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Wireless Communications Sheldon Lou
What is Wi-Fi?
The standard for wireless local area networks (WLANs). It’s like a common language that all the devices use to communicate to each other. If you have a standard, people can make all sorts of devices that can work with each other. It’s actually IEEE 802.11, a family of standards.
The IEEE (Eye-triple-E, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.) is a non-profit, technical professional association of more than 360,000 individual members in approximately 175 countries. The Wireless Ethernet Compatibility Alliance started the Wi-Fi--wireless fidelity--certification program to ensure that equipment claiming 802.11 compliance was genuinely interoperable.
US Frequency Bands
Band UHF ISM S-Band S-Band ISM C-Band C-Band satellite downlink C-Band Radar (weather) C-Band ISM C-Band satellite uplink X-Band X-Band Radar (police/weather) Frequency range 902-928 MHz 2-4 GHz 2.4-2.5 GHz 4-8 GHz 3.7-4.2 GHz 5.25-5.925 GHz 5.725-5.875 GHz 5.925-6.425 GHz 8-12 GHz 8.5-10.55 GHz
11 2 Mbps 2.11b 11 Mbps 2.11a 54 Mbps 5 GHz (1999) 802.4 GHz (1997) 802.11g 54 Mbps 2.Wi-Fi Standards Standard Speed Freq band Notes 802.4 GHz 802.11n 600 Mbps 2.4/5 GHz .4 GHz 802.
4-GHz ISM band. You don't need a license to set up and operate a wireless network. The ISM bands are license-free. . which operates in the 2.ISM Band ISM stands for industrial. provided that devices are low-power. and medical. scientific. Perhaps the most familiar ISM-band device is the microwave oven. ISM bands are set aside for equipment that is related to industrial or scientific processes or is used by medical equipment.
825 GHz. U-NII Mid (U-NII-2): 5. U-NII Upper (U-NII-3): 5.25 GHz.725 to 5. U-NII Worldwide: 5. .15-5.25-5.725 GHz.47-5.35 GHz.U-NII (Unlicensed National Information Infrastructure) Bands 802.11n can operate at the 5G U-NII bands: U-NII Low (U-NII-1): 5.
U-NII bands .
Wireless LAN Networks .
. Generally not used for business networks.WLAN Architecture—Ad Hoc Mode Ad-Hoc mode: Peer-to-peer setup where clients can connect to each other directly.
the participants of a meeting in a conference room may create an ad hoc network at the beginning of the meeting and dissolve it when the meeting ends. .Ad Hoc Structure Mobile stations communicate to each other directly. For example. It’s set up for a special purpose and for a short period of time.
Not yet in widespread use.WLAN Architecture--Mesh Mesh: Every client in the network also acts as an access or relay point. unlikely to be in homes. . creating a “selfhealing” and (in theory) infinitely extensible network.
WLAN Architecture—Infrastructure Mode To Wired Network .
wants to communicate with another MS.” Any communication has to go through AP. then AP sends it to the destination MS Multiple APs can be connected together and handle a large number of clients. Used by the majority of WLANs in homes and businesses. which becomes the hub of a “star topology. If a Mobile Station (MS). or a phone. . a PDA. it needs to send the information to AP first.Infrastructure network There is an Access Point (AP). like a computer.
Comparison of Two Structures Expansion Flexibility Control Routing Coverage Reliability Infrastructure X Ad hoc X X X X X .
Extended Service Area .
a mobile station (MS) can roam from one BSS (Basic Service Set) to another. If not. the two access points will use different channels. the MS keeps checking the beacon signal sent by each AP and select the strongest one and connect to that AP. the service will be interrupted. . the connection will not be interrupted when an MS moves from one set to another. If so. If the BSSs overlap. Roughly speaking. Two BSSs coverage areas can largely overlap to increase the capacity for a particular area. as we will explain later.Roaming In an extended service area.
but some select products will let you attach secondary antennas that will significantly boost range.Antennas All WLAN equipment comes with a built-in omni-directional antenna. .
Antennas. continued Antennas come in all shapes and styles: Omni-directional: Vertical Whip Ceiling mount Directional: Yagi (“Pringles can”) Wall mounted panel Parabolic dish .
How Can Several Users Communicate Simultaneously? As we have discussed. as we will discuss in this course. each person has a dedicated channel during the entire conversation. as we will explain later. (3G and 4G cell phones are somewhat different. . many users can share one channel. like telephone and cell phone calls. A user sends information when no one else is sending. New technologies try to accommodate both voice and data transmissions. there is a difference between a network designed for voice conversation and one for data exchange. For voice conversations.) For data exchange.
It’s like they are sharing one single cable (the air in this case). data are grouped into packets/frames. computers. If several MSs are all waiting for their turns. . etc. they will not start sending simultaneously. the MS that intends to send will generate a random waiting time and wait for its turn. it checks to see if someone else is sending information. If some station is sending or receiving signal. since their waiting times are randomly generated and thus not equal.Share one channel in data communication In data communication.) don’t communicate simultaneously. Before an MS (mobile station) sends its packets. It’s called Carrier Sensing Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance (CSMA/CA). Devices (phones. Only when the medium is free can an MS sends packets. Each packet/frame contains a number of bits of information. Thus collision (two or more MSs sending signals simultaneously) is avoided. only one person can use it at one time.
How does CSMA/CA (Carrier Sensing Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance) Work? .
therefore the source terminal sends its packet with no contention. A terminal ready for transmission sends an RTS packet identifying the source address. opening contention for other users. destination address. After completion of the transmission. The source terminal receives the CTS and sends the data. . Other terminals go to the virtual carrier-sensing mode (NAV signal on). and the length of the data to be sent. the destination station sends an ACK.RTS/CTS (Request-to-send/clear-tosend) Use Request-to-send/clear-to-send (RTS/CTS) mechanism to avoid collision when two MSs cannot hear each other (blocked by a wall …). The destination station responds with CTS packet.
Spread spectrum in 802. We discuss two methods specified in 802. FHSS and DSSS.11 It is a requirement imposed by the regulatory authorities for devices in ISM band in order to reduce interference.11. There is also limitations on transmitted power. .
. For indoor applications this ensures that the system does not suffer from ISI.DSSS in 802.11 Used by 802.11b Symbol transmission rate = 1Mbps Multipath spread of up to 1/1 Mbps = 1 µs does not cause ISI. Chip rate = 11 Mcps Resolution is on the order of 1/11 Mcps = 90 ns. Use Barker code.
404 GHz. Fig. …. 8. 2. …. Channel 1 is at 2. 11. Channel 0. 7. 3. that results in a threefold increase in the capacity of the cell.11 The frequency can hop over 78 hopping channels each separated by 1 MHz. 4. Channel 2. 11.5. The first channel. (1. 75). 6. 454. .Frequency Hopping in 802. starts at 2. 76). 5.479 GHz (US. …. These frequencies are divided into three patterns of 26 hops each corresponding channel numbers (0. Hop rate = 2. Three APs can coexist without any hop collision. and Europe standards). 77). see p. 10.402 GHz.5 hops per second. (2. Canada. 9. and so on up to Channel 77 at 2.403 GHz.
The coverage areas of two access points (Basic Service Sets. For example. BSS) may overlap to increase capacity. But the two APs have to use non-overlapping channels.4 GHz is divided into 11 overlapping channels spaced by 5 MHz (see Fig. 455). 16 users can talk simultaneously.Frequency bands for DSSS FHSS uses 1 MHz bandwidth (narrowband). The ISM band at 2. APs located close to each other can choose different channels to mitigate interference. . up to 8 users can use VoIP simultaneously through one access point. but the center frequency hops over 76 MHz. 11.6. DSSS uses a chip rate of 11 Mcps which occupies around 26 MHz of bandwidth (wideband). With two overlapping APs. P.
Modulation Gaussian frequency shift keying (GFSK) is used. .
and disassociation Authentication and deauthentication Providing privacy . re-association.Wi-Fi network services Distribution and integration Association.
Distribution This service is used by mobile stations in an infrastructure network every time they send data. . Any communication that uses an access point travels through the distribution service. including communications between two mobile stations associated with the same access point. Once a frame has been accepted by an access point. it uses the distribution service to deliver the frame to its destination.
Integration Integration is a service provided by the distribution system. it allows the connection of the distribution system to a non-IEEE 802. except in terms of the services it must offer. The integration function is specific to the distribution system used and therefore is not specified by 802.11 network.11. .
Association Delivery of frames to mobile stations is made possible because mobile stations register. . The distribution system can then use the registration information to determine which access point to use for any mobile station. with access points. or associate.
they are never initiated by the access point. After the reassociation is complete. . Reassociations are initiated by mobile stations when signal conditions indicate that a different association would be beneficial. the distribution system updates its location records to reflect the reachability of the mobile station through a different access point. it must evaluate signal strength and perhaps switch the access point with which it is associated.Reassociation When a mobile station moves between basic service areas within a single extended service area.
When stations invoke the disassociation service. Disassociation is a polite task to do during the station shutdown process. designed to accommodate stations that leave the network without formally disassociating.Disassociation To terminate an existing association. it is as if the station is no longer attached to the network. stations may use the disassociation service. . any mobility data stored in the distribution system is removed. however. Once disassociation is complete. The MAC is.
Authentication is a necessary prerequisite to association because only authenticated users are authorized to use the network.Authetication/deauthentication Physical security is a major component of a wired LAN security solution. Because authentication is needed before network use is authorized. though. however. .) Deauthentication terminates an authenticated relationship. Wired network’s equipment can be locked inside offices. many access points are configured for "open-system" mode and will authenticate any station. a side effect of deauthentication is termination of any current association. (In practice. Wireless networks cannot offer the same level of physical security. and therefore must depend on additional authentication routines to ensure that users accessing the network are authorized to do so.
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