# Absolute Temperature

We showed: Energy efficiency of the Carnot cycle is
independent of the working substance.
Definition of temperature independent of any material property
A temperature scale is an absolute temperature scale if and only if
C
2
C
1
2
1
Q
Q
T
T
=
where
,
C
1
Q
and
C
2
Q
are the heats exchanged by a Carnot cycle
operating between reservoirs at temperatures T
1
and T
2
.
Measurement of
2
1
c
2
C
1
C
T
T
1
Q
Q
1 ÷ = ÷ = q
Temperature ratio
2
1
T
T
T
1
T
2

W
C
2
Q
C
1
Q
As discussed earlier, unique temperature scale requires fixed point
fix
C
2
C
1
T
Q
Q
T =
or ( )
fix C
T 1 T q ÷ =
Kelvin-scale:
T
fix
=T
tripel
=273.16K
It turns out:
proportional to thermodynamic Temperature T
empirical gas temperature
V
3
0
3
P
3 g
P
P
lim
|
|
.
|

\
|
u = u
÷
Why
Because: Calculation of efficiency of Carnot cycle based on u = nR PV
yields
2
1
C
1
u
u
÷ = q
T a = u
With
fix fix
T = u
a=1
T = u
C
2
C
1
2
1
Q
Q
T
T
=
From definition of thermodynamic temperature
If any absolute temperature is positive all other absolute temperatures
are positive
there is an absolute zero of thermodynamic temperature
when the rejected heat
C
1
Q
0
T=0 can never be reached, because this would violate the Kelvin
statement
however