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Journal ofSemitic Studies XLI/1 Spring 1996


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Abu Bakr Muhammad b. Muslim b. 'Ubaydallah b. 'Abdallah b. Shihab b. 'Abdallah b. al-Harith b. Zuhrah b. Kilab,1 better known as Ibn Shihab al-Zuhri (d. 124/742), was one of the founders of Islamic tradition in the widest sense of the word.2 After a life rich in pioneering scientific achievements, he died at his estate where he retired in his later years. Details of al-Zuhri's biography are discussed in the first three sections of the present study, while the last three deal with geographical aspects of his estate. The emphasis on the geographical
* This paper was presented at the Sixth International Colloquium 'From Jahiliyya to Islam' (Jerusalem, 5-10 September 1993). I wish to thank Prof. M.J. Kister, Dr. Amikam Elad and Mr. Avraham Hakim for their references. The map on p. 52 was drawn by Mrs Tamar Softer at the Cartography Laboratory of the Geography Department, the Hebrew University. 1 Ibn Qudama al-MaqdisI, al-Tabylnfiansdbal-Qurashiyyin, ed. M.N. al-Dulayml (Beirut 1408/1988), 303; DhababI, Ntibald', V, 326. 2 Cf. on him G.H.A. Juynboll, Muslim Tradition: Studies in Chronology, Provenance and Authorship of Early Hadlth (Cambridge 1983), l46f (al-Zuhri, 'perhaps of all hadlth transmitters occurs most frequently in isndds'). Juynboll argues (149) that 'many of those who had the nisba Zuhri ... may often have been addressed by that name or may have asked to be called by it, in so doing creating confusion with the one great transmitter who was alternatively called Zuhri or Ibn Shihab'. It seems to me that such'a phenomenon (if it existed at all) could only have had a marginal effect. Al-Zuhri's legal activity and its transmission have recently been studied - in my mind convincingly and with much common sense - by H. Motzki, 'Der Fiqh des Zuhri: die Quellenproblematik', Der Islam 68 (1991), 1-44. Elsewhere Motzki remarks that Ibn Jurayj always refers to him as Ibn Shihab, while others, such as Ma'mar b. Rashid, refer to him by the nisba al-Zuhri. Motzki plausibly ascribes this to regional preferences; see his Die Anfdnge der islamischen Jurisprudent lhre Entwicklung in Mekka bis zur Mine des 2.18. Jahrhunderts (Stuttgart 1991), 194f. With regard to the sobriquet Ibn Shihab, note that a poet called him, in a verse, Muhammad b. Shihab; Maqrlzl, Muqaffd, VII, 251. Why was Shihab used in this sobriquet, rather than an ancestor closer to al-Zuhri? Because compared with the name Muslim and the other names in al-Zuhri's pedigree, the name Shihab was



data is methodologically important, as it stems from my conviction that the history of Arabia should be studied with constant reference to the abundant geographical information at our disposal. 1. Al-Zuhri and the Umayyads The sources now available to us for al-Zuhri's biography3 are far more numerous than those which I. Goldziher had access to when writing, a century ago, about al-Zuhri's relationship with the Umayyads.4 But although we are in a position to have more details about al-Zuhri, Goldziher's brilliant analysis of his links with the ruling family still holds. If anything, like good wine it improves with time.5 Yet as we shall see, there were attempts to replace Goldziher's realistic (and not at all unsympathetic) approach with a romantic and apologetic view of al-Zuhri's links with the Umayyads. The relationship between the Umayyad rulers and the religious scholars of their time is an important factor in the study of both Islamic history and the emergence of Islamic literature. With regard to the much-quoted passage from al-Ya'qubl concerning 'Abd al-Malik's wish to replace the pilgrimage to Mecca, then under Ibn al-Zubayr's control, with pilgrimage to Jerusalem, Goldziher remarks that al-Zuhri 'was given the task of justifying this politically motivated reform of religious life by making up 6 and spreading a saying traced back to the Prophet, according to which there are three mosques to which people may make pilgrimages: those in Mecca, Medina and Jerusalem'.7 Basing himself on a passage from alKhatlb al-Baghdadl, Goldziher then adds several paragraphs about al-Zuhri: How the Umayyads made it their business to put into circulation hadlths which seemed to them desirable, and how people of the type of the pious al-Zuhri acquiesced in being their tools — though they certainly were not guided by selfish motives8 but merely by reasons of
I am particularly indebted to Ibn 'Asakir's History of Damascus. Goldziher regretted having had no access to Ibn 'Asakir; Muslim Studies, ed. S.M. Stern, tr. C.R. Barber and S.M. Stern (London 1967-71), II, 46, n. 1. The most detailed tarjama of al-Zuhri used by Juynboll a decade ago (Muslim Tradition, 169) was the one found in al-FasawI's al-Ma'rifah wa-al-ta'rikh, I, 620-43. 5 Muslim Studies, II, 43f. 6 This is doubtful. Cf. A. Elad, Medieval Jerusalem and Islamic Worship (Leiden, 1995), 156-7; below, nn. 36, 88. 7 Muslim Studies, II, 44f. See now in great detail Elad, MedievalJerusalem, 147-63. 8 In a footnote Goldziher refers here to al-Zuhri's selflessness, quoting an utterance of 'Amr b. Dinar; see on it below, n. 63.
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state expediency — is to be seen from evidence preserved by al-Khatlb al-Baghdadl.9 Here we find an account... from 'Abd al-Razzaq (d. 211), a disciple of Ma'mar b. Rashid (d. 153), in the name of the latter; Ma'mar himself belonged to the group of the disciples of al-Zuhri. This account tells us that the Umayyad Ibrahim b. al-Walld ... came to al-Zuhri with a notebook he had written [my italics; M.L.], and asked his permission to spread the sayings contained in it as hadiths communicated by al-Zuhri. The latter gave his permission easily: 'Who else could have told you the hadlthsV Thus die Umayyad was enabled to circulate the contents of his manuscript as texts taught him by al-Zuhri. This account fully confirms the willingness of al-Zuhri ... to promote the interests of the dynasty by religious means. His piety probably caused his conscience to be troubled occasionally but he could not forever resist the pressure of the governing circles. ... Al-Zuhri did not belong to the circle of the irreconcilable but to those who thought a modus vivendi with the government was desirable. He did not avoid the court but moved unhesitatingly in the ruler's entourage, and we even see him, during a pilgrimage of al-Hajjaj, among the followers of this bogey of the pious. He was employed by Hisham as tutor to the prince and under Yazid II he even consented to accept the office of judge .... Al-Zuhri did not have to consider scruples about accepting public office under the Umayyads since he had always shown himself willing to co-operate with the ruling powers.10 Goldziher's forceful analysis of al-Zuhrl's relations with the Umayyads has been strongly attacked in recent years by some contemporary scholars." Before studying the details of this onslaught it would be useful to remind ourselves that a student specializing in a particular religion, any religion, sometimes arrives at conclusions which are incompatible with the beliefs held by the adherents of that religion.

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Kifdyah, 266. We shall have to return to this evidence later. Muslim Studies, II, 46f. J. Horovitz, 'The Earliest Biographies of the Prophet and their Authors', II, Islamic Culture 2 (1928), 22-50, at 40, says more accurately that al-Zuhri educated Hisham's children (not just one of them). 11 Cf. however, Kh. 'Athamina, 'The 'Ulama' in the Opposition: the "Stick and Carrot" Policy in Early Islam', The Islamic Quarterly 36 (1992), 153-78, at 166, who, with reference to Goldziher, speaks of scholars who 'were used by the regime as a vehicle of propaganda to counteract the voices of those who opposed the regime. They were an efFective means of propagating traditions which favoured the ruler and defamed his adversaries. In other words, they practised wad' al-hadlth ("forging of hadith") or were used to disseminate false traditions.''See also 168f. Also O. Livne-Kafri, 'On Jerusalem in Early Islam', Cathedra 51 (1989), 35-66 [in Hebrew], at 52f, who correctly remarks that while a few pious persons fought against the Umayyads and refused to accept government offices, many of them were willing to serve them.




Sensitive issues will inevitably cause a rift between non-Islamic scholarship and orthodox Islamic values. Whilst it is true that in many fields of Islamic studies non-Muslim and Muslim scholars work together towards achieving the same scientific goals, a restatement of the fundamental difference in outlook is necessary, because when that is blurred, hypocrisy and lies emerge.12 In recent decades we have been witnessing a conscious attempt to detract from the importance of al-Zuhri's Umayyad connection and to present him as an independent scholar.13 But before we turn to the revision of al-Zuhrl's relations with the Umayyads, let us look at two points of detail on which Goldziher is said to have misunderstood the Arabic text. It is no accident that both relate to al-Zuhrl's relationship with the Umayyads. First, F. Sezgin challenged Goldziher's interpretation of al-Zuhrl's famous statement about the writing down of hadith, akraha-nd 'alayhi hd'uld'i al-umard', which according to Goldziher 'can only be understood on the assumption of al-Zuhrl's willingness to lend his name, which was in general esteemed by the Muslim community, to the government's wishes'.14 Using unambiguous terms G. Schoeler recently reinstated Goldziher's interpretation of this phrase, correctly rejecting Sezgin's translation.15 Further evidence supports the interpretation of
See also the section entitled Arabists versus Historians, in P. Crone, 'Serjeant and Meccan Trade', Arabica 39 (1992), 216-40, at 237f. 13 This approach is not new; cf. Juynboll, The Authenticity of the Tradition Literature: Discussions in Modern Egypt (Leiden 1969), 109. 14 Muslim Studies II, 47; see E Sezgin, Geschichte des arabischen Schrifttums (= GAS; Leiden, 19670. I. 281. Juynboll (Authenticity, 112) assumes that 'Goldziher's interpretation is not tenable'. Juynboll (Muslim Tradition, 169, n. 32) argues that the version found in al-Ma'rifah wa-al-ta'rikh, I, 633 (kunnd Id nardl-kitdb shay'an, [fa-akrahat-nd 'alay-hi al-umard', fa-ahbabnd an nuwdsiya bayn al-nds]), 'seems to support Sezgin's interpretation'. Durl's translation (The Rise of Historical Writing among the Arabs, ed. and tr. L.I. Conrad (Princeton 1983), 119, is not different from Goldziher's: 'We disliked writing (al-kitdb) until the authorities (alumard') compelled us to do so; then I decided not to prevent any Muslim from doing likewise.' However, Duri qualifies this by adding, 'but this appears to echo the view of hadith scholars of later times'. 15 Schoeler, 'Miindliche Thora und Hadith: Oberlieferung, Schreibverbot, Redaktion', Der Islam 66 (1989), 213-51, at 228f: 'Wir hatten eine Abneigung dagegen, das Wissen (sc. die Tradition) niederzuschreiben, bis diese Herrscher uns dazu gezwungen haben. Nun sind wir der Meinung, dafi wir es (sc. das Niederschreiben der Tradition) keinem Muslim mehr verwehren sollten.' M.J. Kister calls Sezgin's interpretation of the phrase 'far-fetched'; see Kister, '"La taqra'u al-qur'dna 'aid al-mushafiyyin tva-ld tahmilu al-'ilma 'an al-sahafiyyin ...": Some Notes on the Transmission of Hadith', paper presented at the Sixth Colloquium on 'From Jahiliyya to Islam", JSAI (forthcoming), where the phrase is thoroughly analysed.

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fa-kataba 'an-hu al-nds minyawma'idhin. Following this. Marwan fa-jalasa 'inda dhdka al-'amud [al-Walld was of course pointing to a specific column in the mosque of Damascus] fa-qdla: yd ayyuhd al-nds. 'Abd al-Qadir Khresat. permitting every Muslim to write down hadith. at 48 (where the reference given is incorrect). Muslim. they are apologetic statements made in connection with the heated debate over the techniques of transmitting hadith. Fa-lammd ijtama'u ilay-hi qdla: innikuntu mana'tu-kum amran badbaltu-hu li-amlr al-mu'minina dnifan. They seek to make value judgements about the practice of writing down hadith by pointing out the alleged circumstances in which the cherished ideal of memorizing was abandoned in favour of writing.iii (1989).' Having added further categories of material. the permission to write down hadith] fata'dlatu hand uhadditha-kum [viz. Two Umayyad caliphs are mentioned in this context. '"La taqra'u al-qur'dn 'aid al-mushafiyyin'. 'al-Qatd'i' fi al-'asr al-umawf'. 243f.' Dhahabi. while you write down my hadith]. thumma nddd: yd talabata al-hadlth. According to one version of the report just quoted. They may have touched upon events which affected people's opinions. halumma fa-uktubu. Yazld b. The traditionist al-Walld b. such as those connected with the role of some QurashI enemies of the Prophet who later embraced Islam and became virtuous believers. Mu'awiyah see M. it was Hisham who forced al-Zuhrl to abandon his former objection to the writing down of hadith: al-Zuhrl then dictated it to Hisham's sons (whose mentor he was). 'Abdallah b. 2010 . 17 Kana al-Zuhri la yatruku ahadan yaktubu bayna yaday-hi. Zuhri. al-Zuhrl allowed ordinary Muslims to write down his hadith. Further important proof is included in a report from Waqidl < Muhammad b. TMD. innd kunnd qad mana'nd-kum shay'an qad badhalnd-hu li-hd'uld'i [i. suggests that 'the hadiths which al-Zuhri was bidden to write down for the sons of the Caliph were of an official character.oxfordjournals. relating to the writing down of hadith should not be read as straightforward historical records. Kister concludes: 'These kinds of traditions seem to be the reason why al-Zuhri was vexed and decided to change his manner of transmission. 91. Kister. fa-akraha-hu Hisham b. Fa-lammd kharaja min 'indi-hi dakhala al-masjid fa-istanada ild 'amud min 'umudi-hi. On 'Abd al-Malik's purchasing of al-Khadra" from Khalid b. better known as Ibn Akhl Kharaja al-Zuhri min al-Khadrd' min 'ind Abd al-Malik b.' 25 16 Downloaded from http://jss.16 The evidence concerning Hisham is far stronger. Muslim implies (although he does not specifically mention the writing down of hadith) that al-Zuhri had already succumbed to Umayyad pressure at the time of c Abd at Georgetown University on April 24. 'Abd al-Malik b. Marwan (65-86/685-705) and Hisham b. Ta'rikh al-Isldm.e.BIOGRAPHICAL NOTES ON IBN SHIHAB AL-ZUHRI this phrase as a reference to writing as opposed to memorizing. Dirdsdt ('Amman) 16. 'Abd al-Malik fa-amld 'aid bani-hi. 'Abd al-Malik (10525/724-43).17 This and other similar records.. 30-62. Rather.

more precisely of the family {at) of 'Uthman b. totally independent of the aforementioned one in which we were told of how Hisham forced al-Zuhri to dictate hadith to his (Hisham's) sons. It is important to emphasize that the secretaries {kuttdb) were of course government officials. the detail concerning the nephew's going to the lavatory is the most important component in this report: al-Zuhri's nephew seeks to establish that he was present throughout the sessions during which his uncle dictated his hadith to Hisham at Georgetown University on April 24. Tahdh. al-Zuhri's dictation of his hadith to Hisham's secretaries is relevant for us and appears to be authentic. Sometimes I had to relieve myself and I would stand up. to dictate] for him his hadith. The reliability of the nephew's claims does not concern us here. 2010 .Z. 'Azb (Cairo n. Al-Majishun For an entry on Ibn Akhl al-Zuhri see TMD.... it is something taken for granted. cAbd alMalik's secretaries or. al-MizzJ. 26 18 Downloaded from http://jss.BIOGRAPHICAL NOTES ON IBN SHIHAB AL-ZUHRl al-Zuhri ('al-Zuhrl's nephew' [mentioned later in this study]). and he seated before him secretaries {kuttdb) to whom al-Zuhri dictated while they recorded. 328f. 559f. as is made clear by the frequent references to sultan and wuldt in the context of al-Zuhrl's dictation (see below). 558. 'Abd al-Malik an yaktuba la-hu haditha-hu wa-ajlasa la-hu kuttdban yumll 'alay-him al-Zuhri wa-yaktubuna. is known to have worked for the Umayyad state. eAbd al-Malik's request that he dictate {hadith) to him (i.oxfordjournals. MS. the envoy who brought al-Zuhri Hisham b. XXII. 453 (kuntu ma'a-hu haythu amara-hu Hisham b. XXV.18 Waqidl once queried al-Zuhrl's nephew about the circumstances in which he had heard a certain hadith from his uncle. c Affan. XV. The nephew answered: I was with him when Hisham b. See the same report in TMD. Al-Zuhri complied. M. who was al-Zuhrl's elder brother. in other words. that he was a trustworthy transmitter of his uncle's hadith.e. Tahdhib al-kamdl. since it forms the background to the account. This is yet another report on this subject. Asmd' shuyukh al-imdm Malik b. 'Abd al-Malik ordered him to write down [or rather. Reportedly. fa-amld 'alay-hi al-Zuhri. was a hadith transmitter. a mawld of the Umayyads. 19 Ibn Sa'd. Anas. Mukht. 29. VI. Fa-kuntu ahduru dhdlika fa-rubbamd 'aradat It al-hdjah faaqumu fi-hd fa-yumsiku 'amml 'an al-imld' hand a'uda ild makdn-t). ed. Qism mutammim.20 'Uqayl. Muhammad's father.d. 110: wa-yuqdlu inna-hu kdna rasula Hisham ild al-Zuhri fi an yumliya 'alay-hi. Khalid al-Ayll.). to Hisham) was 'Uqayl b.19 Paradoxically. My uncle used to stop dictating until I returned to my seat. However. 20 Ibn Khalfun al-AndalusI.M. I used to attend this.

Abd al-Malik 'aid nafaqdti-hi wa-kdna al-Zuhrl ma'a-hum bial-Rusdfah). Ma'ln anna-hu sami'a-hu ma'a al-wuldh). 715. 24 Yahya b. This confirms the involvement of the Umayyad state in recording al-Zuhri's hadlth. Abl Hamzah al-Rusdfah haythu amid al-Zuhrl. the slightly different wording of Yahya in TMD. is a specific example of an official who wrote down al-Zuhri's hadlth in al-Rusafah. and he died in Egypt in 141' (758-9). Abl Hamzahb. "Uqayl was a shurtl here {'inda-na) in Medina. Another expert. on Hisham b. 80:25. Dinar al-HimsI (d. a mawld of the Banu Umayyah. MS. IV. Cf. 188) that by sultan. al-Madlnl (79:21) adds another aspect when he refers to the form of Shu'ayb's 'notebooks': kutub Shu'ayb b. 120f. MS. This remark has more to do with 'Uqayl's reputation as a hadlth transmitter than with a genuine interest in his biography. M a ' l n is also q u o t e d in Su'dldt Ibn al-Junayd. 7 6 : . q u o t e d in Tahdh.. being a secretary' (kataba 'an al-Zuhrl imld'an li-l-sultdn. which Ibn 'Asakir interprets as an expression of disapproval (yurldu All b. He was a secretary of Hisham in al-Rusafah.22 Yahya b. then. 76.BIOGRAPHICAL NOTES ON IBN SHIHAB AL-ZUHRl (= Ya'qub b. Yahya means Hisham b. M a ' l n . 27 21 Downloaded from http://jss. kdna kdtiban). In other words. MS. For a positive appraisal of Shu'ayb's transmission from al-Zuhrl see Yahya b. 3 9 4 . kdna kdtiban at Georgetown University on April 24. 23 TMD. Ma'ln. 'All b. the general statement about the secretaries who were ordered to write down al-Zuhri's hadlth matches the evidence about one of them. al-Madlnl bi-dhdlika md hakd-hu Yahyd b. Ma'rifat al-rijdl. where he received hadlth from al-Zuhrl. 4 3 3 . 79:4 (shahida al-imld min al-Zuhrl li-al-sultdn). Abl Hamza wrote down al-Zuhri's hadlth when he dictated it for the rulers. See also Abu Hatim's remark (79:7): hadara Shu'ayb b.. says: Shu'ayb min athbat al-nds ft al-Zuhrl. Yazid (al-Ayll. Abl Hamzah tushbihu kutub al-dlwdn. 25 Yahya b.oxfordjournals. 3 5 1 . quoted in Tahdh. also 8 0 : 1 0 (wa-kdna samd'u-hu min al-Zuhrl ma' al-wuldh imld min al-Zuhrl 'alay-him). Another expert remarks (79:18): wa-kdna samd'u-hu min al-Zuhrl ma'a al-sultdn. Shu'ayb was the mawld of Ziyad (viz. Ta'rikh. MS. VIII. VII. VIII. IV. Ablhi). a mawld of Dhahabl. Nubald'. al-Khallll. VI. says: kdna katib al-Zuhrl. MS. II. TMD. I. VIII. 'Abd al-Malik. 'Abd al-Malik's orders.21 One of Hisham's secretaries who wrote down al-Zuhri's hadlth can probably be identified as Shu'ayb b. H e was the official in charge of Hisham's nafaqdt (wa-kdna min kuttdb Hisham b. VIII. 78:13. 2010 . DhahabI explains (Nubald'. Shu'ayb. VIII.24 This kdtib-office may have been connected to alZuhri's role as qddl (on which see below). Main reported that Shu'ayb was one of the secretaries {kuttdb) who recorded al-Zuhri's hadlth: 'Shu'ayb b. 302. Abu Zur'a. 162/779). Ziyad b. Abl Salamah) said. I. fa-samd'u-hu min al-Zuhrl imld. He also accompanied al-Zuhrl on a pilgrimage to Mecca. 22 TMD.23 There are indications that Shu'ayb was (at some point) the secretary {katib) of al-Zuhrl himself.l . TMD. 352.25 We know of yet another person who participated in 'al-Zuhri's dictation (imld') for the rulers': Yunus b.

in a volume recently published. Juynboll. min 'ilmi-hi. Abl Sufyan). 112. 172. and asked his permission to spread the sayings contained in it as hadith. Su'dldt Ibn al-Junayd. 2010 . Authenticity. perhaps overlooked by Goldziher. challenges Goldziher's interpretation. AblHamza shahida al-imld'a). in Goldziher's words.29 has a less precise version: wa-'arada 'alay-hi kitdban min 'Urn.27 This variant is important because of its explicit statement. see Muslim Studies. communicated by al-Zuhrl'. Yazid shahida al-imld'a min al-Zuhri lil-sultdn wa-Shu'ayb b. Khalid was also a mawld of the Umayyads w h o lived in Aylah. O n Yunus see below. He criticizes Goldziher for overlooking the reference to the technique of hadith transmission called 'ard which many. 28 26 Downloaded from http://jss. Ma'ln referred in this context both to him and to the abovementioned Shu'ayb. Kifdyah. al-Zuhri's words fa-man yuhaddithu-kumuhu ghayri mean 'Who but me knows these hadlths and can transmit them to you and give you permission to transmit them further?' Mansur has in mind the ninety hadlths transmitted only by al-Zuhrl and no one else (ay man ya'lamu bi-hddhihi al-ahddlth ghayri hattd yuhadditha-kum wa-yujlza-kum bi-hd.. 30 Cf. Ziyad Muhammad at Georgetown University on April 24.oxfordjournals. 205n. 'came to al-Zuhrl with a notebook he had written. that the notebook included. ?>§! (Yunus b. is replaced by wa-'arada 'alay-hi kitdban min 'ilmi-hi.30 According to Mansur. idh thabata anna al-Zuhrl infarada bi-tis'lna hadlthan Idyarwi-hdghayru-hu).) 27 AI-Khatlb al-Baghdadi.BIOGRAPHICAL NOTES ON IBN SHIHAB AL-ZUHRl Mu'awiyah b. Yahya b. II.. 105/05. n. This.2S Ibn Sa'd. The second point of detail on which Goldziher is said to have misunderstood the Arabic text concerns his interpretation of the story about the Umayyad prince who. The editor of this volume of Ibn Sa'd. considered to be legitimate. 28 Goldziher certainly knew the term 'ard. 29 Qism mutammim.26 It is not clear to what extent our hadith collections reflect the government's significant role in the earliest stages of the writing down of hadith but at any rate it is a major factor to be reckoned with when studying the emergence of early Islamic literature. al-Zuhri's own 'ilm. The exact wording is crucial for our discussion: 'Abd alRazzaq < Ma'mar: ra'aytu rajulan min Barn Umayyah yuqdlu la-hu Ibrahim b. instead of . ( T h e above-mentioned 'Uqayl b. 2 6 6 . al-Walld jd'a ild al-Zuhrl bi-kitdb fa-'arada-hu 'alay-hi thumma qdla: uhaddithu bi-hddhd 'an-ka yd Aba Bakr? qdla: la-'amn fa-man yuhaddithu-kumuhu ghayri? In the source just quoted this is immediately followed by a variant version in which the passage jd'a ild al-Zuhrl bi-kitdb fa-'arada-hu 'alay-hi. or was supposed to have included. including al-Zuhri.

128-66.oxfordjournals. 'Utaybah: both used to ascribe the hadith of one informant to another. reprinted in idem. at 139. JSAI10 (1987). on the whole he misinterprets the report while Goldziher understands it correctly. But this point of detail does not affect Goldziher's overall interpretation of the text. ahdditha 'an al-Zuhri laysat min hadlthi-hi). 'Utaybah al-'Ijll was a member of the Umayyad administration at the time of Hisham b. Wakf. Interestingly. DhahabI. as a specific example of Waqidi's practice of naql. Mansur is wrong in assuming that the text does not indicate reprehensible conduct on al-Zuhri's part in connection with the transmission of hadith. It is perhaps no accident that al-Hakam b. Mansur concludes by saying that the text explicitly states that Ibrahim presented the hadiths to his teacher al-Zuhri using the technique known as 'ard {'arada 'aidshaykhi-hi 'ardan). hadiths which he claimed to have been from al-Zuhrf are mentioned (rawd. Cf. who in his turn wrote it down in a notebook. Ma'mar b. the wording does not suggest that the hadiths in the notebook were invented by the prince. VII. the German original has here: 'mit einem fertigen Hefte kam'. 32 Goldziher rendered this 'a notebook he had written'. (This is not the only criticism made by Ma'mar about al-Zuhri's practices in transmitting hadith. Ma'mar accused al-Zuhrl of employing the same method as al-Hakam b.31 While Mansur's criticism about the technical term 'ard may be justified to some extent.) has: kdna.33) 31 Ibn Sa'd. 22f. It is true that the kitdb min 'ilmi-hi. IX. which the prince 'presented' to al-Zuhrl ('arada)32 was supposed to include al-Zuhrl's own Him which he transmitted or dictated to the prince. Al-Zuhri's alleged answer to the at Georgetown University on April 24. not what the Jew Goldziher claimed {Id kamd za'ama al-yahildi Goldziher). 463 {kdna yanqulu al-haditha). more precisely he was qddi in Kufa during the governorship of Khalid al-Qasrl. 'Who else could have told you the hadithY is adduced by al-Zuhri's student. Rashid. III. cit.BIOGRAPHICAL NOTES ON IBN SHIHAB AL-ZUHRl Mansur adds. Zuhri. brought it to al-Zuhrl. yanqulu haditha ba'di-him ild ba'd). E. 'Utaybah fi ashdbi-hi. 'al-Usul al-Arba'umi'd. yarwi 'an 'Urwah wa-Sdlim al-shay'a ka-dhdlika. Nubala. In other words. is the meaning of the text. A variant version (loc. namely that Ibrahim wrote a sahifah. Beliefand Law in Imami Shfism (London 1991). 172n. no.. which many Muhaddithun consider to be on the same level as samd'.. in order to convey to us that alZuhri had no intention of checking the contents of the kitdb presented to him for inspection. Downloaded from http://jss.. The crux of the matter is not al-Zuhrf s approval of the "Wr^'technique but his allegedly sloppy and irresponsible application of it. Qism mutammim. and asked for his permission to disseminate the hadiths included in it as though he had heard them from him.. 129 (kdna al-Zuhri fi ashdbi-hi mithl al-Hakam b. 2010 29 . 'Abd al-Maiik. Kohlberg. The naql of which Waqidf was accused is the same as the one ascribed to al-Zuhri. 33 TMD.

who brought a 'book' to al-Zuhri and received immediate permission to transmit it. t h e translation is wrong: " U b a y d Allah ibn ' O m a r reported. without first looking through it'. 151 (ataytu al-Zuhri bi-kitdb mudrajfa-qultu: arurihddhd 'an-ka? qdla: na'am). 'Ubaydallah b. See also al-Ma'rifah wa-al-ta'rikh. shall we transmit it on your authority?' He said: 'Yes. 4 8 . was al-Zuhri's student:34 I have seen Ibn Shihab when one of his 'books' [kitdb min kutubi-hi. read: al-Khatib al-Baghdadi. 266. 173. 120.e. al-Zuhri receives a notebook (yu'td al-kitdbah. 1. 'Umar says: ashhadu 'aid Ibn Shihab anna-hu kdna yu'td bi-al-kitdb min 35 30 .37 34 Downloaded from http://jss. Horovitz continues. Muslim Tradition. for inspection) a n d does n o t give it. II. who. 1 5 5 .. In D u r i .36 Two other versions of the above-mentioned report about 'Ubaydallah provide further elucidation :e[Jbaydallah testifies that it was he himself. 8 9 . In Duri. similar. to be passed on to posterity. Ibn Sa'd. I. i."' In 'Ubaydallah's report.BIOGRAPHICAL NOTES ON IBN SHIHAB AL-ZUHRI That a flaw in al-Zuhri's practice as hadith transmitter is meant here can be shown by another. II. plausibly linking this to the aformentioned story of the Umayyad prince: 'According to one version it was Ibrahim ibn Al-Walid to whom he gave such a permission. 266. Horovitz's concluding sentence reveals an important area of disagreement between him a n d Goldziher: "That h e invented Hadith in order to promote the interests of the Umayyads is. n.' 37 TMD. 823 (where the same TJbaydallah b. 2010 GAS. Juynboll. Cf. Qism mutammim. The other version emphasizes that al-Zuhri did not even look at the book: it was given to him folded.35 The same criticism was levelled at al-Zuhri in connection with the Umayyad prince. not an anonymous person.e. quoting Dhahabl. 6 9 . Zuhri. 5 7 (who.oxfordjournals. provides the wrong context).. Rashid. J. n. al-Khattab. instead of: al-Khatib al-Baghdadl. a written collection or notebook including hadtths transmitted from al-Zuhri] was brought to him. Ta'rikh Baghdad. And he was asked [by his student who brought him the 'book']: 'O Abu Bakr. 36 Horovitz. like Ma'mar at Georgetown University on April 24. unacceptable. Rise.' He did not read it out and it was not read out to him. 296. It records the criticism of the great-great-grandson of cUmar b. "I used to see al-Zuhri give [someone] a book which he neither recited [to the students] n o r had recited to h i m [by the students]. i.' Horovitz adds that 'it was possible in that way to adduce in the name of Al-Zuhri reports which he himself never knew'. this is your book and your hadith. Kifdyah. however. cUmar (147/764). In one version alZuhri (briefly) looked at the 'book' {dafa'tu ild bni Shihab kitdban nazarafi-hifa-qdla: rwi-hi 'annt). Rise. 'Earliest Biographies'. report. Tardjim rijdl. which was submitted to him for approval. I believe. Horovitz interprets 'Ubaydallah's words correctly when he says that al-Zuhri 'was blamed for having allowed a volume containing Hadith reported by him.

org at Georgetown University on April 24.41 The Indian scholar N. Ma'rifat al-rijdl. namely those w h o were willing to co-operate with the rulers and take u p government offices.F. so intelligently analysed by Goldziher a century ago:40 The gravest charge against him is his co-operation with the ruling family. Rashid who criticized al-Zuhrl for his conduct with the Umayyad prince. in matters of kutubi-hi fa-yatasaffahu-hu wa-yanzuru fi-hi thumma yaqulu: hddhd hadithi a'rifuhu khudh-hu minnt). al-Walld. As we shall soon find out.oxfordjournals. .. see 'Athamina. ' T h e 'Ulama' in the Opposition'. accompanied by a balanced analysis.. Therefore. a n d those who opposed it. There were many great scholars who co-operated with the government and held offices. For rich documentation. fa-yuqdlu la-hu: narwi hddhd 'an-ka? fa-yaqiilu: na'am). (eds. he considered the student's reading to the teacher to be on a par with the teacher's reading to the student).A. II. It is important to note that according to Ma'mar's testimony. Far subtler is the revision of the evidence with the aim of blunting its message.. Yahya b. Azami writes about al-Zuhrl. 149 ('Ubaydallah: kuntu ard al-Zuhriyu'td bi-al-dafiar md qara'a-hu wa-ld 'urida 'alay-hi. M . 39 See also Kister. al-Zuhri's contemporaries (and later medieval Muslim scholars as well) were more critical of his relations with the Umayyads than some of our contemporaries. 2010 So much for the allegations made concerning Goldziher's command of Arabic with regard to al-Zuhri's association with the Umayyads. 827 {qara'tu al-'ilm 'aid al-Zuhrifa-lammdfaraghtu min-hu qultu: uhaddithu bi-hddhd 'an-ka? qdla: wa-man haddatha-ka bi-hddhdghayrii). at 3 6 5 : ' T h e favours bestowed on al-Zuhrl by the Umayyads a n d the close relations between him and the rulers aroused the suspicions of independent hadith scholars as to his integrity. Azami.). Studies in Early Hadith Literature (Indianapolis 1978).BIOGRAPHICAL NOTES ON IBN SHIHAB AL-ZUHRl As we have seen.M. II. Ma'ln. it cannot be a charge against someone that he accepted an office in the government. 288. Ibrahim b. in A. The Cambridge History of Arabic Literature: Arabic Literature to the End of the Umayyad Period (Cambridge 1983.39 M. ' T h e Sirah Literature'. This is done by focusing on some marginal pieces of evidence at the expense of the central ones. 38 Al-Ma'rifah wa-al-ta'rikh. 41 M . II. the knowledge (or hadith) which he himself received from al-Zuhri was transmitted to him impeccably. 352-67.. quite oblivious to the aversion of the pious to entering government service. 31 . provided that his conduct was right. who in turn authorized him to transmit it on his (al-Zuhrl's) authority (viz. namely he read it out to al-Zuhrl.L.' 40 Muslim Studies. it was Ma'mar b. 47f. Faruqi writes about al-Zuhrl: 'He was closely associated with the Umayyad court. But . of the two types of religious scholars. Beeston et al.38 Downloaded from http://jss. = CHALUP).

by Azami (who does not list Durl in his bibliography): 'Undoubtedly he was attached to the Caliph's court from the time of 'Abd al-Malik to Hisham's. The wording of the passage in question is: wafada al-Zuhri 'aid 'Abd l-Malik wa-istawtana al-Shdm wa-kdna yataraddadu ild al-Hijdz wa-yahujju wa-yafiqu [read: wa-yafidu] 'aid Bant Umayyah li-'ilmi-hi. 2010 32 . and that they exploited his name. 1. Tardjim rijdl. Durl. Later he moved to Adama. read probably: 167. 1-12. a traditionist from al-Rusafah reports that al-Zuhri stayed in al-Rusafah throughout the caliphate of Hisham b. It is also true that he had been heavily in debt several times. in fact. Rise. see below. Goldziher's remarks concerning al-Zuhri's relations with the Umayyads 'are not very critical'. 118f. we notice an attempt to distance al-Zuhri from the court: Though he did make occasional and intermittent visits to die Umayyad court. 'al-Zuhrl'. 43 42 Downloaded from http://jss. 'al-Zuhrf. 117n). t h e wording seems t o suggest that it was made after the time of 'Abd al-Malik.'42 e Abd al-eAzIz al-Duri. probably independently. 118. Dhahabl. Rise. n. yet his relation with the Caliphs was not always smooth.' Azami also argues that 'it would be unfair to history.oxfordjournals. that he was a tool in their hands. 'al-Zuhrf. Studies in Early H a d l t h Literature. see also Durl. T h e dating o f the utterance attributed to al-Zuhr! to the struggle with Ibn al-Zubayr does n o t belong t o t h e text b u t to D u n ' s interpretation. Ansdb. 11 (where li-'ilmi-hi is rendered 'as a scholar'). Durl suggests that it is more likely diat al-Zuhri settled in Damascus at the time of Yazld II and Hisham (but there is evidence that he had settled there already at the time of'Abd al-Malik. in southern Palestine near the boundary of the Hijaz. at 1 1 . Early Muslim Historiography (Delhi 1979). According to D u r i (Rise. fame and knowledge to circulate false traditions in their favour'. citing Baladhurl. The meaning of li-'ilmihi is obscure to me.43 The same line of thought was at Georgetown University on April 24. 70. Cf. 163. makes a remarkable effort at establishing al-Zuhri's independence of the Umayyad court. 45 Durl. n. see Section 2 below).A. that was paid off by Caliphs. BSOAS 19 (1957). 288f. Concerning Adama. 'Abd al-Malik N. 237. lOn (they are 'hardly critical'). to deduce from al-Zuhri's relation with the Umayyad dynasty.. he observed accuracy and impartiality and did not yield to timely political pressures. 160. note that it was only when al-Zuhri grew old that he retired to his estate there. and from there made trips to the Hijaz and to Damascus (the Umayyad court) 'for academic purposes' {li-'ilmi-hi). Durl.^ However. XI.44 Returning to Durl. He says that 'there is an account reported from al-Zuhrl which indicates that he was critical of 'Abd al-Malik during the period of the struggle with Ibn al-Zubayr'.BIOGRAPHICAL NOTES ON IBN SHIHAB AL-ZUHRI historical and religious significance. who has written extensively on al-Zuhrl. al-Zuhri's studies probably kept him in Medina most of the time. TMD. Mukht. 2 2 4 . Cf. XV. 44 Azami. Durl. Faruqi.

'Abd al-'Aziz.).v. Anas criticized him for leaving Medina after having exhausted its knowledge (talabta al-'ilm hattd idhd kunta wi'd'an min aw'iyati-hi tarakta al-Madlnah wa-kharajta 'an-hd). This confirms t h e report that going to the pilgrimage with Hisham's children was part of al-Zuhri's role as their mentor a n d that he did n o t depart from them until his death. D h a habl. See Horovitz. Rise. Hisham cried. at 294. Abl Manl'. 'Abd al-Malik and was the tutor of Hisham b. In 1 2 3 / 7 4 1 .mitted lying. Such was al-Zuhri the scholar. al-Ma'rifah wa-al-ta'rikh. Another Rusafi testifies that h e stayed with al-Zuhri in alRusafah for ten years. I. Abu Zur'ah. they do not establish him as an independent intellectual.. Abbott.. thumma 'Umar b. did n o t always run so smoothly.v. Cf. 502f. 'whichever of them takes upon himself the greater part of it'48 and alZuhri replied. Qism mutammim. that al-Zuhri officiated as qddi for Yazld b. I b n Sa'd. W h e n Malik b. 'Abd al-Malik sanata sitt wa-mi'a wa-ma'a-hu al-Zuhri. 119. Hajjaj b.49 This revision of al-Zuhrl's links with the Umayyads lacks a sense of proportion. 'Abd al-Malik . thumma lazimtu Hishdm b. Even if we accept as historical al-Zuhri's critical comment concerning 'Abd al-Malik and his reported dispute with Hisham. and Horovitz meant this as a mild criticism. Ta'rikh. Al-Zuhri courageously refuses to transfer the guilt of slandering of 'A'ishah from 'Abdullah b.wa-tuwuffiya 'Abd al-Malik fa-lazimtu bna-hu al-Walid. 331 (. s. or at least this is what we read in an allegedly autobiographical tradition going back to him.. at Georgetown University on April 24. VII. Ubayy to 'All). 2010 33 .. 'Earliest Biographies'. ' T h e Sirah Literature'.' It was Goldziher w h o called al-Zuhri 'court-theologian'. still I would not lie'..50 46 Al-Ma'rifah wa-al-ta'rikh. Hisham asked him who was meant in the Qur'anic verse. cf. hasara-hu ma'a wuldi-hi yufaqqihu-hum wa-yu'aUimu-hum wa-yahujju ma'a-hum fa-lam yufdriq-hum hattd mdta). 50 DhahabI. 'I lie?! May you have no father! By God. 289-98. 49 Durl. see Tahdh. Kister. 165. Nubala'. as Al-Zuhri has been called. 4 3 2 . I b n Sa'd...47 but. 6 2 1 . Tahdh. Ta'rikh al-Isldm. Yaqut. Downloaded from http://jss. 118. 'Abd al-Malik's children.. al-Zuhri answered: innamdkuntu anzilu al-Madinah wa-al-nds idh dhdka nds. V. shortly before his death. al-Walld. 207f..he then quotes in detail a dispute between al-Zuhri and Hisham: . we can see that al-Zuhri had not fallen under the influence of the Umayyads. 'You lie'... II. 474. Al-Zuhri himself appears to have taken pride in his long relationship with the Umayyads. the end of s. thumma Sulaymdn. 3 6 4 (the context of the story is 'the attempts made by the Umayyads and their governors to denigrate 'All in the Sirah .oxfordjournals. 'It was 'Abd Allah ibn Ubayy'. 636. M u h a m m a d b. thumma Yazid . 48 Qur'an 24:11. ' . II. I. 'Collection a n d Transmission of Hadith'. from a fierce argument which transpired between him and Hisham. O n this Rusafi.BIOGRAPHICAL NOTES ON IBN SHIHAB AL-ZUHRl {khildfata Hishdm kulla-ha). Al-Zuhri replied. al-Zuhri made the pilgrimage with Hisham's son Yazld. 47 See also N . Rusafat al-Sham. in CHALUP. 40f: ' T h e intercourse between the Khalifah and his learned court-theologian. 'It was 'All!'. even if a herald were to cry out from heaven that God had per.46 Dim does mention.. I. 2 3 3 (wa-hajja Hishdm b. namely for nineteen years and eight months.

Husayn (Hyderabad. reprint Medina 1397/1977). ed. 'Earliest Biographies'. 68f (wa-la-azhadanna fi al-Zuhri min ba'd al-yawm). For example. I. M . Qism mutammim. Dinar is reported to have admonished an Umayyad governor in the presence of al-Zuhrl and other scholars. s. 634) is based on a corrupt text: instead of: kdnayaqdifi masjid al-Madinah (Tahdh. 54. al-Ishrdffi mandzil al-ashrdf. Al-Zuhri's answer.. X. ed. II. N. and wa-kdna yaqdl bayn al-fajr wa-al-'asr fi masjid al-Madlnah {TMD. whereas the latter (who was obviously opposed to these techniques) was poor and patient and avoided the rulers. 159 quotes another passage from the same letter. Khalaf (Riyadh 1411/1990). who was present at the meeting. 101. s. 162 (mi laka wa-li-mindil al-umard'). 55 Al-Hakim al-Naysaburi. V. 54 TMD..55 The ascetic Abu Hazim Salamah b. 66.v. 144). Makhul said. saying. The former considered the 'ard and ijdza techniques to be lawful and served in the administration of the Umayyads (wa-kdna ya'malu li-Banl Umayyah). 'Uyayna's comment concerning the reliability of Ibn Jurayj's transmission from al-Zuhrl: kdna bn Jumyj yaji'u ild al-Zuhrl wa-ma'a-hu kitdb fa-yaqulu: arwi hddhd 'an-ka?. Mukht. Yahya preferred the transmission of another scholar to al-Zuhri's. The famous Mu'tazilite. was positive. 3 5 5 . Ma'rifat 'ulum al-hadith.v. El2. X. TMD. 'Abd al-Malik allegedly promised to reduce his contacts with al-Zuhri.BIOGRAPHICAL NOTES ON IBN SHIHAB AL-ZUHRI Al-Zuhri's contemporaries and later medieval Muslim scholars had another perception altogether of al-Zuhri's links with the Umayyads. needless to say. 'What a [great] man he could have been. 'Ubayd (d. Matn (233/847) said of al-Zuhri kdna sultdniyyan?1 Because of this.53 once reprimanded a man whom he had seen in al-Zuhri's company. X.'51 Yahya b. 365 (Salamah wrote to al-Zuhrl that the oppressive rulers 'have turned him into the axle of the wheel of their falsehood and into a bridge for their deceit and error').oxfordjournals. Horovitz. The statement that Salamah officiated as qddl in Medina (see GAS.. See also Kister. Ma'ln would not allow a comparison between al-Zuhri and al-A'mash. had he not ruined himself by associating with the kings. This passage was quoted by Horovitz. 56 Dhahabl. 'A. 219). W a t t ) . 'The Sirah Literature'. Zuhri. Nubald'. Downloaded from http://jss. 198. Ibn Abl 1Dunyi.. 339 (ayyu rajul huwa lawld annahu afsada nafia-hu bisuhbatal-muluk). 'Amr b. at Georgetown University on April 24. 101. and the worst of scholars is one who loves the rulers:'56 51 Dhahabl. 144/761). 5 9 7 . read: wa-kdna yaqussu ba'd al-fajr wa-ba'dalasrfi masjid al-Madinah. El'. to the minimum. 2010 34 . M. see also 163. VI. Having been informed by Salamah about the difference between the 'ulamd' of yore and the contemporary 'ulamd'. Ibn Sa'd. 45. 'The best of rulers (umard') is one who loves the scholars {'ulamd').. VI. Nubald'. the caliph Sulayman b. Tahdh. 53 GAS. Dhahabl. TMD. 'The 'Ulama' in the Opposition'. Nubald'. 52 Su'dldt Ibn al-Junayd. ( W . TMD. asking. Mukht. See also Sufyan b. 332. Mukht. 67. VI. IV. 'What business do you have with the napkin of the rulers?'54 The abovementioned Yahya b. I.

and that this was taken as a blemish on his character.. Nubald'.BIOGRAPHICAL NOTES ON IBN SHIHAB AL-ZUHRJ We clearly have two stereotyped figures here: on the one at Georgetown University on April 24. however. nobody used to ask the latter about the hadith. been under Umayyad pressure regarding the promulgation of hadiths.' But 'Athamina reads too much into his evidence. the ascetic or zdhid. 60 This is clearly reflected in DhahabI. Then al-Zuhrl opened up. which consists of Ma'mar b. IX.60 57 TMD. whose large collection of material had to be used in spite of the doubts expressed about his indiscriminate techniques. 1 6 9 0 includes the background to this critical comment: 'Malik b. AJ-Zuhri appeared hesitant until a eunuch sent by the Umayyads came to him and likewise asked him about traditions. and on the other. min [sic] rajul ahyd 'Urn tilka al-bald. the testimony of a traditionist quoted in Abu Zur'ah.' Juynboll remarks correctly that the report 'points to the controversial issue about al-Zuhrl having. I. who was so severely banned that his study group disintegrated completely. omitting to mention his association with the government. 'The 'Ulama' in the Opposition'.59 The same dilemma can be witnessed in the case of Waqidl. without. Zuhri. muhaddithun banned the traditions of this group and refrained from attending their study circles. he had al-Zuhri all for himself. the rich scholar who associates with the rulers without any scruples. Anas. writes: 'The excommunication of collaborators centred mainly upon the academic field. 4 6 9 {wa-qad Downloaded from http://jss. so he would bestow (his knowledge) on him (i. Abu Nu'aym. this approach finally prevailed: al-Zuhrl's enormous collection of hadith was indispensable. 2010 35 . Ta'rikh. fa-kdnayulqi 'alay-ya). Anas is reported to have admonished al-Zuhrl for using his knowledge in order to achieve worldly gains. 58 TMD.57 Of course. Rashid's testimony that when he came to al-Zuhri in al-Rusafah. once visited al-Zuhri with a couple of other people to hear traditions with him. 154: amd balagha-ka anna rasul Alldhi (s) qtila: man talaba shay'an min hddhd al-'ilm alladhiyurddu bi-hi wajh Allah [the words yatlubu bi-hi here are superfluous] shay'an min gharad al-dunyd [read: min 'arad al-dunyd.e. or not having. 59 'Athamina. Another traditionist spoke of al-Zuhrl admiringly. Nubald'. IX. the criticism directed at al-Zuhrl did not prevent Malik or the other critics from transmitting his hadith: al-Zuhri's imprint on the nascent Islamic literature was so formidable. that he could not be ignored. abundantly) {fa-lam yakun ahad yas'alu-hu 'an al-hadith. but the literary stereotypes do not lack a factual basis. 363. 161 {law kuntu kdtiban al-hadith 'an ahad kuntu kdtiba-hu 'an al-Zuhri. Ma'mar's statement should not be taken at face value (cf. M a ' m a r merely states that as long as he stayed in al-Rusafah.). 4 3 2 : kuntu aqra'u bi-al-Rusdfah 'aid Ibn Shihab etc. Islamic literature is fond of such contrasts. 166. III. 454f {wa-jama'a fa-aw'd wa-khalata al-ghathth bi-al-samin wa-al-kharazah bi-al-durr al-thamin fa-ittarahiirhu ['they cast him away'] li-dhdlika. Even Malik b. reprint Beirut 1387/1967). 'the frail goods of the present world'] dakhala al-ndrd1..oxfordjournals. min rajul yashabu al-sultdn). Among the most prominent of those banned was Ibn Shihab al-Zuhri. A fuller version of this anecdote (Juynboll. Hilyat al-awliyd' (Cairo n.d. See also DhahabI. wa-ma'a hddhd fa-Id yustaghnd 'an-hufi al-maghdzi wa-ayydm al-sahdbah wa-akhbdri-him). Zuhri. Muslim Tradition.58 Inevitably..

It should be noted that Waqidi. 96 (ma ra'aytu ahadan anassa li-l-hadith min al-Zuhri. probably late in his life.. II. by mentioning him. Also I b n Hanbal's utterance. who was the qddi of Baghdad at the time of al-Mansur. quoted in I b n Rajab al-Hanball. Zuhri. we find several other versions of this saying. al-Samarra'I (reprint Beirut 1405/1985).fa-lam ara ahadan asnada li-l-hadith min al-Zuhri). Dinar said. As is usually the case with Ibn 'Asakir's Ta'rikh Dimashq. possibly motivated by the criticism directed at him. uninterruptedly. 156.. But cf.. Note Waqidl's autobiographical report. wa-md ra'aytu ahadan al-dirham ahwanu 'alay-hi min-hu. 4 0 (where the name o f ' A m r b. See also E.oxfordjournals. 457. 'Umara. Cf. nassa. I. 459. Lane. anassu: nassa al-hadith means 'he traced up. in ascending order. The dirhams were in his eyes nothing more than dung. s. 118: al-Zuhri ahsanu hadithan wa-ajwadu al-ndsi isnddan. or attributed. the religious law] fa-Idyanbaghl an yudhkara). md kdnat al-dandnir wa-al-darahim "inda-hu Hid bi-manzilat al-ba'r. al-Zuhri abandoned hadith altogether. Waqidi officiated as qddi (under al-Ma'mun). 62 Muslim Studies.. 304f.63 it is the first part of the utterance which provides its context. II. S. He therefore states that this was impossible. A. the persons by whom it had been handed down. about his arrival in Baghdad and his first meeting with the wazir Yahya b.'61 Goldziher adduces the second part of 'Amr's utterance as evidence of al-Zuhrl's selflessness. Nubald'. in which this detail appears as a matter of common knowledge: ataytu al-Zuhri ba'da an taraka al-hadith etc. ammd ft al-fard'id ['concerning the things made obligatory on a person by God'. Cf. or attributing] a tradition to its author than al-Zuhri. IX. was in financial hardship when he came to the capital Baghdad {qadima Baghdad ft dayn lahiqa-hu) and. 'Amr is aware of the fact that al-Zuhri could be accused of receiving bribes from the Umayyads in return for forging hadith. comparable to al-Zuhri's autobiographical report. Zuhri. again like al-Zuhri. 61 TMD. Dhahabi. Khalid al-Barmakl. and I have never seen anyone who had less respect for the dirham than him. VII. or mentioning. 63 See the version of this utterance in MaqrizI. with such little respect for money simply could not taqarrara anna al-Wdqidiyya da'if yuhtdju ilay-hi ft al-ghazawdt wa-dl-ta'rikh. Dinar and al-Awza'l. Dinar: . Arabic-English Lexicon (London 1863-93). Zuhri. up to the author'. 'Amr b. 9 7 : md ra'aytu shaykhan anassa li-l-hadith al-jayyid min hddhd al-shaykh. TMD.. records a story of al-Hasan b. 2 4 5 : ma ra'aytu anassa li-l-hadith min Ibn Shihdb wa-ld ra 'aytu ajwada min-hu. quoting al-Tirmidhl. Dhahabi. At some stage. 98 ('Amr b.W. Zuhri. Sahih (Bulaq 1292/1875). 4 6 n . 'I have not seen a man more skilled in tracing up [or ascribing. IX. 'Earliest Biographies'. the tradition to the author thereof. II. ed. resting it on his authority. exactly like al-Zuhri one century earlier. 'Amr b. in kdnat al-dardhim 'inda-hu ilia bi-manzilat al-ba'r). Horovitz. Nubald'.62 But while this conclusion may well have been correct. 104. TMD. Shark 'ilal al-Tirmidhi. Dinar is garbled). On al-Hasan see Tahdh. 36 Downloaded from http://jss. 2010 . or ascribed. Muqaffd. at Georgetown University on April 24.BIOGRAPHICAL NOTES ON IBN SHIHAB AL-ZUHRl Al-Zuhri's problematic link with the court also colours remarks made about him by two prominent hadith scholars.

therefore there was no crime. ed. In any case.). where she speaks of alZuhri's 'more than forty years o f service under Umayyad patronage'. 'Abdallah b. II. XIV. 'Abdal-Malik fa-kdna 'inda-hu ma'a al-Zuhri. 278:12: 'Abdalldh . 65 Cf.. I: Historical Texts (Chicago 1957). quoting Ibn 'Abd al-Hakam. al-Zuhri was indeed a frequent visitor at court.2 5 / 7 2 4 . I. first Yazid II ( 1 0 1 . Maqrlzl. Khalifa. is far more plausible than the attempt to 'distance' al-Zuhri from the Umayyads. and others.66 Horovitz pointed out that al-Zuhri served as qddl under 'Umar II as well. However. made special demands o n his time a n d knowledge'.d. 2 2 . Futuh Misr waakhbdru-hd. 'Earliest Biographies'. 3 8 : 'Under c Umar II (99-101/717-20) Al-Zuhri decided legal questions'. Horovitz's somewhat vague phrasing 37 M Downloaded from http://jss. n. Mukht. 'Abd al-Malik is said to have referred to Mu'awiya as alkhalifa al-muddhin. VII. and did not lose his integrity. Ibn Makula. kdna 'dliman.. AwzaTs statement is not implausible: after decades of close association with the Umayyad court. Muqaffd. Incidentally. 7 9 : 'Abdalldh . Also Abbott. N . 16. 'Abd al-Malik's court. Zuhri. ed. Mughlth al-Zafari. wa-Ibn Shihdb qddi-hiyawma'idhiri). Abbott. "Abd al-Malik was mentioned by Goldziher. hamala-hu Yazid b. 1 6 1 : mdadhana Ibn Shihdb qattu li-malik dakhala 'alay-hi waId adrakat khildfat Hisham abadan min al-tdbi'in afqaha min-hu. Al-Zuhrl's work as qddi for Yazid b. 66 W e also know that Yazid summoned al-Zuhri together with a scholar of the Ansar.67 TMD. al-Ikmdl. II: Qur'anic Commentary and Tradition (Chicago 1967).. Studies in Arabic Literary Papyri.. motivated by both respect for his scholarly achievement and the indispensability of his work. Studies in Arabic Literary Papyri. w h o refers t o 'Abd al-Malik's 'patronage of the traditionist-historians 'Urwah ibn al-Zubayr and al-Zuhri'. that Umayyad pressure forced al-Zuhri to large-scale forgery of hadith should be definitely a n d finally a b a n d o n e d ' . Studies in Arabic Literary Papyri. 104 (a case was brought before 'Umar II. 2 3 : al-Zuhri was 'well established' in Sulayman b . N. but he did not hesitate in expressing his opinion even if it was unpopular. Abbott emphasizes in a footnote: ' T h e hasty assumption by Sprenger and Muir.. van: md ddhana Ibn Shihdb malikan min al-muluk qattu idhd dakhala 'alay-hi.BIOGRAPHICAL NOTES ON 1BN SHIHAB AL-ZUHRl have been bribed. In other words."8.. followed by Guillaume .. istaqdama-hu Yazid b. 3 3 : 'al-Zuhri's n e w patrons.'64 In other words. and of die tabi'un who lived to the caliphate of Hisham none was a greater expert on fiqh. al-Zuhri may well have enjoyed freedom of speech. As for AwzaX in his appraisal of al-Zuhri he strikes a respectable compromise: 'Al-Zuhri never endeavoured to conciliate a ruler whom he visited [or 'he never acted with dishonesty towards him']. Also at Georgetown University on April 24. 'Abd al-Malik ilay-hi ma'a al-Zuhri fa-lamyazal muqlman 'inda-hu bi-al-Shdm. II. Abbott.5 / 7 2 0 .4 2 ) . al-'Abbas (Cairo n. Torrey (New Haven 1922). 67 Horotivz. VII. 349.2 4 ) a n d then H i s h a m ( 1 0 5 .65 The worst accusation which the pious could make against al-Zuhri concerned his service in the state administration.oxfordjournals. 2 4 3 . Ta'rikh. AwzaTs sober approach to al-Zuhri. 2010 . C h . there was no motive. 3 3 .

Ta'rikh. 'Umar b. MS. read probably [sahib] al-si'dyah huwa almusaddiq). al-Nafh al-shadhi fi sharh Jdmi' al-Tirmidhi. namely his unintentional shedding of a man's blood (fa-asdba rajulan bi-shay') while carrying out his official duty. 6 3 . 70 Al-si'dyah huwa al-musaddiq (sic. 3 4 . 2 1 4 (asdba al-Zuhri daman khata'an fa-kharaja wa-taraka ahlahu wa-daraba fustdtan etc. 2. I.. 54. 1027 ( . 544: tawalld al-si'dyah fa-'azzara rajulan fa-mdta. 'Abdallah [i. For the source used by Ibn Sayyid al-Nas see GAS.oxfordjournals. wa-kdna qddiyan bayna yaday 'Abd al-Malik). This is no doubt meant to point out a flaw in his record. 1 0 9 . MS. 69 TMD. TMD. This should perhaps be linked to the following report about al-Zuhrl (al-Ma'rifah wa-al-ta' at Georgetown University on April 24... 'Abdallah b. I came to Salim b. al-Zuhri's role as tax collector forms the background to the main theme. But the only Ibn Shihab mentioned in Tahdh. an office which must have been far worse than that of judge in the eyes of the pious. 72 Ibn Sayyid al-Nas. 'Abd al-Karlm (Riyadh 1409/1988).70 In the report just quoted. Another report on the same incident (in which there is no mention of the si'dyah) explicitly refers to bloodwit to be paid to the relatives of the deceased. of the hadith transmitted to me]. III. 2 9 9 . 5 4 I n ) for adducing this report. A b u Z u r ' a h . Incidentally. 71 I b n Sa'd.e. I. M . thirteen years before ' U m a r ascended the throne. 68 TMD. XV. the plaintiff could not have been 'Umar's elder brother al-Asbagh (Futuh Misr. 5 3 6 . then he flogged a man and the man died. VI. I. no.71 Sufyan b.). II.BIOGRAPHICAL NOTES ON IBN SHIHAB AL-ZUHRl We can now add a third term in office attested to in a passage which (if it is not garbled) shows that he was already cAbd al-Malik's qddi. 'Earliest Biographies'. al-Khattab].69 Exactly what kind of 'amal is meant we find out elsewhere: 'Al-Zuhrl went out to collect taxes'. In general. XII. Having been put in charge of the levying of taxes (wa-la-qad walitu al-sadaqah). 104:15). kharaja al-Zuhnfi si'dyah.e. We know that he was a tax collector. Tahdh. The term si'ayah is glossed as the levying of the sadaqah tax. his comments are an interesting portrayal of some contemporary Islamic attitudes.68 We have further evidence concerning al-Zuhrl's work in state administration. TMD. 2010 . A . going back to al-Zuhrl himself: I have never written down anything [i. read instead: Banu 1-Asbagh (as in Futuh Misr. V. Salim b.'72 The report that al-Zuhrl was a tax collector is confirmed by another. Zuhri.. T h e editor of al-Nafh alshadbireproaches Ibn Sayyid al-Nas (on p.e. is o u r Ibn Shihab and the report seems to be sound. 38 Downloaded from http://jss. 104:12) w h o died in 8 6 / 7 0 5 .. In an evaluation of al-Zuhrl as a transmitter of hadith it was commented wa-kdna ya'malu li-Bam Umayya. 'Uyaynah spelt out the circumstances in which al-Zuhrl caused the man's death: 'He was made a tax collector. may indicate that he felt that the single piece of evidence he had to support al-Zuhrl's judgeship under ' U m a r II was insufficient. He took out for me the kitdb al-sadaqah [i.. 6 3 2 ) : kdnayashtarl tamr al-sadaqah thumma yad'u ilay-hi al-a'rdb fa-yaqsimu-hu bayna-hum. 6 2 3 . ed. Horovitz.

'Abd al-'Aziz (Cairo 1398/1978). 'an Ibn Shihdb fi al-sadaqdt. T h e amounts of money to be paid as compensation in t h e case o f specific injuries were prescribed. Muhammad died more than ten years later. ed. VI.. Mus'ab (d. The kitdb al-sadaqah in question related to the taxing of livestock. Then I went to [Abu Bakr b. ed... 39 73 . 168/784) nicely demonstrates the traditionists' dilemma about al-Zuhri. see also 8 0 7 (camels and sheep).74 The kitdb al-'uqul is probably the document known in Islamicist jargon as the 'Ahd al-Ummah or 'The Constitution of Medina'. II.) At some point al-Zuhri was the chief of the shurtah for one of the Umayyad caliphs. cf. History and Historiography in Early Islamic Times: Studies and Perspectives (forthcoming). 'Abdallah's death in 106/724 is our terminus ante quern. The context of this account suggests that the two documents.t. 'Abdalldh fa-wa'aytu-hd 'old wajhi-hd wa-hddhd kitdb tafilri-hd: Id yukhadhu 'aidshay' min al-ibilal-sadaqah hattd tablugha etc. Muqaffd. s. a document on bloodwit] and I memorized it..] 'Amr b.. qdla: hddhihi nuskhat kitdb rasul Allah (s) fi al-sadaqah. or the group of relations on the father's side responsible for the payment of bloodwit. 244. O n 'Amr b.BIOGRAPHICAL NOTES ON IBN SHIHAB AL-ZUHRl a document about the levying of the sadaqah tax]. qdla Ibn Shihdb: aqra'a-ni-hd Salim b. He read out to me die kitdb al-'uqill [viz.ay kataba 'alay-him md taghramu-hu al-'dqilah min al-diydt fa-bayyana md 'aid kull qawn min-hd. al-Tamhld. Oriens (forthcoming). cf. on the sadaqah and the 'uqul respectively. The preservation of these documents in the Umayyad period is of paramount importance. C o n r a d (ed. in L. " A m r b. VII. and includes this rare piece of information about the latter: Downloaded from http://jss. Kitdb al-Amwdl. 256: " N o compulsion is there in religion"'. b. M A . al-Ihkdm fi usul al-ahkdm. while its central concern is his boasting that he could commit to his memory a complete. Sh. I. Lecker. al-Khattdb.v. M a q r M . Muhammad b. 2010 I b n 'Abd al-Barr. Lisdn al-'arab (Beirut 1968). glossed as provisions concerning the duties of the 'dqilah. document read out to him once. Fayyad (Riyadh 1406/1986). O n t h e preservation of documents from the time of the Prophet. H a z m al-Ansarl and Q u r ' a n 2. read it out to me and I memorized it. 8 0 3 : . Ibn Zanjawayh. '"La taqra'u lqur'dna 'aid l-mushafiyyin" = Ibn H a z m . (Abu Bakr at Georgetown University on April 24. 5 4 : wa-fi hadlth All 'alay-hi al-saldm: kataba 'aid kull batn 'uqula-hu . 289-300.73 Al-Zuhri's appointment as a tax collector is the backdrop to this autobiographical report. namely camels and sheep.75 When was al-Zuhri a tax collector? Salim b. 75 A hadlth o f 'All has that the Prophet wrote for each batn o r tribal group its 'uqul.). 74 Cf.oxfordjournals. and complex.I.. D h . 853f (sheep). H a z m see Lecker. ' O n the Preservation of the Letters o f the Prophet M u h a m m a d ' . 108f. Hazm.n. wa-hiya 'inda dl 'Umar b. See also Kister. were relevant to the duties of a tax collector. An autobiographical report by the traditionist Kharijah b.

I saw him riding [i. 'Athamina. alDhahabl gives this description of al-Zuhri: kdna .. 2 6 : wa-kadbd takallama man Id yajhamu fi al-Zuhri U-kawni-hi khadaba bi-al-sawdd wa-labisa ziyy al-jund wa-khadama Hisham b.. of the people of Hims. 79 Al-Dhahabl. muhtashiman jalilan bi-ziyy al-ajndd lahu surah kabirah fi dawlati Bam Umayya.. wore the outfit of the jund and served (khadama) Hisham b. On processions (under the 'Abbasids and the Fatimids) cf. the members of the shurtah force under his command]. 111/729). al-Mawsill (Beirut. 1 4 1 2 / 1 9 9 2 ) . 2010 In this report Kharijah's regret at not having transmitted from the despised chief of the shurtah forms the main theme.. 40 76 . TMD. Harun (Cairo 1384/1964)..76 Downloaded from http://jss.. M . al-S. 59. 20. 337. 29. Rasd' at Georgetown University on April 24. Finally. 341. or. 324.v. 5... TMD.. I left without hearing [hadith] from him. 166 (where I first found this passage) infers from this that al-Zuhri was 'banned'. who quotes this statement. 'He had many dependents and servants.e. V. holding a harbah [javelin] in his hand.. 'Abd al-Malik. 'This ddhin of yours prevented TMD. Mawkib. the accusation directed at the traditionist Shahr b. Harun (Cairo 1395/ 1975). 372. ed. Nubald'. I. or whips]. was a man of eminence.BIOGRAPHICAL NOTES ON IBN SHIHAB AL-ZUHRl I came to al-Zuhri when he was the chief of the shurtah for one of the [caliphs of the] Banu Marwan. cf. 407. EP. section I (P. Yazld al-Ayll] and heard from him the hadith of al-Zuhri {fa-satni'tu min-hu 'an al-Zuhrt). Mukht. V. IX. 77 Tahdh. according to some. XI.'78 Al-Dhahabl remarks that the fact that alZuhri dyed his hair. Concerning the kdfirkubdt see al-Jahiz.TMD. I came to Yunus [i. I said [to myself]: 'May God render this scholar ugly' (qabbaha Alldhu dhd min 'dlirri).e. Tahdh. in a state procession]. ed. years later] I regretted [it].. Tahdh. VII. EAbd al-Malik drew criticism from people of little understanding. holding kdfirkubdt [cudgels. Ishkab al-Baghdadl (d. Then [i. I. adds that he had the rank of amir: kdna fi rutbati amir.. Hawshab al-Shami (d. s.. 261/874). Ishaq that he had not seen him for some time. Sanders).. was dressed in the outfit of the ajndd. IV. Sufyan b. al-Baydn wa-al-tabyin. al-Jahiz. Yunus b. Cf.. V. above. I .oxfordjournals. Al-Dhahabl. al-Ruwdt al-thiqdt al-mutakallam fi-him bi-md Id yujibu raddahum. 77 that al-Zuhri was a jundi. al-S. that he wore the outfit of a jundi ( . Shahr was of the people of Damascus. and before him [in the procession] were the people [i. or ddhin). ed. min tazayylhi bi-ziyy al-jund). 'A. ca. and enjoyed high rank in the state of the Banu Umayyah.e. Muhammad b. 'The 'Ulama' in the Opposition'. Mukht. MS. Elsewhere. in the context of al-Zuhrl's role in the shurtah reference should be made here to the statement made by one of Bukhari's teachers.79 Another despised symbol of association with the worldly rulers was the existence of a doorkeeper (bawwdh. a mawld who was at some point in charge of the treasury {bayt al-mdt). 121f. n.e. 'A. 78 DhahabI. 'Uyaynah once heard al-Zuhri complain to Muhammad b.

' Admittedly. Al-Zuhri's First Meeting with 'Abd al-Malik and 'the Hadith of the Three Mosques' The precise date of al-Zuhri's meeting with 'Abd al-Malik is important in connection with his role in promoting the Islamic sanctity of 80 Ibn Shahln. Anas reportedly spoke of a mawld of the open-handed al-Zuhrl who reminded his master of his former monetary problems advising him. and no explicit mention is made of money. 'these people' is a euphemistic designation of the Umayyads. 'A. IX. T h e statement (Muqaffd. ed.80 One or more of al-Zuhri's offices may be linked with his stay in Egypt at the time of eAbd al-Malik. 2010 41 . al-Musayyab for eight years. VII.82 Al-Zuhrl was reportedly in financial hardship and debt when. to keep his money for himself. From an autobiographical report of al-Zuhrl we learn that 'Abd al-Malik sent him to his brother. 280f.oxfordjournals.BIOGRAPHICAL NOTES ON IBN SHIHAB AL-ZUHRl me from entering. 'that "these people" will not withhold from you what they have' (Id dmanu anyahbisa hd'uld'i al-qawm md bi-aydi-him 'an-ka). Zuhri.81 This had to take place before e Abd al-'AzIz's death in 86/705.' replied Ibn Ishaq. 82 AJ-Kindl. 'Abd al-'Aziz. I. In the Islamic literature there are many similar stories about the humble beginnings of the rich and famous. as a young man in his twenties or early thirties. See also Abu Zur'ah. 12 (IbnAbl Dhi'b: kdna bn Shihdb qad ddqat hdlu-hu warahiqa-hu dayri). I. 'Earliest Biographies'. al-Zuhrl had been attached to Sa'ld b. after he had become rich. 'I am not sure. until Sa'ld died (hand tuwuffiya) must be an error because Sa'ld died in 9 4 / 7 1 3 . 81 Maqrlzl.A. 85 Ibn Kathlr. QaTajI (Beirut 1406/1986). Raja' feared that the Umayyads would stop remunerating al-Zuhrl. Downloaded from http://jss. Ta'rikh asmd' al-thiqdt mimman nuqila 'an-hum al-'ilm. See Horovitz. the details on al-Zuhri's troubles serve a literary aim. V. too: they seek to create a sharp contrast between his state before his crucial meeting with the caliph and after it. Kitdb wuldt Misr (Beirut 1407/1987). 343:-2. Nubald'. 537. Haywah is said to have told al-Zuhrl to stop spending so lavishly. alM. Typically. 247. Ta'rikh. 83 TMD. VII.84 In addition. Biddyah. II. 37: 'Like so many before him. he had gone to Damascus in the hope to free himself from harsh financial circumstances. GAS. he arrived in Damascus.' Raja' said. amsik 'alay-ka mdlaka). then governor of Egypt. Raja' b. Muqaffd. fa-lammd asdba tilka al-amwdU qdla la-hu mawlan la-hu wa-huwa ya'izu-hu: qad ra'ayta md marra 'alay-ka min al-dlq.83 Later in his life different people are supposed to have reminded him of those difficult times. 247) that before he was sent to Egypt. So al-Zuhrl told his baurwdb to let him in whenever he came. Malik b. 49.K In other words. 3 3 8 (kdna bn Shihdb min askhd at Georgetown University on April 24. 2. 84 D h a h a b l . fa-'nzur kayfa takunu. 276.

'Abd al-Wahid al-MaqdisI.) 'Abd al-Razzaq < M a ' m a r < al-Zuhri < Sa'ld b. M . There may well have been other motives behind eAbd alMalik's project. Ta'rikh (Beirut 1379/1960). al-Musayyib [or al-Musayyab] < Abu 42 86 Downloaded from http://jss. 'Abd al-Malik intended to provide a substitute for the Ka'bah against the background of his conflict with Ibn alZubayr.. I. II. ed. or whether al-Zuhri invented the hadith or merely transmitted it. Fadd'il Bayt al-Maqdis.89 Al-Ya'qubl. 39f. 88 at Georgetown University on April 24. 87 ' T h e hadith of the three mosques'. Fadd'il al-bayt al-muqaddas. Sufyan b .e.. 'Earliest Biographies'. though he was certainly not the only one. Hasson (Jerusalem 1979). 3f.' 89 Goldziher mentioned that in Abu Dawud 'the hadith of the three mosques' is equipped with the isndd: al-Zuhri < Sa'ld b. A h m a d al-Wasitl.. is unbelievable . in Medina] and the mosque of Jerusalem.BIOGRAPHICAL NOTES ON IBN SHIHAB AL-ZUHRI Jerusalem. 35. Houtsma (Leiden 1883). 'Uyaynah < al-Zuhri < Sa'ld b. including this one: . seems futile to me.'"86 The caliph allegedly sought support from the young al-Zuhri who helped him repel his critics. 261 [ed. al-Ya'qubl says. That he himself invented it.87 According to al-Ya'qubl. w h o quotes different variants of this hadith equipped with different isndds. A discussion on whether or not the scene described by al-Ya'qubl really took place. as some have implied. there is no ground whatever to doubt but that Al-Zuhri really had heard the Hadith from the mouth of Sa'id ibn Al-Musaiyab. namely the Ka'bah.oxfordjournals. disputes Goldziher's assumption that al-Zuhri invented this hadith: 'If the report of Ya'qubl deserves any credence at all. Al-Zuhri is the key figure in al-Ya'qubl's famous report about cAbd al-Malik's wish to provide the Muslims of Sham with a substitute for the Ka'bah: when the people complained to "Abd alMalik about his prohibiting the pilgrimage to Mecca. the same is true for Diya' al-Din M u h a m m a d b. of which he could hope that it would help the Khalifah in his political projects.. al-Hafiz (Damascus 1405/1985). al-Musayyab < Abu Hurayrah. 'Here is Ibn Shihab al-Zuhri who transmits to you the Prophet's saying: "The saddles of the camels shall only be fastened for a journey to three mosques. M . II... II. 311]. 2010 . <(.88 The fact that al-Zuhri is mentioned in some of the isndds of this hadith indicates that he was one of its transmitters. Whatever one may think about the authenticity of the Hadith. Suffice it to say that the hadith was transmitted in the Umayyad period and that its transmission was expedient to Umayyad objectives. ed. appears at the very beginning of M u h a m m a d b. M . but it is not to be expected that al-Yaequbi (or for that matter any other medieval historian) would furnish us with a detailed and balanced account of these motives. al-Musayyab < Abu Hurayrah. my own mosque [i... then we must take it that Al-Zuhri rushed to 'Abdul Malik from Madinah to communicate to him a Hadith heard from the authorities in Madinah. the caliph replied: hddhd bn Shihdb al-Zuhri yuhaddithu-kum anna rasillAlldhi qdla: Id tushaddu al-rihdl Hid ild thaldthati masdjid: al-masjid al-hardm wa-masjidi wa-masjid bayt al-maqdis'.

H. s. with additional notes. It is inconceivable that a mere child of ten or a boy of eighteen had already achieved such a great fame and respect — not in his native land al-Madlnah. Horovitz noticed that in the canonical collections of hadlth this alleged saying of the Prophet is sometimes quoted with the isndd: alZuhrl < Sa'ld b. Studies in Early Hadlth Literature. writes: 'Dafi der Prophet dies nie gesagt haben kann. idem. Muslim Studies. Studies in Jdhiliyya and Early Islam (London 1980). n. over forces loyal to Ibn al-Zubayr under Natil b. at Georgetown University on April 24. Horovitz. in idem.. A. at 43f. See also G. Elad. . Rotter. 4 6 9 . C h . 2010 . 41-70. 44-45. and sometimes the hadlth is provided with another isndd which does not mention al-Zuhrl at all. Muruj al-dhahab.H. as we shall see there is sufficient evidence linking al-Zuhri's arrival with the war between the Umayyads and Ibn alZubayr. 7. JSAI 14 (1991). O n whether the Prophet uttered these words. 91 Azami. der auch n u r eine fluchtige Kenntnis von seiner Geschichte hat. namely 72/691-2 or 73/692-3. Qays (on this battle see al-Mas'udl. 290f. 53. bedarf fur jemanden.91 Azami's information on the date of al-Zuhri's arrival in Damascus is incomplete.. 173-96.S. I. Medieval Jerusalem. reprinted. did not take place earlier than 81 A. no. Obviously. It was al-Zuhrl himself who attempted to establish that he Hurayrah < the Prophet. '"You Shall Only Set out for Three Mosques": A Study of an Early Tradition'. at 58. this date is closely connected to al-Zuhri's year of birth. EP.BIOGRAPHICAL NOTES ON IBN SHIHAB AL-ZUHR] In a section of his book on the hadlth literature entitled 'Did al-Zuhrl Provide a Substitute for the Pilgrimage? Refutation of al-Yaequbl and Goldziher'. 373n. "Why did 'Abd al-Malik Build the D o m e of the Rock? A Re-examination of the Muslim Sources'. Buhl. H . F.H. II. Raby and J.. T h e beginning o f ' A b d al-Malik's Temple M o u n t project should possibly be linked with his victory. III. 35. he might have announced his decree on the substitute for al-Hajj on the authority of al-Zuhrl in the beginning of the year 69 A. XIII. This (second) battle of Ajnadayn appears to have been the turning point in 'Abd al-Malik's struggle against Ibn alZubayr. Das Leben Muhammeds2. 183 ('Mit diesem Sieg gewann 'Abdalmalik die Offensive gegeniiber dem Higaz zuriick'). 299).oxfordjournals. Pellat [Beirut 1966-74]. 'All (Cairo 1371/1952). Die Umayyaden und der zweite Biirgerkrieg (680-692) (Wiesbaden 1982). 'The History and Topography of Jerusalem during the Early Islamic Period'. but far away in the anti al-Madlnah region. Le Museon 8 2 (1969). 43 Downloaded from http://jss.' 90 A more plausible date would be the year in which the Dome was completed. Syria — that he was able to cancel the divine obligatory order of al-Hajj and was in a position to command a substitute. 45.. Abu Dawud. 153. Horovitz. 90 At this time al-Zuhrl was somewhere between ten and eighteen years of age. al-Musayyab < Abu Hurayrah. Sunan. at Ajnadayn in Filastln. Johns (eds.. 'Earliest Biographies'. 33-58. keines naheren Beweises. O n this hadith see Kister. As he began to build the Dome of the Rock in 69 A. II. Elad. Azami argues that al-Zuhri's meeting with 'Abd al-Malik . alZuhri. ed.v. in J. ed. Bayt al-Maqdis: 'Abd al-Malik's Jerusalem. I (Oxford 1992).). Schaeder (reprint Heidelberg 1955).

162: he met ten Companions..94 Why did al-Zuhri attempt to establish a date of birth which was as early as possible? Because the earlier the year of his birth. 39f. 333. 41).. on p. al-Zuhri was born in.. Ta'rikh al-isldm. Ma'In denied that al-Zuhri transmitted from Ibn 'Umar who died in 74/693. Azami rejects the claim that al-Zuhrl. See the list of these Companions in Maqrlzl. that in 69 AH al-Zuhrl 'was somewhere between ten and eighteen years of age'. 154. 290 he states. According to Ibn al-'Imad. visited Marwan b. Shadhardt. Also Ibn al-'Imad. I. 227: al-Zuhri was born in 50 AH wa-talaba al-'ilmfiawdkhir 'asr al-sahdba wa-la-hu nayyif wa-'ishruna sana. Maqrlzl. Sa'd. However. 450) infers that he is thereby 'establishing a terminus post quern for al-Zuhri to have started his tradition collection'.) According to M u h a m mad b. Horovitz (EP. al-Marifah wa-al-tarikh. 95 Cf. then the terminus post quern was a few years earlier. as we have just seen. Muqaffd. III. quoting Tahdh. s. who was defeated and killed in 73 AH. that al-Zuhr! came to 'Abd al-Malik in 82 AH. This dates his birth to 50 AH. Dun. 278n. 240. who 'was then between seven and fifteen years of age'. al-Zuhri) suggested that he was probably born in 50 or 51 AH. 93 Al-Misrl.95 But the Beside these two dates. 50 AH. VII. Yahya b. if indeed al-Zuhri had come to Damascus before the fighting against Ibn al-Zubayr was over (see below). al-Hakam (who reigned in 64-5/683-4) after having reached the age of puberty [wafadtu 'aid Marwan wa-and muhtalim). Studies in Early Hadlth Literature. 94 Ibn 'Abd al-Barr. Ta'rikh al-isldm. old enough to apprehend it or to take part in it. and his view is accepted by Azami. and Juynboll {Muslim Tradition. The mention of puberty points to 50/670 (or 51/671) as the year of al-Zuhrf's birth. Dhahabl. Salih al-Misri 'Urn al-Zuhri). quoting al-Layth b.92 Ahmad b. I. If indeed al-Zuhrl was seventy-two when he died in 124/742 (Dim. 44 92 Downloaded from http://jss. Rise. see on h i m GAS. VII. al-Zuhrl died in Ramadan 124 aged 74. al-Hakam. VIII. 42. his birth is also dated to 56 AH and 58 AH. But later in his book Azami is less committed to this statement: on p. or about. 8: qad adraka al-Zuhri al-Harrah wa-huwa bdligh wa-'aqala-hd—azunnu-hu qdla: wa-shahida-hd. 'al-Zuhri'. see Tahdh. X. I. Bukayr said. IX. The 56 AH and later versions seem to rule out any role of al-Zuhrl during the conflict with Ibn al-Zubayr. 169. 134). TMD. Shadhardt. Yahya b. Yahya al-Dhuhll (ibid. Zuhri. al-Zuhrl was already mature. 250. In another relevant report originating with al-Zuhrl (see below) it is stated that he came to visit the caliph Marwan b. al-Zuhrl was born in 56 AH. others said that he died aged 66 (which brings us to 58 AH) or 72 (which brings us to 52 AH). ( T h e transmitter was n o t certain about the precise wording of A h m a d ' s statement. I. stating that he came to 'Abd al-Malik in 82 AH. then he was born in 52 AH. the more Companions of the Prophet he could meet and learn from. According to Yahya.BIOGRAPHICAL NOTES ON IBN SHIHAB AL-ZUHRl first came to Damascus during the struggle against Ibn al-Zubayr. and when al-Zuhrl's claim that he had visited Marwan was mentioned to him.v. 2 4 7 (qad jama'a Ahmad b. dates his birth to 51-2/671. Salih93 stated that when the battle of the Harrak took place (63/ 683).org at Georgetown University on April 24. 36f. al-Tamhid. he rejected it. 2010 . Tahdh.oxfordjournals. 1. 162. However. 288. See also D h a h a b l . Muqaffd.

which could probably have taken place in 72/691-2 or 71/690-91.97 Hisham was appointed governor of Medina in 83/ 702. if it is historical at all. VI.96 According to one autobiographical report (which is traced back to al-Zuhri himself). which include conflicting statements about the time of his arrival in Damascus. al-Zuhri first arrived in Damascus and met 'Abd al-Malik a decade or more after the extinguishing of Ibn alZubayr's rebellion. and could not have been more than 2 3 then.. 98 Tab.. we discover two contradictory statements. should be separated from his permanent settlement in Damascus several years later. al-Zuhri) suggested. the year in which the anti-caliph fell. The internal contradiction indicates that the report is made up of two separate accounts ascribed to al-Zuhri. 427 [II. 2If.oxfordjournals. Marwan. namely Hisham b. In any case. 17f. Ismatl al-Makhzuml. The date is indicated by the mention of 'Abd alMalik's governor in Medina at that time.BIOGRAPHICAL NOTES ON IBN SHIHAB AL-ZUHRl existence of a motive does not automatically lead to the conclusion that al-Zuhrfs claims were false: indeed it could be argued that in al-Yacqubl's famous report \Abd al-Malik referred to al-Zuhrl as someone who was at hand. could only have been a temporary one. al-Zuhri must have brought the hadlth to D a m ascus at latest in 7 3 (692). II. For 82/701 as the date in which al-Zuhri and 'Abd al-Malik 'established their relationship of scholar and royal patron".99 But the chronological indication included in this report is problematic. This stay of al-Zuhri's in Damascus. as the immediate cause of his travel to Damascus (asdba ahla l-Madina hdja zamdna fitnati 'Abdal-Malik b. In the opening passage al-Zuhri mentions a general state of destitution in Medina. that al-Zuhri visited 'Abd al-Malik's court before Ibn al-Zubayr's fall in 7 3 / 6 9 2 : 'If Ya'kubl's story is worthy of belief.v. Zuhri. Marwan fa-'ammat ahla l-balad). Ismail's governorship. 1127] (citing WaqidI). 23f.). 2010 Horovitz (EP. his permanent settlement in Damascus only took place at a considerably later date. 3 8 4 [II. The opening passage of this Downloaded from http://jss. The mention of the fitnah or civil war and the general state of affairs are attributable to the conflict with Ibn al-Zubayr and are therefore incongruous with the reference to Hisham b. Studies in Arabic Literary Papyri. which began some ten years after the fitnah. ready to confirm that a pilgrimage to Jerusalem was an acceptable practice {hddhd bn Shihdb al-Zuhri yuhaddithu-kum etc. When we take a closer look at it.98 He was replaced in Rabf al-Awwal of 87 AH. 1182]. 45 96 . see at Georgetown University on April 24. s. having been in office for about three years and eleven months. VI. al-Zuhrl's first meeting with 'Abd al-Malik.' 97 TMD. 99 Tab. relying on al-Ya'qubl's report. following the fitnah of 'Abd al-Malik b.

this is not the case. Ismail also contradicts the indication (see Section 3 below) that al-Zuhri was already with 'Abd al-Malik in Jerusalem before the plague of 79/698 or 80/699.xm Fortunately. al-Muwatta': Kitdb al-muhdraba (Wiesbaden 1992). 101 100 Downloaded from http://jss. 106 How did 'Mus'ab' become 'Ibn al-Ash'ath'? It is plausible that Mus'ab was first corrupted to Ash'ath. Tahdh. Ta'rikh. Salih < 'Anbasah b.. Y u n u s b . 281/894) und das Problem der friihen arabischen Geschichtsschreibung in Syrien'. 154. not Ibn al'Ash'ath. Ismi'll roughly conforms to the report. Zuhri.e. The mention of Hisham b. we have here Mus'ab b. I.BIOGRAPHICAL NOTES ON IBN SHIHAB AL-ZUHRI problematic report conforms to al-Zuhri's claim (on which see more below) that he arrived in Damascus towards the end of the struggle against Ibn al-Zubayr. 'AbdAIM) b. wa-'Abd alMalik yawma'idhin mashghul bi-sha'ni-hi. Wahb: Leben und Werk. 102 Abu Zur'ah. However. 'Mus'ab' is the correct reading: Abu Zur'ah infers from this report that alZuhri had arrived in Damascus before 'Abd al-Malik marched against Mus'ab and that this includes an indication concerning his birth year: fa-dalland hadithu bni Shihdb hddhd anna maqdama-hu Dimashqa qabla rahil 'Abd al-Malik ild Mus'ab. according to which al-Zuhrl arrived in Damascus during Ibn al-Ash'ath's revolt (82/701). 105 I. Cf. a variant text is found in the Ta'rikh of Abu Zur'ah al-Dimashql:101 wa-kdna maqdamu bn Shihdb Dimashqa zamana Mus'ab. and at a later stage the 'Ibn' was added in order to 'adapt' the report to historical fact. TMD. The sources do not link al-Zuhri's arrival in Damascus with the revolt of Ibn al-Ash'ath. 34. Rotter. 450f. I. It could be argued that the mention of Hisham b. Khalid104 < Yunus105 < alZuhri. 80-104. VIII. Die Welt des Orients 6 (1970-71). Yazld al-Ayll. Ta'rikh.102 Obviously. Cf. 2010 46 . XI. The precise wording is important: qadimtu Dimashqa zamdna taharruki bn al-ash'ath. 'Aba Zur'a al-Dimasql (st. Hence this is yet another statement that al-Zuhri came to Damascus during the struggle against Ibn al-Zubayr. Tahdh. 583f. In other words.106 By replacing Ibn al-Ash'ath with Mus'ab we go back one decade in time. w h o was also a mawld o f t h e U m a y y a d s a n d 'Anbasah's uncle. 584. 103 Abu Zur'ah. O n Yunus see M .oxfordjournals. and this is a proof concerning his age. Yazld at Georgetown University on April 24. I. wa'Abd al-Malik mashghul yawma'idhin bi-sha'ni-hi. 'This-hadith of Ibn Shihab proves that he had come to Damascus before 'Abd al-Malik's departure to [the expedition against] Mus'ab. al-Zubayr. a mawldoi the Umayyads. 104 b.'103 This report (in both the 'Ibn al-Ash'ath' and 'Mus'ab' versions) is quoted by Abu Zur'a < Ahmad b. 206f. again an autobiographical one. wa-hddhd dalil 'aid sinni-hi. on him G. Muranyi. 408 (Ibn al-Ash'ath).

al-Zuhri. Talhah fled when an expedition force dispatched Abu Zur'ah. Ansdb. who were cousins. Maskin. Gibb). Rotter. 'Abd Allah b. in time to play a role in the promulgation of 'the hadlth of the three mosques'.BIOGRAPHICAL NOTES ON IBN SHIHAB AL-ZUHRJ Abu Zur'ah relates al-Zuhri's first arrival in Damascus to the dispute about al-Zuhri's birth year and quotes from two informants the account that al-Zuhri was born in 50 AH. as Azami suggested. the father belonged to Mus'ab b. al-Zubayr in Iraq and Mus/ab's death had taken place before al-Hajjaj was sent by eAbd al-Malik to fight Ibn al-Zubayr in Arabia. 124.108 Downloaded from http://jss. Ef. 583. 'Abbas (Beirut 1968-72).R. s. Yaqut. Wafaydt al-a'ydn. in supporting Ibn al-Zubayr. Ibn alZubayr's last two governors in Medina. 112 In 71/690 he was replaced by Talhah. I. Moreover. 1744 on p. We realize this when we consider an important historical fact. 2010 The battle against Mus'ab b.A. cAwf. Answering his question about his source for dating al-Zuhri's birth to 50 AH. but to 72/691 or 71/690. I. 'Abdallih b. I. Jabir b. the second informant said that his source was one of the Banu Zuhrah (ba'd alZuhriyyina). 110 Horovitz. On the basis of the available evidence it can be argued that alZuhrl first came to Damascus before the end of the struggle against Ibn al-Zubayr. 112 Wakl'.110 More importantly. s.v. But the young al-Zuhri's support for 'Abd al-Malik precisely at that point was more meaningful than it at first seems. 613 belongs immediately after paragraph 1645 on p. 230 (the expeditions took place in the first half of 72/summer-autumn 691 and the decisive battle was fought in October 691). cAwf and Talhah b.v. Al-Zuhri's father was a partisan of Ibn al-Zubayr.v. IV. ed. at Georgetown University on April 24. the Banu Zuhrah of Quraysh. were of the Banu Zuhrah. Ta'rikh. one of his informants also told him. 108 107 47 . 584.oxfordjournals. 109 Abu Zur'ah. Die Umayyaden. 178. paragraph no. Jabir officiated as the governor of Medina between 68/687-8 and 71/690-91. al-Aswad b. I. s. namely the role played by other members of al-Zuhri's clan.111 This indicates widespread support for Ibn al-Zubayr among the Banu Zuhrah who lived in Medina. Abu Zur'ah. who was Ibn al-Zubayr's last governor in Medina. Ta'rikh. Ta'rikh. Ibn Khallikan. El2. 584. having reported the 50 AH birth date: 'I have not heard a reliable statement concerning al-Zuhri's age' (inni lam asma li-l-Zuhri bi-sinn arifu-ha). al-Zubayr (H. 131.107 However. alZubayr's troop. 111 Ibn Hazm. The battle against Mus'ab was in 72/691. I.109 Al-Zuhri's role in transmitting 'the hadlth of the three mosques' should not be related to 69/688.

M. Naskh al-Qur'dn and the problem of early Tafitr texts'. cAbd alMalik. On the Umayyad attempts to write down the hadlth cf. 184. Ansdb. Amln Taha (Cairo [1969]). 480 {alMuwaqqar. 2010 .117 which is Tab. 488. TMD. 409 (sami'tu 'Abd al-Malik bi-Iliyd'. 3. 37. Tahdh. 116 Abu Zur'ah. and Jerusalem. VIII. n. ed. now Schoeler. Cf. A. 114 KhalJfah. 'Miindliche Thora. 516. 22.113 Tariq captured Medina in 72 AH. 341.BIOGRAPHICAL NOTES ON IBN SHIHAB AL-ZUHRl by cAbd al-Malik under Tariq b. before the outbreak of the plague {waja') which caused him to leave for al-Muwaqqar. Ta'rikh. Al-Zuhri's student al-Walid b. Ansdb. 'Abd al-Malik. at 29:7. but widi the setting of the scene. XV.. Yazld. Diwdn. 70 AH (= August 689). TMD.. 'al-Zuhri. fa-man kdna 'inda-hu 'Urn fa-l-yuzhir-hu ghayra ghdlin fi-hi wa-ldjdfin 'an-hu). 227f. XI.. obviously in the form of hadlth. at Georgetown University on April 24. Muhammad al-Muwaqqarl al-BalqawI was the mawld of Yazld b. Talhah replaced Jabir in Safar. Jarlr. I. 818]. Rotter. 'Abdal-Malik). I. from the pulpit. l48f. BSOAS 47 (1984). The Caliph 'Abd al-Malik and al-Zuhri in Iliya' (Aelia Capitolina) There is yet another piece of evidence linking al-Zuhri. According to Baladhuri. concerning al-Muwaqqar: it is true that elsewhere it is associated with cAbd al-Malik's son.. MS. who says that Tariq captured Medina at the end of 72 AH. qabla an yaqa'a al-u/aja' alladbl kharaja min-hu ild al-Muwaqqar. MS. Al-Zuhri did not flee. he joined the victorious party to which he could offer a sharp intellect and great ambition.114 These are the presumed circumstances of al-Zuhri's first arrival at 'Abd al-Malik's court. 228. Die Umayyaden und der zweite Biirgerkrieg. 48 113 Downloaded from http://jss.. 22-43. Rippin.. Mukht. X. 117 Yaqut. This is contained in an utterance by al-Zuhri himself reported by the abovementioned Shu'ayb b. with these words: 'The knowledge will soon pass away. quotes Khallfah. 'Amr arrived in Medina. 488) says that 'Abd al-Malik appointed Tariq as the governor of Medina in 73/692 and that he remained in office for five months.e.'"6 We are not concerned here with the alleged official endorsement of the collection of 'knowledge'. s. VIII. cit. 186n= Baladhuri. on the contrary. so let anyone having knowledge reveal it without exceeding with regard to it the due limit [or without zealotry] and without ignoring [or neglecting] it. V. in a khutbah]. WaqidI {TMD. Marwan in Iliya' exhorting the people [i. 189 (<Mada'inI).v. See this passage also in TMD.oxfordjournals. N. 166 [II. yaqulu: inna al-'ilma sa-yuqbadu qabdan sanan. khatiban. VI. Ta'rikh. loc. 115 See above. MS.. For an earlier term of Jabir in this office see Rotter. Abl Hamzah alHimsl:115 I heard °Abd al-Malik b. I. XI. wa-bi-hd kdna yanzilu Yazid b.

' M. That the passage from Abu Zur'ah which is discussed here deals with 'Abd alMalik. 272. 64:-7 (alZuhri: sami'tu 'Abd al-Malik yaqulu fi khutbati-hi) etc. Seikaly et al. or the place where he lives over an extended period of time.). Miiller (Leiden 1884f). For other versions concerning the cause of Marwan's death see alDiyarbakrl. fa-inna l-khulafd' Id yut'anuna wa-lam nara khalifa tu'ina). b. ed. a marginal point in this report. in S. 334 [ed. Ramadan 65 AH). 263-82. Conrad. 121 Cf. includes the remark that no caliph had ever been infected by the plague. al-Muwaqqar may well have belonged to the Umayyads beforehand. 182]. 'Historical Evidence and the Archaeology of Early Islam'. Ta'rikh al-khamls (Cairo 1283/1866). Sifat jazirat al'arab.. 122 Cf. Uns jalil. believes the claim that the Dome of the Chain was a model to be Mujlr al-Din's own invention. 'A. II. I. Arabic Plague Chronologies and Treatises'.BIOGRAPHICAL NOTES ON IBN SHIHAB AL-ZUHRl presumably due to the fact that the latter often stayed there. he sent out letters' etc. at 269f. Quest for Understanding: Arabic and Islamic Studies in Memory of Malcolm H. is shown by an abridged version of it found elsewhere. 307. Biddyah. 2010 49 . This version. while omitting the background details important for us here. the report suggests (without explicitly saying so) that 'Abd al-Malik fled to al-Muwaqqar from Jerusalem. The Early Islamic Monuments. (eds.oxfordjournals. the section entitled 'The Question of Plague and Agricultural Expansion' in Conrad. But it is doubtful that he invents anything. plausibly.119 The relative dating of 'Abd al-Malik's alleged khutbah. 156n. the report may suggest that 'Abd al-Malik stayed in Jerusalem for a length of time. IX. Uns jalil. al-Hakam died in the td'un (Damascus. We also find a reference to 'Abd al-Malik's presence in Jerusalem in connection with his Temple Mount project. 156.H. M. The Early Islamic Monuments of al-Haram al-Sharif: An Iconographic Study (Jerusalem 1989). al-Hamdanl. 1737f]. 273: 'When 'Abd al-Malik came to Jerusalem and ordered the Dome to be built on the venerable Rock. and they made for him while he was in Jerusalem (wa-huwa bi-Bayt al-Maqdis) the small dome east of the Dome of the Rock which is called the Dome of the Chain. But cf. Ibn Kathlr. 26.118 Secondly. Studia Islamica 54 (1981). who advised him not to leave Damascus for al-Rusafah. 120 A humorous conversation between Hisham b. who lists al-Muwaqqar among the places inhabited by the tribe of Sallh {masdkin Sallh). 'The History and Topography of Jerusalem'. Ken (Beirut 1991).122 118 See also Elad. quoting Mada'inI (Id takhruj. 271: Marwan b. al-Akwa' (Riyadh 1394/1974). Hisham refused to experiment on himself (a-turiduna an tujarribu bii). Rosen-Ayalon. at 75. Medieval Jerusalem. On 'Abd al-Malik's arrival in Jerusalem on the occasion of the project cf. 51-93. Cf. 55.. Tab. he quotes earlier sources. 'Abd al-Malik and an anonymous person. I. It is also important: the caliph flees from the plague to safety120 when it strikes his permanent place of residence. Medieval Jerusalem.121 In other words. 'Abd alMalik's stay in al-Rusafah whenever plague broke out in Damascus. confirms that the protagonist is 'Abd al-Malik. and in particular Hisham b. VII. Downloaded from http://jss. looks particularly reliable. 1. Elad. 207 [II. However. 119 On a visit of al-Zuhrl to Jerusalem see also Elad. "Abd al-Malik described to the engineers what he desired with regard to the building of the Dome and its at Georgetown University on April 24. not with his son Yazld. Rosen-Ayalon. D.

. as we know of another plague which according to some took place during the reign of 'Abd al-Malik.BIOGRAPHICAL NOTES ON IBN SHIHAB AL-ZUHRI Thirdly. Biddyah.126 However. quoting Ibn Qutaybah. 27. 360 {wa-ft-hd [80 A. 'Abd al-Malik died during the plague known as 'The Plague of the Maidens' {al-fataydt) or 'The Plague of the Notables' {ashrdf). 'Plague Chronologies'. Biddyah. See also Ibn al-Jawzi. VI. wa-lam yughza tilka al-sanah).] asdba ahlal-Shdm fa-lam yakun la-hum dhdlika al-'dma ghazw).oxfordjournals. 125 Ibn Kathlr. who was no other than his greatgrandfather. 4. ed. 126 Conrad. I. Ma'drif 601 (wamdta fi-hi 'Abd al-Malik b. these are not the only possible dates.125 According to Asma'l. 'Plague Chronologies'. Asma'. 55f. 50 . Ta'rikh.123 The source giving the former date also mentions the absence of the people of Sham from the expedition. IX. 127 Conrad. Mada'inI dates it to Shawwal 87/September-October 706. who adduces both versions. Ibn Durayd.H. it seems impossible to connect the 86/705 plague with that which caused him to flee Jerusalem for al-Muwaqqar. Harun (Cairo 1378/1958).org at Georgetown University on April 24. al-hhtiqdq. The source reporting the latter date states that the plague prevented the people of Sham from taking part that year in the ghazw. The sources on al-Zuhri's biography abound with stories about the Umayyad caliphs paying his debts. the annual expedition against Byzantium. Among the notables who died in this plague Asma*! includes 'All b. The text in Ibn Kathlr. 83f. Muntazam. the year of 'The Plague of the Maidens/Notables' is uncertain: while Asma'l dates it during the reign of cAbd al-Malik. IX. Muntazam. The context of the reports on these debts is invariably Khallfah. or shortly thereafter. al-S. who died in Damascus in Shawwal. the chronological aspect is of particular interest to us here. Marwdn aw ba'da-hu bi-qaltl). 127 that is one year after eAbd al-Malik's death In view of all this it is argued that the 79/80 AH plague is more probable and that cAbd al-Malik's stay in Jerusalem took place before its outbreak. 203 (wutju'u al-td'un bi-l-Shdm hattd kdda al-nds yafnawna min shiddati-hi.124 Admittedly. 2010 123 td'un shadtd Ibn al-jawzl. VI. i. 124 Downloaded from http://jss.e. 272. is clearer: fa-fi-hd [79 AH] waqa'a td'un 'azlm bi-al-Shdm hattd kddu yafnawna min shiddati-hi wa-lam yaghzu fi-hd ahad min ahl al-Shdm li-du'fihim wa-qillati-him. 86 AH. Al-Zuhrl's Estate in the Region of Shaghb wa-Bada Al-Zuhrl was a loyal and trustworthy supporter of the Umayyads and for this he was rewarded generously. It is suggested that this plague was the one which broke out in Sham in 79/698 or 80/699. 68f. 267. 62. 'A. because cAbd alMalik died in Damascus. Moreover. 68.

where it is said concerning a certain village: wa-miydhu-hd 'uyun tajri taht al-ard. 347. cf. I. Zuhri. to whom he would not mind bequeathing nothing. or of a house or land yielding a revenue'. Al-Zuhrf's nephew (Ibn Akhl al-Zuhrl) was once asked whether his uncle used perfume. Instead of: thaman. Al-Zuhrl was no ascetic.oxfordjournals.v. 131 Lane. however. ed. Asmd' jibdl Tihdmah.BIOGRAPHICAL NOTES ON IBN SHIHAB AL-ZUHRl favourable to al-Zuhrl. The water from the spring {'ayn) may have been brought to the cultivated land by means of an 'underground canal' (qandt or faqir).129 The stories about al-Zuhrl's generosity have already been mentioned (obviously. TMD. a'yun) yielded (annually) forty thousand dinars. 413. VII. 'Arram b. 2010 51 . wa-al-fuqur wa-al-qand wdhid.130 'Uqdah is 'an estate consisting of land. or of land and a house. the well-known Ibn Akhl al-Zuhrl. read: tamunnu. al-Ma'rifah wa-al-ta'rikh. 132 Li khamsatu a'yun kullu 'ayn min-hd thamanu{\) arba'ina alfa dinar wa-laysa yarithuni ilia bnu bnihddhd. 'they bestow'. 632 {fa-kdna fi diyd'i-hi md qadd dayna-hu). Al-Zuhri may have bequeathed his property (or part of it) to his nephew. TMD. al-S. Biddyah. s. II (Cairo 1393/1973). the extravagant cases were more readily recorded). Zuhri.'128 The granting of estates to family members and loyal supporters was common among the Umayyad caliphs. al-Zuhrl's ownership of a court in Medina must be a historical fact. it is claimed that upon his first meeting with 'Abd al-Malik the caliph ordered a court in Medina to be bought for the young scholar. see above. \11. n. 29 {wa-shird' ddr qatfa bi-alMadinah).org at Georgetown University on April 24. 160. Arabic-English Lexicon. Cf. 129 128 Downloaded from http://jss. Muqaffd. wa-md ubdlian Idyaritha 'annishay'an. The informant explains that the said grandson was an immoral person. 'A.131 Having been blamed for being in debt. fuqur kulluhd. 167 (where both versions of this sentence are slightly garbled). 18. He added that his only heir was his grandson. Perhaps the meeting did not proceed exactly as described in this report. He replied: 'I could smell the musk from the whip of his ridingbeast.. he was fond of perfume.133 an indication that al-Zuhrl's Ibn Kathlr. wa-kdna bnu bni-hi fdsiqan. wa-wdhid al-fuqur —faqir. al-Asbagh al-Sulaml. Zuhri. in Nawddir al-makhtutdt.132 In this context it is important to note that al-Zuhrl is said to have 'planted' the palm trees in his estate when he became old.. n. because they serve to emphasize his generosity. the use of which symbolized a high standard of living. 130 TMD. IX. 133 See below. 250. In addition to the estate discussed below. al-Zuhrl had a court in Medina: in an allegedly autobiographical report going back to al-Zuhrl himself. It is told that al-Zuhrl could afford to be in debt because of the large revenues he received from his estates: wa-kdna fi 'uqadi-hi wafd'un li-dayni-hi. Hirun. 'his [revenues from his] estates were enough to cover his debts'. as in MaqrizI. al-Zuhrl reportedly said that the debt only amounted to twenty thousand dinars while each of his five springs (or underground canals.

who transmitted from him. in another context. 'A. AJ-Zuhri's mawId Zakariyya b. asmd'i-him wa-ansdbi-him.v. 'Isa al-Shaghbl (on Shaghb see below).g. TMD.BIOGRAPHICAL NOTES ON IBN SHIHAB AL-ZUHRI Downloaded from http://jss. II. 170 {wa-ldyard bi-dhdlika ba'sari). al-BijawI (Cairo 1962). and then from his slaves. al-Mushtabih fi at Georgetown University on April 24. Zuhri.134 134 Naturally our informant is aware of the legal point at issue ('is it lawful for someone to borrow money from his slaves?'). See e. might have been a manumitted slave. evidence that al-Zuhrl owned slaves {'abid): he used to give away everything he had. he would borrow from his friends.M. al-Dhahabl. and when his own money was exhausted. 397. Agricultural work was carried out by slaves and indeed we Find. Sam'anI. ed. 52 . al-Shaghbl.oxfordjournals. 2010 Location map of Zuhri's estates property or part of it was developed by al-Zuhrl himself. s.

the estate. see map). Nasif. 137 Mandsik. but also that the estate was located on the pilgrim road. 73. On this Suqya (Suqya alJazl) see al-Fakihl. 5). i. 650.g. bayna tariq Misr wa-al-Shdm.oxfordjournals... 4) that Bada still exists as a village of 300 inhabitants. Arabian Studies 5 (1979). 653. in DhahabI. 175f (citing al-Shafi'i). al-'Ali (Riyadh 1968). bought wheat {burr) from al-Zuhrl.A. 89. Maghdnim. 368. on his way to the pilgrimage. the end of s.BIOGRAPHICAL NOTES ON IBN SHIHAB AL-ZUHRl Far more important in the context of al-Zuhri's estate is the report about a merchant who. H.. at al-Suqya south of Wadi al-Qura. ed.v. 650. the road in question is the inland Egyptian pilgrim road. On Wadi al-Qura see A. s. 396. who was then in his qaryah. al-Shaghbl: Bada wa-Shaghb. Ta'rikh al-hldm. b. Bildd alArab. Akhbdr Makkah.138 Al-Zuhri asked to be buried in the middle of the road (see below). that the Shaghb and Bada wadis converge. situated between the pilgrim roads of Syria and Egypt. was most favourably located for this purpose: Shaghb wa-Bada (after which the whole region was called) are two wadis which belonged (at some unspecified period) to the jurisdiction of Aylah. 'The Identification of the Wadi '1-Qura and the Ancient Islamic Site of al-Mibyat'. The variant bazz (e. 8 he states that it 'extends over an area of about 50 km. It is noteworthy that the small village Bada had a fadd'il-tradition of its own which (perhaps not surprisingly) linked it to Egypt. n. from Mada'in Salih in the north to al-Badayi'. Bada and Shaghb are mentioned in the description of a place called Julayya: it is near Wadi al-Qura. 'Abdalllh al-Isfahanl (Lughda). 138 Mandsik. burr is preferable. Jasir's remark {Mandsik. al-Jisir and S. DhahabI.. Nasr. well placed to sell its products to the pilgrims. Indeed. a railway station in the south'. He adds that opposite it {bi-hidhd'i-hd.e. 246f) is erroneous: in the context of al-Zuhri's qaryah. The preposition wa-alay-himd may suggest that the estate was irrigated by water from the two wadis.A.137 Two stations south of Bada. behind Bada and Shaghb. ed. 2010 . this may have been its raison d'etre. 56b. the Syrian road and the Egyptian inland road converge. Yaqut describes Dabbah (which appears in the modern maps as Duba) as a village in Tihamah on the shore near Sham {mimmd yali al-Shdm). Jasir reports (n. Tardjim rijdl. In fact. II. b. al-Hasan b.v. between the (pilgrim) roads of Egypt and Syria. Zuhri. Yaqut. 'A.135 We not only learn from this report that al-Zuhrl grew wheat on his estate. Suqya. Cf.wa-humd wddiydn min Aylah wa' 'alay-himd day'ah kdna yanzilu-hd al-Zuhri.136 Shaghb (or Shaghba) and Bada are also names of villages located near these wadis. 136 Sam'anI. 53 135 Downloaded from http://jss. inland) there is a village at Georgetown University on April 24. for a total of four hundred dinars which he was to pay on his way back from the pilgrimage. Duhaysh (Mecca 1407/1987). 'A. then Bada (see map). The inland route between Aylah and Medina passed through Shaghb. 650. Amkina. 1-19 (on p. 'On them' {wa-'alay-himd) there was an estate where al-Zuhri used to stay.

org at Georgetown University on April 24. 366-67. M. ed. Qism mutammim.bah/Th. it is reported. wa-Shaghb. read 'Hisham b. The correct name is Thalba. fa-akhraja kitdba-hu).141 At some point during the caliphate of Hisham b. XXVI.oxfordjournals. MS. Bada was also called Bada Ya'qub. For Soaka see the m a p in H . Wiet (Cairo 19110. 42. with a tanwin. Lane. Musil. Shams al-Dln (Beirut 1407/1987). 'Abd al-Malik' instead of "Umar b. It is one station before Shaghb. Bada. qari'at al-tarlq: 'The higher. Mukht. Ya'qub went on to his son YQsuf in Egypt. de Goeje (Leiden 1892). s.. XVII. ordered the cutting down of the trees on al-Zuhri's estate in Shaghb wa-Bada (written Badan waShaghb). 322. MacAdam. In al-Qalqashandl. s. In both sources. 445. a place called Th. or over seventy miles. In 124/742. ed.v. In the background was al-Zuhri's attempt to convince Hisham that he should depose al-Walld. read: . Arabic-English Lexicon. Then he became ill and died. or highest. G. correctly in Maqrlzl. (Cf. Bada is 130 km. Cf. For a grant of the Prophet in the same area see Lecker. cAbd al-Malik the crown prince. at 66. 185 (< Waqidl). instead of: kurat Bada Ya'qub wa-Shu'ayb. 143 Ibn Sa'd. Yazid. in P. is o u r Bada. Cf. Shaghba. approximately confirms t h e distance between D a b b a h and Bada as given b y Yaqut: in fact. Yaqut.. al-Walld b.. Musil. 313) that Badais mentioned by Ptolemy in the middle of the second century C E . 194f: Qalis on the inland pilgrim route between Aylah and Medina. 1 3 5 n . The Northern Hegdz. 311 {kurat Badd wa-Shaghb).142 Beside Shaghb and Bada. 'Ptolemy's Geography and the Wadi Sirhan'. has an irrigation canal {nahr jdrin). 2010 54 . The Northern Hegdz. ed. 141 Yaqut.140 Because of its association with Ya'qub. Bulddn. south-east (misprinted south-west in Musil) of Dabbah.-L.). where he stayed for some time. al-Ya'qubl.v..l. Geographic historique au proche-orient (Paris 1988). part of the road. The Prophet's letter was held by al-Zuhri. (eds. Musil also remarks (135n. It is preserved in the name of Wadi Thalbah which can still be found on the modern maps of Saudi Arabia south of Shaghb. The Northern Hegdz (New York 1926).) Waqidi's information creates for us an 140 139 Downloaded from http://jss. located seventy miles from Dabbah. 142 TMD.v. Zuhri.BIOGRAPHICAL NOTES ON IBN SHIHAB AL-ZUHRI' called Bada139 which is the village of the prophet Yacqub. III. From Bada. I . He determined in his will that he be buried in the middle of the road (fa-awsd an yudfana 'aid qari'at al-tanq). TMD. Musil..1. 341 :-4. the part that is trodden by the passengers'. Subh al-a'shdfi sind'at al-inshd. TMD. The Banu Sulaym: A Contribution to the Study of Early Islam (Jerusalem 1989). Yaqut concludes. to the south of Soaka (= Shawaq). 947:17 (.. 185f. Dabba. we are told in this context that al-Zuhri bought the estate from people who received it from the Prophet as a grant. Since the legal status of the land was at issue.H. 'Abd al-'AzIz'.l4i Written Badan. Gatier et al.i. s. al-Zuhri arrived at his estates (amivdl) in Thiluyah(l). ishtard-hu min qawm kdna al-nabl [s] aqta'a la-hum.l.yah is also associated with al-Zuhri's estate. in [the region of] Shaghb wa-Bada. 256. Kitdb al-mawd'iz wa-al-i'tibdrftdhikr al-khitat wa-al-akhbdr.

Bakkar). probably al-Zuhri's estate in the Shaghb wa-Bada region) was sold in order to cover his debts. wa-al-mawdi' alladhi dufina bi-hi dkhiru 'amal al-Hijdz wa-awwalu 'amal Filastin. I88f (citing al-Zubayr b. 560:2 (qatala-hu ghilmdnu-hu bi-amri bni-hi ft amwdli-hi bi-Thalba [this is the correct place-name] bi-ndhiyat Shaghb wa-Badd). 453 (qatala-hu ghilmdnu-hu bi-amri bni-hi fi amwdli-hi bi-Thalya[\] bi-ndhiyati Shaghb wa-Badd. Ibn Kathlr. Tahdhib al-kamdl. 17f..e.. Nubald'. upon doing so al-Zuhrl appointed a matuld of his to supervise die endowment because his nephew was too young. wa-bi-hi day'atu-hu. 27:-3 (. E. 558:-5. See also TMD.144 Thalbah is also mentioned in connection with Ibn Akhl al-Zuhrl. IX. V. Sachau. al-Khassaf. Perhaps only part of it was sold. orientalische Sprachen (Berlin). 'aid Badan wa-Shaghb qaryah bi-al-bddiyah kdnu banii Marwdn aqta'u-hd alZuhriyyah al-muhaddith wa-bi-hd qabru-hu). 144 TMD. al-Istakhrl.oxfordjournals. thumma wathaba ghilmdnu-hu 'alay-hi fa-qatalu-hu ba'da sinina aydan). al-MizzI.145 We know that al-Zuhrl declared his lands sadaqah (charitable endowment). probably sab'ina should be read. 2. Zuhri.146 arithmetical problem: if indeed al-Zuhrl was born in 58 AH. 'al-Zuhri's nephew' (= Muhammad b. 35. Biddyah. we find an explicit statement that he was buried on his estate: wa-dufina bimdli-hi 'aid qdri'at al-tariq. 146 The nephew reported: habasa al-Zuhri amwdlan la-hu wa-dafa'a-hd ild mawlan la-hu fa-mdta al-mawldfihaydti-hi fa-ja'alani makdna-hu wa-kuntuyawma tasaddaqa bi-hd wa-dafa'a-hd ild al-mawld lam ablugh thumma adraktu ba'da-hu (read: ba'du?). ed. See also Ibn 'Abd al-Barr. see also Elad. Dhahabi. 'Abdallah) who was murdered by his slaves on his estate in Thalbah. Note that elsewhere we find that upon al-Zuhri's death. According to another report. It seems unlikely that Waqidi. 41 (where the place is called Thalaba).org at Georgetown University on April 24. In Ibn Qutaybah. 491-2. XV. wa-dhdlika fi dkhiri khildfati Abi Ja'far. 342. 2010 . the nephew's murder took place in 157/774. see alMizzI. n. According to the testimony of his nephew. Tahdhib al-kamdl. Mukht. 'Shaghb' (i. VI. in his Ta'rikh (cited in TMD. he could not have been seventy-five when he died in 124! Cf. XXII. during al-Zuhrl's lifetime. n.BIOGRAPHICAL NOTES ON IBN SHIHAB AL-ZUHRl His wish was fulfilled and he was buried in the middle of the road so that passers-by would pray for him. Medieval Jerusalem. 47). 330 (he was murdered fi amwdli-hi bi-ndhiyati Shaghb wa-Badd. TMD. de Goeje (Leiden 1927). the murder took place in 152/ 769). 7 (1904). Zuhri. 55 Downloaded from http://jss. Tadhhib al-tahdhtb. Ma'drif. at 165 = alDhahabi.. Qism mutammim. 472. Masdlik al-mamdlik2. has two corrupt variants of the name. Years later the son was himself murdered by the slaves. claimed that al-Zuhrl died aged ninety. 'Studien zur altesten Geschichtsiiberlieferung der Araber'. Zuhri. 145 Ibn Sa'd. 559. When die matuld died. Wa-kdna bnu-hu safihan shdtiran qatala-hu li-l-mirdth.. who wanted the bequest. marida hundlika wa-awsd an yudfana 'aid qdri'at al-tariq fa-dufina bi-mawdi' yuqdlu la-hu Addmd wa-hiya khalf Shaghb wa-Badd wa-hiya annual 'amal Filastin wa-dkhir 'amalal-Hijdz). above. For the identity of the man who managed al-Zuhri's estate (wakil al-Zuhri bi-day'ati-hi [bi-JShaghb wa-Badd). MS. instead of: tis'ina. 154. 154-96. Cf. al-Tamhid. XVIII. TMD. his nephew was put in charge. Ahkdm al-awqdf{Cairo 1322/1904). Abt. XXV. 344:7.. They were acting on orders from his son.. 113 (wa-kdnat wafdtu-hu bi-day'ah la-hu bi-ndhiyat Shaghb wa-Badd. Mitteilungen des Seminars f. 92.

. This reading can be corroborated by the following identification of the other wadi owned by 'All in Harrat al-Rajla'.b Z. 1186. 'Abbas and his children lived there (Badd: mawdi' qurb Wadi al-Qurd kdna bi-hi manzil 'All Wa-kdna al-Zuhri yakunu bi-Ayla wa-li-l-Zuhri hundka day'a wa-kdna yaktubu 'an-hu hundka. 219f. Khalid al-Ayll) transmitted from al-Zuhrl. 247-61.m Instead of Sh. el-Ali. 148 See above. A. who adduces the same text. 911/1505) includes a geographical dictionary of place-names in Medina and its at Georgetown University on April 24.: Sh. Madmah.y. JESHO 2 (1959).'. the estate was far from Aylah (although at some point the region of Shaghb wa-Bada belonged to the jurisdiction of Aylah). n. wddin yud'd al-Abmar.'. Rb.dd. Jasir.'. we are only concerned here with those located in the rugged tract called Harrat al-Rajla'. 21. 150 See also Samhudl. 'All.BIOGRAPHICAL NOTES ON IBN SHIHAB AL-ZUHRl Regarding the reliability of the hadtths which a traditionist from Aylah (the above mentioned 'Uqayl b. 306 (the second bd' is without a diacritical point). 2010 . 'Abdallah b. Jasir.y. Samhudl (d. They were attracted to the area by its favourable agricultural conditions and its location near the pilgrim roads. 'Abdallah b. We now turn to 'All b..b. The two Qurashls were the fourth caliph. Cf. 'Abbas. 'Abdallah b. south-east of Shaghb as the crow flies we find on the modern maps of Saudi Arabia Bi'r alBayda'. 149 Ibn Shabbah. near a wadi of the same name (see map). 56 147 Downloaded from http://jss.147 In actual fact. 513. Tahdh. 256. Some 60 km. However. 136. namely al-Bayda'. Z. 'Abbas. has.d. and a few wells. At the end of his extensive history of Medina.d. II.'b Z. instead of Sh. These included two wadis. Other Estates Owned by Qurashls in the Same Region At this point we digress a little to discuss the information about two Qurashl notables who owned estates in the region of Shaghb waBada. it is reported that al-Zuhri used to stay in Aylah and that he had an estate there. Ibn Shabbah provides rich evidence about the estates of 'All b. Ft Shimdl gharb al-jazirah (Riyadh 1401/1981).b. al-Ahmar and al-Bayda'. This is presumably 'All's estate. S.y.d. at 257 (Shi'b Zayd). 'All b. n. and the father of the 'Abbasid caliphs.149 About al-Ahmar we are told: wa-la-hu bi-Harrat al-Rajld' min ndhiyat Sh. I. VII. 'Muslim Estates in Hidjaz in the First Century A.'.H.148 5. read Shaghb wa-Bada. especially 224f. Abl Talib. and wadi al-Ahmar should be looked for in the same vicinity. On 'Uqayl see above. Under Bada he says that 'All b.

Abi Talib's estates leads to the following identification of Harrat al-Rajla': since wadi alAhmar was in Harrat al-Rajla'. Abbas wa-awlddi-hi ild an wasalat ilay-himi al-khildfah.oxfordjournals.. sh. in the vicinity (min ndhiyat) of Shaghb wa-Bada. 'All b. An estate of 'All called al-Qusaybah was (in) ndhiyat Fadak. Harrat al-Rajla' must be identical to the Harrah known today as Harrat 'Uwayrid (see map). Ibn Shabbah. This information is of course problematic: the well-known place associated with 'All b.. el-Alt.BIOGRAPHICAL NOTES ON IBN SHIHAB AL-ZUHRI b. ed.v.v. in the early days of h\am) Ji akndfal-Shdm. 454. 'Abdallah b. 'Abdallah. Also 'All b. al-'A. Bakri. who declared his estate a charitable endowment {sadaqah). 'Abbas bought a qaryah called al-Humaymah in a rustdq located between Sham and Medina). with its namesake found on the modern map of Saudi Arabia. 'on the sides (or edges) of Sham'. s. had in al-Humaymah 500 trees. Madtnah. wa-bi-hi [presumably.' Sourdel).v. 152 Lisdn al-'arab. 'Abdalldh b.. 436. A. Baladhuri. Downloaded from http://jss. s. sh. Jasr (a subdivision of the Quda'ah) located between Medina and Sham. al-Muttalibl (Beirut 1971). The Judham were the neighbours of the Banu al-Qayn. al-J.v. al-Humayma (D. T. s. III. which was compiled some two centuries before Samhudl's history. Harrat al-Rajla'. The same conclusion is reached if we assume that wadi al-Bayda' is identical. al-R. 130. s. in the region of Shaghb wa-Bada] kdna muqdmu 'Alt b. 2010 57 . A d h r u h . 'Muslim Estates'. and in Ibn al-Athlr's hadlth dictionary. Bakri. Ibn Sa'd. Ansdb. al-Musannaf. al-Durl and 'A. 108 ('All b. s. 87 (Muhammad b. H. I b n al-Athlr. compiled about three centuries before Samhudl's history. as has just been argued. Ansdb.v. al-Harrah al-Rajla'. The Banu al-Qayn lived (viz. I. Yaqut. 'Abbas and his sons is al-Humaymah.b. 'Abdallah b. Abi Taiib owned a sadaqah in Wadi al-Qura. X.152 takes us a little further: wa-fi hadith al-Zuhri annahu kdna la-hu mdl bi-Shaghb wa-Badd. They appear to reflect a variant version concerning the place inhabited by the 'Abbasids prior to their revolution. al-'Abbds wa-awlddi-ht)}^ A passage in the Lisdn al'arab. al-ZawI and M.v. 243. erroneously: Wadi Umm al-Qura). bi-a'ldHarrat al-Rajld'.'Abdalldhb. al-Abyarl and ShalabI (Beirut 1391/1971). humd mawdi'dni bi-al-Shdm. III. 'Abd al-Razzaq. II. al-Tanahl (Cairo 1385/1965). and [every day] he used to pray under each of them two rak'ahs). are very interesting. 154 The identification of Harrat al-Rajla' with Harrat 'Uwayrid appears to conform to AsmaTs identification of Harrat al-Rajla' as a Harrah in the territory (diydr) of die Banu al-Qayn b. Akhbdr al-dawlah al-'Abbdsiyyah.154 151 Samhudl. s. al-A'zamt (Beirut 1390/1970-1392/1972). 1145. See also Samhudl. 153 See though not completely clear. II. 256. The aforementioned information about 'All b. 77. Among the owners of estates in the nearby Wadi al-Qura we find the third caliph 'Uthman. ed.. See also Ibn Hisham. cf. at Georgetown University on April 24. 7 9 f ('All died at alHumaymah in 117/735). cf. EJ1. al-Saqqa.b. Elsewhere we find that Harrat [al-]Rajla' is in the territory of Judham. M. ed. 225. who died in 124/742.g. 'A. al-Nihdya figharib al-hadlth wa-alathar. IV. 375 (written once.153 These texts. Ibn Hazm. ed. al-Sirah al-nabawiyyah. situated south-west of Ma'an (see map).

The place-names associated with al-Zuhrf's estate. Cf. cit.. Shaghb. The evidence concerning al-Zuhrl's estate often refers to the boundary between Sham.BIOGRAPHICAL NOTES ON IBN SHIHAB AL-ZUHRl 6. Ibn Khallikan adds a new place-name to those already mentioned above in connection with al-Zuhrl. Bada and Adama were already mentioned in connection with the northern HijazI border by Abdullah al-Wohaibi. i. namely Shaghb.155 For instance. 2010 . there is no mention of Na'f in Ibn 'Abd al-Barr. especially 315-16.. it is said that al-Zuhrl's tomb is in Adama 'behind' Shaghb wa-Bada. in I'Arabie occidental* avant VHigirc (Beirut 1928). Ibn Khallikan (178) has two forms of the last-mentioned place-name: Adama and Adama.e. I believe that a growing tendency. al-Tamhld. al-D. Surprisingly. al-Mutawakkil al-'Asqalanl (Ibn Abl al-Sarl. 295-331. which is the boundary between Filastln and the Hijaz. 155 Shaghb. 58Of. many of the places mentioned in the primary sources. The Boundary between Palestine and the Hijaz in the Early Islamic Period The modern maps of Saudi Arabia are an indispensable tool in the study of the history of pre-Islamic and early Islamic Arabia. and specialized surveys of certain areas prepared by local scholars. VI. can all be found within a small area of northwestern Saudi Arabia (see map). In it (i. We now have better maps than ever before. 'Abd al-Hamld (Cairo 1948). Jasir. Thalbah and Adama. who employed the entry on al-Zuhrl in Ibn Khallikan's Wafaydt al-a'ydn (= ed. Bada and Adama/Adama. The source of this account is al-Husayn b. 306. to relate the literary evidence to the geographical one is an inevitable development in the study of Arabia.M. between al-'Ula and Tabuk. All these research devices make it easier for us to locate. Jasir. for its mention see Jasir. Lammens. IV. Bada. The Northern Hijaz in the Writings of the Arab Geographers 800-1150 (Beirut 1973). within obvious limitations. 'Na'f (if it is not a corruption of'Shaghb') might have been identical with the village called al-Na'f on the road to al-Hijr. 318. Abu 'All al-Hajari wa-abhdthu-hu fi tahdld al-mawddi' (Riyadh 1968). 512 (Harrat 'Uwayrid used to be called of old Harrat al-Kuraytlm). as well as the geographical works of Yaqut. 330. 'Abbas [Beirut 1968-72]. 58 Downloaded from http://jss. 1186. He quotes a passage from [Ibn 'Abd al-Barr's] al-Tamhld according to which al-Zuhrl died in his house in Na'f. and the Hijaz. Hamad al-Jasir.. Ft shimdl gbarb al-jazlrah. more precisely the Filastln district. This merits special emphasis. 177-9). 325. 'L'ancienne frontiere entre la Syrie et le Higaz: Notes de ge'ographie historique'. among Arabists and Islamicists. 513. at Georgetown University on April 24. op. where he lived.e. there was an estate belonging to al-Zuhrl. defined as a qaryah 'ind al-qurd al-madhkurah. 231. See also H. al-Bakri and Nasr al-Iskandaranl. 251-2.oxfordjournals. see also Wafaydt al-a'ydn. I. 113. Fl Shimdl gharb al-jazlrah. III. in Adama). 586. ed. as well as new editions of medieval Arabic texts on the geography of Arabia. the report continues.

v. TMD. VII.156 He said about al-Zuhrl's grave. s. mujassasan. s.. 161 Yaqut. were the dominant ingredient in the population of this area: Shaghba (= Shaghb).. which he had seen.e. 59 . As we have seen (above. 157 . 'the village of al-Zuhrl'. 162 BakrI. 2010 Nubald'. the 'A' became an article. and some said: in Wadi cUdhrah near Sham'. was in the land of the "Udhrah. On the one hand. 17a.'arab). Also Ya'qub b.Xl. that it was elevated. who was also called Ibn Abl al-Sari.BIOGRAPHICAL NOTES ON IBN SHIHAB AL-ZUHRl d. in Filastln). Yahya b. Dhahabl. lOf. III. wa-hiya khalfa Shaghb wa-Badd. Also Yaqiit. the expression qdri'at al-tariq above. qarib min ardi al-Hijdz wa-hiya min a'mdl Filastin) Ibn al-Jawzi.oxfordjournals. and some said: in Wadi al-Qura. plastered with gypsum. Ma'ln referred to Muhammad as muhaddith Filastin. Yaqut. 562/1167. wa-bi-hd day'atu al-Zuhri allati kdna fi-hd. possibly referring to different periods. n. II. concerning the administrative district to which Adama belonged.157 The placename Adama is probably preserved in Wadi al-Damah (see map) and Adama should be looked for along this wadi.v. told that al-Adama'. s. 219 (who specifies that the text is from AsmaTs Kitdb jazirat al. n. abyada). 46 (al-Zuhri died in Adama. was outside it (i. Sufyan al-FasawI (d. al-Zuhri) still reports that al-Zuhri's grave is well known and that it is a place of pilgrimage (mashhur yuzdru). 240/854). 154). Yaqut. Downloaded from http://jss. we find that al-Adama' (sic) was one of the regions (a'rdd) of Medina (i. Shaghb: it is an estate 'behind' (viz.160 Indeed. Cf. 1182. 160 Nasr.e. wa-ra'aytu qabra-hu musannaman. Jasr of the Quda'ah were associated with the adjacent Harrat al-Rajla' (identified above with the modern Harrat 'Uwayrid). to the north-west of) Wadi al-Qura which belonged to al-Zuhrl. Cf.v. which some call al-Udama' (these are variants of the name Adama). Zuhri. is a place in the lands of the Quda'ah in Sham. wa-hiya aunvalu 'amal Filastln wa-dkhiru 'amal al-Hijdz. The source of the latter statement also reports that al-Zuhrl had palm trees there which he planted when he became old (asannd). at Georgetown University on April 24.158 There are contradictory statements.159 On the other hand. We are. 158 Upon the Arabization of this place-name. Maghdnim. Amkinah. it was included in the Hijaz).v. the Banu al-Qayn b. the 'Udhrah. 277/890) saw the grave. but he may be quoting an earlier text. The three definitions refer to one and the same place. He reports that al-Zuhri was buried in an elevated piece of ground. 235.v.161 The statement that the northern border of the Hijaz was at Shaghb wa-Bada162 presumably includes the Shaghb wa-Bada region 156 Not to be confused with his brother Muhammad. Also Yaqut. see his al-Ma'rifah waal-ta'rikh. a subdivision of the Quda'ah. 181 (ra'aytu qabr al-Zuhri bi-Addmd. 102. 143. s. Adama (citing Nasr). 161. 348. we are told that Adama. al-Hijaz. and white. Muntazam. s. Badan: 'a valley near Aylah on the shore. 206: ShaghbaVShaghb is the village of al-Zuhrl. and his tomb is in it. in s. while being close to the Hijaz. See also Maghdnim. the incomplete quotation of this text in Samhudl. Zuhri. The Banu 'Udhrah are known to have inhabited the nearby Wadi al-Qura as well. fi nashz/nashaz min al-ard (erroneously printed nashar).v. Sam'anI (d. 159 TMD.

The northern Hijaz was an important venue during this conflict. i. Hatib al-Jumahi — we hear of Khaybar and Fadak being included in al-Harith's jurisdiction: he was ordered by Ibn al-Zubayr to appoint a certain Ansari as the governor of these two agricultural settlements. 12 and Yaqut. Note that one medieval scholar argued that Tabuk and Filastln(!) were part of the Hijaz. see BakrI. II. 164 Al-Waqidi. Filastln) was in the vicinity of Wadi al-Qura. 49. 84 (Bada Ya'qub is on jdddatMisr). 165 The information given below refers to different stages in the conflict. V. 182f. The scholar in question is not al-HuraqI(!) but Ibrahim al-Harbl. i. Die Umayyaden. Jones (London 1966). al-Khattab. 'Umar b. XI. which took place 60 163 Downloaded from http://jss.. II.163 The same state of affairs is roughly reflected in the accounts about the expulsion of the Jews from the Hijaz by the caliph 'Umar b. to expel Coptic criminals to Shaghb wa-Bada. hence the relative wealth of evidence.BIOGRAPHICAL NOTES ON IBN SHIHAB AL-ZUHRI in the Hijaz. Wadi al-Qura itself and the area north of it) part of Sham. the Hijaz): when an expedition force sent by eAbd al-Malik reached the northern edge of Ibn al-Zubayr's area of jurisdiction. 313. Kitdb al-maghdzi. in kind). He considered the area 'beneath' {duna. see Baladhurl. Ibn al-Zubayr's tax collectors fled..166 With regard to an attack on this governor we hear of a boundary between Sham and Ibn al-Zubayr's territory (i. ed. Ansdb.v. Hayyan b. because the latter were included in ard al-Shdm.. Baladhuri. 'Abd al-'AzIz instructed his governor in Egypt.164 There are further indications. from where he sent his cavalry to attack Khaybar and Fadak. that the border between the Hijaz and Sham (more precisely.167 The reference to the evacuation of Ibn al-Zubayr's Muqaddasi explicitly includes Bada Ya'qub in the Hijaz. ed. at Georgetown University on April 24. In connection with Ibn al-Zubayr's governor in Wadi al-Qura we come across a valuable detail. 166 On these events see the section entitled 'Der Zugang zum Higaz' in Rotter.e. Then 'Abd al-Malik advanced and encamped at Wadi al-Qura. 'AbdAllah b. Incidentally.165 At some point — Ibn al-Zubayr's governor in Medina was then alHarith b. namely that Ibn al-Zubayr was storing there a large quantity of dates received as taxes (i.).. Ansdb. He expelled the Jews of Khaybar and Fadak. 363 (wa-kdna li-bn al-Zubayr bi-hd tamr kathir min tamr al-sadaqa). 167 Baladhurl. Muranyi. Ansdb.e. and the area 'beyond' it (ward'a dhdlika. s. derived from the reports about the conflict between the Umayyads and Ibn al-Zubayr. XI.e.oxfordjournals.v. 69. s. Hijaz. 1184:1. south of) Wadi al-Qura part of the Hijaz. 2010 . Ahsan al-taqdslm2. M. 35 (fa-lammd nazala awtvala 'amal bn al-Zubayr mimmdyall al-Shdm haraba 'ummdlu-hu wa-sdra'Abdul-Malik hand nazala Wddiya al-Qura wa-wajjaha min-hd [sic] khaylan etc. 219. 711. Wahb.e. al-Hijaz. de Goeje (Leiden 1906). but not those of Tayma' and Wadi al-Qura. A governor of Ibn al-Zubayr in Wadi al-Qura is mentioned in the account of the battle of al-Rabadhah (65/684-5). Samhudl.

'Abd al-Rahman b. was in the vicinity of Wadi al-Qura. S. 158f. when the caliph Marwan b. 114.. Die Umayyaden. III. ed. Duljah al-Qayni sent by Marwan arrived at Wadi al-Qura. al-Durl (Wiesbaden 1398/ 1978). ed.e. at Georgetown University on April 24. 'Affan. and Ibn al-Zubayr's governor there fled. Tahdh.171 Downloaded from http://jss. 36 (wa-amara-hu anyanzila bayna Aylah wa-Wddi alQura fa-yamna'a 'ummdla bn al-Zubayr mina li-'ntishdr wa-yahfaza ma bayna-hu wa-bayna al-Shdm wa-yasudda khalalan in zahara la-hu).BIOGRAPHICAL NOTES ON IBN SHIHAB AL-ZUHRl northern border by his tax collectors is important. XI. Ahmad b. Ahmad.F. 'Amr. Sh. VIII.. Wadi al-Qura and Aylah. Yahya. 488f. and close up a gap should he discover one'. 488.e. W. TMD. See above. emerges. and send his cavalry deep into Ibn al-Zubayr's territory. Ta'rikh. al-Dhahabl. In sum. Baladhuri. Tariq returned to Wadi al-Qura. which was at the same time the boundary between the Hijaz and Sham. Ansdb. (Beirut 1981). Ansdb al-ashrdf. Mu'jam ma ista'jama. V. al-Hakam was still alive: a troop under Hubaysh b.D. MS. A slightly different version of these instructions (TMD. 169 Baladhurl. Ansdb. to patrol] the area between Aylah and Wadi al-Qura. At a later stage in the conflict the name of Tariq b. Al-Arnawut et al. Siyar a'ldm al-nubald'. 'Abd al-'Aziz. 'Amr. ed. 171 Baladhurl. defend the area between him [i. a mawld of 'Uthman b. 36f. 'Abd al-Malik could come to Wadi al-Qura. 5f. For the date see Rotter. formerly under Ibn al-Zubayr's control.oxfordjournals. V. 170 Presumably. the boundary between the two parties. V. Marwdn aw man kdna yuridu qitdla-hu min ashdbi bn al-Zubayr. !Amr's operations against Ibn al-Zubayr: it is reported that after the attack on Ibn al-Zubayr's men at Khaybar.169 Wadi al-Qura was the base of Tariq b. 168 See an entry about him in TMD. 43) refers to 'Abd al-Malik's tax collectors in this border area between the dominions of'Abd al-Malik and Ibn al-Zubayr: wa-amara-hu an yakuna fimd bayna Aylah ild Wadi al-Qura madadan li-man yahtdju ilay-hi min 'ummdl 'Abd al-Malik b. al-Saqqa (Cairo 1364/1945-1371/1951). nn. M. After their flight (no doubt together with their garrisons). Ansdb. MS. Ibn al-Zubayr] and Sham. Ahlwardt (Greifswald 1883). Muhammad b. XI. Rotter. prevent Ibn al-Zubayr's tax collectors from spreading.. this is the meaning of the term sayydrah. 61 . and his patrols170 remained active in the area between Medina. 150f. Goitein (Jerusalem 1936). ed. ed. XI. BakrI. 113. 186. Baladhurl. VII. Die Umayyaden. al-Qujanl (Damascus 1400/ 1980). Tahdh. 2010 REFERENCES Abu Zur'ah. ed.168 Again we find a reference to Ibn al-Zubayr's fiscal administration: eAbd al-Malik instructed Tariq 'to camp at [i. 'Abdallah b.

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