1

6,17(=/,1*9,67,&*(1(5$/ Anul I 6SHFLDOLW LOH$úL% 2000 Const. Dominte, Zamfira Mihail, Maria Osiac SUMAR Introducere /LQJYLVWLFDJHQHUDO'HILQL LHúLVFXUWLVWRULF &'

/LPEDMúLDFWGHFRPXQLFDUHYHUEDO &'

)XQF LLOHúLFDUDFWHULVWLFLle definitorii ale limbajului (C.D.) &kWHYDGLKRWRPLL GLVWLQF LL

FRQFHSWXDOH &'.

$QDOL]DFRQWUDVWLY &'.

O.) 6FKLPEULOHOLQJYLVWLFH&RQWDFWXOGLQWUHOLPEL =0. Semnul lingvistic (M.

/LQJYLVWLFDVSD LDO =0.

) Compartimentele limbii (C.M.) 3ULQFLSLXOVWUDWLILFD LRQDODOOLPEDMXOXL &'.D. Limba în cadrul social (Z.

M.0%. Fonetica – studiul sunetelor vorbirii (C.O.&*(1(5$/ Const.67.675.67.) Lexematica – lexicologia (Z.) Fonologia – studiul fenomenelor sistemului (C.1*9.1( &$7('5$'(/. Zamfira Mihail.D.7(5$785.ù.) BibliogUDILHREOLJDWRULHúLIDFXOWDWLY Teme – subiecte pentru referate 3UHFL]UL Test de autoevaluare UNIVERSITATEA SPIRU HARET )$&8/7$7($'(/.D. Dominte./.&*(1(5$/ Anul I 6SHFLDOLW LOH$úL% INTRODUCERE &XUVXO GH OLQJYLVWLF JHQHUDO XUPUHúWH V-L LQWURGXF SH WLQHULL ILORORJL vQ VWXGLXOOLQJYLVWLFLLVOHSUH]LQWHRELHFWXOúLLPSRUWDQ DDFHVWHLGLVFLSOLQHFDúWLLQ D limbii.O.M.) Morfemul (M. Maria Osiac CURS DE LING9.) Sintaxa (Z. .) Semantica (M.

/.6725.1*9..6&857. amintim: metodele de cercetare. UDSRUWXOGLQWUHOLQJYLVWLFúLDOWHúWLLQ HSULQFLSDOHOHúFROLOLQJYLVWLFHVWUXFWXUDOLPELL OHJLOHOLPELLOLPEDMOLPEYRUELUHUHOD LLOHGLQWUHOLPEúLJkQGLUHOLPEúLVRFLHWDWH clasiILFDUHDOLPELORUvQUXGLUHDGLQWUHOLPELúLIRUPDUHDIDPLOLLORUOLQJYLVWLFHIRQHWLFD úLIRQRORJLDOH[LFRORJLDJUDPDWLFDFDX]HOHVFKLPEULORUOLQJYLVWLFH 6WXGHQ LL WUHEXLH IDPLOLDUL]D L FX R VHULH GH WHUPHQLúLGHQR LXQLFDUHDSDU LQ exclusiv lingvistLFLL FX RELHFWXO úL PHWRGHOH VSHFLDOH GH LQYHVWLJD LH V LQWHJUH]H QRLOHLQIRUPD LLvQVLVWHPXOSURSULXGHJkQGLUH 6HPLQDUXO YHULILF DVSHFWH WHRUHWLFH DSURIXQGkQG SULRULWDU SH FHOH SUDFWLFaplicative.&$*(1(5$/'().67.& /LQJYLVWLFD JHQHUDO HVWH WHRULD JHQHUDO D VWXGLXOXL OLPEDMXOXL DGLF D VWXGLXOXLFRPXQLFULLYHUEDOH SULQFXYLQWHúLFRPELQD LLvQWUHFXYLQWH.(ù.1.2 Dintre problemele care fac obiectul cursului.

LQWHUXPDQHvQ FDGUXOVRFLHW LL(DQXVHFRQIXQGFXILORVRILDOLPEDMXOXLFDUHVHUHIHUODOLPEDMvQ reOD LHFXDOWHDFWLYLW LXPDQHvQVSHFLDOFXJkQGLUHD/LQJYLVWLFDJHQHUDOWUHEXLHV ILHGHRVHELWúLGHVHPLRWLFVWXGLXOWHRUHWLFDOWXWXURUWLSXULORUGHVHPQHúLDOUROXOXL ORU vQ DQVDPEOXO YLH LL VRFLDOH 6H SRDWH YRUEL GH R VHPLRWLF H[WUDOLQJYLVWLF UHSUH]HQWkQGVWXGLXOVHPQHORUQHOLQJYLVWLFH FURPDWLFHRSWLFHROIDFWLYHHWF.

úLGHR VHPLRWLF OLQJYLVWLF DGLF VWXGLX DO XQLW LORU OLQJYLVWLFH PRUIHPH FXYLQWH HQXQ XUL.

. SULYLWH FD VHPQH 6H vQ HOHJH F OLQJYLVWLFD JHQHUDO vQ FDOLWDWH GH Weorie a OLPEDMXOXLVHDIOvQUHOD LLPDLVWUkQVHFXVHPLRWLFDOLQJYLVWLF 7HRULD FRPXQLFULL DUH XQ RELHFW IRDUWH ODUJ GH VWXGLX SULYLQG FRPXQLFDUHD vQWUH RDPHQL FRPXQLFDUHD vQWUH RDPHQL úL FDOFXODWRDUH FRPXQLFDUHD vQWUH LQGLYL]L DSDU LQkQG DOWRU VSHFLL GH YLH XLWRDUH HVWH XQ GRPHQLX IRDUWH ODUJ LQFOX]kQG GHFL úL FRPXQLFDUHD YHUEDO úL QXPDL SULQ DFHVW GRPHQLX GLQ XUP OLQJYLVWLFD JHQHUDO VH DIO vQ UHOD LH FX WHRULD JHQHUDO D FRPXQLFULL ùL ILORORJLD VH SRDWH UDSRUWD OD OLQJYLVWLFD JHQHUDO 3ULQ ILORORJLH VH vQ HOHJH VWXGLXO FRPSOH[ DO OLPELL úL OLWHUDWXULL XQXLSRSRUVDXDOHXQRUSRSRDUHvQUXGLWHOLQJYLVWLFDJHQHUDOIXUQL]HD]FRQFHSWHOHúL ÄDSDUDWXUDWHRUHWLF´FRPSRQHQWHLOLQJYLVWLFHDILORORJLHL ùWLLQ D OLPELL D SDUFXUV R LVWRULH vQGHOXQJDW GLYL]DW FRQYHQ LRQDO vQ GRX HWDSH HWDSD SUHúWLLQ LILF GLQ $QWLFKLWDWH SkQ OD vQFHSXWXO VHFROXOXL DO .-OHD..

 úL HWDSD úWLLQ LILF GH OD vQFHSXWXO VHFROXOXL DO ...-OHD SkQ vQ ]LOHOH QRDVWUH.

 /LQJYLVWLFD D GHYHQLW R úWLLQ  GXS DSDUL LD SUimei metode specifice de cercetare a IHQRPHQXOXL OLQJYLVWLF PHWRGD FRPSDUDWLY-LVWRULF  SULQ RSHUD OLQJYLVWXOXL JHUPDQ )UDQ] %RSS.

ca facultate general XPDQGHDFRPXQLFDYHUEDOvQGRXDVSHFWHLPSRUWDQWHOLPEDFDVLVWHPGHVHPQH YHUEDOHúLGHUHOD LLvQWUHDFHOHVHPQHúLYRUELUHDFDSXQHUHvQIXQF LXQHDVLVWHPXOXL úL UH LQHD FD RELHFW SURSULX OLQJYLVWLFLL QXPDL OLPED QX úL YRUELUHD. úL GXS FRQWXUDUHD RELHFWXOXL HL GH VWXGLX  SULQ RSHUD OLQJYLVWXOXLHOYH LDQ)HUGLQDQGGH6DXVXUHFDUHDQDOL]D limbajul.

 /LQJYLúWLL IXQF LRQDOLúWL FRQWHPSRUDQL 5-DNREVRQ$0DUWLQHW(&RúHULX.

ÌQ HWDSD SUHúWLLQ LILF D OLQJYLVWLFLL vQ .DXRYL]LXQHPDL ODUJ DVXSUD RELHFWXOXL OLQJYLVWLFLL FRQVLGHUkQG F WRWXúL QX OLPED FL OLPEDMXO constituie acest obiect. au fost GHVFRSHULWH DOWHUQDQ HOH IRQHWLFH úL DFFLGHQWHOH GH FRDUWLFXOD LH VDQGKL.QGLD DQWLF V-D DMXQV OD R EXQ clasificare articulatorie a sunetelor limbii sanskrite (în special a consoanelor).

 D IRVW LQWXLW conceptul de fonem (sphota)FDúLVWUXFWXUDPRUIHPDWLFDFXYLQWHORUGHDVHPHQHD – FRQFHSWXOÄPHWDOLPEDM´ÌQ*UHFLDDQWLFV-DXSXVED]HOHUHWRULFLLúLDOHILORORJLHLV-au .

3 GLVRFLDWPRUIRORJLDúLVLQWD[DvQLQWHULRUXOJUDPDWLFLLV-DVFKL DWRIRQHWLFLQFLSLHQW dar – mai ales – D IRVW LQL LDW ILORVRILD OLPEDMXOXL 3UHOXkQG vQY WXUD JUHFLORU URPDQLL DX GDW PDUH DWHQ LH FXOWXULL XQHL OLPEL OLWHUDUH ODWLQD FODVLF.

 FRPEWkQG dintr-R SHUVSHFWLY QRUPDWLY DEDWHULOH GH OD DFHVWH IRUPH GH OLPE FH DYHDX V ILH cunoscute mai tkU]LX FD ODWLQ YXOJDU SRSXODU.

. culminând cu Gramatica de la Port-Royal (1660) – o gramDWLF ÄUD LRQDO´DOLPELLIUDQFH]HGLQSHUVSHFWLYDFDWHJRULLORUORJLFH'DQWH$OLJKLHULvQF  vQDLQWH GH 5HQDúWHUH VH UHIHUHD OD GLDOHFWHOH OLPELL LWDOLHQH (YXO 0HGLX HXURSHDQ UPkQHDvQVGRPLQDWGHRPDUHHURDUHvQSULYLQ DJORWWRJHQHWLFLL DRULJLQLi limbilor): VHFUHGHDvQVSLULWXO%LEOLHLFWRDWHOLPELOHFXQRVFXWHDUSURYHQLGLQHEUDLFLGHHD FUHL IDOVLWDWH DX GHPRQVWUDW-o mai ales secolele al XVII-OHD úL DO . iar altele –GLQVSUHYHFKHD*UHFLH/DDUDELFDúLODFKLQH]LVHGH]YROW LQWHUHVXO ID  GH GLYHUVLILFDUHD GLDOHFWDO D OLPELORU PDQLIHVWDW PDL vQWkL vn vechea FXOWXU D *UHFLHL ÌQ (YXO 0HGLX HXURSHDQ vQ HSRFD VFRODVWLFLL V-a acordat interes DFFHQWXDW UDSRUWXULORU GLQWUH H[SULPDUHD OLQJYLVWLF úL JkQGLUHD FRUHFW UHJXOLOH úL principiile logice). GLQ FDUH VH YRU GH]YROWD OD vQFHSXWXULOH (YXOXL 0HGLX OLPELOH QHRODWLQH vQWUH FDUH úL URPkQD 7RW vQDQWLFKLWDWH DXDSUXWSULPHOHJORVDUHúLFKLDUGLF LRQDUHELOLQJYHFDRSUHILJXUDUHDSUHRFXSULORU lexicologice de mai târziu.9.. De DWXQFL vQ ORFXO LSRWH]HL PRQRJHQHWLFH D OLPEDMXOXL úL-a croit drum ipoteza SROLJHQHWLF LGHHD F OLPEDMXO D DSUXW vQ PDL PXOWH SXQFWH GH SH JORE vQ PRG independent).-lea. În Evul Mediu s-D QVFXW ILORORJLD DUDE FX XQHOH VXJHVWLL YHQLWH GLQVSUH vechea Indie. ÌQFGLQ$QWLFKLWDWHDXIRVWVFKL DWHWUHLSHUVSHFWLYHGLQFDUHSRDWHILVWXGLDW RULFHOLPED.

SHUVSHFWLYDGHVFULSWLY GHVFULHUHDOLPELLDúDFXPIXQF LRQHD]HDvQ SURFHVXO GH FRPXQLFDUH YHUEDO OD XQ PRPHQW GDW.

 E.

 SHUVSHFWLYD HYROXWLY FHUFHWDUHD OLPELL GLQ SXQFWXO GH YHGHUH DO PRGLILFULORU SH FDUH HD OH VXIHU GH-a lungul timpului) – PDL VODE UHSUH]HQWDW WRWXúL F.

FRQIRUP FUXLD XQD úL DFHHDúL QR LXQH HVWH H[SULPDWvQFKLSIHOXULWGHODROLPEOD DOWD H[URPkQRPUXVþHORYHNJHUPDQ0DQQPDJKLDUHPEHUWXUFDGDP DUDE LQVDQXQ FKLQH] UHQ HWF. 'DU úWLLQ D OLPELL D DSUXW R GDW FX SULPD PHWRG SURSULH GH FHUFHWDUH D limbii: metoda comparativ-LVWRULFGHMDDPLQWLW3ULQDFHDVWPHWRGVHvQ HOHJHXQ DQVDPEOXGHSULQFLSLLúLSURFHGHHDSOLFDWHvQFHUFHWDUHDOLPELORUvQUXGLWHSHQWUXDOH lumina trecutul (pre)istoric. Principiile ei sunt: 1) arbitrarul semnului lingvistic. SHUVSHFWLYD FRPSDUDWLY (cercetaUHDHOHPHQWHORUGHRVHELWRDUHGLQWUHOLPELúLPDLDOHVDDFHORUDDVHPQWRDUH sau chiar comune unor limbi diferite).

 .

 UHJXODULWDWHD VFKLPEULORU IRQHWLFH FRQIRUP FUHLDvPSUXPXWXULOHGLQWU-ROLPEvQWU-DOWDVHIDFIUIRDUWHPDULPRGLILFULIRQHWLFH vQVFKLPEHOHPHQWHOHOH[LFDOHPRúWHQLWHGLQWU-ROLPE-PDP SURWROLPE.

noctem.vQOLPELOHILLFHUH]XOWDWHSULQGLYHUVLILFDUHDFHOHLGLQWkLVXIHUDQXPLWHPRGLILFULUHJXODWH H[ grupul latin ct din lacte. octo devine pt în roPkQODSWHQRDSWHRSWGHYLQHWW vQ LWDOLDQ ODWWH QRWWH RWWR UHVSHFWLY LW vQ IUDQFH] ODLW QXLW KXLW HWF.

 (YROX LD JUXSXOXL ODWLQ FW VSUH URP SW LW WW IU LW vQ FXYLQWH URPDQLFH GLQ ODWLQ HVWH R VFKLPEDUH IRQHWLF UHJXODW FD IHQRPHQ LVWRULF GH RUGLQ IRQHWLF.

 SH FkQG UHOD LD GLQWUH URP SW LW WW IU LW HWF FRQVWLWXLH XQ QXPU GH FRUHVSRQGHQ H IRQHWLFH vQWUH limbile neolatine (ca fenomene de ordin fonetic comparabile într-RDQXPLWHSRFGLQ HYROX LD DFHORU OLPEL.

: rom. grupul ct în pt). nocturn. pectoral. 'H UH LQXW F VFKLPEULOH IRQHWLFH UH]XOWDWH QX VH SURGXF vQ cuvintele împrumutate (ex. /LPELOHvQUXGLWHDGLFSURYHQLWH – prin diversificare –GLQDFHHDúLSURWROLPE IRUPHD] IDPLOLL GH OLPEL 'H SLOG IDPLOLD GLQ FDUH IDFH SDUWH OLPED URPkQ VH . pectorale nu au schimbat. din acest motiv. cu bazele latine nocturnus.

4 QXPHúWH LQGR-HXURSHDQ úL VH vPSDUWH vQ PDL PXOWH VXEIDPLOLL VDX UDPXUL GH OLPEL GLQWUHFDUHVHPHQ LRQHD]PDLMRVQXPDLFHOHDFWXDOHUDPXUDURPDQLFVDXQHRODWLQ FXURPkQDLWDOLDQDVkUEDUHWURURPkQDIUDQFH]DFDWDODQDVSDQLRODSRUWXJKH]DúD.

 UDPXUD JHUPDQLF FX JHUPDQD HQJOH]D OLPELOH VFDQGLQDYH úD.

slovaca úD JUXSXO GH VXG VORYHQD FURDWD VkUED EXOJDUD. grupul de vest: polona. ucraineana. UDPXUD VODY FX grupul de est: rusa. bielorusa. ceha.

WDGMLND NXUGD úD. greaca. UDPXUD FHOWLF LUODQGH]D JDOH]D bretona). albaneza –WRDWHDFHVWHDYRUELWHvQ(XURSDLDUXQHOHGLQWUHHOHúLvQ $PHULFL $VLD $IULFD $XVWUDOLD DUPHDQD UDPXUD LUDQLF FX QHRSHUVDQD DIgana.

 UDPXUD LQGLDQ FX KLQGL XUGX EHQJDOL LJQHDVF úD.

Hvostokov) etc. FDUH VH vorbesc în Asia de Sud-vest. P. slavistica (studiul comparat al limbilor slave – întemeiat de rusul Al. comparatistica indo-HXURSHDQ D IRVW VWUOXFLWUHSUH]HQWDWGHIUDQFH]XO$QWRLQH0HLOOHW&HOGLQWkLLQGR-europenist român a fost B. 1836). Hr. Hasdeu. germanistica (studiul comparat al limbilor germanice – întemeiat de lingvistul german Jakob Grimm). La dezvoltarea romanisticii au mai contribuit austriecii Hugo 6FKXFKUGWúL:LOKHOP0H\HU-/ENH DXWRUDOSULPXOXLGLF LRQDUHWLPRORJLFDOOLPELORU URPDQLFH. În secolul al XX-lea. 2 GDW FX vQ HOHJHUHD UDSRUWXULORU GLQWUH DFHVWH OLPEL D DSUXW FRPSDUDWLVWLFD indo-HXURSHDQ GXS PRGHOXO FUHLD DX DSUXW URPDQLVWica (studiul comparat al limbilor romanice – întemeiat de lingvistul german Friedrich Diez.

 IUDQFH]XO *DVWRQ 3DULV úL DO LL ÌQ OLQJYLVWLFD URPkQHDVF GXS +DVGHX FRQWULEX LL LPSRUWDQWH DX DYXW $O 3KLOLSSLGH vQWHPHLHWRUXO úFROLL OLQJYLVWLFH de la .DúL.

2YLG'HQVXVLDQX IRQGDWRUXOúFROLLOLQJYLVWLFHGHOD%XFXUHúWL.

úL6H[WLO3XúFDULX IRQGDWRUXO úFROLL OLQJYLVWLFH GH OD &OXM FRRUGRQDWRU DO PDUHOXL GLF LRQDU-tezaur al OLPELL URPkQH úL DO XQXL EXQ DWODV OLQJYLVWLF URPkQHVF.

RUJX .RUGDQ URPkQLVWXO $OH[DQGUX 5RVHWWL FODVLFLVWXO úL URPkQLVWXO $OH[DQGUX *UDXU vQWHPHLHWRU DO OLQJYLVWLFLL JHQHUDOH OD 8QLYHUVLWDWHDGLQ%XFXUHúWLVODYLVWXO(PLO3HWURYLFL La limita dintre secolele al XIX-OHD úL DO . LDU OD MXPWDWHD secolului al XX-OHD úL GXS DFHHD URPDQLVWXO .-OHD DX DSUXW vQ 2FFLGHQWXO (XURSHL GRX QRL PHWRGH GH FHUFHWDUH OLQJYLVWLF IRQHWLFD H[SHULPHQWDO VWXGLXO VXQHWHORUDUWLFXODWHFXDMXWRUXOXQRUDSDUDWHVSHFLDOHLQL LDWGHIUDQFH]XO-5RXVVHORW..

 úLJHRJUDILDOLQJYLVWLF UHSUH]HQWDUHDFDUWRJUDILFDUVSkQGLULLWHULWRULDOHDDQXPLWRU SDUWLFXODULW L OLQJYLVWLFH LQL LDW GH HOYH LDQXO - *LOOLHURQ.

 7HRULD OLPELL VDX OLQJYLVWLFD JHQHUDO D IRVW UHYROX LRQDW vQ (XURSD GH FWUH )HUGLQDQG GH 6DXVVXUH prin Curs-XOGHOLQJYLVWLFJHQHUDOSXEOLFDWSRVWXP .

LDUvQ$PHULFDGHFWUH Leonard Bloomfield prin volumul Language (1933). )HUGLQDQGGH6DXVVXUHDWUJHDDWHQ LDDVXSUDFDUDFWHUXOXLVRFLDODOOLPELLúLD IDSWXOXL F OLPED HVWH XQ VLVWHP GH VHPQH FHHD FH LPSOLFD vQFDGUDUHD lingvisticii teoretice în domeniul mai larg al semioticii. Tot el a reorientat studiul limbii dinspre SHUVSHFWLYD LVWRULF VSUH DFHHD GHVFULSWLY PRWLYkQG F vQ IHOXO DFHVWD VH SRDWH identifica mai pregnant sistemul lingvistic. A definit cuvântul ca semn format prin DVRFLHUHDXQXLVHPQLILFDQW LPDJLQHDFXVWLF.

FXXQVHPQLILFDW FRQFHSW.

úLDDUWDWF VHPQHOH OLQJYLVWLFH VH RUJDQL]HD] SH R LPDJLQDU D[ DVRFLDWLY vQ YDULDWH VHULL IOH[LRQDUH OH[LFDOH HWF.

 úL SH R LPDJLQDU D[ VLQWDJPDWLF vQ úLUXUL constând din FRPELQD LL DOH ORU /LPED ILLQG GXS 6DXVVXUH SULQWU-R VXJHVWLH SUHOXDW GH OD vQDLQWDúL.

 R IRUP úL QX R VXEVWDQ  VH FRQWXUHD] vQ IHOXO DFHVWD R OLQJYLVWLF IRUPDOVDXLQWHUQvQRSR]L LHFXOLQJYLVWLFDH[WHUQDOFUHLRELHFWHVWH reprezentat GHUHOD LLOHOLPELLFXDOWHIHQRPHQHVRFLDOH'LQOLQJYLVWLFDLQWHUQVDXVVXULDQDYHDV VHGH]YROWHvQHSRFDLQWHUEHOLFVWUXFWXUDOLVPXOOLQJYLVWLFHXURSHDQ $FHVWFXUHQWOLQJYLVWLFDIRVWUHSUH]HQWDWSULQGRXúFROLLPSRUWDQWHùFRDODGH lD 3UDJD vQWHPHLDW GH OLQJYLúWLL FHKL vQ IUXQWH FX 9LOpP 0DWKHVLXV FURUD OL V-au .

privite din punct de YHGHUH IXQF LRQDO úL QXPLWH IRQHPH.5 DOWXUDWUXúLL167UXEH NRLúL5-DNSEVRQúLùFRDODGHOD&RSHQKDJDvQWHPHLDWGH OLQJYLúWLL GDQH]L /+MHOPVOHY úL +-:GDOO ùFRDOD GH OD 3UDJD D vQWHPHLDW R QRX discipOLQ OLQJYLVWLF IRQRORJLD VWXGLXO VXQHWHORU-tip ale limbii.

 LDU ùFRDOD GH OD &RSHQKDJD D GXV PDL GHSDUWH VFKL DGHVWXGLXIRUPDODOOLPELLLQL LDWGH6DXVVXUHSULQGH]YROWDUHDXQHLOLQJYLVWLFL FHQWUDWHSHLQWHUHVXOQXDWkWSHQWUXXQLW LOHOLPELLFDDWDUHFkWSHUHOD LLOHGLQWUHHOH FRQFHS LHSXUWkQGGHQXPLUHDJORVHPDWLF Americanul L. întemeietor al structuralismului mecanicist FXQRVFXW úL VXE GHQXPLUHD GHVFULSWLYLVP.Bloomfield.

întemeietorul etnolingvisticii (studiul OLPELLvQVWUkQVUHOD LHFXvQWUHDJDFXOWXUDXQHLFRPXQLW LXPDQH. au introdus conceptul „context diagnostic”. D GDW PDUH DWHQ LH ODWXULL GH H[SUHVLH D XQLW LORUOLPELLQHUHVSLQJkQGODWXUDORUGHFRQ LQXWGDUFRQVLGHUkQG-RFDH[WHULRDU OLPELL FD RELHFW GH VWXGLX DO DOWRU úWLLQ H GHFkWOLQJYLVWLFD(OúLGLVFLSROLLVLDXGDW DWHQ LH GLVWULEX LHL YDULDWHORU HOHPHQWH úL XQLW L DOH OLPELL vQ FDGUXO FRPELQD LLORU posibile dintre ele. util definirii formale a GLIHULWHORU FODVH GH XQLW L 8Q VWUXFWXUDOLVP GH WLS RSXV úL DQXPH PHQWDOLVW D promovat lingvistul american Edward Sapir.

=$&2175$67.DXWRUDOXQXLDOW volum cu titlul Language (421). $1$/.9 Într-ROHF LHDQWHULRDUDXIRVWPHQ LQXWHFHOHWUHLSHUVSHFWLYHdin care poate fi VWXGLDW RULFH OLPE /H UHDPLQWLP DLFL SHUVSHFWLYD GHVFULSWLY VDX VLQFURQLF. 'LQ vQFHUFDUHD GH D FRQFLOLD GLUHF LD PHFDQLFLVW D VWUXFWXUDOLVPXOXL descriptivist cu aceea PHQWDOLVWDDSUXWvQ68$vQDGRXDMXPWDWHDVHFROXOXLDO XX-lea. curentul gramaticilor generative-WUDQVIRUPD LRQDOH LQL LDWRUXO FUXLD HVWH Noam Chomsky.

 SHUVSHFWLYDHYROXWLY VDXLVWRULF.

consacrat limbilor înrudite. împrejurare în care pot fi comparate RULFkWGHPXOWHOLPELFXVLQJXUDFRQGL LHFDHOHVSURYLQGLQWU-un prototip lingvistic (dintr-RSURWROLPEVDXÄOLPEPDP´vQXUPDGLYHUVLILFULL.úLSHUVSHFWLYDFRPSDUDWLY (VWHGHSUHFL]DWFODFHDGLQXUPVHSRDWHUHFXUJHQXPDLvQDVRFLHUHFXXQD dintre primeOH'LQDVRFLHUHDSHUVSHFWLYHORUHYROXWLYúLLVWRULFDOXDWQDúWHUHVWXGLXO comparativ-istoric.

 $VRFLHUHD SHUVSHFWLYHORU GHVFULSWLY úL FRPSDUDWLY D GDW QDúWHUH VWXGLXOXL comparativ-VLQFURQLF FXQRVFXW VXE QXPHOH GH DQDOL] FRQWUDVWLY VDX FRQIURQWDWLY FRQIUXQWDWLY.

 ÌQWU-un astfel de studiu sunt luate în considerare. nu mai PXOWGHGRXOLPELLQGLIHUHQWGDFHOHVXQWvQUXGLWHVDXQXFRQGL LDGHUHVSHFWDWILLQG FD VWDGLLOH FRPSDUDWH DOH FHORU GRX OLPEL V ILH FRQWHPSRUDQH $QDOL]D FRQWUDVWLY HVWHQHFHVDUúLXWLOVWXGLXOXLWLSRORJLFDOOLPELORUPHQLWVSXQvQHYLGHQ FHHDFH HVWHFRPXQGDUPDLDOHVFHHDFHHVWHGLIHULWvQVLVWHPHOHúLFXGHRVHELUHvQVWUXFWXULOH OLPELORU FRPSDUDWH 5H]XOWDWHOH FHUFHWULORU GH DFHVW IHO DX QX QXPDL R LPSRUWDQ  WHRUHWLF vQ FXQRDúWHUHD PDL DSURIXQGDW D OLPELORU FRPSDUDWH FL úL LPSRUWDQ  SUDFWLFDWkWGLQSXQFWGHYHGHUHGLGDFWLFFkWúLGLQSXQFWGHYHGHUHFRPXQLFD LRQDO Din punct de vedere didactic. de obicei. în care VH GHVIúRDU SUHGDUHD PDWHULHL . rezultatele analizei contrastive pot fi fructificate în ameliorarea manualelor GH OLPEL VWULQH RULFH PDQXDO GH OLPE VWULQ HVWH LPSOLFLW úL XQ VWXGLX FRQWUDVWLY vQ PVXUD vQ FDUH FRPSDU vQ PRG HILFLHQW SHQWUX vQY DUHVLVWHPXOúLVWUXFWXULOHOLPELLVWULQHSUHGDWHFXVLVWHPXOúLVWUXFWXULOHOLPELL materne a elevilor.DU GLQ SXQFW GH YHGHUH .

6 FRPXQLFD LRQDO VWXGLXO FRQWUDVWLY DUH LPSRUWDQ  SHQWUX WUDGXFWRORJLD SUDFWLF UH]XOWDWHOHOXLILLQGXWLOHvPEXQW LULLSUDFWLFLORUGHWUDGXFHUHGLQWU-ROLPEvQDOWD 8UPHD] XQ H[HPSOX vQGHDMXQV GH VLPSOLILFDW GH DQDOL] FRQWUDVWLY LPSOLFkQGOLPELOHURPkQúLIUDQFH]úLUHIHULWRUODH[SULPDUHDQHJD LHLvQDFHVWHGRX OLPEL(VWHGHQRWDWvQDFHDVWSULYLQ FURPkQDFRQWUDVWHD]FXIUDQFH]DvQSULYLQ D UDSRUWXOXL GLQWUH QHJD LD SURIUD] úL QHJD LD YHUEDO vQ URPkQ FHOH GRX VSHFLL GH QHJD LHVXQWRPRQLPHGHH[1X1. nu2vQ HOHJ QX1ILLQGQHJD LHSURIUD]LDUQX2 – QHJD LH YHUEDO.

 SH FkQG vQ IUDQFH] HOH QX VXQW RPRQLPH GH H[ 1RQ MH QH comprends pas (non –QHJD LHSURIUD]Qe … pas –QHJD LHYHUEDO.

$SRLvQDPEHOH OLPELDYXWHDLFLvQYHGHUHSRWILFXPXODWHvQDFHODúLHQXQ QHJD LDYHUEDO URPQX2. IUQH «.

SDV.

FXRQHJD LHOH[LFDO SURQXPHDGMHFWLYVDXDGYHUEQHJDWLYGHORFGH WLPS RUL GH PRG.

 H[ URP 1X vQ Hleg nimic (nu – QHJD LH YHUEDO QLPLF – QHJD LH OH[LFDORSR]DELOSURQXPHOXLQLPHQLVDXDGYHUEXOXLQLFLRGDWIU-HQHFRPSUHQGV rien (ne –QHJD LHYHUEDOULHQ –QHJD LHOH[LFDORSR]DELOSURQXPHOXLSHUVRQQHVDX adverbului jamais. Sau adverbului j’DPDLV.

 $FHDVWD vQVHDPQ F vQ DFHVW SXQFW DO FRPSDUD LHL OLPELOH URPkQ úL IUDQFH] QXSUH]LQWXQPDUHFRQWUDVWÌQDOWUHLOHDúL XOWLPXO UkQG OLPED URPkQ SUH]LQW WUHL DGYHUEH DVHUWLYH HQXQ XULOH PLQLPDOH SULQ FDUHVHQHDJVDXVHDILUPFHYD.

DQume: Nu1GDúLEDGD GDILLQGUVSXQVPLQLPDO DILUPDWLYODLQWHURJD LHGHDVSHFWDILUPDWLYLDUEDGDILLQGUVSXQVPLQLPDODILUPDWLY ODLQWHURJD LDGHDVSHFWQHJDWLY.

DGLFWRWDWkWHDFkWúLIUDQFH]DFXDGYHUEHOHDVHUWLYH QRQRXLúLVL vQFDUHIURXLFRUHVSXQGHURPGDLDUIUVLFRUHVSXQGHURPEDGD.

ùL DFHVWOXFUXvQVHDPQFvQDFHVWSXQFWvQWUHOLPELOHURPkQúLIUDQFH]VHPDQLIHVW PDL FXUkQG DVHPQDUH HOHPHQWH VWUXFWXUDOH FRPXQH.

 GHFkW GHRVHELUH HOHPHQWH structurale diferite). 'DF DP FRPSDUD OLPELOH URPkQ úL HQJOH] DP vQUHJLVWUD FRQWUDVWH GHRVHELUL SUHJQDQWH.

 úL vQ SXQFWHOH DO GRLOHD úL DO WUHLOHD VSUH GHRVHELUH GH URPkQ FDUH DGPLWH FXPXOXO QHJD LLORU YHUEDO úL OH[LFDO HQJOH]D QX DGPLWH XQ DVWIHO GH cumul (cf. I do not undersWHQG DQ\WKLQJ UHVSHFWLY . XQGHUVWHQG QRWKLQJ HQXQ XUL vQ care do not –QHJD LHYHUEDOúLQRWKLQJ –QHJD LHOH[LFDOVHH[FOXGUHFLSURF.

VSUH GHRVHELUHGHURPkQVLVWHPOLQJYLVWLFFXWUHLDGYHUEHDVHUWLYHOLPEDHQJOH]SUH]LQW QXPDLGRXDGYHUEHDVHUWLYH FI\HVúLQRFHOGLQWkLFRUHVSXQ]kQGQXQXPDLURPGD FLúLURPEDGD.

$&7'(&2081.&$5(9(5%$/ /LPEDMXOHVWHIDFXOWDWHDJHQHUDOXPDQGHDFRPXQLFDYHUEDO SULQFXYLQWHúL FRPELQD LL GH FXYLQWH.0%$-ù. /.

 $FHDVW IDFXOWDWH VH UHDOL]HD] prin actele de comunicare YHUEDO LDU FRPXQLFDUH vQVHDPQ ÄvPSUWúLUH GH LQIRUPD LH´ 2ULFH DFW GH FRPXQLFDUH YHUEDO LPSOLF XQ QXPU GH IDFWRUL FRQVWLWXWLYL úL DQXPH XQ HPL WRU YRUELWRU.

XQGHVWLQDWDUVDXUHFHSWRU DVFXOWWRU.

XQPHVDM XQIOX[VRQRUSXUWWRUGH LQIRUPD LH.

XQFRG XQVLVWHPOLQJYLVWLFROLPEXQGLDOHFWXQJUDLVDXXQVWLO.

XQ UHIHUHQW VDX FRQWH[W DQVDPEOX GH RELHFWH VDX IHQRPHQH GLQ UHDOLWDWH FX FDUH VW vQ VWUkQVOHJWXUPHVDMXO.

XQFDQDO RFRQGXFWIL]LFSDUFXUVGHPHVDM.

úLXQFRQWDFW OHJWXUD SVLKLF GLQWUH SDUWHQHULL OD DFWXO GH YRUELUH HPL WRUXO úL UHFHSWRUXO.

 &RQWH[WXO SRDWH IL H[WUDYHUEDO VLWXD LD vPSUHMXUDUHD vQ FDUH DUH ORF FRPXQLFDUHD YHUEDO.

VDXYHUEDO SRU LXQLOHGHPHVDMFDUHSUHFHGúLVDXXUPHD]XQDQXPLWVHPQ OLQJYLVWLF R DQXPLW XQLWDWH OLQJYLVWLF.

 &RPXQLFDUHD YHUEDO VWUEDWH FkWHYD PRPHQWHFRGDUHDPHVDMXOXL VHOHFWDUHDXQXLFRQ LQXWLQIRUPD LRQDOGHFRPXQLFDWvQ WHUPHQL WUDGL LRQDOL JkQGLUHD D FHHD FH XUPHD] D VH VSXQH.

 HPLWHUHD PHVDjului .

7 URVWLUHD OXL SULQ SURGXFHUHD YRFDO D IOX[XOXL VRQRU.

 – RSHUD LL UHDOL]DWH GH FWUH HPL WRU WUDQVPLWHUHD PHVDMXOXL SDUFXUJHUHD GH FWUH PHVDM D VSD LXOXL GLQWUH HPL WRU úL UHFHSWRU.

 UHFHSWDUHD PHVDMXOXL DX]LUHD OXL.

 úL GHFRGDUHD PHVDMXOXL (reFXQRDúWHUHD úL vQ HOHJHUHD HOHPHQWHORU OXL FRQVWLWXWLYH.

 – FHOH GRX RSHUD LL GLQ XUPILLQGHIHFWXDWHGHFWUHUHFHSWRU &RPXQLFDUHD YHUEDO VH SRDWH HIHFWXD SH GRX FL SULQFLSDOH – SH FDOH RUDO SULQ YLX JUDL.

 úL SH FDOH JUDILF vQ VFULV.

 VSHFLDOLúWLL YRUELQG XQHRUL vQ DFHDVW vPSUHMXUDUHFKLDUGHGRXFRGXUL VDXVXEFRGXUL.

GLVWLQFWHDOHXQHLDúLDFHOHDúLOLPEL FRGXO RUDO vQ FD]XO FUXLD HPLWHUHD PHVDMXOXL VH IDFH SULQ URVWLUH SULQ SURQXQ DUHD IOX[XOXL VRQRU LDU UHFHSWDUHD OXL HVWH DFXVWLF SULQ DX]LUH.

 úL FRGXO JUDILF vQ FD]XO FUXLDHPLWHUHDPHVDMXOXLVHIDFHSULQVFULHUH GHPkQPHFDQLFVDXGDFWLORJUDILDW úL HOHFWURQLF VDX FRPSXWD LRQDO.

 &$5$&7(5. %KOHU VDX OLPEDM DIHFWLY GH FWUH - 9HQGU\HV. LDU UHFHSWDUHD OXL HVWH GH GDWD DFHDVWD YL]XDO (prin citire).81./( LIMBAJULUI ù.67.CILE DEFINITORII ALE /LPEDMXOvQGHSOLQHúWHDQXPLWHURVWXULVDXIXQF LXQLODFDUHV-au referit relativ QXPHURúL vQY D L 'LQWUH HL OLQJYLVWXO DPHULFDQ 5 -DNREVRQ D GDW R VLQWH] D DFHVWRUDDUWkQGFILHFDUHVDXDSURDSHILHFDUHIXQF LXQHDOLPEDMXOXLVWvQOHJWXU FX XQ DQXPLW HOHPHQW FRQVWLWXWLY DO DFWXOXL GH FRPXQLFDUH $VWIHO vQ UHOD LH FX HPL WRUXO VH DIO IXQF LXQHD HPRWLY D OLPEDMXOXL QXPLW IXQF LXQH H[SUHVLY GH FWUH . )81&.

 vQ UHOD LH FX UHFHSWRUXO VH DIO IXQF LXQHD FRQDWLY IXQF LXQH DSHODWLY OD . %KOHU OLPEDM DFWLY OD - 9HQGU\HV.

LDUvQUHOD LHFXFRQWH[WXOVHYRUEHúWHGHIXQF LXQHDUHIHUHQ LDOFRJQLWLY VDX GHQRWDWLY IXQF LXQHD UHSUH]HQWDWLY OD %KOHU OLPEDM ORJLc sau intelectual. la 9HQGU\HV.

în vederea protHMULLDFHOHLLQIRUPD LL FD UHDF LL OD YDULDWH SRVLELOH DOWHUUL DOH HL GDWRULW XQRU GHILFLHQ H DOH FDQDOXOXL GH transmitere. /LQJYLVWXOIXQF LRQDOLVWIUDQFH]$QGUp0DUWLQHWDYHDvQYHGHUHSDWUXIXQF LXQL DOHOLPEDMXOXL. $OWH IXQF LXQL DOH OLPEDMXOXL VXQW FHD SRHWLF FHQWUDW SH PHVDM FHD PHWDOLQJYLVWLFFHQWUDWSHFRGUHVSHFWLYFHDIDWLFRULHQWDWVSUHFRQWDFW-DNREVRQ VH UHIHU SH VFXUW úL OD IXQF LXQHD PDJLF vQ UHOD LH FX FRQYertirea unui referent în GHVWLQDWDU $O L OLQJYLúWL V-DX UHIHULW úL OD R IXQF LXQH OXGLF RUL OD R IXQF LXQH SURILODFWLF D OLPEDMXOXL DFHDVWD GLQ XUP vQ UDSRUW FX LQIRUPD LD FX FRQ LQXWXO cognitiv de transmis unui destinator prin mesaj.

IXQF LXQHDGHLQVWUXPHQWGHFRPXQLFDUHHVHQ LDO.

IXQF LXQHDGH VXSRUW DO JkQGLULL .

 IXQF LXQHD GH H[SULPDUH FRUHVSXQ]kQG vQ JHQHUDO IXQF LXQLL HPRWLYH PHQ LRQDW PDL VXV.

 .

 IXQF LXQHD HVWHWLF FRUHVSXQ]kQG vQ OLQLL JHQHUDOH IXQF LXQLLSRHWLFHGLQFRQFHS LDOXL-DNREVRQ.

 RHYHQLQG OD VFKHPD MDNREVRQLDQ VXQW GH DUWDW PLMORDFHOH VSHFLILFH GH UHDOL]DUH DOH DFHORU IXQF LXQL HVWH GH SUHFL]DW SULQ FH VH H[HUFLW HOH $VWIHO IXQF LXQHD HPRWLY SULQ FDUH YRUELWRUXO QX QXPDL F WUDQVPLWH GHVWLQDWDUXOXL R LQIRUPD LH GHVSUH UHDOLWDWH FL H[WHULRUL]HD] úL DWLWXGLQHDVDID GHDFHDUHDOLWDWHVH H[HUFLW SULQ LQWRQD LH «« YHUEDO WHPSR DO YRUELULL OXQJLPHD YRFDOHORU UHSHWDUHD QHPLMORFLW D FXYLQWHORU úL SULQ LQWHUMHF LL )XQF LXQHD FRQDWLY SULQ FDUH VH YL]HD] RE LQHUHD XQHL UHSOLFL D XQHL UHDF LL GLQ SDUWHD GHVWLQDWDUXOXL VH UHDOL]HD] SULQ LQWHUMHF LL GH DSHO úL GH vQGHPQ FD úL SULQ IRUPHOH GH YRFDWLY DO QXPHORU úL GH LPSHUDWLY DOH YHUEHORU 0HVDMHOH GRPLQDWH GH DFHVWH GRX IXQF LXQL QX SRW IL VXSXVH WHVWXOXL DGHYUXOXL DGLF QX VH SRDWH VWDELOL GDF HVWH DGHYUDW VDX IDOV FHHD FH .

8 FRPXQLFPHVDMHOHGHDFHVWIHO7HVWXOXLGHDGHYUSRWILVXSXVHvQVFKLPEPHVDMHOH vQ FDUH VH H[HUFLW IXQF LXQHD UHIHUHQ LDO DOH FUHL PLMORDFH VSHFLILFH GH UHDOL]DUH VXQW FXYLQWHOH QR LRQDOH VXEVWDQWLYH YHUEH DGMHFWLYH DGYHUEH úD.

printr-XQDQXPLWULWPúLSULQWURSL ILJXULGHVWLO VHPDQWLFH. )XQF LXQHD SRHWLFFHQWUDWDVXSUDPHVDMXOXLQXVHUHDOL]HD]QXPDLvQOLWHUDWXUDIUXPRDVGXS FXP DU GD LPSUHVLD GHQXPLUHD HL FL úL vQ YRUELUHD FRWLGLDQ HD VH H[HUFLW SULQWU-o DQXPLWWRSLF RUGLne a cuvintelor).

în împrejurarea în care el este numai în parte comun HPL WRUXOXL úL UHFHSWRUXOXL GH SLOG SULQ vQWUHEUL GH IHOXO XUPWRDUHORU &H vQVHDPQ FXYkQWXO [" &XP VH QXPHúWH RELHFWXO \" úL DOWHOH. FFL VXE HJLGD HLHPL WRUXOXUPUHúWHQXQXPDLVWUDQVPLWRDQXPLW LQIRUPD LH UHFHSWRUXOXL FL úL V L-R WUDQVPLW vQ PRG SOFXW V SURGXF R LPSUHVLH HVWHWLF SULQ PRGXO VX GH D FRPXQLFD )XQF LXQHD PHWDOLQJYLVWLF YL]HD] explicitarea elementelor codului.

 FHHD FH VH SRDWH vQWkPSODvQYLD DVRFLDOFRWLGLDQGDUvQPRGXOFHOPDLSUHJQDQWDFHDVWIXQF LXQH VH UHDOL]HD] vQ OXFUULOH GH VSHFLDOLWDWH OLQJYLVWLF vQ FDUH VH H[SOLF WHUPHQL FD substantiv. declinare. verb. conjuJDUH DFRUGJUDPDWLFDOHWFúLVHGHVFULXHOHPHQWHOH VDX IHQRPHQHOH GHVHPQDWH SULQ HL.

 ÌQ VLWXD LD H[HUFLWULL DFHVWHL IXQF LXQL OLPED GHYLQH GLQ LQVWUXPHQW GH FRPXQLFDUH XQ UHIHUHQW LPSOLFLW VH FRPXQLF FHYD SULQ OLPEGHVSUHOLPEvQVúL LDULSRVWaza limbii ca instrument de comunicare despre ea vQVúLVHQXPHúWHPHWDOLPEDMGHXQGHúLGHQXPLUHDIXQF LXQLLFRPHQWDWHDLFL.

deschide-WH´. )XQF LXQHD IDWLF YL]HD] PHQ LQHUHD DFWXOXL GH FRPXQLFDUH SH R DQXPLW GXUDW FRQWUROXO DWHQ LHL SUHVWDWH GH FWUH GHVWLQDWDU FD úL DVLJXUDUHD DWHQ LHL UHFHSWRUXOXL HD VH H[HUFLW GH H[HPSOXSULQH[SUHVLLFDvQ HOHJL"YH]L"DLY]XW" úWLL"LDWHXLWUHVSHFWLYvQ HOHJDPY]XWúWLXQXPDLVSXQHHWF )XQF LXQHDPDJLFUHPLQHVFHQ DFRQFHS LHLSULPLWLYHGXSFDre omul poate LQIOXHQ D UHDOLWDWHD vQFRQMXUWRDUH SULQ VLPSOD URVWLUH D FXYLQWHORU PRGLILFkQG DFHD UHDOLWDWH vQ VHQVXO DúWHSWULORU VDOH FD vQ FHOHEUXO EDVP GLQ Ä2 PLH úL XQD GH QRS L´ GHVSUH$OL%DEDúLFHLSDWUX]HFLGHKR LXQGHRDVWIHOGHIXQF LXQH îndeplinea expresia „Sesam.

 5HPLQHVFHQ H DOH H[HUFLWULL DFHVWHL IXQF LXQL vQ HSRFD PRGHUQ JVLP vQ DQXPLWH VXSHUVWL LL IL[DWH vQ ]LFWRUL FD URP 9RUEHúWL GH OXS úL lupul –ODXúvQWH[WHOHGHVFkQWHFHORUFDúLvQHIHFWHOHLQWHUGLF LHLGHYRFDEXODU WDEù OLQJYLVWLF.

 SULQ FDUH VH LQWHU]LFH URVWLUHD GH SLOG D QXPHOXL XQHL YLHW L PDOHILFH pentru a-L vPSLHGLFD DSURSLHUHD FHO PDL HYLGHQW HIHFW DO DFHVWHL LQWHUGLF LL HVWH vQORFXLUHD QXPHOXL YLHW LL FX XQ HXIHPLVP FD URP QHYVWXLF IU EHOOHWWH LW GRQQRODSHQWUXYLHWDWHDUSLWRDUHQXPLWDFWXDOPHQWHDúDGLQIDPLOLDPXVWHOLGDH-lor. )XQF LXQHD OXGLF YL]HD] SURGXFHUHD EXQHL GLVSR]L LL D DVFXOWWRUXOXL SULQ calambururi (jocuri de cuvinte) sau alte mijloaFH FD GHUDLHUHD OH[LFDO DGLF VXEVWLWX LDYROXQWDUDXQXLFXYkQWFXDOWXOQHDYkQGQLPLFFRPXQGLQSXQFWGHYHGHUH semantic cu primul. . 'H QRWDW F IXQF LXQLOH OLPEDMXOXL QX VH H[HUFLW L]RODW XQD GH FHDODOW FL vQWRWGHDXQD HOH VH H[HUFLW VLPXOWDQ FkWH GRX-WUHL VDX PDL PXOWH vQ DFHODúL DFW GH OLPEDMGHUHJXOVXESUHGRPLQDQ DXQHLDGLQWUHele. dar având elemente fonetice comune. &HHD FH DP QXPLW PDL VXV IXQF LXQH SURILODFWLF YL]HD] LPSHUIHF LXQLOH FDQDOXOXL SHQWUX D DPHOLRUD WUDQVPLWHUHD LQWDFW D vQFUFWXULL LQIRUPD LRQDOH D PHVDMXOXL GHH[HPSOXvQORFXLUHDQXPHUDOXOXLOLWHUDUúDSWHFXIRUPDUHJLRQDOúHSWH SHQWUXDSUHYHQLFRQIX]LDFXúDVHvQFRQYRUELULOHWHOHIRnice sau în medii zgomotoase. ex. romantism în loc de reumatism). rom. a rudelor dihorului). între altele).

9 7UVWXULOH GHILQLWRULL DOH OLPEDMXOXL DX IRVW SXVH vQ HYLGHQ  vQWUH DO LL GH FWUH$QGUp$UWLQHWFDUHVHUHIHUHDOD.

FDUDFWHUXOLQVWLWX LRQDO.

3ULPDWUVWXUHYLGHQ LD]IDSWXOFOLPEDMXOQXHVWHXQ fenomen natural. de IHOXOFRPXQLFULLvQWUHFHOHODOWHYLH XLWRDUHGLVWLQFWHvQUDSRUWFXRPXOFLXQPLMORFGH FRPXQLFDUHLQVWLWXLWvQVRFLHWDWHGHFWUHPHPEULLDFHVWHD'DUOLPEDMXOFDLQVWLWX LH VHGHRVHEHúWHIRDUWHPXOWGHFHOHODOWHLQVWLWX LLVRFLDOHvQVHQVXOFQXDUHFDUDFWHUGH FODVúLQXVHPRGLILFvQFDGUXOXQHLFRPXQLW LHWQRFXOWXUDOHGDWH SRSRUQD LXQH.FDUDFWHUXOYRFDO 3) dubla articulare.

 vQXUPDYUHXQHLUHYROX LLVRFLDOHFXPVHvQWkPSOvQFD]XOWXWXURUFHORUODOWHLQVWLWX LL &DUDFWHUXO YRFDO VW vQ UHOD LH FX IDSWXO F OLPEDMXO HVWH XQXO SULQWUH YDULDWH DOWH LQVWUXPHQWH GH FRPXQLFDUH vQWUH RDPHQL GH FDUH VH GHRVHEHúWH SULQ DFHHD F VXV LQHFRPXQLFDUHDSULQYRFHSULQVHPQHYHUEDOH VDXOLQJYLVWLFH.

HPLVHYRFDOúLQX SULQ JHVWXUL PLPLF VDX DOWH PLMORDFH GH WLS YL]XDO VDX GH DOW QDWXU FURPDWLF RSWLF WDFWLO HWF.

 3ULQ XUPDUH QX IDF SDUWH GLQ OLPEDM vQ HOHV vQ IHOXO DFHVWD semnele de comunicare între surdo-PX L FDUH VXQW GH QDWXU YL]XDO.

 QLFL OLWHUHOH DOIDEHWXOXL %UDLOOH SHQWUX QHY]WRUL FDUH VH HPLW PHFDQLF FX PDúLQD VSHFLDO GH VFULVúLVHSHUFHSWDFWLO.

'XEODDUWLFXODUHHVWHWUVWXUDFHDPDLFDUDFWHULVWLFDOLPEDMXOXL2ULFHPHVDM YRFDOVHDUWLFXOHD]VLPXOWDQSULQvQúLUDUHDDGRXWLSXULGHXQLW LOLQJYLVWLFHSHGH RSDUWHDXQRUXQLW LGRWDWHDWkWFXFRUSIRQHWLFFkWúLFXvQ HOHVSHFDUH0DUWLQHWOH QXPHúWHPRQHPH GDUFDUHvQOLQJYLVWLFDJHQHUDOURPkQHDVFVHQXPHVFPRUIHPH.1XHVWHvQVPDLSX LQDGHYUDWFJHVWXULOHVXUGR-PX LORUúL VHPQHOH JUDILFH DOH DOIDEHWXOXL %UDLOOH VXQW PRGHODWH GXS  OLPEDMXO DXWHQWLF FX FDUDFWHUYRFDOvQSULYLQ DHPLVLHLOXLvQFHOHPDLYDULDWHvPSUHMXUULDOHYLH LLVRFLDOH normale.

sufixul – HúW - GHVLQHQ D H DUWLFROXO QHKRWUkW R UGFLQD FDUW-. – UGFLQLDIL[HGHVLQHQ HúLSHGHDOWSDUWHDXQRUXQLW LOLQJYLVWLFHPLQLPDOHPDL curând elemente ale limbii. GHVLQHQ D –H UGFLQD EXQ- úL GHVLQHQ D -. carHQXGLVSXQGHFkWGHUHDOLWDWHIRQLFQHILLQGSXUWWRDUH úL GH vQFUFWXU LQIRUPD LRQDO QXPLWH DSURDSH XQDQLP IRQHPH vQ OLQJYLVWLFD WHRUHWLF DFWXDO DWkW VWULQ FkW úL URPkQ 8UPHD] XQ H[HPSOX SHQWUX LOXVWUDUHD GXEOHLDUWLFXOULHQXQ XOURP&LWHúWHRFDUWHEXQ(OHVWHDUWLFXODWGLQRSWPRQHPH UGFLQD FLW –.

estH GH SUHFL]DW F RDPHQLL QX DX DYXW vQWRWGHDXQDFRQúWLLQ DGXEOHLDUWLFXOULDOLPEDMXOXLORU)DSWXOVHSRDWHFRQVWDWDSULQ XUPULUHDHYROX LHLWLSXULORUGHVFULHUHGH-DOXQJXOLVWRULHLFLYLOL]D LHL ÌQDQWLFKLWDWHDvQGHSUWDWGDUúLvQHSRFLPDLDSURSLDWHGHDQRDVWURDPHQLL DXUHFXUVSHQWUXFRPXQLFDUHDODGLVWDQ DPHVDMHORUORUPDLvQWkLODSLFWRJUDILHODR GHVHQDUH IRDUWH VFKHPDWLF D RELHFWHORU úL IHQRPHQHORU LPSOLFDWH vQWU-un eveniment UHODWDWRDUHFDUH2SLFWRJUDPSXWHDILÄFLWLW´UHVSHFWLYvQ HOHDVGHFWUHRULFLQHGLQ PHGLXO vQ FDUH HD HUD IRORVLW GDU PHVDMXO SURSULX-]LV WUDQVPLV GH FWUH HPL WRU vQ felul acesta. Din perspectiva istoriei lingvisticii. alte trei foneme în monemul bun-. patru foneme în momentul cart-. nu se putea reconstitui cu exactitate. úL vQ DFHODúL WLPS GLQ úDSWHVSUH]HFH IRQHPH FURUD – în exemplul ales – OH FRUHVSXQG OLWHUHOH GLQ QRWD LD JUDILF WUHL foneme în monemul cit-WUHLvQPRQHPXOHúW-QXPDLXQXOvQGHVLQHQ DH-VDX úLvQ articolul o. în anumite zone culturale ale lumii vechi (Egipt. Mesopotamia. China DQWLF. Mai târziu.

5HODWLY PDL WkU]LX D DYXW ORF GHVFRSHULUHD IRQHPHORU XQLW L DOH FHOHL GH D GRXD DUWLFXOUL UHGDWH JUDILF SULQ VHPQH QXPLWH OLWHUH VDX UXQH SHQWUX VFULHUHD . RDPHQLL DX GHVFRSHULW PDL vQWkL PRQHPHOH SH FDUH OH-au redat grafic SULQ VHPQH VSHFLDOH QXPLWH LGHRJUDPH IRORVLWH SkQ DVW]L vQ &KLQD úL SDU LDO vQ Japonia (ideogramele vechi egiptene se numeau „hieroglife”. iar cele mesopotamice semne unei forme). Este vorba de sistemul scrierii ideografice.

10 JRWLFRULEXFKLUHVSHFWLYVORYHSHQWUXVFULHUHDFKLULOLF.

$DSUXWDVWIHOVLVWHPXOGH VFULHUHOLWHUDO DOIDEHWLF.

'HVFRSHULWRULLIRQHPHORUúLWRWRGDWLQYHQWDWRULLOLWHUHORU SDUVILIRVWIHQLFLHQLLSRSRUVHPLWLFGLQED]LQXORULHQWDODO0ULL0HGLWHUDQHOLWHUHOH IHQLFLHQH SDU V VH IL QVFXW GLQ XQHOH LGHRJUDPH WUHFXWH SULQ VWDGLXO LQWHUPHGLDU GH VHPQHVLODELFH7LSXOGHVHPQHVLODELFHLQWHUPHGLDUvQWUHFHOLGHRJUDILFúLFHOOLWHUDOD IRVWFXQRVFXWvQ&UHWDDQWLFvQ$VV\ULDúL%DELORQLDDVW]LUHFXUJkQGX-VHSDU LDOOD un sistem GHIHOXODFHVWDvQVFULHUHDOLPELLMDSRQH]H VLODEHOHKLUDJDQDúLNDWDNDQD.

 'HODIHQLFLHQLOLWHUHOHvQúLUDWHvQDOIDEHWDXWUHFXWODYHFKLLJUHFLúLODHWUXVFL LDUGHODDFHúWLDGLQXUPODURPDQLDOIDEHWXOODWLQILLQGvQOXPHDGHDVW]LFHOPDL UVSkQGLW SH JORE vQ QRWDUHD JUDILF D PHVDMHORU GLQ OLPEL IRDUWH GLIHULWH QX QXPDL romanice. de exemplu. în Africa –vQVFULHUHDOLPELORUKDXVDúLVRPDOLHWF. este folosit în scrierea limbii vietnameze. nici numai europene (în Asia.

 CÂTEVA DIHOTOMII '.67.1&.

&21&(378$/( 3RUQLQGvQFXWDUHDRELHFWXOXLOLQJYLVWLFLLSHQWUXD-l delimita cât mai riguros. în VDUFLQD DFXVWLFLL FD UDPXU D IL]LFLL. cad în sarcina fizicii (mai exact. sunetele. )HUGLQDQGGH6DXVVXUHGLVWLQJHDvQOLPEDMFDIDFXOWDWHJHQHUDOXPDQ GHDFRPXQLFD YHUEDO GRX DVSHFWH LPSRUWDQWH OLPED úL YRUELUHD (O DUWD F OLPEDMXO GDWRULW FDUDFWHUXOXL VX KHWHURFOLW QX SRDWH FRQVWLWXL RELHFW DO XQHL VLQJXUH úWLLQ H caracteristicile elementelor lui fizice.

 LDU DUWLFXODUHD ORU SUH]LQW LQWHUHV SHQWUX IL]LRORJLDDSDUDWXOXLEXFDOúLDFHOXLQD]DO GHFLSHQWUXRUDPXUDDQDWRPLHLXPDQH.

iar vorbirea –XQXOLQGLYLGXDO'DFOLPEDMXOFDLQVWUXPHQWGHFRPXQLFDUH HVWHSURSULXvQWUHJLLVSHFLLXPDQHvQRSR]L LHFXFHOHODOWHYLH XLWRDUHFDUHFRPXQLF úL HOH GDU QX SULQWU-XQ OLPEDM vQ VHQVXO GHILQLW PDL VXV GDF GHFL OLPEDMXO SRDWH IL H[SUHVLD XQXL FRQFHSW DQWURSRORJLF OLPED HVWH SURSULH XQHL VRFLHW L XPDQH realizându-VHvQDWkWHDIRUPHFkWHVRFLHW LHWQRFXOWXUDOHH[LVWFHHDFHvQVHDPQF HVWH H[SUHVLD XQXL FRQFHSW VRFLRORJLF úL GH SVLKRORJLH VRFLDO OHJDW GH PHQWDOLW LOH FRPXQLW LL UHVSHFWLYH 2ULFH OLPE VH UHDOL]HD] HIHFWLY SULQ DFWHOH GH YRUELUH DOH PHPEULORU FRPXQLW LL HWQRFXOWXUDOH DYXWH vQ YHGHre. DVSHFWHOH GH RUGLQ SVLKLF F]kQG ILUHúWH vQ VIHUD GH LQWHUHV D SVLKRORJLHL 1XPDL OLPED vQ HOHDV FD VLVWHP GH VHPQH YHUEDOH úL GH UHOD LL GH GLIHULte tipuri între acele VHPQH SUH]LQW R RUJDQL]DUH LQWHUQ XQLWDU úL GHFL SRDWH FRQVWLWXL RELHFWXO GH FHUFHWDUHSURSULXOLQJYLVWLFLL/LPELLLVHRSXQHYRUELUHDUH]XOWDWXOSXQHULLvQPLúFDUH vQYHGHUHDUHDOL]ULLFRPXQLFULLDVLVWHPXOXLGHVHPQHúLDUHOD LLORUGLQWUHHOH'DU vQWLPSFHOLPEDDUHFDUDFWHUVRFLDOILLQGSURSULHXQHLFRPXQLW LXPDQHYRUELUHDDUH GLPSRWULYXQFDUDFWHUSDUWLFXODU6LVWHPXOXQHLOLPELRDUHFDUHHVWHIL[DWÄGHSR]LWDW´ vQ FUHLHUHOH WXWXURU PHPEULORU FRPXQLW LL HWQROLQgvistice date. deci într-R OLPE VXQW SRVLELOH DWkWHD YRUELUL Fk L PHPEUL QXPU FRPXQLWDWHD YRUELWRDUH D DFHOHL OLPEL 9RUELUHD HVWH DúDGDU XQ FRQFHSW GH SVLKRORJLH LQGLYLGXDO /LPED HVWH vQVXúLW GH LQGLYL]L vQ PRG SDVLY SULQ ÄSUHVLXQHD´ H[HUFLWDW DVXSUD ORU GH FRPXQLWDWH IDPLOLH úFRDO VRFLHWDWHD vQ DQVDPEOXO HL. dar fiecare dintre PHPEULL DFHOHL FRPXQLW L IRORVHúWH OLPED vQ IHOXO VXDúDGDUOLPEDDUHXQFDUDFWHU colectiv.

 HVWH vQWRWGHDXQD vQY DW GH OD DO LL HVWH ÄSULPLW GH-a JDWD´ IU FD LQGLYLGXO V DLE SXWLQ D GH D LQWHUYHQL FRQúWLHQW vQ PRGLILFDUHD HL ÌQ schimb. fiecare individ „este suveran” pe propria lXL YRUELUH HO HVWH ÄOLEHU´ V VH H[SULPH DúD FXP GRUHúWH FX XQLFD FRQGL LH GH D UHVSHFWD VLVWHPXO OLQJYLVWLF DO FRPXQLW LL VDOH 6FKHPDWL]kQG FHOH H[SXVH SkQ DLFL SXWHP DMXQJH OD XUPWRDUHOH FRUHVSRQGHQ HFRQFHSWXDOH 1) VSHFLDXPDQ DQWURSRORJLD.

– limbajul .

11 2) JUXSULXPDQH VRFLRORJLHúLSVLKRORJLHVRFLDO.

– limbi 3) LQGLYL]LXPDQL SVLKRORJLHLQGLYLGXDO.

nicidecum conceptului de ÄHYROXWLY´.– vorbiri /LQJYLVWXO HOYH LDQ PDL GLVWLQJHD vQWUH R OLQJYLVWLF VWDWLF úL XQD HYROXWLY DYkQG DPEHOH FD RELHFW OLPED 'DU SULPD HVWH RULHQWDW VSUH VWXGLXO IXQF LRQULL VLVWHPXOXLOLQJYLVWLFODXQPRPHQWGDWGLQH[LVWHQ DOXLFHDODOW–VSUHVWXGLXOILUHúWH DO HYROX LHL VLVWHPXOXL OLQJYLVWLF GH-D OXQJXO H[LVWHQ HL OXL LVWRULFH ÌQ OLQJYLVWLFD JHQHUDO SULPXO DVSHFW DO OLQJYLVWLFLL HVWH GHILQLW SULn atributele descriptiv sau VLQFURQLFLDUFHOODOW –SULQDWULEXWHOHHYROXWLYVDXGLDFURQLF(GHREVHUYDWFvQORF GHOLQJYLVWLFVWDWLFVLQWDJPSURSXVGH6DXVVXUHVHYRUEHúWHFXPDLPXOWWHPHLGH R OLQJYLVWLF VLQFURQLF LQWHUHVDW GH FLUFXPVFULHUHD FkW PDL ULJXURDV D VLVWHPXOXL OLPELL FDUH QX HVWH QLFLRGDW vQ UHSDXV FL vQ SHUSHWX PLúFDUH V-D REVHUYDW F conceptul de „static” se opune conceptului de „dinamic”.

'XS)GH6DXVVXUHVLVWHPXOOLQJYLVWLFúLIXQF LRQDUHDOXLSRWILSXVHvQ HYLGHQ  QXPDL GH OLQJYLVWLFD GHVFULSWLY VLQFURQLF.

 PRWLY GLQ FDUH R RSXQHD FX YLJRDUH DFHOHLD GLDFURQLFH 'DU vQ UHDOLWDWH vQWUH VLQFURQLF GHVFULSWLY.

 úL GLDFURQLF HYROXWLY.

 QX HVWH R SUSDVWLH QLFL PFDU R IURQWLHU ULJXURDV GHFkW FHO PXOW GLQ SXQFW GH YHGHUH WHRUHWLF úL PHWRGRORJLF LPSXV GH IDFLOLWDWHD VWXGLHULL IHQRPHQXOXL OLQJYLVWLF FFL GH IDSW ÄRULFH OLPE VH FRQVWLWXLH vQ GLDFURQLH úL IXQF LRQHD] vQ VLQFURQLH´ (XJHQLX &RúHULX.

 3H GH DOW SDUWH VWUXFWXUDOLúWLL GH GXS 6DXVVXUH DX DUWDWFúLvQVWXGLXOGLDFURQLFSRDWHILSXVvQHYLGHQ VLVWHPXOOLQJYLVWLF 2ULFH VLVWHP OLQJYLVWLF FRQVW vQWUH DOWHOH GLQWU-un ansamblu de semne OLQJYLVWLFHVDXYHUEDOHDFHVWHDVXQWDFHOHXQLW LDOHOLPELLSULQLQWHUPHGLXOFURUDvQ SURFHVXO GH FRPXQLFDUH YHUEDO VH WUDQVPLW LQIRUPD LL GH OD HPL WRU FWUH UHFHSWRU unele semne lingvistice sunt elementare (morfemele. corespunzând monemelor din terminologia lui A. Martinet). altele sunt complexe (cuvintele sau lexemeOH.

úLIRDUWH FRPSOH[H HQXQ XULOH.

 ÌQ PRG FXUHQW SHQWUX VLPSOLILFDUHD H[SOLFULL FRQFHSWHORU VDXVVXULHQH VH FRQVLGHU FD SURWRWLS DO VHPQXOXL OLQJYLVWLF FHHD FH WUDGL LD GHVHPQHD]SULQWHUPHQXOFXYkQW2ULFHFXYkQWSULYLWFDVHPQOLQJYLVWLFGLVSXQH de GRXODWXULúLDQXPHGHRLPDJLQHDFXVWLF QXPLWVHPQLILFDQWGHFWUHGH6DXVVXUH.

 úL GH XQ vQ HOHV ) GH 6DXVVXUH YRUEHúWH GH XQ FRQFHSW SH FDUH vO QXPHúWH GLQ SHUVSHFWLYVHPLRWLFVHPQLILFDW.

'HH[FXYkQWXOURPFDOGLVSXQHGHVHPQLILFDQWXO >NDO@ úL GH VHPQLILFDWXO ÄFDO´ 'H IDSW VHPQLILFDWXO SRDWH IL SUH]HQWDW DQDOLWLF VXE IRUPDXQHLGHILQL LLVHPDQWLFHGHGLF LRQDU vQDFHVWFD]ÄDQLPDOGRPHVWLFHUELYRUFX FRSLW QHGHVSLFDW IRORVLW OD FOULH úL OD WUDF LXQH´.

 GDU DFHVW PRG GH D R Iace este QHHFRQRPLF 'LQ PRWLYH GH FRPRGLWDWH FRGLILFDWH vQ OXFUULOH GH OLQJYLVWLF VH UHFXUJH OD QRWDUHD VHPQLILFDQWXOXL ILH VXE IRUPD RUWRJUDILF D FXYkQWXOXL UHVSHFWLY VXEOLQLDW FX R OLQLH vQ PDQXVFULVH.

 VDX LPSULPDW FX OLWHUH LWDOLFH RUL FXUVLYH (în WLSULWXUL.

 ILH VXE IRUPD UHGULL JUDILFH D SURQXQ ULL FXYkQWXOXL QXPLW WUDQVFULHUH IRQHWLF úL QRWDW vQWUH FURúHWH DGLF SDUDQWH]H GUHSWH >NDO@ GLQ DFHOHDúL PRWLYH VHPQLILFDWXO vQ ORF GH D IL SUH]HQWDW VXE IRUPD QHHFRQRPLF D GHILQL LHL VHPantice HVWH QRWDW SULQ DFHODúL FXYkQW GDU vQFDGUDW GH JKLOLPHOH ÄFDO´ 'DF QH-am referi la FXYkQWXOHQJOKRXVHFDVHPQOLQJYLVWLFDUWUHEXLVVSXQHPFVHPQLILFDQWXOOXLHVWH >KDXV@ LDU VHPQLILFDWXO HVWH ÄFDV´ $PQXQWH GHVSUH VHPQXO OLQJYLVWLF XUPknd a fi oferite într-XQFDSLWRODQWHULRUVSUHFL]PDLFLQXPDLFQXVHSRDWHSXQHXQVHPQGH HJDOLWDWHvQWUHVHPQLILFDWúLFRQFHSWFXPSURFHGD)GH6DXVVXUHGLQPRPHQWFHVXQW SRVLELOH FXYLQWH FDUH QX H[SULP FRQFHSWH DYkQG FX WRDWH DFHVWHD VHQV VDX vQ HOHV LQWHUMHF LLOHúLRQRPDWRSHHOH'HDFHHDHVWHPDLFRQYHQDELOVUDSRUWPVHPQLILFDWXO QXODFRQFHSW QR LXQH.

FLODVHQV vQ HOHV.

 ÌQ VWUXFWXUDOLVPXO GDQH] úFRDOD JORVHPDWLF.

 GDW ILLQG F VXQW SRVLELOH DWkW XQLW L OLQJYLVWLFH LQIHULRDUH FXYkQWXOXL UHFWH PRUIHPHOH.

 FkW úL VXSHULRDUH .

12 FXYkQWXOXL HQXQ XULOH.

la discontinuum-XOOLQJYLVWLFFDUHSURGXFHIRUPD6XEVWDQ DHVWHQHOLQJYLVWLFSHFkQG IRUPD vQ HOHDV vQ IHOXO DFHVWD HVWH OLQJYLVWLF (VWH SRVLELO FD XQD úL DFHHDúL VXEVWDQ  DQWLF V ILH ÄGHFXSDW´ vQ PRG YDULDW GH OD R FRPXQLWDWH OD DOWD Fu alte cuvinte – V-L FRUHVSXQG IRUPH YDULDWH GLQ SXQFW GH YHGHUH OLQJYLVWLF 'LKRWRPLD IRUP YHUVXV VXEVWDQ  – HVWH LOXVWUDELO vQ DPEHOH SODQXUL DOH OLPELL DWkW vQ SODQXO H[SUHVLHL FkW úL vQ SODQXO FRQ LQXWXOXL 'LQ SHUVSHFWLYD H[SUHVLHL VXEVWDQ D Hste totalitatea sunetelor ce se pot articula în grai omenesc. DYHD V VXEOLQLH]H DFHVW OXFUX / +MHOPVOHY XQXOGLQWUHIRQGDWRULLJORVHPDWLFLL3ULQ VXEVWDQ  VH vQ HOHJH GDWXO H[LVWHQ LDO UHDOLWDWHD H[WHULRDU OLPELL úL JkQGLULL continuum-XO DQWLF ÌQ FRQIRUPLWDWH FX WUDGL LLOH úL PHQWDOLW LOH VDOH RULFH cROHFWLYLWDWH HWQROLQJYLVWLF DQDOL]HD] PHQWDO vQ IHOXO VX DFHDVW UHDOLWDWH úL vL G R UHDOL]DUHOLQJYLVWLFSDUWLFXODUSULQWU-un fel de „decupare”. Se ajunge astfel. în indiferent care comunitate HWQRFXOWXUDO GDU QX RULFDUH VXQHW DUWLFXODW HVWH XWLO SURFHVXOXL GH FRPXQLFDUH FL QXPDL DFHOH VXQHWH FDUH GLVWLQJ vQWUH YHKLFXOHOH XQRU LQIRUPD LL GLIHULWH FD Ge H[HPSOXQ QGHQWDO. FDUH VH FDUDFWHUL]HD] SULQ VWUXFWXUDUH VLPXOWDQ vQ FkWH XQ VHPQLILFDWúLFkWHXQVHPQLILFDQWVWUXFWXUDUHDDFHDVWDDIRVWH[WLQVODvQWUHJXOVLVWHP DO OLPELL QXPDL F vQ ORF GH VHPQLficant s-a introdus termenul expresie. iar în locul termenului semnificat – WHUPHQXO FRQ LQXW 1X HVWH YRUED QXPDL GH R VLPSO PRGLILFDUHWHUPLQRORJLFSHQWUXFWHUPHQLLH[SUHVLHúLFRQ LQXWQXVHPDLUHIHUvQ cadrul glosematic. pornind GH OD UHDOLWDWHD QHGLIHUHQ LDW D RELHFWHORU úL IHQRPHQHORU DQDOL]DWH GH JkQdire. exclusiv la laturile unHL XQLW L OLQJYLVWLFH VDX DOH DOWHLD FL GHVHPQHD] GRX SODQXUL GLVWLQFWH DOH VLVWHPXOXL OLQJYLVWLF vQ DQVDPEOXO DFHVWXLD D se vedea capitolul despre stratificarea limbajului). /LPEDHVWHRIRUPúLQXRVXEVWDQ DILUPD)GH6DXVVXUHúLvQDFRUGFu el.

úL¾ QYHODU.

vQOLPEDHQJOH] GLQPRPHQWFHWKLQÄVXE LUH´ HVWH DOW VHPQ YHUEDO ID  GH WKLQJ ÄOXFUX´.

 GLVWLQF LH FDUH QX VH UHDOL]HD] vQ OLPED URPkQGHúLvQURVWLUHDOLPELLQRDVWUHVHvQWkOQHVFDPEHOHIHOXULGHQVDXFDúLkvQ OLPEDURPkQ GLQPRPHQWFH ULHVWHXQVHPQYHUEDOGLIHULWGH UL.

GLVWLQF LHFDUH vQVQXV-DUSXWHDUHDOL]DvQOLPEDEXOJDUGHúLvQURVWLUHDOLPELLYHFLQHVHvQWkOQHVF VXQHWHOH  úL v )RUPD SH FDUH R FDSW vQ ILHFDUH OLPE VXEVWDQ D H[presiei se RUJDQL]HD] FD VLVWHP IRQRORJLF FRQVWkQG GLQWU-XQ QXPU ILQLW GH IRQHPH ID  GH QXPUXOLPHQVGHVXQHWHSURSULX-zise (detalii privind fonemele vor fi expuse într-un FDSLWROXOWHULRU.

'LQSHUVSHFWLYDFRQ LQXWXOXLVXEVWDQ DHGDWGHWRWDOLWDWea obiectelor úL IHQRPHQHORU UHDOH OD FDUH QH SXWHP UHIHUL vQ DFWHOH GH FRPXQLFDUH GDU DQDOL]DW PHQWDOvQPRGGLIHULWGHODRFRPXQLWDWHHWQRFXOWXUDOODDOWDUHIOHFWDUHDHLvQOLPE SULQLQWHUPHGLXOJkQGLULLGXFHODRVWUXFWXUDUHXQHRULGLIHULWGHODROLPEODDOWD6 QH LPDJLQP R SHUVRDQ $ FDUH DUH GRL ILL % úL & ILHFDUH GLQWUH DFHúWLD DYkQG OD UkQGXOVXFkWHXQILX' ILXDOOXL%.

úL( ILXDOOXL&.

FHHDFHVHSRDWHUHSUH]HQWD într-XQPLFURWDEHOJHQHDORJLFvQIHOXOXUPWRU A B C D E 5HOD LLOHGHvQUXGLUHGLQWUHFHOHSHUVRDQH –FHHDFH LQHGHVXEVWDQ  – sunt DFHOHDúL SUHWXWLQGHQL vQ OXPH GDU ÄGHFXSDUHD´ ORU PHQWDO ÄRUJDQL]DUHD´ H[SULPULL .

13 lor lingvistice –FHHDFH LQHGHIRUP – se pot deosebi în lLPELGLIHULWH$VWIHOUHOD LD GLQWUH' VDX(.

úL$SHGHRSDUWHúLUHOD LDGLQWUH'úL& VDXGLQWUH(úL%.

SHGH DOWSDUWHHVWHGHVHPQDWSULQWU-XQVLQJXUFXYkQWvQOLPEDURPkQVXEVWDQWLYXOQHSRW ÌQ VFKLPE vQ OLPED HQJOH] UHOD LHL GLQWUH ' VDX (.

 úL $ vL FRUHVSXQGH VHPQXO JUDQGVRQLDUUHOD LHLGLQWUH'úL& VDXGLQWUH(úL%.

Raporturile sintaJPDWLFH VH UHDOL]HD] vQ ÄODQ XUL´ GH XQLW L vQWUH PRUIHPHOH XQHL IRUPH JUDPDWLFDOH UGFLQ SH GH R SDUWH úL DIL[H HYHQWXDO GHVLQHQ H SH GH DOW SDUWH vQWUH FXYLQWHOH XQHL FRPELQD LL GH FXYLQWH vQWUH FRPELQD LLOH GH FXYLQWH DOH XQHL SURSR]L LL vQWUH SURSR]L LLOH XQHL IUD]H HWF. – semnul nephew. Acolo unde OLPED URPkQ RSHUHD] XQ DQXPLW ÄGHFXSDM´ FRQFHSWXDO DO UHDOLW LL OLPED HQJOH] RSHUHD]XQXOGLIHULW ) GH 6DXVVXUH DWUJHD DWHQ LD F WRDWH XQLW LOH VLVWHPXOXL OLQJYLVWLF VH DIO DQJDMDWH vQ DQXPLWH UHOD LL XQHOH FX FHOHODOWH $FHOH UHOD LL VH UHDOL]HD] SH GRX D[H DOH VLVWHPXOXL QXPLWH GH HO D[ D UDSRUWXULORU VLQWDJPDWLFH UHVSHFWLY D[ D raporturilor asociative.

 5DSRUWXULOH DVRFLDWLYH VH UHDOL]HD] vQ ÄVHULL´ GH XQLW L vQ PLQWHD YRUELWRULORU vQWUH membrii unei familii de cuvinte. între formele din conjugarea unui verb sau din declinarea unui substantiv. între cuvinte cu acelaúL VIkUúLW IRQHWLF FXP VXQW ULPHOH HWF.

 3UHFL]kQG F VWUXFWXUDOLúWLL SRVWVDXVVXULHQL DX SUHIHUDW WHUPHQXO SDUDGLJPDWLF ID GHWHUPHQXOVDXVVXULDQDVRFLDWLYvQFkWXOWHULRUV-DYRUELWGHRD[VLQWDJPDWLFúL GHXQDSDUDGLJPDWLFHVWHGHDGXJDWFSHQWUXXQLLOLQJYLúWLVWUXFWXUDOLúWLQXPDLD[D SDUDGLJPDWLF DU FRUHVSXQGH VLVWHPXOXL VDXVVXULDQ FRGXOXL OLQJYLVWLF.

 SH FkQG D[D VLQWDJPDWLF DU FRUHVSXQGH VWUXFWXULORU YDULDWH SURSULL vQ YRUELUHD XQHL OLPEL ÌQ OLQJYLVWLFD SRVWVDXVVXULDQ V-au desemnat rapoUWXULOH GLQWUH XQLW LOH OLPELL SH D[D VLQWDJPDWLFGUHSWUHOD LLVDXUDSRUWXULGHFRQWUDVW GHH[vQWUHWXúLSOHFLGLQHQXQ XO URP WX SOHFL.

tu. YLL UPkL HWF. LDU UDSRUWXULOH GLQWUH DFHOHDúL XQLW L SH D[D SDUDGLJPDWLF GUHSW FRUHOD LLVDXUDSRUWXULGHRSR]L LH GHHx. respectiv dintre pleci. ea etc. el.. între eu.

 3ULQ RSR]L LH VH vQ HOHJH UDSRUWXO GLQWUH WHUPHQL FDUH SUH]LQW VLPXOWDQ DQXPLWH HOHPHQWH FRPXQH FDWHJRULD GH SHUVRDQ UHVSHFWLY R DQXPLW DF LXQHúLRDQXPLWIRUPYHUEDOGHSHUVRDQJUDPDWLFDOSHQWUXH[HPSOHOHGHPDL VXV.

respectiv deplasare GLQVSUH YRUELWRU VSUH XQ SXQFW RDUHFDUH  RUL GLPSRWULY GHSODVDUH GLQVSUH XQ SXQFW RDUHFDUHFWUHYRUELWRUHWF. a III-a.-a. D . FkW úL HOHPHQWH GHRVHELWRDUH SHUVRDQD ..

 6WUXFWXUDOLúWLLPHFDQLFLúWLJUXSD LvQúFRDODGHVFULSWLYLVWLQL LDWGH/HRQDUG %ORRPILHOG DX GDW R PDUH DWHQ LH DFHOXL DVSHFW DO OLPELL QXPLW GH )HUGLQDQG GH 6DXVVXUH D[ VLQWDJPDWLF (L V-DX DUWDW vQ GHVFULHUHD OLPELL IRDUWH LQWHUHVD L GH ÄODQ XULOH´ GH XQLW L OLQJYLVWLFH SURSULL FRPXQLFULL YHUEDOH RFXSkQGX-se de GLVWULEX LH DGLF GH ORFXO RFXSDW GH ILHFDUH XQLWDWH vQWU-XQ ODQ  FX FDUDFWHULVWLFL SURSULLvQDFHDVWSULYLQ ILHFUHLOLPEL'HH[HPSOXvQOLPEDURPkQHVWHSRVLELO ordinea acest pom. am FLWLW VDX YRL FkQWD GDU úL RUGLQHD LQYHUV SRPXO DFHVWD FX DQXPLWH PRGLILFUL DOH IRUPHL FXYLQWHORU.

cânta-voi (pentru exemplele din XUPvQVSHFLDOvQVWLOXOSRHWLFDUKDL]DQQW. FLWLW-am.

 UHG" VKDOO .ILLQGvQV SRVLELOH H[SUHVLLOH KDYH . VLQJVKDOO.VKDOOVLQJúLQX WUHHWKLV UHGKDYH. VLQJ" GDU QXPDL vQ SURSR]L LL  LQWHURJDWLYH respHFWLYIUFHWDUEUHM¶DLOXúLQX DUEUHFHW OXM¶DL ILLQGSRVLELOWRSLFDDL¶MHOX" vQ FRQVWUXF LH LQWHURJDWLY.vQVFKLPEvQOLPEDIUDQFH]VDXHQJOH] GLVWULEX LDLQYHUVDWDHOHPHQWHORUFRQVWLWXWLYHFRUHVSXQ]WRDUHQXHVWHSRVLELOHQJO WKLVWUHH.KDYHUHG.

 $VWHULVFXO VWHOX D.

 GLQ ID D DQXPLWRU H[SUHVLL VLPEROL]HD] LQH[LVWHQ D ORU vQ YRUELUH IDSWXO F VXQW FRQVWUXF LL QHDWHVWDWH.

 'LQ SHUVSHFWLYD GLVWULEX LHL úL GLQ LQWHQ LD V HYLWH FULWHULXO VHPDQWLF vQ IDYRDUHD XQXL FULWHULX IRUPDO VWUXFWXUDO vQ OLQJYLVWLFD DPHULFDQ D IRVW LQWURGXV FRQFHSWXO GLQ ÄFRQWH[WGLDJQRVWLF´FRQWH[WvQVHPQkQGFHHDFHSUHFHGúLFHXUPHD]vQUDSRUWFXXQ .

14 VHPQ OLQJYLVWLF GDW vQ LQWHULRUXO PHVDMXOXL SULQ FRQWH[W GLDJQRVWLF VH vQ HOHJH ÄFRQWH[WVSHFLILFVDXGHILQLWRULXDOXQHLXQLW LOLQJYLVWLFH(VWHRPDQLHUGHDGHILQL XQLW LOH OLPELL DVHPQWRDUH vQWUXFkWYD  FX DFHHD vQ FDUH VH SUHFL]HD] vQ vQY PkQWXO URPkQHVF SUHXQLYHUVLWDU DSDUWHQHQ D VXEVWDQWLYHORU OD XQ JHQ VDX DOWXO IUUHIHULUHODFRQ LQXWXOORUVHPDQWLF VXEVWDQWLYHOHURPkQHúWLGHJHQPDVFXOLQVXQW SUHFHGDWHGHXQODVLQJXODUúLGHGRLODSOXUDOFHOHGHJHQIHPLQLQ –GHúLRUHVSHFWLY GRX LDU FHOH GH JHQ QHXWUX – GH XQ UHVSHFWLY GRX ÌQ IHOXO DFHVWD VXEVWDQWLYXO URPkQHVF vQ JHQHUDO VH SRDWH GHILQL FD R FODV GH FXYLQWH DL FUHL PHPEUL SRW IL SUHFHGD LGHFHOSX LQXQXOGLQWUHFXYLQWHOHDFHVW«DFHDVW«DFHúWL«DFHVWH« În sLQWDJPDURPRPEWUkQDOGRLOHDFXYkQWHVWHGHVLJXUDGMHFWLYGDUvQVLQWDJPD DFHVW EWUkQ DFHODúL FXYkQW vQFHWHD] GH D PDL IL DGMHFWLY vQVFULLQGX-se în clasa VXEVWDQWLYXOXL FHHD FH DPLQWHúWH IHQRPHQXO GH FRQYHUVLXQH VDX VFKLPEDUH D YDORULL gramaticale). 2DOWGLVWLQF LHFRQFHSWXDORSXQHOLQJYLVWLFDLQWHUQOLQJYLVWLFLLH[WHUQH3ULQ OLQJYLVWLF LQWHUQ VH vQ HOHJH VWXGLXO VLVWHPXOXL OLQJYLVWLF DO XQLW LORU OXL FRQVWLWXWLYH DO UHOD LLORU GLQWUH HOH HYHQWXDO DO PRELOLW LL DFHORU UHOD LL.

 Lar prin OLQJYLVWLF H[WHUQ VH vQ HOHJH VWXGLXO UHOD LLORU GLQWUH OLPE FD VLVWHP GH VHPQH YHUEDOHúLDOWHIHQRPHQHQHOLQJYLVWLFHGLQWUHOLPEúLWUDGL LHFXOWXUDORELFHLXULDOWH LQVWLWX LLVRFLDOHGLIHULWHGHOLPEDvQVúLGDUFDUHVHVHUYHVFGHHD DFHDVWELVHULF MXVWL LH DUPDW DGPLQLVWUD LH HWF.

 )HUGLQDQG GH 6DXVVXUH LQWURGXFkQG DFHDVW GLVWLQF LHQXUHVSLQJHDGUHSWXOODH[LVWHQ DOOLQJYLVWLFLLH[WHUQHGRDUSXQHDDFFHQWXO vQ SUHRFXSULOH VDOH SH OLQJYLVWLFD LQWHUQ UHFRPDQGkQG GLVFLSROLORU VL DFHHDúL atitudine. Semnul lingvistic 6HPQXOHVWHXQHOHPHQWFRQFUHWFH LQHORFXO vQPHQWDOLWDWHDXQXLLQGLYLGVDX D XQHL FROHFWLYLW L XPDQH.

ÌQ YL]LXQHD OXL 6DXVVXUH VHPQXO OLQJYLVWLF DUH D DFFHS LH ELODWHUDO HO UHSUH]HQWkQG R FRPELQDUH vQWUH FRQFHSW ODWXUD GH vQ HOHV – VHPQLILFDQW úL ODWXUD DFXVWLF – VHPQLILFDW ÌQ DFFHS LH XQLODWHUDO FXYLQWHOH VXQW VHPQH QXPDL SULQ ODWXUD lor GHH[SUHVLHSULQFRPSOH[XOVRQRUSULQFDUHVHUHIOHFWQR LXQHD2DWUHLDDFFHS LH FHDUHOD LRQDOYL]HD]QXPDLUHOD LDGLQWUHVHPQLILFDQWúLVHPQLILFDW 6HPQXOOLQJYLVWLFHVWHDUELWUDUQLPLFGLQFRQ LQXWXOXQHLQR LXQLQXLPSXQHFD DFHDVWD V ILH H[SULPDW SULQWU-XQ DQXPLW FRPSOH[ VRQRU úL QX SULQ DOWXO & vQWUH VHFYHQ D GH VXQHWH FH GHQXPHúWH XQ RELHFW úL RELHFWXO UHVSHFWLY QX H[LVW QLFL R OHJWXURGRYHGHúWHIDSWXOFDFHOHDúLRELHFWHVXQWGHQXPLWHGLIHULWvQOLPELGLIHULWH URP FDV IU PDLVRQ UXV GRP HQJO KRXVH 'DF DU H[LVWD R OHJWXU ÄQDWXUDO´ semn-RELHFW DU WUHEXL FD DFHOXLDúL RELHFW V-L FRUHVSXQG vQ WRDWH OLPELOH DFHODúL semn. 6HPQLILFDQWXO DUH XQ FDUDFWHU OLQLDU HO VH GHVIúRDU vQ WLPS LDU SULQ transpunerea cuvintelor uneL OLPEL vQ FRGXO JUDILF DO DFHVWHLD DVSHFWXO OLQLDU FDSW FRQFUHWH H úLUXUL GH OLWHUH FXYLQWH LGHRJUDPH /LQLDULWDWHD H FDUDFWHULVWLF VHPQXOXL OLQJYLVWLF FFL  H[LVW úL DOWH VLVWHPH GH VHPQH FHOH PDULWLPH GH SLOG. Interpretarea drept semne a cuvintelRUDIRVWSHODUJGH]EWXWGH)HUGLQDQGGH 6DXVVXUH vQ FXQRVFXWXO VX &XUV GH OLQJYLVWLF JHQHUDO vQ FDUH VH SURSXQHD FKLDU FRQVWLWXLUHD XQHL úWLLQ H JHQHUDOH D VHPQHORU – semiologia – FDUH V FXSULQG úL lingvistica. Cel mai important sistem de semne este limba. XQXL RELHFW úL FDUH VLPEROL]HD] DPLQWHúWH FRPXQLF ceva.

 FDUH VH GHVIúRDUSHPDLPXOWe dimensiuni. .

Raportul semnificant-semnificat se poate schimba: lat. &X WRDWH DFHVWHD vQ OLPE DX ORF úL XQHOH LQRYD LL PXWD LL FDUH FX WLPSXO printr-RIUHFYHQWvQWUHEXLQ DUHúLRODUJUVSkQGLUHSRWGHYHQLQRUPH6HPQLILFDQWXO devine.15 2 DOW FDUDFWHULVWLF D VHPQXOXL OLQJYLVWLF R UHSUH]LQW WUVWXUD VD LQIRUPD LRQDO FXYLQWHOH VXQW VHPQH FH VHUYHVF OD FRPXQLFDUHD XQRU PHVDMH OD WUDQVPLWHUHDGHLQIRUPD LLSULQLQWHUPHGLXOXQRUVHPQDOHDFXVWLFHVDXJUDILFH Semnul lingvistic nu poate fi schimbat de vorbitorul unei limbi conform SURSULHL ORU GRULQ H GHúL HO HVWH FRQYHQ LRQDO 3HQWUX D VH IDFH vQ HOHúL úL SHQWUX D vQ HOHJHFHVSXQDO LLYRUELWRULLVXQWREOLJD LVIRORVHDVFDFHOHDúLVHPQHFXDFHOHDúL vQ HOHVXUL 6HPQLILFDQWXO HVWH LPXWDELO vQ UDSRUW FX YRLQ D LQGLYLGXOXL DGLF QX DUH OLEHUWDWHD GH D LQWHUYHQL úL D-O VFKLPED FkQG úL FXP GRUHúWH 7UDGL LD FRQVWUkQJH YRUELWRULL V QXPHDVF OXFUXULOH vQWU-XQ DQXPLW IHO V VH VXSXQ XQRU QRUPH XQRU reguli ale limbii respectLYHFDUHGDFDUILvQFOFDWHSURFHVXOGHFRPXQLFDUHQ-ar mai fi posibil. mutabil. astfel. necare ÄDRPRUv´DGHYHQLWvQIUDQFH]– noyer – „a îneca”. 6HPQXOXL OLQJYLVWLF vL VXQW FDUDFWHULVWLFH IXQF LD GH FXQRDúWHUH HO IFkQG SRVLELO VDOWXO GH OD FXQRDúWHUHD VHQ]RULDO OD FHD UD LRQDO GH OD SULPXO OD FHO GH-al GRLOHD VLVWHP GH VHPQDOL]DUH IXQF LD GH GLIHUHQ LHUH vQ FDGUXO VLVWHPXOXL UHDOL]DW SULQIRQHPHOHúLPRUIHPHOHGLQFDUHHVWHDOFWXLWVHPQXOúLRIXQF LHGHWUDQVPLWHUHD LQIRUPD LHLGHODXQLQGLYLGODDOWXOGHODRJHQHUD LHODDOWD 8QHOHVHPQHOLQJYLVWLFHSRWILPDLPXOWVDXPDLSX LQPRWLYDWH 0RWLYDUHD DEVROXW H[WHUQ.

poc!). FXSULQGH FXYLQWH FDUH SULQ VXQHWHOH ORU FRPSRQHQWH VXJHUHD] vQ HOHVXO ÌQ DFHDVW FDWHJRULH vQWU RQRPDWRSHHOH PLDX zbâr!. interjHF LLOH DKYDLRI.

úLFXYLQWHOHFXVLPEROLVPIRQHWLFFDUHDXvQ FRPSRQHQ D ORU XQHOH VXQHWH FH DPLQWHVF GH FDUDFWHULVWLFLOH RELHFWXOXL D YkMkL D Ek]kLD]XP]L 0RWLYDUHD UHODWLY LQWHUQ.

 YL]HD] FXYLQWH GHULYDWH FX SUHIL[H VDX VXIL[H úL cuvintHFRPSXVHEXQVWDUHRFKLXO-boului. OZN. 1HYRLDPRWLYULLJHQHUHD]XQHRULIDOVHOHJWXULHWLPRORJLFHIRUPHDOHXQRU FXYLQWHPDLSX LQFXQRVFXWHúLvQ HOHVHPDLUDUvQWUHEXLQ DWHVHPRGLILFLQIOXHQ DWH GH WHUPHQL FXQRVFX L DVHPQWRUL FD IRUP úL VHQV )HQRPHQXO HVWH FXQRVFXW VXE QXPHOH GH HWLPRORJLH SRSXODU YE D DVDPEOD úL GHULYDWHOH OXL. Pronosport.

 SXV vQ OHJWXU FX DQVDPEOXGHYLQHDDQVDPEODGHQXPLUHDSRSXODUDIHEUHLWLIRLGH–OLQJRDUHOHJDWGH DGMOXQJGHYLQHOXQJRDUHFRRSHUDWLYOHJDWGHDFXPSUDvQURVWLUHDXQRUSHUVRDQH PDLvQYkUVWGHUHJXO.

2.GHYLQHFXPSDUDWLYúD 6FKLPEULOHOLQJYLVWLFH Contactul între limbi Ä'RX VDX PDL PXOWH OLPEL VH FRQVLGHU D IL vQ FRQWDFW GDF VXQW IRORVLWH DOWHUQDWLY GH XQHOH úL DFHOHDúL SHUVoane. de foaUWH OXQJ GXUDW VDX SHUPDQHQWH .  H[WHUQH LQWHUOLQJYLVWLFH..” Contactul dintre limbi este rezultatul unor IHQRPHQH H[WUDOLQJYLVWLFH GDWRULW IDSWXOXL F GLQWRWGHDXQD FROHFWLYLW LOH XPDQH DX LQWUDWvQUHOD LHXQHOHFXDOWHOH Tipurile de contacte pot fi clasificate ca: I. 1 pasagere sau accidentale.

2. directe (interumane). III. inclusiv enclave aloglote). mijlocite (limbile A-% LQWHUDF LRQHD] SULQ LQWHUPHGLXO XQHL D WUHLD OLPEL. intraregionale. 1.  LQWHUQH (intralingvistice.

 .9 1 LPHGLDWH VDX QHPLMORFLWH GH WLS RUDO.

  OD GLVWDQ  SULQ LQWHUPHGLXO VFULVXOXL D vQY PkQWXOXL VDX D PDVV-PHGLD.

 9  SRSXODUH vQFHHDFHSULYHúWHQLYHOXOVRFLR- .

16 FXOWXUDO.

FXOWXUDOHDvQWUHROLPEÄPRDUW´DOLDVFODVLFúLOLPELYLLEvQtre limbi DIODWHODPDUHGLVWDQ  )HQRPHQXO GH FRQWDFW SUHFHGH LQWHUDF LXQHD GLQWUH OLPEL FDUH HVWH PLMORFLW SULQ ELOLQJYLVP %LOLQJYLVP VH QXPHúWH ÄFDSDFLWDWHD XQXL LQGLYLG VDX D LQGLYL]LORU XQHL FROHFWLYLW L GH D XWLOL]D vQ FRPXQLFDUH GRX VLVWHPH OLQJYLVWLFH GLIHULWH GRX LGLRPXUL.

´%LOLQJYLVPXOFROHFWLYvQPDVDOYRUELWRULORURELúQXL LHVWHFXQRVFXWGLQ HSRFLOHYHFKLDOHLVWRULHL6HSURGXFPXWD LLvQWU-ROLPEFDUHVHQXPHVFLQWHUIHUHQ H VXELQIOXHQ DXQXLÄDJHQW´H[WHULRUWRWOLQJYLVWLF . a.QWHUIHUHQ DSRDWHILDQDOL]DWvQSHUVSHFWLYDDGRXFRRUGRQDWHDDWLPSXOXL vQ FDUH VH GHVIúRDU GHRDUHFH GXUDWH SURFHVXOXL HVWH R YDULDELO E D UH]XOWDWHORU intruziunii.1. procesul s-DvQFKHLDWúLvQLVWRULDOLPELORUVHVWXGLD]UH]XOWDWHOHVXb trei DVSHFWH DOH VXEVWUDWXOXL VXSHUVWUDWXOXL úL DGVWUDWXOXL  LQWHUIHUHQ H DOH FURU FRQVHFLQ HSRWILLGHQWLILFDWHvQÄvPSUXPXW´LQWHUIHUHQ HvQFXUVGHGHVIúXUDUH 6XEVWUDWXO HVWH XQXO GLQ UH]XOWDWHOH SURFHVXOXL GH LQWHUIHUHQ  VH UHIHU OD sLWXD LDvQFDUHOLPEDEúWLQDúLORU SHVWHFDUHV-DLPSXVROLPEVWULQ.

HVWHHOLPLQDW (D IRUPHD] VXEVWUDWXO OLPELL FDUH FRQWLQX V ILH IRORVLW OLPED $ VH SHUSHWXHD] SULQ OLPED % DO FUHL VLVWHP SULPHúWH R VHULH GH HOHPHQWH GLQ OLPED vQORFXLW.

 SXEVWUDWXO VH PDQLIHVW vQ WRDWH FRPSDUWLPHQWHOH GDU PDL DOHV vQ IRQHWLF /LPELOH antice s-au perpetuat prin elemente de substrat în limbi moderne. 'DU vQ LVWRULH DX IRVW FD]XUL vQ FDUH OLPED vQYLQV HOLPLQDW.

ÎmprumutuO OLQJYLVWLF RULFDUH DU IL GRPHQLXO DUH R DQXPLW LQIOXHQ  DVXSUD OLPELL FDUH vO UHFHSWHD] vQ vQWUHJXO HL VLVWHP 8QHOH HYROX LL LQWHUQH SRW V ILH vQWULWH vQ urma contactului dintre limbi. . adstratul include toate formele de manifestare ale contactului lingvistic. (L L VH VXERUGRQHD] GLDOHFWHOH FDUH UHSUH]LQW ÄDVSHFWXO SDUWLFXODU UHJLRQDO. Dificultatea de a atribui anumite fapte lingvistice unor infOXHQ HVWULQHúLVDXXQHLHYROX LLSURSULLDFRQGXVODQHFHVLWDWHDXQXLQRXFRQFHSW FHO GH FRQYHUJHQ  SHQWUX GLIHUHQ LHUHD VFKLPEULORU LQWHUQH ID  GH LQWHUIHUHQ  FH FDUDFWHUL]HD] VFKLPEULOH VXE LQIOXHQ D XQRU IDFWRUL OLQJYLVWLFL GLQ DOW OLPE IQWHUIHUHQ D HVWH FDUDFWHULVWLF vQ DFWXO YRUELULL úL UH]XOWDWXO HL WUHFH vQ ÄOLPE´ HVWH introdus în sistem. D IRVW FHD D SRSXOD LHL SWUXQVH XOWHULRU SH XQ WHULWRULX GDW 8UPHOH OVDWH GH OLPED GLVSUXW % DVXSUDOLPELLEúWLQDúHDXIRVWGHQXPLWHVXSHUVWUDWÌQWLPSFHHOHPHQWHOHGHVXEVWUDW GHWHUPLQ WUDQVIRUPUL vQ VWUXFWXUD QRLL OLPEL HOHPHQWHOH GH VXSHUVWUDW VH PDQLIHVW ca împrumuturi foarte vechi.QIOXHQ HOH VXIHULWH GH R OLPE GXS FRQVWLWXLUHD HL FD LGLRP QRX GLVWLQFW IRUPHD] DGVWUDWXO 'HúL QX SDUWLFLS FD VXEVWUDWXO úL VXSHUVWUDWXO OD IRUPDUHD XQHL limbi. /LQJYLVWLFDVSD LDO *HRJUDILDOLQJYLVWLF 6WXGLXO OLPELL YLL vQVHDPQ ÄVWXGLXO OLPELL YRUELWH vQWU-R XQLWDWH WHULWRULDO OLPEFRPXQDXQXL popor”.

caracterizat printr-XQPLQLPXPGHWUVWXULVSHFLILFH´6XEVXPDW GLDOHFWXOXL HVWH JUDLXO FDUH OD UkQGXO OXL UHSUH]LQW ÄDVSHFWXO SDUWLFXODU ORFal) al limbii unui popor caracterizat printr-XQPLQLPXPGHWUVWXULVSHFLILFH´ 'LIHUHQ LHULOHVHGDWRUHVFGHFLVSD LXOXLPDLPXOWVDXPDLSX LQH[WLQVSHFDUH VH IRORVHúWH GLDOHFWXO JUDLXO. al limbii unui popor.

. UHVSHFWLY IHQRPHQXO FDUDFWHUL]kQG SURFHVXO GH diversificare a limbii.

17 /DvQWUHEDUHDGDFGLDOHFWXOHVWHRIRUPLQFLSLHQWDXQHLOLPELFRPXQHVDXR IRUP GHULYDW SULQ GLYHUVLILFDUH.

 XQLL OLQJYLúWL DX RSWDW SHQWUX SULPD IRUPXO LDU DO LL SHQWUX FHDODOW $FHVWH UVSXQVXUL VXQW vQ OHJWXU úL FX SUREOHPD vQF nerH]ROYDW D OLQJYLVWLFLL FRPSDUDWH úL DQXPH GDF WRDWH OLPELOH JOREXOXL DX GHULYDW dintr-R VLQJXU OLPE FRPXQ RULJLQDU SURWROLPE.

 WHRULD PRQRJHQH]HL.

 VDX GLQ FRQWU GLYHUVHOH WLSXUL GH OLPEL DX DSUXW vQ GLIHULWH ]RQH DOH JOREXOXL LQGHSHQGHQW unele de altele. (teoria poligenezei). /LPEDHVWHXQIHQRPHQVRFLDOúLPLMORFGHFRPXQLFDUHGHFLUDSRUWXULOHGLQWUH IRUPHOH GLDOHFWDOH DOH JUDLXULORU.

Dialectul unei limbi VHSRDWHvQGHSUWDGHDFHDVWDGDWRULWXQRUSUHVLXQLH[WUDOLQJYLVWLFHGDUúLXQRUIDFWRUL OLQJYLVWLFLúLSRDWHGHYHQLODUkQGXOOXLRDOWOLPE &ULWHULLOH GH VWDELOLUH D VWDWXWXOXL OLPEGLDOHFW DX XQ FDUDFWHU VRFLDO-politic DSDUWHQHQ D SRSXOD LHL OD XQ JUXS HWQLF. úL OLPED FXOWLYDW  QRUPDW VH IRUPHD] úL VH UHvPSURVSWHD] QHvQWUHUXSW úL vQ ]LOHOH QRDVWUH SULQ VFKLPEXUi constante între GHSULQGHULOH GLDOHFWDOH SH GH R SDUWH D YRUELWRULORU úL OLPED QD LRQDO YRUELW úL VFULV SH GH DOW SDUWH ùL vQ PHGLXO XUEDQSHUVLVWGHSULQGHULGLDOHFWDOH'LIHUHQ HOH GLQWUHOLPEGLDOHFWVHVLWXHD]SHGLIHULWHWUHSWHGHVXERUGRQare.

 WHULWRULDO vQ IXQF LH GH XQLWDWHD úL GLYHUVLWDWHD DVSHFWHORU OLPELL FRPXQH úL D WUDGL LLORU FXOWXUDOH 6LQJXUH DUJXPHQWHOH OLQJYLVWLFH SHQWUX FODVLILFDUHD OLPEGLDOHFW QX VXQW FRQFOXGHQWH &RQVLGHUP F H vorbaGHDFHHDúLOLPEGHúLHYRUELWvQVWDWHGLIHULWHGHH[HPSOXOLPEDIUDQFH]GLQ &DQDGD VDX GLDOHFWXO FDQDGLDQ DO OLPELL IUDQFH]H IU D IL FRQVLGHUDW R HQWLWDWH VHSDUDWFDÄOLPEFDQDGLDQ´ 3HUPHDELOLWDWH OLPEGLDOHFWJUDL VH IDFH SULQ LQVWUXF LH úFRDO úL OHFWXU.

 úL WHQGLQ DHVWHGHYUVDUHvQOLPEDOLWHUDUVWDQGDUG 6WXGLXO GLDOHFWHORU FDUH VH IDFH vQ FDGUXO GLVFLSOLQHL OLQJYLVWLFH QXPLW GLDOHFWRORJLH.

VHED]HD]SHPHWRGHOH D GHVFULSWLY PRQRJUDILL GLDOHFWDOH FDUH DX vQ YHGHUH OLPED YRUELW GLQWU-o ]RQ PDL PXOW VDX PDL SX LQ H[WLQV GHVFULV SDU LDO GLQ SXQFW GH YHGHUH IRQHWLF úLVDXPRUIRORJLFVDXvQWRDWHDVSHFWHOHVDOHGHFLOH[LFDOHúLVLQWDFWLFH.

+DUWD HVWH R UHSUH]HQWDUH VLQFURQLF D YRUELULL LQGLYLGXale de pe un teritoriu GDW &kWHYD GLQWUH SULQFLSLLOH IXQGDPHQWDOH GH LQWHUSUHWDUH D K U LORU FRQGXF OD R vQ HOHJHUHWHPHLQLFDVWUXFWXULLúLGLQDPLFLLDULLORUGLDOHFWDOH3ULPHOHGRXSULQFLSLL DSDU LQOXL-*LOOLHURPHOHVHUHIHUODPLJUD LDFXYLQWHORUúLOXSWDGLQWUHFXYLQWH D. geografiei lingvistice. b.

&XYLQWHOHPLJUHD]ODQLYHOXOYRUELULLGLQUHJLXQH ]RQ.

$&DQGUHDDVWDELOLWFPLJUD LDVHIDFHSULQ./LQJYLVWXOURPkQ .

LUDGLD LH.

LQILOWUDUH.

UHYUVDUHúL 4) suprapunere.QILOWUDUHDVHSURGXFHvQVSD LL DSURSLDWH]RQHLXQGHVHIRORVHúWHXQOXFUXVDXDUHORFXQIHQRPHQ8QIDSWGHOLPE PLJUDWPDLvQWkLWLPLGSULQLQILOWUDUHVDXLUDGLD LHVHSRDWHDSRLUVSkQGLPDVLYSULQ UHYUVDUH LQXQGkQG ]RQH vQWLQVH 'H RELFHL UH]XOWDWXO XQHL PLJUD LL HVWH úL VXSUDSXQHUHDGHSDUWLFXODULW LOLQJYLVWLFH E.UDGLD LDDUHORFvQMXUXOXQXLFHQWUXGHLQRYD LH. .

ÌQOHJWXUFXOXSWDGLQWUHHOHPHQWHOHOH[LFDOHWUHEXLHVUH LQHPPDLvQWkL LGHHD ÄvPEROQYLULL´ XQRU FXYLQWH GLQ FDX]H PXOWLSOH RPRQLPLD SROLVHPLD scurtimea (corpul redus) al cuvântului. 0 %DUWROL FUHDWRUXO OLQJYLVWLFLL VSD LDOH D SXV DFFHQWXO SH VWDELOLUHD FURQRORJLHL IDSWHORU OLQJYLVWLFH SOHFkQG GH OD GLVSR]L LD DULLORU GLDOHFWDOH 'H DFHHD PHWRGDVDVHQXPHúWHúLOLQJYLVWLFDUHDO$XWRUXODDYXWvQ vedere întregul teritoriu URPDQLFúLDVWDELOLWDOWHFLQFLSULQFLSLLVDXÄQRUPH´GHLQWHUSUHWDUHDKU LORU.

DULD L]RODW.

DULDODWHUDO.

DULDPDMRU.

DULDXOWHULRDUúL.

DULDGLVSUXW .

18 .

'LQWUHGRXID]HOLQJYLVWLFHFHDL]RODWHVWHPDL veche. mai arhaice decât celelalte. . deci. Ariile izolate ar fi.

)D]DGLQDULDODWHUDOHVWHPDLDUKDLFGHFkWFHDGLQDULLOHFHQWUDOHGHXQGH DSRUQLWLUDGLHUHDVDXPLJUD LDWHUPHQXOXL .

 )D]D GLQ DULD PDL PDUH DULD PDMRU.

. HVWH PDL YHFKH GHFkW FHD Gin aria PLQRU 4) Ariile ulterioare pot fi arhaice.

3H ED]D KU LORU VH SRDWH REVHUYD IRDUWH FODU FXP GLQWU-un punct (localitate) RDUHFDUH R QRXWDWH OLQJYLVWLF SURQXQ LH IRUP PRUIRORJLF WUVWXUL VLQWDFWLFH FXYLQWH. 'LQ DULD GLVSUXW VH PHQ LQ PDUWRULL GH HUR]LXQL SDUWLFXODULW L IRDUWH rezistente.

Periferia în sSD LXDXQXL JUDL GHSUWDWGHFHQWUX. VH UVSkQGHúWH vQ IXQF LH GH FXUHQWH SROLWLFH FRPHUFLDOH VDX FXOWXUDOH ÌQ Evul Mediu. în Apus. centrele ecleziastice au impus teritoriilor subordonate normele OLQJYLVWLFH SHQWUX F HSDUKLDSDURKLa reprezenta o unitate). FDSLWDOHOH DX H[HUFLWDW vQ FRQWLQXDUH LQIOXHQ D QRUPDWLY 'H RELFHL vQV SUHVWLJLXO FXOWXUDODSUHYDODWDVXSUDFHOXLSROLWLF$VWIHOJUDLXOGLQ)ORUHQ D7RVFDQDIRORVLWGH Dante în opera sa a devenit liPEDOLWHUDULWDOLDQ Zonele limitrofe dintre graiuri/dialecte depind de multe ori de cauze JHRJUDILFH 8Q ODQ  GH PXQ L FRQVWLWXLH R EDULHU QDWXUDO vQWUH JUDLXUL vQ WLPS FH R YDOHWLDWGHXQIOXYLXIRUPHD]GH-a lungul ei o unitate. apoi centrele politice.

WHRULD WUDGL LRQDO D ÄILOLD LHL´ D DUERUHOXL JHQHDORJLF FHHD FH SUHVXSXQHFWUDQVPLWHUHDLQRYD LHLVHIDFHQXPDLvQWUHOLPELvQUXGite b. WHRULD YDOXULORU Ä:HOOHQWKHRULH´ FDUH FRQVLGHU F WUVWXULOH OLQJYLVWLFHVHUVSkQGHVFGHODXQYHFLQODDOWXOLQGLIHUHQWGHRULJLQHDORU DFHDVWWHRULHDSDU LQHOXL-RKDQQHV6FKLPGW 0RGXOGHGLIX]DUHDXQHLWHQGLQ HOLQJYLVWLFHVHSRDWHSHtrece: a.HVWHPDLFRQVHUYDWRDUHGHFkWFHQWUXOvQVXúL +U LOH DX LPSRUWDQ  SHQWUX UHFRQVWLWXLUHD GLIX]ULL HOHPHQWHORU OLQJYLVWLFH 3HQWUXFQXPDLSULQGLIX]DUHLQRYD LDGHODQLYHOXOXQXLYRUELWRUSWUXQGHvQYRUELUHD unui JUXS D XQXL JUDLGLDOHFW úL DSRL vQ OLPED FRPXQ VWDQGDUG 7HRULLOH OLQJYLVWLFH FDUHSHUPLWDFHDVWUHFRQVWLWXLUHVXQW a. printr-XQDYDQVSHXQIURQWODUJ FDRSDWGHXOHL.

printr-R PLúFDUH FH SRDWH IL DVHPQDW WUXSHORU DHURSXUWDWH DGLF DYDQVHD] vQ ORFDOLW LOH LPSRUWDQWH GH-D OXQJXO FLORU GH FRPXQLFD LHúLDELDvQWU-RDGRXDHWDSWHQGLQ HOHOLQJYLVWLFHVHH[WLQGúLvQ VSD LLOHLQWHUPHGLDUH 3HED]DKU LORUVHSRWVWXGLDVWUDWXULOHVXFFHVLYHGHLQIOXHQ H6HIRORVHúWHvQ acest caz metoda geologiei lingvistice. care permite stabilirea unei cronologii relative a vechimii elementelor (fonetice. morfologice sau lH[LFDOH. b.

'DUDVSXQHFOLPEDHVWHRPRúWHQLUHQXH[SOLFQLPLFGDFQXPHUJHPPDL GHSDUWH úL SODVP OLPED vQ FDGUXOVXVRFLDO7UHEXLHVSXQHPSUREOHPDDúDFXPR .GLQWUHOLPE $VWIHO SHQWUX GLDOHFWRORJ WUDGL LLOH RUDOH H[WUDOLQJYLVWLFH UHSUH]LQW FHHD FH HVWHÄWH[WXO´SHQWUXVSHFLDOLúWLLGLQGRPHQLXOOLPELLOLWHUDUH Limba în cadrul social ÌQ RULFDUH HSRF úL RULFkW DP XUFD vQ WLPS OLPED DSDUH vQWRWGHauna ca o PRúWHQLUH D HSRFLL SUHFHGHQWH 1LFL R VRFLHWDWH QX FXQRDúWH úL QX D FXQRVFXW OLPED GHFkWFDSHXQSURGXVPRúWHQLWGHODJHQHUD LLOHSUHFHGHQWHSUHOXDWFDDWDUH6LQJXUXO RELHFWUHDODOOLQJYLVWLFLLHVWHYLD DQRUPDOúLUHJXODWDXQXLLGLRPGHMa constituit.

dar FDX]HOH WUDQVIRUPULORU QX UH]LG vQ DFHDVWD DGLF vQ YRUELUH 1X HVWH GRULQ D VDX YRLQ D GH H[SUHVLH D LQGLYL]LORU FHD FDUH D GHWHUPLQDW GH H[HPSOX IHQRPHQXO GH GLIWRQJDUH vQ OLPED IUDQFH] VDX PXWD LD FRQVRQDQWLF vQ OLPED JHUPDQ $FHVWH fenoPHQH UH]XOW GLQ IRU H VXSUDLQGLYLGXDOH úL VH GDWRUHVF vQ SDUWH úL PDULORU evenimente istorice. poate ILH[SOLFDWSULQDQXPLWHHOHPHQWHFDUH LQGHYRUELWRUL . $F LXQHD UHFLSURF vQWUH OLPE úL YRUELUH GDF FRQVLGHUP YRUELUHD R ÄUHFUHDUH LQGLYLGXDO D H[SUHVLHL OLQJYLVWLFH´. cea a diverselor limbi în particular.UHOD LLVRFLDOHLQWHUXPDQH .19 SXQHP SHQWUX FHOHODOWH LQVWLWX LL VRFLDOH &XP VH WUDQVPLW DFHVWHD" 9RP YHGHD F pentrX ILHFDUH GLQWUH HOH H[LVW XQ HFKLOLEUX GLIHULW vQWUH WUDGL LD LPSXV úL DF LXQHD OLEHUDVRFLHW LL 5HYHQLQG OD OLPE QH YRP vQWUHED GH FH IDFWRUXO LVWRULF DO WUDQVPLWHULL R GRPLQvQvQWUHJLPHúLH[FOXGHRULFHVFKLPEDUHVXELWJHQHUDO (YROX LDOLPEii (langage) în genere.PRGFRPXQGHDJkQGLSHGLIHULWHWUHSWHGHFLYLOL]D LH DFHHDúL mentalitate) . cum este amestecul popoarelor. dar au trebuit VUHFXQRDVFvQILQDOFRGH]YROWDUHQDWXUDODOLPELLQXH[LVWFFLÄWRDWHOLPELOH FXQRVFXWH SRSXODUH úL VDYDQWH GH]YOXLH SUHRFXSDUHD XQXL ÄD VSXQH PDL ELQH PDL H[DFW ©G¶XQ PLHX[ GLUHª´ FDUH SUHWXWLQGHQL D FRQGXV VXELHF LL YRUELWRUL V-úL vQVXúHDVF PRGXO GH D YRUEL DO FHORU FDUH VH H[SULP PDL ELQH 'H IDSW DFHDVW WHQGLQ  VSUH PDL ELQH FRUHVSXQGH SURSULX-]LV QHYRLORU GH FRPXQLFDUH úL QX XQHL GRULQ HVXELHFWLYH7RDWHWUDQVIRUPULOHvQOLPEVHIDFSULQLQWHUPHGLXOYRUELUii.PRGGHYLD úLGHFOLP .dLIHULWHWLSXULGHUHJOHPHQWULVRFLDOH 'DUIDSWHOHOLQJYLVWLFHDXúLSURSULLOHORUHYROX LLFKLDUGDFVXQWvQOHJWXUFX DOWHIDSWHULWPXULOHGHHYROX LHVXQWGLIHULWHúLWUHEXLHDYXWvQYHGHUHFRPSOH[LWDWHD FLUFXPVWDQ HORU ÌQFRPSDUWLPHQWDUHDXPDQHVWHQDWXUDOFOLPEDMXODDYXWRVRDUWDQDORJvQ FHHD FH SULYHúWH YDULHWDWHDGLYHUVLWDWHD VD SH PDUL VSD LL JHRJUDILFH GHRDUHFH HO HVWH PRELOúLDQWUHQDWvQWU-RPLúFDUHJHQHUDOGHHYROX LH /LQJYLúWLLDXFXWDWVGHPRQVWUH]HGH]YROWDUHDQDWXUDODOimbii.

/LPED HVWH PRúWHQLUHD FROHFWLY úL VSLULWXDO D JUXSXOXL XPDQ vQ LQWHULRUXO FUXLDVHGH]YROWFRSLOXOVSUHGHRVHELUHGHDSWLWXGLQLOHIL]LFHúLFHOHODOWHDSWLWXGLQL VSLULWXDOH SH FDUH XQ FRSLO OHPRúWHQHúWHGHODSULQ L úLGHODVWUPRúL. QX H[SOLF GHFkW SDU LDO DQXPLWH DVSHFWHDOHHYROX LHLIRQHWLFHúLPRUIRORJLFH5DSRUWXOGLQWUHOLPEúLYRUELUHVHUHOHY numai în maniera în care se transmite limba.

PSHULXO URPDQ RULJLQHD HWQLF D ORFXLWRULORU HUD GLQWUH FHOH PDL GLIHULWH GDU WR L DX DMXQVVVHvQ HOHDJvQODWLQ/DIHOvQPDUHDFROHFWLYLWDWHD$PHULFLLGH1RUGXQGH .OLPEDHOR vQYD GHODDQWXUDMXOVXSULQ LGRLFHGXFDWRDUH&RSLOXODUHGRDUFDSDFLWDWHDGHD FUHúWHúLDVHGH]YROWDvQWU-ROLPEILHFHFHDDSULQ LORUOXLILHFHROLPEVWULQ 8QFRSLOGLQSULQ LMDSRQH]LVDXSURYHQLQGGLQWU-R DUGLQ$IULFDSRDWHvQY D GHODSULPHOHVXQHWHvQPHGLXOHXURSHDQVDXDPHULFDQOLPEDORFXOXLFDúLXQEúWLQDú /LPED HVWH LQGHSHQGHQW GH DSWLWXGLQLOH IL]LFH DOH YRUELWRULORU 3ULQ XUPDUH WUDQVPLWHUHDGHODRJHQHUD LHODDOWDDOLPELLVHIDFHDVWIHOvQFkWILHFDUHQRXJHQHUD LH VHGH]YROWvQWU-RVIHUVSLULWXDOGHMDH[LVWHQW ÌQ WLPS FH YLD D WUHFH GLUHFW GH OD PDP OD FRSLO OLPED SDUFXUJH R FDOH VSLULWXDOSULQDF LXQHDDQWXUDMXOXLDVXSUDFRSLOXOXLúLDDGROHVFHQWXOXLDFHDVWDH[SOLF de ce un om de orice origine poate fi integrat într-RFROHFWLYLWDWHOLQJYLVWLFGLIHULWÌQ .

20 DSURDSHWRDWHSRSRDUHOHOXPLLVXQWUHSUH]HQWDWHvQFROHFWLYLWDWHDXPDQWR LYRUEHVFR VLQJXUOLPERILFLDOHQJOH]D COMPARTIMENTELE LIMBII 'LQSHUVSHFWLYDVWUXFWXUDOVLVWHPXOOLPELLSRDWHILFRQFHSXWFDXQDQVDPEOX GHFRPSDUWLPHQWH QXPLWHúLQLYHOHVWDWXULVDXVXEVLVWHPH.

DIODWHvQDQXPLWHUDSRUWXUL LHUDUKLFHúLGLVSR]DELOHvQGRXSODQXULSODQXOH[SUHVLHL vQFDUHVHPDQLIHVWIDSWHOH GH DUWLFXOD LH úL DXGL LH GLQ FRPXQLFDUHD YHUEDO.

 úL SODQXO FRQ LQXWXOXL vQ FDUH VH PDQLIHVWIDSWHOHGHJkQGLUHGHFXQRúWLLQ .

 &RQILJXUD LD FRPSRUWDPHQWHORU úL  OLPELL SRDWH IL UHSUH]HQWDW VXE IRUPD unui tabel. cum este cel de mai jos: Planuri Compartimente Expresie &RQ LQXW biplane (bilaterale) monoplane (unilaterale) SINTAXA FRPSDUWLPHQWXOHQXQ XULORU.

LEXICUL (compartimentul lexemelor) MORFOLOGIA (compartimentul morfemelor) FONOLOGIA SEMANTICA (compartimentul (compartimentul fonemelor) sememelor) Compartimentul Compartimentul WUVWXULORU GLVWLQFWLYH WUVWXULORU GLVWLQFWLYH (pertinente. relevante) semantice (=al semelor) DUWLFXODWRULLúLDFXVWLFH Sunt trei compartimente biSODQHVDXELODWHUDOHVLQWD[DOH[LFXOúLPRUIRORJLD FRQVLGHUDWH vQ IHOXO DFHVWD SHQWUX F XQLW LOH ORU VSHFLILFH HQXQ XO OH[HPXO PRUIHPXO.

 VXQW HOH vQVHOH ELODWHUDOH DGLF GLVSXQ GH FkWH GRX ODWXUL H[SUHVLH VHPQLILFDQW.

úLFRQ LQXW VHPQLILFDW.

celelalte –vQWUVWXULGLVWLQFWLYHGHFRQ LQXW VHPH. $OWHSDWUXFRPSDUWLPHQWHVXQWPRQRSODQHVDXXQLODWHUDOHSHQWUXFVHGLVSXQ GRX FkWH GRX vQ FkWH XQ VLQJXU SODQ DO OLPELL FHHDFHvQVHDPQFHOHPHQWHOHORU constitutive sunt ele însele unilaterale: fonemele dispun numai de expresie. iar sememele – nXPDL GH FRQ LQXW 3ULPHOH VXQW DQDOL]DELOH vQ WUVWXUL GLVWLQFWLYH GH expresie.

. 8QLW LOHúLHOHPHQWHOHFRQVWLWXWLYHDOHVLVWHPXOXLOLPELLVXQWvQDQVDPEOXOORU invariante. Aceste invariante. morfemul – de asemenea printr-R YDULHWDWH GH IRUPH DOH UGFLQLORU DIL[HORU GHVLQHQ HORU QXPLWH DORPRUIH LDU IRQHPXO VH UHDOL]HD] SULQ YDULDQWHOH QXPLWH alofone (sunete rostite). ca uQLW L úL HOHPHQWH GH VLVWHP VH UHDOL]HD] vQ PRG FRQFUHW vQ SURFHVXO FRPXQLFULL YHUEDOH SULQWU-XQ QXPU PDL PDUH GH YDULDQWH (QXQ XO VH UHDOL]HD] SULQWU-R YDULHWDWH GH SURSR]L LL OH[HPXO VH UHDOL]HD] SULQWU-o YDULHWDWH GH FXYLQWH SROLVHPDQWLFH úL de forme gramaticale (numite alolexeme).

).&$. .21$/$//.QYDULDQWHOHVXQWXQLW LIXQF LRQDOHDOHOLPELL(OHVHDIOvQUDSRUWXULLHUDUKLFH úL VWUXFWXUDOH XQHOH ID  GH DOWHOH FDUH VH H[SULP VXE IRUPD SULQFLSLXOXL VWUDWLILFD LRQDO DO OLPEDMXOXL )RUPXODUHD DFHVWXL SULQFLSLX HVWH XUPWRDUHD R XQLWDWH dintr-XQ FRPSDUWLPHQW DO VLVWHPXOXL OLQJYLVWLF VH VWUXFWXUHD] GLQ FHO SX LQ R XQLWDWH GLQ FRPSDUWLPHQWXO LPHGLDW LQIHULRU $VWIHO HQXQ XO SRDWH FRQVWD GLQWU-un lexem H[URP1LQJH. în care.8/675$7.21 Membrii inventarelor de invariante constituie sistemul. în fiecare FRPSDUWLPHQWDFHLPHPEULVHRUJDQL]HD]vQVHULLSDUDGLJPDWLFHLDUFRPELQDUHDORU GXSUHJXOLúLUHVWULF LLVSHFLILFHvQODQ XULVLQWDJPDWLFHUHDOL]HD]VWUXFWXULOHYHUEDOH SURSULLILHFUHLOLPEL PRINCI3.0%$-8/8.

VDXGLQPDLPXOWHOH[HPH $IDUQLQJHOLQLútit cu fulgi mari). lexemul poate consta dintr-XQ PRUIHP SRP.

 GLQ GRX SRPXO SRPL.

 VDX PDL PXOWH SRPLúRUL SRPLúRULL.

 ODWXUD GH H[SUHVLH D PRUIHPXOXL SRDWH FRQVWD GRQWU-un IRQHP R GLQ FRPELQD LD URPR FDV.

 GLQ GRX OD SH FH" DP HWF.

 Vau mai multe SRP >SRP@ FDV >NDV@ GLQ IRUPD JUDPDWLFDO FDV VDX FDUW.[kart] din forma JUDPDWLFDOFDUWHHWF.

 1X WUHEXLH V VXUSULQG IDSWXO F vQWUH VLQWD[ GRPHQLXO HQXQ XULORU.

 úL PRUIRORJLH GRPHQLXO IRUPHORU úL VWUXFWXULORU JUDPDWLFDOH.

 FRQceput în gramatica FODVLF GUHSW FRPSRQHQWH DOH VWUXFWXULL JUDPDWLFDOH ÄVH LQWHUFDOHD] ´ OH[LFXO YRFDEXODUXO GRPHQLXO FXYLQWHORU.

 )DSWXO VH H[SOLF SULQ DFHHD F vQ PDMRULWDWHD OLPELORU HQXQ XULOH XQLW L VLQWDFWLFH.

 VXQW GLYL]LELOH PDL vQWkL vQ OH[HPH XQLW L GH YRFDEXODU.

 úL DELD DFHVWHD GLQ XUP OD UkQGXO ORU VH GLYLG vQ PRUIHPH XQLW L PRUIRORJLFH.

Numai în XQHOHOLPELYRUELWHvQ([WUHPXO2ULHQWFXPVXQWFKLQH]DúLYLHWQDPH]DHVWHSUREDELO FDOH[HPHOHVÄFRLQFLG´VWUXFWXUDOFXPRUIHPHOHFHHDFHvQVHDPQFDQDOL]DXQRU HQXQ XUL vQ OH[HPH V ÄFRLQFLG´ WRWRGDW FX DQDOL]D OH[HPHORU vQ PRUIHPHOH lor constitutive. sufixul –HúW- úL GHVLQHQ D –HVXEVWDQWLYXOOHF LDvQUGFLQDOHF L-úLGLQQRXDUWLFROXO –a). 'H H[ HQXQ XO URP 6WXGHQWD FLWHúWH OHF LD HVWH VHJPHQWDELO GLUHFW vQ WUHL FXYLQWH 6WXGHQWD FLWHúWH úL OHF LD úL QXPDL LQGLUHFW vQ úDSWH PRUfeme (substantivul studenta fiind analizabil în morfemul student- UGFLQ úL –a. Limbile de acest fel sunt considerate radical-izolante din perspectiva tipurilor de limbi. Mai este necesar de subliniat un detaliu relativ la modul de manifestare a XQLW LORU VLVWHPXOXL OLQJYLVWLF úL DQXPH FDUDFWHUXO VHFYHQ LDO DO HQXQ XULORU OH[HPHORU PRUIHPHORU úL IRQHPHORU vQ VHQVXO F DVWIHO GH XQLW L SRW FRQVWLWXL VHFYHQ H DGLF VH SRW ÄvQúLUD´ XQHOH GXS DOWHOH vQ ÄODQ XUL´ VLQWDJPDWLFH. articol GHILQLW FX YDORDUH GH GHVLQHQ  YHUEXO FLWHúWH – vQ UGFLQD FLW-.

 GDU FDUDFWHUXO IDVFLFXODU DO WUVWXULORU GLVWLQFWLYH GH H[SUHVLH DO VHPHPHORU úL DO IRQHPHORU vQVHQVXOFDVWIHOGHHOHPHQWHFRQVWLWXLHIDVFLFXOHDGLFQXVHSRWvQúLUD XQHOH GXS DOWHOH FL VH SURGXF UHVSHFWLY VH SHUFHS VLPXOWDQ vQ SURFHVXO GH FRPXQLFDUH.

în mod distinct de celelalte. . ([HPSOH WUVWXULOH FDUDFWHU YRFDOLF GHVFKLGHUH PD[LP FDUDFWHU QHODELOúLORFDOL]DUHFHQWUDOVHUHDOL]HD]FRQFRPLWHQWvQIRQHPXOYRFDOLFD>D@DVH YHGHDFDSLWROXOFRQVDFUDW)RQRORJLHLVHPHPHOHÄSDUWHDLQIHULRDUDGLQWHOXL´ÄSDUWHD LQIHULRDU D XQXL DUERUH VDX D XQHL SODQWH´ ÄPRIHPXO SULQFLSDO GLQ VWUXFWXUD XQXL cuvânt´ÄQXPUFDUHvQPXO LWFXHOvQVXúLSURGXFHXQDQXPLWDOWQXPU´VXQWSURSULL PRUIHPXOXL UGFLQ- GLQ OH[HPXO UGFLQ vQ PRG VLPXOWDQ vQ VLVWHP FHHD FH FRQILJXUHD] XQ FXYkQW SROLVHPDQWLF QXPDL vQ YRUELUH UHDOL]kQGX-se dor unul sau altul dintre cele patru sememe.

22 (VWH GH SUHFL]DW DSRL F IUD]D úL VLQWDJPD QHILLQG XQLW L IXQF LRQDOH DOH VLVWHPXOXLVHDEDWGHODSULQFLSLXOVWUDWLILFD LRQDODOOLPEDMXOXLÌQWU-DGHYURIUD]QX HVWH QLFLRGDW IRUPDW ÄGLQ FHO SX LQ R SURSR]L LH´ FL vQWRWGHDXQD GLQ PDL PXOWH SURSR]L LL FHO SX LQGRX.

.DUVLQWDJPDvQFRQFHS LDFXQRVFXWvQVLQWD[DPRGHUQ nu s-DU SXWHD GHILQL FD VWUXFWXU IRUPDW GLQ ÄFHO SX LQ´ GRX SU L GH SURSR]L LH FL FRQVWvQWRWGHDXQDvQPRGREOLJDWRULXGLQGRXSU LGHSURSR]L LH FDvQVLQWDJPHOH VXERUGLQDWLYH(OHYXOVLOLWRUVLQWDJPQRPLQDOúLFLWHúWHPXOWVLQWDJPYHUEDOVDX FDvQVLQWDJPDSUHGLFDWLY(OHYXOFLWHúWH.

'LQDFHDVWSHUVSHFWLYUH]XOWFvQWU-un HQXQ  VXQW DWkWHD VLQWDJPH FkWH SU L GH SURSR]L LH PLQXV XQX ÌQWU-DGHYU HQXQ XO URP(OHYXOVLOLWRUFLWHúWHPXOWFRQVWkQGGLQSDWUXSU LGHSURSR]L LH VXELHFWDWULEXW SUHGLFDW FRPSOHPHQW.

 VH VWUXFWXUHD] vQ DFHODúL WLPS vQ WUHL VLQWDJPH FHOH PHQ LRQDWH PDL VXV.

din moment ce o proSR]L LHSRDWHFRQVWDGLQWU-RSDUWHGHSURSR]L LH FHHD FH VH QXPHúWH vQ VLQWD[D FODVLF SURSR]L LH PRQRPHPEU. FHHD FH UHYLQH OD HFKLYDOHQ D  SU L GH SURSR]L LH –1 = 3 VLQWDJPH 1HILLQG XQLW L IXQF LRQDOH IUD]D úL VLQWDJPD VXQW vQ VFKLPE XQLW L OLQJYLVWLFH UHOD LRQDOH DOWIHO VSXV FRPELQD LL GH XQLW L IXQF LRQDOH IUD]D HVWH ÄFDGUXO´vQFDUHSURSR]L LLOHLQWUvQUHOD LLXQHOHFXDOWHOHLDUVLQWDJPDHVWHÄFDGUXO´ vQ FDUH LQWHUUHOD LRQHD] SU LOH GH SURSR]L LH $FHDVWD vQVHDPQ F úL SU LOH GH SURSR]L LHVXQWXQLW LOLQJYLVWLFHIXQF LRQDOHVHVXSXQSULQFLSLXOXLVWUDWLILFD LRQDODO limbajului.

 VDX GLQ PDL PXOWH SURSR]L LHSOXULPHPEU.

LDUSDUWHDGHSURSR]L LHSRDWHFRQVWDODUkQGXOHLGLQWU-un OH[HP SDUWHGHSURSR]L LHVLPSO.

verb la modul infinitiv sau SDUWLFLSLX DGYHUE GH ORF GH WLPS VDX GH PRG HWF úL XQXO VDX PDL PXOWH FXYLQWH DMXWWRDUH SUHSR]L LH DUWLFRO QHKRWUkW UHVpectiv verb auxiliar sau adverb indicând JUDGXOGHFRPSDUD LH.VDXGLQPDLPXOWH SDUWHGHSURSR]L LHFRPSOH[ IRUPDW GH UHJXO GLQWU-un cuvânt autonom: substantiv.

sintaxa. &RPSDUWLPHQWHOH OLPELL SUH]LQW JUDGH YDULDWH GH FRPSOH[LWDWH DWkW GLQ SXQFWXO GH YHGHUH FDOLWDWLY FkW úL GLQ SXQFWXO GH YHGHUH FDQWLWDWLY 'LQ SXQFWXO GH vedere calitativ. lexicul úL PRUIRORJLD VXQW PDL FRPSOH[H GHFkW IRQRORJLD úL VHPDQWLFD SHQWUX F LQYDULDQWHOH VSHFLILFH SULPHORU WUHL HQXQ XO OH[HPXO úL PRUIHPXO.

dispun fie numai de expresie (fonemul) fie QXPDL GH FRQ LQXW VHPHPXO. sememul) sunt monoplane. VXQW ELSODQH GLVSXQ DWkW GH H[SUHVLH FkW úL GH FRQ LQXW LDU LQYDULDQWHOH VSHFLILFHXOWLPHORUGRXVXQWPDLSX LQFRPSOH[HGDWILLQGFLQYDULDWHOHVSHFLILFHORU (fonemul.

 'LQ SXQFW GH YHGHUH FDQWLWDWLY VLQWD[D OH[LFXO úL morfologia sunt mai complexe decât fonologia. penWUXFLQYDULDQWHOHSURSULLSULPHORU trei sunt mai numeroase decât invariantele din fonologie (în medie. sistemul lingvistic DO OLPELORU FXSULQGH  GH IRQHPH.

iar lexemele sunt PDL QXPHURDVH GHFkWPRUIHPHOHGXSFXP – printre morfeme –UGFLQLOHVXQWPDL QXPHURDVH GHFkW DIL[HOH úL GHVLQHQ HOH ÌQWU-R DVWIHO GH FRQFHS LH DVXSUD VLVWHPXOXL OLQJYLVWLF vQ FDUH VH DGPLWH F FHOH GRX SODQXUL DOH OLPELL VXQW L]RPRUIH SUH]LQW VWUXFWXUUL SDUDOHOH úL VLPLODUH. 0DL PXOW GHFkW DWkW HQXQ XULOH VXQW PDL QXPHURDVHGHFkWOH[HPHOH SHFDUHOHvQJOREHD]vQVWUucturile lor).

 FRPSDUWLPHQWXO VHPDQWLF IDFH WRWXúL ILJXU DSDUWH &RQIRUPSULQFLSLXOXLL]RPRUILVPXOXLHODUWUHEXLVILHVUDFvQHOHPHQWHvQWRFPDLFD IRQRORJLD FX FDUH ÄVH vQYHFLQHD]´ vQ SODQXO RSXV DO limbii. lucrurile nu stau în UHDOLWDWH DúD VHPHPHOH VXQW PXOW PDL QXPHURDVH vQ VLVWHPXO RULFUHL OLPEL GHFkW IRQHPHOH D FURU ÄFDQWLWDWH´ HVWH GXS FXP DP SUHFL]DW GH RUGLQXO ]HFLORU. or.

 3DUDOHOLVPXOVWUXFWXUDOGLQWUHFHOHGRXSODQXULDOHOLPELLQXPDLFRUHVSXQGHUHDOLW LL OLQJYLVWLFHGDFFRPSDUPLQYDULDQWHOHIRQRORJLFHFXFHOHVHPDQWLFHGLQSXQFWXOGH vedere cantitativ. 6WUXFWXUDOLVPXOGLQDPLFFHUFHWDUHDLVWRULFDVLVWHPXOXLOLQJYLVWLFDIRUPXODW ROHJHLPSRUWDQWFXSULYLUHODHYROX LHGLQSHUVSHFWLYDSULQFLSLXOXLVWUDWLILFD LRQDODO .

ca nume de SDVUHvQGLDOHFWXOPXQWHDQDOOLPELLURPkQHSHQWUXDHYLWDFROL]LXQHDRPRQLPLFFX QXPHOH SODQWHL SRUXPE vQ GLDOHFWXO PROGRYHDQ SDVUHD VL-D SVWUDW YHFKLXO QXPH QHGHULYDWSRUXPESHQWUXFQXULVFDVVe confunde cu numele plantei. De exemplu. care este. formarea derivatului porumbel. în 0ROGRYDSSXúRL.23 OLPEDMXOXL(VWHOHJHDLQHJDOHLPRELOLW LúLSHQHWUDELOLW LDFRPSDUWLPHQWHORUOLPELL 3ULQ PRELOLWDWH VH vQ HOHJH PRGLILFDUHD UDSRUWXULORU LQWHUQH GLQWUH XQLW LOH ILHFUXL compartiment lingvistic.

 3ULQ SHQHWUDELOLWDWH VH vQ HOHJH SRVLELOLWDWHD XQRU UHSHUFXVLXQL vQ VLVWHPXO OLPELLFDXUPDUHDUHOD LLORUGLQWUHOLPEúLDOWHIHQRPHQHUHDOL]DWvQWUHDOWHOHSULQ FUHúWHUHD VDX GHVFUHúWHUHD QXPUXOXL GH XQLW L OLQJYLVWLFH 'H H[HPSOX R GDW FX HYROX LD VRFLHW LL R GDW FX GLVSDUL LD XQRU YHFKL LQVWLWX LL DX GLVSUXW GLQ OH[LFXO FRQWHPSRUDQ úL XQ QXPU GH FXYLQWH DUKDLVPH FD URP KDWPDQ VWROQLF SDKDUQLF HWF.

microscop etc.).LDURGDWFXGH]YROWDUHDFXOWXULLúLFLYLOL]D LHLDSUkQGFRQFHSWHQRLOHJDWHGH SLOG GHLQVWUXPHQWHPRGHUQHvQOH[LFDXLQWUDWúLGHQXPLULOHGHDVHPHQHDQRLDOH acestora ( ca neologisme. de felul substantivelor: binoclu. telescop. Exemplele furnizate aLFL LQ GH FRPSDUWLPHQWXO OH[LFDO YRFDEXODU.

cu cât un compartiment OLQJYLVWLFHVWHPDLFRPSOH[FXDWkWHOHVWHPDLPRELOúLPDLSHQHWUDELOvQWU-RDQXPLW XQLWDWHGHWLPSúLLQYHUVFXFkWHVWHPDLSX LQFRPSOH[FXDWkWHVWHPDLSX LQPRELO úL PDL JUHX SHQHWUDELO vQ DFHHDúL XQLWDWH GH WLPS $FHDVWD HVWH IRUPXODUHD OHJLL LQHJDOHLPRELOLW LúLSHQHWUDELOLW LDFRPSDUWLPHQWHORUOLPELLÌQWU-DGHYUVLQWD[DúL PDLDOHVOH[LFXOOLPELLURPkQHGHH[HPSOXDXHYROXDWPXOWvQXOWLPHOHGRXVHFROH pe când morfolRJLDDDFKL]L LRQDWXQQXPUUHODWLYPDLPLFGHPRUIHPHLDUIRQRORJLD URPkQHDVFQXV-DPRGLILFDWGHORFvQDFHODúLLQWHUYDOFURQRORJLF $PIFXWPDLVXVRUHIHULUHODWLSXOGHOLPELUDGLFDO-L]RODQWHFDUHvQVQXHVWH singurul tip lingvistic. 0RELOLWDWHDFRPSDUWLPHQWHORUOLPELLHVWHXQIHQRPHQGHOLQJYLVWLFLQWHUQLDU penetrabilitatea lor – XQXO GH OLQJYLVWLF H[WHUQ vQ WHUPLQRORJLD LQWURGXV GH ) GH 6DXVVXUH7UHEXLHIFXWSUHFL]DUHDFH[LVWRUHOD LHGHGLUHFWSURSRU LRQDOLWDWHvQWUH PRELOLWDWH úL SHQHWUDELOLWDWH SH GH R SDUWH úL JUDGXO GH FRPSOH[LWDWH FDQWLWDWLY úL FDOLWDWLY D compartimentelor limbii. Prin tip liQJYLVWLF VH vQ HOHJH DQVDPEOXO SDUWLFXODULW LORU VWUXFWXUDOHRSXQkQGROLPE RFODVGHOLPEL. Cu alte cuvinte. DFHVWD FD úL FRPSDUWLPHQWXO VLQWD[HL ILLQG PDL XúRU SHQHWUDELO PDL VXSXV LQIOXHQ HORU extralingvistice.

DOWHLD DOWRUD.

LQGHSHQGHQWGHRULJLQHD HYROX LD úL GLVWULEX LD VSD LDO D OLPELORU ÌQ OLPELOH GH WLS L]RODQW FXYLQWHOH QX-úL PRGLILF IRUPD vQ SURFHVXO FRPXQLFULL HOH VXQW LQWHJUDO QHIOH[LELOH $FHVW WLS VH subdivide în subtipul radical-L]RODQW GHMD PHQ LRQDW vQ FDUH vQ DIDUD SDUWLFXODULW LL GHDQXIOH[LRQDFXYLQWHOHVHUHGXFVWUXFWXUDOODXQLW LRPRORJHUGFLQLORUGLQDOWH WLSXULGHOLPELúLvQVubtipul tematic-L]RODQWvQFDUHUPkQkQGQHIOH[LELOHFXYLQWHOH DXWRWXúLRVWUXFWXUSX LQPDLFRPSOH[VFKL kQGX-VHDLFLIHQRPHQXOGHULYULL VXQW SRVLELOHvQDVWIHOGHOLPELFXPHVWHLQGRQH]LDQDFXYLQWHIRUPDWHGLQUGFLQLODFDUH VH DWDúHD] SUHIL[H.

 6XQW SRVLELOH DOWH WUHL WLSXUL GH OLPEL QHL]RODQWH úL DQXPH IOH[LRQDU vQ FDUH XQHOH FXYLQWH vúL VFKLPE IRUPHOH JUDPDWLFDOH SULQ IOH[LXQH – GHFOLQDUH FRQMXJDUH FKLDU FRPSDUD LH DGMHFWLYDO vQ FXUVXO FRPXQLFULL YHUEDOH.

 aglutinant (în care VXQW SRVLELOH IRUPD LL OH[LFDOH ÄOXQJL´ FX DWDúDUHD D QXPHURDVH DIL[HSHOkQJUGFLQL.

în DúD IHO vQFkW XQ FXYkQW GH WLS LQFRUSRUDQW SRDWH IL HFKLYDOHQW FX R SURSR]L LHXQHRULFKLDUFXRIUD]GLQOLPELOHGHFHOHODOWHWLSXUL.vQVIkUúLWLQFRUSRUDQW vQFDUHFHHDFHFRUHVSXQGHGLIHULWHORU SU L GH SURSR]L LH GLQ OLPELOH GH FHOH GLQWkL WLSXUL VH FRPELQ vQ VWUXFWXUL OH[LFDOH complexe.

. 7LSXULOH IOH[LRQDU úL DJOXWLQDQW VH VXEGLYLG vQ VXEWLSXULOH VLQWHWLF vQ FDUH IOH[LXQHD VH UHDOL]HD] SULQ DIL[H úL GHVLQHQ H FD URP WDWOXL (genitiv sau dativ).

24 FkQWDVHUP PDLPXOWFDSUHIHFW.

HWF.

au père (dativ) sau nous avions chanté (mai mult ca perfect etc. În secolul al XIX-OHD  D DSUXW R UDPXU VSHFLDO D OLQJYLVWLFLL tipologia. La conturarea ei au contribuit OLQJYLúWLL JHUPDQL :LOKHOP YRQ +XPEROGW IUD LL 6FKOHJHO úL $XJXVW 6FKOHLFKHU 2 QRX FODVLILFDUH WLSRORJLF PDL GHWDOLDW úL LQkQG VHDPD QX QXPDL GH VWUXFWXUD FXYLQWHORUFLúLGHSDUWLFXODULW LDOHXQLW LORUGLQFHOHODOWHFRPSDUWLPHQWHDOHOLPELL DSURSXVvQHSRFDLQWHUEHOLFOLQJYLVWXODPHULFDQ(GZDUG6DSLU &ODVLILFDUHD WLSRORJLF FODVLF QXPLW úL PRUIRORJLF.). având ca obiect de studiu tipurile structurale de limbi.úLDQDOLWLF vQFDUHFXYLQWHOHDúD-zise flexibile nu-úLVFKLPEIRUPDFDvQOLPELOHL]RODQWHGDUFDWHJRULLOHJUDPDWLFDOHVHH[SULPvQ ORF GH DIL[H úL GHVLQHQ H SULQ LQVWUXPHQWH JUDPDWLFDOH VDX FXYLQWH DMXWWRDUH SUHSR]L LL FRQMXQF LL YHUEH DX[LOLDUH DGYHUEH GHOH[LFDOL]DWH SHQWUX H[SULPDUHD JUDGHORU GH FRPSDUD LH FD vQ IU du père (genitiv).

 D OLPELORU UHGXV OD OLQLLOHHLPDULSRDWHILSUH]HQWDWFDvQDFHDVWGLDJUDP Tipuri de limbi izolant neizolant radical tematic flexionar aglutinant H[YLHWQDPH].

 H[LQGRQH]LDQ.

: (polisitetic) ODWLQ.: (ex.: (ex. sintetic analitic sintetic analitic incorporant (ex.: (ex.

IUDQFH].

PDJKLDUD.

WLEHWDQD.

)RQHWLFD D IRVW LQL LDW vQ DQWLFKLWDWH vQ YHFKHD *UHFLH úL vQ YHFKHD .QGLH vQ special în India ajungând la rezultateUHPDUFDELOH YHFKLLLQGLHQLDXGDWRDGPLUDELO FODVLILFDUH D VXQHWHORU SURSULL URVWLULL VDQVNULWH OLPED GH FXOWXU D ULL ORU vQ Antichitate). H[OLPELOH amerindiene) FONETICA – Studiul sunetelor vorbirii )RQHWLFD HVWH R GLVFLSOLQ OLQJYLVWLF DYkQG FD RELHFW VXQHWHOH YRUELULL 3ULQ VXQHW DUWLFXODW VH vQ HOHJH HPLVLXQHD YRFDO PLQLPDO FDSDELO FD vPSUHXQ FX DOWH ÄSURGXVH´ VLPLODUH DOH YRFLL V IRUmeze corpuri fonetice (complexe sonore). Ea s-a dezvoltat în Europa. mai ales în secolul al XIX-OHD OD VIkUúLWXO FUXLD D DSUXW PHWRGD GH FHUFHWDUH QXPLW IRQHWLF H[SHULPHQWDO SULQ FDUH VH UHFXUJHODXQQXPUGHDSDUDWHGHPVXUDSDUWLFXODULW LORUDUWLFXOULL GHHPLWHUH. &RUSXULOH IRQHWLFH DOFWXLHVF ODWXUD VRQRU D FXYLQWHORU VLQWDJPHORU SURSR]L LLORU frazelor.

úL DFXVWLFH GHUHFHSWDUH.

DOHVXQHWHORU/HJDWGHDFHDVWDHVWHIRQHWLFDLQVWUXPHQWDOR PHWRGGHSUHGDUHDURVWLULLOLPELORUVWULQHFXDMXWRUXODSDUDWXULLHOHFWURQLFH $OWH GLVFLSOLQH OLQJYLVWLFH DSURSLDWH GH IRQHWLFVXQWFHOHQRUPDWLYHRUWRHSLD DQVDPEOXOUHJXOLORUGHSURQXQ DUHFRUHFWvQOLPEDOLWHUDU.

úLRUWRJUDILD DQVDPEOXO .

25 UHJXOLORU GH VFULHUH FRUHFW vQ DFHODúL DVSHFW DO OLPELL.

)RQHWLFD JHQHUDO VWXGLXO WHRUHWLF DO VXQHWHORU OLPEDMXOXL LQGLIHUHQW GH GHRVHELULOH GLQWUH OLPEL VW vQ UHOD LH FX IRQHWLFD VSHFLDO VWXGLXO VXQHWHORU GLQ YRUELUHDXQHLOLPELDQXPLWH. &X UGFLQL vQ VHFROXO DO XIX-OHD vQ VHFROXO XUPWRU V-D GH]YROWDW IRQRORJLD VDX IRQHWLFD IXQF LRQDO VWXGLXO VXQHWHORU GLQ SXQFWXO GH YHGHUH DO IXQF LXQLL ORU vQ SURFHVXO GH FRPXQLFDUH YHUEDO într-RIRUPXODUHFRQFLVVWXGLXOIRQemelor.

DFHDVWDGLQXUPSRDWHILRIRQHWLFGHVFULSWLY VWXGLX al sunetelor din vorbirea unei limbi într-R HWDS GDW GLQ HYROX LD HL.

 VDX R IRQHWLF LVWRULF VWXGLXDOHYROX LHLVXQHWHORUSURSULLXQHLOLPELGH-a lungul istoriei acesteia). $FHDVW GLVFLSOLQ OLQJYLVWLF SUH]LQW LQWHUHV SHQWUX GH]YROWDUHD XQRU discipOLQH úL FKLDU WHKQLFL H[WUDOLQJYLVWLFH FD GLF LXQHD WHKQLFD GLF LHL XWLO SHUIHF LRQULL DUWHL GH LQWHUSUHWDUH VFHQLF.

 GHIHFWRORJLD DFXVWLF WHKQLFD FRUHFWULL GHIHFWHORU GH DXGL LH.

 ORJRSHGLD úL RUWRIRQLD WHKQLFL DOH FRUHFWULL GHIHFWHORU GH pronuQ DUH.

 6XQHWHOHYRUELULLVHvPSDUWvQGRXFODVHLPSRUWDQWHYRFDOHúLFRQVRDQHXQLWH SULQFODVDLQWHUPHGLDUDVRQDQWHORU 9RFDOHOH VXQW VXQHWH DUWLFXODWH vQWRWGHDXQD VRQRUH DGLF URVWLWH FX YLEUD LD FRDUGHORU YRFDOH.

(OH VH FODVLILF GXS ]RQD GLQ FDYLWDWHD EXFDO vQ FDUH VH SURGXF YRFDOH DQWHULRDUH vQ SDUWHD DQWHULRDU D FDYLW LL EXFDOH. FDUH VH SURQXQ  IU HIRUW DUWLFXODWRULX úL VXQW FDSDELOH GH D constitui centri silabici.

 YRFDOH SRVWHULRDUH vQ SDUWHD SRVWHULRDU D DFHOHLDúL FDYLW L.

 úL Yocale centrale sau neutre (în zona mijlocie a FDYLW LLEXFDOH.

 9RFDOHOHDQWHULRDUHVXQW>0@FDîn fr. mère (m05.

ca în fr. [œ]. gai [ge] „vesel. ca în fr.ÄPDP•”. [e]. [y]. lune (lyn] „OXQ´ YRFDODURPkQHDVF>H@GLQSOHFGHH[HPSOXVHVLWXHD] GHIDSW vQWUH>H@úL>0@GLQIUDQFH]QHILLQGDWkWGHvQFKLVFDIU>H@QLFLDWkWGHGHVFKLVFDIU >0@. feu [f¡]. ca în fr. ca în fr. -´>¡]. „foc”. boeuf [boef] „bou”.

[ò]. [÷÷]. ca în engl. >R@GDUPDLvQFKLVGHFkWHQJO>ã]). ca în engl. ca în engl. [t á p] „vârf”. ca în rus. ca în rom. ca în vietnam. Vocale centrale sunt: [è@FDvQHQJOQLQH>QDLQ@ÄQRX´>è]. dog [dãg] „câine”. [m]. òt [ò t] „piper”. bone [boun] „os”. ue>[÷÷ t] „a fost”. [è@FDvQURPYG>÷]. Vocale posterioare sunt: [λ]. son [sλQ] „fiu”. fân. [ta è] ÄVDUFLQ´>á]. ca în japon. [o]. mizu [mim}@ÄDS´>X@FDvQJHUPNXQG>NXQG@ÄFXQRVFXW´ YRFDOD >R@ GLQ URVWLUHDURPkQHDVFvQMRFGHH[HPSOXVHSURQXQ PDLGHVFKLVGHFkWHngl. ca în engl. [ã]. Dup JUDGXO GH DSHUWXU GHVFKLGHUH. ca în engl.

[øë]. iar nelabiale (nerotunjite) – toate celelalte. [á] – YH]L PDL VXV H[HPSOLILFUL VHPLGHVFKLVH >0@ >œ]. [ã]. [t]. [o]. [λ]. [u]. [y]. semiînchise: [e]. [ò@>R@ODIHOGHQRWDWF>è@VHVLWXHD]vQOLPELFDIUDQFH]D JHUPDQD HQJOH]D URPkQD vQWUH YRFDOHOH VHPLGHVFKLVH úL FHOH VHPLvQFKLVH vQFKLVH [i]. [α]. [u]. UH]XOWDW GLQ GLVWDQ D GLQWUH PXúFKLXO OLQJXDOúLSDODWvQPRPHQWXODUWLFXOULLYRFDOHOHVHFODVLILFvQGHVFKLVH>è]. [ø]. ÌQ URVWLUHD XQRU OLPEL FD IUDQFH]D SRUWXJKH]D SRORQD úD. [œ]. [τ]. [ã]. cu exemple mai sus. [y]. [÷÷]. 'XSUROXOEX]HORUvQURVWLUHYRFDOHOHVXQWODELDOH URtunjite): [è].

VHGLVWLQJYRFDOH RUDOH FXH[SXO]DUHDFXUHQWXOXLGHDHUIRQDWRUH[FOXVLYSHFDOHRUDO.

úLYRFDOHQD]ale .

26 FX H[SXO]DUHD XQHL SU L GLQ FXUHQWXO GH DHU SULQ IRVHOH QD]DOH.

un „un”. bon „bun”. ca în fr. [Ê@FDvQSRUWXQÄXQ´ ÌQ URVWLUHD DOWRU OLPEL FD ODWLQD YHFKH JUHDF VDQVFULWD JHUPDQD HQJOH]D PDJKLDUD úD. [Ÿ@ FD vQ SRUW HP ÄvQ´ >v@ Fa în port. magasin „magazin”. ca în fr. ca în fr. intacto „intact”. 9RFDOH RUDOH VXQW toate acelea cu care am exemplificat mai sus. [ã]. plante ÄSODQW´ >0@ FD în fr. Vocalele nazale sunt: [ã]. [œ].

 VH GLVWLQJ YRFDOH OXQJL FX R GXUDW GH DUWLFXODUH XúRU SUHOXQJLW.

mitenkään ['mitek0Q@ÄGHORF´>H@FDîn germ. [ø:]. [ã:]. father [fα/ è@ÄWDW´>0@FD în finl. 'RX YRFDOH URVWLWH vQ DFHHDúL VLODE IRUPHD] JUXSXO YRFDOLF QXPLt diftong. úL vocale scurte. ca în magh. Exemple de vocale lungi: [α:]. tör [t ø:r] „pumnal”. Schnee [œQH@Ä]SDG´>L@FD vQ HQJO HDW >LW@ ÄD PkQFD´ >R@ FD vQ Y JUHDF 2&. two >WX@ÄGRLGRX´>\@FDvQJHUPEHU> \E è r] „deasupra. [u:]. peste”. ca în engl. ca în germ. LDU WUHL YRFDOH URVWLWH vQ DFHHDúL VLODE IRUPHD] JUXSXO YRFDOLF QXPLW WULIWRQJ 'LIWRQJL úL WULIWRQJL DXWHQWLFL VH vQWkOQHVF vQ OLPELOH JHUPDQLFH FD JHUPDQD HQJOH]D ÌQURVWLUHDOLPELLURPkQHVHvQWkOQHVFIDOúLGLIWRQJLúLWULIWRQJLSHQWUXFvQDVWIHOGH JUXSXUL ILJXUHD] vQWRWGHDXQD FkWH R YRFDO QX FkWH GRX UHVSHFWLY WUHL. ca în engl. > so:ma] „corp”. Ofen [ã:f ãn] „sob•”.

 FHOHODOWH VXQHWHFDUHLQWUvQDOFWXLUHDORUILLQGVHPLYRFDOH &RQVRDQHOH VXQW VXQHWH DUWLFXODWH QX vQWRWGHDXQD VRQRUH SURQXQ DWH FX XQ oarecare efort articulatorLX úL FDUH QX VXQW vQ JHQHUDO FDSDELOH GH D IRUPD FHQWUL silabici. (OHVHFODVLILFGXSPRGXOGHDUWLFXODUH PDQLHUDGHH[SXO]DUHDFXUHQWXOXLGH aer fonator) în oclusive (cu obstacol total în calea curentului de aer fonator). fricative sau constrictive FX REVWDFRO SDU LDO vQ FDOHD FXUHQWXOXL IRQDWRU.

 úL DIULFDWH VDX VHPLRFOXVLYHRULSORVLYH FXREVWDFROWRWDOWUDQVIRUPDWvQREVWDFROSDU LDO.

 &RQVRDQHOH RFOXVLYH VXQW >E@ >S@ >G@ >W@ >J@ >N@ >J¶@ >N¶@ FHOH GRX GLQ XUPFDvQURPJKHDUúLFKLDUILLQGSDODWDOHvQUDSRUWFXSUHFHGHQWHOHGRXFDvQ URPJDUúLFDUFDUHVXQWGXUH.

>Jw]. [kw@ FDvQODWOLQJXDÄOLPE´TXLVÄFLQH´.

then [δen] ÄDWXQFLDSRL´>@FD în engl. joc. ca în germ. ca în rom. [p!]. [f]. [z]. rogi. there [UL@ÄWUHL´>]@>V@>!]. velare –>J@>K@>@>[@IDULQJDOH– [h].. ca în span. [dz]. Consoanele fricative sunt: [Ú]. interdentale –>/@>@ alveolare –>G@úL>W@GLQURVWLUHDHQJOH]HLSDODWDOH–>J @>N @úLDOWHOHSURSULLOLPbilor slave cu deosebire. consoanele pot fi: bilabiale – >@ >3@ >E@ >S@ labiodentale – [v]. [œ@FDvQ URP úL >@ FD în neo-JUHF !. s. cabeza [ka'ÚHD@ ÄFDS´ >@ FD în OLPEDQLJHULDQKDXVDH[ILOILOR>LOLOR@ÄIOXWXUH>Y@>I@>/@FDîn engl. !. [ts]. [s]. Apfel ['ap! èO@ÄPU´>G]@FDvQ LWDO]HUR> G]HUR@Ä]HUR´>WV@FDvQ kQ DU>G !]. dentale – [d]. [tœ@FDvQURPIDFL 1RWD LD GLQWUH SDUDQWH]H GUHSWH UHSUH]HQWkQG WUDQVFULS LD IRQHWLF DSDU LQH DúDQXPLWXOXLÄDOIDEHWIRQHWLFLQWHUQD LRQDO´úLHVWHXQDÄDQDOLWLF´DGLFQRWkQGvQPRG GLVWLQFW REVWDFROXO WRWDO LQL LDO GLQ DUWLFXODUHD DIULFDWHORU SULQ S W G úL REVWDFROXO SDU LDO ILQDO GLQ DUWLFXODUHD ORU SULQ  ]. œ $FHVW OXFUX QX vQVHDPQ DúDGDU F DIULFDWHOH YRU FRQVWD GLQ FRPELQD LL GH FkWH GRX FRQVRDQH ÌQ WUDQVFULHUHD IRQHWLF URPkQHDVFVHUHFXUJHODRQRWD LHÄVLQWHWLF´DDIULFDWHORU> @SHQWUX>WV@>÷@SHQWUX [d!@úL>þ@SHQWUX>Wœ@ 'XS ORFXl de articulare. ca în rom. [t].2 >UDPDWL NL@ ÄJUDPDWLF´ >[@ FD vQ JHUP Buch [bux@ÄFDUWH´>K@FDvQURPKDLQ Consoanele africate sunt: [p!]. 'XS UROXO FRDUGHORU YRFDOH vQ URVWLUH FRQVRDQHOH SRW IL VRQRUH URVWLWH FX YLEUDUHDFRDUGHORUYRFDOH.

úLVXUGH IUYLEUDUHDFRDUGHORUYRFDOH.

&RQVRDQHVRQRUH .

[t].27 VXQW>@>E@>G@>]@>G]@>/@>J’@>J@>@LDUVXUGHVXQW>3@>S@>S!]. [s]. >@>N @>N@>[@>K@ ÌQ XQHOH OLPEL FD VDQVNULWD úL OLPELOH LQGLHQH DFWXDOH YHFKHD JUHDF VXQW SRVLELOH úL FRQVRDQH DVSLUDWH URVWLWH FX H[SXO]DUHD UHODWLY SXWHUQLF D Furentului de DHU IRQDWRU GLQ FDYLWDWHD EXFDO. [ts].

 úL FRQVRDQH QHDVSLUDWH FX H[SXO]DUHD PDL SX LQ SXWHUQLF D FXUHQWXOXL IRQDWRU.

 ([HPSOH GLQ YHFKHD JUHDF FRQVRDQH QHDVSLUDWH Œ >S@2>W@úLN>N@úLFRQVRDQHDVSLUDWH3>SK@>WK@$>NK@ În alte limbi FD LWDOLDQD PDJKLDUD úL ILQODQGH]D VXQW SRVLELOH úL FRQVRDQH OXQJL UHVSHFWLY FRQVRDQH VFXUWH ([HPSOH GLQ ILQODQGH] VDQRLVLW ÄDL ]LFH´ FX W VFXUW.

VDQRLVLWWHÄD L]LFH´ FXWOXQJ.

[R] francez. &ODVD LQWHUPHGLDU GH VXQHWH vQWUH YRFDOH úL FRQVRDQH HVWH D Vonantelor. [l] românesc. $FHVWHD VXQW FD úL YRFDOHOH VXQHWH vQWRWGHDXQD VRQRUH VH URVWHVF FX XQ VODE HIRUW DUWLFXODWRULXFHHDFHOHDSURSLHGHFRQVRDQHúLvQDQXPLWHOLPELSRWFRQVWLWXLQXFOHH VLODELFH 6RQDQWHOH VXQW GH GRX IHOXUL FRQVRDQH LPSURSULL FD >U@ URPânesc. [à@VODY YHODU.

[m+@FDvQURPDvQY D>Q@ GHQWDO. port. [m].>@ SDOHWDOFD în ital. Sevilla. Magelhães „Magellan”). span. famiglia.

>@ QYHODU FDvQHQJOWKLQJÄOXFUX´.

>@ SDODWDOFDvQVSDQQL a n RÄFRSLO´.

úLVHPLYRFDOHFD>M@ úL>Z@GLQHQJOH]IUDQFH]FURUDOHFRUHVSXQGLúLXVHPLYRFDOLFLGLQURPkQGDL GDXOLPEDGLQXUPDGXJkQGDOWHVHPLYRFDOHHFDvQSOHDFúLRFDvQMRDF 8QLWDWHD IRQHWLF LPHGLDW VXSHULRDU sunetului articulat este grupul de sunete YRFDOLFGLIWRQJVDXWULIWRQJUHVSHFWLYFRQVRQDQWLH.

$OWXQLWDWHIRQHWLFVXSHULRDU HVWHVLODEDFDUHVHGHILQHúWHFDHPLVLXQHDUWLFXODW DYRFLLXPDQH.

GHOLPLWDWGHGRX LPSXOVXUL VXFFHVLYH DOH PXúFKLORU LQWHUFRVWDOL 6LODEHOH VH FODVLILF GXS QXPUXO GH VXQHWHFDUHVHvQúLUvQVWUXFWXUDORUúLGXSFDUDFWHUXOVXQHWXOXLWHUPLQDO'XSSULPXO FULWHULX VH GLVWLQJ VLODEH IRUPDWH GLQ FkWH XQ VLQJXU VXQHW GH UHJXO R YRFDO FX VWUXFWXUDVLPEROL]DELOSULQ9.

GLQFkWHGRXVXQHWH &9VDX9&XQGH&UHSUH]LQW FRQVRDQD.

GLQFkWHWUHL &9&&&9VDX9&&.

HWFÌQURPkQGHH[HPSOXQXPUXO FHO PDL PDUH GH VXQHWH FXSULQVH vQWUH R VLODE HVWH GH FLQFL H[ VWUkPW VWUkPE úL GDF VH FRQVLGHU VXQHW GLVWLQFW úL-L ILQDO DVLODELF FD vQ IRUPHOH GH QXPU SOXUDO DOH DGMHFWLYHORU GH PDL VXV VWUkP L VWUkPEL VH SRDWH DGPLWH F VLODEHOH URPkQHúWL ÄPD[LPDOH´ FXSULQG úDVH VXQHWH 'XS DO GRLOHD FULWHULX VH GLVWLQJ VLODEH GHVFKLVH WHUPLQDWH vQ YRFDO.

 FD úL V GLQ URP FDV VDX D GLQ URP DFXP úL VLODEH vQFKLVH WHUPLQDWHvQFRQVRDQ.

DFúLWRUGLQURPDFWRUVDXFXPGLQURPDFXP8QHOHOLPEL PDQLIHVW WHQGLQ D VSUH VLODEH GHVFKLVH DOWRUD OH VXQW VSHFLILFH QXPDL VLODEHOH GHVFKLVHFXPLFLH[FHS LL WRDWHVLODEHOHOimbii japoneze sunt deschise. închiderea lor ILLQGSRVLELOQXPDLSULQVRQDQWDQD]DOGHQWDOQFKLQH]DOLPEFXVLODEHGHVFKLVH vQPDMRULWDWHDDEVROXWDGPLWHvQFKLGHUHDORUQXPDLSULQQ GHQWDO.

ca în derivatul . diereza. sincopa. Prin FRDUWLFXODUHVHvQ HOHJHIDSWXOFVXQHWHOHXQXLFRUSIRQHWLFVDXDOHXQXLúLUGHFRUSXUL IRQHWLFHQXVHDUWLFXOHD]GLVWLQFWDGLFVWULFWVHSDUDWHXQHOHGHFHOHODOWHGLPSRWULY vQFvQDLQWHGHDVHvQFKHLDDUWLFXODUHDXQXLVXQHWvQFHSHLPHGLDWDUWLFXODUHDVXQHWXOXL XUPWRU $OWIHO VSXV PRPHQWXO ILQDO GLQ DUWLFXODUHD XQXL VXQHW VH VXSUDSXQH SDU LDO SHVWH PRPHQWXO LQL LDO GLQ DUWLFXODUHD VXQHWXOXL FDUH XUPHD] FHOXLODOW vQWU-un corp fonetic. metateza. apocopa. proteza.VLQDOHIDHFWKOLSVDHOL]LXQHD8UPHD]GHILQLUHD ORUFXH[HPSOLILFULVXPDUH $VLPLODUHD UHSUH]LQW ÄvPSUXPXWDUHD´ XQHL WUVWXUL DUWLFXDOWRULL VDX DFXVWLFH GHODXQVXQHWODDOWXO H[FRQVRDQDVXUG>V@GLQSUHIL[XOURPGHV-. Accidentele fonetice rezultate în urma fenomenului de coarticulare sunt: asimilarea. sinereza. haplologia. epenteza. afereza. anaptixa. disimilarea.úL>@ QYHODU@ În rostirea corpurilor fonetice ale cXYLQWHORUúLIRUPHORUORUJUDPDWLFDOHFDúLD SURSR]L LLORU úL IUD]HORU DX ORF DúD-numitele accidente de coarticulare.

de exemplu). GHYLQH VRQRU >]@ VXE LQIOXHQ D FRQVRDQHL VRQRUH XUPWRDUH GLQ URP dezbate.28 desface. 'LVLPLODUHD UHSUH]LQW ÄSLHUGHUHD´  vQ DUWLFXODUHD XQXL VXQHW D WUVWXULL SH FDUHHORDUHvQFRPXQFXDOWVXQHWGLQDFHODúLFRUSIRQHWLF H[XQDGLQWUHFHOHGRX VXQHWH YLEUDQWH >U@ GLQ URP FRULGRU GHYLQH >O@ VXE LQIOXHQ D FHOHL GH OD VIkUúLW vQ URVWLUHDQHOLWHUDUFROLGRU.

 $IHUH]D  UHSUH]LQW GLVSDUL LD YRFDOHL LQL LDOH D XQXL FRPSOH[ VRQRU H[ ODW exponŸUHGHYHQLWURPDVSXQH.

$SRFRSDFRQVWGLQGLVSDUL LDYRFDOHLILQDOHGLQWU-un complex sonor (ex. rom. 6LQFRSDUHSUH]LQWGLVSDUL LDXQHLYRFDOHLQWHULRDUHPDLDOHVQHDFFHQWXDWH H[ în lat. calidus devenit rom. SRSDIDU¶vQURVWLUHDvQWHPSRUDSLGvQORFGHDIDU. caldo).. it.

 +DSORORJLD FRQVW GLQ HOLPLQDUHD XQHLD GLQWUH FHOH GRX VLODEH DVHPQWRDUH sau identice dintr-XQ FRUS IRQHWLF H[ URP MXPDWH GLQ MXPWDWH VDX WUDJLFRPHGLH din tragico-comedie). schola). 3URWH]DFRQVWGLQDWDúDUHDXQHLYRFDOHLQL LDOHODXQFRUSIRQHWLFvQFHSkQGGH obicei. cu o VRQDQW H[URPSRSDPLURDVHvQORFGHPLURDVHPDJKLVNRODÄúFRDO´ din lat. (SHQWH]D UHSUH]LQW GH]YROWDUHD XQHL FRQVRDQH vQLQWHULRUXOXQXLFRUSIRQHWLF H[DSDUL LDFRQVRDQHLEvQIUFKDPEUHGLQODWFDPHUD.

6LQHUH]D HVWH FRQWRSLUHD D GRX YRFDOH vQYHFLQDWH vQWU-un diftong (ex. scluptor. re-gio-QDOvQORFXOVLODED LHLOLWHUDUHUH-gi-o-nal). Diereza este accidentul opus sinerezei. cocodrilo. rom. din lat. în loc de sculptor. crocodylus). span. $QDSWL[DHVWHDSDUL LDXQei vocale în interiorul unui grup de consoane ale unui FRUS IRQHWLF H[ URP UHJ D KUQL GLQ D KUQL MDSRQ EDVXNHWRERUX GLQ HQJO basketball). rom. constând din separarea în silabe diferite D HOHPHQWHORU FRPSRQHQWH DOH XQXL GLIWRQJ H[ URP HURXO IRUP DUWLFXODW KRWUkW ID GHHURXIRUPQHDUWLFXODW. 0HWDWH]D HVWH VFKLPEDUHD UHFLSURF D ORFXOXL DQXPLWRU VXQHWH GLQWU-un complex sonor (ex.

din pe aici). din ca în). ÌQDIDUGHYRFDOHFRQVRDQHVRQDQWHFDUHVXQWHOHPHQWHIRQHWLFHVHJPHQWDOH SHQWUXFUH]XOWGLQVHJPHQWDUHDODQ XOXLIRQLFvQURVWLUHDRULFUHLOLPELVHUHDOL]HD] úLHOHPHQWHIRQHWLFHVXSUDVHJPHQWDOHvQVR LWRDUHDOHXQRUFRUSXULIRQHWLFHVHJPHQWDOH GHGLPHQVLXQLYDULDWHDFFHQWXOWRQXOúLLQWRQD LD3ULQDFFHQWVHvQ HOHJHURVWLUHDPDL HQHUJLF DFFHQW GLQDPLF. (FKWOLSVD HVWH DOW DFFLGHQW GH IRQHWLF VLQWDFWLF FRQVWkQG GLQ HOLPLQDUHD YRFDOHL LQL LDOH D FXYkQWXOXL XUPWRU vQ FRQWDFW FX YRFDOD ILQDO D FXYkQWXOXL precedent (ex. pe-aici. 6LQDOHIDHVWHRVLQHUH]VLQWDFWLFDGLFSURGXVODOLPLWDGLQWUHGRXFRUSXUL fonetice învecinate (ex. ca-n. în loc de *le élève). în contact cu vocala LQL LDODFXYkQWXOXLXUPWRU H[IUO¶pOève. „elevul”. rom. Eliziunea este eliminarea vocalei finale a unui cuvânt. rom.

 VDX PDL vQDOW DFFHQW WRQLF.

YLHWQDPH]D FX  WRQXUL. a unei silabe dintr-un corp IRQHWLF SROLVLODELF /LPED URPkQ FD úL FHOHODOWH OLPEL URPDQLFH VH FDUDFWHUL]HD] SULQ DFFHQW GLQDPLF OLPELOH FHK VkUE VXHGH] GLVSXQ GH DFFHQW WRQLF 7RQXO UHSUH]LQW URVWLUHD PDL vQDOW PDL MRDV VDX FRPELQDW GLQ SXnctul de vedere al vQO LPLLDXQHLVLODEHGLQWU-XQFRUSIRQHWLFPRQRVLODELF3ULQWRQXULVHFDUDFWHUL]HD] rostirea unor limbi izolante din Extremul Orient: chineza (cu 4 sau 5 tonuri).

 $FFHQWXO úL WRQXO VXQW SURSULL XQLW LORU lingvistice numite cuvinte. .

29 .QWRQD LD UHSUH]LQW YDULHWDWHD GH vQO LPH D URVWLULL XQXL HQXQ  (D SRDWH IL DVFHQGHQW FD vQ SURSR]L LLOH URPkQHúWL LQWHURJDWLYH WRWDOH (úWL VWXGHQW".

 GHVFHQGHQW FDvQSURSR]L LLOHURPkQHúWLHQXQ LDWLYHVDXGHFODUDWLYH7XHúWLVWXGHQW.

 vQVIkUúLWYDULDWGH-DOXQJXOHQXQ XOXL FDvQSURSR]L LLOHURPkQHúWLH[FODPDWLYH&H VWXGHQWPDLHúWLúLWX.

 FONOLOGIA – studiul fonemelor sistemului 'DF vQ YRUELUH DYHP D IDFH FX VXQHWH vQ OLPE VLVWHP.

 DYHP D IDFH FX foneme )RQHPHOH VXQW VXQHWH IXQF LRQDOH DGLF VXQHWH FX IXQF LXQHD GH D GLVWLQJH FRUSXULIRQHWLFHSXUWWRDUHGHLQIRUPD LLGLVWLQFWH &kQG URVWLP vQ YRUELUHD URPkQHDVF FRUSXO IRQHWLF FDUWH FX R VRQDQW >U@ DSLFDOYLEUDQW SURGXVSULQYLEUDUHDYkUIXOXLOLPbii) sau corpul fonetic carte. cu o VRQDQW>5@XYXODUYLEUDQW SURGXVSULQYLEUDUHDXYXOHLVDXRPXúRUXOXL.

vQ HOHJHP GHILHFDUHGDWXQXOúLDFHODúLOXFUXVHQVXOÄFDUWH´ $FHDVWD vQVHDPQ F URVWLULOH GLIHULWH >U@ úL >5@ QX DX IXQF LXQL GLIHULWH vQ pURFHVXO GH FRPXQLFDUH vQ OLPED URPkQ HOH VXQW VXQHWH IXQF LRQDO HFKLYDOHQWH IRUPkQGvPSUHXQRFODVGHVXQHWHQXPLWIRQHP–IRQHPXOU'HQRWDWFvQWLPS ce sunetele propriu-]LVH DOH YRUELULL QXPLWH vQ IRQRORJLH DORIRQH VH QRWHD] vQ transcrierHvQWUHSDUDQWH]HGUHSWH FURúHWH.

vQVFKLPEIRQHPHOHVHQRWHD]vQFDGUDWH GH EDUH REOLFH 6SXQHP F vQ URPkQ >U@ úL >5@ VXQW YDULDQWH DORIRQH.

CorpuO IRQHWLF FDUQH FX >Q@ SRDUW R vQFUFWXU LQIRUPD LRQDO GLIHULW GH FRUSXO IRQHWLF FDUWH FX >W@ 6SXQHP F >Q@ úL >W@ ILLQG úL HOH VXQHWH GLIHULWH VXQW vQ DFHODúL WLPS úL YDULDQWH DOH XQRU IRQHPH GLIHULWH HOH DX URO IXQF LRQDO GLIHULW vQ comunicDUHDvQOLPEDURPkQ ÌQ IRQRORJLH IRQHWLF IXQF LRQDO VWXGLXO IRQHPHORU. DOH XQXL fonem. 'DU GDF URVWLP FDUQH FX >Q@ vQ ORF GH >W@ QX PDL vQ HOHJHP XQXO úL DFHODúL lucru.

De exemplu. IRQHPHOH PDL SRW IL GHILQLWH FD IDVFLFXOH GH WUVWXUL GLVWLQFWLYH 7UVWXULOH DUWLFXODWRULL úL DFXVWLFH VXQW HOHPHQWHOHPLQLPDOHvQFDUHVHÄGHVFRPSXQH´VHDQDOL]HD] XQIRQHP. YRFDODURPkQHDVFHVWHXQIRQHPGHFRPSR]DELOvQWUVWXULOHYRFDOFHQWUDO GXS ORFXOGHDUWLFXODUH.

PHGLH GXSJUDGXOGHDSHUWXU.

úLQHODELDO GXSUROXOEX]HORU vQ URVWLUH.

 LDU FRQVRDQD URPkQHDVF E HVWH XQ IRQHP GHFRPSR]DELO vQ WUVWXULOH FRQVRDQ RFOXVLY GXS PRGXO GH DUWLFXODUH.

 ELODELDO GXSORFXOGHDUWLFXODUH.

úL VRQRU GXSUROXOFRDUGHORUYRFDOHvQURVWLUH.

 )RQHPHOH VH GLVWLQJ XQHOH GH FHOHODOWH SULQ WUVWXULOH QXPLWH HOH vQVHOH distinctive (sau relevante. pertLQHQWH.

 1X RULFH WUVWXU GLQ DUWLFXODUHD XQXL VXQHW HVWH GLVWLQFWLY DP Y]XW PDL VXV F >U@ HVWH DSLFDO LDU >5@ XYXODU GDU GHRVHELUHD DFHDVWD QX VHUYHúWH GLIHUHQ LHULL LQIRUPD LHL WUDQVPLVH.

ca variante de foneme. ÌQ VFKLPE GHRVHELUHD GLQWUH >U@FDUHHVWHRYLEUDQWúL>O@FDUHQXHVWHRYLEUDQWHVWHUHOHYDQWSHQWUXFSULQHD VH GLIHUHQ LD] FRUSXUL IRQHWLFH SXUWWRDUH GH LQIRUPD LL GLIHULWH FD URP FDU úL FDO vQFDUFúLvQFDOFFHUúLFHOUDFúLODFUHVWúLOHVWHWF Alofonele. sunt GH GRX IHOXUL OLEHUH úL FRQWH[WXDOH &HOHGLQWkLQXGHSLQGGHORFXOORUvQFRUSXOIRQHWLFFHOHGLQXUPvQVGHSLQGGHHO 9DULDQWHOH VDX DORIRQHOH OLEHUH SRW IL LQGLYLGXDOH úL DFFLGHQWDOH VDX RFD]LRQDOH.

 Variantele individuale depind de particulariW LOHGHURVWLUHDOHLQGLYL]LORUYRUELWRULGH FRQILJXUD LD DSDUDWXOXL ORU IRQDWRU H[ URP >U@ úL >5@.

 FHOH DFFLGHQWDOH GHSLQG GH VWDUHD IL]LF D DSDUDWXOXL IRQDWRU XQ YRUELWRU UFLW VDX vQ VWDUH GHHEULHWDWHSURQXQ  sunetele în alt fel decât într-o VWDUHQRUPDO.

9DULDQWHOHLQGLYLGXDOHúLFHOHRFD]LRQDOH .

30 VH PDL QXPHVF YDULHW L GH IRQHPH 9DULDQWHOH VDX DORIRQHOH FRQWH[WXDOH SRW IL FRPELQDWRULLúLSR]L LRQDOH9DULDQWHOHFRPELQDWRULLGHSLQGGHVXQHWHOHvQYHFLQDWH GH H[ QD]DOD GLQ URP EDQG HVWH R GHQWDO >Q@ GDW ILLQG F VH vQYHFLQHD] FX R FRQVRDQ GHQWDO SULQ QDWXUD HL >G@ GDU QD]DOD GLQ URP EDQF HVWH R YHODU >@ SHQWUX F VH vQYHFLQHD] FX R FRQVRDQ YHODU SULQ QDWXUD HL >N@.

 FHOH SR]L LRQDOH GHSLQG GH ORFXO SH FDUH vO RFXS vQ FRrpul fonetic în raport cu limitele (începutul. VIkUúLWXO.

dar [Ë@ vQ VLODE QHDFFHQWXDW vQ VSHFLDOILQDOFDvQSRUWFDVD> ND]Ë]ÄFDV´IRQHPXOUXVHVFRVHURVWHúWHFD>R@VXE accent. dar ca [Ë@vQVLODEQHDFFHQWXDWFDvQUXV]hjh^> JRUËW@ÄRUDú´. DFHVWXLD úL vQ UDSRUW FX VLODED DFFHQWXDW GLQ DFHO FRUS IRQHWLF GH H[ IRQHPXO SRUWXJKH] D VH URVWHúWH >α] sub accent.

pe când variantele lor – prin UDSRUWXOGHYDULD LH5HYHQLQGODH[HPSOHOHGDWHPDLVXVVSXQHPFvQOLPEDURPkQ >U@úL>5@QXFRPXWVHDIOvQUDSRUWGHYDULD LHSHQWUXFVXEVWLWXLUHDORUUHFLSURF într-XQ FRUS IRQHWLF GDW QX GXFH OD PRGLILFDUHD LQIRUPD LHL YHKLFXODWH GH DFHO FRUS IRQHWLF vQ VFKLPE >W@ úL >Q@ FRPXW VDX VXQW vQ UDSRUW GH FRPXWDUH SHQWUX F substituirea lor într-XQ FRUS IRQHWLF GDW GXFH OD PRGLILFDUHD FRQ LQXWXOXL VHPDQWLF YHKLFXODWGHDFHOFRUSIRQHWLF&RUSXULOHIRQHWLFHFXDMXWRUXOFURUDVHGHPRQVWUHD] UDSRUWXO GH FRPXWDUH SRDUW QXPHOH GH SHUHFKL PLQLPale. mai sus). cum sunt acelea din H[HPSOHOH GDWH PDL VXV SHQWUX D HYLGHQ LD FDUDFWHUXO GH IRQHP H GLVWLQFWH vQ OLPED URPkQDOOXL>U@úLDOOXL>O@ Dar ceea ce este distinct în fonologia unei limbi. Fonemele se disting prin raportul de comutare. este indistinct în fonologia DOWHLD 'DF vQ URPkQ O úL U VXQW IRQHPH GLVWLQFWH OD IHO FD vQ UXV JHUPDQ PDJKLDUvQVFKLPE>O@úL>U@VXQWYDULDQWHDOHDFHOXLDúLIRQHPvQFRUHHDQ>O@DSDUHOD VIkUúLW GH VLODE LDU >U@ OD vQFHSXW GH VLODE FHHD FH vQVHDPQ F HOH VXQW YDULDQWH SR]L LRQDOHvQDFHDOLPE extrem-RULHQWDO(VWHYRUEDDLFLGHIRUPDGLIHULWGHODR OLPE OD DOWD SH FDUH R FDSW XQD úL DFHHDúL VXEVWDQ  IRQLF D VH YHGHD FDSLWROXO UHIHULWRU OD FkWHYD GLVWLQF LL FRQFHSWXDOH vQWUH FDUH DFHHD GLQWUH IRUP úL VXEVWDQ  aici. LinJYLVWXO DPHULFDQ 5RPDQ -DNREVRQ D SURSXV XQ LQYHQWDU DO WUVWXULORU DUWLFXODWRULL úL DFXVWLFH GLQWUH FDUH ILHFDUH VLVWHP OLQJYLVWLF úL OH VHOHFWHD]  SH FHOH GLVWLQFWLYH /LVWD OXL FXSULQGH SHUHFKL GH WUVWXUL GLQWUH FDUH  GH VRQRULWDWH  GH WLPEUXúLSUR]RGLFH DGLFSULYLQGHOHPHQWHOHIRQLFHVXSUDVHJPHQWDOH.

 &HOH  SHUHFKL GH WUVWXUL GH VRQRULWDWH VXQW .

 YRFDOLF  QRQYRFDOLF .

5) sonor (fonic) / surd (afon). 4) încordat / relaxat. 7) întrerupt / continuu. consonantic / nonconsonantic. 9) blocat DEUXSWLY. 6) nazal / oral. 8) strident / mat. 3) compact / difuz.

  QRQEORFDW QRQDEUXSWLY.

 &HOH  SHUHFKL GH WUVWXUL GH WLPEUX VXQW .

2) bemolat / nonbemolat. Iar cele 4 perechi de WUVWXULSUR]RGLFHVXQW. 3) diezat / nondiezat. grav / acut.

ascendent / nonascendent. . 2) descendent / nondescendent.

LQWHQVQRQLQWHQVúL.

OXQJVFXUW 2 DQDOL] vQ WUVWXUL GLVWLQFWLYH D IRQHPHORU YRFDOLFH úL FRQVRQDQWLFH.

 URPkQHúWLvQVSLULWXOFRQFHS LHLÄELQDULVWH´MDNREVRQLHQHHVWHLOXVWUDWvQWDEHlele ce XUPHD] .

31 deschis/nondeschis închis/nonînchis anterior/nonanterior rotunjit/nonrotunjit a + – Ø Ø e – – + Ø i – + + Ø  – – – – o – + – – o – – – + u – + – + )LJ6XEVLVWHPXOYRFDOLFDOOLPELLURPkQH3HUHFKLOHGHWUVWXULGLVWLQctive DOHYRFDOLVPXOXLURPkQHVFVXQWQRWDWHvQH[WUHPLWDWHDVWkQJUHSUH]LQWSUH]HQ D – UHSUH]LQW DEVHQ D Ø exprim• lipsa de relevan  IRQRORJLF D WUVWXULORU UHVSHFWLYH GXS(PDQXHO9DVLOLX.

semnele +. 2. – úL ‘ DYkQG DFHOHDúLVHPQLILFD LLFDvQILJ GXS(9DVLOLX. Subsistemul consonantic al limbii române. p b f întrerupt/nonîntrerupt continuu/noncontinuu anterior/nonanterior posterior/nonposterior palatal/nonpalatal oral/nonoral sonor/nonsonor + – + – – + – + – + – – + + – + + – – + – v – + + – – + + t + – – – – + – d s + – – – – + + – + – – – + – z – + – – – + +  œ – – – – – – Ø – + – – + Ø –  – + – – + Ø + þ ÷ k g + – – + – Ø – + – – + – Ø + h l – + – + – Ø – – + – – – Ø Ø r + – – – – Ø Ø m n k’ + – + – – – Ø + – – – – – Ø + – – – + Ø – g’ + – – – + Ø + – – – – + Ø – – – – – + Ø + Fig.

 Înainte de a încheia acest capitol sunt de tratat. pe scurt. alte câteva chestiuni vQUHOD LHFXIRQRORJLDúLDQXPHUDSRUWXOGLQWUHIRQHPHúLJUDIHPH OLWHUH.

IRQHPHOH priviWHGLQSHUVSHFWLYLQIRUPD LRQDOúLIRQRVWDWLVWLF 7UHEXLH SUHFL]DW GLQ FDSXO ORFXOXL F vQ WLSXO GH VFULHUH OLWHUDO DOIDEHWLF.

'LQ SXQFW GH YHGHUH LQIRUPD LRQDO FRQVRDQHOH VXQW vQ PRG PDL SUHJQDQW SXUWWRDUH GH LQIRUPD LH GHFkW YRFDOHOH GDU VXQW WRWRGDW PDL YXOQHUDELOH GHFkW DFHVWHD vQ FD]XO vQ FDUH FDQDOXO GH WUDQVPLVLH D LQIRUPD LHL HVWH DIHFWDW GH IDFWRUL GH bruiaj. atunci raportul de 1 la 1 dintre litere úL IRQHPH HVWH ÄFDPXIODW´ ÄDVFXQV´ ÄGHQDWXUDW´ ILLQG SRVLELO FD XQXO úL DFHODúL IRQHP V ILH QRWDW SULQ OLWHUH YDULDWH úL FKLDU SULQ FRPELQD LL GH OLWHUH (VWH FD]XO RUWRJUDILLORUIUDQFH]HQJOH]úLLUODQGH]3HQWUXFDVWULQLLFDUHvQYD DFHVWHOLPEL V SRDW FLWL FRUHFW vQ DFRUG FX URVWLUHD WH[WH UHGDFWDWH vQ HOH HVWH QHFHVDU V VH UHFXUJ OD WUDQVFULHUHD IRQHWLF D WH[WHORU SULQ FDUH VH WLQGH OD UHVWDELOLUHD FRUHVSRQGHQ HORU GLQWUH JUDILL úL URVWLUL 'DU WUDQVFULHUHD IRQHWLF QRWHD] vQ VFULV rostirea. 9RFDOHOH SULQ QDWXUD ORU VRQRUH SRW vQYLQJH PDL XúRU GLILFXOW LOH LPSXVHGH . cu toate (sau aproape toate) SDUWLFXODULW LOH GH DUWLFXODUH DúDGDU R DVWIHO GH WUDQVFULHUH QRWHD] úLUXUL GH DORIRQH 2 WUDQVFULHUH GLQ SHUVSHFWLYD VLVWHPXOXL OLQJYLVWLF HVWH WUDQVFULHUHD IRQHPLF VDX IRQHPDWLF vQ FDUH ILHFDUH VHPQ JUDILF corespunde câte unui fonem realizat în comunicare. cum este scrierea limbii URPkQH VDX D OLPELL VSDQLROH 'DF VFULHUHD OLWHUDO HVWH GRPLQDW GH SULQFLSLXO WUDGL LRQDO-istoric (sau etimologic) în ortografie. OLWHUHOH QX QRWHD] DORIRQH FL IRQHPH $ILUPD LD HVWH SHUIHFW YDOLG SHQWUX VFULHUHD OLWHUDO GRPLQDW GH SULQFLSLXO IRQRORgic în ortografie.

32 un mediu de comunicare zgomotos. se percep mai lesne. dar ele nu servesc în mod LUHSURúDELO WUDQVPLWHUHD LQIRUPD LHL 'H DFHHD vQ FRPXQLFULOH WHOHIRQLFH vQ OLPED URPkQVHUHFXUJHXQHRULODvQORFXLUHDFRUSXOXLIRQHWLFOLWHUDUDOQXPHUDOXOXLúDSWH FRQIXQGDELOFXúDVHSHQWUXFJUXSXOGHFRQVRDQH ptULVFVQXILHSHUFHSXWFRUHFW.

 FXFRUSXOIRQHWLFQHOLWHUDUUHJLRQDOúHSWH 7RWRGDW vQ VFULHUHD OLPELORU VHPLWLFH DUDE QHRHEUDLF.

dar varierea vocalelor în forme IOH[LRQDUH GLIHULWH DOH DFHOXLDúL FXYkQW IHQRPHQXO VH SURGXFH GH IDSW QX QXPDL vQ IOH[LXQHDVHPLWLFFLúLvQIRUPDUHDFXYLQWHORUvQOLPELOHGLQDFHDIDPLOLH. VXQW QRWDWH QXPDL FRQVRDQHOHGLQFRUSXULOHJUDILFHDOHFXYLQWHORUDXRPRWLYD LHVLPLODUVXV LQXWúLGH R DQXPLW SDUWLFXODULWDWH VWUXFWXUDO D DFHORU OLPEL IOH[LXQHD LQWHUQ FRQVWkQG GLQ conservarea în flexiune a unui schelet consonantic.

sunt considerate ca vocalice (cum HVWH ILQODQGH]D FX  YRFDOH ID  GH  FRQVRDQH vQ WH[WH. consoanele sunt. în JHQHUDO PDL QXPHURDVH GHFkW YRFDOHOH 7RWXúL vQ YRUELUH HVWH SRVLELO FD vQ DQXPLWH OLPELYRFDOHOHVDSDUPDLGHVGHFkWFRQVRDQHOH/LPELOHvQFDUHIUHFYHQ DYRFDOHORU este mai mare decât aceea a consoanelor în vorbire. ÌQ VIkUúLW vQ VXEVLVWHPHOH IRQRORJLFH DOH RULFUHL OLPEi.

 LDU DFHOHD vQ FDUH FRQVRDQHOH DSDU FX R IUHFYHQ  PDL PDUH GHFkW D YRFDOHORU VXQW FRQVLGHUDWH OLPEL FRQVRQDQWLFH FXP HVWH HQJOH]D DPHULFDQ FX  YRFDOH ID  GH  consoane în WH[W.

 /LPED URPkQ HVWH R OLPE FH SRDWH IL FRQVLGHUDW UHODWLY YRFDOLF GLQ DFHVW SXQFW GH YHGHUH FX  YRFDOH úLFRQVRDQH3HQWUXRSRVLELOFRPSDUD LHGLQ SHUVSHFWLYD IRQRORJLF V PDL SUHFL]P UDSRUWXULOH UHVSHFWLYH GLQ LWDOLDQ (48% YRFDOH  FRQVRDQH.

 IUDQFH]  YRFDOH  FRQVRDQH.

 PDJKLDU  YRFDOHFRQVRDQH.

úLJHUPDQ YRFDOHFRQVRDQH.

 Morfemul 0RUIHPXO HVWH R XQLWDWH PLQLPDO GH H[SUHVLH SXUWWRDUH GH VHQV FH corespunde. valorilor graPDWLFDOHGLQJUDPDWLFDWUDGL LRQDO Criteriile de clasificare a morfemelor sunt reprezentate de: . în general.

 SRVLELOLW LOH GH FRPELQDUH D DFHVWRUD FDUH GHOLPLWHD] PRUIHPH LQGHSHQGHQWHFHSRWVDSDUVLQJXUHRULFRPELQDWHFXXQPRUIHP]HURYkQWORFúL morfemHGHSHQGHQWH GHVLQHQ HVXIL[HSUHIL[H.

.FHQHFHVLWSUH]HQ DXQXLDOPRUIHP FUXLDVLVHDWDúH]HUH– fac – e. pix-uri.

-L úLGLVFRQWLQXHD. VWUXFWXUD H[SUHVLHL FDUH FODVLILF PRUIHPHOH vQ FRQWLQXH IRUPDWH GLQWU-un VLQJXUIRQHPVDXXQúLUQHvQWUHUXSWGHIRQHPHIRF-a.

vQWUHUXSWH –FHOHvQLQWHULRUXOFURUDVHLQWHUFDOHD]FRUSXOIRQHWLFDOXQXLDOWPRUIHPDGHVHQD DO IUDWHOXL úL E.

elev. hiper-VHFUH LH SUHIL[HOHVXQWúLPUFLDOHVXSHUODWLYXOXL. úL PRUIHPH OH[LFR-grDPDWLFDOH FDUH IRUPHD] FXYLQWH QRL GDU DX úL YDORDUH JUDPDWLFDODUKL-plin. vorbe - úL DIL[H GHULYDWLYH SUH- VWU -este. desen – a – se. floar-. -L  PRUIHPH gramaticale: sufixe: aleg – ând. UHSHWDWH vQWkOQLWH vQ OLPELOH vQ FDUH H[LVW DFRUG JUDPDWLFDO FDUWH LQWHUHVDQWFU LLQWHUHVDQWH 3) natura FRQ LQXWXOXL PRUIHPHORU GHOLPLWHD] PRUIHPXO OH[LFDOH UGFLQL bun. desinente: scri – a – m frumoasei fete.

 .

sWU-PRú UH-VFULH.SR]L LDID GHPRUIHPXOLQGHSHQGHQWGLVWLQJHSUHIL[H DIL[HDúH]DWHvQID D morfemului independent: bi-anual.

în fine DIL[H LQWURGXVH vQ UGFLQD FXYkQWXOXL UXPSL. VXIL[H DIL[H DGXJDWH GXS UGFLQ FDUH IRUPHD] WHPH VDX FXYLQWH QRL OXG-a-VH FV-X  IUXPXú-el).

 8Q PRUIHP DSDUWH DGXJDW GXS UGFLQ úL WHP HVWH UHSUH]HQWDW GH GHVLQHQ D FDUH PDUFKHD] OD VXEVWDQWLYH QU úL .

33 cazul: mes-ei (sg. G-'..

G-'.. JHQXO QXPUXO úL FD]XO OD DGMHFWLYH EXQHL FRQGXLWH IHP sg.

I). .. pers.QXPUXOúLSHUVRDQDYHUEHORUGRU-i-m (pl.

-a: re-în-VFXQ-a.9-a: cânt-a-se-U-PSUHIL[HOHSRWRFXSDSR]L LD. cit-HVFVDXDIODWHODGLVWDQ H PDLPDULID GHDFHDVWDRFXSkQGSR]L LDD. a III-a: cânt-a-se-UD.GLVWDQ DPRUIHPHORUGHSHQGHQWHID GHDOLQGHSHQGHQWGHOLPLWHD]VXIL[HúL GHVLQHQ HOLSLWHGHUGFLQFDUHRFXSSR]L LD..-a: cânt-a-se.FkQW-a..FkQGVXQWSODVDWHLPHGLDWOkQJUGFLQ a-SRHWLFVDXSR]L LDD. E.

 QXPUXO GH PRUIHPH GHSHQGHQWH FRPELQDELOH GHOLPLWHD] PRUIHPH FDUH QHFHVLW SUH]HQ D XQXL VLQJXU PRUIHP LQGHSHQGHQW -HúWH HQJOH]-HúWH.

 Dú FRSLO-Dú.

L . sau a morfemului independenWúLDFkWRUYDPRUIHPHGHSHQGHQWHGHVHQ-a-se-U.

 QDWXUD H[SUHVLHL FODVLILF PRUIHPHOH vQ VHJPHQWDOH UHSUH]HQWDWH SULQ foneme propriu-zise: scoal-. -LúLPRUIHPHVXSUDVHJPHQWDOHUHSUH]HQWDWHGHDFFHQWúL LQWRQD LH Cazuri particulare de morfeme dependente sunt reprezentate de: .

yamayama.„munte”. rom. pl. • reduplicarea –UHSHWDUHDSDU LDOVDXWRWDODXQXLDVDXDPDLPXOWRUIRQHPH GLQ UGFLQD XQXL FXYkQW VDX D vQWUHJLL UGFLQL WHPH VDX FXYkQW SHQWUX D-i da FXYkQWXOXL R QRX YDORDUH PRUIRORJLF RUL VWLOLVWLF VDX SRW IL FUHDWH IRUPH QRL vQ limba hausa – biri - ÄPDLPX ´ SOELULELUL vQ MDSRQH] \DPD . PRUIHPXO ]HUR XQ PRUIHP OLSVLW GH H[SUHVLH PDWHULDO IRQLF vQ]HVWUDW vQV FX FRQ LQXW SXUWWRU GH LQIRUPD LH JUDPDWLFDO IRUPD ]L UDSRUWDW OD ]LOH VDX PHUJ UDSRUWDW OD IRUPH FXP VXQW PHUJL PHUJH DX vQ VWUXFWXUD lor un asemenea PRUIHP FH PDUFKHD] vQ SULPXO FD] IHPLQLQXO VLQJXODU LDU vQ FHO GH-al doilea persoana I singular. jandarmer-ie. 5ROGHPRUIHPHJUDPDWLFDOHSRWDYHDúL ‡DFFHQWXOúLLQWRQD LD YpVHOYHVpOiFHOHDFpOHUHVSHFWLY9LQHEXQLFD9LQH bunica?). a da – dGXLDVWD–VWWXL ‡OXQJLUHDYRFDOHLvQOLPELOHvQFDUHH[LVWYRFDOHOXQJLúLVFXUWHSRDWHPDUFDR YDORDUHJUDPDWLFDOFXPHVWHFHDGHFD]ODWVLOYD 19RFVJ. 2) interfix – XQ VHJPHQW GH H[SUHVLH OLSVLW GH DFFHQW úL GH VHQV GH FRQ LQXW SURSULXDIODWvQWUHUGFLQúLVXIL[HOHXQRUFXYLQWHGHULYate: camarad-er-ie.

VLOY— $EOVJ.

FHDGH timp: fÎJLW SHUIHFW.

IÌJLW SUH]HQW.

 • geminarea (dublarea saX OXQJLPHD FRQVRDQHORU.

‡ IOH[LXQHD LQWHUQ FRQVW vQ PRGLILFDUHD VXQHWHORU GLQ UGFLQ vQ VFRSXO PDUFULLXQRUIRUPHJUDPDWLFDOHHQJOVLQJ – sang – sung. ‡FXYLQWHOHDX[LOLDUH SURSR]L LLFRQMXQF LLYHUEHDX[LOLDUHDUWLFROHDGYHUEH. fui. iar cel de-al doilea de obiect. rom. SRDWH IL úL HD PDUF D XQXL morfem gramatical: est. eram.kapi . • topica – RUGLQHD FXYLQWHORU vQ SURSR]L LH SRDWH IL LQGLFH DO IXQF LHL JUDPDWLFDOH D DFHVWRUD vQ OLPELOH OLSVLWH GH IOH[LXQH VDX FX R IOH[LXQH UHGXV  'DQ seas Mary. fost. kappi .„al dulapulai”. sunt.„în dulap”. fusei. în care primul substantiv are valoare de subiect.

 SRW FRQWULEXL úL HOH OD UHGDUHD XQRU VHQVXUL JUDPDWLFDOH SH ELDW V vQ HOHJ DO RPXOXLDPJVLWYHLILDX]LWIRDUWHDSURDSH Morfemele (invarLDQWH.

reprezint•. alomorfele YDULDQWHOH. -• din student• Ø din zi. -e din floare. VH UHDOL]HD] SULQWU-R FODV GH HOHPHQWH FRQFUHWH FH DSDU GH UHJXO vQ SR]L LL GLQ FDUH WRDWH FHOHODOWH YDULDQWH VXQW H[FOXVH 'LIHULWH FD expresie. toate trei.

N.. . singular).-Ac.DFHOXLDúL morfem de feminin.

34 Sintaxa ÌQ JUDPDWLFD WUDGL LRQDO FXYkQWXO HVWH FRQVLGHUDW XQLWDWHD GH ED] úL HO HVWH WUDWDW VXE VSHFLH IOH[LXQH )OH[LXQHD PRUIRORJLD.

*UDPDWLFD WUDGL LRQDO QXPLW úL ÄQR LRQDO´ SRUQHD GH OD LSRWH]D F H[LVW categorii universale ale gramaticii - ÄSU LOH GH YRUELUH´ úL ÄFDWHJRULLOH JUDPDWLFDOH´ WLPSXO PRGXO JHQXO QXPUXO. VH RFXS GH VWUXFWXUD LQWHUQ D FXYLQWHORU HD HVWH FRUHODW FX VLQWD[D FDUH vúL SURSXQH V H[SOLFH ÄPRGXO vQ FDUH FXYLQWHOHVHFRPELQSHQWUXDIRUPDSURSR]L LL´ÌQDFFHS LDOLQJYLVWLFLLPRGHUQHGLQ JUDPDWLF IDF SDUWH QXPDL IOH[LXQHD úL VLQWD[D úL VXQW H[FOXVH GHVFULHUHD IRQRORJLF VDXVHPDQWLFDFXYLQWHORUúLDSURSR]L LLORU.

ocupându-VH GH OLPEL LQGRHXURSHQH úL-DX ED]DW DQDOL]D JUDPDWLFDO SH VWDELOLUHDPRGXOXLvQFDUHFXYLQWHOHRSHUHD] FXVHPQH LQVWUXPHQWHSHQWUXGHVFULHUHD úL vQ HOHJHUHD UHDOLW LL. YDODELOH SHQWUX WRDWH OLPELOH *UDPDWLFLHQLL GLQ Europa.

 FX FODVLILFDUHD ORU FD SU L GH YRUELUH úL FX VWDELOLUHD paradigmelor (PRGHOHORU.

GHGHFOLQDUHúLGHFRQMXJDUH 0HWRGDJUDPDWLFLLWUDGL LRQDOHHVWHFRQVLGHUDWLQGXFWLYSHQWUXFGHVFULHUHD SOHDF GH OD SDUWLFXODU VSUHJHQHUDO(DSUH]LQWLQFRQYHQLHQWXOGHDXWLOL]DFRQFHSWH care au valoare numai în cadrul unui sistem lingvLVWLF SDUWLFXODU R OLPE SH FDUH R DYHPvQYHGHUH.

pasiv etc. „imperfectul” (timp YHUEDO. de exemplu. – QX SRDWH IL DSOLFDW WXWXURU OLPELlor. dativ./+MHOPVOHYDFRQVLGHUDWFWHUPLQRORJLDIRORVLWVXIHUGHDFHDVW inadecvare la general. subjonctiv. definirea categoriilor – genitiv. Alt exemplu.

numit imperfectul. unele OLPELFXQRVFGRXFDWHJRULLDOHQXPUXOXLVLQJXODUúLSOXUDOvQWLPSFHDOWHOLPELDX úLDOWUHLOHDQXPUGXDOXO ÌQ WUDWDUHD PRGHUQ D WHRULHL JUDPDWLFDOH FD úL D GH]YROWULL WHRULHL VLQWDFWLFH generale s-a adopWDWFXSUHGLOHF LHRDERUGDUHSXUIRUPDO(LQDU+DXJHQDSUH]HQWDW WHQGLQ HOHFHOHPDLLPSRUWDQWHúLPHWRGHOHFHOHPDLUHFHQWHúLPDLPDWHPDWL]DWHFDUH DXGHSODVDWLQWHUHVXOOLQJYLúWLORUGHODFXWDUHDLGHQWLW LLOLPELORUVSUHGLVWULEX LDORU cu scopulGHDLGHQWLILFDUHOD LLOHGLQWUHXQLW LOHOLQJYLVWLFH 0XO LPHD WXWXURU FRQWH[WHORU vQ FDUH DSDUH R XQLWDWH OLQJYLVWLF UHSUH]LQW GLVWULEX LD DFHVWHLD $ERUGDUHD GLVWULEX LRQDO D DQDOL]HL JUDPDWLFDOH SUHVXSXQH FRQVWUXLUHDXQHLPXO LPLGHSURSR]L LLDFFeptabile. HVWH GLIHULW vQ OLPED IUDQFH] vQ FDUH DFHDVW FDWHJRULH VH RSXQH XQHL DOWH FDWHJRULLÄSHUIHFWXOVLPSOX´FRPSDUDWLYOLPELOHJHUPDQVDXHQJOH]vQFDUHDFHDVW RSR]L LHQXH[LVW –H[LVWXQVLQJXUWLPSSHQWUu trecut. Sau. prin plasarea unor cuvinte diferite vQDFHODúLFDGUX)LHFDUHOLPESRDWHILGHVFULVvQWHUPHQLLXQHLPXO LPLGHXQLW L – IRQHPH VDX XQLW L IRQRORJLFH – VDX SRW IL VSHFLILFDWH FRPELQD LLOH DFFHSWDELOH GH FXYLQWH SURSR]L LL.

 &XYLQWHOH FDUH VH pot substitui unele cu altele în mai multe SURSR]L LLGLIHULWHVXQWJUXSDWHvQFODVHGLVWULEX LRQDOH 1R LXQHDSULPLWLYDXQHLJUDPDWLFLPRGHUQHHVWHHQXQ XOGHILQLWGUHSWÄRULFH SRU LXQH GLQ YRUELUHD XQHL SHUVRDQH vQDLQWH GH FDUH úL GXS FDUH XUPHD] R SDX] IFXW GH DFHD SHUVRDQ´ 7UHEXLH V DYHP vQ YHGHUH F vQWUH HQXQ  úL SURSR]L LH JUDGXOGHFRUHVSRQGHQ HVWHDOHDWRUvQJHQHUDOHQXQ XOQXHVWHLGHQWLFFXSURSR]L LD $QDOL]D JUDPDWLFDO D XQXL FRUSXV GH HQXQ XUL GHFL ÄUHFXQRDúWHUHD´ ORU vQ perVSHFWLYDIOH[LXQLLúLDVLQWD[HLGHILQHúWHJUDPDWLFDDQDOLWLFWUDGL LRQDO*UDPDWLFD JHQHUDWLY VH ED]HD] SH VLQWH] úL HVWH FRQVWUXLW GLQ ÄSURGXFHUHD SURSR]L LLORU´ 7HRULD OLQJYLVWLF DYkQG FDSDFLWDWHD GH MXVWLILFDUH D HQXQ XULORU UHDOH FD PHPEUL DL FODVHL PDL vQWLQVH D HQXQ XULORU SRWHQ LDOH HVWH QXPLW JHQHUDWLY (D VH ED]HD] SH HQXQ XO PLQLPDO GHQXPLW SURSR]L LH-QXFOHX VH XUPUHúWH DSRL GH]YROWDUHD SRVLELO SULQFHUFHWDUHDGLYHUVHORUUHJXOLGHWUDQVIRUPDUH2ULFHHQXQ HVWHFRQVWLWXLWGLQJUXS nRPLQDO GDUSRDWHILúLXQVLQJXUQXPH.

úLJUXSYHUEDO VDXQXPDLYHUE.

(QXQ XULOH FRPSOH[HGHSLQGGHFDSDFLWDWHDOLQJYLVWLFDYRUELWRUXOXL&DSDFLWDWHDHVWHQXPLWúL .

35 FRPSHWHQ  úL HD UHSUH]LQW ÄDQVDPEOXO GH UHJXOL JUDPDWLFDOH GH LQXWH GH RULFH vorbitoU DO OLPELL´ 3XQHUHD vQ SUDFWLF D FRPSHWHQ HL HVWH QXPLW SHUIRUPDQ  'HVFULHUHDFRPSHWHQ HLWDFLWHDYRUELWRUXOXL-DVFXOWWRUDFUXLFRPSHWHQ VWODED]D UHDO D SURGXFHULL úL SHUFHSHULL vQ HOHJHULL YRUELULL UHSUH]LQW GXS 1&KRPVN\ GHILQL LDJUDPDWLFLLJHQHUDWLYHúLWUDQVIRUPD LRQDOH *UDPDWLFDJHQHUDWLYvúLSURSXQHVUHSUH]LQWHGHVFULHUHDLQWHJUDODOLPELLFD DWDUHúLQXDXQHLDGLQWUHOLPELOHJOREXOXL(DSRDWHILFRQVLGHUDWXQÄVFHQDULX´FDUH LPDJLQHD]IHOXOvQFDUHYRUELWRUXO-DVFXOWWRULQWHUSUHWHD]vQPRGJOREDOIDFWRULLFDUH GXFGHODFRPSHWHQ ODSHUIRUPDQ  Lexematica /H[HPDWLFD HVWH R GLVFLSOLQ WkQU UDPXU D OH[LFRORJLHL (D úL-a propus VWDELOLUHD DVSHFWHORU SDUDGLJPDWLFH úL VLQWDJPDWLFH DOH YRFDEXODUXOXL GLQ OLPELOH IXQF LRQDOH 8QLWDWHD PLQLPDO HVWH GHQXPLW OH[HP GLQ FDX]D DPELJXLW LL termenului cuvânt. $6WUXFWXULOHSDUDGLJPDWLFHVXQWSULPDUH FkPSOH[LFDOúLFODVOH[LFDO.

E.

 VHFXQGDUH PRGLILFDUHDGH]YROWDUHDFRPSXQHUHDOH[LFDO.

 a) Câmpul lexical este o sWUXFWXU SDUDGLJPDWLF FDUH FRQVW GLQ XQLW L OH[LFDOH OH[HPH.

substantive ce denumesc culori sau referitoare la „fericire”. rece –UFRURVFDOGFOGX ILHUELQWHvQIUDQFH]WUDYDLOOHU – oeuvrer – bricoler – bucher – buriner – trimer – gratter – chiner – pilonner – bosser – boulonner – turbiner – PDUQHU úD vQ JHUPDQ JHKHQ – rennen – fliegen – schwiemmen – fahren etc. &ODVD OH[LFDO HVWH R FODV GH OH[HPH FDUH LQGHSHQGHQW GH VWUXFWXUDUHD FkPSXOXLOH[LFDOVXQWOHJDWHGHXQÄFODVHP´DGLFGHRWUVWXUGLVWLQFWLYFRPXQ FDUH IXQF LRQHD] vQWU-R vQWUHDJ FDWHJRULH JUDPDWLFDO UHVSHFWLY vQ DOW FODV H[LVWHQW GHMD vQ FDGUXO XQHL FDWHJRULL JUDPDWLFDOH. DGMHFWLYHFHLQGLFWHPSHUDWXUDVXQWFkWHYDH[HPSOHDOHVHODvQWkPSODUHGHFkPSXUL lexicale (în rom. „moarte”. FDUH vúL vPSDUW R ]RQ GH VHPQLILFD LH úL FDUH VH DIO vQ RSR]L LH QHPLMORFLWXQHOHFXDOWHOHÌQWUHJYRFDEXODUXOXQHLOLPELHVWHFRQVWLWXLWGLQDVWIHOGH câmpuri lexicale care sunt tangente GDU úL VHFDQWH XQHOH FX DOWHOH =RQHOH GH VHPQLILFD LH FRPXQ VH D[HD] DúD FXP OH LQGLF úL GHQXPLUHD vQ MXUXO XQHL ÄVHPQLILFD LLFRPXQH´9HUEHÄGHPLúFDUH´VDXFDUHVHPQLILFÄDPXQFL´ÄDVWULJD´ a visa”.

 &ODVHOH VH HYLGHQ LD] SULQ GLVWULEX LH JUDPDWLFDO úLVDX OH[LFDO GH H[HPSOX vQ FDWHgoria substantivului.„inanimat”. „animat” . „maculin” - ÄIHPLQLQ´ UHSUH]LQW ÄFODVH´ GDF OH[HPHOH FRUHVSXQ]WRDUHFHUDQXPLWHFRPELQD LLVSHFLILFHORU Ä0RGLILFDUHD´ ÄGH]YROWDUHD´ úL ÄFRPSXQHUHD´ VXQW VWUXFWXUL VHFXQGDUH vQ VHQVXO F SUHVXSXQ VWUXFWXUDUHD FkPSXOXL OH[HPDWLF VDX D FODVHORU.

 OH[HPDWLFH úL FRUHVSXQG XQHL ÄJUDPDWLFDOL]UL´ D  YRFDEXODUXOXL ÌQ FDGUXO ÄPRGLILFULL´ VH LQFOXG GHULYDUHD GLPLQXWLYDO GHULYDUHD FROHFWLY úL SUHIL[DUHD YHUEDO /H[HPHOH UHDOL]DWH prin modificare fac parte dinDFHHDúLFDWHJRULHJUDPDWLFDOFXOH[HPHOHFDUHOHVWDXOD ED] ÌQ VFKLPE ÄGH]YROWDUHD´ SUH]LQW R GHWHUPLQDUH JUDPDWLFDO LDU OH[HPHOH IRUPDWH DSDU LQ DOWHL FDWHJRULL JUDPDWLFDOH GHFkW OH[HPHOH FDUH VWDX OD ED]D ORU Ä&RPSXQHUHD´LQGLFFHOSX LQDVRFLHUHDDGRXXQLW LvQWUHFDUHH[LVWRGHWHUPLQDUH JUDPDWLFDO&DWHJRULDJUDPDWLFDOHVWHWRWGHDXQDFHDDOH[HPHORUFDUHOHFRQVWLWXLH % 6WUXFWXULOH OH[HPDWLFH VLQWDJPDWLFH VXQW VROLGDULW LOH OH[LFDOH VDX FRPELQUL OH[LFDOH FRQGL LRQDWH (OH VXQW ÄDILQLW L´ ÄVHOHF LXQL´ úL ÄLPSOLFD LL´ DYkQGHOHPHQWXOFRQGL LRQDWDOFRPELQD LHLXQFODVHPVDXXQOH[HP Ä$ILQLWDWHD´HVWHRFRPELQD LHFRQGL LRQDWGHFODVHPGHH[HPSOXvQWUHERXúL D UDJH QXPDL GHVSUH DQLPDOH.

 DILQLWDWHD HVWH FRQGL LRQDW GH FODVHPXO lexemului .

36 ÄERX´ FODVD ÄDQLPDW´.

Sensul coincide. În cadrul VHQVXOXLRELHFWLYVHIRORVHúWHÄFULWHULXOVHPDQWLF´LDUH[SULPDUHDFkPSXOXLGLQSXQFW GH YHGHUH DO QXPUXOXL GH GLPHQVLXQL VDX FULWHULL VHPDQWLFH VH vPSDUW vQ unidimensionale. nu WRDWH H[SULP vQV úL GHQXPHVF QR LXQL FL QXPDL VXEVWDQWLYHOHDGMHFWLYHOHSURQXPHOHQXPHUDOHOHDGYHUEHOHúLYHUEHOHFXVHQVOH[LFDO .QWHUMHF LLOHH[SULP –IUDGHQXPL –HPR LLVHQWLPHQWHLPLW]JRPRWHVDXVWULJWH SUHSR]L LLOHFRQMXQF LLOHDUWLFROHOHYHUEHOHDX[LOLDUHH[SULPUDSRUWXULvQWUHQR LXQLúL PDUFKHD]GLIHULWHUDSRUWXULJUDPDWLFDOHvQWUHFXYLQWH 1R LXQLOH H[SULP vQVXúLULOH FHOH PDL JHQHUDOH HVHQ LDOH úL QHFHVDUH SUHSRQGHUHQW RELHFWLYH FROHFWLYH DOH RELHFWHORU úL IHQRPHQHORU LDr sensul se poate UHIHULúLODWUVWXULSDUWLFXODUHILLQGPDUFDWXQHRULGHIDFWRULGHQDWXULQGLYLGXDO VXELHFWLYLVDXFDUHDSDU LQXQHLFROHFWLYLW LOLPLWDWH . Ä. GHVHRUL FX QR LXQHD IU FD IHQRPHQXO V ILH JHQHUDO YDODELO 2 SHUIHFW LGHQWLWDWH sens-QR LXQH VH vQWkOQHúWH OD WHUPHQLL úWLLQ LILFL úL WHKQLFL PRUIHP QDIWRO R[LGULO Toate cuvintele au sens.PSOLFD LD´HVWHFRPELQD LDvQFDUHOH[HPXOHVWHFRQGL LRQDWGHDOWOH[HP ÌQ FHHD FH SULYHúWH FkPSXULOH OH[LFDOH RSR]L LLOH VH VWDELOHVF vQWUH OH[HPHvQ FDGUXO XQXL FkPS GDU úL vQWUH XQ PLFURFkPS vQ WRWDOLWDWHD OXL úL XQ DOW PLFURFkPS Câmpurile lexicale sunt studiate în cadrul semanticii structurale. Semantica Obiectul de studiu a semanticii este sensul cuvintelor. Tipologia câmpurilor OH[LFDOH VH ED]HD] SH FODVLILFDUHD RSR]L LLORU OH[HPDWLFH 2SR]L LLOH FD úL vQ IRQRORJLHVXQWJUDGXDOHHFKLSROHQWHúLSULYDWH Câmpurile lexicale pot fi clasificate: GXS FRQILJXUD LD ORU GXS VHQVXO ORU RELHFWLY GXS H[SULPDUHD ORU &RQILJXUD LD GHSLQGH GH QXPUXO GH GLPHQVLXQL VHPDQWLFHGHWLSXULOHIRUPDOHGHRSR]L LLvQOHJWXUFXDFHOHGLPHQVLXQLVHPDQWLFHúL GXS IHOXO vQ FDUH OH[HPHOH VH FRPELQ vQ LQWHULRUXO acestor paradigme. pluridimensionale. Ä6HOHF LXQHD´ HVWH FRPELQD LD FRQGL LRQDW GH HOHPHQWXO GHWHUPLQDQW GH XQ DUKLOH[HP GH H[HPSOX vQWUH JHUP :DJHQ ÄPDúLQ YDJRQ´ úL IDKUHQÄDPHUJHFXXQYHKLFRO´FRQGL LRQDUHDRIDFH)DKU]HXJÄYHKLFXO´GHFDUH LQH lexemul Wagen. FRORGLXPGLDWH]D]RW0DMRULWDWHDFXYLQWHORUVXQWvQVSROLVHPDQWLFH –DXGRXVDX PDL PXOWH vQ HOHVXUL FDUWH – .QGHSHQGHQWGHLQWHQ LDYRUELWRUXOXLFXYLQWHOHDXXQVHQVGHQRWDWLYFDUHDUHR valoare RELHFWLY &XYLQWHOH DX vQV úL XQ VHQV UHIHUHQ LDO GDW GH UDSRUWDUHD ORU OD UHDOLWDWHD FRQFUHW LDU XQHRUL úL XQ VHQV FRQRWDWLY FDUH OH DGDXJ QXDQ H VXELHFWLYH DIHFWLYHFVX EXQLFX  7HUPHQLL WHKQLFL úL FHL úWLLQ LILFL VXQW vQ JHQHUDO PRQRVHPDntici: elipoid.

 ÄVFULHUH WLSULW VDX EURúDW vQ IRUP GH YROXP´ .

„într-o scriere de mari propor LL´. „diviziune mai mare decât un capitol.

ÄvQY WXU úWLLQ FXOWXU´.

ÄUHJLVWUX´.

ÄEXFDWGHFDUWRQSHFDUHVXQWLPSULPDWHXQHOHGDWH úLFDUHDUHGLIHULWHvQWUHEXLQ UL´.

termenul a trecut asupra obiectului metalic IRORVLW OD VFULVXO FX FHUQHDO GHúL DWRPXO VH úWLH F QX HVWH FHD PDL PLF GLQWUH componentele materiei (a-tomos . La baza schimburilor se pot afla FDX]H H[WUDOLQJYLVWLFH GDWRUDWH VFKLPEULL UHDOLW LL GHQXPLWH HYROX LHL JkQGLULL trecerii cuvintelor dintr-XQPHGLXVRFLDOvQDOWXOLQWHUGLF LLORUGHYRFDEXODUúD$VWIHO vQ YHFKLPH VH VFULD FX SDQ GH JkVF WHUPHQXO DFWXDO SHQL  ILLQG XQ GLPLQXtiv al FXYkQWXOXLSDQSULQWU-un transfer de sens.„invizibil”) numele cuvântului s-DSVWUDW $OWH FDX]H DOH VFKLPEXULORU GH VHQV VXQW GH QDWXU OLQJYLVWLF DSURSLHUHD IRUPDOGLQWUHFXYLQWH –IRUWXLWGHSLOGSXVvQOHJWXUFXIRU DWHVWHIRORVLWXQHRUL .ÄVFULVRDUHHSLVWRO´úD 8QHOHFXYLQWHúL-au schimbat. în timp. sensul.

37 FX VHQVXO ÄIFXW VDX LPSXV FX IRU D´ DOWHRUL VH SLHUGH OHJWXUD FX IDPLOLD GLQ FDUH provLQH FXYkQWXO SDUWLFXOHOH SRLQW SDV IRORVLWH vQ IUDQFH] SHQWUX H[SULPDUHD QHJD LHL VXQW OD RULJLQH VXEVWDQWLYH ÄSXQFW´ ÄSDV´.

pêche provine din lat. dar sensuri identice sau foarte apropiate: a compara – a confrunta.„verde”.„simplu” e la baza românescului prost ÄOLSVLWGHLQWHOLJHQ QHURG´ Ultimele decenii au consemnat dezvoltarea unei semantici de tip sincronic. verre -ÄVWLFO´YHUV -ÄFWUH´YHU „vierme”. ÄPU GLQ Persia”. .„cerb”. obosit –RVWHQLW UDQ–VWHDQ • antonime – FXYLQWH FX IRUPH GLIHULWH úL VHQVXUL GLDPHWUDO RSXVH SULHWHQ – GXúPDQELQH–UXDXUFD– a coborî. dar FDUH VH SURQXQ  GLIHULW úL DX VHQVXUL GLIHULWH iULQ DUtQ KiLQKDtQ 2PRIRQHOHVXQWFXYLQWHvQJUDILHúLVHQVXULGLIHULWHGDUFDUHVHSURQXQ ODIHOHQJO dear -ÄGUDJ´úLGHHU . vert . prost . anima „sufOHWYLD ´DGHYHQLWvQURPkQLQLPUHVSHFWLYODWSHQVFLQ ÄJUHXWDWH FkQWULW´ D GDW vQ URPkQ SV - ÄVXSUDUH JUHXWDWH VXIOHWHDVF´ XQHOH FXYLQWHúL-au înnobilat sensul: lat. la fel cum fonemul – IDVFLFXO GH WUVWXUL GLVWLQFWLYH – era analizat în DFHVWH WUVWXUL 6HQVXO ILHFUXL FXYkQW HVWH XQ IDVFLFXO GH VHPH GLVWLnct de alte fascicule. GHVFULSWLY8QDGLQWUHPHWRGHOHXWLOL]DWHGHDFHDVWDHVWHDQDOL]DVHPLFFH-úLSURSXQH GHVFRPSXQHUHDVHQVXOXLFXYLQWHORUúLDQDOL]DDFHVWXLDvQXQLW LVHPDQWLFHHOHPHQWDUH numite seme. &XYLQWHOH FDUH SRW IL GHVFULVH JUXSDWH SH ED]D XQXL QXPU GH VHPH FRPXQH DOFWXLHVF XQ FkPS VHPDQWLF JUDGHOH GH UXGHQLH VDX JUDGHOH PLOLWDUH GHQXPLUHD FXORULORUQXPHOHGHIORULGHOHJXPHGHDQLPDOHVOEDWLFHHWF Din punct de vedere al raportului sens-IRUP FXYLQWHOH SRW IL FODVLILFDWH vQ XUPWRDUHOHFODVH • omonime –FXYLQWHFXDFHODúLvQYHOLúVRQRUGDUFXVHQVXULGLIHULWHFDOFDQ ÄSHúWH´ úL FDOFDQ - Ä]LG´ 2PRJUDIHOH VXQW FXYLQWH D FURU IRUP FRLQFLGH QXPDL vQ scris. De-D OXQJXO WLPSXOXL VHQVXO FXYLQWHORU SRDWH IL OUJLW FHUQHDO GHVHPQD vQ YHFKLPHQXPDLFHUQHDODQHDJULDUDFXPGHQXPHúWHRVXEVWDQ GHGLIHULWHFXORULFH VHUYHúWH OD VFULV VDX UHVWUkQV WHUPHQXO YDU] QXPH DO XQHL SODQWH OHJXPLFROH GHQXPHD vQ XUP FX FkWHYD VXWH GH DQL SODQWHOH YHU]L YHUGHD  vQ JHQHUDO 8QHRUL VHQVXO FXYLQWHORU D HYROXDW GH OD DEVWUDFW FWUH FRQFUHW DOWHRUL GH OD FRQFUHW OD abstract: lat. malum persicum . distins – destins. DOWH VFKLPEUL VH GDWRUHD] FRQWH[WXOXL GDWRULW GHVHL vQWUHEXLQ UL vQ DQXPLWH vPELQUL XQHOH FXYLQWH SUHLDX sensul cuvântului al•turat: fr. minister -ÄVHUYLWRU´VWODED]DFXYkQWXOXLPLQLVWUX DOWHOHDXFSWat un sens peiorativ: sl. • paronime – FXYLQWH IRDUWH DVHPQWRDUH FD IRUP vQV GHRVHELWH FD VHQV FHQ]XU–X]XUDSUHVFULH– a proscrie. 3ULQ DQDORJLH FX WHUPHQLL ÄVLQRQLPLH´ úL ÄDQWRQLPLH´ QX GHPXOW D IRVW LQWURGXV vQ OLQJYLVWLF WHUPHQXO GH KLSRQLPLH VDX LQFOX]LXQH $VWIHO vQ HOHVXO FXYkQWXOXLJDURDIHVWHLQFOXVvQFHODOFXYkQWXOXLIORDUHvQ HOHVXOFXYkQWXOXLDUJLQWvQ cel de metal etc. fr. • sinonime – cuvinte cu forme diferite.

6WXGLLGHOLQJYLVWLFJHQHUDO%XFXUHúWL 5. Manual de liQJYLVWLF JHQHUDO (GLWXUD $OO %XFXUHúWL 1992.QWURGXFHUH vQ OLQJYLVWLF. BIBLIOGRAFIE PENTRU ÎNTREGUL CURS a.resp. Curs de linJYLVWLFJHQHUDO%XFXUHúWL 6. Introducere în teoria limbii%XFXUHúWL 7. (XJHQ&RúHULX. Emanuel Vasiliu. 3. Acad.Graur (coord. Emil Ionescu.) 7UDWDW GH OLQJYLVWLF JHQHUDO(GLWXUD$FDGHPLHL%XFXUHúWL 2. .Graur. &XUV GH OLQJYLVWLF JHQHUDO 7LSRJUDILD 8QLYHUVLW LL Ä$O.Stati.DúL 4. Ferdinand de Saussure.38 IV.&X]D´. . Editura ùWLLQ LILF%XFXUHúWL E%LEOLRJUDILHIDFXOWDWLY 1. Caracteristicile definitorii ale limbajului. 6FXUWLVWRULHDOLQJYLVWLFLL%XFXUHúWL 2. André Martinet. /LQJYLVWLF JHQHUDO úL FRPSDUDW (GLWXUD 'LGDFWLF úL 3HGDJRJLF%XFXUHúWL Teme – subiecte pentru referate 1.QWURGXFHUHvQOLQJYLVWLF. Lingvistica prHúWLLQ LILFvQ*UHFLDDQWLF )DFWRULLFRQVWLWXWLYLDLDFWXOXLGHFRPXQLFDUHYHUEDO 3.Graur. (ed.). Lucia Wald (red. Lucia Wald. Cluj. Ion Coteanu. Al. (OHPHQWHGHOLQJYLVWLFJHQHUDO%XFXUHúWL 5. &UHVWRPD LHGHOLQJYLVWLFJHQHUDO%XFXUHúWL 3. Al. Dumitru Irimia. Ariton Vraciu. S. 'LKRWRPLD GLVWLQF LD.Al. Al. 1995. 4. a III-a). Bibliografie obligatorie 1.Graur.

&DX]HDOHVFKLPEULORUGHVHQVúLFLOHGHUHDOL]DUHDDFHVWRUa.  5H]XOWDWHOH SURFHVXOXL GH LQWHUIHUHQ  OLQJYLVWLF VXEVWUDW VXSHUVWUDW adstrat). Elemente caracterizante ale ariilor lingvistice. ‡0ULPHDDFHVWXLUHIHUDWHVWHPLQLPFXYLQWHPD[LPFXYLQWH ‡ 5HIHUDWXO DUH XUPWRDUHD VWUXFWXU .PXWDELOLWDWHDúLPXWDELOLWDWHDVHPQXOXLOLQJYLVWLc. 13. Clasificarea claselor lexicale. 7. Criterii de clasificare a morfemelor.D[VLQWDJPDWLFD[SDUDGLJPDWLF . 3UHFL]UL ‡)LHFDUHVWXGHQWWUHEXLHVvQWRFPHDVFXQUHIHUDWFXXQVXELHFWDOHVGLQOLVWD de mai sus. Principiile gramaticii generative –WUDQVIRUPD LRQDOH 14. Accidentele fonetice. 5DSRUWXOGLQWUHVXQHWHúLIRQHPH 12. &DUDFWHUL]DUHDDFKL]L LRQULLOLPELLGHFWUHFRSLO 3ULQFLSLXOVWUDWLILFD LRQDODOOLPEDMXOXL 10.

 WLWOXO .

 LQWURGXFHUH .

4) concluzii –REVHUYD LL– propuneri. WUDWDUHD subiectului. ‡ (VWH DSUHFLDW FX vQWkLHWDWH FRQWULEX LD FkW PDL RULJLQDO D VWXGHQWXOXL SUHULOHúLFRQFOX]LLOHSURSULL. 5) bibliografie.

vQWUDWDUHDVXELHFWXOXL .

39 ‡2ULFHSUHOXDUHGHLGHLFLWDWHVDXUHIHULQ HFXSULnse în referat se vor preciza la VXEVROXO SDJLQLL VDX VXE IRUP GH QRWH ELEOLRJUDILFH OD VIkUúLWXO OXFUULL vQI LúkQG exact locul de unde s-D SUHOXDW LGHHD VDX IUDJPHQWXO GH WH[W DXWRUXO WLWOXO OXFUULL ORFXOúLDQXODSDUL LHL.

 • Referatele tratate VLPLODU vQ DFHODúL IHO GH FWUH VWXGHQ L GLIHUL L LQVSLUDUH GLUHFW.

VHUHVSLQJ ‡ 5HIHUDWXO HVWH QRWDW úL FRQVWLWXLH FRQGL LH SHQWUX SURPRYDUHD H[DPHQXOXL OD GLVFLSOLQDÄ/LQJYLVWLFJHQHUDO´ ‡ 5HIHUDWHOH VH H[SHGLD] REOLJDWRULX SkQ OD GDWD  'HFHPErie 2000 prin SRúWVDXSULQH-PDLO SRúWDHOHFWURQLF.

„VUFX ´. (1. queen GH OD vQ HOHVXO originar.75 puncte)  &RPSDUD L FkPSXO VHPDQWLF DO JUDGHORU GH vQUXGLUH GLQ OLPED URPkQ FX FkPSXOVHPDQWLFFRUHVSXQ]WRUGLQOLPEDGHVSHFLDOLWDWH (2 puncte) .75 puncte)  5HFRQVWLWXL L ILH úL SDU LDO VHULLOH DVRFLDWLYH GLQ FDUH IDF SDUWH XQLW LOH OLQJYLVWLFH FRPELQDWH vQ HQXQ XO GLQ OLPED GH VSHFLDOLWDWH HFKLYDOHQW FX URP Copiii DXvQ HOHVELQHvQWUHEULOH (1. sau a substantivului fr. maison.RULVHGHSXQSHUVRQDOODVHGLXOIDFXOW LL TEORIA LIMBII TEST DE AUTOEVALUARE  0LMORDFHOH GH UHDOL]DUH DOH IXQF LXQLL PHWDOLQJYLVWLFH D OLPEDMXOXL FX (1. a substantivului engl. la sensul tardiv „WLFORV´.70 puncte) H[HPSOLILFULFRQFUHWHGLQOLPEDVWULQGHVSHFLDOLWDWH  3RUQLQG GH OD HQXQ XO URP &UHGH F VRUD OXL D FLWLW WH[WXO úL GH OD HFKLYDOHQ D OXL vQ OLPED VWULQ GH VSHFLDOLWDWH DUWD L vQ FH FRQVWDX GHRVHELULOH GH IRUPGLQWUHHOH (1.80 puncte) &RPHQWD LHYROX LDVHPDQWLFDDGMHFWLYXOXLURPPLúHO de la sensul originar. de la VHQVXOLQL LDOÄFRQDF´ODVHQVXOWDUGLYÄFDV´. „femeie”ODvQ HOHVXOPRGHUQÄUHJLQ´.