Burdens & Current Transformer Requirements of MiCOM Relays

Application Notes
B&CT/EN AP/B11

Application Notes Burdens & CT Req. of MiCOM Relays

B&CT/EN AP/B11 Page 1/46

CONTENTS

1. 2.
2.1 2.2 2.3

ABBREVIATIONS & SYMBOLS INTRODUCTION TO CURRENT TRANSFORMERS
Current transformer magnetisation Limiting secondary voltage (Vk) Rated accuracy limit factor

3 5
5 5 5

3.
3.1 3.2 3.3

TYPES OF PROTECTION CURRENT TRANSFORMERS
High remanence CTs Low remanence CTs Non remanence CTs

6
6 6 6

4.
4.1 4.1.1 4.1.2 4.1.3 4.2 4.2.1 4.2.2 4.2.3 4.2.4 4.3 4.3.1

CURRENT TRANSFORMER STANDARDS
IEC 60044-1 Class P Class PR Class PX IEC 60044-6 Class TPS Class TPX Class TPY Class TPZ IEEE C57.13 Class C

7
7 7 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 8

5.
5.1 5.2

CHOICE OF CURRENT TRANSFORMER CURRENT RATING
Primary winding Secondary winding

9
9 9

6.
6.1 6.1.1 6.1.2 6.1.3 6.1.4 6.1.5

BURDENS AND CURRENT TRANSFORMER REQUIREMENTS
Overcurrent and feeder management protection relays P111 P120 - P123, P125 - P127 P124 P130C, P132, P138, P139 P141 - P145

10
10 10 10 13 14 16

B&CT/EN AP/B11 Page 2/46 6.2 6.2.1 6.2.2 6.2.3 6.3 6.3.1 6.4 6.4.1 6.4.2 6.4.3 6.5 6.5.1 6.5.2 6.5.3 6.5.4 6.6 6.6.1 6.7 6.7.1 6.8 6.8.1 6.9 6.9.1 6.9.2 Motor protection relays P210, P211 P220, P225 P241 - P243 Interconnection and generator protection relays P341 - P344 Distance protection relays P430C, P432, P433, P435, P436, P437, P438, P439 P441, P442, P444 P443, P445 (MiCOMho) Current differential protection relays P521 P541 - P546 P547 P591 - P595 Transformer differential protection relays P630C, P631 - P634, P638 Busbar protection relays P741 - P743 Circuit breaker fail protection relay P821 Voltage and frequency protection relays P921 - P923 P941 - P943

Application Notes Burdens & CT Req. of MiCOM Relays 19 19 19 21 22 22 27 27 29 31 32 32 33 35 36 36 36 38 38 39 39 40 40 40

7.
7.1

APPENDIX A

42

Converting an IEC 60044-1 protection classification to a limiting secondary voltage 42

8.
8.1

APPENDIX B

43

Converting IEC 60044-1 standard protection classification to IEEE standard voltage 43 rating

9.
9.1

APPENDIX C
Use of METROSIL non-linear resistors

44
44

10.
10.1

APPENDIX D
Fuse rating of auxiliary supply

46
46

Application Notes Burdens & CT Req. of MiCOM Relays

B&CT/EN AP/B11 Page 3/46

1.

ABBREVIATIONS & SYMBOLS
The following abbreviations and symbols are used in this document:
Symbol ALF ANSI C CT DT E/F fmin fn Idiff> IDMT IEC IEEE I>> I’f If Ife If max If max int If Z1 Ife Z1 Ifn Ifp In Inp Io IR,m2 Iref Is Is1 Is2 Isn Isp Ist K k1 k2 Ks Kssc = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = Description Accuracy Limit Factor or Kssc American National Standards Institute IEEE standard C57.13 "C" classification Current Transformer Definite Time Earth Fault Minimum required operating frequency Nominal operating frequency Current setting of P63x biased differential or high impedance REF element Inverse Definite Minimum Time International Electrotechnical Commission Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Current setting of short circuit element (P220) Maximum internal secondary fault current (may also be expressed as a multiple of In) Maximum secondary through fault current Maximum secondary through fault earth current Maximum secondary fault current (same for all feeders) Maximum secondary contribution from a feeder to an internal fault Maximum secondary phase fault current at Zone 1 reach point Maximum secondary earth fault current at Zone 1 reach point Maximum prospective secondary earth fault current or 31 x I> setting (whichever is lowest) Maximum prospective secondary phase fault current or 31 x I> setting (whichever is lowest) Current transformer nominal secondary current Current transformer nominal primary current Earth fault current setting Second knee-point bias current threshold setting of P63x biased differential element Reference current of P63x calculated from the reference power and nominal voltage Current setting of high impedance REF element Differential current pick-up setting of biased differential element Bias current threshold setting of biased differential element Stage 2 and 3 earth fault setting Stage 2 and 3 setting Motor start up current referred to CT secondary side Constant or dimensioning factor (may also be lower case) Lower bias slope setting of biased differential element Higher bias slope setting of biased differential element Dimensioning factor dependent upon through fault current (P521) Short circuit current coefficient or ALF (generally 20) % % In A A A A A A A A A A A A Iref A A A A A A A Hz Hz Iref V Units

to an opto-input Required CT knee-point voltage Peak voltage developed by CT during internal fault conditions Stability voltage Voltage Transformer Transformer reactance (per unit) Primary system reactance/resistance ratio Primary system reactance/resistance ratio for earth loop system angular frequency rad pu VA s s s s s VA V V V V V V Ω Ω Ω Ω Ω W Ω Ω Note: Specific relay settings used in this document are displayed in italics. .B&CT/EN AP/B11 Page 4/46 Symbol Kt m1 m2 N n O/C Pn Rb Rct REF Rl rms Rr Rrn Rrp Rs SEF SVA t’ T1 tfr tIDiff Ts VA Vc Vf Vin Vk Vp Vs VT Xt X/R Xe/Re ω = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = Description Dimensioning factor dependent upon operating time (P521) Lower bias slope setting of P63x biased differential element Higher bias slope setting of P63x biased differential element Application Notes Burdens & CT Req. of MiCOM Relays Units Maximum earth fault current/core balanced CT rated primary current or CT ratio Factor dependent upon location of CT secondary star point Overcurrent Rotating plant rated single phase power Total external load resistance Resistance of current transformer secondary winding Restricted Earth Fault Resistance of single lead from relay to current transformer Root mean square Resistance of any other protective relays sharing the current transformer Impedance of relay neutral current input at 30In Impedance of relay phase current input at 30In Value of stabilising resistor Sensitive Earth Fault Nominal output Duration of first current flow during auto-reclose cycle Primary system time constant Auto-reclose dead time Current differential operating time (P521) Secondary system time constant Current transformer rated burden (VAct) "C" class standard voltage rating Theoretical maximum voltage produced if CT saturation did not occur Input voltage e.g. Refer to the relevent relay Technical Guide for information on setting the relay.

a disproportionate amount of primary current is required to magnetise the core and. as will be discussed later.1 Current transformer magnetisation The primary current contains two components. 2. expressed as a multiple of its rated primary current.2 Limiting secondary voltage (Vk) The limiting secondary voltage of the excitation characteristic is defined by IEC as the point at which a 10% increase in secondary voltage produces a 50% increase in exciting current. therefore. whereas the protective current transformer must be capable of providing an adequate output over a wide range of fault conditions. It may. The ANSI/IEEE knee-point voltage definition is not identical. and associated voltage transformers. which supplies the eddy current and hysteresis losses and magnetises the core. In some cases the same transformer may serve both purposes but. Current and voltage transformers insulate the secondary (relay.Application Notes Burdens & CT Req. therefore. of MiCOM Relays B&CT/EN AP/B11 Page 5/46 2. This cannot be said for current transformers as the requirements for protective current transformers are often radically different from those of metering. The amount of exciting current drawn by a current transformer depends upon the core material and the amount of flux which must be developed in the core to satisfy the burden requirements of the current transformer. regardless of the value of primary current. instrument and meter) circuits from the primary (power) circuit and provide quantities in the secondary which are proportional to those in the primary. a protective current or voltage transformer varies in its role according to the type of protection it serves. . INTRODUCTION TO CURRENT TRANSFORMERS The importance of current transformers in the transmission and distribution of electrical energy cannot be over emphasised. Whereas the essential role of a measuring transformer is to deliver from its secondary winding a quantity accurately representative of that which is applied to the primary side. The primary difference is that the measuring current transformer is required to retain a specified accuracy over the normal range of load currents. this is the exception rather than the rule. for provided the protective voltage transformer transforms reasonably accurately. not sufficient to assume a value of secondary current and to work backwards to determine the value of primary current by invoking the constant ampere-turns rule. This multiple is known as the current transformer’s rated accuracy limit factor (ALF). There is no significant difference between a protective voltage transformer and a measuring voltage transformer. 2. both the exciting and secondary currents depart from a sine wave. 2.3 Rated accuracy limit factor A current transformer is designed to maintain its ratio within specified limits up to a certain value of primary current. from a fraction of full load to many times full load. be regarded as a practical limit beyond which a specified current ratio may not be maintained as the current transformer enters saturation and is also commonly referred to as the knee-point voltage. its duty will have been fulfilled. a secondary current will not be produced. in modern practice. These are the secondary current which is transformed in the inverse ratio of the turns ratio and an exciting current. It is. the difference being only in the nature of the voltage transformed. In the case when the core saturates. In this region the major part of the primary current is utilised to maintain the core flux and since the shunt admittance is not linear. is the cause of the transformer errors. since this approach does not take into account the exciting current. This latter current flows in the primary winding only and therefore. The role of a current or voltage transformer in protective relaying is not as readily defined as that for metering and instrumentation. Normally the same transformer can serve both purposes. affect the accurate metering and effective protection of transmission and distribution circuits and connected plant. The efficiency of current transformers.

The CT has a magnetic core without any air gaps and the remanent flux might remain for almost infinite time. 3. 3. The magnetic core is provided with small air gaps to reduce the remanent flux to a level that does not exceed 10% of the saturation flux. Examples are class TPY according to IEC 60044-6 and class PR according to IEC 60044-1.3 Non remanence CTs The non remanence type CT has practically negligible level of remanent flux.1 High remanence CTs The high remanence type has no given limit for the remanent flux.B&CT/EN AP/B11 Page 6/46 Application Notes Burdens & CT Req. The magnetic core has relatively large air gaps in order to reduce the secondary time constant of the CT (to lower the needed transient factor) which also reduces the remanent flux to practically zero level. of MiCOM Relays 3. TPS. PX. An example is class TPZ according to IEC 60044-6. TPX according to IEC 60044 and non-gapped class C according to ANSI/IEEE.2 Low remanence CTs The low remanence type has a specified limit for the remanent flux. Typical examples of high remanent type CTs are class P. 3. there are three different types of CTs: • • • High remanence type CT Low remanence type CT Non remanence type CT The behaviour of CTs according to different standards but belonging to the same type is in principle the same. The remanent flux can be up to 70-80% of the saturation flux. . TYPES OF PROTECTION CURRENT TRANSFORMERS Generally.

Therefore a rated accuracy limit of 5 will usually be adequate. secondary burden resistance and turns ratio is sufficient to assess its performance in relation to the protective relay system with which it is to be used. TPY and TPZ) for currents containing exponentially decaying DC components of defined time constant. the accuracy limit factor must be at least as high as the value of the setting current used in order to ensure fast relay operation.2. the resulting current transformer may be uneconomical and/or of unduly large dimensions. however.8 Composite Error at Rated Accuracy Limit Primary Current 5% 10% 4. is essentially of a transient nature and thus the extent of the unsaturated (or linear) zones is of paramount importance. secondary winding resistance. When the product of these two exceeds 150. to combine a higher rated accuracy limit factor with a lower rated output and vice versa. say 5 to 15 times the rated current of the transformer.1 IEC 60044-6 Class TPS Protection current transformers specified in terms of complying with class TPS are generally applied to unit systems where balancing of outputs from each end of the protected plant is vital. in some cases.1 IEC 60044-1 Class P Class P current transformers are typically used for general applications. such as overcurrent protection. of MiCOM Relays B&CT/EN AP/B11 Page 7/46 4. commonly used with unit protection schemes.2 4. a formula stating the lowest permissible value of Vk if stable operation is to be guaranteed. This balance.1. 4.13 is specified for steady state symmetrical AC currents. It is possible. or stability during through fault conditions.1 4. Class P current transformers are defined so that. 4. from heavy current test results. Class PX is the definition in IEC 60044-1 for the quasi-transient current transformers formerly covered by class X of BS 3938. 4. CURRENT TRANSFORMER STANDARDS The behaviour of inductive CTs in accordance with IEC 60044-1 and IEEE C57. The more recent standard IEC 60044-6 is the only standard that specifies the performance of inductive CTs (classes TPX. Accuracy Class 5P 10P Current Error at Rated Primary Current ±1% ±3% Phase Displacement at Rated Primary Current Minutes ±60 Centiradians ±1.Application Notes Burdens & CT Req. at rated frequency and with rated burden connected.1. It is normal to derive. where a secondary accuracy limit greatly in excess of the value to cause relay operation serves no useful purpose. such as instantaneous ‘high set’ overcurrent relays. .3 Class PX A current transformer of low leakage reactance for which knowledge of the transformer secondary excitation characteristic. a value of the secondary loop time constant and/or a limiting value of the winding resistance may also be specified.2 Class PR A current transformer with less than 10% remanence factor due to small air gaps for which. This section summarises the various classes of CTs. are set to operate at high values of overcurrent. When relays. Rated output burdens higher than 15VA and rated accuracy limit factors higher than 10 are not recommended for general purposes. the current error.1. Class PX type CTs are used for high impedance circulating current protection and are also suitable for most other protection schemes. phase displacement and composite error shall not exceed the values given in the table below.

they shall be specified in terms of each of the following characteristics: • • • • Rated primary current Turns ratio (the error in turns ratio shall not exceed ±0.4 Class TPZ For class TPZ CTs the remanent flux is practically negligible due to large air gaps in the core. . The accuracy limit is defined by the peak instantaneous error during the specified transient duty cycle. Class TPX CTs are typically used for line protection. Class TPY CTs are typically used for line protection with auto-reclose.2.3 Class TPY Class TPY CTs have a specified limit for the remanent flux. The accuracy limit is defined by peak instantaneous alternating current component error during single energization with maximum DC offset at specified secondary loop time constant.13 Class C The CT design is identical to IEC class 10P but the rating is specified differently. Class TPX CTs have no air gaps in the core and therefore a high remanence factor (70-80% remanent flux). of MiCOM Relays The performance of class TPS current transformers of the low (secondary) reactance type is defined by IEC 60044-6 for transient performance. but reduce the measuring accuracy in the unsaturated (linear) region of operation. 4. Refer to Appendix B for equivalent ratings and conversion formulae between IEC and IEEE classifications.B&CT/EN AP/B11 Page 8/46 Application Notes Burdens & CT Req. These air gaps also minimise the influence of the DC component from the primary fault current.1 IEEE C57.3 4. 4.25%) Secondary limiting voltage Resistance of secondary winding Class TPS CTs are typically applied for high impedance circulating current protection.3.2.2 Class TPX The basic characteristics for class TPX current transformers are generally similar to those of class TPS current transformers except for the different error limits prescribed and possible influencing effects which may necessitate a physically larger construction. 4. They have a higher error in current measurement than TPX during unsaturated operation and the accuracy limit is defined by peak instantaneous error during the specified transient duty cycle. The magnetic core is provided with small air gaps to reduce the remanent flux to a level that does not exceed 10% of the saturation flux. 4. In short. Class TPZ CTs are typically used for special applications such as differential protection of large generators.2.

of MiCOM Relays B&CT/EN AP/B11 Page 9/46 5. 5000/20A together with 20/1A interposing auxiliary current transformer. the use of 1A secondaries is sufficient to keep the lead losses within reasonable limits. such as those encountered on large turbo alternators (e.Application Notes Burdens & CT Req. .g. the fact that the open circuit voltage would be dangerously high for large current transformer primary ratings. but also that of the secondary leads.1 CHOICE OF CURRENT TRANSFORMER CURRENT RATING Primary winding The current transformer primary rating is usually chosen to be equal to or greater than the normal full load current of the protected circuit to avoid thermal overload and overheating of the CT. In installations with longer lead lengths. The maximum ratio of current transformers is typically limited to 3000/1 due to size limitation of the current transformer and. 5. Up to this length the additional burden due to the resistance of the pilots is reasonably small in relation to the total output of the transformer. Standard primary ratings are given in IEC 60044-1. Losses vary as the square of the current and so are reduced to 1/25th of those for 5A secondaries. 5000A). 5.2 Secondary winding The total secondary burden of a current transformer includes not only the internal impedance of the secondary winding. the impedance of the instruments and relays which are connected to it. It is standard practice in such applications to use a cascade arrangement. more importantly. A typical value of rated secondary current is 5A provided that the length of the leads between the current transformers and the connected apparatus does not exceed about 25 metres.

e.P127 BURDENS Current circuit CT Input Phase In 1A 5A 1A 5A CT Burden < 0. If a range greater than 10In is used. in order for the ALF at real load to be sufficient (i.025VA at In < 0.2 P120 . Where external CTs are used.01VA at 0. then a CT of rated power greater than that calculated should be specified. See below for additional burdens.1 6.1In Earth . where the nominal system voltage is less than 1kV.008VA at 0.1. recommended LV CTs may be ordered with the relay from the manufacturer. For low voltage applications. 6. 5VA 5P10 or 30VA 10P10.5VA 0. P125 . of MiCOM Relays 6.B&CT/EN AP/B11 Page 10/46 Application Notes Burdens & CT Req.1 BURDENS AND CURRENT TRANSFORMER REQUIREMENTS Overcurrent and feeder management protection relays P111 BURDENS Current circuit CT Input Phase In 1A 5A 1A 5A CT Burden < 0.P123.2VA at In Earth < 0.5VA * Typical minimum burden with no opto-inputs or output contacts energised.3VA at In < 0. Additional burdens on auxiliary supply Additional Burden Per energised opto-input Energising Voltage 48V 230V Burden 0. IEC class P is recommended with an ALF equal to or greater than 10.1.6VA CURRENT TRANSFORMER REQUIREMENTS The relay may be installed to directly measure the primary current.2VA at In Auxiliary supply Case Size 35mm DIN rail or flush mount Relay P111 Nominal Burden* 4. by passing the primary conductor through the guiding channels in the relay housing.g. e. 6. greater than maximum setting).1In < 0.

refer to the sections below for CT accuracy class and kneepoint voltage requirements as appropriate.P123.30Ω 0. the CT requirements may need to be increased according to the formulae in the following sections.25W or 0. P125 P126. Minimum knee-point voltage Non-directional/directional DT/IDMT overcurrent and earth fault protection Time-delayed phase overcurrent Time-delayed earth fault overcurrent × (Rct + Rl + Rrp ) 2 I Vk ≥ fn × (Rct + 2Rl + Rrp + Rrn ) 2 Vk ≥ Ifp Non-directional instantaneous overcurrent and earth fault protection Instantaneous phase overcurrent Instantaneous earth fault overcurrent Vk ≥ Isp × (Rct + Rl + Rrp ) Vk ≥ Isn × (Rct + 2Rl + Rrp + Rrn ) .1W at 960V Auxiliary supply Case Size Size 4/20TE Size 6/30TE Relay P120 .480V 0.54W at 260V 0. CT specification Nominal Rating 1A 5A Nominal Output 2.38W at 130V 1.1102W at 220V 0.4VA CURRENT TRANSFORMER REQUIREMENTS The current transformer requirements are based on a maximum prospective fault current of 50In and the relay having an instantaneous setting of 25In. For specific applications such as SEF and REF protection.5VA 7.11Ω Where the criteria for a specific application are in excess of those detailed above. or the actual lead resistance exceeds the limiting values.525W at 480V 2.074W at 57V 57 . Additional burdens on auxiliary supply Additional Burden Per energised opto-input Per energised output contact Relay Auxiliary Voltage Burden 10mA 0. P127 Nominal Burden* < 3W or 8VA < 3W or 8VA Maximum Burden < 6W or 14VA < 6W or 14VA * Typical minimum burden with no opto-inputs or output contacts energised.130V All (P125 .Application Notes Burdens & CT Req.P127) 220 . of MiCOM Relays Voltage circuit VT Input Vn B&CT/EN AP/B11 Page 11/46 VT Burden 0. These CT requirements are designed to provide operation of all protection elements. See below for additional burdens.5VA Accuracy Class 10P 10P Accuracy Limit Factor (ALF) 20 20 Limiting Lead Resistance 1.

Vk ≥ 4 × Is × Rs Rs = 1. motors etc. . generators.residual CT connection Non-directional/directional time delayed SEF Non-directional instantaneous SEF Directional instantaneous SEF Vk ≥ Ifn × (Rct + 2Rl + Rrp + Rrn ) 2 Vk ≥ Isn × (Rct + 2Rl + Rrp + Rrn ) Vk ≥ Ifn × (Rct + 2Rl + Rrp + Rrn ) 2 Non-directional/directional DT/IDMT SEF protection . the following equation can be used to determine the required stability voltage. The high impedance differential protection shall maintain stability for through faults and operate in less than 40ms for internal faults provided the following conditions are met in determining the CT requirements and value of associated stabilising resistor. High impedance differential protection The relay can be applied as a high impedance differential protection to 3 phase applications such as busbars.core-balance CT connection Core-balance current transformers of metering class accuracy are required and should have a limiting secondary voltage satisfying the formulae given below: Non-directional/directional time delayed SEF Non-directional instantaneous SEF Directional instantaneous SEF Note: Vk ≥ Ifn × (Rct + 2Rl + Rrn ) 2 Vk ≥ Isn × (Rct + 2Rl + Rrn ) Vk ≥ Ifn × (Rct + 2Rl + Rrn ) 2 It should be ensured that the phase error of the applied core balance current transformer is less than 90 minutes at 10% of rated current and less than 150 minutes at 1% of rated current.05 ⎤ ⎦ × If × (Rct + 2Rl ) If the calculated stability voltage is less than (Is × Rs) calculated above then it may be used instead. Vs = ⎡ ⎣( 0. of MiCOM Relays Directional instantaneous overcurrent and earth fault protection Instantaneous phase overcurrent Instantaneous earth fault overcurrent × (Rct + Rl + Rrp ) 2 I Vk ≥ fn × (Rct + 2Rl + Rrp + Rrn ) 2 Vk ≥ Ifp Non-directional/directional DT/IDMT SEF protection .B&CT/EN AP/B11 Page 12/46 Application Notes Burdens & CT Req. Vk ≥ 4 × Is × Rs Rs = If × (Rct + 2Rl ) Is Note: Class 5P or PX CTs should be used for high impedance REF applications.4 × If × (Rct + 2Rl ) Is Where X/R ≤ 40 and through fault stability with a transient dc offset in the fault current must be considered.007 × X / R ) + 1. High impedance REF protection The high impedance REF element shall maintain stability for through faults and operate in less than 40ms for internal faults provided the following conditions are met in determining the CT requirements and value of associated stabilising resistor.

Application Notes Burdens & CT Req.25W Opto-inputs Energising Voltage 0 to 300V dc Peak Current < 10mA CURRENT TRANSFORMER REQUIREMENTS CT specification Assuming that the CT does not supply any circuits other than the MiCOM P124. Dual-powered (P124D) . or. B&CT/EN AP/B11 Page 13/46 Class 5P or PX CTs should be used for high impedance differential applications.1.powered by > 0.68mA 0. the following CT types are recommended: • 5VA 5P10 or 5VA 10P10 (for 1A or 5A secondaries) .5VA Earth 2. Additional burdens on auxiliary supply Additional Burden Relay Auxiliary Voltage 24 to 60V dc Per energised opto-input (for P124D) 48 to 150V dc 130 to 250V dc/ 100 to 250V ac Per energised output contact Burden ≤ 9mA ≤ 4. See below for additional burdens.2In secondary current.powered by either > 0.3 P124 This model is available as either: • • Self-powered (P124S) .2In secondary current or an auxiliary supply. in practice. BURDENS Current circuit CT Input Phase In 1A 5A 1A 5A CT Burden 2.7mA ≤ 2.5VA Auxiliary supply Case Size Size 6/30TE Relay P124D Nominal Burden* 3W or 6VA * Typical minimum burden with no opto-inputs or output contacts energised. of MiCOM Relays Note: 6.

11Ω Where the criteria for a specific application are in excess of those detailed above.4 P130C. P139 P138 P132.1VA Earth Voltage circuit VT Input Vn 50 . P139 P138 Nominal Burden* 8W 12.6W 13W 14. of MiCOM Relays CT Burden < 0.5VA 7.3VA rms at 130V Auxiliary supply Case Size Compact 40TE Relay P130C P132.30Ω 0. P132. Any VA or knee-point voltage quoted must apply at the chosen nominal frequency (fn). Note: The P138 may be applied at low system frequencies of 16⅔Hz or 25Hz. the CT requirements may need to be increased according to the formulae in the following sections.B&CT/EN AP/B11 Page 14/46 6.5VA Accuracy Class 10P 10P Accuracy Limit Factor (ALF) 20 20 Limiting Lead Resistance 1.130V VT Burden < 0. P138. or the actual lead resistance exceeds the limiting values.5W ±30% Vin × 5mA ±30% CURRENT TRANSFORMER REQUIREMENTS CT specification Nominal Rating 1A 5A Nominal Output 2.1W 32W 42. .3W 32W * Typical minimum burden at 220V dc with no opto-inputs or output contacts energised. Additional burdens on auxiliary supply Additional Burden Per energised opto-input Energising Voltage 19 to 110V dc > 110V dc Burden 0.1.5W 13W Maximum Burden 10W 34. See below for additional burdens. P139 BURDENS Current circuit CT Input Phase In 1A 5A 1A 5A Application Notes Burdens & CT Req.

k. k. of MiCOM Relays Minimum knee-point voltage B&CT/EN AP/B11 Page 15/46 The knee-point voltage of the CTs should comply with the minimum requirements of the formulae shown below. it is sufficient to select the dimensioning factor. Icn) I' 10 1.01 1 Maximum symmetrical secondary current (Icp . When inverse-time overcurrent protection is used.1 T1= 100 ms T1= 500 ms T1= 250 ms 0. then the dimensioning factor. for definite time overcurrent protection (fn = 50Hz) Note: T1 = X /R X /R = 2π × fn ω (in seconds) . this is not necessary. the CT could be dimensioned to avoid saturation by using the maximum value of k. DT/IDMT overcurrent and earth fault protection Time-delayed phase overcurrent Time-delayed earth fault overcurrent Vk ≥ k × Ifp × (Rct + Rl + Rrp ) Vk ≥ k × Ifn × (Rct + 2Rl + Rrp + Rrn ) If the P13x is to be used for definite-time overcurrent protection. T1. such that the correct operation of the required protection is guaranteed under the given conditions. that must be selected is a function of the ratio of the maximum short-circuit current to the pick-up value and also of the system time constant. k. Instead. k can be determined from Figure 2. 10 k T1= 10 ms 1 T1= 25 ms T1= 50 ms 0. The required value for k can be read from the empirically determined curves in Figure 1.Application Notes Burdens & CT Req. calculated as follows: k ≈ 1 + ωT1 = 1+ X / R However. Theoretically.max /I 100 operate Figure 1: Dimensioning factor.

480V VT Burden < 0.01VA at rated current <40mΩ over 0 .02VA rms at 110V < 0.B&CT/EN AP/B11 Page 16/46 Application Notes Burdens & CT Req.5 Dimensioning factor. . k.30In <8mΩ over 0 .02VA rms at 440V Auxiliary supply Case Size Size 8/40TE Size 12/60TE Relay P141.P145 BURDENS Current circuit In VA Burden 1A 5A 1A 5A CT Burden <0.04VA at rated current <0.30In Impedance Voltage circuit VT Input All Vn 100 .120V 380 . P142 P143 .P145 Nominal Burden* 11W or 24VA 11W or 24VA * Typical minimum burden with no opto-inputs or output contacts energised.1. of MiCOM Relays 25 k 20 15 10 5 0 0 50 100 150 200 T1 / ms 250 Figure 2: 6. for inverse time overcurrent protection (fn = 50Hz) P141 . See below for additional burdens.

Application Notes Burdens & CT Req.19W 0.25W 2. Minimum knee-point voltage Non-directional/directional DT/IDMT overcurrent and earth fault protection Time-delayed phase overcurrent Time-delayed earth fault overcurrent Vk ≥ × (Rct + Rl + Rrp ) 2 I Vk ≥ fn × (Rct + 2Rl + Rrp + Rrn ) 2 Ifp Non-directional instantaneous overcurrent and earth fault protection Instantaneous phase overcurrent Instantaneous earth fault overcurrent Vk ≥ Isp × (Rct + Rl + Rrp ) Vk ≥ Isn × (Rct + 2Rl + Rrp + Rrn ) Directional instantaneous overcurrent and earth fault protection Instantaneous phase overcurrent Instantaneous earth fault overcurrent Vk ≥ × (Rct + Rl + Rrp ) 2 I Vk ≥ fn × (Rct + 2Rl + Rrp + Rrn ) 2 Ifp Non-directional/directional DT/IDMT SEF protection .13W 1.75W Opto-inputs Energising Voltage 0 to 300V dc Peak Current 3.30Ω 0.5mA CURRENT TRANSFORMER REQUIREMENTS The current transformer requirements are based on a maximum prospective fault current of 50In and the relay having an instantaneous setting of 25In.09W 0. These CT requirements are designed to provide operation of all protection elements. of MiCOM Relays Additional burdens on auxiliary supply Additional Burden Energising Voltage 24 to 54V dc Per energised opto-input 110 to 125V dc 220 to 250V dc Per energised output contact With optional 2nd rear communications With optional 10Mbps Ethernet card With optional 100Mbps Ethernet card - B&CT/EN AP/B11 Page 17/46 Burden 0.12W 0.5VA Accuracy Class 10P 10P Accuracy Limit Factor (ALF) 20 20 Limiting Lead Resistance 1. the CT requirements may need to be increased according to the formulae in the following sections.5VA 7.11Ω Where the criteria for a specific application are in excess of those detailed above.residual CT connection Non-directional/directional time delayed SEF Vk ≥ Ifn × (Rct + 2Rl + Rrp + Rrn ) 2 . For specific applications such as SEF and REF protection. CT specification Nominal Rating 1A 5A Nominal Output 2. refer to the sections below for CT accuracy class and kneepoint voltage requirements as appropriate.25W 3. or the actual lead resistance exceeds the limiting values.

of MiCOM Relays Vk ≥ Isn × (Rct + 2Rl + Rrp + Rrn ) Vk ≥ Ifn × (Rct + 2Rl + Rrp + Rrn ) 2 Non-directional/directional DT/IDMT SEF protection . Vk ≥ 4 × Is × Rs Rs = 1. Vs = ⎡ ⎣( 0. The high impedance differential protection shall maintain stability for through faults and operate in less than 40ms for internal faults provided the following conditions are met in determining the CT requirements and value of associated stabilising resistor. Low impedance REF protection When X/R ≤ 40 and If ≤ 15In: Vk ≥ 24 × In × (Rct + 2Rl ) When X/R ≤ 40 and 15In < If ≤ 40In or 40 < X/R ≤ 120 and If ≤ 15In: Vk ≥ 48 × In × (Rct + 2Rl ) Note: Class 5P or better CTs should be used for low impedance REF applications.B&CT/EN AP/B11 Page 18/46 Non-directional instantaneous SEF Directional instantaneous SEF Application Notes Burdens & CT Req.core-balance CT connection Core-balance current transformers of metering class accuracy are required and should have a limiting secondary voltage satisfying the formulae given below: Non-directional/directional time delayed SEF Non-directional instantaneous SEF Directional instantaneous SEF Note: Vk ≥ Ifn × (Rct + 2Rl + Rrn ) 2 Vk ≥ Isn × (Rct + 2Rl + Rrn ) Vk ≥ Ifn × (Rct + 2Rl + Rrn ) 2 It should be ensured that the phase error of the applied core balance current transformer is less than 90 minutes at 10% of rated current and less than 150 minutes at 1% of rated current.05 ⎤ ⎦ × If × (Rct + 2Rl ) .4 × If × (Rct + 2Rl ) Is Where X/R ≤ 40 and through fault stability with a transient dc offset in the fault current must be considered. Vk ≥ 4 × Is × Rs Rs = If × (Rct + 2Rl ) Is Note: Class 5P or PX CTs should be used for high impedance REF applications. motors etc.007 × X / R ) + 1. generators. High impedance REF protection The high impedance REF element shall maintain stability for through faults and operate in less than 40ms for internal faults provided the following conditions are met in determining the CT requirements and value of associated stabilising resistor. High impedance differential protection The relay can be applied as a high impedance differential protection to 3 phase applications such as busbars. the following equation can be used to determine the required stability voltage.

480V VT Burden < 0. 6.1 Motor protection relays P210.2.3VA at In < 0. then a CT of rated power greater than that calculated should be specified.130V 220 . in order for the ALF at real load to be sufficient (i.5VA 0.01VA at 0.Application Notes Burdens & CT Req. 5VA 5P10 or 30VA 10P10.g. Note: Class 5P or PX CTs should be used for high impedance differential applications.5VA * Typical minimum burden with no opto-inputs or output contacts energised.2 P220. where the nominal system voltage is less than 1kV. For low voltage applications.2 6.2. e. P211 BURDENS Auxiliary supply Case Size 35mm DIN rail mount 35mm DIN rail or flush mount Relay P210 P211 Nominal Burden* ≤ 3.1VA at Vn .6VA CURRENT TRANSFORMER REQUIREMENTS The relay may be installed to directly measure the primary current.1In Earth Voltage circuit VT Input All Vn 57 . recommended LV CTs may be ordered with the relay from the manufacturer. of MiCOM Relays B&CT/EN AP/B11 Page 19/46 If the calculated stability voltage is less than (Is × Rs) calculated above then it may be used instead. Additional burdens on auxiliary supply Additional Burden Per energised opto-input Energising Voltage 48V 230V Burden 0.025VA at In < 0.1In < 0. by passing the primary conductor through the guiding channels in the relay housing. If a range greater than 10In is used. greater than maximum setting). See below for additional burdens. P225 BURDENS Current circuit CT Input Phase In 1A 5A 1A 5A CT Burden < 0.e. IEC class P is recommended with an ALF equal to or greater than 10.004VA at 0.5VA 4. Where external CTs are used. 6.

25W CURRENT TRANSFORMER REQUIREMENTS Zero sequence current. for 4 wire CT connection (star point at CTs) n = 2. should be set less than 90% of the CT accuracy limit factor. Under these conditions tripping is guaranteed for fault currents up to 50 times the value of saturation current for symmetrical CT current output. of MiCOM Relays Nominal Burden* < 3W or 6VA * Typical minimum burden with no opto-inputs or output contacts energised. the value of stabilising resistance can be calculated from: Rs = Ist × (Rct + nRl + Rrn ) Io n = 1. These issues may be overcome by employing suitable earth fault settings and by careful selection of the CTs. Additional burdens on auxiliary supply Additional Burden Per energised opto-input Per energised output contact Relay Auxiliary Voltage Burden < 10mA 0. but the use of a core-balance transformer is recommended. Motor Earthing Solidly earthed Impedance earthed Insulated Recommended 3 ph CTs (and stabilising resistance*) 3 ph CTs and core-balance CT 3 ph CTs and core-balance CT Alternative 3 ph CTs and core-balance CT 3 ph CTs (and stabilising resistance*) or 2 ph CTs and core-balance CT 2 ph CTs and core-balance CT * Where a residual CT connection is used. a core-balance CT is preferred as it avoids possible problems with false zero sequence current detection arising from asymmetrical saturation of phase CTs during motor start-up. If the neutral of the motor is earthed through an impedance or isolated from earth in the case of an insulated network. P225 Application Notes Burdens & CT Req. a characteristic of earth faults. Starting currents can reach values up to several times (typically 5 – 6 times) the motor rated current. See below for additional burdens. for 6 wire CT connection (star point at relay) The short-circuit current setting. can be detected by either a residual connection of the three phase CTs or by the use of a core-balance CT. . This phenomenon can be aggravated by the magnetisation of CTs when opposing residual fluxes exist in the CTs.B&CT/EN AP/B11 Page 20/46 Auxiliary supply Case Size Size 6/30TE Relay P220. I>>.

See below for additional burdens.3 + (2Rl + Rr ) × In2 ≥ 0.120V VT Burden < 0.01VA at rated current <40mΩ over 0 . however the thresholds of thermal overload and unbalance protection functions will be less precise.13W 1.19W 0.09W 0. 6.25W 2.25W 3. Additional burdens on auxiliary supply Additional Burden Energising Voltage 24 to 54V dc Per energised opto-input 110 to 125V dc 220 to 250V dc Per energised output contact With optional 2nd rear communications With optional 10Mbps Ethernet card With optional 100Mbps Ethernet card Burden 0. This may be acceptable where the motor has been oversized in relation to its purpose or is not used for heavy duty services.04VA at rated current <0. of MiCOM Relays IEC 60044-1 Specifications Breaking Device Fused contactor In 1A 5A Circuit breaker 1A Rated Output Burden (VA) Accuracy Class 5P 5P 5P B&CT/EN AP/B11 Page 21/46 Accuracy Limit Factor (ALF) 10 10 ≥ 0.Application Notes Burdens & CT Req.75W .3 P241 .3 + (2Rl + Rr ) × In2 ≥ Ifp 50 × In Ifp 50 × In 5A 5P ≥ Note: A CT with accuracy class 10P may be used instead of 5P.06VA rms at 110V Auxiliary supply Case Size Size 8/40TE Size 12/60TE Size 16/60TE Relay P241 P242 P243 Nominal Burden* 11W or 24VA 11W or 24VA 11W or 24VA * Typical minimum burden with no opto-inputs or output contacts energised.025 + (2Rl + Rr ) × In2 ≥ 0.025 + (2Rl + Rr ) × In2 ≥ 0.30In <8mΩ over 0 .30In Impedance Voltage circuit VT Input All Vn 100 .12W 0.P243 BURDENS Current circuit In VA Burden 1A 5A 1A 5A CT Burden <0.2.

of MiCOM Relays Peak Current 3.B&CT/EN AP/B11 Page 22/46 Opto-inputs Energising Voltage 0 to 300V dc Application Notes Burdens & CT Req.480V VT Burden < 0.P344 BURDENS Current circuit In VA Burden 1A 5A 1A 5A CT Burden <0. P342 P342. See below for additional burdens. . it should be ensured that class 5P are used.11Ω Motor differential protection For IEC standard protection class CTs.04VA at rated current <0.5VA Accuracy Class 10P 10P Accuracy Limit Factor (ALF) 20 20 Limiting Lead Resistance 1. 6.30In Impedance Voltage circuit VT Input All Vn 100 .3. CT specification Nominal Rating 1A 5A Nominal Output 2.1 Interconnection and generator protection relays P341 .06VA rms at 440V Auxiliary supply Case Size Size 8/40TE Size 12/60TE Size 16/80TE Relay P341.3 6.5mA CURRENT TRANSFORMER REQUIREMENTS The current transformer requirements are based on a maximum prospective fault current of 50In and the relay having an instantaneous setting of 25In.30In <8mΩ over 0 .06VA rms at 110V < 0.30Ω 0. P344 Nominal Burden* 11W or 24VA 11W or 24VA 11W or 24VA * Typical minimum burden with no opto-inputs or output contacts energised.120V 380 . P343 P343.5VA 7. These CT requirements are designed to provide operation of all protection elements.01VA at rated current <40mΩ over 0 .

or the actual lead resistance exceeds the limiting values.5mA CURRENT TRANSFORMER REQUIREMENTS P341 CT requirements The current transformer requirements are based on a maximum prospective fault current of 50In and the relay having an instantaneous setting of 25In.25W Opto-inputs Energising Voltage 0 to 300V dc Peak Current 3. CT specification Nominal Rating 1A 5A Nominal Output 2. For specific applications such as SEF and REF protection.19W 0.30Ω 0. of MiCOM Relays Additional burdens on auxiliary supply Additional Burden Energising Voltage 24 to 54V dc Per energised opto-input 110 to 125V dc 220 to 250V dc Per energised output contact With optional 2nd rear communications - B&CT/EN AP/B11 Page 23/46 Burden 0.Application Notes Burdens & CT Req.13W 1.residual CT connection Non-directional/directional time delayed SEF Vk ≥ Ifn × (Rct + 2Rl + Rrp + Rrn ) 2 .5VA 7.5VA Accuracy Class 10P 10P Accuracy Limit Factor (ALF) 20 20 Limiting Lead Resistance 1.12W 0. the CT requirements may need to be increased according to the formulae in the following sections.11Ω Where the criteria for a specific application are in excess of those detailed above.09W 0. These CT requirements are designed to provide operation of all protection elements. Minimum knee-point voltage Non-directional/directional DT/IDMT overcurrent and earth fault protection Time-delayed phase overcurrent Time-delayed earth fault overcurrent × (Rct + Rl + Rrp ) 2 I Vk ≥ fn × (Rct + 2Rl + Rrp + Rrn ) 2 Vk ≥ Ifp Non-directional instantaneous overcurrent and earth fault protection Instantaneous phase overcurrent Instantaneous earth fault overcurrent Vk ≥ Isp × (Rct + Rl + Rrp ) Vk ≥ Isn × (Rct + 2Rl + Rrp + Rrn ) Directional instantaneous overcurrent and earth fault protection Instantaneous phase overcurrent Instantaneous earth fault overcurrent × (Rct + Rl + Rrp ) 2 I Vk ≥ fn × (Rct + 2Rl + Rrp + Rrn ) 2 Vk ≥ Ifp Non-directional/directional DT/IDMT SEF protection . refer to the sections below for CT accuracy class and kneepoint voltage requirements as appropriate.

P344 CT requirements The current transformer requirements for each current input will depend on the protection function with which they are related and whether the line current transformers are being shared with other current inputs. P342 . k1 =0%.2In. the CT requirements need to be multiplied by fn/fmin.core-balance CT connection Core-balance current transformers of metering class accuracy are required and should have a limiting secondary voltage satisfying the formulae given below: Non-directional/directional time delayed SEF Non-directional instantaneous SEF Directional instantaneous SEF Note: Vk ≥ Ifn × (Rct + 2Rl + Rrn ) 2 Vk ≥ Isn × (Rct + 2Rl + Rrn ) Vk ≥ Ifn × (Rct + 2Rl + Rrn ) 2 It should be ensured that the phase error of the applied core balance current transformer is less than 90 minutes at 10% of rated current and less than 150 minutes at 1% of rated current. k2 =150%. is: Vk ≥ 50Ιn (Rct + 2RL + Rr) with a minimum of 60 Ιn 60 Ιn for X/R <120 If <10In Vk ≥ 30Ιn (Rct + 2RL + Rr) with a minimum of for X/R < 40 If <10In Where the generator is impedance earthed and the maximum secondary earth fault current is less than Ιn then the CT knee point voltage requirements are: Vk ≥ 25Ιn (Rct + RL + Rr) with a minimum of 60 Ιn for X/R <60 If <10In . and with a boundary condition of through fault current ≤ 10In. The P34x is able to maintain all protection functions in service over a wide range of operating frequency due to its frequency tracking system (5–70Hz). Is2 =1. it will be necessary to use CTs with larger cores.05In. with settings of Is1 =0.B&CT/EN AP/B11 Page 24/46 Non-directional instantaneous SEF Directional instantaneous SEF Application Notes Burdens & CT Req. Where current transformers are being shared by multiple current inputs. of MiCOM Relays Vk ≥ Isn × (Rct + 2Rl + Rrp + Rrn ) Vk ≥ Ifn × (Rct + 2Rl + Rrp + Rrn ) 2 Non-directional/directional DT/IDMT SEF protection . Generator differential protection . the knee-point voltage requirements should be calculated for each input and the highest calculated value used. High impedance REF protection Refer to the high impedance REF protection CT requirements for the P342 – P344 generator protection relays in the following section.biased differential protection The knee-point voltage requirements for the current transformers used for the current inputs of the generator differential function. Reverse and low forward power protection Refer to the reverse and low forward power protection CT requirements for the P342 – P344 generator protection relays in the following section. In effect. When the P34x protection functions are required to operate accurately at low frequency.

it must be ensured that the most onerous condition is met. on which these CT requirements are based). X/R <120 If <5In Vk ≥ 40Ιn (Rct + RL + Rr) with a minimum of for X/R <120 If <10In For Class-X current transformers. then the CT knee-point voltage requirement and value of associated stabilising resistor is: Vk ≥ 2 × Is1 × R s R s = 1. This has been taken into account in the formula: Vk > 6 × N × In × (Rct + 2Rl + Rr ) Note: The maximum earth fault current should not be greater than 2In. it should be ensured that class 5P are used. For IEC standard protection class CTs. Also assumed is that the maximum X/R ratio for the impedance to a bus earth fault will be no greater than 10. For IEC standard protection class CTs. it should be ensured that class 5P are used. 50In. the rated primary current for a core-balance CT may not be equal to the stator winding rated current.e.e.Application Notes Burdens & CT Req. The formula is equally applicable for CTs mounted at either the neutral-tail end or terminal end of the generator. field failure and negative phase sequence protection When determining the CT requirements for an input that supplies several protection functions. the excitation current at the calculated knee-point voltage requirement should be less than 2. Vk ≥ 20 × In × (Rct + 2Rl + Rr ) For class PX CTs. Core-balance CT connection Unlike a line CT. The core-balance CT must be selected accordingly. i. on which these CT requirements are based). . N ≤ 2. of MiCOM Relays Vk ≥ 30Ιn (Rct + RL + Rr) with a minimum of 60 Ιn 60 Ιn B&CT/EN AP/B11 Page 25/46 for X/R <100 If <10In.5 × If × (Rct + 2Rl ) Is1 Voltage dependent overcurrent.3In (i. it should be ensured that class 5P are used.high impedance differential protection If the generator differential protection function is used to implement high impedance differential protection. the excitation current at the calculated knee-point voltage requirement should be less than 1. less than 5% of the maximum prospective fault current.5In (5% of the maximum prospective fault current. For IEC standard protection class CTs. The required minimum knee-point voltage will therefore be: Vk ≥ 6 × In × (Rct + 2Rl + Rr ) For class PX CTs. the excitation current at the calculated knee-point voltage requirement should be less than 0. Generator differential protection . This has been taken into account in the formula given below.0In. 20In. Directional sensitive earth fault protection Residual CT connection It has been assumed that the directional SEF protection function will only be applied when the stator earth fault current is limited to the stator winding rated current or less.

Non-directional DT/IDMT earth fault protection Time-delayed earth fault overcurrent elements Non-directional instantaneous earth fault protection Instantaneous earth fault overcurrent elements Low impedance REF protection When X/R ≤ 40 and If ≤ 15In: Vk ≥ 24 × In × (Rct + 2Rl ) Vk ≥ Isn × (Rct + 2Rl + Rrn ) Vk ≥ Ifn × (Rct + 2Rl + Rrn ) 2 When X/R ≤ 40 and 15In < If ≤ 40In or 40 < X/R ≤ 120 and If ≤ 15In: Vk ≥ 48 × In × (Rct + 2Rl ) Note: Class PX or 5P CTs should be used for low impedance REF applications. Use of the P34x sensitive power phase shift compensation feature will help in this situation. Metering class current transformers For low power settings (<3% Pn). Vk ≥ 4 × Is × Rs Rs = If × (Rct + 2Rl ) Is Reverse and low forward power protection For both reverse and low forward power protection function settings greater than 3% Pn.B&CT/EN AP/B11 Page 26/46 Stator earth fault protection Application Notes Burdens & CT Req. Protection class current transformers For less sensitive power function settings (>3% Pn). the phase angle errors of suitable protection class current transformers will not result in any risk of maloperation or failure to operate. To correctly load the current transformer. High impedance REF protection The high impedance REF element shall maintain stability for through faults and operate in less than 40ms for internal faults provided the following conditions are met in determining the CT requirements and value of associated stabilising resistor. it is recommended that the current input is driven by a correctly loaded metering class current transformer. However. its VA rating should match the VA burden (at rated current) of the external secondary circuit through which it is required to drive current. The current transformer accuracy class will be dependent on the reverse power and low forward power sensitivity required. its VA rating should match the VA burden (at rated current) of the external secondary circuit through which it is required to drive current. The table below indicates the metering class current transformer required for various power settings below 3% Pn. To correctly load the current transformer. the In sensitive current input of the P34x should be driven by a correctly loaded metering class current transformer. the phase current input of the P34x should be driven by a correctly loaded class 5P protection current transformer. . for the sensitive power protection if settings less than 3% are used. of MiCOM Relays The earth fault current input is used by the stator earth fault protection function.

See below for additional burdens.0. P432. P439 P436 P433.4 2. P435.4. 0. P438.4 6.1 6.6 0.1VA CT Burden Earth Voltage circuit VT Input Vn 50 .0 2.0 1.6 1.1 Distance protection relays P430C.8 3. P437.Application Notes Burdens & CT Req. P436.5 0. P439 P432 Nominal Burden* 4W 13W 13W 13W 13W Maximum Burden 8W 29W 37W 37W 40W 84TE * Typical minimum burden at 220V dc with no opto-inputs or output contacts energised.2 B&CT/EN AP/B11 Page 27/46 Measuring CT Class 0.5 0. P435.4 1.8 1. . of MiCOM Relays Reverse and Low Forward PowerSettings %Pn 0. P437.8 2.2 1.130V VT Burden < 0.6 2.2 2.0 1. P439 BURDENS Current circuit CT Input Phase In 1A 5A 1A 5A < 0.3VA rms at 130V Auxiliary supply Case Size Compact 40TE Relay P430C P433. P438. P435. P433.

The required dimensioning factor. such that the correct operation of the required protection is guaranteed under the given conditions. it is sufficient to select the dimensioning factor. it is advantageous to use class TPY current transformers conforming to IEC 60044-6 Part 6 (current transformers having anti-remanence cores). of MiCOM Relays Burden 0. Phase fault distance protection Earth fault distance protection Vk ≥ k × Ifp × (Rct + Rl + Rrp ) Vk ≥ k × Ifn × (Rct + 2Rl + Rrp + Rrn ) Theoretically. Instead. calculated as follows: k ≈ 1 + ωT1 = 1+ X / R However.B&CT/EN AP/B11 Page 28/46 Additional burdens on auxiliary supply Additional Burden Per energised opto-input Energising Voltage 19 to 110V dc > 110V dc Application Notes Burdens & CT Req. k. k. this is not necessary. for distance protection if auto-reclosing is not used can be obtained from Figure 3. Note: The P436 and P438 may be applied at low system frequencies of 16⅔Hz or 25Hz. . If auto-reclosing is used. Any VA or knee-point voltage quoted must apply at the chosen nominal frequency (fn).5W ±30% Vin × 5mA ±30% CURRENT TRANSFORMER REQUIREMENTS CT specification The current transformers should comply with the IEC 60044-1 class 5P fault limit values. Minimum knee-point voltage Distance protection The knee-point voltage of the CTs should comply with the minimum requirements of the formulae shown below. the CT could be dimensioned to avoid saturation by using the maximum value of k. The dotted line represents the theoretical characteristic maximum k = 1+ X/R.

04VA at rated current <0. k. If auto-reclosing is used.03VA rms at 110V .30In Impedance Voltage circuit VT Input Vn 100 .01VA at rated current <40mΩ over 0 .30In <8mΩ over 0 . P442.Application Notes Burdens & CT Req.4. P444 BURDENS Current circuit In VA Burden 1A 5A 1A 5A CT Burden <0. of MiCOM Relays B&CT/EN AP/B11 Page 29/46 Figure 3: Dimensioning factor.120V VT Burden < 0.2 P441. for distance protection (fn = 50Hz) Note: T1 = X /R X /R = 2π × fn ω (in seconds) This CT requirement ensures tripping of the distance element within 120ms at 95% of the set zone reach. the dimensioning factor k for the CTs is increased as follows: t' ⎡ ⎛ − k + ⎢1 + ω ⋅ T1 ⋅ ⎜ 1 − e T1 ⎢ ⎜ ⎢ ⎝ ⎣ ⎞ ⎤ − t fr ⎟ ⎥ ⋅ e Ts ⎟⎥ ⎥ ⎠⎦ 6.

See below for additional burdens.09W 0.25W 3.25W 2. class PX or 5P CTs are recommended. Minimum knee-point voltage Distance protection The knee-point voltage of the CTs should comply with the minimum requirements of the formulae shown below.75W Opto-inputs Energising Voltage 0 to 300V dc Peak Current > 3.B&CT/EN AP/B11 Page 30/46 Auxiliary supply Case Size Size 8/40TE Size 12/60TE Size 16/80TE Relay P441 P442 P444 Nominal Burden* 15W or 16VA 18W or 19VA 21W or 22VA Application Notes Burdens & CT Req.5mA CURRENT TRANSFORMER REQUIREMENTS CT specification For accuracy.6 × Ife Z1 × (1 + Xe / Re ) × (Rct + 2Rl ) The required knee-point voltage must be calculated for the three phase fault current at the Zone 1 reach and also for the earth fault current at the Zone 1 reach.6 × If Z1 × (1 + X / R) × (Rct + Rl ) Earth fault distance protection Vk ≥ 0. Additional burdens on auxiliary supply Additional Burden Energising Voltage 24 to 54V dc Per energised opto-input 110 to 125V dc 220 to 250V dc Per energised output contact With optional 2nd rear communications With optional 10Mbps Ethernet card With optional 100Mbps Ethernet card Burden 0. The higher of the two calculated knee-point voltages is used. of MiCOM Relays Maximum Burden 20W or 20VA 26W or 26VA * Typical burden with half of the opto-inputs and one output contact per board energised.12W 0.19W 0. Phase fault distance protection Vk ≥ 0. .13W 1.

See below for additional burdens.25W 1.120V VT Burden < 0. class PX or 5P CTs are recommended.02VA rms at 110 V 3 Auxiliary supply Case Size Size 8/40TE Size 12/60TE Size 16/80TE Relay P445 P443 Nominal Burden* 12W or 24VA 12W or 24VA * Typical minimum burden with no opto-inputs or output contacts energised. of MiCOM Relays 6.04VA at rated current <0.Application Notes Burdens & CT Req.19W 0.5mA CURRENT TRANSFORMER REQUIREMENTS CT specification For accuracy.12W 0.6 × If Z1 × (1 + X / R) × (Rct + Rl ) .4. Zone 1 reach point accuracy Vk ≥ 0.25W Opto-inputs Energising Voltage 0 to 300V dc Peak Current 3.30In <8mΩ over 0 .09W 0. P445 (MiCOMho) BURDENS Current circuit In VA Burden 1A 5A 1A 5A B&CT/EN AP/B11 Page 31/46 CT Burden <0.01VA at rated current <40mΩ over 0 . Minimum knee-point voltage Distance protection The knee-point voltage of the CTs should comply with the minimum requirements of the formulae shown below. Additional burdens on auxiliary supply Additional Burden Energising Voltage 24 to 54V dc Per energised opto-input 110 to 125V dc 220 to 250V dc Per energised output contact With optional 2nd rear communications With optional InterMiCOM communications Burden 0.30In Impedance Voltage circuit VT Input Phase Vn 100 .3 P443.13W 1.

1 P521 BURDENS Current circuit CT Input Phase In 1A 5A 1A 5A CT Burden < 0.3VA at In < 0.1In < 0.4VA CURRENT TRANSFORMER REQUIREMENTS CT specification For accuracy. See below for additional burdens. Under no circumstances should the X/R ratio from one fault direction and the fault level from the other be used to calculate the kneepoint.4 × If max Application Notes Burdens & CT Req.1In Earth Auxiliary supply Case Size Size 6/30TE Relay P521 Nominal Burden* 3W or 6VA * Typical minimum burden with no opto-inputs or output contacts energised.008VA at 0. In the case of single end fed (radial) systems the through fault level and X/R ratio should be calculated assuming the fault occurs at the location of the remote CT. In this case the fault level and X/R ratio should be calculated at both the local and remote CTs. but selecting the correct value for the CT requirements is critical.4W or 0. as the phase reach (3∅) calculation is the worst case for CT dimensioning. Vk ≥ K s × K t × In × (Rct + 2Rl ) . should be based upon the fault direction that gives the highest knee-point voltage. 6. In doing so the X/R ratio and fault level will be evaluated for both fault directions.5 Current differential protection relays Selection of X/R ratio and fault level The value of X/R ratio and fault level will vary from one system to another. class PX or 5P CTs are recommended. Additional burdens on auxiliary supply Additional Burden Per energised opto-input Per energised output contact Energising Voltage Burden 10mA 0. It is not necessary to repeat the calculation for earth faults. Doing so may result in exaggerated and unrealistic CT requirements. further consideration is required. however.5.025VA at In < 0. such as parallel feeders and ring main circuits.01VA at 0. of MiCOM Relays × (Rct + Rl ) The higher of the two calculated knee-point voltages is used. The CT requirements.B&CT/EN AP/B11 Page 32/46 Zone 1 close-up fault operation Vk ≥ 1. For systems where the current can feed through the protected feeder in both directions. 6. Minimum knee-point voltage Current differential protection The knee-point voltage of the CTs should comply with the minimum requirements of the formulae shown below.

a retrofit application where the CTs are already installed).Application Notes Burdens & CT Req.15s When X/R ≥ 40: K t = 1 − ( 2. Ks is determined as follows: When X/R < 40: Ks = ⎡ ⎣0.P546 BURDENS Current circuit In VA Burden 1A 5A 1A 5A CT Burden <0. The tIDiff setting allows the user to increase the relay operating time thus making the relay more stable.30In <8mΩ over 0 .P546) Vn 100 .30In Impedance Voltage circuit VT Input All (P543 .024 × If × (X / R + 44)⎦ ⎤+⎣ ⎡0.2 × tIDiff ) K t = 0. Kt =1.25s Core-balance CTs of metering class accuracy are required and should have a knee-point voltage satisfying the following formula: Vk ≥ Ifn × (Rct + 2Rl + Rrn ) 6. Further reductions in CT knee-point are possible with longer time delays. of MiCOM Relays B&CT/EN AP/B11 Page 33/46 Ks is a constant depending on the maximum value of through fault current (as a multiple of In) and the primary system X/R ratio.04VA at rated current <0.g.9 × (X / R + 26)⎤ ⎦ When X/R ≥ 40: Ks = ⎣ ⎡0.06 × (X / R + 725)⎦ ⎤ Kt is a constant depending on the current differential operating time (tIDiff) and the primary system X/R ratio.023 × If × (X / R + 55)⎤ ⎦+⎡ ⎣0.5.e. tIDiff =0s.120V VT Burden < 0. i.02VA rms at 110V . For applications where the relay is set for instantaneous operation.01VA at rated current <40mΩ over 0 .07 for tIDiff ≤ 0. For applications where the CT knee-point voltage is fixed (e.5 × tIDiff ) SEF protection Core-balance CT connection for tIDiff ≤ 0. When a time delay is applied. For some applications a time setting of 50ms may reduce the required CT knee-point voltage by as much as 30%.15s for tIDiff > 0. Kt is determined as follows: When X/R < 40: K t = 1 − ( 6.2 P541 . it may be possible to reduce the CT requirements by adding a small time delay to the relay.

See below for additional burdens. of MiCOM Relays Nominal Burden* 11W or 24VA 11W or 24VA 11W or 24VA * Typical minimum burden with no opto-inputs or output contacts energised.12W 0.19W 0. k2 =150% (k2 typically set at 150% for twoended current differential schemes): When (If × X/R) ≤ 1000 × In: K ≥ 40 + 0.B&CT/EN AP/B11 Page 34/46 Auxiliary supply Case Size Size 8/40TE Size 12/60TE Size 16/80TE Relay P541 P542 . Is2 =2In.P544 P545.13W 1.75W Opto-inputs Energising Voltage 0 to 300V dc Peak Current 3. k1 =30%.5mA CURRENT TRANSFORMER REQUIREMENTS CT specification For accuracy.25W 2. Is2 =2In.07 × (If × X / R) & K ≥ 65 When 1000 × In < (If × X/R) ≤ 1600 × In: K = 107 For relays set at Is1 =0. P546 Application Notes Burdens & CT Req.09W 0. Minimum knee-point voltage Current differential protection The knee-point voltage of the CTs should comply with the minimum requirements of the formulae shown below. If (as a multiple of In) and the primary system X/R ratio.2In. K is determined as follows: For relays set at Is1 =0. k2 =100% (k2 typically set at 100% for three-ended current differential schemes): When (If × X/R) ≤ 600 × In: . class PX or 5P CTs are recommended. Vk ≥ K × In × (Rct + 2Rl ) K is a constant depending on the maximum value of through fault current.2In. Additional burdens on auxiliary supply Additional Burden Energising Voltage 24 to 54V dc Per energised opto-input 110 to 125V dc 220 to 250V dc Per energised output contact With optional 2nd rear communications With optional 10Mbps Ethernet card With optional 100Mbps Ethernet card Burden 0. k1 =30%.25W 3.

of MiCOM Relays B&CT/EN AP/B11 Page 35/46 K ≥ 40 + 0. Additional burdens on auxiliary supply Additional Burden Energising Voltage 24 to 54V dc Per energised opto-input 110 to 125V dc 220 to 250V dc Per energised output contact With optional 2nd rear communications Burden 0. The core-balance CT must be selected accordingly.3 P547 BURDENS Current circuit In VA Burden 1A 5A 1A 5A CT Burden <0.e. 6. See below for additional burdens.30In Impedance Auxiliary supply Case Size Size 8/40TE Relay P547 Nominal Burden* 15W * Typical minimum burden with no opto-inputs or output contacts energised.09W 0. Minimum knee-point voltage The knee-point voltage of the CTs should comply with the minimum requirements of the formulae shown below.5.35 × (If × X / R) & K ≥ 65 When 600 × In < (If × X/R) ≤ 1600 × In: K = 256 Earth fault protection Core-balance CT connection Vk ≥ 6 × N × In × (Rct + 2Rl ) Note: Applicable when X/R ≤ 5 and the maximum earth fault current is not greater than 2In.5mA CURRENT TRANSFORMER REQUIREMENTS CT specification For accuracy.01VA at rated current <40mΩ over 0 .04VA at rated current <0. class PX or 5P CTs are recommended.13W 1. i.12W 0. .Application Notes Burdens & CT Req. N ≤ 2.19W 0.25W Opto-inputs Energising Voltage 0 to 300V dc Peak Current 3.30In <8mΩ over 0 .

P633 P632 .4 P591 . See below for additional burdens.6 6.130V VT Burden < 0.3VA rms at 130V Auxiliary supply Case Size Compact 40TE 84TE Relay P630C P631 .P634. P631 .1W 42.5W ±30% Vin × 5mA ±30% CURRENT TRANSFORMER REQUIREMENTS CT specification IEC 60044-1 accuracy class 5P or equivalent.P634 P638 Nominal Burden* 8W 12. P638 BURDENS Current circuit CT Input Phase In 1A 5A 1A 5A < 0.5.5W 13W Maximum Burden 10W 34.3W 32W * Typical minimum burden at 220V dc with no opto-inputs or output contacts energised.6W 14.8W at 220V dc 6.P595 Auxiliary supply Case Size Size 4/20TE Compact Relay P591 . of MiCOM Relays 6. Additional burdens on auxiliary supply Additional Burden Per energised opto-input Energising Voltage 19 to 110V dc > 110V dc Burden 0.15 × X / R ) ⎤ ⎦ × (Rct + 2Rl ) Application Notes Burdens & CT Req.6.P594 P595 Nominal Burden 4W 7. Note: The P638 may be applied at low system frequencies of 16⅔Hz or 25Hz. Any VA or knee-point voltage quoted must apply at the chosen nominal frequency (fn). Minimum knee-point voltage Differential protection .1 Transformer differential protection relays P630C.B&CT/EN AP/B11 Page 36/46 Vk ≥ If × ⎡ ⎣1 + ( 0.1VA CT Burden Earth Voltage circuit VT Input Vn 50 .

The through fault current in all but ring bus or mesh fed transformers is given by the inverse of the per unit reactance of the transformer. m2 = 0. As the line CTs for low impedance REF protection are the same as those used for differential protection the differential CT requirements cover both differential and low impedance REF applications.1pu. giving: Vk ≥ If × (Rct + 2Rl ) Alternatively.3.m2 = 4 Iref. m2 = 0. For transformer differential protection. Idiff> = 0.05 to 0. K is determined as follows: When (If × X/R) ≤ 500 × In: K = 0. the reactance varies between 0. This cancels out the 0. The higher of the two calculated knee-point voltages is used. IR. and for busbar differential protection. High impedance REF protection The high impedance REF element shall maintain stability for through faults and operate in less than 40ms for internal faults provided the following conditions are met in determining the CT requirements and value of associated stabilising resistor: Vk > 2 × Idiff > × R s R s = 1. For conventional transformers (non-autotransformer).2 Iref.7. leaving only the maximum secondary through fault current (If) to multiply with the loop resistance. the X/R ratio is typically 7. as a conservative estimate: Vk ≥ (Rct + 2Rl ) Xt Low impedance REF protection The CT requirements for low impedance REF protection are generally lower than those for differential protection.m2 = 1.8 Iref. Idiff> = 1.14 × (If × X / R) When 500 × In < (If × X/R) < 1200 × In: K = 70 For earth faults. Ke is determined as follows: When (Ife × X/R) ≤ 500 × In: K e = 0.Application Notes Burdens & CT Req. For phase faults.8.1× If × (Rct + 2Rl ) Idiff > . of MiCOM Relays B&CT/EN AP/B11 Page 37/46 The required knee-point voltage must be calculated for phase fault current and also for the earth fault current. For most transformers. therefore typical through fault current is given by 10 to 20In. m1 = 0. m1 = 0. IR. The CT requirements are based on the default settings. Phase fault differential protection Earth fault differential protection Vk ≥ K × (Rct + Rl ) Vk ≥ K e × (Rct + 2Rl ) K is a constant depending on the maximum value of through fault current (as a multiple of In) and the primary system X/R ratio.2.14 multiplier.14 × (Ife × X / R) When 500 × In < (Ife × X/R) < 1200 × In: K e = 70 Typical knee-point voltage requirement for transformer differential protection The through fault stability required for most transformer applications is determined by the external through fault current and transformer X/R ratio.2 Iref.

. 15 20 6. of MiCOM Relays For faster operation of the REF element.5 to 40 In.30In <8mΩ over 0 .7.01VA at rated current <40mΩ over 0 .7 6.32W 37 .1 Busbar protection relays P741 .04VA at rated current <0.P743 BURDENS Current circuit In VA Burden 1A 5A 1A 5A CT Burden <0.B&CT/EN AP/B11 Page 38/46 Application Notes Burdens & CT Req. See below for additional burdens.23W 22 . Refer to the graph below showing the operating time of the REF element for differing ratios.30In Impedance Auxiliary supply Case Size Size 8/40TE Size 12/60TE Size 16/80TE Relay P742 P743 P741 (with all comms boards) Nominal Burden* 16 .41W * Typical minimum burden with no opto-inputs or output contacts energised. a larger knee-point voltage will provide reduced operating times. 45 40 35 Operating time (ms) 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 0 5 10 Vk / ( Idiff> × R s ) Note: The diagram is the result of investigations which were carried out for impedance ratios in the range of 5 to 120 and for fault currents in the range of 0.

Minimum knee-point voltage Differential protection The knee-point voltage of the CTs should comply with the minimum requirements of the formulae shown below.8. therefore allowing different classes of CTs to be used in the same scheme.19W 0.4ms with a remanent flux of 80% of maximum flux (class TPX). The following CT specifications may be used: IEC 60044-1 class 5P or PX (equivalent to BS 3938 class X) IEC 60044-6 class TPX.5mA CURRENT TRANSFORMER REQUIREMENTS CT specification The characteristics of the CTs are set in each peripheral unit (P742/P743).8 6. 6.3VA at In < 0.09W 0.01VA at 0.1In Earth .13 class C. of MiCOM Relays Additional burdens on auxiliary supply Additional Burden Energising Voltage 24 to 54V dc Per energised opto-input 110 to 125V dc 220 to 250V dc Per energised output contact - B&CT/EN AP/B11 Page 39/46 Burden 0.1In < 0. This provides a sufficient margin of security for CT saturation detection.5 × If max × (Rct + 2Rl ) And for each CT: Vk ≥ If max int × (Rct + 2Rl ) The recommended specification makes it possible to guarantee a saturation time greater than 1.13W Opto-inputs Energising Voltage 0 to 300V dc Peak Current 3. Note: The following knee-point requirements can be converted to an equivalent C voltage classification as per Appendix B.Application Notes Burdens & CT Req.1 Circuit breaker fail protection relay P821 BURDENS Current circuit CT Input Phase In 1A 5A 1A 5A CT Burden < 0.025VA at In < 0.008VA at 0. TPY or TPZ IEEE C57. Vk ≥ 0.12W 0.

See below for additional burdens.5mA 0. Additional burdens on auxiliary supply Additional Burden Relay Auxiliary Voltage 24 to 60V dc Per energised opto-input 48 to 125V dc 130 to 250V dc Per energised output contact Burden 10mA 5mA 2.25W or 0. Additional burdens on auxiliary supply Additional Burden Per energised opto-input Per energised output contact Energising Voltage Burden < 10mA 0.36VA Auxiliary supply Case Size Size 4/20TE Relay P921 .480V VT Burden < 0.1 5VA 5P10 (for 1A or 5A secondaries) Voltage and frequency protection relays P921 . of MiCOM Relays Nominal Burden* 2W or 5VA * Typical minimum burden with no opto-inputs or output contacts energised.15VA rms at 440V .P923 Nominal Burden* 3W * Nominal is with 50% of the opto-inputs energised and one output contact per card energised.9.120V 380 .P943 BURDENS Voltage circuit VT Input All Vn 100 .9.B&CT/EN AP/B11 Page 40/46 Auxiliary supply Case Size Size 4/20TE Relay P821 Application Notes Burdens & CT Req.25W or 0.4VA CURRENT TRANSFORMER REQUIREMENTS CT specification Assuming that the CT does not supply any circuits other than the MiCOM P821.480V VT Burden < 0.P923 BURDENS Voltage circuit VT Input All Vn 57 . the following CT types are recommended: • 6.2 P941 .02VA rms at 110V < 0.4VA 6.25VA < 0. See below for additional burdens.130V 220 . in practice.9 6.

See below for additional burdens. P942 P943 B&CT/EN AP/B11 Page 41/46 Nominal Burden* 11W or 24VA 11W or 24VA * Typical minimum burden with no opto-inputs or output contacts energised.19W 0.09W 0.12W 0. Additional burdens on auxiliary supply Additional Burden Energising Voltage 24 to 54V dc Per energised opto-input 110 to 125V dc 220 to 250V dc Per energised output contact Burden 0.13W Opto-inputs Energising Voltage 0 to 300V dc Peak Current 3.5mA .Application Notes Burdens & CT Req. of MiCOM Relays Auxiliary supply Case Size Size 8/40TE Size 12/60TE Relay P941.

4 The nearest accuracy limit factor above 19.025VA The nearest rating above this will be 2.B&CT/EN AP/B11 Page 42/46 Application Notes Burdens & CT Req.3V using a current transformer secondary winding resistance of 2Ω.4 is 20.5 = 19. 20 is the ALF). To ensure that the current transformer has a high enough rating for the relay’s burden it is necessary to work out the current transformer’s continuous VA rating using the following formula: VA ct > In2 × (Rl + Rr ) Example 1: An estimate of the secondary limiting voltage of a 400/5A current transformer of class 5P 10 with a rated output burden of 15VA and a secondary winding resistance of 0. .5 × ALF 87. The secondary limiting voltage required has been calculated at 87.e. specified in this document.1 APPENDIX A Converting an IEC 60044-1 protection classification to a limiting secondary voltage The suitability of a standard protection current transformer can be checked against the limiting secondary voltage requirements.5VA is the rated burden. The current transformer rated output burden must be: VA ct ≥ In2 × (Rl + Rr ) ≥ 12 × (1 + 0.5VA 10P 20.2 5 = 40V Example 2: For a particular application of a 1A MiCOM overcurrent relay it is required to determine the most appropriate class P current transformer to be used. of MiCOM Relays 7. Therefore the current transformer required to supply the MiCOM overcurrent relay will be a 2. The accuracy limit factor required can be determined by: Vk = 87.3 = VA × ALF + ALF × In × Rct In 2.3 ALF = 4.5VA. 10 (%) is the nominal accuracy class. 2.2Ω will be: Vk ≈ 15 × 10 + 10 × 5 × 0.5 × ALF + ALF × 1× 2 1 = 4. 7. An estimated limiting secondary voltage can be obtained as follows: Vk ≈ VA × ALF + ( ALF × In × Rct ) In If Rct is not available. (i. then the second term in the above equation can be ignored as it typically only adds a small amount to the estimated secondary limiting voltage.025) ≥ 1.

e. In =5A.5V C100 Vk 109V 113V 121V 137V 145V 165V 185V 225V C200 Vk 214V 218V 226V 242V 250V 270V 290V 330V C400 Vk 424V 428V 436V 452V 460V 480V 500V 540V C800 Vk 844V 848V 856V 872V 880V 900V 920V 960V * Assuming 0.05 ) + (K ssc × In × Rct ) = ( C × 1.1 APPENDIX B Converting IEC 60044-1 standard protection classification to IEEE standard voltage rating The MiCOM series protection relays are compatible with ANSI/IEEE CTs as specified in the IEEE C57.002 /turn typical secondary winding resistance for 5A CTs. The equivalence formula is: Vk = ( C × 1.16Ω 0.5V 172.13 ratings to be converted to a typical IEC knee-point voltage: IEEE C57.13 C Classification CT Ratio Rct* C50 Vk 100/5 200/5 400/5 800/5 1000/5 1500/5 2000/5 3000/5 0.40Ω 0. and are defined with an accuracy limit factor of 20.05 ) + (100 × Rct ) Note: IEEE CTs are always 5A secondary rated. This is because the IEEE voltage rating is defined in terms of useful output voltage at the terminals of the CT. .5V 112.e. of MiCOM Relays B&CT/EN AP/B11 Page 43/46 8. whereas the IEC knee-point voltage includes the voltage drop across the internal resistance of the CT secondary winding added to the useful output. The CT design is identical to IEC class P but the rating is specified differently. The applicable class for protection is class "C". The following table allows C57.5V 84. i.60Ω 0.5V 68.5V 60. 8.80Ω 1.04Ω 0. the C class voltage rating can be checked to determine the equivalent knee-point voltage (Vk) according to IEC. i. The IEEE C class standard voltage rating required will be lower than an IEC knee-point voltage.5V 132.5V 92.08Ω 0. Where IEEE standards are used to specify CTs. Kssc =20.32Ω 0. which specifies a non air-gapped core.13 standard. The IEC knee-point is also typically 5% higher than the IEEE knee-point.20Ω 56.Application Notes Burdens & CT Req.

For satisfactory application of a Metrosil. The peak voltage produced during an internal fault will be a function of the current transformer knee-point voltage and the prospective voltage (Vf) that would be produced for an internal fault if current transformer saturation did not occur. At the relay voltage setting. . the Metrosil current should be as low as possible and no greater than ≈ 30mA rms for 1A CTs and ≈ 100mA rms for 5A CTs. At the relay voltage setting. it's characteristic should be such that it complies with the following requirements: 1. At the maximum secondary internal fault current the Metrosil should limit the voltage to 1500V rms if possible. the Metrosil current should be less than 30mA rms.52 times the peak current. relay and interconnecting leads. it is not always possible to limit the fault voltage to 1500V rms. to a value below the insulation level of the current transformers.1 APPENDIX C Use of METROSIL non-linear resistors “Metrosils” (non-linear resistors) are used to limit the peak voltage developed by the current transformers under internal fault conditions. The following tables show the typical Metrosil types that will be required. so higher fault voltages may have to be tolerated. 9. This is due to the fact that the current waveform through the metrosil is not sinusoidal but appreciably distorted. Metrosils are externally mounted and take the form of annular discs. REF voltage setting etc. Metrosils should be applied. 2. This current value can be calculated as follows: I(rms) ⎛ 2 × Vsin(rms) ⎞ ⎟ = 0.25s.52 × ⎜ ⎜ ⎟ C ⎝ ⎠ 4 where Vsin(rms) = rms value of the sinusoidal voltage applied across the Metrosil.B&CT/EN AP/B11 Page 44/46 Application Notes Burdens & CT Req. Metrosil units for relays using 1A CTs The Metrosil units for 1A CTs have been designed to comply with the following restrictions: 1. Vp = 2 2 × Vk × (Vf − Vk ) Vf = I'f × (Rct + 2Rl + Rs ) When the value given by the formulae is greater than 3000V peak.25 where V C I = Instantaneous voltage applied to the Metrosil = Characteristic constant of the Metrosil = Instantaneous current through the Metrosil With a sinusoidal voltage applied across the Metrosil. the RMS current would be approximately 0. 2. of MiCOM Relays 9. Their operating characteristics follow the expression: V = C × I0. which are normally able to withstand 3000V peak. At higher relay voltage settings. depending on relay current rating. The following formulae should be used to estimate the peak transient voltage (Vp) that could be produced for an internal fault. the Metrosil should limit the voltage to 1500V rms or 2120V peak for 0. They are connected across the relay circuit and serve the purpose of shunting the secondary current output of the current transformer from the relay in order to prevent very high secondary voltages. At the maximum secondary current.

At the relay voltage setting.25s.300V rms Nominal Characteristic C 450 900 β 0. Note: The Metrosil units recommended for use with 5A CTs can also be applied for use with triple pole relays and consist of three single pole units mounted on the same central stud but electrically insulated from each other. ***). of MiCOM Relays B&CT/EN AP/B11 Page 45/46 The Metrosil units normally recommended for use with 1A CTs are as shown in the following table: Relay Voltage Setting Up to 125V rms 125 . followed by the single pole type reference. Metrosil units for relays using 5A CTs These Metrosil units have been designed to comply with the following requirements: 1. Contact AREVA T&D for detailed applications. ** 2200V peak. **. Metrosil units for higher relay voltage settings and fault currents can also be supplied if required. The Metrosil units normally recommended for use with 5A CTs and single pole relays are as shown in the following table: Secondary Internal Fault Current 50A rms Recommended Metrosil Type Relay Voltage Setting Up to 200V rms 600A/S1/S1213 C = 540/640 35mA rms 600A/S2/P/S1217 C = 470/540 70mA rms 600A/S3/P/S1219 C = 430/500 100mA rms 250V rms 600A/S1/S1214 C = 670/800 40mA rms 600A/S2/P/S1215 C = 570/670 75mA rms 600A/S3/P/S1220 C = 520/620 100mA rms 275V rms 600A/S1/S1214 C = 670/800 50mA rms 600A/S2/P/S1215 C = 570/670 100mA rms 600A/S3/P/S1221 C = 570/670** 100mA rms 300V rms 600A/S1/S1223 C = 740/870* 50mA rms 600A/S2/P/S1196 C = 620/740* 100mA rms 600A/S3/P/S1222 C = 620/740*** 100mA rms 100A rms 150A rms * 2400V peak.25 Recommended Metrosil Type Single Pole Relay 600A/S1/S256 600A/S1/S1088 Triple Pole Relay 600A/S3/1/S802 600A/S3/1/S1195 Note: Single pole Metrosil units are normally supplied without mounting brackets unless otherwise specified by the customer. At the higher relay settings. it is not possible to limit the fault voltage to 1500V rms hence higher fault voltages have to be tolerated (indicated by *.25 0. . At the maximum secondary internal fault current the Metrosil unit should limit the voltage to 1500V rms for 0. To order these units please specify "Triple pole Metrosil type". 2. the Metrosil current should be less than 100mA rms (the actual maximum currents passed by the units is shown below their type description). *** 2600V peak In some situations single disc assemblies may be acceptable.Application Notes Burdens & CT Req.

Where only one or two relays are wired as a fused spur. Note: This applies to MiCOM Px10.1 APPENDIX D Fuse rating of auxiliary supply Use of standard ratings between 6A and 16A is recommended. It also applies to Px40 series devices with hardware suffix C and later as these have inrush current limitation on switch-on to conserve the fuse-link. miniature circuit breakers (MCB’s) may be used to protect the auxiliary supply circuits. Generally. or if a UL recognised fuse is required. This gives equivalent characteristics to HRC "Red Spot" fuse types NIT/TIA often specified historically. of MiCOM Relays 10. 10. it is acceptable to use a 6A rating. five relays could be connected on a spur protected at 10A. and ten relays for a 15 or 16A fuse. Px30 series devices. Alternatively. Low voltage fuse-links rated for 250V minimum and compliant with IEC60269-1 general application type gG with high rupturing capacity are acceptable. The recommended external protective fuse for the auxiliary DC supply of the P59x series interface units is a 2A HRC (high rupture capacity) GE Red Spot type NIT or TIA.B&CT/EN AP/B11 Page 46/46 Application Notes Burdens & CT Req. 2A time delay Gould type AJT2. Px20. .

.

Publication: B&CT/EN AP/B11 AREVA T&D's Automation & Information Systems Business www.com T&D Worldwide Contact Centre online 24 hours a day: +44 (0) 1785 25 00 70 http://www.areva-td.areva-td.com/contactcentre/ .

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful