battle aside of the main event. If a deploying unit falls on an ambush and deploys within an enemy ZOC. if the Command is foot or mixed. On the seventh round. DEPLOYMENT MODE
Deployment Mode is a special kind of movement for the initial deployment of entire Commands or for Commands that arrive as an outflank. If it fails to arrive over these six attempts. The outflanking units must be able to complete at least one move (10cm or 15cm if mounted) on arrival. Its composition. north.
7.e. A Command arriving as an Outflank must enter from the sector chosen and for its round of arrival will have the initiative over any opponents regardless of dice results.Ambushes ]
7. Both reveal the general positions of their main armies. The Assyrian cavalry force. [See 13. It must arrive in Deployment mode. or impassable terrain to the outflankers or if already engaged in charging or fighting. Each movement bound is 10cm. The Assyrian cavalry moves north into the river sector just vacated by the Egyptians.2. and must throw a D4 to move and deploy. through the same sector. or until they reach an opponent’s ZOC.1. 5 or 6. being adjacent. On the fourth round. On the fifth round. having crossed the river. If both players have sent outflanking forces that are due to arrive in the same sector. but may not approach enemy unit(s) any further for that round.through open ground (split sectors). If the outflanking force encounters unformed or routing troops. All the units must deploy for combat on the initial round of entry. On the sixth round. in which case. do not need to expend all the CoPs rolled on the D4). The Egyptians. Enemy troops cannot be contacted or pushed back if they are in a built-up area or fortification or in ambush themselves. 6 and on the last three (3) on a 6. Both announce their main armies’ positions. as above. If the chosen sector is occupied by visible enemy troops these will be contacted and pushed back disordered to allow the arriving forces their one minimum move. these will immediately rout (again). turn east to protect the town. the Assyrian main force marches north into the desert and hills.
minus one element depth. calculate half of the front half of the element. in depth. Prohibited to Chariots. Prohibited to Chariots. Troops defending on river bank. minus one element depth. For 2E elements. shallows.
Town (4 buildings) (1. Others enter at full move. NOTE 2: The loss of speed due to terrain affects a unit. WL. Movement only through road. No charge bonus for any troop type moving uphill. there is no charge bonus and all cross at full move. Others enter at full move. The defeated outflanking force is a total loss. only the part inside the limiting terrain is affected and the rest may either move on or hold back to maintain cohesion. is in delaying terrain and part not. those elements not directly affected by the
. or Open space (an entire sector) 1 p. steep hills. Shooters uphill have priority over same shooters below. Sarissae. minus one element depth. Only OO foot in order. Others enter at full move.6 rounds.
+2 Defence Factor when shot at and visibility limited to 6cm. WE. Mounted are automatically killed if pushed back. Troops do not expend additional CoPs after second bound of march move. Prohibited to Heavy Chariots. If part of a unit. No cohesion bonus for CO troops and any mounted. Fast if mounted (15cm). only those elements that are affected by the terrain will suffer the immediate consequences. Fighting in built-up areas) Troops cross either over rough (dry riverbed) or difficult terrain (shallows).
Woods (only 3 per player) 3 p. but must be halted and have no rear rank support. Heavy Chariots and Cataphracts are automatically killed if pushed back. in extended front.
NOTE 1: For any element to be affected by terrain. the whole unit will move normally. If river bed is passable.
COMBAT +1 Melee Factor for all fighting uphill of opponents. However. -1 Melee Factor for CO foot. in combat. Columns move as Cv if mixed (10cm). Mounted (except Camels) only in column.
Rough: rocky. bush (Any) 2 p. Light Chariots may not evade No rear support or cohesion bonus for any CO. Combat Factor (see 14. Mounted may only charge from wood edge. Only LO and OO foot and OO mounted enter at full move. one per round. Road section per sector ½ p. but may follow-up or pursue opponents inside. At bridges and shallow passes all cross in single file.
Defender advantage in morale. at least half of the element base must be in that terrain. Only the victor will be allowed to arrive in the main battle as an outflank minus any losses incurred. dunes (only 3 per player) 4 p. WL. WE. only as long as its front enters or is moving through it. minus one element depth. No rear support or cohesion bonus for any CO foot or any mounted. low ridge (Any) 2 p. Once the front element has cleared the limiting terrain. out. Only OO foot and Camels (in dunes) enter at full move. Troops inside building may only charge other buildings. are uphill. ‘defender’ only) 5 p.
Difficult: swamp. allowing troops to cross. or from house-to-house.
River or coastline (only 1 per game) 4 p. NOTE 3: If part of a unit. TERRAIN TABLE
MOVEMENT Heavy Chariots and Wagon Laager move at full move.
Gentle hill. Cataphracts. or as Light Horse. Knights and Cataphracts are automatically killed if pushed back. Only LO and OO foot and Elephants enter at full move. minus one element depth. LO or any mounted.
may only be allocated by scenario or by common agreement between the players. takes one full round and no other move or combat is allowed (in either phase) by those elements placing the obstacles.COASTLINE .If one side wins most of its clashes. Shooting across a river is. If either army is using naval units.Naval Combat Table]. They cost 2 points each per element of 4cm.) as specified in the Army Lists. trenches etc. but cannot count on any rear ranks and must receive enemy charges halted. the naval battle will continue with the defeated side at a disadvantage. Field fortifications and obstacles may also be purchased at the beginning of the battle. 1/3 of a unit is in unsuitable terrain only that part of the unit will no longer be able to benefit from a cohesion bonus. it may land forces or shoot in support of the battle from its ships.2.2. add a further round to the total.6. the rest may still benefit from cohesion. which determine the nature of the battle itself and thus. dry riverbeds should be treated as rough and river shallows as difficult terrain. but can only be delayed. are always uphill of opponents trying to cross. off the coastline before one navy can operate independently. RIVERS . An Engineer unit cannot be destroyed by shooting. unless specified as small streams. Pavises are a mobile fortification against missiles. If the scenario allows for engineers. follow up or pursue. if they extend along the width of the table or diagonally. a pontoon bridge can be built. For combat purposes. A pontoon bridge over a small river will take two rounds +D3 to build if the engineers are working in safety. . allowed only for long-range archery. Placing obstacles (stakes. They may be used to allow landings and/or support from naval shooting by those armies equipped to do so.NAVAL SUPPORT
Rivers are a special feature.Engineers-Fortifications ] Rivers must be specified or must be diced for as 1 or 2 = dry 3 or 4 = passable 5 or 6 = impassable Passable rivers can be crossed only through shallow passes or over bridges. for instance. regardless of the actual width of the river. [See 14. If both are using naval forces. a clash will have to take place at sea. Rivers and coastline may extend inland at any depth of the flank sectors. Any defenders on a river bank.
8. therefore. Naval battles involve element-to-element clashes: Add one D6 to the vessel’s combat factor plus or minus any modifiers [see Appendices II. ENGINEERS .terrain may be affected indirectly. as already emplaced. Crossing a bridge must be in single file. slings and artillery etc. Once in place the obstacles cannot be removed voluntarily and they may affect both friendly and enemy troops. They do not count as fortification when pavisiers charge. Some armies have a structure allowing them to construct obstacles on the battlefield. If they are being shot at. heavy throwing weapons etc.Fighting in Built-Up Areas & Fortifications ]. Their protection is negated only by Medium or Heavy WE .1. (Engineer elements will either deploy in combat formation and fight as Peltasts or must flee).
8.). To stop an Engineer unit it is necessary to attack it. is allowed once per battle. [see below 8. Rivers. at long range. are considered wide enough to prevent short range shooting (with javelins. A river or coastline may be purchased by one player only (see Terrain Table) and used only if it runs along one flank of the table.FORTIFICATIONS
Most armies may use elements as Engineers to build bridges and/or fortifications if required by a scenario.
Movement by Type of Troop]. Tactical and March Moves . G AME SEQUENCE
Morale Test of a Command. not both. each CoP expended means an expansion or reduction of the frontage of formation by one element on each side (including any rear support). a) In changing formation. if space is available. Changes of Formation refers either to a change of formation (expanding or contracting elements). if required. which ignore ZOCs). recoils. Expanding elements may end up in contact with enemy elements only if part of a charge or in reaction to one on itself or to provide overlap support for friendlies that are being charged where they stand. break-offs. All combat is considered as simultaneous for a given round and the effects of one clash shall not affect others. have a lesser ZOC of 3cm. Each player first declares any break-offs. if the troop type is eligible to do both. All moves take place by order of initiative or troop type. troops inside built-up areas. Shooting results are immediate. M OVEMENT
Movement takes place in the Charge and Normal Movement phase. [See 10. Changes of formation may be combined with movement and are allowed within enemy ZOCs in addition to a tactical move. All troops may make either tactical or march moves during the same round.will be resolved when all neighbouring melees have been concluded. or troops in rout. Movement includes Tactical-March Moves. Elephants and War Engines (which cannot form units) exert a ZOC of 10cm. When marching. Open Order troops. regardless of distance covered [see examples below]. counter-charges.
. by order of initiative.2. Formations that refuse to charge or fail to stand and receive a charge due to shooting make compulsory moves. combat will be resumed on the following round
10. It cannot be used as overlap
If unhindered. any pursued are caught. Units of Commands deploying for battle or just arriving on table in Deployment mode may not charge. all troops must expend an additional CoP after the second consecutive move to simulate fatigue. an expansion should take place from the centre of a unit around both sides. Command Elements have one free move. March moves are multiple moves beginning outside enemy ZOCs and must stop when they reach an enemy ZOC (except troops of a demoralised Command. rout and pursuit moves that follow combat will be concluded last. Troops with a Shock/Missile distinctive may only shoot against or in support of charges. the 3cm or 10cm Zone of Control (ZOC) exerted by enemy combat-capable formations. Successful charges. not both. then declares and initiates charges.9. 2. single elements outside friendly ZOCs. or to enter. If this is unavoidable. All missile-armed troops may fire at eligible targets. after the first round of combat. If hindered in any way by enemy or friendly elements. 1. Troops can either charge against eligible targets or move normally.Zone of Control (ZOC). If. except if on road or in Deployment Mode. Charges. follow-ups and evades are in effect tactical moves except that rout moves and withdrawals ignore all ZOCs. any combat results -recoils and follow-ups. Demoralisation & Withdrawal] Command and Rally phase. or to a change of a front. Tactical moves are limited to one per round and take place within. [See 16. or withdrawing. non-charging units declare their reaction to charges (evade. stand to receive or initiate counter-charge). Charge and Normal Movement phase. and then all other eligible units complete their normal moves. not both. Shooting and Charge Testing phase. Any break-off. reform unengaged unformed units and rally routed units. by order of range or troop type. The new formations must expand facing in the same direction as the original formations and should generally form around the centre of the original unit13. it must be made only on the one side possible. All other troop types and formations plus Command Elements. Changes of Formation and Mounting or Dismounting when applicable. Both players dice for each of their Commands to determine initiative and CoPs. or behind uncrossable rivers. evades and resulting melees are concluded. Combat and Rout Movement phase.
[See Example below] Regulars of the same Command and same troop type may change front as a group. they are treated as Cavalry.2)
fig. Mounted units designated as Dismounting may dismount and fight as foot.
A couple of mounts or an empty chariot with a handler would suffice.
By expending another CoP.
The cost of changing formation in CoPs will depend on the troop type of the formation. but artistic license should dictate their appearance. elements may turn in place to re-deploy by 90 or 180 . want to re-deploy to their right. their mounts must stay behind. Their new formation will have a front of 4 elements and a depth of 2 (fig. The number of elements forming the new front depends on the number of elements. deploys for combat and expands its rear elements (shaded) by expending one CoP. either in their initial deployment or as an Outflank ). 2
3. If shot at. The Spearmen deployed in column. Dismounting/mounting requires 1 CoP and may be combined with other movement by subtracting one element depth (3cm for Cavalry. 2 elements wide. (Regular or Irregular and Open Order or denser formation).support if the friendlies have charged or moved themselves. Mounts move as Cavalry. Both may only do so during the Normal Movement phase. 4-5cm for Chariots and so on) from the total distance covered. or one move for 2E elements. When doing so.1
fig. Mounted infantry do not require this for it is not allowed to remount during a battle anyway. Chariots and so on. Changes of formation may never be used to avoid an enemy charge or to block a charge against a friendly element or unit. they will lose their mounts for the duration of the battle).3
b) In changing front.1
fig. Mounting-Dismounting. from the full move of the mounted element (6cm). If a dismounted element is destroyed the corresponding mount is also removed from play. The Light Cavalry will deploy in single line (Fig. Remounting may be combined with other moves by subtracting two element bases’ depth. (fig 2)
fig. To remount. Foot units designated as having mounts may move at cavalry speed and dismount (but only once. the dismounted elements must be in contact with their mounts. If the mounts themselves a re contacted they are instantly captured and removed from play. not the number of figures on them. it could further extend its formation as a single line supported in the centre. (fig 3)
fig. If the dismounted troops charge. an element of mounts14 or a chariot may follow behind the dismounted formation until it charges (or stay back out of harm’s way). [See Example below]
The spearmen unit deployed in depth (fig 1).1). outside enemy ZOCs (if they need to do so within an enemy ZOC. and 4 deep.
In the example. 2 Spearmen for 3 Knights and 3 Spearmen for every 4 or 5 Knights dismounting. left.5cm). Loose Order Norman Knights dismounting as Close Order Spearmen ).1. Independent elements may move together as a group only if of similar troop type .Movement by Type of Troop]. These are allowed to move along at up to their own speed (7. which may accompany any other formation at up to their own maximum speed16 [see 10. Single elements within a Command may not dismount at all. Should this contact be lost. unless they are Command Elements. either by units or independent elements and charges are declared by each formation separately.
10. Command Elements may always dismount and do not count towards the total number of elements dismounting). elements may also move in any direction.
. Psiloi and Light Horse troops may move in any direction (sideways.Mounted troops that dismount as a denser formation (for example. GROUP MOVEMENT
Within a Command. Any mounted dismounting as Psiloi can do so without subtracting any elements. backwards. Otherwise (all distances per bound):
Such troops . having side or frontal contact and facing in the same direction. change formation and move on the same round and refuse to follow-up after combat. if they dismount as Close Order foot. the unshaded Spearmen elements form a group. the Normans would have 1 Spearmen element for 2 Knights. except if Open Order. the formations of the group will have to move independently expending CoPs separately. due to combat loss or other causes.2.
Some armies [see Army Lists ] allow specially-trained Psiloi to accompany Cavalry or Chariots as Hamippoi .2. may move as groups if they do not include different types than their own. There is usually no group move for charging. and Irregular Knights or Heavy Chariots) which must expend CoPs separately 15.
10. the constituent elements must have contact on at least one side and should be facing in the same direction. expending a single CoP. Elephants and Light Chariot troops. MOVEMENT BY TYPE OF TROOP
In general. Chariot crews are always considered as Open Order for dismounting purposes and must subtract 1 element for every 4 dismounting if they dismount as Loose Order foot and 2. must subtract the first of every 4 of their mounted elements. as long as they do not include in their group any troop types that must make mandatory full moves (like Barbarians. For example. To form a large group for movement purposes. Also. obliquely). Single.
Units of a Command may move together as a single group even if of different troop types. non-impetuous. The shaded elements have no contact and must expend CoPs separately in order to move. troops may move by expending CoPs as a single group (of formations). as long as they move within 4cm. all troops in column of one element frontage (in single file) and single elements may wheel at no extra cost. except if a group of units of the same Command and same troop type are charging against the same target.
Make single wheel in any direction (Close Order at double CoP cost).)
Irregular Close Order and Loose Order troops may:
§ § §
Move or change formation. Double wheel (two successive wheel moves) in any direction.) Move at 12.
Close Order and Foot Knights Loose Order. Turn 180 or 90 expending 1 CoP per file and move no further. even within enemy ZOC.) Move at 10cm (4in.
. If Close Order. Camelry and Elephants Cavalry. even within enemy ZOC. double wheel at extra cost. Cataphracts. only if charging. Turn 180 or 90 in any direction expending 1 CoP per file. Double wheel in any direction.
Wagon Laager Knights.
Regular Close or Loose Order and any Foot Knights (CoPs permitting) may:
§ § § §
Move and change formation on the same round. and move.) Move at 15cm (6in. Knights Fast or charging.I. Light Camelry and Light Chariots Light Horse Light Horse Fast (horse archers) Move at 5cm (2in. Move at 5cm (2 in. Make single wheel in any direction at 1 CoP. Foot.
II. Open Order.5cm (3in. otherwise move or change formation.) Move at 7.5cm (5in. Heavy and Scythed Chariots.
Irregular troops (except lights) may:
§ § §
Move and change formation as above.
Regulars. Regular mounted or foot troops may manoeuvre as other Regulars but at double the cost in CoPs. Turn 180 or 90 in any direction as a unit and move (but not charge) Refuse to follow-up after combat (may rally back) to maintain order. in disorder. Pro Irregulars and Light Chariot troops (CoPs permitting) may:
§ § §
Move and change formation on the same round. Turn 180 or 90 in any direction as a unit and move.5cm (3 in. Fast troops and Barbarians and Greek hoplites charging.) (only outside enemy ZOC) Move at 7. Mounted.
Knights Fast or charging. Open Order or Fast foot. in which case they shoot at –1 each for that round.5 15 10 15
in 2 3 4 5 6 4 6
Barbarians only against foot troops. at 2 CoPs per unit or element.
MOVE DISTANCES FOR EACH BOUND
Close Order foot. If mounted and primarily Shock they may counter-charge and if eligible to evade and primarily Missile they may evade for free.) They may shoot or bombard normally in the Shooting and Charge Testing phase of the following round. Wagon Laager Loose. they may evade again. they may move only until emplaced. Triremes March column mixed or foot March column of mounted units only
cm 5 7. before all other troops. Heavy and Scythed Chariots. they may charge again. Heavy or Siege. that any change of formation or change of direction is a new move and requires CoPs. must make full march (up to the enemy ZOC) or tactical moves.
VI. Camelry. (unless Fast. Pivoting in place to acquire a new target requires no CoP expenditure and is not considered as movement. War Engines. Professional
Professional troops may repeat their last move of the previous round (only a single move. they may not shoot during the same round. If they had charged. Horde S (fanatics) and Barbarians 17 become impetuous when they reach an enemy ZOC (and there are no intervening troops blocking their way. Naval Units
Naval units move at 15cm per round if Trireme and at 10cm per round if War Galley or Boat. including charge moves. They can only be held. Close Order Barbarians or Greek hoplites charging. which they ignore) or when they are shot at by enemy missiles.
. not multiple moves) without expending any CoPs. If they had moved forward. When War Engines have moved. Barbarians only against foot troops. Disembarking troops is immediate upon landfall and costs no extra CoPs. Knights. When impetuous. Also. regardless of Command initiative 18. Cataphracts.
V. otherwise they need one additional CoP per unit or element to slow down. War Galleys. except Psiloi.III. disordered. they may do so again. They may of course pivot to acquire a different target. if evaded. as above. Barbarians and Rabble. War Engines
War Engine elements move normally as other units at 5cm ( Fast at 7. Professionals may react to enemy charges according to their primary function without expending CoPs.5cm) a bound and may make multiple tactical moves outside the enemy ZOC. Impetuous
All Irregular: Knights. Light Chariots. Foot Knights. If Medium. Boats Light Horse Light Horse Fast. Heavy Chariots. War Engines cannot recoil or rout: if their crews are forced to fight in melee and are pushed back the element is destroyed and if their Command is demoralised or withdraws they must be abandoned to the enemy. Note. they may never move forward again for the duration of the battle. however. Once emplaced. they will make an uncontrolled advance towards the nearest enemy or shooter respectively.5 10 12. Elephants Cavalry. Light Camelry.
IV. Irregular Knights and Heavy Chariots. In addition.
Troop types eligible to interpenetrate have as follows: Troop Type Ps Plt Sw FKn Bw
Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes2 Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Yes Yes Yes1 Yes2
Yes Yes Yes
Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Yes Yes Yes Psiloi Peltasts. however. unless they are Psiloi. both elements interpenetrating may make additional moves in opposite directions to allow their elements to clear regardless of enemy ZOCs. they will both be disordered until all are clear. Bowmen attempting to break-off when defeated in melee interpenetrate as Psiloi.3. and Bowmen elements which automatically move to the rear of the elements they are inter-penetrating without expending additional CoPs ( Bowmen only if facing in the same direction). but only if it can expend extra CoPs to do so. in accordance with the table below. Interpenetration with Baggage is allowed to all troop types. [See Appendix 1. when both are facing in the same direction. I NTERPENETRATIONS
In normal movement. who may exchange ranks at a single CoP.10.4]
. Bowmen or Rabble and only if both are facing in the same direction. If the interpenetrating troops are not facing in the same direction.
In order to interpenetrate. CoPs permitting. they will cause them to rout immediately. Legionnaire Swordsmen. If any charge through or if any rout through Rabble Ordinary or Inferior. FKnights Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes1 Swordsmen 3 Yes Yes Yes Bowmen Yes Sarissae Yes Yes Yes1 Spearmen Yes Yes Barbarians Yes Yes Rabble Yes Yes Knights Yes Cataphracts Yes Yes Cavalry/Camelry Yes Yes Yes LH/LCm Yes Yes Chariots Yes Yes Elephants Yes Yes Yes WE/WL 1 Roman legionary Swordsmen of ranks.
Cv LH Ch Cm LCm
Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Yes Yes Yes Yes
may interpenetrate Swordsmen or Spearmen in exchange
Only if allowed by army and period [see Army Lists]. interpenetrations between troop types are allowed. Exceptions
Psiloi. Normally mounted troops may not charge through foot. Light Horse may move to the rear as well. troops must be able to clear the elements interpenetrated and any elements that cannot complete the move must be left behind.
depending on the type of troops and may require CoPs. are normal tactical moves plus one D6. after the initial one.
11. ] Recoil and follow-up moves take place immediately after each melee and are one element deep (or half for 2E elements). Secondary and War Engines .5.4. and 12. Following-up. The spearmen unit. Bowmen may shoot with the second rank as rear support 19 and unit cohesion bonus . overlap supports may not
. Break-offs. Movement by demoralised Commands is dealt with in 16. The Cavalry may do so if the Light Horse can expend 1 CoP to move back. screened by Psiloi may charge through them. Bowmen may be either purely Missile troops. plus one D6 One element deep. with the Psiloi elements moving automatically behind them. These troops shoot in single rank only. Secondary shooting may kill up to one element per target regardless of the number of
Only the main elements shooting may have rear support. Chariots and 2E elements All eligible foot troops plus Elephants. that of the victorious element.4. Secondary shooting can be used by any troops (other than Bowmen ) that have a Missile or double-armed distinctive. without cohesion bonus . compulsory or not.that have massed archery as their primary function. facing away from enemy troops and generally towards the own table edge or point of entry. plus one D6
Subsequent rout moves. the Spearmen and Cavalry units (unshaded below) want to charge the Peltasts above. regardless of initiative. or Missile/Shock in which case they may charge and use their unit cohesion bonus in melee as well. left.In the example. either to the depth of the defeated or. All have a basic factor of 1 (or 2 for Medium and Heavy WE) and kill at a final modified score of 10 or above. Demoralisation & Withdrawal. They may always provide overlap support. S HOOTING
There are three categories of shooting: Mass. Rout and pursuit moves take place at the end of the Combat phase. with the exception of Elephants. breakingoff and pursuing are potentially compulsory moves. are. Mass shooting is used by Close Order foot -Bowmen. if followed up. TROOP TYPE Mounted troops. Initial rout moves for all. COMPULSORY MOVES
Recoiling and routing are compulsory moves and do not cost CoPs. Mass shooting may kill up to three elements per target (one per main shooter).
10. take place before charge declarations. [See 12. Chariots and 2E elements INITIAL ROUT MOVES Two elements deep plus two D6 One element deep plus two D6 PURSUIT MOVES Two elements deep. All take place regardless of other moves. in which case they may not charge any opponents with a Shock distinctive unless they are fleeing troops.
12cm -long range. Troops screened by Psiloi. then the shooting player chooses the target. VISIBILITY FOR SHOOTING (KILL ZONE )
A shooting element must have line of sight to the target element and at least an element -wide (4cm) clear space to shoot. pivot in place). or Siege War Engines may not move once emplaced (they may. except for War Engines and Professionals who may opt to wait for a better target. the kill zone is determined by the weapons' range: 30-50cm for War Engines. Results are
. If an element Spearmen that are has no target directly to its front it may being flank-charged shoot at an adjacent one or it may shoot as they have less as overlap support if it is adjacent to a than 4cm clear space friendly one that has. the target needs to be visible at any point during the charge to be eligible as target. (except for War Engines ) and any shooting element with a choice of targets must first satisfy its target priority criteria. Missile troops may also shoot from behind a differently armed front rank if part of a mixed element (like Byzantine or Arab Spear/Bow combinations or Psiloi-supported foot) as specified in the Army Lists. the only exception being pursuers meeting fresh opponents during a pursuit. but their unit morale will only be affected if total losses exceed their formation stamina (over 50%. No shooting is possible by or against elements that are already engaged in melee either in direct contact or as overlap or rear supports. in which case the result is treated as Mass shooting. Shooting is compulsory for all eligible troops. TARGET PRIORITY & SHOOTING PRIORITY
Target priority.1. Chariot to their front. and Wagon Laager crews and troops in closed fortifications have all-round shooting ability without angle limitations. even if they are pursuers meeting fresh opponents. during the Shooting and Charge Testing phase. If multiple targets meet the criteria.
In the example left. distances are calculated from the front element. but then with a –1 each. Elements may only shoot once per round. which will then force them to take a morale test) Any target may normally be shot at once per round.elements shooting.
11. who may be shot at even if they had already been shot at previously. plus 4cm on either side support to the (total frontage of 12cm). Secondary shooters may add their factors to Mass shooters.for all kinds of bows and slings and 3cm for close range weapons (fire syphons) or hand-thrown missiles. Medium. but on higher level than their screen and Elephants on any level. will also become eligible targets if their screen is not in contact. however. Elements of the same target unit not involved in the melee may be shot at. Choice of target for the shooters is not free. When shooting in support or against a charge. even on flat ground. In this case. Elephant. NOTE: If only part of a target element is visible through the 4cm window it is still an eligible target. Heavy. War Engines may ignore Psiloi screens. but may not shoot for that round. (not per shooting element).
The Kill Zone (shooting angle) is the Bowmen cannot determined by the shooting element’s provide missile frontage (4cm).2. Siege (or High Trajectory) War Engines may shoot at non-stationary targets with a factor of 1. All shooting takes place per target formation. In depth. except War Engines Fast may fire after movement. Overhead shooting is possible when the shooting elements are on higher ground than intervening friendly elements and the intervening elements are entirely within 6cm of the unit’s front.
11. Other War Engines may move. War Engines may kill up to one element per War Engine. if the screen is not in contact with the protected unit.
2. or independent elements). The shooters designate their target. 50cm Heavy/Siege ) Bowmen with longbows (range 12cm – 5 in. flee etc.
The same priorities determine who the main shooter and who the support shooters will be in case of more than one elements shooting at the same target from different directions. support elements do not count for additional kills).) Hand-thrown missiles [javelins. when shooting against an enemy formation. Target in kill zone of shooting unit. shooting takes place by priority of their weapons as follows:
§ § § § § § §
War Engines (range 30cm Fast/Light . Secondary shooting may only kill one target element. at least two main shooting elements are required for a double kill and three for a triple kill.
If units of two (or more) different weapons are involved in a shoot-out resulting in mixed priorities.immediate and the priority can only be surrendered voluntarily 20. three kills being the maximum for any target. except if one is uphill of the other (the shooter uphill having priority). add or subtract tactical modifiers.) Bowmen with crossbows (range 12cm – 5 in. They add up the Shooting Factors . the player having the overall priority may opt either to shoot with only those troops that have priority or. if he insists on combining all missile-power on the enemy target.Shooting Results] may kill more than one element of each target and each main shooting element may kill only one target element (i. The maximum difference between AF and DF for each target ranges from +5 to –2.) Other troops with crossbows. the remainder of his missilemen will not be able to shoot at the same target for a second time. Thus. 4. to use the lowest priority of his shooting troops. the defending player may select precisely which element(s) will be killed or must recoil. of those elements shooting directly at an enemy element (i. but have a –1 penalty towards the total defence factor and any losses must be removed alternately with the lesser protected element going first.] and handguns (range 3cm – 1 in. 3.e. Mixed elements of mixed protection benefit from the better target factors of the two.) Bowmen with ordinary bows (range 12cm – 5 in. The target adds up the Target Factors of its elements being shot to determine its Defence Factor (DF). add any rear supporting elements and unit cohesion bonus. Between similarly armed missile troops shooting takes place simultaneously and losses may be reciprocal. if Bowmen. which must be a formation (a unit. Only Mass shooting or War Engines [see Appendices II. the player that is shooting throws two D6 dice and adds or subtracts the difference between AF and DF. The total determines their Attack Factor (AF).
If more than one may shoot directly at a target element. the shooter decides which is the main and which is support. one shooting element per target element)21. etc. In the first case. Scythed Chariots and CEs are shot at separately. Shooting priority..)
11. but only from those targeted directly or their rear supports. Target directly in front of shooting unit.3. Independent elements.2. but still within range of each other. slings (range 12cm – 5 in.
1. 40cm Medium. To resolve shooting. If shooters are differently armed. SHOOTING MECHANICS .) Other troops with bows (range 12cm – 5 in. add any overlap supporting elements and. Target criteria have as follows:
§ § §
Target charging or being charged by the shooter’s friendlies. In shooting. Elephants. darts.
(if the opponents are differently armed) and morale results affect shooting. mixed Spearmen/Bowmen elements and Wagon Laager who can shoot at all times. At 1. Support shooting may stop an enemy charge or counter-charge from closing or may break a unit standing to receive. For example. 22 The aim of support shooting is to cause enemy troops to refuse to obey orders. by destroying their morale before a melee. until killed or diverted. Defending elements being charged that refuse to obey (to receive a charge). The exchange of missiles takes place after all movement is complete and by order of shooting priority24. If Inferior. For the random effect. Attacking elements that refuse to obey (to close with the enemy) must recoil a full move distance.4. Recoiling-Following up].2. if a charge by Light Horse archers is stopped
. if possible. At 5 or 6 they are treated as normal troops (killed). SUPPORT SHOOTING AND CHARGE TEST
Support shooting takes place in support of or against charges by any troops with a Missile distinctive. or to unform or disorder them. they must also roll a D6 for rout (rout on a 1). must throw a D6. Support shooting is short range as long as the main shooters are within 3cm of the target. Elephants and Scythed Chariots suffering any hit (except by War Engines ) of 10 or above. not closer to combat-capable enemy troops [see 12. space permitting. Scythed Chariots and some fanatic types [see Army Lists] are not affected by the above. depending on the severity of the missile attack and the troop quality23 [see Appendices II. (they disregard 9 completely).
Shock/Missile troops may shoot only in support of charges except if Elephant crews. A group of independent elements. however. is treated as a normal unit for casualty and morale purposes. but will continue to charge out of control. Recoiling from support shooting follows the same rules as for melee but in general must move away from the shooters and. the entire formation will be affected. Overlap and rear support shooters maintain their +1 support regardless of distance.Shooting Results].
Independent elements are shot at individually. If a charge is declared against the flanks or rear of a unit with a Missile distinctive. they will become uncontrollable and move randomly in any direction. or until it exits the table. friend or foe. a charging unit that screens a target when it moves up close does not negate the support shooting of its friendly units). Other units on both sides may move in the Normal Movement phase to bring an attacker or defender within their range before the charge is concluded. 4. results should strictly follow the order of priority. until killed either in melee or through a second missile kill result. must rout immediately together with any rear support they may have.
When shooting in support or against a charge. Elephants. Shooting in support of charges is allowed if the target was visible at any point of the charge (so. If these represent at least 50% of the formation front.4. 2. 3.Elephants and Scythed Chariots may become uncontrollable when shot at for the first time. throw a D6 to find its direction:
‘6’ North (forward)
‘3’ South (back)
An uncontrollable element will hold this course and attack anyone in its way.
are vulnerable when shot behind their flanks or rear. Cover includes any of the following:
§ § §
Troops in buildings Troops behind fortification or pavises or in Shieldwall formation (from their front only) Troops in woods or Psiloi in difficult terrain
12. will not shoot back with javelins and must recoil one full move back. S HOOTING AT FLANKS AND REAR
Any element except Elephants.
by Bowmen. Loose or Close Order foot or mounted troops with hand-hurled missile weapons (javelins. two as main shooters and three as support.
The attacking Peltasts (Reg O.
11. Only the shaded elements may shoot.
Shock/Missile. Cataphracts.) are considered to have a limited supply of missiles and a unit may only shoot once in support of a charge regardless of how many of its elements actually shoot. Open Order troops. CHARGING . which elements to turn.C OMBAT
Charges are declared and executed by order of initiative during the Charge and Normal Movement phase. Open Order. (except the above mentioned troop types). If any kill results include flank/rear shooting on an Inferior unit. CoPs permitting. Casualty resolution has as follows: 2 Bow Elements x 1 = 2 +2 (rear support) +1 (overlap support) = 5.Kill The Plt unit will lose one element (defender chooses) and being Ordinary (Shk/Msl) will refuse to charge home. who have priority in shooting. even if still within range.
. +1 (cohesion bonus) = 6 [Attack Factor] 2 Plt Targets x [1 + 1(Heavy)] = 4 [Defence Factor] The Bow unit throws two D6 dice at +2: 11 + 2 = 13 . A shooting element is considered to be shooting behind the flanks of an enemy unit only when it is entirely behind its target. Elephants.6. will count a +1 to the total Attack Factor and those elements being shot at from the rear or flank cannot count as Heavy. H.
11. except in the case of mounted troops that meet fresh opponents while pursuing. If the charge is from two or more directions. or any in hard cover.any elements of the Missile unit may turn to shoot. All other movement is concluded and shooting is resolved. pila. Troops shooting behind the flank or at the rear of their target. COVER
Troops in cover enjoy an advantage in defence (-2 per element to the shooters’ Attack Factor) when shot at. Chariots and Wagon Laager are excluded from this limitation as having the ability of either replenishing their stocks due to their flexibility or through carrying a larger supply of reloads. The target of a charge must be visible at the moment of the initial declaration and within charge distance. If the opponents obey orders the two sides come will come into contact and melee will ensue. the horse archers will have to recoil and will not be allowed to shoot for that round. it must roll a D6 for rout (rout on a 1). Chariots. Shk/Msl) on top are being shot at by the Bow (O) unit. franciscas etc. the shooters may choose.5.
2. If a unit is facing two or more enemy formations. Charging as a group of multiple formations(units) is only allowed for troops of the same Command. use a formation change to avoid an enemy charge or block a charge against an adjacent friendly formation. Fighting in Built-Up Areas & Fortifications ]. Troops of lower priority may initiate charge if they are not being charged themselves. In this case. forts) may never charge outside. Greek hoplite Spearmen and Barbarians have a charge bonus of 2. Scythed and Heavy Chariots. mounted or foot. Charges against flanks or rear always have priority over frontal charges and mounted always have priority over foot (except if charged in flank). CoPs permitting. The only move possible in such a case is either to attack the element opposite itself or to retreat directly away or to move to provide overlap support for an adjacent friendly element. in some cases disordered. of the same type of troops and attacking a single enemy formation. Cavalry and Knights Fast may evade flank and rear attacks by foot and all attacks by Elephants and Scythed Chariots. in which case they may countero charge only if the attackers are within 90 . Charge distances are the same as tactical ones except that all Knights. regardless of Command priority. A formation may charge as many targets as possible within its charge move. Wheeling to bring the target within its o charge distance is allowed. Elephants. [See 10. Elements that are within or move through the vacant Combat Zone of an opponent’s element. but it expends CoPs for each charge as a whole. but only within 4cm. but disordered.
However. CoPs permitting. Light Chariots may evade all foot.5cm and charge as Fast troops of their type. All charges in a given round are considered as 'simultaneous' for combat resolution purposes. by mounted or by foot).
. Close and Loose Order foot being charged must stand and receive. They may charge from house to house [see 14. in contact. Any troop types that stand to receive charge may. but their actual game order is determined by the Command with the higher initiative and by their type (frontal or in flank. the unit may choose25 to split into detachments to meet both opponents. They may not. Mounted may first turn up to 90 to face their target. double-armed troops may declare charges normally. All declared charges expend necessary CoPs. change formation to improve their combat performance. Movement by Type of Troops ]. regardless of their ultimate success. Primarily Missile.1. the detachment(s) whose strength falls below two thirds of the original unit strength will lose its cohesion bonus and fight as independent elements. there are exceptions: Impetuous Barbarians may charge foot troops to within 90 . Troops of higher priority may chose whether to charge or not. troops being charged in the flank or rear do not have the option of splitting up unless Professional. but charging obliquely is allowed only for Open Order o troops. except if charged in flank or rear. C HARGE REACTION
Open Order troops and primarily Missile Light Chariots may evade all charges. Purely Missile troops may not frontally charge other combat-capable troops. upon declaration of the charge. declare a counter-charge. They may charge routers and they may provide overlap support for other friendlies as long as they do not come into contact with Shock opponents. unless they are purely Missile troops as well. If they are held back to maintain order they will be subject to normal initiative rules. o However. may not move away at will or attack a different target.
12. not for each separate target.The charge must be as direct to the target as possible. Mounted troops with a Shock distinctive being charged may. Troops in cover (buildings. separately for each formation (unit) charging. however. up to 90 .
then only the elements of the Command with the higher initiative may do so. or have declared charge. to provide overlap support. The following exceptions apply (the defender having to conform to the attacker):
If the target is a single element (except War Engines the crews of which fight all-round) or has a frontage of one element (as in a column). When calculating distances for a charge against a stationary formation. It cannot contact enemy elements if the friendly h as charged or has changed position in any way. Professional troops only. at least one attacking element must be able to line up with any side of its target. without expending extra CoPs. if the contacted element is part of a column. Conforming to an enemy’s front must be undertaken to permit contact by allowing minor adjustments in lining up the opposing elements. Professional troops may react according to their main function freely. after the charges go in. Only elements that are being charged. and initiate their own charge or movement as well. but always have o the option of charging foot first if within 90 of their front.A unit being charged in flanks or rear will automatically become disordered and. MOVING INTO CONTACT . However. When being charged.
12. may be contacted for close combat. albeit disordered. not the entire column. however. It is generally the attacker that must conform to the defender.2. their opponents stopping just short of contact.
Purely Missile troops may only provide overlap support if they do not contact Shock opponents. may have horses specially trained to fight alongside camelry and/or elephants and are specified as such in the army lists. but those elements that fall short are within their own base depth of the intended target. Mounted Pro (Shk or Shk/Msl) may counter-charge if charged and any Pro eligible to evade may evade a charge without expending CoPs.FLANKS & REAR
Moving into Contact. then they may not come into contact. then they may line up with the target as intended. they will react in morale as Inferior. For example. if unable to counter-charge.
. but they may contact enemy elements only if their friendly formation remains stationary to receive charge. If any elements of a unit are beyond their own base depth and cannot reach the target. or are part of a formation already in combat. regardless of their class. must stand to receive the flank or rear charge. Friendly elements may move during the Normal Movement phase. or have moved to provide overlap support for a friendly element 26. may detach elements to face the flank/rear attack. Some specific armies. only its rear supporting element will have to conform along with the contacted element. If the other elements of the attackers fail to reach that far. Impetuous troops cease to be impetuous when attacked in the flank or rear. If both opponents wish to provide overlap support but their overlapping elements would then come into contact themselves. When any horse-mounted troops are charged by or attempt to charge Elephants or Camelry. or are encountered by pursuers. If the target is Psiloi (but not charged by Psiloi).
the Cavalry element on the left is within 90o of the flanks of the enemy unit and outside its Combat Zone.1
fig. If this would result in the Barbarians splitting up.2
In this example. other enemy to its front. b) It is outside the frontal area of its target and outside its Combat Zone. Flanking an opponent is a charge move and cannot be initiated as a normal move 27. the attacking Barbarians (shaded unit.
Flanks & Rear. non-Professional Sarissae and Untrained Spearmen may only initiate charge as units. the Spear unit on the left will conform by moving forward sufficiently to clear the obstructing elements to its rear in case it recoils. In this case. If charged or engaged to its front. Therefore. If the rear support is a deeper column of more than two elements. like Spearmen or Swordsmen may wheel into an enemy flank in one bound even if this slightly exceeds 5cm. it automatically becomes disordered regardless of its frontage. it cannot turn and will have to fight with a handicap of –1 for each flank being attacked and –2 if contacted to its rear. on top) should conform against both Spear units. However. but it is so arranged as to be able to recoil without obstruction (fig. must turn to meet the flank charge ( without expending CoPs). An element may charge the flanks or rear of an element if : a) It starts its charge move within a single wheel of no o more than 90 of its target’s flanks or rear. the flank attack will not be possible.
In the example. only those elements that provide rear combat support (two in the case of Sarissae. which must turn to face them. but is practically unable to do so. that must conform.1) and doing so would penalize its recoil (fig. then it is for the attacking player to decide whether to attack both Spear units split-up or to attack only the Spear unit to its front with part of its elements. due to insufficient space. to its right and to its front. the attackers must conform to its immediate rear support.2). If the flanked element has rear rank support.
. or Barbarians ) will turn to face the flank charge [See example below]. it is the Spear unit on the left. along with up to one rear rank and must also recoil to maintain contact with the rest of its unit [see example and Note below). The Cavalry on the right is outside 90o of the enemy flank. A recoil would then be an automatic kill. Any additional elements must recoil sufficiently to allow them to turn.fig.
Foot troops moving at 5cm a bound. or charged by. Both Cv elements could charge their opponent frontally. If the attackers are unable to conform. A flanked element not engaged with. but still cannot flank charge since it is within the unit’s frontal area.
If a unit is being flank-charged.
the formation is attacked from two sides simultaneously and becomes disordered. Heavy Chariots defeated
by Elephants. Then compare results. Cataphracts. following the principle below: • • • • Melee Factor (A) < Melee Factor (Z): ‘Z’ win.
Missile foot defeated by mounted. Flanked elements must recoil sufficiently to maintain contact with their unit. Heavy Chariots defeated by Foot Knights.
A recoil will become an automatic kill in the following cases:
N Any Close Order foot defeated by Barbarians . Foot Knights. for each of the opponent elements [‘A’ and ‘Z’] in contact a) add their respective Basic Combat Factors (BCF). The flanking force must conform with the second rank. the third rank element may also turn (CoPs permitting) to provide overlap support for the defenders. After the charge moves.3.1. Defeated ‘Z’ recoils Melee Factor double its opponent’s: Defeated element killed Melee Factor (A) = Melee Factor (Z): Draw.In fig. Wagon Laager. see Appendices II.Fast Knights. N Foot defeated by all Knights.1
In fig. which may turn together with its own rear support.
fig. Melee Table) and c) throw a D6 to determine their Melee Factors (MF). Defeated ‘A’ recoils Melee Factor (A) > Melee Factor (Z): ‘A’ win. M ELEE
Melees take place element by element and combat is considered as simultaneous. b) add or subtract tactical modifiers (for details of which. To resolve melees.
Troop Types – Basing].
12. Both flank elements may automatically turn to face the flanking force and the entire formation is disordered. Heavy Chariots [subject to terrain limitations] N Non-Fast Knights.3.2. it may lose contact with its parent unit because its width is usually greater than its depth. A and Z remain in contact and react according to formation result.2 NOTE: When a flanked element without rear support turns to meet its opponents.
N Elephants defeated by good quality (not Inferior or Untrained) Shock Psiloi or Peltasts. Cataphracts. a formation is attacked only in the flank.
fig. Scythed Chariots [for exceptions see 6.
If all engaged elements are defeated (Total Defeat). in which case both are lost). Those elements of the winning side that won or drew may follow-up their opponents depending on their troop type.occupy the vacant position by following-up.FOLLOWING UP
Recoiling. (including any that were winning. Any additional losses sustained from an entire formation having to recoil after combat do not count. it may only fight on -until defeated itself.
NOTE: If an element is victorious. Recoiling elements meeting other elements and unable to complete their recoil move will either push the obstructing elements
If. Elements defeated (and not automatically killed) in combat –including those in contact attacking flanks or rear. [See 12. however. 30
All troops (including Superior Shock ) will break if defeated and their unit has dropped to under 50% of its original strength (exception. the defeated react the same as above.
N If defeated while contacted simultaneously in front and flank (or rear). RECOILING .4.
N If forced to recoil and followed up over impassable terrain or obstructing units. depending on their troop type. Those of the winning side that were defeated must still recoil and try to rejoin their unit on the following round. If any cannot recoil due to being outflanked. for instance. but extra losses sustained from that round’s support shooting must be included in determining a unit’s morale. they are removed from play (prisoners).if Superior. Recoiling-Following up] Losses from melee should be removed from the ranks actually in combat (unless it is a 2E element or a supported Swordsmen element. a unit had a frontage of 3 elements and one of its elements was engaged and defeated. a second element was also defeated.
If an element is killed.
Also Shock/Missile and Missile/Shock troops respectively. however. but not those already pushed back in melee or any impetuous troops. all the elements of the losing formation must retreat one base depth. only this engaged element would have to recoil. it must flee along with any remnants of its unit. the two would then represent over 50% of the unit’s 3-element frontage and the entire unit would have to recoil becoming unformed in the process. at least one kill must always be from melee. either in melee or
due to formation defeat. either on the unit’s flank or on its front. Melees may affect the morale of an entire formation if the number of elements engaged represents at least 50% of the formation’s total frontage area28 as follows:
If total wins equal total defeats (Draw). Superior Missile and Ordinary Shock troops will break if at least two of their defeated elements were kills. like Barbarians ) their unit becoming unformed.
In calculating losses for unit morale. but their formation must also check for morale:
Inferior and Ordinary Missile 29 troops will break if at least one of their defeated elements were kills in the melee. Scythed Chariots defeated by any and Wagon Laager defeated
by foot.N War Engines. If. both sides stay engaged in combat with their losing and winning elements recoiling and following-up respectively.
. see NOTE below). but not those providing overlap support– must recoil their own or their opponent’s (if followed up) element base depth. its victor may -or must. as this is the result of the morale reac tion itself. Baggage. If not.4. but its unit has been defeated and has suffered losses of over 50% of its original strength. If defeats exceed wins (Partial Defeat).
it will also destroy the obstructing element. except Psiloi. If the recoiling element is Knights. disordered. that meets a friendly element facing in a different
direction. The top left Ss element will fight with rear support. Their detachment would then have fought as independent elements.
Example of Melee 1
fig. enemy or friendly. If these two recoil or if the top right element has to recoil. the Ss have their two rear elements turn to fight and become automatically disordered. otherwise treat as other foot.
. The rear elements that have turned will fight with one support.2
fig. but disordered. except Psiloi. if the charging pikemen were Professional. that recoil on friendly Elephants will be lost.
facing in the same direction will simply push it back and may cause disorder. either from combat or due to
formation defeat. disordered. except Psiloi.1
fig. but the main body would not have been disordered. in any direction. Cataphracts or Heavy Chariots.
§ Any element contacted on its flank and forced to recoil. that is forced to recoil on to an enemy element will be
lost. Any friendly element recoiling may push Psiloi back in any direction without penalty to either. If the obstructing enemy element is facing at a different angle to the recoiling element and the recoiling element is Knights.2).
§ Psiloi recoiling may interpenetrate all friendlies.
§ Any recoiling element. they could have detached any rear elements to face the flanking attackers and continue their charge forward disregarding the flank attack. except Elephants. without penalty. For any kills to take place through inability to recoil. Bowmen
recoiling may interpenetrate friendlies freely as Psiloi. will be lost.1). it will be destroyed along with the recoiling element. The top right Ss element will fight frontally without support. that meets a friendly element. destroy them or be destroyed themselves. one each will be destroyed (fig. will attack
them. Having rear support. if facing in the same direction. the victorious elements must follow up their defeated foes:
§ Any element.3). except Elephants. The outflanking Plt must conform to the two rear elements (fig. § Recoiling or uncontrollable Elephants meeting any elements.
§ Any element forced to recoil over impassable terrain (and followed up) will be lost.
§ Any recoiling element. Any.back (if Psiloi). will be lost (but if due to formation defeat will not count towards a unit’s after melee morale). Cataphracts or Heavy Chariots or if the enemy obstructing element is of Psiloi.
NOTE: In the example above.3
The Sarissae unit (Ss) is facing a Peltasts (Plt) unit (shaded) frontally and is being charged on its exposed right flank (fig.
2 (Sp Melee)+1 (rear
2 (Sp) –1 = 1 +6 (D6) = 7 . 2 (Sp) +1 (rear) = 3 +2(D6) = 5: Plt defeat-recoil 2 (Plt) +1 (Pro) =3 + 3 (D6)= 6 vs. Irregular and Untrained troops must test regardless of having stood to receive charge and must follow-up their victory on a D6 roll of 1.1). trained troops that have stood to receive charge.kill The Spearmen lose an element.Example of Melee 2
fig. that had no room to recoil.3
The Roman Auxilia Peltasts (shaded) [4 x Reg Plt(O). The second round (fig. The clash has degenerated into a freefor-all (fig. they stand and fight. This is an advance up to one base deep for elements that have defeated their opponents. Pro2. 2.3) with the more flexible Roman Professionals having a small advantage. and automatically disordering them. vs. Being Plt against Sp. 2 (Sp) +1 (rear) = 3 +1(D6) = 4: . may hold their elements (rally back) without expending CoPs. Shk/Msl] are attacking spearmen [6 x Reg Sp(O). 2 x [1+1(Pro)]= 4 vs. Shk] and being double-armed they throw Jls in support of their charge: a. but no longer as units. If the second melee on the flank had gone the other way.1) as follows: § § 2 (Plt Melee)+1 (rear support) +2 (cohesion) +1 (Pro)= 6 +3 (D6) = 9 support) –1 (unformed)= 2 + 4 (D6) = 6 . would have survived. but being Shock Ordinary troops.Sp kill (Flank) 2 (Plt) +1 (Pro)= 3 +1 (D6)= 4 vs. Both may continue to fight on as in fig. lining up with the Plt rear rank.
. become unformed and lose their spear advantage over Loose Order troops (fig. 2 x 2 = 4. The Romans have the option of following up for a second round or rallying in place to charge again on the following round.
Following up.Sp defeat 2 (Plt) +1 +2 +1 –1 (enemy overlap)= 5 +2 (D6) = 7 vs.2) will then have as follows: § § § 2 (Plt) +1 (rear) +1 (Pro)= 4 +5(D6)= 9 vs. The defeated unit recoils one (enemy) base depth and becomes unformed (if not already). AF to DF = 0. The Spearmen -not being Untrained. All Regular.have the opportunity of charging into the Romans’ flanks with their two right wing elements. H.draw
The spearmen have lost in one melee and drawn in a second for a partial defeat with over 50% of their unit frontage engaged.
NOTE. The two units will clash on the first round (fig. All impetuous troops and all Irregulars that have charged must always follow up. The rest of the spearmen unit will then fall under 2/3 strength and can only fight as independent elements. 2 (Sp) = 2 +5 (D6) = 7: Plt recoil-kill
The opponents have killed one each.2
fig. b.3. the third Peltast element. but the Plt have suffered a partial defeat (2 to 1) and must recoil. they prefer to push on so as not to allow the Spearmen to reform. Die roll of 2 x D6 = 11: .
Units that rout flee in disorder. they will then recoil along with the rest. including those that either were equals to or defeated their immediate opponent elements. except that evading units. it will become disordered and conversely. may refuse to allow routers through. or must react as Inferior. under circumstances. If the pursuit move is compulsory the pursuers will become disordered in the process. R OUTING . but will react normally. if eligible to interpenetrate them. NOTE: When a formation has suffered a partial or total defeat all the elements that fought against their victorious formation must recoil. The only exception to the above is impetuous troop elements that may still continue to fight and follow-up their victories. If these have no opponent to their immediate front they will attack their closest opponent within reach. above. who move behind them automatically.BREAKING OFF . If defeated in a round of melee. they will be treated as if caught while routing.Following-up has implications for the status of a unit: if a unit had been unformed. trained. If none is within reach. a follow-up after a victorious combat will automatically restore it. Close and Loose Order foot may never pursue.5. except if Psiloi or Bowmen. the part that was victorious will not be affected by the defeated part. They will rout on a die roll (D6) of 1 or 2.3. pursue with their unengaged elements. even if the rest of their unit has had to recoil. however. If caught. buildings etc. above. in which case the routers will halt on the spot (still as routers). If they have to evade and manage to outdistance their opponents they will end their move facing their opponents. Units that have been totally defeated in melee [see 12. The break-off move is identical to the evade move. Bowmen and Regular. for at least one round. Break-off moves are compulsory (and free) for defeat ed Open Order formations (foot or mounted). If the formation was fighting against two or more different formations and winning against one and losing against the other.Melee] or have sustained debilitating casualties or have failed a morale test. rout.
§ § §
Interpenetrating routers that fail to clear the base of any obstructing friendlies will continue to affect the interpenetrated troops until they are all through. The evade move is identical to the rout move. if successful in stopping the enemy charge do not have to execute the move. Ordinary troops may refuse to allow them through. may shoot with missile weapons before evading and.or any troops behind fortifications. or end up in. The only exception is troops that have become impetuous and are thus out of control. or breaks-off contact after combat. Breaking-off. Evading. If it was in order and by following-up. and takes place at the beginning of the following round. otherwise the friendlies must check for reaction:
Professional or Superior troops -except Rabble.PURSUING
Routing. requiring commander intervention to bring them to order. if the follow-up redressed its front. following up or rallying back. Routing elements (except if Psiloi) that cannot avoid intervening friendlies must attempt to go through them. Pursuing. The rout move must be generally away from any opponents and may go around intervening friendly troops as long as there is a gap 4cm wide and the routers do not pass through. its opponents opposite may.
12. it will cease to be in disorder.EVADING . This is determined as follows:
Cataphracts. may. or evades a charge. its front became broken. except Elephants. Open Order troops may interpenetrate freely with any troop type with no additional effect. any mounted. the Combat Zone of combat-capable enemy troops (in which case they are removed from play as captured). or must.
. When a formation routs. becoming unformed. Heavy/Scythed Chariots and Cataphracts and any Bowmen and Psiloi may attempt to breakoff combat. Inferior troops and Rabble must test for reaction whether interpenetrated or not.
without expending CoPs. Only Open Order pursuers may halt their pursuit to avoid contact (for free) and must stop 1 cm before contact. If there is no entry point free of enemy ZOCs the unit must enter from a different sector closer to its Command Element. while at least one element continues the pursuit of the routers. An exception are the Roman legionnaires that have the ability to rally their unformed units even when in contact. or. If no sectors are free of enemy ZOCs. If the pursuing unit had previously been disordered.6. The Pursued cannot kill their pursuers. recoiling or evading. If the pursuers win again. It will enter during the Normal Movement phase from the same sector it exited. If any pursuers meet any new enemy on the way and within their pursuit move. the first round of combat (or massacre) will be resolved immediately. If pursuers are unable to avoid the new target. breaking-off. it will fight any new melee disordered31. If elements retreat off-table when pursuing. until the pursued are either destroyed.
. NOTE: Troops. they must automatically charge against it.§ § § §
Psiloi always have the option of pursuing. must pursue on a D6 roll of 1.
If it was unformed its victory would have restored it to its normal status. the pursuers must pursue consecutively (but with a D6 only). Units that have become unformed may be rallied either during the Command and Rally phase of the following round. both sides use their combat factors. it must expend additional CoPs as necessary. become impetuous and must always pursue. or an adjacent one. but the routers can count no depth (rear support). but neither will they be counted as part of the Command. Rallying unformed troops expends 1 CoP per formation if Regular or Open Order. making it more vulnerable to a Demoralisation test. If the routers should defeat their pursuers or if the result is a draw. Irregular Knights and Heavy Chariots. regardless of result and any kill should be treated as a simple defeat. automatically. If it enters the table out of Command Control. 2. the pursuit must continue with a new rout and pursuit move. but may avoid contact with any new opponents they may encounter. they may charge against them with part of their troops. but any consecutive p ursuit move will be limited to only one D6. by winning a round of melee and then following up. Barbarians. When fighting against routers.
12. 2 CoPs if Irregular or Untrained. Units losing or drawing and still in contact with an opponent may not rally their unformed troops 32. or outdistance the pursuers. 2.
If t he pursued are caught. they will not be considered as casualties for a Demoralisation test or the final tally. If they fail to reenter. The new enemy (with any supporting units) will be able to shoot with missile weapons against the pursuers even if these had already been shot at. which have retreated off table when routing can never return to the table and are considered casualties. no cohesion bonus and have an extra –2 handicap for being hit in rear. by expending CoPs. from the point closest to its Command Element and at least 10cm from any combat-capable enemy element. or manage to beat off. the pursuers must stop the pursuit and rally where they stand. except Cataphracts. All Irregular or Untrained foot must pursue on a D6 roll of 1. or overlap advantages (side support). It is not a compulsory action but it is recommended. it may not enter until one is liberated. R ALLYING
Rallying is either for troops in rout or for units that have become unformed. All other mounted. but Regulars and Professionals can be held back with 1 CoP per formation. If the new target is also broken. they may return to the table after two rounds (including the one it exited) as an Outflank (needing 5 or 6 on a D6 for three rounds or 6 for another three). Any subsequent round of massacre will be resolved during the Combat and Rout Movement phase of the following round and so on. and Rabble S. this being the only occasion that a unit may be shot at twice during the same round.
5. Any troops laying in ambush behind hills become exposed when they are acquired through line of sight (enemy troops do not obstruct line of sight). is the prerogative of the ambushing player. each of which may hold up to 4 foot elements. walls) or Wagon Laager or field defences like stakes. may be p laced inside the town and can exit only through the main thoroughfare of the town. Ambushes are sprung at any moment during the Charge and Normal Movement phase – even during the opponents’ move– and may involve charging or shooting or both. rough or difficult terrain or behind hills.UP A REAS & F ORTIFICATIONS
Fighting in built-up areas & fortifications involves combat against troops in buildings or behind fortifications (palisades. Any enemy units engaged must immediately stop their movement on the spot and if charged. Another 4 elements. If CoPs are unavailable. In order to charge. the unit engaged will become automatically unformed. Their exact positioning. Command Elements. they must continue to rout. can never be rallied from rout. Inferior troops that have been ambushed must throw a D6 and will rout automatically on 1 or 2. Inferior troops. to the side that deploys first (by choice or not). but must be clearly marked on a sketch map before the opponent begins to deploy. If already unformed. Unless differently specified by scenarios. Town and woods hide all ambushing troops. Exiting a building does not require any special procedure and elements may exit from any of its sides. Rough and difficult terrain hides only foot troops. Rout Rallying Table]. FIGHTING IN B UILT. When the ambushing player wishes to reveal an ambush. Non-Inferior troops can also be rallied out of Command Control at additional CoP cost [see Tables II. allowed only in set battles.
14. but charging is prohibited. disordered. depending on troop type [see Tables II. a unit must first exit a building and then
For ambushes set in towns. Wagons or Elephants). represented (when visible) by placing one element on each side of the building. If they exit the table. stand to receive charge disordered. it will automatically rout. The total number of elements in a town may not exceed 16. a built-up area (or town) consists of four buildings. Fighting in Built-up Areas & Fortifications
. routers may never return.6. at up to half the table depth. the same limitations apply as per Chapter 14. troops must be placed on table immediately and cease to be in ambush. woods. More than one formations may take part in an ambush as long as there is room in the terrain feature chosen 33.Troops in rout may rally and become combat-capable after three rounds of routing (including the initial one). become visible only if approached within 6cm or if they decide to trigger the ambush by shooting and charging. For a formation to enter a building it suffices for its front element to reach it. Loose and Open Order troops (foot or mounted). Rabble and any elements of units that are under 50% of their initial unit strength. A MBUSHES
Ambushes constitute a special form of attack. Ambushes can be set in towns. Units inside built-up areas and permanent fortifications (not field fortifications) exert only a 3cm ZOC. and only by Fast. The ambushing units have priority over their ambushed opponents regardless of their Command’s initiative for that round. They may not shoot back or countercharge during that round. If the target-unit of an ambush is in deployment mode. Any ambushing troops inside towns or woods and foot in rough or difficult terrain. If the attack is aimed against a flank or rear. its entire Command must deploy immediately. he declares it and may then either make a tactical move and shoot or may declare charge. Once exposed. mounted or foot (not Chariots. To rally from rout they must be in Command Control and expend 2-4 CoPs per formation. Hills hide all troops but only from line of sight. CoP Expenditure Table. Ambushing troops are not visible.
If an element is partially opposite a combat-capable enemy and partially opposite a demoralized Command or routers. there is no rear support or automatic kills (like Barbarians against Close Order foot) for either defenders or attackers and no follow-ups or pursuits for the defenders. within 40cm. Missile troops in buildings and closed fortifications (like towers) have the ability to shoot allround regardless of angle. They will continue to attack the baggage elements until these are destroyed or until they themselves are defeated. without possibility of being controlled. Field fortifications are elements 4cm wide. In the case of field fortifications (stakes e tc. BAGGAGE
Baggage trains may affect both combatants: 1. Any elements that fail it must make an uncontrolled move towards their threatened baggage elements. and the attackers may enter and capture the building. Unengaged elements of a combat-capable Command that have line of sight and are within 40cm. of their own unprotected Baggage train being attacked 36 (or troops of any Command -if the entire baggage train is assembled in one place-) must pass the same reaction test. regardless of losses. Any unengaged and free to move 34 elements opposite enemy baggage 35. If the result is a draw. Any troops that recoil from assaulting buildings or fortifications already unformed by support shooting or other causes. Finally. they may only do so (foot units only) one element at a time (i. Missilemen behind field fortifications shoot with the same angle limitations as they would in the open. All may assault elements behind field fortifications. but the final melee outcome will affect all the defending elements inside as if they were a unit. Open Order troops do not need to breakoff and evade if defeated. it will remain disordered until the end of the round. 2. If they fail the test they become terminally impetuous and turn to attack the closest baggage element.e.
15.). The total number of fortifications (if available) will be specified in the Army Lists. If the defenders wish to exit from any other point. or over the fortification. without any defenders’ bonus. the obstacle is immediately removed from play and cannot be replaced. or cohesion bonus . they will recoil unformed and the melee will continue for another round inside the building. in which case they lose their impetuosity and regain their control. Also.declare charge on the following round. must pass (once) a reaction test during the Command and Rally phase of the following round. buildings or Wagon Laager. it does not need to test and will remain under control.
Baggage “under attack” may denote either unimpeded enemy within charge distance. but without rear support. Mounted troops may not assault permanent fortifications. not as a group) expending separate CoPs for each one. each of which may protect one element of troops. If the defenders are defeated overall. the defenders must rout. for each
i. The range to and from the shooting element should be measured from the walls of the building itself. Every assault against a building involves element -to-element combat. shall suffer an element kill. (resulting in an automatic kill if the recoiling elements are followed up). If the attackers lose they must recoil. Troops recoiling from melee on to fortifications (temporary or permanent ones) should treat them as impassable terrain.e. When any formation exits a fortification in this way. missile shooting or actual combat. unformed. not in combat or within an enemy Combat Zone. If they are defeated again in the second round.
. in which case they move in single column. the attackers shall recoil in order. if a defender has to recoil. Troops defending a building or behind any permanent fortification have their morale class upgraded by one and add a +1 to their melee factor. Charging from one building directly to another is allowed for foot troops. Elephants only may assault Wagon Laager and destroy it automatically if they push it back. Troops may normally enter or exit a fortification through its gate. Such troops can be controlled (held back) by expending 1 -2 CoPs.
1 additional point for each of the above if Professional or Superior 38 (½ if Psiloi)
2. or 1xD4 less if the Command has lost at least half of its elements and: 1. or all of them if it is concentrated in one area. regardless of their troop type. class etc. or witnessing its CE evading or breaking off combat without its troop type being eligible to do so. 3. the testing player throws either 2xD4 if the Command had an initial strength of up to 35 elements. if its initial strength was 36 elements or more.) 4. these troops will obey orders normally until they meet other routing or demoralised enemy troops. Checks the result in the table below: I.4.
. in which case they may counter-charge. Subtracts points for its killed and routed elements as follows:
§ § § §
½ point for each Rabble. The loss of a baggage train is cause for morale test for each Command affected. For the reaction test throw a D6 (Professional troops add 1 to the die roll):
§ § §
Irregulars and Inferior troops or Open Order mounted. Adds 1 point for each combat -capable Professional or Superior 39 element of the Command on table (½ if Psiloi). Subtracts 1-4 points (see Army List) if the CE is also lost or in rout.
37 38 39
Dismounted elements are valued as mounted. Mounted Regulars except if Inferior on 1 . either in rout. To test. 5. Demoralisation. plus its BIF. will engage them disordered.2. Its missile troops may still shoot normally. before the Command and Rally phase . or 3xD4. or witnessing the demoralisation of the C -in-C’s Command. 2 points for each Baggage. Once under control. become uncontrolled on 1 . If the result is zero. Knight.e. unless they are mounted being charged. Subtracts 2 points for each demoralised (on or off-table) or withdrawing (on-table) friendly Command.
Any uncontrollable troops attacking unprotected Baggage or meeting enemy combat-capable troops on the way. Troops stopped or defeated in combat lose their impetuosity. When a Command has lost at least one third of its elements (Psiloi count half). If there are 4 Inferior units and 2 Ordinary or Superior units: 4-2 = 2 x 2. but not unreliable ones. which may induce another impetuous rush out of control. II. the Command’s morale is unaffected and its units may continue in action until the next loss or rout is incurred.
16. Foot Regulars except if Inferior on 1 . Also subtracts 2 points for each combat-capable Inferior unit that exceeds the number of combat -capable non-Inferior units within the same Command (i. fleeing off-table or destroyed. Foot Knight.formation. or are moving to provide support for engaged friendlies.3. Morale tests take place at the beginning of the following round. 1 point for each element other than the above. or Psiloi element. as if being rallied from unformed. it must take a morale test. the player also adds the commander’s BIF. D EMORALISATION & WITHDRAWAL
I. or Heavy Chariot element 37. Rabble S and Fanatics never count for more than half a point regardless of their class. If the Command Element is still in play. If the result is positive . the Command’s troops are unwilling and may not make any charges or approach enemy troops within their ZOC. including any reliable and any cautious allied Commands. or upon losing its CE or its entire Baggage train. If the baggage is defended by any friendly troops the reaction test is not required. Same as above. subtract 4 points.
They may not initiate attacks of their own or counter charge and. not Baggage. only if the CE is still combat-capable. unless they are withdrawing (disregarding e nemy ZOCs). if enemy-occupied. on a die roll of 1 to 4.e. as long as its troops remain on table. Withdrawing troops remain combat-capable. Withdrawal. but have a lesser ZOC of 3cm. A withdrawing Command counts as demoralised for other friendly Commands that need to test for morale. If unable to continue the withdrawal due to enemy troops. 6. Withdrawing moves take place before any charges are declared. They enter in Deployment Mode and count as a fresh Command for demoralisation purposes with those troops that are available there and then.
Demoralised Commands can be rallied off table. Such fleeing troops only exert a ZOC of 3cm and disregard enemy ZOCs. even against routers (but see exception below). Any remaining troops of a demoralised Command may remain on table. To execute a withdrawal. Wagon Laager. 4. Each of its unengaged formations must immediately throw a D6 and will flee. They may. Troops that become impetuous must attack or pursue immediately their
. Once issued. Heavy or Siege War Engines ) of a withdrawing Command. only if the CE is still combat-capable. Troops returning to battle must enter from the same sector they exited or. Also. They may not initiate charges. by executing standard rout moves. however. Any of its troops that fled the battlefield in rout must test to return as in the case of a routed Command. but will react as Inferior. Such troops as are unable to rally. they may not voluntarily approach enemy ZOCs. A single formation as well as the CE may be kept back. Enemy troops (including CEs) not in contact with. Impetuous troops (like Barbarians. The order to withdraw is given at the beginning of a round. When fleeing they must continue towards their own table edge or entry sector (if they had arrived as an Outflank ) until they have all exited the table. as if executing a rout. If the result is negative . If so. must still attack if out of control. by the closest free sector. even if within an enemy ZOC. a combat-capable Command may voluntarily be given the order to disengage and withdraw at some risk since any Inferior or Untrained troops may misinterpret the order and flee. at the beginning of every round. like Barbarians or Irregular Knights. but may not be used to evade enemy charges by troops not eligible to do so. towards their own table edge or entry sector. the Command is considered to be demoralised and must begin to test for each of its formations to flee the battlefield. If a player wishes. Irr Knights) that have not fled. 5. they will continue to fight with a handicap of –2 per element. Impassable terrain must be circumnavigated. the Command must dice as an Outflank to rejoin the battle and then from the sector it exited or. despite the demoralisation effect. may become impetuous as in the case of Baggage and must pass the same test [see 15. Wagon Laager and War Engines cannot flee and must be abandoned to be captured. If already in contact. from the closest free sector. are lost. 6 and all other troops at 3. if not pursued by any opponents and 3 rounds after the exit of their last routing unit and must then dice (D6) for their surviving troops: Inferior or Untrained will rally at 5. Impetuous troops. however. ignore enemy ZOCs.Baggage]. after all charges have been concluded. instead of withdrawing. Mounted troops being charged while withdrawing may counter-charge if eligible but may not pursue if victorious and foot troops must stand and receive charge (they turn automatically when being charged). an order to withdraw may be rescinded three rounds after its last troops have exited the table. or within the Combat Zone of combatcapable opponents and within 40cm of fleeing troops of a demoralised or withdrawing enemy Command. may become uncontrollable and attack regardless of the withdrawal. to cover the withdrawal and delay any pursuers and this will be considered as a fully combat-capable force. M edium. as above. must move away from their opponents. if it is enemy-occupied. regardless of morale class or troop type. on a D6 roll of 1 or 2. if charged must either stand to receive or evade. after any compulsory morale tests and is executed during the Normal Movement phase. withdrawing troops may attack them but only to force their way through. if eligible.III. all unengaged mobile elements (i. II. but not once they have exited. and must continuously move away from the enemy and towards their entry sector. Baggage. but will still react as Inferior and fight with the –2 handicap.
17. augments its cohesion bonus by 1 and its own elements as well as those of the enemy disregard any overlaps. as long as it is advancing. which may form Wedge automatically.
I.closest routing opponents or move towards the enemy baggage train. still remaining on table to determine which side is the marginal victor and which the marginal defeated. WINNING A BATTLE
To win a battle decisively each side must either demoralise over half the enemy Commands including any reliable or cautious allied Commands. enemy missilemen shoot at w edge elements without overlap support. the battle is declared a winning o r losing draw and the two sides should compare total points of combat-capable troops.
. A Wedge may be formed upon initiating a charge (by expending an extra CoP) except if by Professional troops. [See example below]. without possibility of being controlled. but representing (together with any losses sustained in its other Commands) over half the value of the entire army in troop and command points. five and six elements.) may adopt a Wedge formation against most opponents in good going. A unit in Wedge.)
Examples of mounted troops in Wedge formation of three. four. APPENDICES I. or if the battle duration exceeds 4 hours (not including the initial set-up and deployment) and at least 15 rounds of play. whichever is closer. For campaign purposes an easy rule-of-thumb for calculating actual losses is the following (round odds down):
§ § §
25% of kills sustained from shooting. -but not unreliable ones.or at least one enemy Command. W EDGE. Only units may form Wedge. S PECIAL C OMBAT FORMATIONS
1. without suffering the same itself. Also. 50% of kills sustained from melee. Should both sides suffer similar conditions on the same round. or Demoralised Commands that have failed to rally. either charging. A Wedge cannot be employed by Untrained troops or independent elements. Certain units (Alexandrian Macedonian
Companions et al. plus command points. 100% kills sustained from massacres during pursuits or when surrounded. following-up or pursuing. (although rear support is still possible. Any troops that have exited the table in pursuit or withdrawing and have been unable to return shall not count as combat-capable for the above purposes.
An Alexandrian Companion (Reg Kn S/F.3
fig. The Persians throw javelins at the point element (without overlap support): 1 +1 (target Fast) vs.g. The Persian element recoils. [See examples below].1) Knights fight at: 3 +1(Pro) +2 (cohesion + wedge) = 6 +4(D6) = 10 vs. their unit becomes disordered and the Companions follow up. it may still function.
2. When Combined Elements fight together and if they are of different roles (i. 3).3) If any of a Wedge’s elements are either defeated or stopped by a draw. In the second round (fig. Shock and Missile) the destruction of one may affect the other. 2 = 0 +8 (2xD6) = 8 -No effect In the initial contact (fig. (fig. Mixed troops come in two categories. Shock Psiloi supporting Swordsmen or Cavalry) they can add their support to the melee factor of the front rank. Combination and Double-depth Elements: i.to improve their performance. Shock/Missile).e. but with a total penalty of –1 for the unit. Combination elements allow different types of troops. on their own specific bases.g. The main advantage of these mixed units are that they may use methods normally not allowed to other troop types: If the support is of a Missile type (e. the Wedge ceases to function as such and the unit automatically reverts to a normal formation to continue fighting (fig. Psiloi with bows supporting Spearmen) they can shoot from behind a front rank (which normally only Bowmen can do).
NOTE: The initial recoil of the Persians was not a partial defeat since the engaged element represented less than 50% of the unit’s frontage.2) the point element fights at: 6 +5(D6) = 11 vs. measuring distances from the front rank itself. but without any of the Wedge advantages. A number of armies may use different troop types within the same unit usually combinations of shock and missile troops. If mixed elements are of different protection level. Shock) unit in Wedge charges Persian cavalry (Irr Cv O. to move and fight either separately or together. one in support of the other.
fig. 2 +1 (rear) = 3 +2(D6) = 5 -Kill The other two Companion elements have the same factors (6 vs. M IXED UNITS. If they are of a Shock type (e.4). but disordered.4
If the unit is unformed by missile shooting.
fig. they use the better target factor of the two. Only the defeated element will be pushed back and the unit will not become unformed. They both score kills and the remaining Persians are routed. 2 +1 (cohesion) +1 (rear) = 4 +5(D6)= 9.
the defence factor per element will be that of the best protected.
. they will move and manoeuvre as Spearmen.A Combination Spearmen/Psiloi archers unit (Assyrians) in normal formation (fig. subtract 2 points from the total. for Missile/Shock the cohesion bonus would be that of double-armed Bowmen (i. if Shock/Missile. H. the Psiloi may move independently to overlap opponents or protect the flanks of the Spearmen. if Missile/Shock as Bowmen. unit cohesion depends on the primary role of the element: Shock/Missile allows the cohesion bonus of the Shock element (for example +3 for Spearmen). are calculated only once.2 below.1) The Cavalry unit may take the Psiloi along as long as it moves at their own maximum speed (7.e. the Psiloi may move independently to overlap or outflank opponents. Both may shoot at any time. on subsequent rounds they can be supported by their Hamippoi. fight (and die) as a single element. for the most expensive element of the two.
fig. The combined cost of the 2E element will be 5 +5 +2 (Reg) +2 (Double-armed) –2 (2E ) = 12 points. A Combination Cavalry/Psiloi shock unit (Greek Cavalry with Hamippoi) (fig. the Sp O. but costing less than the combined cost of the two individual elements. Wedge etc. Morale Class.1
fig. but with a –1 handicap for the unit because of the different protection level of the two troop types. 6cm x 6cm for mounted). supported by their rear archers. Double-depth elements (2E) are troop elements of different type and role on a deep base (4cm x 4cm for foot. The armoured Bowmen cost 4 +1 = 5 points for Bw O.1
fig.2) both ranks of Spearmen can fight with missile support from one rank of Psiloi archers. In the example below. +1). (fig.1) Only the front Spearmen can fight. The cavalrymen will charge without counting Psiloi support. A 2E element has the same movement limitations as specified by its primary role. Double-armed. A 2E element must be composed of troops of the same morale class and training level and in calculating their combined cost all the distinctives that are common to both like RegularIrregular. If a Spearmen element is killed. H element costs 4 +1 = 5 points. In the example above. In dense combat formation (fig. Professional-Untrained. The second element simply adds its basic ‘Ordinary’ cost plus any distinctive applicable to itself. In melee. its rear Psiloi support (being Msl) must flee. even if Shk/Msl. None of the two can have rear rank support in melee and for the Shk/Msl to have rear rank support in shooting they will need to be deployed in two ranks as in fig.2) In both cases.2
ii. like Heavy.
fig. but if their advance is stopped.5cm). Finally. which forces them to move.2
In both cases. Shooting distances for mixed elements are always measured from the front rank and when shot at.
it loses all Wedge advantages. They can also shoot to both their front and rear as a unit. then Principes and finally. On the right (fig. The formation may be adopted or abandoned at any point. To do this. All Light Horse may evade charges. S KYTHIAN SKIRMISHING FORMATION. element and a depth of two. purely Missile.On the left (fig. with Hastati in front. R OMAN MANIPULAR LEGION. if the first line of Hastati becomes unformed during combat or suffers losses. The main advantage of the Skythian is that skirmishing elements may shoot and evade opponents armed with lower-priority weapons before these can shoot back. skirmishing elements in Skythian may never charge or counter-charge opponents. On the adverse side. and fights as a it is very vulnerable along supported Cataphract element. The elements of the unit must be facing alternatively forward and back.
3. It reacts as a standard Cataphract element with an extra +1 to its [see I. may shoot in support of a charge like any double armed cavalry. but only outside an enemy ZOC.1.1 fig. In melee. their own shooting will be less effective (only half the elements may shoot in each direction and at –1 per target) and if they fail to outdistance the range of their opponents’ weapons at the end of their evade move they may still suffer missile attack. it always cohesion bonus . as a change of formation. Also. the Roman manipular legions may deploy in three lines 40 (each a separate unit). When stopped or disordered it has a frontage of one will still be a Wedge. The facing direction is not important for movement as Open Order troops can move freely in any direction.2) a Shk/Msl 2E unit (10th century Byzantines or Arabs). but without the +1 bonus. but with the limitation that like immunity from overlaps. The Skythian may be used only by trained. the player may pull them back to the rear of the Triarii and
Plus Psiloi in front who are treated as normal light troops.
4.) This allows a 2E Cataphract element (with or without archer support) to fight as Unlike a standard Wedge a unit in Wedge. deep Wedge unit (Byzantine Cataphracts.
.Wedge]. German Cataphract Knights etc. The effects of this may be minimized by adopting a specialized skirmishing formation -Skythian.for short. If Double-armed.2
A 2E element particular to very heavy shock cavalry is the single-element. Republican Roman manipular legions had the ability
of replacing tired troops in the front rank with fresh reserves from the rear. Examples of light horse archers in Skythian. When unformed. fig. it its deep flanks. Triarii. Light Horse Fast units (not independent elements).1) is Msl/Shk 2E unit (Achaemenid Persians). but may
still suffer missile attack before evading contact even if their opponents have shorter-ranged weapons. but alternative elements of the unit may shoot to either their front or rear on the same round depending on which direction the elements are facing.
even if this means a Spearmen element (Triarii ) supporting a Swordsmen element (Principes ) or vice-versa. with rear support from the Swordsmen should give them sufficient advantage to prevail over the weakened Barbarians. The Principes second line will be fighting in order. Also.
fig. The Hastati first line unit defeats one element (fig. regardless of enemy following-up. The reformed Hastati in the rear can engage the overlapping Barbarians on the right. the normal recoil rules do not apply and the Romans will always recoil up to their own base deep (1. but the Barbarians will now be disordered and at a disadvantage losing an element (fig.3
In the example above a depleted Roman legion is deployed in three lines to meet a Barbarian attack. formed troops while becoming themselves unformed or disordered. This replacement takes place at the beginning of the next round and costs the same as troop rallying from unformed. any engaged ranks may be supported by up to one rank from their rear. at a cost of 1 CoP. If the Romans suffer a kill on the Principes as well (fig.2
fig. To allow this.5cm).3).replace it with the second line of the Principes and so on with the third line so that its opponents will be fighting fresh.2). but it can take place even if the combatants are still in contact with the enemy. The Romans pull back their entire unit and exchange ranks.1) but suffers one kill and becomes unformed. which.
fig.2) they may exchange their second rank for the third line of Triarii (fig.
On the other hand. or when elements break formation. the unit(s) of the Shieldwall being attacked will instantly become disordered and will lose their special advantages (ceasing to be part of the Shieldwall until it can beat off the attack and rally). as long as its elements can maintain contact with each other. The order to form Shieldwall applies to all eligible troops of an entire Command. not individual formations within it. without expending CoPs. fill gaps etc. in contact with each other.) If they do. To form Shieldwall these must be in order. they will be vulnerable and risk being routed if any defeats or kills are inflicted on them. To do this. The Shieldwall will break into its constituent units when broken up. even if within enemy ZOC. grade etc. having an additional +1 bonus when losing regardless of class. SHIELDWALL. Selected
foot troops may adopt a formation known as Shieldwall which improves their ability to resist attacks. The order is considered as a group change of formation which takes an entire round to form.5. however. but its troops will not be able to make normal moves for the remainder of that round. A Shieldwall can be broken up by the CE before any charges are declared. a Shieldwall can automatically cover its gaps when losses are sustained. if flanked or attacked from the rear. but if any of its units have fallen below 50% of their initial strength. when shot from the front and react as Superior Shock for morale purposes when shot at or defeated in melee. or even if still in contact.
. Any elements in Shieldwall count as behind cover for missile defence purposes (+2). They are not. the remainder of the Shieldwall will not be affected. Troops in Shieldwall are not allowed to make any moves other than to redress their lines. immune to uncontrolled advance or follow-ups (individual elements may break formation to follow-up a victory. but limits their mobility. and outside known enemy ZOCs.
Rabble SHOOTING FACTORS Type Mass Secondary War Engines Rear support +1 Overlap support 3 +1 ea. Chariot or Open Order Target in cover or Psiloi shot by War Engines Shooter Unformed or in Skythian Shooting at long range (beyond 3 cm). crossbow. Foot Knights Barbarians. maximum handicap is –2. Wagon Laager. Light Horse. Peltasts. Knights. handgun (per element)
Maximum advantage for shooters per target is +5. darts. +1 ea. pila etc. SHOOTING TABLE
SHOOTING RANGES AND PRIORITIES War Engines Fast-Light/Medium/Heavy-Siege Bowmen with longbow Bowmen with bow Bowmen with crossbow Psiloi . handguns TARGET FACTORS Cataphracts. Baggage. affect only the main shooters. Cat. Camelry. mounted archers with bow Psiloi crossbow. +1 ea. TABLES
1. not the supporting elements. except if shot by sling. War Engines Spearmen.). longbow. Cavalry. Vulnerable Bowmen.
30/40/50 12 12 12 12 12 3 FACTORS 3 2 1 0 FACTORS
Cohesion 4 +1 -
Unformed -1 -1 1 1 1 or 2
SHOOTING TACTICAL MODIFIERS Shooter Professional Target deeper than three ranks except if Psiloi Target Fast troops Target mixed with different protection levels Target shot in rear except if Elephant. sling Hand-thrown missiles (javelins. except War Engines Shooter Untrained (per element) (per target) (per target) (per target) (per target) (per target) (per target) (per target) (per target) +1 +1 +1 +1 +1 -2 -1 -1 -1 -1
Target Heavy.II. Psiloi.
Any tactical modifiers like the Unformed handicap and qualitative modifiers like Professional or Untrained class. Chariots. Sarissae. Swordsmen.
(Secondary shooting may kill only one element).target unformed. Superior at 1.target unformed. charges etc. if defending. recoiling a distance of up to one full move –space permitting– if attacking or fleeing. but with a penalty of –1 for the unit.
If mixed elements are of different protection level.TARGET FACTORS] + 2 D6
9 10 11 12. All must test
War Engines. and must throw a D6: Inferior flee as above.
. but subtracting 1 from their die roll. 2 . (Secondary shooting may kill only one element). 1 kill
. 1 k ill. or less.
Any formation of Inferior troops suffering 2 kills must throw a D6 and flee at 1. all I or O (Msl) troops refuse to obey orders
Refusing to obey orders during a charge denotes that remaining elements either fail to close with the enemy. all troops refuse to obey orders. The second time is always a kill .target unformed. they use the better target factor of the two. 5 regardless of conditions. The cohesion bonus applies to the unit as a whole. Elephants.
Any formation suffering 3 kills. 2. 2E recoil only half an element deep.target unformed. Inferior must test . charges etc. 3. Ordinary at 1. Scythed Chariots and Wagon Laager ignore it. 1 kill . S HOOTING RESULTS TABLE
[ATTACK FACTORS .target unformed.
Elephants shot for the first time may either be killed or become enraged. not each individual shooting element. up to 2 kills . Charging single elements will refuse to obey orders unless Superior. reacts according to its morale class regardless of conditions. one on each side.3 4 5
Up to a maximum of 2 per target. all troops refuse to obey orders. O (Shk) or S (Msl) troops refuse to obey orders . 13 14. 15 16+
. non-S independent elements recoil one element base deep .
NOTE: Any unit suffering a kill at 50% of original strength.target disordered. up to 3 kills . must test as above. 4.
COMBAT FACTORS AND MODIFIERS MODIFIERS
BASIC COMBAT FACTOR
Knights Cataphracts Heavy Chariots Light Chariots Cavalry Camelry L i g h t H o rse Light Camelry Elephants
Rear support 1
up to 1 2 up to 1 3 up to 1 up to 1 5 FOOT
+1 +2 +1 +1 4 +1 +1 -
-1 -1 -1 -
3 2 3 2 2 2 2 1 5
3 2 3 2 2 2 2 2 5
Foot Knights Swordsmen Spearmen Sarissae Barbarians Peltasts Bowmen Psiloi Rabble.3. Elephants or crossing obstacle) Scythed Chariots
+1 +2 +1 +1 +1
+1 +2 +1 +1 +1
vs. Elephants or crossing obstacle)
Professional with Shock distinctive. Elephants)
. Command Elements. Troops fighting uphill of opponents or defending fortification or building (S) troops when defeated in melee (except if mounted vs. Baggage War Engines Wagon Laager
up to 1 7 up to 1 8 up to 2 1 or 2 9 up to 1 up to 1 12 -
+1 +2 +2 8 or +3 +2 8 or +3 +2 +1 or +2 +1 11 10
-1 -2 -1 -1 -
46 3 2 2 2 2 1 1 2 1 5
3 2 3 3 2 1 2 1 2 2 5
OT H E R TACTICAL MODIFIERS
Mounted in Wedge 13 (except vs.
3 ranks in all terrain. and at risk of suffering both ranks killed. Thus.) Only Shock Psiloi and only against other Psiloi. Each LCh formation– must attempt to break-off if defeated in melee by HCh. Camelry.(F) troops when defeated and (U) troops when drawing or defeated in melee 15 NonSs facing ordered Ss. Only on level. plus against any in rough or difficult terrain. grade etc. Baggage. Foot Knights always count –1 when drawing against foot regardless of class. The Untrained or Fast handicaps have priority over the troop class bonus. -1 ea. respectively Elephant crew without howdah against Elephant crew in howdah Element overlapped17 Element contacted in flank 18 Element contacted in rear
1 2 3
-1 -1 -1 -1 -1 ea. Finally. The +2 bonus is given only if the Scythed Chariots are advancing in good going. Bowmen. Except if overlapping a Wedge. a Professional Fast element will count both +1 in melee and –1 if it loses. not +1. not both. Regular Swordsmen can count rear support. Not if uphill. Handicaps are not cumulative so an Untrained Fast will only count the –1 of the Untrained not both. LO foot facing ordered Spearmen 16 Non-lancer Light Horse or Cavalry against lancer LH or Cv. Mounted. Except if any but Psiloi against Scythed Chariots. El) benefit from +1 when losing. except when initially charging. open ground. Light Chariots only count cohesion bonus against foot and are disadvantaged when fighting against Heavy Chariots.
13 14 15
. An element of a formation in Wedge contacted in flank will have the -1 handicap and will be unable to recoil if defeated. The Wedge bonus of +1 augments the cohesion bonus not the basic combat factor. Spearmen count rear support only when defending. Rabble and War Engines . the Superior Professional troops may count only the Pro +1 bonus. Knights and Cataphracts do not count rear support when unformed. Untrained Spearmen and Sarissae have a cohesion bonus of +2. Except if any but Psiloi against Scythed Chariots. Cataphracts count rear support only against foot and always (exc. Scythed Chariots. Thus. Only for Double-armed Bowmen (with a Shock distinctive. -2
-1 -1 -1 -1 -1 ea. plus against any mounted in rough terrain. Baggage. Bowmen. a Superior Fast or Superior Untrained element will count –1 when losing. -1 ea. or in rough or difficult terrain. Regular Peltasts have cohesion bonus of +2 in all terrain. Rabble and War Engines. recoiling etc. Loose Order Bb. Only Shock Light Horse have rear support and only against any Open Order. except if Greek hoplites. Except if unaccustomed horse troops against Elephants. The Professional bonus is never negated. 2 in rough. Close Order Bb fight in 3 ranks in good going. Irregular +2 in rough. -2
There is no rear support for any attackers crossing obstacle. +1 in good going. Elephants.
or Open Order troops Unformed rally for Irregular or Untrained troops Control of impetuous troops Disembarkation of naval infantry or mounting-dismounting Any move after the second consecutive march move. the defeated react the same as above.
5. Superior Missile and Ordinary Shock troops will break if at least two of their defeated elements were kills. C OP EXPENDITURE TABLE
ACTION PER FORMATION
1 1 2 1 per file 1 +1 1 2 check text 1 +1 +1
Move for any troops straight ahead. Any additional losses sustained from an entire formation having to recoil after combat do not count. If not.if Superior. however. see NOTE below).
NOTE: If an element is victorious.
In calculating losses for unit morale. as this is the result of the morale reaction itself.4. but extra losses sustained from that round’s support shooting must be included in determining a unit’s morale. MORALE AFTER MELEE TABLE
If all engaged elements are defeated (Total Defeat). but its unit has been defeated and has suffered losses of over 50% of its original strength. 42
All troops (including Superior Shock ) will break if defeated and their unit has dropped to under 50% of its original strength (exception. it must flee along with any remnants of its unit. it may only fight on -until defeated itself. Any move by Open Order troops March bound for an entire Command Wheel for Irregular Close Order foot Formation change for Irregular Close or Loose Order troops Wheel or formation change for Regulars or any in single file Wheel or formation change for Untrained Regulars Unformed rally for Regulars. at least one kill must always be from melee. except if on road Any move or rally outside command control or of Untrained troops
Also Shock/Missile and Missile/Shock troops respectively. but their formation must also check for morale:
Inferior and Ordinary Missile 41 troops will break if at least one of their defeated elements were kills in the melee.
N AVAL COMBAT TABLE
CLASS OF VESSEL
War Galley Trireme Boat
V ESSEL COMBAT FACTOR
5 4 2
Greek Fire Crew. Marines Professional Naval War Engines Crew Inferior Defeated in first contact
+3 +2 +2 -1 -2
. or Superior. ROUT RALLYING TABLE
TYPE OF TROOPS
All Regular. or Open Order.6. Barbarians. or Untrained troops CO PS 2 +1 +1
7. or Professional troops Irregulars (except the above) Irregular Knights.