GENERAL KNOWLEDGE

Independence Days of Different Countries

The vast majority of the countries on earth became independent after 1800. Only 20 were independent before the start of the 19th century, a mere 10%. By 1900, only 49 or 25% of the world's countries of today were independent. Many countries became independent following World War II when European powers granted independence to their vast colonial holdings, especially Africa. Here are the independence days for every country, from the oldest to the youngest... 660 BCE - Japan 221 BCE - China 301 CE - San Marino 843 CE - France 976 CE - Austria 10th Century CE - Denmark 1001 - Hungary 1143 - Portugal 1206 - Mongolia 1238 - Thailand 1278 - Andorra August 1, 1291 - Switzerland 1419 - Monaco 15th Century - Spain 1502 - Iran June 6, 1523 - Sweden

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January 23, 1579 - Netherlands 1650 - Oman May 1, 1707 - United Kingdom January 23, 1719 - Liechtenstein 1768 - Nepal July 4, 1776 - United States of America January 1, 1804 - Haiti July 20, 1810 - Colombia Sept. 16, 1810 - Mexico Sept. 18, 1810 - Chile May 14, 1811 - Paraguay July 5, 1811 - Venezuela July 9, 1816 - Argentina July 28, 1821 - Peru Sept. 15, 1821 - Costa Rica Sept. 15, 1821 - El Salvador Sept. 15, 1821 - Guatemala Sept. 15, 1821 - Honduras Sept. 15, 1821 - Nicaragua May 24, 1822 - Ecuador Sept. 7, 1822 - Brazil August 6, 1825 - Bolivia August 25, 1825 - Uruguay 1829 - Greece October 4, 1830 - Belgium 1839 - Luxembourg February 27, 1844 - Dominican Republic

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July 26, 1847 - Liberia March 17, 1861 - Italy July 1, 1867 - Canada January 18, 1871 - Germany May 9, 1877 - Romania March 3, 1878 - Bulgaria 1896 - Ethiopia June 12, 1898 - Philippines January 1, 1901 - Australia May 20, 1902 - Cuba November 3, 1903 - Panama June 7, 1905 - Norway Sept. 26, 1907 - New Zealand May 31, 1910 - South Africa November 28, 1912 - Albania December 6, 1917 - Finland November 11, 1918 - Poland December 1, 1918 - Iceland August 19, 1919 - Afghanistan December 6, 1921 - Ireland February 28, 1922 - Egypt October 29, 1923 - Turkey February 11, 1929 - Vatican City Sept. 23, 1932 - Saudi Arabia October 3, 1932 - Iraq November 22, 1943 - Lebanon August 15, 1945 - Korea, North

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August 15, 1945 - Korea, South August 17, 1945 - Indonesia Sept. 2, 1945 - Vietnam April 17, 1946 - Syria May 25, 1946 - Jordan August 14, 1947 - Pakistan August 15, 1947 - India January 4, 1948 - Burma February 4, 1948 - Sri Lanka May 14, 1948 - Israel July 19, 1949 - Laos August 8, 1949 - Bhutan December 24, 1951 - Libya November 9, 1953 - Cambodia January 1, 1956 - Sudan March 2, 1956 - Morocco March 20, 1956 - Tunisia March 6, 1957 - Ghana August 31, 1957 - Malaysia October 2, 1958 - Guinea January 1, 1960 - Cameroon April 4, 1960 - Senegal May 27, 1960 - Togo June 30, 1960 - Congo, Republic of the July 1, 1960 - Somalia July 26, 1960 - Madagascar August 1, 1960 - Benin

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August 3, 1960 - Niger August 5, 1960 - Burkina Faso August 7, 1960 - Cote d'Ivorie August 11, 1960 - Chad August 13, 1960 - Central African Republic August 15, 1960 - Congo, Dem. Rep. of the August 16, 1960 - Cyprus August 17, 1960 - Gabon Sept. 22, 1960 - Mali October 1, 1960 - Nigeria November 28, 1960 - Mauritania April 27, 1961 - Sierra Leone June 19, 1961 - Kuwait January 1, 1962 - Samoa July 1, 1962 - Burundi July 1, 1962 - Rwanda July 5, 1962 - Algeria August 6, 1962 - Jamaica August 31, 1962 - Trinidad and Tobago October 9, 1962 - Uganda December 12, 1963 - Kenya April 26, 1964 - Tanzania July 6, 1964 - Malawi Sept. 21, 1964 - Malta October 24, 1964 - Zambia February 18, 1965 - Gambia, The July 26, 1965 - Maldives

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August 9, 1965 - Singapore May 26, 1966 - Guyana September 30, 1966 - Botswana October 4, 1966 - Lesotho November 30, 1966 - Barbados January 31, 1968 - Nauru March 12, 1968 - Mauritius Sept. 6, 1968 - Swaziland October 12, 1968 - Equatorial June 4, 1970 - Tonga October 10, 1970 - Fiji March 26, 1971 - Bangladesh August 15, 1971 - Bahrain Sept. 3, 1971 - Qatar November 2, 1971 - United Arab Emirates July 10, 1973 - Bahamas Sept. 24, 1973 - Guinea-Bissau February 7, 1974 - Grenada June 25, 1975 - Mozambique July 5, 1975 - Cape Verde July 6, 1975 - Comoros July 12, 1975 - Sao Tome and Principe Sept. 16, 1975 - Papua New Guinea November 11, 1975 - Angola November 25, 1975 - Suriname June 29, 1976 - Seychelles June 27, 1977 - Djibouti

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July 7, 1978 - Solomon Islands October 1, 1978 - Tuvalu November 3, 1978 - Dominica February 22, 1979 - Saint Lucia July 12, 1979 - Kiribati October 27, 1979 - Saint Vincent and the Grenadines April 18, 1980 - Zimbabwe July 30, 1980 - Vanuatu January 11, 1981 - Antigua and Barbuda Sept. 21, 1981 - Belize Sept. 19, 1983 - Saint Kitts and Nevis January 1, 1984 - Brunei October 21, 1986 - Marshall Islands November 3, 1986 - Micronesia, Federated States of March 11, 1990 - Lithuania March 21, 1990 - Namibia May 22, 1990 - Yemen April 9, 1991 - Georgia June 25, 1991 - Croatia June 25, 1991 - Slovenia August 20, 1991 - Estonia August 21, 1991 - Kyrgyzstan August 24, 1991 - Russia August 25, 1991 - Belarus August 27, 1991 - Moldova August 30, 1991 - Azerbaijan Sept. 1, 1991 - Uzbekistan

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Sept. 6, 1991 - Latvia Sept. 8, 1991 - Macedonia Sept. 9, 1991 - Tajikistan Sept. 21, 1991 - Armenia October 27, 1991 - Turkmenistan November 24, 1991 - Ukraine December 16, 1991 - Kazakhstan March 3, 1992 - Bosnia and Herzegovina January 1, 1993 - Czech Republic January 1, 1993 - Slovakia May 24, 1993 - Eritrea October 1, 1994 - Palau May 20, 2002 - East Timor June 3, 2006 - Montenegro June 5, 2006 - Serbia February 17, 2008 – Kosovo

Important Days
January 12 : National Youth Day. January 15 :Army Day. January 26 :India's Republic Day and International Customs day. January 30 :Martyrs' Day February 24 :Central Excise Day. February 28 :National Science Day. March 8 :International Women's Day. March 15 :World Disabled Day.

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March 21 :World Forestry Day. March 21 :International Day for the Elimination of Racial Discrimination. March 23 :World Meteorological Day. April 5 :National Maritime Day. April 7 :World Health Day. April 18 :World Heritage Day. April 22 :Earth Day. May 1 :Workers Day (International Labor Day). May 3 :Press Freedom Day. May (2nd Sunday) : Mother's Day. May 8 :World Red Cross Day. May 11 :National Technology Day. May 15 :International Day of the Family. May 17 :World Telecommunication Day. May 24 :Commonwealth Day. May 31 :Anti-Tobacco Day. June 4 :International Day of Innocent Children Victims of Aggression. June 5 : World Environment Day. June(2nd Sunday) : Fathers Day. June 26 :International day against Drug abuse & Illicit Trafficking. June 27 :World Diabetes Day. July 6 :World Zoonoses Day. July 11 :World Population Day. August 3 :International Friendship Day. August 6 :Hiroshima Day, August 9 :Quit India Day and Nagasaki Day. August 15 :Independence Day. August 29 :National Sports Day. September 5 :Teachers' Day. September 8 :World Literacy Day. September 16 :World Ozone Day. September 21 :Alzheimer's Day.

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September 26 : Day of the Deaf. September 27 : World Tourism Day. October 1 : International day of the Elderly. October 3 :World Habitat Day. October 4 :World Animal Welfare Day. October 8 :Indian Air Force Day. October 9 :World Post Office day./October 10 :National Post Day. October 13 :UN International Day for National disaster reduction. October 14 :World Standards Day. October 15 :World White Cane Day( guiding the Blind).//October 16 :World Food Day. October 24 :UN Day, World development information Day. October 30 :World Thrift Day. November 14 : Children's Day ( in India ) November 20 :Africa Industrialization Day. November 29 :International Day of Solidarity with Palestinian People. December 1 :World Aids Day. December 4 :Navy Day. December 10 :Human Right Day. December 7 :Armed Forces Flag Day. December 23 :Kisan Divas Farmer's Day).

• Books And Authors

Books A Bend in the river A Brush with Life A Conceptual Encyclopaedia of Guru Granth Sahib A Foreign Policy for India A Fortune Teller Told Me A Gender Lens on Social Psychology A General and His Army V.S. Naipaul Satish Gujral S.S. Kohli I.K. Gujral Tiziano Terzani

Authors

Judith A Howard and Jocelyn A.Hollander Georgy Vladimov

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A Himalayan Love Story A Last Leap South A Nation Flawed-Lesson from Indian History A Peep into the Past A Possible India A Psychoanalysis of the Prophets A Reveolutionary Life A Secular Agenda A Simple Path A Suitable Boy A Tale of Two Gardens A Tribute to People's Princess: Diana A Tryst With Destiny Abbot Absalom, Absalom Absalom and Achitophel Acoession to Extinction Across Borders, Fifty-years of India's Foreign Policy Adam Bede Adhe Adhure Adonis Adrain Mole-The Wilderness Years Adventures of Huckleberry Finn Adventures of Robinson Crusoe Adventures of Sally Adventures of Sherlock Holmes Adventures of Tom Sawyer Adversary in the House Advice and Consent Aeneid Affairs Affluent Society Afghanistan: Mullah, Marx and Mujahid

Namita Gokhale Vladimir Zhirinovsky P.N. Chopra Vasant Navrekar Partha Chatterjee Abdulla Kamal Laxmi Sehgal Arun Shourie Lucinda Vardey Vikram Seth Octavio Paz Peter Donelli Stanley Wolfer Walter Scott William Faulkner John Dryden D.R. Mankekar J.N. Dixit George Eliot Mohan Rakesh P.B. Shelley Sue Townsend Mark Twain Daniel Defoe P.G. Wodehouse Sir Arthur Conan Doyle Mark Twain lrving Stone Allen Drury Virgil C.P.Snow J.K.Galbraith R.H. Magnus & Eden Naby

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Africa's Challenge to America After All These Years After the Dark Night Against the Grain Age of Reason Agni Pariksha Agni Veena Agony and the Ecstasy Ain-i-Akbari Airport Ajatshatru Akbarnama Alaska Unbound Alchemist Alexander Quartet Alexander the Great Alice in Wonderland Alien Nation All for Love All is Well that Ends Well All Quiet on the Western Front All the King's Men All the President's Men All things Bright and Beautiful All Under Heaven Along the Road Altered States Amar Kosh Ambassador's Journal Ambassador's Report Amelia American Capitalism An American Dilemma

Chester Bowles Susan Issacs S.M. Ali Boris Yeltsin Jean Paul Sartre Acharya Tulsi Kazi Nazrul Islam Irving Stone Abul Fazal Arthur Hailey Jai Shankar Prasad Abul Fazal James Michener Ben Johnson Lawrence Durrel John Gunther Lewis Carroll Peter Brimelow John Dryden William Shakespeare Erich Maria Remarque Robert Penn Warren Carl Bernstein and Bob Woodward James Herroit Pearl S.Buck Aldous Huxley Anita Brookner Amar Singh J.K. Galbraith Chester Bowles Henry Fielding J.K. Galbraith Gunnar Myrdal

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An American Tragedy An Apology for Idlers An Autobiography An Eye to China An idealist View of Life Anandmath Anatomy of a Flawed inheritance Ancient Evenings Ancient Mariner And Quiet Flows the Don And Through the Looking Glass Androcles and the Lion Angry Letters Anguish of Deprived Animal Farm Anna Karenina Another Life Answer to History Antic Hay Antony and Cleopatra Ape and Essence Apple Cart Arabian Nights Area of Darkness Arion and the Dolphin Arms and the Man Around the World in Eighty Days Arrangement Arrival and Departure Arrow in the Blue Arrow of Good Arrowsmith Arthashastra

Theodore Dreiser Robert Louis Stevenson Jawaharlal Nehru David Selbourne Dr.S. Radhakrishnan Bankim Chandra Chatterjee J.N. Dixit Norman Mailer Samuel Taylor Coleridge Mikhali Sholokhov Lewis Carroll George Bernard Shaw Willem Doevenduin Lakshmidhar Mishra George Orwell Count Leo Tolstoy Derek Walcott Mohammad Reza Pahlavi Aldous Huxley William Shakespeare Aldous Huxley George Bernad Shaw Sir Richard Burton V.S. Naipaul Vikram Seth George Bernard Shaw Jules verne Elia Kazan Arthur Koestler Arthur Koestler Joseph Conrad Sinclair Lewis Kautilya

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As I Lay Dying As You Like It Ascent of the Everest Ashtadhyayi Asia and Western Dominance Asian Drama Aspects of the Novel Assassination of a Prime Minister Assignment Colombo Assignment India Athenian Constitution Atoms of Hope August 1914 August Coup Author's Farce Autobiography of an Unknown Indian Autumn Leaves Avanti Sundari Babbit Baburnama Baby and Child Back to Methuselah Backward Place Bandicoot Run Bang-i-Dara Bangla Desh-The Unifinished Revolution Banyan Tree Beach Boy Beast and Man Beating the Street Beginning of the Beginning Beloved Ben Hur

William Faulkner William Shakespeare Sir John Hunt Panini K.M. Panikkar Gunnar Myrdal E.M. Forster S.Anandram J.N. Dixit Christopher Thomas Aristotle Mohan Sundara Rajan Alexander Solzhenitsyn Mikhali S. Gorbachev Henry Fielding Nirad C. Chaudhuri O.Pulla Reddi Dandin Sinclair Lewis Babur Penelope Leach G.B. Shaw Ruth Prawer Jhabwala Manohar Malgonkar Mohammad lqbal Lawrence Lifschultz Hugh Tinker Ardesher Vakil Murry Midgley Peter Lynch Acharya Rajneesh Toni Morrison Lewis Wallace

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Bend in the Ganges Bermuda Triangle Berry Patches Best and the Brightest Betrayal of Pearl Harbour Between Hope and History Between Hope and History Between the Lines Bewildered India-Identity, Pluralism, Discord Beyond Boundaries: A Memoire Beyond the Horizon Beyond Modernisation, Beyond Self Beyond Peace Bhagwat Gita Bharal Aur Europe Bharat Bharati Bharaitya Parampara Ke Mool Swar Big Fisherman Big Money Bill the Conqueror Billy Biographia Literaria Birds and Beasts Birth and Death of The Sun Birth and Evolution of the soul Birth of Europe Bisarjan Bitter Sweet Black Arrow Black Diaspora Black Holes and Baby Universes Black Sheep Black Tulip

Manohar Malgonkar Charles Berlitz Yevgeny Yevtushenko David Halberstan James Rusbridger and Eric Nave Bill Clinton Bill Clinton Kuldip Nayar Rasheedud-din Khan Swaraj Paul Eugene O'Neill Sisir Kumar Ghose Richard Nixon Veda Vyas Nirmal Verma Maithili Sharan Gupta Govind Chandra Pande Lloyd C. Douglas P.G. Wodehouse P.G. Wodehouse Albert French Samuel Taylor coleridge Mark Twain George Gamow Annie Besant Robert, S. Lopez R.N. Tagore Noel Coward Robert Louis Stevenson Ronald Segal Stephen Hawking Honore de Balzac Alexander Dumas

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Bleak House Blind Ambitions Blind Beauty Blind Men of Hindoostan-indo-Pak Nuclear War Bliss was it in that Dawn Bloodline Blood Sport Blue Bird Bofors: The Ambassador's Evidence Bone People Book of the Sword Borders & Boundaries: Women in India's Partition Born Free Bostaan Bread, Beauty and Revolution Breaking the Silence Breakthrough Bride for the Sahib and Other Stories Bridge's Book of Beauty Bridges of Madison Country Brif History of Time Brishbikkha Britain's True History Broken Wings Brothers Karamazhov Bubble Buddha Charitam Bunch of Old Letters Bureaucrazy Butterfield 8 By God's Decree By Love Possessed Byzantium

Charles Dickens John Dean Boris Pasternak Gen. Krishnaswamy Sundarji Minoo Masani Sidney Sheldon James Stewart Maurice Macterlink B.M. Oza Keri Hulme Sir Richard Burton Ritu Menon & Kamla Bhasin Joy Adamson Sheikh Saadi Khwaja Ahmed Abbas Anees Jung Gen.Moshe Dayan Khushwant Singh Mulk Raj Anand R.J. Waller Stephen Hawking Bankim Chandra Chatterji Prem Bhatia Sarojini Naidu Fyodor Dostoevski Mulk Raj Anand Ashvaghosha Jawaharlal Nehru M.K. Kaw John O'Hara Kapil Dev James Gould Cozzens W.B. Yeats

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Caesar and Cleopatra Call the Briefing Cancer Ward Canterbury Tales Canvass of Life Caravans Cardinal Castle Catch-22 Catcher in the Rye Centennial Chance Chandalika Chemmeen Cherry Orchard Chidambara Chikaveera Rajendra Child Who Never Grew Childe Harold's Pilgrimage Childhood Children of Gabelawi Children of the Sun China Passage China-Past and Present China's Watergate Chinese Betrayal Chitra Choma's Drum Christabel Christmas Tales Chronicle of a Death Foretold Chithirappaavai City of Joy

G.B. Shaw Martin Fitzwater Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn G.Chaucer Sheila Gujral James A. Michener Henry M. Robinson Franz Kafka Joseph Heller J.D. Salinger James Michener Joseph Conrad Rabindranath Tagore Thakazhi Sivasankara Pillai Anton Chekhov Sumitranandan Pant Masti Venkatesh lyengar Pearl S. Buck George Byron Maxim Gorky Naquib Mahfouz Maxim Gorky J.K. Galbraith Pearl S. Buck Leo Goodstadt B.N. Mullick Rabindranath Tagore K. Shivaram Karanath Samuel Taylor Coleridge Charles Dickens Gabriel Garcia Marquez P.V. Akilandam Dominique Lapierre

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City of Saints Class Climate of Treason Clockwork Orange Clown Cocktail Party Colonel Sun Comedy of Errors Common Sense Communist Manifesto Confessions Confessions of a Lover Comus Confessions of an Inquiring Spirit Confessions of an English Opium Eater, Confidential Clerk Confrontation with Pakistan Conquest of Happiness Conquest of Self Conservationist Continent of Circle Coolie Count of Monte Cristo Coup Court Dancer Coverly Papers Cranford Creation Crescent Moon Crescent Over Kashmir Cricket on the Hearth Crime and Punishment Crisis in India

Sir Richard Burton Erich Segal Andrew Boyle Anthony Burgess Heinrich Boll T.S. Eliot Kingsley Amis William Shakespeare Thomas Paine Karl Marx J.J.Rousseau Mulk Raj Anand John Milton S.T. Coleridge Thomas De Quincy T.S. Eliot Gen. B.M. Kaul Bertrand Russell Mahatma Gandhi Nadine Gordimer Nirad C.Chaudhuri Mulk Raj Anand Alexander Dumas John Updike Rabindranath Tagore Joseph Addison Mrs. Gaskell Gore Vidal Rabindranath Tagore Anil Maheshwari Charles Dickens Fyodor Dostoevsky Ronald Segal

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Crisis into Chaos Critical Mass Critique of Pure Reason Crossing in River Crossing the Sacred Line-Women's Search for Political Power Crossing the Threshold of Hope Crown and the Loincloth Crown of Wild Olive Cry, My Beloved Country Cuckold Culture and Anarchy Culture in the Vanity Bag Curtain Raisers Damsel in Distress Dancing with the Devil Dangerous Plaqce Dangerous Summer Dangling Man Daniel Deronda Dark Room Dark Debts Dark Home Coming Dark Side of Camelot Darkness at Noon Das Kapital Dashkumar Charitam Daughter of the East David Copperfield Day in Shadow Day of the Jackal Days of Grace Days of his Grace Days of My Yers

E.M.S. Namboodiripad William E. Burrows Immanuel Kant Caryl Phillips Abhilasha & Sabina Kidwai Pope John Paul II Chaman Nahal John Ruskin Alan Patan Kiran Nagar Kar Matthew Arnold Nirad C. Chaudhuri K. Natwar Singh P.G. Wodehouse Rod Barker Daniel Patrick Moynihan Emest Hemingway Saul Bellow Geroge Eliot R.K. Narayan Karen Hall Eric Lustbader Seymour Hersh Arthur Koestler Karl Marx Dandi Benazir Bhutto Charles Dickens Nayantara Sehgal Frederick Forsyth Arthur Ashe & Arnold Rampersad Eyvind Johnson H.P. Nanda

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De Profundis Dean's December Death and After Death Be Not Proud Death in the Castle Death in Venice Death of a City Death of a Patriot Death on the Nile Death of a President Death of a Salesman Death-The Supreme Friend Death Under sail Debacle Decameron Decline and Fall of Indira Gandhi Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire Decline of the West Democracy Means Bread and Freedom Democracy Redeemed Descent of Man Deserted Village Desperate Remedies Detective Devadas Dharmashastra Dialogue with Death Diana-Her Time Story in Her Own Words Diana-Princess of Wales : A Tribute Diana-The Story So Far Diana-The True Story Diana Versus Charles Die Blendung

Oscar Wilde Saul Bellow Annie Besant John Gunther Pearl S. Buck Thomas Mann Amrita Pritam R.E. Harrington Agatha Christie William Manchester Arthur Miller Kakasaheb Kalelkar C.P. Snow Emile Zola Giovannie Boccaccio D.R. Mankekar and Kamala Mankekar Edward Gibbon O' Spengler Piloo Mody V.K. Narsimhan Charles Darwin Oliver Goldsmith Thomas Hardy Arthur Hailey Sarat Chandra Chatterjee Manu Arthur Koestler Andrew Martin Tim Graham Julia Donelli Andrew Morton James Whitaker Elias Canetti

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Dilemma of Our Time Diplomacy Diplomacy and Disillustion Diplomacy in Peace and War Disappearing Acts Discovery of India Distant Drums Distant Neighbours Divine Comedy Divine Life Doctor Faustus Doctor's Dilemma Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde Dr. Zhivago Doll's House Dolly-The Birth of a Clone Don Juan Don Quixote Don't Laugh-We are Police Double Betrayal Double Helix Double Tongue Double Teeth Drogon's Seed Dream in Hawaii Dram of Fair to Middling Women Dreams, Roses and Fire Drunkard Durgesh Nandini

Harold Joseph Laski Henry Kissinger George Urbans J.N. Kaul Terry McMillan Jawaharlal Nehru Manohar Malgonkar Kuldip Nayar A.Dante Swami Sivananda Christopher Marlowe G.B.Shaw Robert Louis Stevensan Boris Pasternak lbsen Jina Kolata George Byron Cervantes Bishan Lal Vohra Paula R. Newburg J.D. Watson William Golding U.B. Sinclair Pearl S. Buck Bhabani Bhattacharya Samuel Beckett Eyvind Johnson Emile Zola Bankim Chandra Chatterjee

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Book and Authors [ E - H ] Books Earth Earth in the Balance: Forging a New Common Purpose Earth Mother East of Eden East West East Wind Economic Planning of India Economics of Peace and Laughter Economics of the Third World Education of Public Man Edwina and Nehru Emile Zola Al Gore Pupul Jayakar B.N. Mullick Salman Rushdie Pearl S. Buck Ashok Mehta John K. Galbraith S.K. Ray Hubert Humphrey Catherine Clement Authors

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Egmont Eight Lives Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard Emile Eminent Churchillians Emma Empire of the Soul: Some Journeys in India Ends and Means End of a Beautiful Era End of an Era End of History and the Last Man End of the Chapter Enemies English August Envoy to Nehru Erewhon Escape Eassay on Life Essays for Poor to the Rich Essays in Criticism Essays On Gita Essays of Elia Estate Eternal Himalayas Eternal India Eternity Ethics Europa Eugenie Grandet

J.W. Von Goethe Rajmohan Gandhi Thomas Gray J.J. Rousseau Andrew Roberts Jane Austen Paul William Roberts Aldous Huxley Joseph Brodsky C.S. Pandit Francis Fukuyama John Forsyte Maxim Gorky Upamanyu Chatterjee Escott Reid Samuel Butler John Forsyte Samuel Butler John Kenneth Galbraith Matthew Arnold Aurobindo Ghosh Charles Lamb Issac Bashevis Singer Major H.P.S.Ahluwalia Indira Gandhi Anwar Shaikh Aristotle Time Parks Honore de Balzac

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Everlasting Man Executioner's Song Exile and the Kingdom Expanding Universe Eye of the Storm Eyeless in Gaza Faces to Everest Facts are Facts Fairie Queene Faith & Fire: A Way Within Fall of a Sparrow Family Moskat Family Reunion Famished Road Far From the Madding Crowd Far Pavilions Faraway Music Farewell to the Trumpets Farewell to a Ghost Farewell to Arms Farm House Fasana-i-Azad Fathers and Sons Faust Faustus Fidelio Fiesta Fifth Column Fifth Horseman

G.K. Chesterton Norman Mailer Albert Camus Arthur Stanley Eddington Patrick White Aldous Huxley Maj. H.P.S. Ahluwalia Khan Abdul Wali Khan Edmund Spencer Madhu Tandon Salim Ali Issac Bashevis Singer T.S.Eliot Ben Okri Thomas Hardy M.M.Kaye Svetlana Allilueva James Morris Manoj Das Ernest Hemingway George Orwell Ratan Nath Sarkar lvan Turgenev J.W. Von Goethe Chirstopher Marlow L.Beethoven Ernest Hemingway Ernest Hemingway Larry Collins and Dominique Lapierre

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Final Days Final Passage Finding a Voice-Asian Women in Britain Fine Balance Fire Next Time Fire Under the Snow: Testimony of a Tibetan Prisoner First Circle Flags in the Dust Flames from the Ashes Flounder Follywood Flashback Food, Nutrition and Poverty in India For the President's Eyes Only For Whom the Bell Tolls Forbidden Sea Forsyte Saga Fortynine Days Franklin's Tale Fraternity Free Man's Worship Freedom at Midnight French Revolution Freedom Behind Bars Freedom from Fear French Leave Friend Friends and Foes Friends, Not Masters From Hero to Eternity

Bob Woodward and Carl Bernstein Caryl Phillips Amrit Wilson Rohinton Mistry James Baldwin Palden Gyatso Alexander Solzhenitsyn William Faulkner P.D. Tandon Gunder Grass Bunny Reuben V.K.R.V. Rao Christopher Andrew Emest Hemingway Tara Ali Baig John Galsworthy Amrita Pritam Geoffrey Chaucer John Forsyte Bertrand Russell Larry Collins and Dominique Lapierre Thomas Carlyle Sheikh Mohd. Abdullah Aung San Suu Kyi P.G. Wodehouse Samuel Tayelor Coleridge Sheikh Mujibur Rehman Ayub Khan James Jones

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From india to America From Raj to Rajiv From Rajpath to Lokpath Frozen Assets Full Moon Future of NPT Gambler Ganadevata Gandhi and Stalin Gardener Garrick Year Gathering Storm Geeta Govind Ghasiram Kotwal Ghosts in the Machine Girl in Blue Girl On the Boat Gita Rahasya Gitanjali Gladiators Glimpses of Indian Ocean Glimpses of World History Go Down Moses Goa God and the Bible Godan Godfather Godrej: A Hundred Years Gold Bat

S.Chandrashekhar Mark Tully and Zaheer Masani Vijaya Raja Scindia P.G. Wodehouse P.G.Wodehouse Savita Pande Fyodor Dostoevsky Tara Shankar Bandopadhyaya Louis Fisher Rabindra Nath Tagore Margaret Drabble Winston Churchill Jaya Dev Vijay Tendulkar Arthur Koestler P.G. Wodehouse P.G. Wodehouse Bal Gangadhar Tilak Rabindra Nath Tagore Arthur Koestler Z.A. Quasim Jawaharlal Nehru William Faulkner Asif Currimbhoy Mattew Arnold Munshi Prem Chand Mario Puzo B.K. Karanjia P.G. Wodehouse

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Golden Borough Golden Gate Golden Threshold Gone Away Gone with the Wind Good Earth Goodbye, Mr Chips Gora Grace Notes Grammar of Politics Grapes of Wrath Grapes and the Wind Great Challenge Great Depression of 1990 Great Gatsby Great lllusion Great Tragedy Grey Eminence Grub Street Guide Guide for the Perplexed Gul-e-Naghma Gulag Archipelago Gulistan Boston Gulliver's Travels Gulzari Lal Nanda: A Peep in the Service of the People Gurusagaram Gypsy(poem)

James Frazer Vikram Seth Sarojini Naidu Dom Moraes Margaret Mitchell Pearl S.Buck James Hilton Rabindra Nath Tagore Bernard Mac Lavarto Harold Joseph Laski John Steinbeck Pablo Neruda Louis Fischer Ravi Batra F. Scott Fitzgerald Norman Angell Z.A. Bhutto Aldous Huxley Henry Fielding R.K. Narayan E.F. Schumacher Raghupati Sahai 'Firaq' Gorakhpuri Alexander Solzhenitsyn Sheikh Saadi Jonathan Swift Promilla Kalhan O.V. Vijayan Pushkin

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Hamlet Hard Times Harsha Charita Hamsters Handful of Dust Happy Death Harlot High and Low Harvest Heart of Darkness Heavem Has No Favourites Heat and Dust Heavy Weather Henderson the Rain King Heritage Hero of Our Times Heroes and Hero worship Henry Esmond Heir Apparent Higher than Hope Himalayan Blunder Hindu View of Life History of Hindu Chemistry Hitopadesh Hindi Sahitya Aur Samvedna Ka Vikas Hind Swaraj Hindu Civilisation Hinduism His Excellency History of the English Speaking Peoples

William Shakespeare Charles Dickens Bana Bhatt C.P. Snow Evelyn Waugh Albert Camus Honore de Balzac Majula Padmanabhan Joseph Conrad Eric Maria Remarque Ruth Prawer Jhabwala P.G. Wodehouse Saul Bellow Anthony West Richard Hough Thomas Carlyle Thackeray Dr. Karan Singh Fatima Meer Brig J.P. Dalvi Dr. S.Radhakrishnan Sir.P.C. Ray R.K.Narayan R.S. Chaturvedi M.K.Gandhi J.M. Barrie Nirad C.Choudhury Emile Zola Sir Winston Churchil

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Home Comings Honest Thief and Other Stories Hornet's Nest Hot Water Hound of the Baskervillese House for Mr. Biswas House of the Dead House of Spirits House Divided How Late It Was, How Late Human Factor Human Knowledge Humboldt's Gift Humour Hunchback of Notre Dame Hungry Stones

C.P. Snow Fyodor Dostoevsky Patricia Cornwell P.G. Wodehouse Sir Arthur Conan Doyle V.S. Naipaul Fyodor Dostoevsky Isabel Allende Pearl S. Buck James Kelman Graham Greene Bertrand Russell Saul Bellow Ben Johnson Victor Hugo Rabindra Nath Tagore

Books and Authors [ I - L ] Books I am not an Island I Dare I follow the Mahatma Idylls of the King I Muse; Therefore I am K.A Abbas Parmesh Dangwal K.M. Munshi Tennyson V.N.Narayanan Authors

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Idiot Idols If I am Assassinated Imperial Woman Importance of Being Earnest In Afghanistan's Shadow In Confidence In Evil Hour In Light of India In Retrospect-The Tragedy and Lessons of Vietnam In Search of Gandhi In Search of Identity In the Afternoon of Time In the Bluest Eye In the Light of the Black Sun In the Shadow of Pines India 2020: A Vision for the New Millennium India-A Wounded Civilisation India discovered India-Facing the Twenty-First Century India-From Curzon to Nehru and After India-From Midnight to the Millennium India-Independence Festival (1947-1997) India in Transition India is for Sale India of Our Dreams India Remembered India Today

Fyodor Dostoevsky Sunil Gavaskar Z.A. Bhutto Pearl S. Buck Oscar Wilde Salig S. Harrison Anatolyu Dobrynin Gabriel Garcia Marquez Octavio Paz Robert S. McNamara Richard Attenborough Anwar el-Sadat Dr.Rupert Snell Toni Morrison Rohit Manchanda Mandeep Rai Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam & Dr. Y.S. Rajan V.S. Naipaul John Keay Barbara Crossette Durga Dass Shashi Tharoor Raghu Rai PRof.Jagdish Bhagwati Chitra Subramaniam M.V. Kamath Percival & Margaret Spear Rajni Palme Dutt

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India We Left Indian Home Rule Indian Philosophy India's China War India's Culture the State the Arts & Beyond India's Economic Crisis India's Economic Reforms and Development Essay's for Manmohan Singh India's Rise to Power in the Twentieth Century & Beyond Indian Arms Bazaar Indian Mansions India Changes India Divided India Wins Freedom Indian Muslims India, the Critial Years Indo-Pakistan Conflict Indica Indira Gandhi's Emergence and Style Indira's India Inferno Inner Circle Innocence of Father Brown Inside the CBI Inside the Third Reich Insider In Memoriam Inside Asia

Hymphry Trevelyan M.K. Gandhi Dr.S.Radhakrishnan Neville Maxwell B.P. Singh Dr. Bimal Jalan I.J.Ahluwalia & I.M.D. Little Sandy Gordon Maj-Gen, Pratap Narain Sarah Tiloston Taya Zinkin Rajendra Prasad Maulana Abul Kalam Azad Prof. Mohd.Mujeeb Kuldip Nayar Russen Brines Megasthenes Nayantara Sehgal S.Nihal Singh Alighieri Dante Jonathan First G.K.Chesterton Joginder Singh Albert Spencer P.V. Narasimha Rao Tennyson John Gunther

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31

Inside Europe Inside Africa Insulted and the injured Intelligence Services Interpreters Intimacy Intruder in the Dust Invisible Man Iron in the Soul Ironhand Is Paris Burning Isabella Islamic Bomb Island inthe Streams It is Always Possible Ivanov Ivanhoe Jack and Jackle-Portrait of an American Marriage Jai Somnath Jaguar Smile Jajar, Churashir Maa Jane Eyre Jankijeevanam Jawaharlal Nehru-A Communicator & Democratic Leader Jawaharlal Nehru, Rebel and Statesman Jazz Jean Christopher Jesus Rediscovered

John Gunther John Gun ther Fyodor Dostoevsky Dr. Bhashyam Kasturi Wole Soyinka Jean Paul Sartre William Faulkner H.G. Wells Jean Paul Sartre J.W. Von Goethe Larry Collins and Dominique Lapierre John Keats Stev Weissman & Herbert Krousney Ernest Hemingway Kiran Bedi Anton Chekhov Sir Walter Scott Chirstopher Anderson K.M. Munshi Salman Rushdie Mahashweta Devi Charlotte Bronte Prof. Rajendra Mishra A.K. Damodran B.R. Nanda Toni Morrison Romain Rolland Malcolm Muggeridge

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32

Jewel Jhoota Sach Jobs for Millions Joke Judge's Miscellany Julius Caesar Jurassic Park Jungle Book Junglee Girl Kadambari Kamadhenu Kamasutra Kagaz Te Kanwas Kamayani Kaleidoscope of India Kali Aandhi Kanthapura Kanyadaan Kapal Kundala Kashmir-A Tale of Shame Kashmir-Behind the Vale Kashmir Diary: Psychology of Militancy Kashmir-The Wounded Valley Kashmir in the Crossfire Kashmir A Tragedy of Errors Katghare Main Kayakalp Kayar Keepers of the Keys

Danielle Steel Yashpal V.V. Giri Milan Kundra M. Hidayatullah William Shakespeare Michael Crichton Rudyard Kipling Ginu Kamani Bana Bhatt Kubernath Ray Vatsyayan Amrita Pritam Jai Shankar Pandit Tomoji Muto Kamleshwar Raja Rao Vijay Tendulkar Bankim Chandra Chatterjee Hari Jaisingh M.J.Akbar Gen.Arjun Ray Ajit Bhattacharjee Victoria Shaffield Tavleen Singh Ram Sharan Joshi Munshi Prem Chand Thakazhi Sivasankara Pillai Milan Kundera

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33

Kenilworth Killer Angels Kissinger Years Kidnapped King of Dark Chamber Kiratarjuniya Kim King Lear Kipps Kitni Navon Main Kitni Bar Koraner Nari Kore Kagaz Kubla Khan Kulliyat Kumar Sambhava La Divine Comedia La Peste Lady of the Lake Lady with the Lapdog Lady Chatterly's Lover Lajja Lal Bahadur Shastri Last Analysis Last Burden Last Maharaja Last Orders Last Days of Pompeii Last Phase Last Things

Sir Walter Scott Michael Shaara T.N. Kaul R.L. Stevenson Rabindra Nath Tagore Bharavi Rudyard Kipling Shakespeare H.G.Wells S.H.Vatsyayan Taslima Nasreen Amrita Pritam S.T. Coleridge Ghalib Kalidas A. Dante Albert Camus Sir Walter Scott Anton Chekhov D.H.Lawrence Taslima Nasreen C.P. Srivastava Saul Bellow Upamanyu, Chatterjee Jean Louis Nou & Jacques Pouchepadass Graham Swift Edward George Lytton Pyare Lal C.P. Snow

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34

Law, Lawyers & Judges Laws Versus Justice Leaders Leaves of Grass Lead Kindly Light Le Contract Social (The Social Contract) Les Miserables Legacy of a Divided Nation Latter from Peking Letters From the Field Leviathan Liberty or Death Life and Death of Mr. Badman Light That Failed Like Water for Chocolate Life Divine Life is Elsewhere Life of Samuel Johnson Lines of Fate Lipika Living Room Long Shadow inside Stalin's Family Long Walk to Freedom Look Back in Anger Lord Jim Lord of the Files Lost Child Lost Honour Lost lllusion

H.R. Bhardwaj V.R. Krishna lyer Richard Nixon Walt Whitman Cardinal Newman J.J. Rousseau Victor Hugo Prof. Mushirul Hasan Peral S. Buck Margaret Mead Thomas Hobbes Patrick French John Bunyan Rudyard Kipling Laura Esquivel Aurobindo Ghosh Milan Kundera James Boswell Mark Kharitonov Rabindranath Tagore Graham Greene Svetlana Allilyuyeva Nelson Mandela John Osborne Joseph Conrad William Golding Mulk Raj Anand John Dean Honore de Balzac

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35

Lotus Eaters Love and Longing in Bombay Love in A Blue Time Lolita Loneliness of the Long Distance Runner Long Day's Journey into Night Love, Truth and A Little Malice Lycidas

A.Tennyson Vikram Chandra Hanif Khureshi V.Nabokov Allan Sillitoe Eugene O'Neill Khushwant Singh John Milton

Books and Authors [ M - P ] Books Macbeth Magic Mountain Mahabharata Malati Madhav Magic Fishbone Magnificent Maharaja Mahatma Gandhi Major Barbara Making of a Midsummer Night's Dream Malavikagnimitra Main Street Man, The Unknown Man and Superman Man for Moscow Man of Property Man, Beast and Virtue Authors William Shakespeare Thomas Mann Vyasa Bhavabhuti Charles Dickens K.Natwar Singh Girija Kumar Mathur George Bernard Shaw David Selbourne Kalidas Sinclair Lewis Lewis Carroll G.B. Shaw G.Lynne John Galsworthy Luigi Pirandello

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36

Man eaters of Kumaon Marriage and Morals Managing of the Future Mama Man for All Seasons Man of Destiny Mandarin Mankind and Mother Earth Mansfield Park Manviya Sanskriti Ke Rachnatmak Aayam Many Worlds Masters Mati Matal Maurice Mayor of Casterbridge Meghdoot Mein Kampf Memoris of the Second World War Memoris of a Bystander: Life in Diplomacy Momories of Hope Men Who Kepl the Secrets Men Who Killed Gandhi Meri Rehen Meri Manzil Middle March Middle Ground Midnight's Children Midsummer Night's Dream Mill on the Floss Million Mutinies Now

Jim Corbett Bertrand Russell Peter, F. Drucker Terry McMillan Robert Bolt George Bernard Shaw Simon de Beauvoir Arnold Toynbee Jane Austen Prof. Raghuvansh K.P.S. Menon C.P. Snow Gopinath Mohanty E.M. Forster Thomas Hardy Kalidas Adolf Hitler Churchill lqbal Akhund Charles de Gaulle Thomas Powers Manohar Malgonkar Krishna Puri George Eliot Margaret Drabble Salman Rushdie William Shakespeare George Eliot V.S. Naipaul

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37

Mirror of the Sea Miser Missed Oppertunites: Indo-Pak War 1965 Mistaken identity Moby Dick Modern Painters Mother India Mod Classics Modern South Asia: History, Culture, Political Economy Modernity Morality And The Mahatma Mondays on Dark Night of Moon Mookhajjiva Kanasugalu Moon and Six Pence Moonlight Sonata Moonwalk Moor's Last Sigh Mother Mountbatten and Independent India Mountbatten and the Partition of India Mrinalini Mritunjaya Mrs. De Winter Mrs. Gandhi's Second Reign Much Ado About Nothing Mudra rakshasa Murder in the Cathedral Mughal Maharajas And The Mahatma Murder on the Orient Express

Joseph Conrad Moliere Maj-Gen, Lakshman Singh Nayantara Sehgal Herman Melville John Ruskin Katherine Mayo Joseph Conrad Sugata Bose & Ayesha Jalal Madhuri Santhanam Sondhi Kirin Narayan K. Shivram Karanth W. Somerset Maugham L.Beethoven Michael Jackson Salman Rushdie Maxim Gorky Larry Collins and Dominique Lapierre Larry Collins and Dominique Lapierre Bankim Chandra Charrerjee Shivaji Sawant Susah Hill Arun Shourie Shakespeare Vishakhadatta T.S. Eliot K.R.N. Swami Agatha Christie

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38

Murky Business Murder of Aziz Khan Muslim Law and the Constitution My Days My Early Life My Experiment With Truth My Life and Times My Own Boswell My Father, Deng Xiaoping My India My Music, My Love My Presidential Years My Truth Mysterious Universe My Several Worlds My Son's Father My South Block Years My Struggles Myths of sisyphus My Prison Diary Naari Nana Naganandan Naku Thanthi Nai Duniya Ko Salam & Pathor Ki Dewar Naivedyam (The Offering) Naked Came the Stranger Nacked Face Naked Triangle

Honore de Balzac Zulfikar Ghose A.M. Bhattacharjea R.K. Narayan M.K. Gandhi M.K. Gandhi V.V.Giri M.Hidayatullah Xiao Rong S. Nihal Singh Ravi Shankar Ramaswamy Venkataraman Indira Gandhi James Jeans Pearl S. Buck Dom Moraes J.N. Dixit E.K. Nayanar Albert Camus J.P Narayan Humayun Azad Emile Zola Harsha Vardhana D.R. Bendre Ali Sardar Jafri N. Balamani Amma Penelope Ashe Sydney Sheldon Balwant Gargi

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39

Napoleon of Notting Hill Nature and the Language Politics of India Nehru Family and Sikhs Nelson Mandela: A Biography Netaji-Dead or Alive Never At Home New Dimensions of Peace New Dimensions of India's Foreign Policy Nice Guys Finish Second Nicholas Nickelby Night Manager Nile Basin Nine Days Wonder Nisheeth Niti-Sataka Nineteen Eighty-Four 1999-Victory Without War Nirbashita Narir Kabita Non-Violence in Peace and War North Northanger Abbey Nothing Like The Sun No Full stops in India Nuclear India Nurturing Development Nursery Alice O'Jerusalem Occasion for Loving Odessa File

G.K. Chesterton Robert D.King Harbans Singh Martin Meredith Samar Guha Dom Moraes Chester Bowles Atal Behari Vajpayee B.K. Nehru Charles Dickens John le Carre Sir Richard Burton John Mansfield Uma Shankar Joshi Bhartrihari George Orwell Richard Nixon Taslima Nasreen M.K. Gandhi Seamus Heanev Jane Austen Anthony Burgess Mark Tully G.G. Mirchandani and P.K.S. Namboodari Ismail Serageldin Lewis Carroll Larry Collins and Dominique Lepierre Nadine Gordimer Frederick Forsyth

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40

Odakkuzal Odyssey Of Human Bondage Oh, Le Beaux Jours Old Curiosity Shop Old Goriot Old Man and the Sea Old Path: white Clouds Oliver's Story Oliver Twist Oliver Twist Omeros On History One Day in the Life of lvan Denisovich One-eyed Uncle One World to Share One the Threshold of Hope One Hundred Years of Solitude One Upmanship One World and India One World Only One Year Operation Bluestar-the True Story Operation Shylock Origin of Species Oru Desathinte Katha Other Side of Midnight Othello Our Films, Their Films

G.Shankara Kurup Homer W.Somerset Maugham Samuel Beckett Charles Dickens Honore de Balzac Ernest Hemingway Thich Nht Hanh Erich Segal Erich Segal Charles Dickens Derek Walcott Eric Hobswan Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn Laxmikant Mahapatra Sridath Ramphal Pope john Paul Gabriel Garcia Marquez Stephen Potter Arnold Toynbee Wendell Wilkie Svetlana Lt-Gen.K.S. Brar Philip Roth Charles Darwin S.K. Pottekatt Sydney Sheldon Shakespeare Satyajit Ray

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41

Our India Out of Dust Paddy Clarke Ha, Ha, Ha Padmavati Painted Veil Painter of Signs Pair of Blue Eyes Pakistan in the 20th Century Political History Pakistan Crisis Pakistan Papers Pakistan-The Gathering Storm Panchagram Panchtantra Paradise Lost Pakistan Cut to Size Paradiso Paradise Regained Passage to England Passage to India Past and Present

Minoo Masani F.D. Karaka Reddy Doyle Malik Mohammed Jayasi W. Somerset Maugham R.K. Narayan Thomas Hardy Lawrence Ziring David Loshak Mani Shankar Aiyer Benazir Bhutto Tarashankar Bandopadhyaya Vishnu Sharma John Milton D.R. Mankekar Alighieri Dante John Milton Nirad C. Chaudhuri E.M. Forster Thomas Carlyle

Past Forward Pather Panchali Path to Power Patriot Pavilion of Women Peculiar Music Peter Pan

G.R. Narayanan Bibhuti Bhushan Bandyopadhyaya Margaret Thatcher Pearl S. Buck Pearl S. Buck Emily Bronte J.M. Barrie

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42

Personal of Democracy Personal Adventure Persuasion Pickwick Papers Pilgrim's Progress Pillow Problems and the Tangled Tale Pinjar Plague Plans for Departure Pleading Guilty Poison Belt Politics Portrait of India Possessed Post Office Power and Glory Power of Movement in Plants Power That Be Prathama Pratishruti Prem Pachisi Prelude Premonitions Preparing for the Twentieth Century Price of Partition Price of Power-Kissinger in the Nixon White House Princess in Love Prison and Chocolate Cake Prison Diary Prisoner of Zenda

P.C. Alexander Theodore H. White Jane Austen Charles Dickens John Bunyan Lewis Carroll Amrita Pritam Albert Camus Nayantara Sehgal Scott Turow Sir Arthur Conan Doyle Aristotle Ved Mehta Albert Camus Rabindranath Tagore Graham Greene Charles Darwin David Halberstan Ashapurna Devi Prem Chand William Wordsworth P.N. Haksar Paul Kennedy Rafiq Zakaria Seymour M. Hersh Ann Pasternak Nayantara Sehgal Jayaprakash Narayan Anthony Hope

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43

Prisoner's Scrapbook Primary Colors Prince Prithviraj Raso Pride and Prejudice Principia Professor Profiles & Letters Promises to Keep Punjab, The Knights of Falsehood Purgatory Pyramids of Sacrifice Pygmation

L.K. Advani Anonymous Machiavelli Chand Bardai Jane Austen Isaac Newton Charlotte Bronte K. Natwar Singh Chester Bowles K.P.S. Gill Alighieri Dante Peter L.Berger G.B. Shaw

Books and Authors [ Q - T ] Books Quarantene Quest for Conscience R Documents Rabbit, Run Radharani Rage of Angels Ragtime Raghuvamsa Rajtarangini Ram Charit Manas Ramayana Jim Crass Madhu Dandavate Irving Wallace John Updike Bankim Chandra Chatterjee Sydney Sheldon E.L. Doctorow Kalidas Kalhana Tulsidas Maharishi Valmiki (in Sanskrit) Authors

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44

Ramayana Dharshanam Rangbhoomi Rains Came Rain King Rainbow Raj : The Making & Unmaking of British India Rang-e-Shairi Rape of the Lock Rape of Nanking: An undeniable History of Photographs Rape of Bangladesh Rare Glimpses of the Raj Ratnavali Ravi Paar (Across the Ravi) Razor's Edge Rebel Rebirth Red and Black Red Star Over China Red Wheel Rediscovering Gandhi Reflections on the Frence Revolution Red Badge of Courage Remembering Babylon Reminiscences Reminiscences Reminiscences of the Nehru Age Rendezvous with Rama Reprieve

K.V. Puttappa Prem Chand Louis Bromefield Saul Bellow Pearl S. Buck Lawrence James Raghupati Sahai 'Firaq' Gorakhpuri Alexander Pope Shi Young Anthony Mascarenhas Pran Nevile Harsha Vardhan Gulzar Somerset Maugham Albert Camus Leonid Brezhnev Stendhal Edgar Snow Alexander Solzhenitsyn Yogesh Chadha Edmund Burke Stephen Crane David Malouf Thomas Carlyle Thomas Carlyle M.O. Mathai Arthur C. Clark Jean Paul Sartre

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45

Republic Rescue Resurrection Return of the Aryans Return of the Native Returning to the Source Revenue Stamp Rich Like Us Riding the Storm Rights the Man Rise and Fall of the Great Powers Ritu Ka Pehla Phool Ritu Samhara Rivals River Sutra Road to Folly Road to Freedom Robe Robinson Crusoe Romeo and Juliet Room at the Top Rubaiyat-i-Omar Khayyam Rukh Te Rishi Sader-i-Riyasat Sardar Patel and Indian Muslims Sakharam Binder Saket Satyartha Prakash Smaler's Planet

Plato Joseph Conrad Leo Tolstoy Bhagwan S. Gidwani Thomas Hardy Acharya Rajneesh Amrita Pritam Nayantara Sehgal Harold MacMillan Thomas Paina Paul Kennedy Vijendra Kalidas R.B. Sheridan Gita Mehta Leslie Ford K.K. Khullar Lloyd C. Douglas Daniel Defoe William Shakespeare John Braine Roots Edward Fitzgerald Harbhajan Singh Karan Singh Rafiq Zakaria Vijay Tendulkar Maithili Sharan Gupta Swami Dayanand Saul Bellow

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46

Sanctuary Sands of Time Santa Evita Satanic Verses Savitri Scarlet Letter Scarlet Pimpernel Scenes from a Writer's Life Sceptred Flute Schindlr's List Scholar Extraordinary School for Scandal Scope of Happiness Search for Home Second World War Secret Agent Sense of Time Sesame and Lilies Seven Lamps of Architecture Seven Summers Tale of a Tub Tale of Two Cities Tales from Shakespeare Tales of Sherlock Holmes Talisman Tamas Tar Baby Tarkash Tarzan of the Apes

William Faulkner Sidney Sheldon Tomas Eloymartinez Salman Rushdie Aurobindo Ghosh Nathaniel Hawthorne Baroness Orczy Ruskin Bond Sarojini Naidu Thomas Keneally Nirad C. Chaudhuri R.B. Sheridan Vijayalakshmi Pandit Sasthi Brata Winston Churchill Joseph Conrad S.H. Vatsyayan John Ruskin John Ruskin Mulk Raj Anand Jonathan Swift Charles Dickens Charles Lamb Sir Arthur Conan Doyle Sir Walter Scott Bhisham Sahni Toni Morrison Javed Akhtar Edgar Rice Burroughs

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47

Tehriq-e-Mujahideen Temple Tiger Tess of D'Urbervilles Thank You, Jeeves The Age of Extremes The Assassination The Agenda-Indide the Clinton White House The Agony and Ecstasy The Best and the Brightest The Beach Tree The Betrayal of East Pakistan The Calcutta Chromosome The Career & Legend of Vasco de Gama The Commitments The Cardinal The Changing World of Executive The Chinese Betrayal The Congress Splits The Dark Side of Camelot The Defeat or Distant Drumbeats The Diplomatic Bag

Dr. Sadiq Hussain Jim Corbett Thomas Hardy P.G. Wodehouse Eric Holsbawm K. Mohandas Bob Woodward Irving Stone David Malberstam Pearl S. Buck Lt. Gen. A.A.K. Niazi Amitav Ghosh Sanjay Subramanyam Roddy Doyle Henry Morton Robinson Peter Drucker B.N. Mullick R.P. Rao Seymore Hersh Bhaskar Roy John Ure

Books and Authors [ U - Z ] Books Ugly Duckling Ulysses Uncle Tom's Cabin H.C. Anderson James Joyce Mrs.Hariet Stowe Authors

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Unconsoled Under Western Eye Unhappy India Universe Around Us Until Darkness Utouchable Upturned Soil Urvashi Uttar Ramcharita Utopia Unto This Last Untold Story Valley of Dolls Vanity Fair Vendor of Sweets Venisamhara Very Old Bones Victim Victory Video Nights in Kathmandu View from Delhi View from the UN Vikram and the Vampire Village by the Sea Village Vinay Patrika Virangana Virginians Vish Vriksha

Kazuo Ishiguro Joseph Conrad Lala Lajpat Rai James Jeans Parvin Ghaffari Mulk Raj Anand Mikhail Sholokov Ramdhari Singh 'Dinkar' Bhava Bhuti Thomas More John Ruskin Gen.B.M.Kaul Jacqueline Susanne Thackeray R.K.Narayan Narayana Bhatt William Kennedy Saul Bellow Joseph Conrad Pico Lyer Chester Bowles U Thant Sir Richard Burton Anita Desai Mulk Raj Anand Tulsidas Maithili Sharan Gupta William Thackeray Bankim Chandra Chatterjee

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Voice of Conscience Voice of Freedom Voice of the Voiceless Waiting for Godot Waiting for the Mahatma Waiting to Exhale Wake up India Walls of Glass War and Peace War and No Peace Over Kashmir War Minus the Shooting War of Indian Independence War of the Worlds Waste Land Way of the World We, Indians We, the People Wealth of Nations Week with Gandhi West Wind Westward Ho Where the Grass is Greener While England Sleeps Whispers of the Desert White House Years Widening Divide Wild Ass's Skin Wings of fire, an Autobiography Winston Churchill

V.V. Giri Nayantara Sehgal Rutsh Harring Samuel Becket R.K. Narayan Terry McMillan Annie Besant K.A. Abbas Tolstoy Maroof Raza Mike Marquesee Vir Savarkar H.G.Wells T.S. Eliot William Congreve Khushwant Singh N.A. Palkhivala Adam Smith Louis Fischer Pearl S. Buck Charles Kingsley David M. Smith David Leavitt Fatima Bhutto Henry Kissinger Rafiq Zakaria Honore de Balzac Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam & A. Tiwari Clive Ponting

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Witness to History Without Fear or Favour Witness to an Era Woman's Life Women and Men in My Life Wonder That Was India World According to Garp World Within Words Worthy it is Worshipping False Gods Wreck Wuthering Heights Yajnaseni Yama Yashodhara Yayati Year of the Upheaval Year of the Vulture Years of Pilgrimage Yesterday and Today Zool: The Final Odyssey Zhivago,Dr. Zlata's Diary-A Child's Zulfi, My Friend Zulfikar Ali Bhutto & Pakistan

Prem Bhatia Neelam Sanjiva Reddy Frank Moraes Guy de Maupassant Khushwant Singh A.L. Basham John Irving Stephen Spender Odysseus Elytis Arun Shourie Rabindra Nath Tagore Emily Bronte Dr. Pratibha Roy Mahadevi Verma Maithili Sharan Gupta V.S. Khandekar Henry Kissinger Amita Malik Dr.Raja Ramanna K.P.S. Menon Arthur C. Clarke Boris Pasternak Zlata Filipovic Life in Sarajero Piloo Mody Rafi Raza

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• Countries and their capital, currencies, Principal languages, Religions

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Reykjavik Krona Icelandic Christianity India New Delhi Rupee Hindi Hinduism Indonesia Jakarta Rupiah Bahasa, Indonesian Islam & Christianity Iran Tehran Rial Persian (Farsi) Islam Iraq Baghdad Iraqi Dinar Arabic (Official) Arabic Judaism & Islam Italy Rome Euro Italian Christianity Jamaica Kingston Jamaican Dollar English Christianity Japan Tokyo Yen Japanese Shintoism & Ravindra
53

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Vietnam Hanoi Dong Vietnamese Buddhism & Taoism Yemen (N) Sana'a Rial & Dinar Arabic Islam yugoslavia Belgrade Dinar Serbocroatian Christianity Zaire Kinshasa Zaire French & Kiswahili Christianity & Animism Zambia Lusaka Kwacha Bantu & English Christianity & Islam Zimbabwe Harare Dollar English & Shona Tribal & Christianity

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• Foreign banks operating In India
Sr. No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14
Ravindra

Name ABN AMRO Bank Abu Dhabi Commercial Bank Ltd. Arab Bangladesh Bank Ltd. American Express Banking Corp. Antwerp Diamond Bank N.V. Bank International Indonesia Bank of America Bank of Bahrain & Kuwait BSC Bank of Nova Scotia Bank of Tokyo- Mitsubishi Ltd. BNP Paribas Bank of Ceylon Barclays Bank Plc. Calyon Bank

No of Branches in India 28 2 1 1 1 1 5 2 5 3 8 1 5 5
56

15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29

Citi Bank N.A. Shinhan Bank Chinatrust Commercial Bank Deutsche Bank DBS Bank Ltd. HSBC J.P.Morgan Chase Bank N.A. Krung Thai Bank Public Co.Ltd. Mizuho Corporate bank Ltd. Mashreq bank PSC. Oman International Bank SAOG Standard Chartered Bank (SCB) Sonali Bank Societe Generale State Bank of Mauritius

39 2 1 11 2 47 1 1 2 2 2 90 2 2 3

Rivers, Lakes, Water falls
River Leng Lengt Drainag th h e area (km) (mile (km²) s) Averag Outflow e dischar ge (m³/s) 6,650 4,135 3,349,0 5,100 Mediterrane 00 an Sea Countries in the drainage basin Ethiopia , Eritrea , Sudan , Uganda , Tanzania , Kenya , Rwanda , Burundi , Egypt , Democratic Republic of the Congo Brazil , Peru , Bolivia , Colombia ,

1 Nile .**

2 Amazon .**

6,400 3,980 6,915,0 219,000 Atlantic 00 Ocean

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3. 4.

Yangtze

6,300 3,917 1,800,0 31,900 East China (Chang Jiang) 00 Sea Mississippi 6,275 3,902 2,980,0 16,200 Gulf of - Missouri 00 Mexico

Ecuador , Venezuela , Guyana P.R. China United States (98.5%), Canada (1.5%) Russia , Mongolia P.R. China Russia, Kazakhstan , P.R. China, Mongolia Democratic Republic of the Congo, Central African Republic , Angola , Republic of the Congo , Tanzania , Cameroon , Zambia , Burundi , Rwanda Russia, P.R. China, Mongolia

5. 6. 7.

Yenisei Angara Selenga Yellow
(Huang He)

5,539 3,445 2,580,0 19,600 Kara Sea 00 5,464 3,398 745,000 2,110 Bohai Sea
(Balhae )

Ob - Irtysh 5,410 3,364 2,990,0 12,800 Gulf of Ob 00 Congo 4,700 2,922 3,680,0 41,800 Atlantic Chambeshi 00 Ocean
(Zaire)

8.

9.

Amur Argun
(Heilong Jiang)

4,444 2,763 1,855,0 11,400 Sea of 00 Okhotsk

10. Lena

4,400 2,736 2,490,0 17,100 Laptev Sea Russia 00 11. Mekong 4,350 2,705 810,000 16,000 South China Laos , (Lancang Sea Thailand , Jiang) P.R. China, Cambodia , Vietnam , Myanmar 12. Mackenzie - 4,241 2,637 1,790,0 10,300 Beaufort Canada

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58

Peace Finlay 13. Niger

00 4,200 2,611 2,090,0 9,570 00

Sea Gulf of Guinea

14. Paraná
(Río de la Plata )

15. Volga

16. Shatt alArab Euphrates

17. Purus 18. Murray Darling 19. Madeira -

Nigeria (26.6%), Mali (25.6%), Niger (23.6%), Algeria (7.6%), Guinea (4.5%), Cameroon (4.2%), Burkina Faso (3.9%), Côte d'Ivoire , Benin , Chad 3,998 2,486 3,100,0 25,700 Atlantic Brazil 00 Ocean (46.7%), Argentina (27.7%), Paraguay (13.5%), Bolivia (8.3%), Uruguay (3.8%) 3,645 2,266 1,380,0 8,080 Caspian Sea Russia 00 (99.8%), Kazakhstan (minor) 3,596 2,236 884,000 856 Persian Gulf Iraq (40.5%), Turkey (24.8%), Iran (19.7%), Syria (14.7%) 3,379 2,101 63,166 8,400 Amazon Brazil, Peru 3,370 2,094 1,061,0 767 Southern Australia [1] 00 Ocean 3,239 2,014 850,000 17,000 Amazon Brazil,

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Mamoré 20. Yukon 3,184 1,980 850,000 6,210

21. Indus
(Sindhu)

3,180 1,976 960,000 7,160

22. São Francisco

3,180 * (2,90 0) 23. Syr Darya - 3,078 Naryn 24.

25.

26.

27. 28.

Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan , Uzbekistan , Tajikistan [2] Salween 3,060 1,901 324,000 3,153 Andaman P.R. China (Nu Jiang) Sea (52.4%), Myanmar (43.9%), Thailand (3.7%) Saint 3,058 1,900 1,030,0 10,100 Gulf of Saint Canada Lawrence 00 Lawrence (52.1%), Niagara United Detroit States Saint Clair (47.9%) Saint Marys -Saint Louis Rio Grande 3,057 1,900 570,000 82 Gulf of United (2,89 (1,799 Mexico States 6) ) (52.1%), Mexico (47.9%) Lower 2,989 1,857 473,000 3,600 Yenisei Russia Tunguska Brahmaputr 2,948 1,832 1,730,0 19,200 Bay of India
[3]

1,976 610,000 3,300 * (1,802 ) 1,913 219,000 703

Bolivia, Peru Bering Sea United States (59.8%), Canada (40.2%) Arabian Sea Pakistan (93%), India , P. R. China, disputed territory (Kashmir ), Afghanistan Atlantic Brazil Ocean Aral Sea

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60

a

*

*

00

Bengal

29. Danube

2,850 1,771 817,000 7,130 * *

Black Sea

30. Tocantins 31. Zambezi
(Zambesi)

2,699 1,677 1,400,0 13,598 Atlantic 00 Ocean, Amazon 2,693 1,673 1,330,0 4,880 Mozambique Zambia * * 00 Channel (41.6%), Angola (18.4%), Zimbabwe (15.6%), Mozambiqu

(58.0%), P.R. China (19.7%), Nepal (9.0%), Bangladesh (6.6%), Disputed India/P.R. China (4.2%), Bhutan (2.4%) Romania (28.9%), Hungary (11.7%), Austria (10.3%), Serbia (10.3%), Germany (7.5%), Slovakia (5.8%), Bulgaria (5.2%), Bosnia and Herzegovin a (4.8%), Croatia (4.5%), Ukraine (3.8%), Moldova (1.7%). Brazil

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61

e (11.8%), Malawi (8.0%), Tanzania (2.0%), Namibia , Botswana 32. Vilyuy 2,650 1,647 454,000 1,480 Lena Russia 33. Araguaia 2,627 1,632 358,125 6,172 Tocantins Brazil 34. Amu Darya 2,620 1,628 534,739 1,400 Aral Sea Uzbekistan , Turkmenista n, Tajikistan , Afghanistan 35. Japurá 2,615 1,625 242,259 6,000 Amazon Brazil, (Rio Yapurá) * * Colombia 36. Nelson 2,570 1,597 1,093,0 2,575 Hudson Bay Canada, Saskatchew 00 United an States 37. Paraguay 2,549 1,584 900,000 4,300 Paraná Brazil, (Rio Paraguay, Paraguay) Bolivia, Argentina 38. Kolyma 2,513 1,562 644,000 3,800 East Russia Siberian Sea 39. Ganges 2,510 1,560 907,000 12,037 Brahmaputr India, [4] (Ganga) a , Bay of Bangladesh, Bengal Nepal 40. Pilcomayo 2,500 1,553 270,000 Paraguay Paraguay , Argentina, Bolivia 41. Upper Ob 2,490 1,547 Ob Russia 42. Ishim 2,450 1,522 177,000 56 Irtysh Kazakhstan, Russia 43. Juruá 2,410 1,498 200,000 6,000 Amazon Peru, Brazil 44. Ural 2,428 1,509 237,000 475 Caspian Sea Russia, Kazakhstan 45. Arkansas 2,348 1,459 505,000 1,066 Mississippi United (435,122) States 46. Ubangi 2,300 1,429 4,003 Congo Democratic Uele Republic of the Congo, Central African

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62

47. Olenyok 48. Dnieper 49. 50. 51. 52. 53.

54. 55.

Republic Russia Russia, Belarus , Ukraine Aldan 2,273 1,412 729,000 5,060 Lena Russia Negro 2,250 1,450 720,114 26,700 Amazon Brazil, Venezuela, Colombia Columbia 2,250 1,450 415,211 7500 Pacific United (1,95 (1,214 Ocean States, 3) ) Canada Colorado 2,333 1,450 390,000 1,200 Gulf of United (western California States, U.S.) Mexico Pearl - Xi 2,200 1,376 437,000 13,600 South China P.R. China Jiang Sea (98.5%), Vietnam (1.5%) Red 2,188 1,360 78,592 875 Mississippi United States Ayeyarwad 2,170 1,348 411,000 13,000 Andaman Myanmar y Sea 2,292 1,424 219,000 1,210 2,287 1,421 516,300 1,670 Laptev Sea Black Sea
(Irrawaddy)

56. Kasai

2,153 1,338 880,200 10,000 Congo

57. Ohio Allegheny 58. Orinoco 59. Tarim 60. Xingu 61. Orange

2,102 1,306 490,603 7,957

Mississippi

2,101 1,306 880,000 30,000 Atlantic Ocean 2,100 1,305 557,000 2,100 1,305 2,092 1,300 Lop Nur Amazon Atlantic Ocean

62. Northern Salado 63. Vitim 64. Tigris

2,010 1,249 1,978 1,229 1,950 1,212

Paraná Lena Shatt alArab

Angola , Democratic Republic of the Congo United States Venezuela, Colombia, Guyana P. R. China Brazil South Africa , Namibia , Botswana , Lesotho Argentina Russia Turkey , Iraq , Syria ,

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63

65. 66. 67. 68.

Songhua Tapajós Don Stony Tunguska 69. Pechora 70. Kama 71. Limpopo

1,927 1,900 1,870 1,865

1,197 1,181 1,162 425,600 935 1,159 240,000

Amur Amazon Sea of Azov Yenisei

Iran P. R. China Brazil Russia Russia

1,809 1,124 322,000 1,805 1,122 507,000 1,800 1,118 413,000

72. Guaporé
(Itenez)

1,749 1,087 1,726 1,072 360,400 1,810 1,670 1,038 279,719 1,611 1,641 1,020 419,659 1,610 1,000 370,000 1,600 994 1,600 994 1,600 994 1,600 994 1,600 994

73. Indigirka 74. Snake 75. Senegal 76. Uruguay 77. Blue Nile 77. Churchill 77. Khatanga 77. Okavango 77. Volta

82. Beni 83. Platte 84. Tobol

1,599 994 1,594 990 1,591 989

Barents Sea Russia Volga Russia Indian Mozambiqu Ocean e, Zimbabwe , South Africa , Botswana Mamoré Brazil, Bolivia East Russia Siberian Sea Columbia United States Atlantic Senegal , Ocean Mali , Mauritania Atlantic Uruguay , Ocean Argentina, Brazil Nile Ethiopia , Sudan Hudson Bay Canada Laptev Sea Russia Okavango Namibia , Delta Angola , Botswana Gulf of Ghana , Guinea Burkina Faso , Togo , Côte d'Ivoire , Benin Madeira Bolivia Missouri United States Irtysh Kazakhstan,

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85. Jubba Shebelle 86. Içá
(Putumayo)

1,580 982* * 1,575 979

Indian Ocean Amazon Caribbean Sea Yangtze Congo Volga Rio Grande Yenisei Bay of Bengal Gulf of Mexico Ichilo Kama Lake Eyre Amazon Black Sea Niger Lake Balkhash Lake Eyre Chenab Ganges Kama 3,475 Pacific

87. Magdalena 1,550 963 88. Han 89. Lomami 89. Oka 90. Pecos 91. Upper Yenisei 92. Godavari 1,532 952 1,500 932 1,500 932 1,490 926 1,480 920 1,465 910

Russia Ethiopia , Somalia Brazil, Peru, Colombia, Ecuador Colombia P. R. China Democratic Republic of the Congo Russia United States Russia, Mongolia India United States Bolivia Russia Australia Peru Ukraine , Moldova Cameroon , Nigeria P. R. China, Kazakhstan Australia China, India, Pakistan India Russia Canada

93. Colorado 1,438 894 (Texas) 94. Río Grande 1,438 894
(Guapay)

95. Belaya 96. Cooper Barcoo 97. Marañón 98. Dniester 99. Benue 99. Ili
(Yili)

1,420 882 1,420 880 1,415 1,411 (1,35 2) 1,400 879 877 (840) 870

1,400 870

99. Warburton - 1,400 870 Georgina 1 Sutlej 1,372 852 02. 1 Yamuna 03. 1 Vyatka 03. 1 Fraser 1,370 851 1,370 851 1,368 850

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05. 1 Kura 06. 1 07. 1 08. 1 09. 1 10. 1 11. 1 12. 1 12. 1 12. Grande Brazos Cauca River Liao Yalong Iguaçu Olyokma Rhine

1,364 848

1,360 845 1,352 840 1,350 839 1,345 836 1,323 822 1,320 820 1,320 820 1,320 820 198,735 2,330

Ocean Caspian Sea Azerbaijan , Georgia , Armenia , Turkey , Iran Paraná Brazil Gulf of Mexico Magdalena River Bo Hai Yangtze Paraná Lena North Sea United States Colombia P. R. China P. R. China Brazil, Argentina Russia Germany , France , Switzerland , Netherlands , Austria , Belgium , Luxembour g, Liechtenstei n , Italy Russia India Brazil

1 Northern 13. Dvina Sukhona 1 Krishna 14. 1 Iriri 14. 1 Narmada 15. 1 Ottawa 16. 1 Zeya 17. 1 Juruena 18.

1,302 809 1,300 808 1,300 808 1,289 801 1,271 790 1,242 772 1,240 771

357,052 3,332

White Sea Bay of Bengal Xingu

Arabian Sea India Saint Lawrence Amur Tapajós Canada Russia Brazil

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66

1 19. 1 20. 1 21.

Upper 1,236 768 Mississippi Athabasca 1,231 765 Elbe Vltava 1,231 765 1,223 760 1,220 758 1,210 752 1,200 746 1,190 739 1,175 730 1,173 729 1,158 720 1,150 715 1,143 710 1,143 710 1,130 702 1,130 702 1,130 702 1,130 702 1,130 702 1,126 700 77,700 88,900 360 148,268 711

Mississippi Mackenzie North Sea

United States Canada

1 Canadian 22. 1 North 23. Saskatchew an 1 Vaal 24. 1 Shire 25. 1 Nen 26. (Nonni) 1 Green 27. 1 Milk 28. 1 Chindwin 31. 1 Sankuru 32. 1 33. 1 33. 1 35. 1 35. 1 35. 1 35. 1 35. 1 James (Dakotas) Kapuas Desna Helmand Madre de Dios Tietê Vychegda Sepik

Germany , Czech Republic Arkansas United States Saskatchew Canada an Orange Zambezi Songhua Colorado (western U.S.) Missouri South Africa Mozambiqu e , Malawi P. R. China United States

United States, Canada Ayeyarwady Myanmar Kasai Democratic Republic of the Congo Missouri United States South China Indonesia Sea Dnieper Russia , Ukraine Hamun-iAfghanistan Helmand , Iran Madeira Peru, Bolivia Paraná Brazil Northern Dvina Pacific Russia Papua New

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67

40. 1 41. 1 42. 1 43. 1 44. 1 45. 1 46. 1 46. Cimarron Anadyr Jialing River Liard White Huallaga Kwango 1,123 698 1,120 696 1,119 695 1,115 693 1,102 685 1,100 684 1,100 684 263,500 2,700

Ocean Arkansas Gulf of Anadyr Yangtze Mackenzie Mississippi Marañón Kasai

Guinea , Indonesia United States Russia P. R. China Canada United States Peru Angola, Democratic Republic of the Congo The Gambia , Senegal , Guinea India, Pakistan United States Kyrgyzstan , Kazakhstan Ukraine , Russia Argentina, Bolivia Papua New Guinea , Indonesia Colombia

1 Gambia 48. 1 49. 1 50. 1 51. 1 52. Chenab

1,094 680

Atlantic Ocean Indus Missouri 62,500 none Don Paraguay Gulf of Papua Orinoco Bering Sea

1,086 675

Yellowstone 1,080 671 Chu River Donets 1067 663 1,078 670 (1,05 (654) 3) 1,050 652 1,050 652 1,050 652

1 Bermejo 53. 1 Fly 53. 1 53. 1 53. 1 57. 1 58. Guaviare

Kuskokwim 1,050 652 Tennessee Daugava 1,049 652 1,020 634

United States Ohio United States Gulf of Riga Latvia , Belarus ,

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1 Gila 59. 1 60. 1 61. 1 62. 1 62. 1 64. 1 65. Vistula Loire Essequibo Khoper Tagus
(Tajo/Tejo)

1,015 631 1,014 630 1,012 629 1,010 628 1,010 628 1,006 625

Colorado (western U.S.) Baltic Sea Atlantic Ocean Atlantic Ocean Don Atlantic Ocean Atlantic Ocean

Russia United States Poland France Guyana Russia Spain , Portugal Argentina

Colorado 1,000 620 (Argentina)

Oceanic 'lakes'
Two bodies of water commonly considered lakes are hydrologically ocean (Maracaibo) or geologically ocean (the Caspian Sea). Name Country Regio Water volume n 1. Caspian Azerbaijan, Russia, Kazakhstan, 78,200 km 3 [2] Sea Turkmenistan, Iran (18,800 cu mi) 20 Maracaibo Venezuela 280 km 3 (67 cu [3] . mi) Continental lakes

The following are geological as well as geographic lakes .
Name 2. Baikal
[4]

Country Russia Tanzania, DRC, Burundi, Zambia United States, Canada United States, Canada Malawi, Mozambique, Tanzania

Region Siberia

3. Tanganyika 4. Superior 5. MichiganHuron 6. Malawi

Water volume 23,600 km 3 (5,700 cu mi) 18,900 km 3 (4,500 cu mi) 11,600 km 3 (2,800 cu mi) 8,260 km 3 (1,980 cu mi) 7,725 km 3 (1,853 cu mi)

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7. Vostok 8. Victoria 9. Great Bear Lake [ 5 ] 10 Issyk-Kul . 11 Ontario . 12 Great Slave . Lake [ 5 ] 13 Ladoga . 14 Titicaca . 15 Van [ 6 ] . 16 Kivu . 17 Erie . 18 Khövsgöl . 19 Onega . 21 Toba [ 7 ] . 22 Argentino . 23 Turkana . 24 Vänern . 25 Nipigon . 26 Tahoe . 27 Dead Sea . 28 Albert . 29 Winnipeg .

Antarctica Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda Canada Kyrgyzstan United States, Canada Canada Russia Bolivia, Peru Turkey Rwanda, DRC United States, Canada Mongolia Russia Indonesia (Sumatra) Argentina Kenya Sweden Canada United States Jordan, Israel, Palestine Uganda, DRC Canada Ontario California, Nevada Southeast Anatolia

Northwest Territories

Northwest Territories

5,400±1,600 km³ (~1,300 cu mi) 2,700 km 3 (650 cu mi) 2,236 km 3 (536 cu mi) 1,730 km 3 (420 cu mi) 1,710 km 3 (410 cu mi) 1,580 km 3 (380 cu mi) 908 km 3 (218 cu mi) 710 km 3 (170 cu mi) 607 km 3 (146 cu mi) 569 km 3 (137 cu mi) 545 km 3 (131 cu mi) 480 km 3 (120 cu mi) 295 km 3 (71 cu mi) 240 km 3 (58 cu mi) 219.9 km 3 (52.8 cu mi) 204 km 3 (49 cu mi) 180 km 3 (43 cu mi) 165 km 3 (40 cu mi) [ 8 ] 151 km 3 (36 cu mi) 147 km 3 (35 cu mi) 132 km 3 (32 cu mi) 127 km 3 (30 cu mi)

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30 . 31 . 32 . 33 .

Nettilling Balkhash Athabasca Nicaragua

Canada Kazakhstan Canada Nicaragua

Nunavut (Baffin 114 Island) mi) 112 mi) Alberta110 Saskatchewan mi) 108 mi)

km 3 (27 cu km 3 (27 cu km 3 (26 cu km 3 (26 cu

WORLD'S TALLEST WATERFALLS

Name

Height

( so rt )

Tallest Drop ( so rt ) 2,648 ft / 807 m 1,350 ft / 411 m

State

Country

1 . Angel, Salto 2 . Tugela Falls 3 . Tres Hermanas, Cataratas las

3,212 feet / 979 meters 3,110 feet / 948 meters 3,000 feet / 914 meters 2,953 feet / 900 meters 2,938 feet / 896 meters 2,822 feet / 860 meters 2,788 feet / 850 meters 2,756 feet / 840 meters 2,755 feet / 840 meters 2,744 feet / 836 meters 2,690 feet /

Bolivar Kwazulu Natal Ayacucho Hawaii Amazonas

Venezuel a South Africa Peru USA Peru Norway Norway USA Canada New Zealand Norway

4 . Olo'upena Falls 5 . Yumbilla, Catarata 6 . Vinnufossen 7 . Baläifossen 8 . Pu'uka'oku Falls 9 . James Bruce Falls 10 Browne Falls . 11 Strupenfossen

1,378 ft / 420 m 1,482 ft / 452 m

More Og Romsdal Hordaland Hawaii British Columbia

800 ft / 244 m

South Island Sogn Og

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71

. 12 Ramnefjellsfossen . 13 Waihilau Falls . 14 Colonial Creek . Falls 15 Mongefossen . 16 Gocta, Catarata . 17 Mutarazi Falls . 18 Kjelfossen .

820 meters 2,685 feet / 818 meters 2,600 feet / 792 meters 2,584 feet / 788 meters 2,535 feet / 773 meters 2,531 feet / 771 meters 2,499 feet / 762 meters 2,477 feet / 755 meters 1,572 ft / 479 m 490 ft / 149 m 800 ft / 244 m 1,430 ft / 436 m 1,000 ft / 305 m 2,362 ft / 720 m 2,360 ft / 719 m 2,345 ft / 715 m 1,000 ft / 305 m 1,120 ft / 341 m 2,535 ft / 773 m 1,968 ft / 600 m 2,600 ft / 792 m

Fjordane Sogn Og Fjordane Hawaii Washington M?re Og Romsdal Amazonas Manicaland Sogn Og Fjordane Washington California Cirque de Salazie Møre Og Romsdal Hawaii Rogaland Montana Montana Hawaii South Island 2,296 ft / 700 m 656 ft / 200 m 787 ft / British Columbia M?re Og Romsdal Hordaland Norway USA USA Norway Peru Zimbabw e Norway USA USA R?union Norway USA Norway USA USA USA New Zealand Canada Norway Norway

19 2,465 feet / Johannesburg Falls . 751 meters 20 Yosemite Falls . 21 Trou de Fer, . Cascades de 22 Ølmäafossen . 23 Mana'wai'nui Falls . 24 Kjeragfossen . 25 Avalanche Basin . Falls 26 Harrison Basin . Falls 27 Haloku Falls . 28 Lake Chamberlain . Falls 29 Alfred Creek Falls . 30 D?ntefossen . 31 Brufossen 2,425 feet / 739 meters 2,380 feet / 725 meters 2,362 feet / 720 meters 2,360 feet / 719 meters 2,345 feet / 715 meters 2,320 feet / 707 meters 2,320 feet / 707 meters 2,297 feet / 700 meters 2,297 feet / 700 meters 2,296 feet / 700 meters 2,296 feet / 700 meters 2,289 feet /

Ravindra

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. 32 Spirefossen . 33 Lake Unknown . Falls 34 Kukenaam, Salto . 35 Yutaj?, Salto .

698 meters 2,264 feet / 690 meters 2,230 feet / 680 meters 2,211 feet / 674 meters 2,200 feet / 671 meters

240 m Sogn Og Fjordane 492 ft / 150 m 2,211 ft / 674 m South Island Bolivar Amazonas Norway New Zealand Venezuel a Venezuel a

36 Deserted . River Falls 37 Sulphide . Creek Falls

2,198 feet / meters 2,182 feet / meters

670 665 660 660 600 ft / 183 m 492 ft / 150 m 1,174 ft / 358 m 500 ft / 152 m

British Columbia Washington South Island Hawaii Sogn Og Fjordane M?re Og Romsdal California British Columbia Washington 1,023 ft / 312 m Hordaland Hawaii 1,312 Cirque de

Canada USA New Zealand USA

38 2,165 feet / Hidden Falls . meters 39 2,165 feet / Kahiwa Falls . meters 40 2,165 feet / Krunefossen . meters 41 Mardalsfoss 2,154 feet / . en meters 42 Snow Creek . Falls 2,140 feet / meters

660

Norway

657

Norway

652 650 649 646 640 640

USA Canada USA Norway USA Reunion

43 2,132 feet / Francis Falls . meters 44 Silver Lake . Falls 2,128 feet / meters

45 Tyssestreng 2,120 feet / . ene meters 46 Aimoo Falls . 47 Blanche, 2,100 feet / meters 2,100 feet /

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73

.

Cascade

meters 2,093 feet / meters 638 620

ft / 400 m

Salazie Alaska USA Norway

48 Pitchfork . Falls

Ytste 49 2,034 feet / Tinjefjellfos . meters sen 50 Langfoss . 51 Gold Creek . Falls 52 Kakaauki . Falls 53 Roraima, . Salto 54 Bluff Falls . 55 Iguapo, . Salto del 2,008 feet / meters 2,001 feet / meters 2,000 feet / meters 2,000 feet / meters 1,968 feet / meters 1,968 feet / meters

1,246 ft / 380 m 2,008 ft / 612 m

Sogn Og Fjordane Hordaland British Columbia

612 610 610

Norway Canada USA Venezuel a New Zealand Venezuel a Slovenia

600 ft / 183 m 1,000 ft / 305 m

Hawaii

610 600 600 600 600 597

Bolivar South Island Bolivar

56 Levo Savice, 1,968 feet / . Slapovi meters 57 Wishbone . Falls 58 Keana'awi . Falls 59 Kve?fossen . 1,968 feet / meters 1,960 feet / meters 1,935 feet / meters

South Island 1,480 ft / 451 m 1,935 ft / 590 m 500 ft / 152 m 885 ft / 270 m Hawaii Sogn Og Fjordane California

New Zealand USA

590

Norway

60 1,920 feet / Sentinel Fall . meters 61 Sutherland . Falls 1,904 feet / meters

585

USA New Zealand Peru USA

580 580 580

South Island Amazonas Hawaii

62 Chinata, 1,903 feet / . Cataratas la meters 63 Wailele Falls 1,903 feet /

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74

. 64 Aa Falls . 65 Madden . Falls

meters 1,900 feet / meters 1,900 feet / meters 579 579 500 ft / 152 m 410 ft / 125 m Hawaii British Columbia Sogn Og Fjordane Valais 1,160 ft / 354 m 1,837 ft / 560 m Montana Sogn Og Fjordane Sogn Og Fjordane USA Canada

66 Lægdafosse 1,886 feet / . n meters 67 Gietro, . Cascade du 68 Monument . Falls 69 Tjotafossen . 1,850 feet / meters 1,840 feet / meters 1,837 feet / meters

575 564 561

Norway Switzerla nd USA

560

Norway

Østre 70 1,837 feet / Tinjefjellfos . meters sen

560

Norway

71 Sundefossen .

1,827 feet / 557 meter s 1,807 feet / 551 meter s 1,804 feet / 550 meter s 1,800 feet / 549 meter s

Hordalan d

Norway

72 Ormelifossen .

Sogn Og Fjordane

Norway

73 Waimanu Falls .

394 ft / Hawaii 120 m 1,04 0 ft / Hawaii 317 m

USA

74 Lahomene Falls .

USA

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75

75 Papala Falls .

1,800 feet / 549 meter s 1,771 feet / 540 meter s 1,760 feet / 536 meter s 1,749 feet / 533 meter s 1,719 feet / 524 meter s 1,706 feet / 520 meter s 1,706 feet / 520 meter s 1,706 feet / 520 meter s 1,700 feet / 518 meter

Hawaii

USA

76 Douglas Falls .

South Island

New Zealand

77 Pumpelly Basin Falls .

720 ft / Montana 219 m

USA

78 Tyssefossen .

M?re Og Romsdal

Norway

79 Pilao, Cachoeira do .

Santa Brazil Catharina 1,70 6 British ft / Canada Columbia 520 m 656 ft / Nunavut 200 m

80 Kingcome Valley Falls .

81 Schwartzenbach Falls .

Canada

82 Swiftcurrent Falls . 83 Kakeha Falls .

British Canada Columbia Hawaii USA

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76

s 84 Ahern Glacier Falls . 1,680 feet / 512 meter s 1,680 feet / 512 meter s 1,656 feet / 505 meter s 1,644 feet / 501 meter s 1,640 feet / 500 meter s 1,640 feet / 500 meter s 1,640 feet / 500 meter s 1,640 feet / 500 meter s 1,11 5 ft / Hawaii 340 m 984 ft / Bern 300 m 1,68 0 ft / Montana 512 m

USA

85 Lake Frances Falls .

Montana

USA

86 Montoya, Salto .

Venezuel a

87 Papalaua Falls .

USA

88 Engstligenfäll .

Switzerla nd

89 Grinddalsfossen .

Sogn Og Fjordane

Norway

90 Hannoki-no-taki .

Honshu

Japan

91 Matahushi, Salto . 92 Walcherfall .

Bolivar

Venezuel a Austria

1,640 328 Salzburg feet / ft /

Ravindra

77

500 100 meter m s 93 Boston Creek Falls . 1,627 feet / 496 meter s 1,625 feet / 495 meter s 1,624 feet / 495 meter s 1,620 feet / 494 meter s 1,612 feet / 491 meter s 1,608 feet / 490 meter s 1,601 feet / 488 meter s 1,600 feet / 488 meter s 600 ft / Washingt USA 183 on m 585 ft / Montana 178 m 771 ft / Hordalan 235 d m

94 Lake Frances Falls .

USA

95 Tjornadalsfossen .

Norway

96 Louis Creek Falls .

Washingt USA on 1,61 2 ft / California USA 491 m 492 ft / Hordalan 150 d m 1,60 1 Sogn Og ft / Fjordane 488 m

97 Ribbon Fall .

98 Voldefossen .

Norway

99 Thorfossen .

Norway

10 Otter Falls 0 .

Washingt USA on

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78

1,600 feet / 10 Ventisquero Colgante, Cascada 488 1 . de meter s 10 Wall of Tears 2 . 1,600 feet / 488 meter s 1,591 feet / 485 meter s 1,583 feet / 483 meter s 1,574 feet / 480 meter s

1,60 0 ft / Aisen 488 m 1,60 0 ft / Hawaii 488 m 1,59 1 Hordalan ft / d 485 m

Chile

USA

10 Krokfossen 3 .

Norway

10 Torment Falls 4 .

Washingt USA on

10 Kiwi Falls 5 .

British Canada Columbia

• Nick Names of Important Indian places
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bad ) 41 Pitt sbu rg of Indi a J ams hed pur

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National

Emblems

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Australia Kangaroo Bangladesh Water Lily Barbados Head of trident Belgium Lion Canada White Lily Chile Candor and huemul Denmark Beach Dominica Sisserou Parrot France Lily Germany Corn Flower Guyana Canje Pheasant India Lioned Capital Iran Rose Ireland Shamrock Israel Candelabrum Italy White Lily Ravindra
83

• Towns on Rivers in other Countries

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Country River Akyab Kaladan Antwerp Scheldt Baghdad Tigris Bangkok Chao Praya Basra Shatt-al-arab Belgrade Danube Berlin Spree Bonn Rhine Bristol Avon Brussels Seine Budapest Danube Buenos Aires La Plater Cairo Nile Canton Chu-Kiang Chittagong Karnafuli Ravindra
85

• State-CM’S

In India, there are a total of thirty Chief Ministers selected by all twenty-eight states and two out of the seven union territories. They are: State Name Assuming Date Party Andhra Pradesh Arunachal Pradesh Assam Bihar Chhattisgarh Delhi Goa Gujarat Haryana Himachal Pradesh Jammu and Kashmir Jharkhand Karnataka Kerala Y. S. Rajasekhara Reddy Dorjee Khandu Tarun Kumar Gogoi Nitish Kumar Raman Singh Sheila Dikshit 5/14/2004 4/9/2007 5/17/2001 11/24/2005 12/7/2003 12/3/1998 Indian National Congress Indian National Congress Indian National Congress Janata Dal (United) Bharatiya Janata Party Indian National Congress Indian National Congress Bharatiya Janata Party Indian National Congress Bharatiya Janata Party

Digambar Kamat 6/8/2007 Narendra Modi 10/7/2001

Bhupinder Singh 3/5/2005 Hooda Prem Kumar Dhumal President rule Shibu Soren B.S. Yedurupaya V.S. Achuthanandan 30/12/2007 2008 2008-08-27 2008-05-28 5/18/2006 11/29/2005

Jharkhand Mukti Morcha BJP Communist Party of India (Marxist) Bharatiya Janata

Madhya Pradesh Shivraj Singh

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Chauhan Maharashtra Manipur Meghalaya Mizoram Nagaland Orissa Pondicherry Punjab Rajasthan Sikkim Tamil Nadu Tripura Uttarakhand Uttar Pradesh West Bengal Vilasrao Deshmukh Okram Ibobi Singh D.D. Lapang 11/1/2004 3/2/2002 3/10/2007

Party Indian National Congress Indian National Congress Indian National Congress Mizo National Front Nagaland People`s Front Biju Janata Dal Indian National Congress Shiromani Akali Dal Bharatiya Janata Party Sikkim Democratic Front DMK CPI-M Bharatiya Janata Party Bahujan Samaj Party CPI-M

Pu Zoramthanga 12/4/1998 Neiphiu Rio Naveen Patnaik Vaithilingam Parkash Singh Badal 3/6/2003 5/17/2004 2008-09-04 2/28/2007

Vasundhara Raje 12/8/2003 Scindia Pawan Kumar Chamling M. Karunanidhi Manik Sarkar B. C. Khanduri Mayawati Buddhadeb Bhattacharya 12/12/1994 5/12/2006 3/11/1998 3/12/2007 5/13/2007 10/6/2000

• Country-Minister’s
CABINET MINISTERS

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1

Dr. Manmohan Singh

Prime Minister and also in-charge of the Ministries/ Departments not specifically allocated to the charge of any Minister viz.: (i) Ministry of Personnel, Public Grievances & Pensions; (ii) Ministry of Planning; (iii) Department of Atomic Energy; (iv) Department of Space; (v) Ministry of Coal; (vi) Ministry of Environment and Forests; and

2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29

(vii) Ministry of Information and Broadcasting. Minister of External Affairs and Minister of Finance. Minister of Human Resource Development. Minister of Agriculture and Minister of Consumer Affairs, Food & Public Distribution. Shri Lalu Prasad Minister of Railways. Shri A.K. Antony Minister of Defence Shri A.R. Antulay Minister of Minority Affairs. Shri Sushilkumar Shinde Minister of Power Shri Ram Vilas Paswan Minister of Chemicals & Fertilizers and Minister of Steel. Shri S. Jaipal Reddy Minister of Urban Development. Shri Sis Ram Ola Minister of Mines. Shri P. Chidambaram Minister of Home Affairs. Shri Mahavir Prasad Minister of Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises. Shri P.R. Kyndiah Minister of Tribal Affairs. Shri T.R. Baalu Minister of Shipping, Road Transport & Highways. Shri Shankersinh Vaghela Minister of Textiles. Shri Vayalar Ravi Minister of Overseas Indian Affairs and Minister of Parliamentary Affairs. Shri Kamal Nath Minister of Commerce & Industry. Shri H.R. Bhardwaj Minister of Law & Justice. Shri Sontosh Mohan Dev Minister of Heavy Industries & Public Enterprises. Prof. Saif-ud-din Soz Minister of Water Resources. Shri Raghuvansh Prasad Minister of Rural Development. Singh Shri Priyaranjan Dasmunsi Minister without Portfolio. Shri Mani Shankar Aiyar Minister of Panchayati Raj and Minister of Development of North Eastern Region. . Smt. Meira Kumar Minister of Social Justice & Empowerment. Shri Murli Deora Minister of Petroleum & Natural Gas. Smt. Ambika Soni Minister of Tourism and Minister of Culture. Shri A. Raja Minister of Communications and Information Technology. Shri Kapil Sibal Minister of Science & Technology and Minister of Earth Shri Pranab Mukherjee Shri Arjun Singh Shri Sharad Pawar

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30

Shri Prem Chand Gupta

Sciences. Minister of Corporate Affairs.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

MINISTERS OF STATE (INDEPENDENT CHARGE) Smt. Renuka Chowdhury Minister of State (Independent Charge) of the Ministry of Women & Child Development. Shri Subodh Kant Sahay Minister of State (Independent Charge) of the Ministry of Food Processing Industries. Shri Vilas Muttemwar Minister of State (Independent Charge) of the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy . Kumari Selja Minister of State (Independent Charge) of the Ministry of Housing and Urban Poverty Alleviation. Shri Praful Patel Minister of State (Independent Charge) of the Ministry of Civil Aviation. Shri G.K.Vasan Minister of State (Independent Charge) of the Ministry of Statistics & Programme Implementation and Minister of State (Independent Charge) of the Ministry of Labour & Employment. Dr. M. S. Gill Minister of State (Independent Charge) of the Ministry of Youth Affairs & Sports. MINISTERS OF STATE Shri E. Ahammed Minister of State in the Ministry of External Affairs. Shri B.K. Handique Minister of State in the Ministry of Chemicals & Fertilizers and Minister of State in the Ministry of Mines.. Smt. Panabaka Lakshmi Minister of State in the Ministry of Health & Family Welfare. Dr. Shakeel Ahmad Minister of State in the Ministry of Home Affairs.. Shri Rao Inderjit Singh Minister of State in the Ministry of Defence. Shri Naranbhai Rathwa Minister of State in the Ministry of Railways. Shri K.H. Muniappa Minister of State in the Ministry of Shipping, Road Transport & Highways. Shri Kantilal Bhuria Minister of State in the Ministry of Agriculture and Minister of State in the Ministry of Consumer Affairs, Food & Public Distribution. Shri Shriprakash Jaiswal Minister of State in the Ministry of Home Affairs. Shri Prithviraj Chavan Minister of State in the Prime Minister’s Office and Minister of State in the Ministry of Personnel, Public Grievances and Pensions. Shri Taslimuddin Minister of State in the Ministry of Agriculture and Minister of State in the Ministry of Consumer Affairs, Food & Public Distribution. Smt. Suryakanta Patil Minister of State in the Ministry of Rural Development and Minister of State in the Ministry of Parliamentary Affairs. Shri Md. Ali Ashraf Fatmi Minister of State in the Ministry of Human Resource

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13

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14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38

Development. Minister of State in the Ministry of Finance. Minister of State in the Ministry of Environment and Forests. Minister of State in the Ministry of Law & Justice. Minister of State in the Ministry of Social Justice & Empowerment. Minister of State in the Ministry of Textiles. Minister of State in the Ministry of Tourism and Minister of State in the Ministry of Culture.. Shri Namo Narain Meena Minister of State in the Ministry of Environment & Forests. Shri Jay Prakash Narayan Minister of State in the Ministry of Water Resources. Yadav Dr. Akhilesh Prasad Singh Minister of State in the Ministry of Agriculture and Minister of State in the Ministry of Consumer Affairs, Food & Public Distribution. Shri Pawan Kumar Bansal Minister of State in the Ministry of Finance and Minister of State in the Ministry of Parliamentary Affairs.. Shri Anand Sharma Minister of State in the Ministry of External Affairs and Minister of State in the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting. Shri Ajay Maken Minister of State in the Ministry of Urban Development. Shri Dinsha J. Patel Minister of State in the Ministry of Petroleum & Natural Gas. Shri M.M. Pallam Raju Minister of State in the Ministry of Defence. Shri Ashwani Kumar Minister of State in the Department of Industrial Policy & Promotion, Ministry of Commerce & Industry. Shri Chandra Sekhar Sahu Minister of State in the Ministry of Rural Development. Smt. D. Purandeswari Minister of State in the Ministry of Human Resource Development. Shri M.H. Ambareesh Minister of State in the Ministry of Information & Broadcasting. Smt. V. Radhika Selvi Minister of State in the Ministry of Home Affairs. Shri V. Narayanasamy Minister of State in the Ministry of Parliamentary Affairs and Minister of State in the Ministry of Planning. Shri Santosh Bagrodia Minister of State in the Ministry of Coal. Shri Raghunath Jha Minister of State in the Ministry of Heavy Industries & Public Enterprises. Dr. Rameshwar Oraon Minister of State in the Ministry of Tribal Affairs. Shri Jyotiraditya Minister of State in the Ministry of Communications and Madhavrao Scindia Information Technology. Shri Jitin Prasada Minister of State in the Ministry of Steel. Shri S.S. Palanimanickam Shri S. Regupathy Shri K. Venkatapathy Smt. Subbulakshmi Jagadeesan Shri E.V.K.S. Elangovan Smt Kanti Singh

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• • •

• BUSINESS ECONOMY:Recession
A recession is a decline in a country's gross domestic product (GDP) growth for two or more consecutive quarters of a year. A recession is also preceded by several quarters of slowing down.
What causes it?

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An economy which grows over a period of time tends to slow down the growth as a part of the normal economic cycle. An economy typically expands for 6-10 years and tends to go into a recession for about six months to 2 years. A recession normally takes place when consumers lose confidence in the growth of the economy and spend less. This leads to a decreased demand for goods and services, which in turn leads to a decrease in production, lay-offs and a sharp rise in unemployment. Investors spend less as they fear stocks values will fall and thus stock markets fall on negative sentiment.

'Financial warfare' triggers global economic crisis
As financial markets continue to tumble and as national economies sink deeper into recession, it is clear that the East Asian crisis has developed into a global economic crisis. The international money managers whose speculative activities have heavily contributed to this development, have been abetted by the IMF with its push for the deregulation of international capital flows. After having whittled away the capacity of national governments to effectively respond to such 'financial warfare', these powerful forces are working to secure even greater control of the Bretton Woods institutions and a more direct role in the shaping of the international financial and economic environment. by Michel Chossudovsky 'PRACTICES of the unscrupulous money changers stand indicted in the court of public opinion, rejected by the hearts and minds of men.' (Franklin D Roosevelt's First Inaugural Address, 1933) Humanity is undergoing in the post-Cold War era an economic crisis of unprecedented scale leading to the rapid impoverishment of large sectors of the world population. The plunge of national currencies in virtually all major regions of the world has contributed to destabilising national economies while precipitating entire countries into abysmal poverty. The crisis is not limited to South-East Asia or the former Soviet Union. The collapse in the standard of living is taking place abruptly and simultaneously in a large number of countries.

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This worldwide crisis of the late 20th century is more devastating than the Great Depression of the 1930s. It has farreaching geo-political implications; economic dislocation has also been accompanied by the outbreak of regional conflicts, the fracturing of national societies and in some cases the destruction of entire countries. This is by far the most serious economic crisis in modern history. The existence of a 'global financial crisis' is casually denied by the Western media, its social impacts are downplayed or distorted; international institutions, including the United Nations, deny the mounting tide of world poverty: 'The progress in reducing poverty over the [late] 20th century is remarkable and unprecedented....' 1 The 'consensus' is that the Western economy is 'healthy' and that 'market corrections' on Wall Street are largely attributable to the 'Asian flu' and to Russia's troubled 'transition to a free- market economy'. Evolution of the global financial crisis The plunge of Asia's currency markets (initiated in mid- 1997) was followed in October 1997 by the dramatic meltdown of major bourses around the world. In the uncertain wake of Wall Street's temporary recovery in early 1998 - largely spurred by panic flight out of Japanese stocks - financial markets back-slided a few months later to reach a new dramatic turning point in August with the spectacular nose-dive of the Russian ruble. The Dow Jones plunged by 554 points on 31 August (its second largest decline in the history of the New York Stock Exchange) leading in the course of September to the dramatic meltdown of stock markets around the world. In a matter of a few weeks (from the Dow's 9,337 peak in mid-July), $2,300 billion of 'paper profits' had evaporated from the US stock market. 2 The ruble's free-fall had spurred Moscow's largest commercial banks into bankruptcy, leading to the potential takeover of Russia's financial system by a handful of Western banks and brokerage houses. In turn, the crisis has created the danger of massive debt default to Moscow's Western creditors, including the Deutsche and Dresdner banks. Since the outset of Russia's macroeconomic reforms, following the first injection of IMF 'shock therapy' in 1992, some $500 billion worth of Russian assets - including plants of the military industrial complex, infrastructure and natural resources - have been confiscated (through the privatisation programmes and forced bankruptcies) and transferred into the hands of Western

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capitalists. 3 In the brutal aftermath of the Cold War, an entire economic and social system is being dismantled. 'Financial warfare' The worldwide scramble to appropriate wealth through 'financial manipulation' is the driving force behind this crisis. It is also the source of economic turmoil and social devastation. In the words of renowned currency speculator and billionaire George Soros (who made $1.6 billion of speculative gains in the dramatic crash of the British pound in 1992), 'extending the market mechanism to all domains has the potential of destroying society'. 4 This manipulation of market forces by powerful actors constitutes a form of financial and economic warfare. No need to recolonise lost territory or send in invading armies. In the late 20th century, the outright 'conquest of nations', meaning the control over productive assets, labour, natural resources and institutions, can be carried out in an impersonal fashion from the corporate boardroom: commands are dispatched from a computer terminal, or a cellphone. The relevant data are instantly relayed to major financial markets - often resulting in immediate disruptions in the functioning of national economies. 'Financial warfare' also applies to complex speculative instruments, including the gamut of derivative trade, forward foreign exchange transactions, currency options, hedge funds, index funds, etc. Speculative instruments have been used with the ultimate purpose of capturing financial wealth and acquiring control over productive assets. In the words of Malaysia's Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad: 'This deliberate devaluation of the currency of a country by currency traders purely for profit is a serious denial of the rights of independent nations.' 5 The appropriation of global wealth through this manipulation of market forces is routinely supported by the IMF's lethal macro-economic interventions which act almost concurrently in ruthlessly disrupting national economies all over the world. 'Financial warfare' knows no territorial boundaries; it does not limit its actions to besieging former enemies of the Cold War era. In Korea, Indonesia and Thailand, the vaults of the central banks were pillaged by institutional speculators while the monetary authorities sought in vain to prop up their ailing currencies. In 1997, more than $100 billion of Asia's hard currency reserves had been confiscated and transferred (in a matter of months) into private financial hands. In the wake of the currency devaluations, real earnings and employment

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plummeted virtually overnight, leading to mass poverty in countries which had in the post-war period registered significant economic and social progress. The financial scam in the foreign exchange market had destabilised national economies, thereby creating the preconditions for the subsequent plunder of the Asian countries' productive assets by so-called 'vulture foreign investors'. 6 In Thailand, 56 domestic banks and financial institutions were closed down on the orders of the IMF, and unemployment virtually doubled overnight. 7 Similarly in Korea, the IMF 'rescue operation' has unleashed a lethal chain of bankruptcies, leading to the outright liquidation of so-called 'troubled merchant banks'. In the wake of the IMF's 'mediation' (put in place in December 1997 after high-level consultations with the World's largest commercial and merchant banks), 'an average of more than 200 companies [were] shut down per day (...) 4,000 workers every day were driven out onto [the] streets as unemployed'. 8 Resulting from the credit freeze and 'the instantaneous bank shut-down', some 15,000 bankruptcies are expected in 1998, including 90% of Korea's construction companies (with combined debts of $20 billion to domestic financial institutions). 9 South Korea's Parliament has been transformed into a 'rubber stamp'. Enabling legislation is enforced through 'financial blackmail': if the legislation is not speedily enacted according to the IMF's deadlines, the disbursements under the bailout will be suspended, with the danger of renewed currency speculation looming. In turn, the IMF-sponsored 'exit programme' (i.e., forced bankruptcy) has deliberately contributed to fracturing the chaebols, which are now invited to establish 'strategic alliances with foreign firms' (meaning their eventual control by Western capital). With the devaluation, the cost of Korean labour had also tumbled: 'It's now cheaper to buy one of these [high- tech] companies than [to] buy a factory - and you get all the distribution, brand-name recognition and trained labour force free in the bargain....' 1 0 The demise of central banking In many regards, this worldwide crisis marks the demise of central banking, meaning the derogation of national economic sovereignty and the inability of the national State to control money creation on behalf of society. In other words, privately held money reserves in the hands of 'institutional speculators' far exceed the limited capabilities of the world's central banks. The latter acting individually or collectively are no longer able

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to fight the tide of speculative activity. Monetary policy is in the hands of private creditors who have the ability to freeze State budgets, paralyse the payments process, thwart the regular disbursement of wages to millions of workers (as in the former Soviet Union) and precipitate the collapse of production and social programmes. As the crisis deepens, speculative raids on central banks are extending into China, Latin America and the Middle East with devastating economic and social consequences. This ongoing pillage of central bank reserves, however, is by no means limited to developing countries. It has also hit several Western countries including Canada and Australia where the monetary authorities have been incapable of stemming the slide of their national currencies. In Canada, billions of dollars were borrowed from private financiers to prop up central bank reserves in the wake of speculative assaults. In Japan - where the yen has tumbled to new lows - 'the Korean scenario' is viewed (according to economist Michael Hudson) as a 'dress rehearsal' for the takeover of Japan's financial sector by a handful of Western investment banks. The big players are Goldman Sachs, Morgan Stanley, Deutsche Morgan Grenfell, among others, who are buying up Japan's bad bank loans at less than 10% of their face value. In recent months, both US Secretary of the Treasury Robert Rubin and Secretary of State Madeleine K Albright have exerted political pressure on Tokyo, insisting 'on nothing less than an immediate disposal of Japan's bad bank loans - preferably to US and other foreign "vulture investors" at distress prices. To achieve their objectives, they are even pressuring Japan to rewrite its constitution, restructure its political system and cabinet and redesign its financial system.... Once foreign investors gain control of Japanese banks, these banks will move to take over Japanese industry...' 11 Creditors and speculators The world's largest banks and brokerage houses are both creditors and institutional speculators. In the present context, they contribute (through their speculative assaults) to destabilising national currencies, thereby boosting the volume of dollar denominated debts. They then reappear as creditors with a view to collecting these debts. Finally, they are called in as 'policy advisers' or consultants in the IMF- World Banksponsored 'bankruptcy programmes' of which they are the ultimate beneficiaries. In Indonesia, for instance, amidst street rioting and in the wake of Suharto's resignation, the

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privatisation of key sectors of the Indonesian economy ordered by the IMF was entrusted to eight of the world's largest merchant banks, including Lehman Brothers, Credit SuisseFirst Boston, Goldman Sachs and UBS/SBC Warburg Dillon Read. 1 2 The world's largest money managers set countries on fire and are then called in as firemen (under the IMF 'rescue plan') to extinguish the blaze. They ultimately decide which enterprises are to be closed down and which are to be auctioned off to foreign investors at bargain prices. Who funds the IMF bailouts? Under repeated speculative assaults, Asian central banks had entered into multi-billion-dollar contracts (in the forward foreign exchange market) in a vain attempt to protect their currency. With the total depletion of their hard currency reserves, the monetary authorities were forced to borrow large amounts of money under the IMF bailout agreement. Following a scheme devised during the Mexican crisis of 1994- 95, the bailout money, however, is not intended 'to rescue the country '; in fact the money never entered Korea, Thailand or Indonesia; it was earmarked to reimburse the 'institutional speculators', to ensure that they would be able to collect their multi-billion-dollar loot. In turn, the Asian tigers have been tamed by their financial masters. Transformed into lame ducks, they have been 'locked up' into servicing these massive dollardenominated debts well into the third millennium. But 'where did the money come from' to finance these multibillion-dollar operations? Only a small portion of the money comes from IMF resources: starting with the 1995 Mexican bailout, G7 countries, including the US Treasury, were called upon to make large lump-sum contributions to these IMFsponsored rescue operations, leading to significant hikes in the levels of public debt. 13 Yet in an ironic twist, the issuing of US public debt to finance the bailouts is underwritten and guaranteed by the same group of Wall Street merchant banks involved in the speculative assaults. In other words, those who guarantee the issuing of public debt (to finance the bailout) are those who will ultimately appropriate the loot (e.g., as creditors of Korea or Thailand) i.e., they are the ultimate recipients of the bailout money (which essentially constitutes a 'safety net' for the institutional speculator). The vast amounts of money granted under the rescue packages are intended to enable the Asian countries to meet their debt obligations with those same financial institutions which contributed to precipitating the breakdown of their national currencies in the first place. As a

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result of this vicious circle, a handful of commercial banks and brokerage houses have enriched themselves beyond bounds; they have also increased their stranglehold over governments and politicians around the world. Strong economic medicine Since the 1994-95 Mexican crisis, the IMF has played a crucial role in shaping the 'financial environment' in which the global banks and money managers wage their speculative raids. The global banks are craving for access to inside information. Successful speculative attacks require the concurrent implementation on their behalf of 'strong economic medicine' under the IMF bailout agreements. The 'big six' Wall Street commercial banks (including Chase, Bank America, Citicorp and J P Morgan) and the 'big five' merchant banks (including Goldman Sachs, Lehman Brothers, Morgan Stanley and Salomon Smith Barney) were consulted on the clauses to be included in the bailout agreements. In the case of Korea's short-term debt, Wall Street's largest financial institutions were called in on Christmas Eve (24 December 1997) for high-level talks at the Federal Reserve Bank of New York. 1 4 The global banks have a direct stake in the decline of national currencies. In April 1997, barely two months before the onslaught of the Asian currency crisis, the Institute of International Finance (IIF), a Washington-based think-tank representing the interests of some 290 global banks and brokerage houses, had 'urged authorities in emerging markets to counter upward exchange rate pressures where needed...' 15 This request (communicated in a formal letter to the IMF) hints in no uncertain terms that the IMF should advocate an environment in which national currencies are allowed to slide. 1 6 Indonesia was ordered by the IMF to unpeg its currency barely three months before the rupiah's dramatic plunge. In the words of American billionaire and presidential candidate Steve Forbes: 'Did the IMF help precipitate the crisis? This agency advocates openness and transparency for national economies, yet it rivals the CIA in cloaking its own operations. Did it, for instance, have secret conversations with Thailand, advocating the devaluation that instantly set off the catastrophic chain of events? Did IMF prescriptions exacerbate the illness? These countries' moneys were knocked down to absurdly low levels.' 17 Deregulating capital movements

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The international rules regulating the movements of money and capital (across international borders) contribute to shaping the 'financial battlefields' on which banks and speculators wage their deadly assaults. In their worldwide quest to appropriate economic and financial wealth, global banks and multinational corporations have actively pressured for the outright deregulation of international capital flows, including the movement of 'hot' and 'dirty' money. 18 Caving in to these demands (after hasty consultations with G7 finance ministers), a formal verdict to deregulate capital movements was taken by the IMF Interim Committee in Washington in April 1998. The official communique stated that the IMF will proceed with the amendment of its Articles with a view to 'making the liberalisation of capital movements one of the purposes of the Fund and extending, as needed, the Fund's jurisdiction for this purpose'. 19 The IMF managing director, Mr Michel Camdessus, nonetheless conceded in a dispassionate tone that 'a number of developing countries may come under speculative attacks after opening their capital account' while reiterating (ad nauseam) that this can be avoided by the adoption of 'sound macroeconomic policies and strong financial systems in member countries' (ie. the IMF's standard 'economic cure for disaster'). 20 The IMF's resolve to deregulate capital movements was taken behind closed doors (conveniently removed from the public eye and with very little press coverage) barely two weeks before citizens' groups from around the world gathered in late April 1998 in mass demonstrations in Paris opposing the controversial Multilateral Agreement on Investment (MAI) under Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) auspices. This agreement would have granted entrenched rights to banks and multinational corporations overriding national laws on foreign investment as well as derogating the fundamental rights of citizens. The MAI constitutes an act of capitulation by democratic government to banks and multinational corporations. The timing was right on course: while the approval of the MAI had been temporarily stalled, the proposed deregulation of foreign investment through a more expedient avenue had been officially launched: the amendment of the Articles would for all practical purposes derogate the powers of national governments to regulate foreign investment. It would also nullify the efforts of the worldwide citizens' campaign against the MAI: the deregulation of foreign investment would be achieved ('with a stroke of a pen') without the need for a cumbersome multilateral agreement under OECD or World

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Trade Organisation (WTO) auspices and without the legal hassle of a global investment treaty entrenched in international law. Creating a global financial watchdog As the aggressive scramble for global wealth unfolds and the financial crisis reaches dangerous heights, international banks and speculators are anxious to play a more direct role in shaping financial structures to their advantage as well as 'policing' country-level economic reforms. Free-market conservatives in the United States (associated with the Republican Party) have blamed the IMF for its reckless behaviour. Disregarding the IMF's intergovernmental status, they are demanding greater US control over the IMF. They have also hinted that the IMF should henceforth perform a more placid role (similar to that of the bond-rating agencies such as Moody's or Standard and Poor's) while consigning the financing of the multi-billion-dollar bailouts to the private banking sector. 2 1 Discussed behind closed doors in April 1998, a more perceptive initiative (couched in softer language) was put forth by the world's largest banks and investment houses through their Washington mouthpiece (the Institute of International Finance). The banks' proposal consists in the creation of a 'Financial Watchdog' - a so-called 'Private Sector Advisory Council'- with a view to routinely supervising the activities of the IMF. 'The Institute [of International Finance], with its nearly universal membership of leading private financial firms, stands ready to work with the official community to advance this process.' 22 Responding to the global banks' initiative, the IMF has called for concrete 'steps to strengthen private sector involvement' in crisis management - what might be interpreted as a 'power-sharing arrangement' between the IMF and the global banks. 2 3 The international banking community has also set up its own high-level 'Steering Committee on Emerging Markets Finance' integrated by some of the World's most powerful financiers, including William Rhodes, Vice Chairman of Citibank, and Sir David Walker, Chairman of Morgan Stanley. The hidden agenda behind these various initiatives is to gradually transform the IMF from its present status as an intergovernmental body into a full-fledged bureaucracy which more effectively serves the interests of the global banks. More importantly, the banks and speculators want access to the details of IMF negotiations with member governments, which will enable them to carefully

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position their assaults in financial markets both prior to and in the wake of an IMF bailout agreement. The global banks (pointing to the need for 'transparency') have called upon 'the IMF to provide valuable insights [on its dealings with national governments] without revealing confidential information...' But what they really want is privileged inside information. 2 4 The ongoing financial crisis is not only conducive to the demise of national State institutions all over the world, it also consists in the step-by-step dismantling (and possible privatisation) of the post-war institutions established by the founding fathers at the Bretton Woods Conference in 1944. In striking contrast with the IMF's present-day destructive role, these institutions were intended by their architects to safeguard the stability of national economies. In the words of Henry Morgenthau, US Secretary of the Treasury, in his closing statement to the Conference (22 July 1944): 'We came here to work out methods which would do away with economic evils - the competitive currency devaluation and destructive impediments to trade which preceded the present war. We have succeeded in this effort.' 2 5

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DETAILED NOTES ON G-20, G8 SUMMIT
The G-20 (more formally, the Group of Twenty Finance Ministers and Central Bank Governors) is a group of finance ministers and central bank governors from 20 economies: 19 of the world's largest national economies, plus the European Union (EU). It also met twice at heads-ofgovernment level, in November 2008 and again in April 2009. Collectively, the G-20 economies comprise 85%[3] of global gross national product, 80% of world trade (including EU intra-trade) and two-thirds of the world population.[2] The G-20 is a forum for cooperation and consultation on matters pertaining to the international financial system. It studies, reviews, and promotes discussion among key industrial and emerging market countries of policy issues pertaining to the promotion of international financial stability, and seeks to address issues that go beyond the responsibilities of any one organization.

Organization
The G-20 operates without a permanent secretariat or staff. The chair rotates annually among the members and is selected from a different regional grouping of countries. The chair is part of a revolving three-member management group of past, present and future chairs referred to as the Troika. The incumbent chair establishes a temporary secretariat for the duration of its term, which coordinates the group's work and organizes its meetings. The role of the Troika is to ensure continuity in the G-20's work and management across host years.

Members of G-20
In 2009, there are 20 members of the G-20. These include the finance ministers and central bank governors of 19 countries:[2]
• • • • • • • • • •

Argentina Australia Brazil Canada China France Germany India Indonesia Italy

• • • • • • • • •

Japan Mexico Russia Saudi Arabia South Africa South Korea Turkey United Kingdom United States

The 20th member is the European Union, which is represented by the rotating Council presidency and the European Central Bank.

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In addition to these 20 members, the following forums and institutions, as represented by their respective chief executive officers, participate in meetings of the G-20:[2]
• • • •

International Monetary Fund World Bank International Monetary and Financial Committee Development Committee of the IMF and World Bank

Membership
The membership of the G-20 comprises:
• • • • • •

the finance ministers and central bank governors of the G7, 12 other key countries, and the European Union Presidency (if not a G7 member) the European Central Bank the Managing Director of the International Monetary Fund the Chairman of the IMFC the President of the World Bank the Chairman of the Development Committee

Membership does not reflect exactly the top 19 national economies of the world in any given year. The organization states:[1] “ In a forum such as the G-20, it is particularly important for the number of countries involved to be restricted and fixed to ensure the effectiveness and continuity of its activity. There are no formal criteria for G-20 membership and the composition of the group has remained unchanged since it was established. In view of the objectives of the G-20, it was considered important that countries and regions of systemic significance for the international financial system be included. Aspects such as geographical balance and population representation also played a major part.

All 19 nations are amongst the top 24 economies by purchasing power parity[4] in the 2007 World Bank ranking. Iran(17) and Thailand(23) are not included while Spain(11), Netherlands(19), and Poland(20) are included only as part of the EU.

History
The G-20, which superseded the G33, which had itself superseded the G22, was foreshadowed at the Cologne Summit of the G7 in June 1999, but was formally established at the G7 Finance Ministers' meeting on September 26, 1999. The inaugural meeting took place on December 1516, 1999 in Berlin. In 2008 Spain and The Netherlands were included by French invitation for the G-20 Leaders Summit on Financial Markets and the World Economy and then were admitted as members de facto by the UK.[citation needed]

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G20 Leaders Summit on Financial Markets and the World Economy in Washington, D.C. on 15 November 2008. In 2006 the theme of the G-20 meeting was “Building and Sustaining Prosperity”. The issues discussed included domestic reforms to achieve “sustained growth”, global energy and resource commodity markets, ‘reform’ of the World Bank and IMF, and the impact of demographic changes due to an aging population. Trevor A. Manuel, MP, Minister of Finance, Republic of South Africa, was the chairperson of the G-20 when South Africa hosted the Secretariat in 2007. Guido Mantega, Minister of Finance, Brazil, was the chairperson of the G-20 in 2008; Brazil proposed dialogue on competition in financial markets, clean energy and economic development and fiscal elements of growth and development. In a statement following a meeting of G7 finance ministers on October 11, 2008, U.S. President George W. Bush stated that the next meeting of the G-20 would be important in finding solutions to the (then called) economic crisis of 2008. An initiative by French President Nicolas Sarkozy and British Prime Minister Gordon Brown led to a special meeting of the G-20, a G-20 Leaders Summit on Financial Markets and the World Economy, on November 15, 2008.[5] G20 leaders met again in London on 2 April 2009.[6] Another G20 summit is scheduled to be held in New York City in September 2009. [7]

Locations of G-20 meetings
• • • • • • •

1999: Berlin, 2000: Montreal, 2001: Ottawa, 2002: Delhi, 2003: Morelia, 2004: Berlin, 2005: Beijing,

Germany Canada Canada India Mexico Germany China

• • • • • •

2006: Melbourne, Australia 2007: Cape Town, South Africa 2008: São Paulo, Brazil 2008: Washington, D.C., United States[9] 2009: London, United Kingdom 2009: New York, United States

G8 Summit
The Group of Eight (G8, and formerly the G6 or Group of Six) is a forum, created by France in 1975, for governments of eight nations of the northern hemisphere: Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Russia, the United Kingdom, and the United States; in addition, the European Union is represented within the G8, but cannot host or chair.[1] "G8" can refer to the member states or to the annual summit meeting of the G8 heads of government. The former term, G6, is now frequently applied to the six most populous countries within the European Union (see G6 (EU)). G8 ministers also meet throughout the year, such as the G7/8 finance ministers (who meet four times a year), G8 foreign ministers, or G8 environment ministers. Each calendar year, the responsibility of hosting the G8 rotates through the member states in the following order: France, United States, United Kingdom, Russia, Germany, Japan, Italy, and Canada. The holder of the presidency sets the agenda, hosts the summit for that year, and

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determines which ministerial meetings will take place. Lately, both France and the United Kingdom have expressed a desire to expand the group to include five developing countries, referred to as the Outreach Five (O5) or the Plus Five: Brazil, China, India, Mexico, and South Africa. These countries have participated as guests in previous meetings, which are sometimes called G8+5. Recently, France, Germany, and Italy are lobbying to include Egypt to the O5 and expand the G8 to G14.[2]

History
The first G6 meeting in Rambouillet The concept of a forum for the world's major industrialized democracies emerged following the 1973 oil crisis and subsequent global recession. In 1974 the United States created the Library Group, an informal gathering of senior financial officials from the United States, the United Kingdom, West Germany, Japan and France. In 1975, French President Valéry Giscard d'Estaing invited the heads of government from West Germany, Italy, Japan, the United Kingdom and the United States to a summit in Rambouillet. The six leaders agreed to an annual meeting organized under a rotating presidency, forming the Group of Six (G6). The following year, Canada joined the group at the behest of Germany's Chancellor Helmut Schmidt and U.S. President Gerald Ford[3] and the group became the 'Group of Seven' -or G7. The European Union is represented by the President of the European Commission and the leader of the country that holds the Presidency of the Council of the European Union. The President of the European Commission has attended all meetings since it was first invited by the United Kingdom in 1977[4] and the Council President now also regularly attends. Following 1994's G7 summit in Naples, Russian officials held separate meetings with leaders of the G7 after the group's summits. This informal arrangement was dubbed the Political 8 (P8) or, colloquially, the G7+1. At the invitation of United Kingdom Prime Minister Tony Blair and US President Bill Clinton[5], Russia formally joined the group in 1997, resulting in the Group of Eight, or G8.

Structure and activities
Leaders of the G8 on 7 June 2007, in Heiligendamm, Germany The G8 is intended to be an informal forum, and it therefore lacks an administrative structure like those for international organizations, such as the United Nations or the World Bank. The group does not have a permanent secretariat, or offices for its members. In 2008, the president of the European Union Commission participated as an equal in all summit events. The presidency of the group rotates annually among the member countries, with each new term beginning on 1 January of the year. The country holding the presidency is responsible for planning and hosting a series of ministerial-level meetings, leading up to a mid-year summit attended by the heads of government. Japan held the G8 presidency in 2008, Italy is the 2009 president, and Canada will be president in 2010.

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The ministerial meetings bring together ministers responsible for various portfolios to discuss issues of mutual or global concern. The range of topics include health, law enforcement, labor, economic and social development, energy, environment, foreign affairs, justice and interior, terrorism, and trade. There are also a separate set of meetings known as the G8+5, created during the 2005 Gleneagles, Scotland summit, that is attended by finance and energy ministers from all eight member countries in addition to the five "Outreach Countries": Brazil, China, India, Mexico, and South Africa. In June 2005, justice ministers and interior ministers from the G8 countries agreed to launch an international database on pedophiles.[6] The G8 officials also agreed to pool data on terrorism, subject to restrictions by privacy and security laws in individual countries.[7] Global warming and energy Main articles: International Partnership for Energy Efficiency Cooperation and Climate Investment Funds At the Heiligendamm Summit in 2007, the G8 acknowledged a proposal from the EU for a worldwide initiative on energy efficiency. They agreed to explore, along with the International Energy Agency, the most effective means to promote energy efficiency internationally. A year later, on 8 June 2008, the G8 along with China, India, South Korea and the European Community established the International Partnership for Energy Efficiency Cooperation, at the Energy Ministerial meeting hosted by Japan holding 2008 G8 Presidency, in Aomori. [8] G8 Finance Ministers, whilst in preparation for the 34th Summit of the G8 Heads of State and Government in Toyako, Hokkaido, met on the 13 and 14 June 2008, in Osaka, Japan. They agreed to the “G8 Action Plan for Climate Change to Enhance the Engagement of Private and Public Financial Institutions.” In closing, Ministers supported the launch of new Climate Investment Funds (CIFs) by the World Bank, which will help existing efforts until a new framework under the UNFCCC is implemented after 2012. [9]

The Annual Summit At the 34th G8 Summit at Toyako, Hokkaido, formal photo during Tanabata matsuri event for world leaders -- Silvio Berlusconi (Italy), Dmitry Medvedev (Russia), Angela Merkel (Germany), Gordon Brown (UK), Yasuo Fukuda (Japan), George Bush (US), Stephen Harper (Canada), Nicolas Sarkozy (France), José Barroso (EU) -- July 7, 2008. The annual G8 leaders summit is attended by eight of the world's most powerful heads of government. However, as noted by commentators the G-8 summit is not the place to flesh out the details of any difficult or controversial policy issue in the context of a three-day event. Rather, the meeting is to bring a range of complex and sometimes inter-related issues. The G8 summit brings leaders together not so they can dream up quick fixes, but to talk and think about them together.[10]

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The G8 summit is an international event which is observed and reported by news media, but the G8's relevance is unclear.[11] The member country holding the G8 presidency is responsible for organising and hosting the year's summit, held for three days in mid-year; and for this reason, Tony Blair and the United Kingdom accumulated the lion's share of the credit for what went right (and wrong) at Gleneagles in 2005. Similarly, Yasuo Fukuda and Japan hope to garner the greater part of the credit for what went well (and what did not) at the Hokkaido Summit in 2008. Each of the 34 G8 summit meetings could have been called a success if the events had been reframed as venues to generate additional momentum for solving problems at the other multilateral conferences that meet throughout the year. The G8 summit sets the stage for what needs to be done and establishes an idea of how to do it, even if that idea is, at best, rough and patchy.[10] The summits have also been the site of numerous, large-scale anti-globalization protests. Date November 15–17, 1975 June 27– 2nd 28, 1976 1st 3rd 4th 5th May 7–8, 1977 July 16– 17, 1978 Host Location held Website Notes leader Valéry France Giscard Rambouillet G6 Summit d'Estaing United Gerald R. San Juan, Canada joins the group, States Ford Puerto Rico forming the G7 President of the European United James London Commission is invited to join Kingdom Callaghan the annual G-7 summits Bonn, North West Helmut RhineGermany Schmidt Westphalia Masayoshi Japan Tokyo Ōhira Francesco Italy Venice Cossiga Pierre E. Montebello, Canada Trudeau Quebec François France Versailles Mitterrand United Ronald Williamsburg, States Reagan Virginia United Margaret London Kingdom Thatcher Bonn, North West Helmut RhineGermany Kohl Westphalia Yasuhiro Japan Tokyo Nakasone Italy Amintore Venice Host country

June 28– 29, 1979 June 22– 6th 3, 1980 July 20– 7th 21, 1981 June 4–6, 8th 1982 May 28– 9th 30, 1983 June 7–9, 10th 1984 11th 12th May 2–4, 1985

May 4–6, 1986 13th June 8–

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14th 15th 16th 17th 18th 19th 20th 21st

10, 1987 June 19– Canada 21, 1988 July 14– France 16, 1989 July 9–11, United 1990 States July 15– United 17, 1991 Kingdom July 6–8, Germany 1992 July 7–9, Japan 1993 July 8–10, Italy 1994 June 15– Canada 17, 1995

Fanfani Brian Mulroney François Mitterrand George H. W. Bush John Major Helmut Kohl Kiichi Miyazawa Silvio Berlusconi Jean Chrétien

Toronto, Ontario Paris Houston, Texas London Munich, Bavaria Tokyo Naples Halifax, Nova Scotia International organizations' debut to G8 Summits periodically. The invited ones here were: United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund and the World Trade Organization.[12] Russia joins the group, forming G8

22nd

June 27– 29, 1996

France

Jacques Chirac

Lyon

June 20– United 22, 1997 States May 15– United 24th 17, 1998 Kingdom 23rd 25th June 18– 20, 1999

26th July 21– 23, 2000

Denver, Colorado Birmingham, Tony Blair England Cologne, North Gerhard Germany RhineSchröder Westphalia Japan Yoshiro Nago, Okinawa Mori

Bill Clinton

[1] [2] [3] [4]

First Summit of the G-20 major economies at Berlin Formation of the G8+5 starts, when South Africa was invited. Since then, it has been invited to the Summit annually without interruption. Also, with permission from a G8 leader, other nations were invited to the Summit on a periodical basis for the first time. Nigeria, Algeria and Senegal accepted their invitations here. The World Health Organization was

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27th

July 20– 22, 2001 June 26– 27, 2002

Italy

Silvio Genoa Berlusconi Jean Chrétien Kananaskis, Alberta

[5]

28th

Canada

[6]

29th

June 2–3, 2003

France

Jacques Chirac

Évian-les-Bains [7]

30th

June 8– 10, 2004

United States

George W. Sea Island, Bush Georgia

[8]

31st

July 6–8, United 2005 Kingdom

Tony Blair

Gleneagles, Scotland

[9]

32nd July 15– 17, 2006

Russia

Vladimir Putin

Strelna, St. Petersburg

[10]

also invited for the first time, too.[12] Leaders from Bangladesh, Mali and El Salvador accepted their invitations here.[12] Demonstrator Carlo Giuliani is shot and killed by police. Russia gains permission to officially host a G8 Summit. The G8+5 was unofficially made, when China, India, Brazil, Mexico and South Africa were invited to this Summit for the first time. Other first-time nations that were invited by the French president included: Egypt, Morocco, Saudi Arabia, Malaysia and Switzerland.[12] A record number of leaders from 12 different nations accepted their invitations here. Amongst a couple of veteran nations, the others were: Ghana, Afghanistan, Bahrain, Iraq, Jordan, Turkey, Yemen and Uganda.[12] The G8+5 was officially formed. On the second day of the meeting, suicide bombers killed over 50 people on the London Underground and a bus. Nations that were invited for the first time were Ethiopia and Tanzania. The African Union and the International Energy Agency made their debut here.[12] First G8 Summit on Russian soil. Also, the International Atomic Energy Agency and UNESCO made their debut

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33rd

June 6–8, 2007

Germany

Angela Merkel

Heiligendamm, Mecklenburg- [11] Vorpommern

34th

July 7–9, 2008 July 8-10, 2009

Japan

Yasuo Fukuda

Toyako (Lake Toya), Hokkaido

[12]

35th

36th 2010 37th 2011 38th 2012 39th 2013 40th 41st 42nd 43rd 44th 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018

Silvio La Maddalena Berlusconi Huntsville, Canada Ontario France TBD United TBD States United Kingdom Russia Germany Japan Italy Canada Italy

[13] [14]

here.[12] A record seven different international organizations accepted their invitations to this Summit. The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the Commonwealth of Independent States made their debut here.[12] Nations that accepted their G8 Summit invitations for the first time are: Australia, Indonesia and South Korea.[12] Official website is now online.

G8 member facts
Seven of the nine leading export countries are in the G8[13] (Germany, US, Japan, France, Italy, UK, Canada). The UK, the USA, Canada, France, and Germany have nominal per capita GDP over US$40,000 dollars.[14] Five of the seven largest stock exchanges by market value are in G8 countries[15] (US, Japan, UK, France, Canada). The G8 countries represent 7 of the 9 largest economies by nominal GDP[16] (Russia isn't one of the 9 largest economies by nominal GDP but has the 7th largest real GDP; Canada was 8th in 2006 but in 2007 it lost 8th place to Spain, as it did in 2003,[16] prompting the previous government headed by José María Aznar to request Spain's entrance in the G8). The 2nd and 3rd largest oil producers (USA and Russia) and the country with the 2nd largest reserves (Canada) are in the G8.[17] Seven of the nine largest nuclear energy producers are in the G8[18] (USA, France, Japan, Russia, Germany, Canada, UK). The 7 largest donors to the UN budget are in the G8[19] (US, Japan, Germany, UK, France, Italy, Canada).

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Cumulative influence of member nations
Together the eight countries making up the G8 represent about 14% of the world population, but they represent about 65% of the Gross World Product[20] as measured by gross domestic product, being all 8 nations within the top 12 countries according to the CIA World Factbook. (see the CIA World Factbook column in List of countries by GDP (nominal)), the majority of global military power (seven are in the top 8 nations for military expenditure[21]), and almost all of the world's active nuclear weapons.[22] In 2007, the combined G8 military spending was US$850 billion. This is 72% of the world's total military expenditures. (see List of countries and federations by military expenditures) Four of the G8 members United Kingdom, United States of America, France and Russia together account for 96-99% of the world's nuclear weapons. (see List of states with nuclear weapons)

Criticism and demonstrations
Protesters try to stop members of the G8 from attending the summit during the 27th G8 summit in Genoa, Italy by burning vehicles on the main route to the summit As the annual summits are extremely high profile, they are subject to extensive lobbying by advocacy groups and street demonstrations by activists. The best-known criticisms centre on the assertion that members of G8 are responsible for global issues such as poverty in Africa and developing countries due to debt and trading policy, global warming due to carbon dioxide emission, the AIDS problem due to strict medicine patent policy and other issues related to globalization. During the 31st G8 summit in Scotland, 225,000 people took to the streets of Edinburgh as part of the Make Poverty History campaign calling for Trade Justice, Debt Relief and Better Aid. Numerous other demonstrations also took place challenging the legitimacy of the G8.[23] Of the anti-globalization movement protests, one of the largest and most violent occurred for the 27th G8 summit [15]. Since that G8 Summit and the subsequent September 11, 2001 attacks on the United States occurred months apart in the same year, the G8 have gathered at some forms of remote locations every year since then. The 7 July 2005 London bombings were timed to coincide with the 31st G8 summit in Scotland. The group has also been criticized for its membership, which critics argue has now become unrepresentative of the world's most powerful economies since Canada was overtaken by China, India, Brazil, Spain, Mexico and South Korea by PPP adjusted GDP.[24] Furthermore, Russia was allowed into the group despite only being in 11th place in terms of nominal GDP.

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Repo rate
Whenever the banks have any shortage of funds they can borrow it from RBI. Repo rate is the rate at which our banks borrow rupees from RBI. A reduction in the repo rate will help banks to get money at a cheaper rate. When the repo rate increases borrowing from RBI becomes more expensive.

Reverse Repo rate
Reverse Repo rate is the rate at which Reserve Bank of India (RBI) borrows money from banks. Banks are always happy to lend money to RBI since their money are in safe hands with a good interest. An increase in Reverse repo rate can cause the banks to transfer more funds to RBI due to this attractive interest rates. It can cause the money to be drawn out of the banking system. Due to this fine tuning of RBI using its tools of CRR, Bank Rate, Repo Rate and Reverse Repo rate our banks adjust their lending or investment rates for common man

CRR
Cash reserve Ratio (CRR) is the amount of funds that the banks have to keep with RBI. If RBI decides to increase the percent of this, the available amount with the banks comes down. RBI is using this method (increase of CRR rate), to drain out the excessive money from the banks.

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SLR
SLR (Statutory Liquidity Ratio) is the amount a commercial bank needs to maintain in the form of cash, or gold or govt. approved securities (Bonds) before providing credit to its customers. SLR rate is determined and maintained by the RBI (Reserve Bank of India) in order to control the expansion of bank credit

Inflation
Inflation is as an increase in the price of bunch of Goods and services that projects the Indian economy. An increase in inflation figures occurs when there is an increase in the average level of prices in Goods and services. Inflation happens when there are less Goods and more buyers, this will result in increase in the price of Goods, since there is more demand and less supply of the goods..

Deflation
Deflation is the continuous decrease in prices of goods and services. Deflation occurs when the inflation rate becomes negative (below zero) and stays there for a longer period.

India's Top CEO's
Jaspal Bindra - Standard Chartered Kiran Mazumdar Saw - Biocon Anuradha Desai - Venkateshwara Hatcheries NR Narayana Murthy - Infosys Technologies Mukesh Ambani - Reliance Industries Ratan Tata - Tata Group

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KV Kamath - ICICI Bank Azim Hasham Premji - Wipro Nandan Nilekani - Infosys Technologies Rahul Bajaj - Bajaj Auto Vijay Mallya - UB Group Kumar Mangalam Birla - AV Birla Group Sunil Mittal - Bharti Enterprises Deepak Parekh - HDFC Anil Ambani - ADAE Rajiv Bajaj - Bajaj Auto Lalitha Gupte - ICICI Bank S Ramadorai - TCS Jagdish Khattar - Maruti Udyog Subir Raha - ONGC Adi Godrej - Godrej Group GR Gopinath - Air Deccan Subhash Chandra - Zee Telefilms Venu Srinivasan - TVS Motors Brij Mohal Lall Munjal - Hero Group K Anji Reddy - Dr. Reddy's Labs Naresh Goyal - Jet Airways Shiv Nadar - HCL Technologies Yogesh C Deveshwar - ITC Anand Mahindra - Mahindra & Mahindra

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Peter Mukerjea - Star TV India Aditya Puri - HDFC Bank Uday Kotak - Kotak Mahindra Bank AM Naik - Larsen & Toubro SB Mathur - UTI Harish Manwani - Hindustan Lever Renuka Ramnath - ICICI Ventures AK Khandelwal - Bank of Baroda AK Purwar - State Bank of India Suresh Krishna - Sundaram Fasteners Ashok Sinha - Bharat Petroleum Kishore Biyani - Pantaloon Retail B Ramalinga Raju - Satyam Computers YV Reddy - Reserve Bank of India M Damodaran - SEBI AK Sinha - BSNL Naina Lal Kidwai - HSBC India Jeh & Ness Wadia - Bombay Dyeing Asim Ghosh - Hutch VK Mittal - Ispat Industries RS Lodha - Birla Corp VC Burman - Dabur Venugopal Dhoot - Videocon Industries

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Gautam Singhania - Raymond Ravi Venkatesan - Microsoft India BVR Subbu - Hyundai India FV Vandrewala - Motorola India Niall Booker - HSBC India Shikha Sharma - ICICI Prudential Ashwin Dani - Asian Paints Rajeev Bakshi - Pepsi Co. B Muthuraman - Tata Steel SP Hinduja - Hinduja Group Anil Agarwal - Vedanta Resources YK Hamied - Cipla AC Muthaiah - SPIC Bharat Puri - Cadbury India Sanjay Nayar - Citigroup India Karsanbhai Patel - Nirma Brian Tempest - Ranbaxy NS Sekhsaria - Gujarat Ambuja Cement Proshanto Banerjee - GAIL R Seshasayee - Ashok Leyland MB Lal - Hindustan Petroleum BN Kalyani - Bharat Forge Onkar S Kanwar - Apollo Tyres Shashi Ruia - Essar Group

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Vinita Bali - Britannia Gautam Thapar - Cromptom Greaves Ajay Piramal - Nicholas Piramal BS Nagesh - Shoppers' Stop VS Jain - SAIL Shobana Bhartia - HT Media KR Kim - LG India Rana Kapoor - Yes Bank Hemendra Kothari - DSP Merrill Lynch K Ramachandran - Phillips India Mallika Srinivasan - TAFE Hans-Michael Huber - Diamler-Chrysler India Nimesh Kampani - JM Morgan Stanley Scott Bayman - GE India Zia Mody - AZB Partners Noel Tata - Trent Sarthak Behuria - IOC Harsh Goenka - RPG Group Arun Maira - BCG India Adil Zainulbhai - McKinsey India MV Subbiah - EID Parry

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• Economic functions of the bank

Commercial banks play an important role in the financial system and the economy. As a key component of the financial system, banks allocate funds from savers to borrowers in an efficient manner. They provide specialized financial services, which reduce the cost of obtaining information about both savings and borrowing opportunities. These financial services help to make the overall economy more efficient. Imagine a World Without Banks One way to answer your question is to imagine, for a moment, a world without banking institutions, and then to ask yourself a few questions. This is not just an academic exercise; many former eastern-block nations began facing this question when they began to create financial markets and develop market-oriented banks and other financial institutions. If there were no banks…
• • • •

Where would you go to borrow money? What would you do with your savings? Would you be able to borrow (save) as much as you need, when you need it, in a form that would be convenient for you? What risks might you face as a saver (borrower)?

How Banks Work Banks operate by borrowing funds-usually by accepting deposits or by borrowing in the money markets. Banks borrow from individuals, businesses, financial institutions, and governments with surplus funds (savings). They then use those deposits and borrowed funds (liabilities of the bank) to make loans or to purchase securities (assets of the bank). Banks make these loans to businesses, other financial institutions, individuals, and governments (that need the funds for investments or other purposes). Interest rates provide the price signals for borrowers, lenders, and banks. Through the process of taking deposits, making loans, and responding to interest rate signals, the banking system helps channel funds from savers to borrowers in an efficient manner. Savers range from an individual with a $1,000 certificate of deposit to a corporation with millions of dollars in temporary savings. Banks also service a wide array of borrowers, from an individual who takes a loan of $100 on a credit card to a major corporation financing a billion-dollar corporate merger.

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The table below provides a June 2001 snapshot of the balance sheet for the entire U.S. commercial banking industry. It shows that the bulk of banks' sources of funds comes from deposits - checking, savings, money market deposit accounts, and time certificates. The most common uses of these funds are to make real estate and commercial and industrial loans. Individual banks' asset and liability composition may vary widely from the industry figures, because some institutions provide specialized or limited banking services.

Commercial roles of the bank
A commercial bank can be found in all countries on this planet and provides services that range a lot. The services provided by banks are so many that it is hard to think a life with out them. A bank was established at the first place for the purpose of keeping people's money and earning profits on that money by lending them to the needy ones. Since its establishment though, the bank has kept this service but has added dozen more services. Commercial Banks today provide its users with services of car financing which is another form of a loan; however a user is given more luxury on spending. From the time visa cards have been introduced, the commercial banking has evolved into a totally new industry. Providing and giving people the power to spend and pay the banks back when they are viable to do. This not only helps the increase in purchasing power but it increases the economy of the country on the whole. With ATM machines all over the place, it is not necessary for people of today to take the risk of carrying money and thus has started the culture of plastic money. In some countries, commercial banks provide the services of paying utility bills which adds to the convenience that banking sector provides. As technology increases, banks have also enhanced their technique of providing more services, with internet banking being the latest. The role and importance of banks is unquestionable in the world today and it is unthinkable to have a world without them.

RULES OF RBI
Provisions in the Reserve Bank of India Act, 1934:Section 28:

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Notwithstanding anything contained in any enactment or rule of law to the contrary, no person shall of right be entitled to recover from the Central Government or the Bank, the value of any lost, stolen, mutilated or imperfect currency note, provided that the Bank may, with the previous sanction of the Central Government, prescribe the circumstances in and the conditions and limitations subject to which the value of such currency notes or bank notes may be refunded as of grace and the rules made under this proviso shall be laid on the table of Parliament.

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Section 58: (1): The Central Board may, with the previous sanction of the Central Government, by notification in the Official Gazette, make regulations consistent with this Act to provide for all matters for which provision is necessary or convenient for the purpose of giving effect to the provisions of this Act. (2): In particular and without prejudice to the generality of the foregoing provisions, such regulations may provide for all or any of the following matters, viz.………. ………. ……….…………….. the circumstances in which, and the conditions and limitations subject to which the value of any lost, stolen, mutilated or imperfect currency note of the Government of India or bank note may be refunded. Provisions in the RBI (Note Refund) Rules: In exercise of the powers conferred by the proviso to Section 28 of the Reserve Bank of India Act, 1934 (2 of 1934), read with clause (q) of the sub-section (2) and sub-section (1) of Section 58 of the said Act, the Central Board of Directors of the Reserve Bank of India, with the previous sanction of the Central Government hereby makes the following rules prescribing the circumstances in and the conditions and limitations subject to which, the value of lost, imperfect or mutilated notes may be refunded as a matter of grace. Given below are the important provisions of the RBI (Note Refund) Rules, for the benefit of the members of the public. Rule 2: Definitions: In these rules, ‘Bank’ means the Reserve Bank of India constituted by the Reserve Bank of India Act, 1934. ‘Bank note’ means any note issued by the Bank, but does not include a Government note. (ba) ‘Essential features’ means the features which are necessary for the identification of a note, namely:the name of the issuing authority in Hindi or English, that is, Reserve Bank of India or Government of India, as the case may be;

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the guarantee clause in Hindi or in English; the promise clause in Hindi or in English; the signature in Hindi or in English; the Ashoka Pillar emblem or the Mahatma Gandhi portrait, as the case may be; the water mark of the Ashoka Pillar emblem or the Mahatma Gandhi portrait, as the case may be. Explanation: The essential features of a note have been enumerated with a view to making the application of Rule 9 easier. The definition should be read with Rules 9(1)(a) and 9(2)(a). If any one of the Hindi or the English versions of an essential features is slightly damaged, but the other version is intact, the essential feature in question shall be deemed to be available on the note. In the case of the water-mark, minor damage should be ignored and in applying the Rules, if a major portion of the water-mark is identifiable, the water-mark may be treated as being available. (d) ‘Half note’ means either portion of a note, which has been divided through or near the centre into two pieces, either vertically, that is to say, along a line parallel or nearly parallel to the width of the note or horizontally, that is to say, along a line parallel or nearly parallel to the length of note, provided that such portion is itself in one piece. Explanation: In case of doubt where the mutilation caused to the note is irregular, area of a mutilated piece (note) should be measured by using a transparent plastic sheet on which square centimetres are etched. The plastic sheet should be placed on the note and number of squares counted to obtain the area of the piece. For the purpose of arriving at the total area, half the number of incomplete squares should be added to the number of complete squares. The dimensions of the current design notes are the following:

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Denominati on 1 2 5 10 20 50 100 500

Length (cm) 9.7 10.7 11.7 13.7 14.7 14.7 15.7 16.7

Width (cm) 6.3 6.3 6.3 6.3 6.3 7.3 7.3 7.3

No. of (cm2) 61 67 74 86 93 107 115 122

squares

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1000

17.7

7.3

129

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(e) ‘Half the area’ means an area which represents fifty percent of the total area of a note, including non-printed potions thereof; (f) ‘Imperfect note’ means any note which is wholly or partially obliterated, altered or undecipherable but does not include a mutilated note; (fa) ‘Major portion of the number’ means the prefix and any three digits of the number or, where the prefix is not identifiable, any four digits of the number; Explanation: (i) This definition should be read with Rules 9(1) (c), 9(2)(b), 9(2)(c) and 9(3); (Complete number: 58V 569747) Examples of major portion of the number: 58V 569xxx; 58V xxx747; 58V 5x9x4x; 58V xx974x; 58V 5xxx47; 58V 56xxx7; xxV 5697xx; 5xx xx9747; xxx 5x974x; xxx x697x7. It should be noted that the entire prefix is treated as one unit. (ii) Sometimes, a portion of a digit or letter of the alphabet may be missing. In such cases, if the visible portion can be identified with definiteness as belonging to a particular digit or letter to the exclusion of other digits/letters, the digit or letter may be treated as available. Example: (5), (7), (3)

(g) ‘Mutilated note’ means a note of which a portion is missing or which is composed of pieces; Explanation: Note in two pieces having number(s) intact is now classified as a soiled note. (i) ‘Number’ means the complete serial number of the note, namely the letters and numerals of the prefix and digits following the prefix; (j) ‘Prescribed Officer’ means the officer in charge of the Issue Department at any Office or branch of the Bank or any other person designated by the Bank in this behalf. Explanation:

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The prescribed officer is the officer who has been authorised to pass or reject the mutilated notes under the Note Refund Rules. Rule 3: Presentation and disposal of claims A claim in respect of any note may be presented to the Issue Department of any office or of any branch of the Bank. Note: Reserve Bank of India has also authorised public sector bank branches and designated branches of other banks having currency chests (list available on websites of Regional Offices of the Bank) to accept and exchange mutilated notes under these Rules. Rule 4: Right to call for information or to hold enquiries The prescribed officers either at the designated commercial bank branches or the Reserve Bank of India dealing with a claim may, if it is considered necessary so to do, call for any information or hold any inquiry relating to any claim presented under these rules. Rule 5: General provisions in relation to all claims A claim in respect of a note, which is alleged to have been stolen, shall not be entertained. Note: If a prescribed officer is satisfied that a mutilated note presented to him is one which appears to have been cancelled at any office of the RBI or claim on which appears to have already been paid under these Rules, he may reject the claim on such note after making enquiries under Rule 4 above. A claim in respect of a note which cannot be identified with certainty by the prescribed officer as a genuine note for which the Bank is liable under the Reserve Bank of India Act; or which in the opinion of the prescribed officer has been made imperfect or has been mutilated, with a view to making it appear to be of a higher denomination, or has been deliberately cut, torn, defaced, altered or dealt with in any other manner, not necessarily by the claimants, with a view to establishing a false claim under these rules or otherwise to defraud the Bank or the public, or Explanation: This rule is used in cases where a deliberate intention appears, but the note/s cannot be rejected under any other rule of these Rules. Hand-printed portions joined with parts of genuine notes are rejected under Rule 5(2)(ii).

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which carries any extrinsic words or visible representations intended to convey or capable of conveying any message of a political character, or which has been imported into India by the claimant from any place outside India, Bhutan and Nepal in contravention of the provision of any law, or in respect of which the value is payable not by the Bank but by some other authority, or in relation to which any information, which is called for by the prescribed officer or the Bank as the case may be, is not furnished by a claimant within a period of three months from the date of receipt of the notice or letter asking for the information, shall be rejected. Rule 7: Imperfect notes The value of an imperfect note of a denomination of one thousand rupees or less may be paid, if the matter, which is printed on the note, including the number or numbers, has not become totally undecipherable, and the prescribed officer is satisfied, having regard to the printed matter which is decipherable on the note, that it is a genuine note. Explanation: This rule refers to notes which are entire (i.e. not mutilated) but are wholly or partially obliterated. The guiding principle is that the notes should be established as being genuine Indian currency notes. In some cases, numbers of the notes may not be traceable. Payablity of such notes is decided on the basis of other printed matter available on the note including the watermark which is generally available even on washed notes. Rules 9: Mutilated bank notes: (1) The value of a mutilated bank note of a denomination of one thousand rupees or less, on which the number is printed at one place only may be paid, ifa) the note presented is in not more than two pieces and of which no essential feature is missing and the complete number can also be identified in an undivided area on one of the pieces; or b) the piece, or one of the pieces presented, has an undivided area which is not less than half the area of the note and the complete number can also be identified in an undivided area on such piece; or

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c) the note presented is in pieces none of which may even comprise half the area of the note, but all the pieces presented can be identified as belonging to the same note and all the pieces taken together have an area which is not less than half the area of the note and a major portion of the number can also be identified in an undivided area on one of the pieces. Explanation: Rule 9 (1) applies to the single numbered notes i.e. notes of Re.1, Rs.2 and Rs.5 denominations. The conditions to be satisfied for payment of notes under this Rule are as under:

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S. No.

9(1)(a)

9(1)(b)

9(1)(c)

1.

Note is in one piece Note is in one or or in more than one Note is in pieces. two pieces. piece. Major portion of All essential Complete undivided the number is features are number is available available in an present (even if on one piece. undivided area on partially). one of the pieces.

2.

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3.

The piece on which Complete full number is All the pieces undivided number available is not less belong to the is available on than half the area of same note. one piece. the note.

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The sub-rules are applied to a mutilated note one after another to see whether the claim on it is payable under any of them i.e. if a particular note is not payable, say, under sub-rule 9(a), the possibility of its being payable under sub-rule (b) is examined, and if it is not payable even under sub-rule (b), the possibility of its being payable under sub-rule (c) is examined. If only one piece is presented and it is of an area less than half the area of a note, claim is rejected (cf. Rule 9(1) (b)). If a note is in pieces and major portion of the number is not identifiable in an undivided area on one of the pieces, claim is rejected {cf. Rule 9(1) (c)). If a note is in pieces none of which is more than half the area of the note and the pieces presented cannot be identified as belonging to the same note, claim is rejected {cf. Rule 9(1) (c)). If a note is in pieces and the pieces can be identified as belonging to the same note, but the pieces presented together form an area less than half the area of the note, claim is rejected cf. {Rule 9(1)(c)). 2) The value of a mutilated bank note of a denomination of one thousand rupees or less, on which the number is printed at two places may be paid, if (a) the note presented is in not more than two pieces and of which no essential feature is missing and both the pieces can be identified as belonging to the same note and the complete number can be identified in an undivided area at each of the two pieces at which it is printed; or b) the piece, or one of the pieces presented, has an undivided area which is not less than three-fourths the area of the note and a major portion of the number can be identified on such piece in an undivided area at each of the two places at which it is printed; or c) the note presented is in pieces none of which may even comprise half the area of the note but all the pieces presented can be identified as belonging to the same note and all the pieces taken together have an area which is not less than half the area of the note and a major portion of the number can also be identified in an undivided area at each of the two places at which it is printed. Explanation: Rule 9 (2) applies to the double numbered notes i.e. notes in the denominations of Rs. 10 and above. The conditions to be satisfied for payment of notes under this Rule are as under:

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S. No.

9(2)(a)

9(2)(b)

9(2)(c)

1.

Note is in one piece Note is in one or or in more than one Note is in pieces. two pieces. piece. Major portion of the All essential number is available All the pieces features are at the both the belong to the present (even if places on one same note. partially). undivided piece. Major portion of the number is This piece is not available in an less than threeundivided area at fourth the area of both the places the note. (even if in two separate pieces).

2.

3.

Complete undivided number is available at both places on the same piece or on the two pieces.

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4.

Both the pieces belong to the same note.

All the pieces taken together form not less than half the area of the note.

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The sub-rules are applied to the note one after another to see whether the claim on the note is payable for full value under any of them i.e. if a particular note is not payable, say under sub-rule (a), the possibility of it being payable under sub-rule (b) is examined, and if it is not payable even under sub-rule (b), the possibility of it being payable under sub-rule (c) is examined. If a note is not found payable for full value under any of these sub-rules, only then it is examined to see whether it is payable for half value under Rule 9 (3). (i) If on a note, the number at both places is available on one piece measuring not less than three-fourth the area of the note, but the number is not the major portion of the number at both places; the claim is rejected (cf. Rule 9(2) (b)). If on the other hand, the number is the major portion at one of the two places, half value is paid under Rule 9(3). (ii) If a note is in pieces and together the pieces form an area more than half the area of the note, but the pieces cannot be identified as belonging to the same note, claim is rejected (Rule 9(2)(c)). (iii) If a note is in pieces and the pieces can be identified as belonging to the same note, but the pieces presented together form an area less than half the area of a note, claim is rejected (Rule 9(2)(c)). 3) Half the face value of a mutilated bank note of a denomination of one thousand rupees or less on which the number is printed at two places may be paid, if, the piece, or one of the pieces presented, has an undivided area which is not less than half the area of the note and a major portion of the number can also be identified on such piece atleast at one of the places at which it is printed. Explanation: This rule applies to double-numbered notes i.e. notes in the denominations of Rs. 10 and above. The conditions to be satisfied for payment of half value on such notes are as under: The piece or one of the pieces presented has an undivided area, not less than half the area of the note and Major portion of the number (i.e. one of the two numbers) is available on such piece. If one of the pieces qualifies for payment of half value, the other piece or pieces even if not belonging to the same note, are ignored. A note is considered for payment of half value only when full value is not found payable on it under Rule 9(2).

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4) A claim for the full value of a mutilated bank note of a denomination of one thousand rupees or less on which the number is printed at two places shall, if the note as presented has been formed by joining a half note of another note, be dealt with under sub-rule (3) as if there were separate claims in respect of each of the two half notes. Explanation: This rule is a corollary to Rule 9 (3) and is also applicable only to double-numbered notes. Each of the two, either vertically or horizontally divided half notes is treated as independent notes and claim dealt with under Rule 9(3). The number is the sole feature that is used for distinguishing one note from another. Hence the emphasis is on the number or its major portion. If the major portion of the number of a double-numbered note is available at both places on one undivided area measuring at least ¾th the area of the note, the claim is paid ignoring the remaining portion of the note, whether presented or not (Rule 9(2)(b)). Rule 20: Claimants to be bound by rules For the removal of doubts, it is hereby declared that any payment which is provided for under these rules shall be made only as of grace and that the Bank may from time to time issue for the guidance of the prescribed officers such supplementary or detailed instructions for carrying out the provisions of these rules as it may deem fit. Any person who makes any claim on account of an imperfect or mutilated note shall be deemed to have made the said claim under the proviso to Section 28 of the Reserve Bank of India Act and subject to the provisions of these rules, which shall be deemed to be binding on all claimants and their heirs or assigns. Rule 21: Decision of the prescribed officer or the Bank If any question arises whether a note or any portion presented is an imperfect or mutilated note or is divided vertically or horizontally through or near the centre or has clearly more than half the area of a whole note or is a half note or whether all the pieces of a note or a portion thereof as presented belong or belongs to the same note, or whether a note is payable under any of the provisions of these rules, the prescribed officer or the Bank shall be entitled to determine the question, having regard to the provisions in the foregoing rules and the condition of the note, and a note shall not be payable unless the conditions specified in these rules have been clearly satisfied in the opinion of the prescribed officer or the Bank.

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The decision of the prescribed officer or the Bank in regard to any claim under these rules shall be final and no appeal from the said decision shall lie to any other officer or authority. Rule 22: Retention and destruction of notes (2) Any note presented in connection with a claim under these rules shall, whatever be the denomination of the note or the prescribed officer’s decision on the claim, be retained by the Bank and destroyed or otherwise disposed of in the case of a note in respect of which any payment is made, at any time after the payment, and in the case of a note in respect of which no payment is made, on the expiry of a period of three months from the date of the decision rejecting the claim.

Stock exchange
refers to an organized market where govt. Securities and shares, bonds and debentures of the benefited trading units are regularly transacted. Its business is carried on with in a particular building in which a person can easily convert his shares into cash or new securities. Thus it is a market for the exchange of transfer able securities by providing a continuous market. The term stock exchange is referred by some people to stat Market. Therefore some writer says, "It is a place to get rich quick while others regard as place of gambling.The securities of public companies can be transacted in the exchange only if they have been approved by the committee of the stock exchange.

A company desiring its shares to be approved must first satisfy very rigid rules concerning the prospectus. It must also agree to abide by the regulations of the stock exchange about any aspects of its conduct. Some Features of Stock Exchange Market 1. Specialized market. Stock exchange is a specialized market for the purchase and sale of industrial and financial securities. 2. Rigid rules. There are large number of buyers and sellers who conduct their activities according to rigid rules. 3. Basis of formation. Its activities are controlled by the company ordinance in our country. It can be formed as company limited by guarantee or company limited by shares.

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Taxation
India has a well developed tax structure with a three-tier federal structure, comprising the Union Government, the State Governments and the Urban/Rural Local Bodies. The power to levy taxes and duties is distributed among the three tiers of Governments, in accordance with the provisions of the Indian Constitution. The main taxes/duties that the Union Government is empowered to levy are Income Tax (except tax on agricultural income, which the State Governments can levy), Customs duties, Central Excise and Sales Tax and Service Tax. The principal taxes levied by the State Governments are Sales Tax (tax on intra-State sale of goods), Stamp Duty (duty on transfer of property), State Excise (duty on manufacture of alcohol), Land Revenue (levy on land used for agricultural/non-agricultural purposes), Duty on Entertainment and Tax on Professions & Callings. The Local Bodies are empowered to levy tax on properties (buildings, etc.), Octroi (tax on entry of goods for use/consumption within areas of the Local Bodies), Tax on Markets and Tax/User Charges for utilities like water supply, drainage, etc. Since 1991 tax system in India has under gone a radical change, in line with liberal economic policy and WTO commitments of the country. Some of the changes are: Reduction in customs and excise duties Lowering corporate Tax Widening of the tax base and toning up the tax administration Direct Taxes Personal Income Tax Individual income slabs are 0%, 10%, 20%, 30% for annual incomes upto Rs 50,000, 50,000 - 60,000, 60,000 - 1,50,000 and above 1,50,000 respectively. Corporate Income Tax For domestic companies, this is levied @ 35% plus surcharge of 5%, where as for a foreign company (including branch/project offices), it is @ 40% plus surcharge of 5%. An Indian registered company, which is a subsidiary of a foreign company, is also considered an Indian company for this purpose. Withholding Tax for NRIs and Foreign Companies:

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Withholding Tax Rates for payments made to Non-Residents are determined by the Finance Act passed by the Parliament for various years. The current rates are: 1. Interest - 20% of Gross Amount 2. Dividends - 10% 3. 4. Royalties Technical Services 20% 20%

5. Any other Services - Individuals - 30% of net income Companies/Corporates - 40% of net income The above rates are general and in respect of the countries with which India does not have a Double Taxation Avoidance Agreement (DTAA). General Tax Incentives for Industries: 100% deduction of profits and gains for ten years is available in respect of the following: Any enterprise carrying on the business of developing, maintaining and operating infrastructure facilities viz., roads, highways, bridges, airports, ports, rail systems, industrial towns, inland waterways, water supply projects, water treatment systems, irrigation projects, sanitation and sewage projects, solid waste management systems. Undertakings engaged in generation or generation and distribution, transmission or distribution of power, which commence these activities before 31.3.2006. Any company engaged in scientific and industrial research and development activities, approved by the prescribed authority, before 31.3.2003. Any undertaking which develops, operates, maintains an Industrial Park or Special Economic Zone before 31.3.2006. Notified Industrial Undertakings set up in the North Eastern region including seven north-eastern states and the state of Sikkim. Undertakings developing and building housing projects approved by the local authority before 31.3.2001and which are completed before 31.3.2003.

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100% deduction for seven years for undertakings producing or refining mineral oil. 100% deduction from income for first five years and 30% (for persons other than companies: 25%) in subsequent five years is available in respect of the following: Company which starts providing telecommunication services whether basic or cellular including radio paging, domestic satellite service, network or trunking, broad band network and internet services before 31.3.2003. Industrial undertakings located backward states and districts. in certain cold of specified chain industrially for

Undertakings which begin to operate agricultural produce before 31.3.2003. Undertakings engaged in the transportation of food grains.

facilities

business

handling,

storage,

50% deduction for a period of five years is available to undertakings engaged in the business of building, owning and operating multiplex theatres or convention centres constructed before 31.3.2005. Tax exemption of 100% on export profits for ten years upto F .Y. 200910, for new industries located in EHTPs and STPs and 100% Export Oriented Units. For units set up in Special Economic Zones (SEZs), 100% deduction of export income for first five years followed by 50% for next two years, even beyond 2009-10. Tax exemption of 100% of Export profits for ten years for new industries located in Integrated Infrastructure Development Centres or Industrial Growth Centres of the North Eastern Region. Deduction of 50% of export profits from the gross total income. The deduction would be restricted to 30% for financial year 2003-04 and no deduction is allowable subsequently. Deduction from the gross total income of 50% of foreign exchange earnings by hotels and tour operators. The deduction would be restricted to 30% for financial year 2003-04 and no deduction is allowable subsequently. 50% deduction of export income due to export of computer software or film software, television software, music software, from the gross total income. The deduction would be restricted to 30% for financial year 2003-04 and no deduction is allowable subsequently.

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Deduction in respect of certain inter-corporate dividends to the extent of dividend declared. Exemption of any income by way of dividend, interest or long term capital gains of an infrastructure capital fund or an infrastructure capital company from investment made by way of shares or long term finance in any enterprises carrying on the business of developing, maintaining and operating infrastructure facility. Sales Tax Central Sales Tax (CST) CST is 4% on manufactured goods. Local Sales Tax (LST) Where a sale takes place within a state, LST would be levied. Such a tax would be governed by the relevant state tax legislation. This is normally up to 15%. Excise Duty Excise duty on most commodities ranges between 0 to 16%. Only on seven items duty is imposed at 32%, viz., motor cars, tyres, aerated soft drinks, air conditioners, polyesters filament yarn, pan masala and chewing tobacco. Duty is charged at 30% on petrol with additional excise duty at Rs. 7 per litre. The said rates are subject to exemptions and deductions thereon as may be notified from time to time. Central VAT (CENVAT) is applicable to practically all manufactured goods, so as to avoid cascading effect on duty. Small Scale Sector is exempted from payment of excise duty from annual production upto Rs.10 million. Customs Duty The rates of basic duties vary from 0 to 30%. Salient features are: Peak customs duty reduced from 220% (in 1991) to 30% (in 2002). The general project import duty (for new projects and substantial expansion of existing projects) reduced from 85% to 25%. Import duty under EPCG Scheme is 5%. R&D imports - 5% customs duty.

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Export made with imported inputs get concessions in form of duty drawback, duty entitlement pass book scheme and advance licence. Many type of industries such as 100% EOU and units in free trade zone get facility of zero import duty. An Authority for Advance Ruling for foreign investor

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SEZ(Special Economic Zone)
Considering the need to enhance foreign investment and promote exports from the country and realising the need that level playing field must be made available to the domestic enterprises and manufacturers to be competitive globally, the government had in April 2000 announced the introduction of Special Economic Zones policy in the country, deemed to be foreign territory for the purposes of trade operations, duties and tariffs. SEZs when operational are expected to offer high quality infrastructure facilities and support services, besides allowing for the duty free import of capital goods and raw materials. Additionally, attractive fiscal incentives and simpler customs, banking and other procedures are offered in such zones. Setting up of SEZs is also treated as an infrastructure development activity and offered same incentives. Salient features of the Indian SEZ initiative include: • Unlike most of the international instances where zones are primarily developed by Governments, the Indian SEZ policy provides for development of these zones in the government, private or joint sector. This offers equal opportunity to both Indian and international private developers. • For greenfield SEZs, the Government has specified a minimum preferable area of 1,000 hectares. However, for sector specific SEZs, there is no restriction of minimum area. • 100 per cent FDI is permitted for all investments in SEZs, except for activities under the negative list. • SEZ units are required to be positive net foreign exchange earners and are not subject to any minimum value addition norms or export obligations. • Goods flow into the SEZ area from Domestic Tariff Area (DTA) will be treated as exports and goods coming from the SEZ area into DTA are treated as imports.

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Currently, a number of SEZ projects are coming up in the country. The government has given a go-ahead for around 17 SEZs to be set up in the private sector or the joint sector. Of these, the projects at Positra (Gujarat), Vishakhapatnam (Andhra Pradesh), Indore (Madhya Pradesh) and Navi Mumbai (Maharashtra) are in advanced stages of planning and development, while the others are preparing to get off the ground. Incentives and Benefits Besides providing state-of-the-art infrastructure and access to a large well-trained and skilled work force, the SEZ policy also provides enterprises and developers with a favourable and attractive framework of incentives: • 100% income tax exemption for a block of five years and an additional 50% tax exemption for two years thereafter • 100% FDI in the manufacturing sector permitted through automatic route, barring a few sectors. • External commercial borrowings by SEZ units upto US$500 million in a year without any maturity restrictions through recognized banking channels. • Facility to retain 100% foreign exchange receipts in Exchange Earners’ Foreign Currency Account. • 100% FDI permitted to SEZ franchisee in providing basic telephone services in SEZs. • No cap on foreign investment for small scale sector reserved items. • Exemption from industrial licensing requirements for items reserved for the SSI sector. • No import licence requirements • Exemption from customs duties on import of capital goods, raw materials, consumables, spares etc • Exemption from Central Excise duties on procurement of capital goods, raw materials, consumable spares etc., from the domestic market. • No routine examinations by Customs for export and import cargo. • Facility to realize and repatriate export proceeds within 12 months. • Profits allowed to be repatriated without any dividend-balancing requirement.

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• Job work on behalf of domestic exporters for direct export allowed. • Subcontracting both domestic and international is permitted; this facility is available to jewellery units as well. • Exemption from Central Sales Tax and Service Tax • Facilities to set up off-shore banking units in SEZs. Incentives to Developers • Exemption from duties on import /procurement of goods for the development, operation and maintenance of SEZ. • Income tax exemption for a block of 10 years in 15 years. • Exemption from Service Tax • FDI to develop townships within SEZs with residential, educational, health care and recreational facilities permitted on a case-to-case basis .

Interim budget or Vote on account
YOU'VE heard about it and now it's going to happen. This year, there won't be an annual full length budget but there will be a Vote on Account or Interim budget, as it is also referred to, instead. So what does Vote on Account mean? Let’s find out.

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What is a vote-on-account? An annual budget is an exercise which the ruling government undertakes whereby it puts forth a report card of its income and expenses in the previous year. It also puts forth provisions to raise money (from taxes) and spend money (on welfare measures). In doing that, it seeks the parliament’s approval to spend the requisite amount of money. The Parliament then votes for or against the proposals and the finance bill gets passed. This whole process begins on 28th Feb when the Finance Minister makes the budget speech and goes on till 31st March, when the bill is passed in the parliament. Now there might be times when the parliament cannot or does not have enough time to vote the entire budget before the new financial year begins. For instance, if a new government comes into power a few months before February, it may not have enough time to study the fiscal state and announce a budget. So the new government may announce an interim budget in February and a full budget in a few months' time.

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Pre-election is also a time when vote on account kicks in. A few months before the elections, a code of conduct comes into play during which the central and state governments cannot announce any major sops to the electorate to prevent any unfair swings in the voting pattern. Moreover, even if the code of conduct does not come into play, it is regarded improper for an outgoing government to impose on its successor changes that may or may not be acceptable to the incoming government. When elections are around the corner, like now (elections are likely to be held in April-May), the government can only present a report card of last year’s income and expenses. It can also seek the parliament’s approval for expenses that it foresees for the next few months until the elections are over and the new government is in place. This exercise is called vote on account. So what is the difference between Vote on Account and Budget? A vote on account only talks about the expenses that the government is likely to make during the next few months. A budget in turn also talks about how it proposes to raise the money to meet these expenses. These are normally in the form of tax sops. When will the budget be held after the vote on account? During election year, the budget is held after the new government is formed. Usually the gap between the vote on account and budget does not exceed six months. When was the first VOA held in independent India? 1952-53 How many times VOA (also called Interim Budget) has been held in India? Eleven. Out of this, six times, a new government presented a VOA because it didn’t have enough time after coming into power to present a full scale budget. In the remaining five instances, the outgoing government presented the VOA. In how many of these five instances did the outgoing government come back to power?

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In four out of five instances, the outgoing government came back to power. Here are the VOAs after which the same government came back to power: Year 195253 195758 196263 199697 200405 FM who presented VOA CD Deshmukh TT Krishnamachari Morarji Desai Manmohan Singh Jaswant Singh

Which FMs have presented the most VOAs? Morarji Desai and Yashwant Sinha have both presented two VOAs each

Indian Constitution And Amendments

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The Constitution of India was enacted on 26th of January, 1950. The Constituent Assembly of India drafted the nation's Constitution. Being drafted on 26th of November, 1949, the Indian Constitution laid the foundations for establishment of the Democratic Republic of India.

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Drafting of the Constitution
The Constitution of India was drafted over a period of 2 years, 11 months and 17 days. The members of Constituent Assembly of India met for the first time in the year 1946 on December 9. The next meeting of the Assembly took place on August 14th, 1947 for the dominion of India in which the proposal of forming various committees was presented. Such committees include Committee on Fundamental Rights, the Union Powers Committee and Union Constitution Committee. One of the unique factors of this meeting was that the Assembly gathered as the Sovereign Constituent Assembly of India. On 29th August, 1947 a Drafting Committee, with Dr. Ambedkar as the Chairman, was formed on the basis of the various reports submitted by the previous committees. It was in the year 1948 that a Draft Constitution including a range of proposals was formed by the concerned committee. The Constituent Assembly of India held two meetings in February 1948 and October 1949 to go through the clauses of the Draft. Finally, from 14th to 26th of November, 1949 the Constituent Assembly analyzed each and every provision of the Draft. The then President of the Constituent Assembly of India signed the Draft on November 26th, 1949. Today, there are 12 Schedules and 395 Articles in the Constitution of India. Amendments have been made to the Constitution time and again as per the need of the hour. Till 2006, there have been 94 Amendments made to the constitution.

Constituent Assembly
The Constituent Assembly of India was formed by the elected members of the provincial assemblies of the country. Presided over by Dr. Sachidanand Sinha for the first time, the Indian Constituent Assembly played the most important role in creating the Constitution of India. After Dr. Sinha, Dr. Rajendra Prasad became the President of the Assembly. Comprising over 30 schedule class members, the Constituent Assembly also included sections of Christians, AngloIndians and Minority Community. Harendra Coomar Mookerjee, being the Minority Community Chairman, also successfully worked for the Christians. While H P Modi was the representative of the Parsi community, Frank Anthony headed the Anglo-Indian section of the country in the Constituent Assembly. Some of the prominent female personalities of the Constituent Assembly were Vijaylakshmi Pandit and Sarojini Naidu. From Shyama Prasad Mukherjee, B N Rau and Maulana Abdul Kalam Azad to K M Munshi, Sardar Patel and Alladi Krishnaswami Aiyer, each one had a major contribution towards the present form of the Constituent Assembly. Ravindra 150

Preamble
The Preamble is one of the most significant parts of the Constitution

List of the 94 Amendments to the Indian Constitution till 2006
There have been 94 amendments made to the Constitution of India. The Amendment Acts, which are also known as Constitution (Amendment) Acts, and the date, when they cam into force, are mentioned below: The Constitution (First Amendment) Act, 1951: This Act came into force on 18 June 1951. The Constitution (Second Amendment) Act, 1952: This Act was introduced on 1 May 1953. The Constitution (Third Amendment) Act, 1954: The date of assent of this Amendment Act is 22 February 1955. The Constitution (Fourth Amendment) Act, 1955: This Act became effective since 27 April 1955. The Constitution (Fifth Amendment) Act, 1955: The date since when this Act has been made effective is 24 December 1955. The Constitution (Sixth Amendment) Act, 1956: Since 11 September 1956, this Act has been in effect. The Constitution (Seventh Amendment) Act, 1956: As per s.1 (2) of the Act, this Constitution Act came into force on 1 November 1956. The Constitution (Eighth Amendment) Act, 1959: This Act was introduced on 5 January 1960, when it was given assent by the President. The Constitution (Ninth Amendment) Act, 1960: The date on which this Act came into force is 28 December 1960. The Constitution (Tenth Amendment) Act, 1961: This Act was made effective on 11 August 1961 as per the s.1 (2) of the Act. The Constitution (Eleventh Amendment) Act, 1961: The date of assent of this Constitution Act was 19 December 1961. The Constitution (Twelfth Amendment) Act, 1962: This Act came into force on 20 December 1961 as per s.1 (2) of the Act. The Constitution (Thirteenth Amendment) Act, 1962: Since 1 December 1963, this Constitution Act has been in effect.

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The Constitution (Fourteenth Amendment) Act, 1962: This Act was introduced on 28 December 1962. The Constitution (Fifteenth Amendment) Act, 1963: This Act was given assent by the President and was introduced on 5 October 1963. The Constitution (Sixteenth Amendment) Act, 1963: The date on which this Constitution Act was made effective is 5 October 1963. The Constitution (Seventeenth Amendment) Act, 1964: The date since when this Act has been made effective is 20 June 1964. The Constitution (Eighteenth Amendment) Act, 1966: This Act came into force on 27 August 1966. The Constitution (Nineteenth Amendment) Act, 1966: The date of assent of this Constitution Act is 11 December 1966. The Constitution (Twentieth Amendment) Act, 1966: This Constitution Act was introduced on 22 December 1966. The Constitution (Twenty-first Amendment) Act, 1967: The President gave his assent to this Act on 10 April 1967, since when it has been in effect. The Constitution (Twenty-second Amendment) Act, 1969: The Act was made effective with the assent of the President on 25 September 1969. The Constitution (Twenty-third Amendment) Act, 1969: The date on which this Act came into force is 23 January 1970. The Constitution (Twenty-fourth Amendment) Act, 1971: Since 5 November 1971, this Act is in effect. The Constitution (Twenty-fifth Amendment) Act, 1971: With the assent of the President of India, this Act was introduced on 20 April 1972. The Constitution (Twenty-sixth Amendment) Act, 1971: This Act was made effective on 28 December 1971. The Constitution (Twenty-seventh Amendment) Act, 1971: As per s.1 (2) of the Act, Sections 1 and 3 were introduced on 30 December 1971. The Sections 2, 4 and 5 came into force much later on 15 February 1972. The Constitution (Twenty-eighth Amendment) Act, 1972: This Act came into force on 29 August 1972. The Constitution (Twenty-ninth Amendment) Act, 1972: The date since when this Constitution Act has been made effective is 9 June 1972.

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The Constitution (Thirtieth Amendment) Act, 1972: It was on 27 February 1973, when this Act was introduced after assent of the Indian President. The Constitution (Thirty-first Amendment) Act, 1973: This Act came into force on 17 October 1973. The Constitution (Thirty-second Amendment) Act, 1973: This Act was introduced on 1 July 1974. The Constitution (Thirty-third Amendment) Act, 1974: Since 19 May 1974, this Constitution Act has been in effect. The Constitution (Thirty-fourth Amendment) Act, 1974: The President of India gave assent to this Act on 7 September 1974. The Constitution (Thirty-fifth Amendment) Act, 1974: This Constitution Act was made effective on 1 March 1975. The Constitution (Thirty-sixth Amendment) Act, 1975: As per s.1 (2), this Act came into force on 26 April 1975, when the Bill passed by the House of People was also passed by the Council of States. The Constitution (Thirty-seventh) Act, 1975: The date of assent of this Act is 3 May 1975. The Constitution (Thirty-eighth Amendment) Act, 1975: This Act has been made effective since 1 August 1975. The Constitution (Thirty-ninth Amendment) Act, 1975: With the assent of the Indian President, this Constitution Act was introduced on 10 August 1975. The Constitution (Fortieth Amendment) Act, 1976: The date on which this Act came into force is 27 May 1976. The Constitution (Forty-first Amendment) Act, 1976: This Act was given assent by the President, and hence introduced on 7 September 1976. The Constitution (Forty-second Amendment) Act, 1976: This is one of the most important amendments made to the Indian Constitution. The Sections 2-5, 7-17, 20, 28, 29, 30, 33, 36, 43-53, 55, 56, 57 and 59 of this Constitution Act came into force on 3 January 1977. The Sections 6, 23-26, 37-42, 54 and 58 were introduced on 1 February 1977. Section 27 was made effective 2 months later on 1 April 1977. The Constitution (Forty-third Amendment) Act, 1977: This Constitution Act was introduced on 13 April 1978.

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The Constitution (Forty-fourth Amendment) Act, 1978: This is another important amendment made to the Constitution of India. Sections 2, 4-16, 22, 23, 25-29, 31-42, 44 and 45 of this Constitution Act were introduced on 20 June 1979. Sections 17-21 and 30 came into force on 1 August 1979, while Sections 24 and 43 were made effective on 6 September 1979. The Constitution (Forty-fifth Amendment) Act, 1980: As per s.1 (2) of the Act, this Act was given assent by the President of India on 25 January 1980. The Constitution (Forty-sixth Amendment) Act, 1982: This 46th Amendment to the Constitution was made on 2 February 1983. The Constitution (Forty-seventh Amendment) Act, 1984: The date on which this Constitution Act was made effective is 26 August 1984. The Constitution (Forty-eighth Amendment) Act, 1984: This Act came into force on 1 April 1985. The Constitution (Forty-ninth Amendment) Act, 1984: The President of India gave his assent to this Act for amending the Constitution on 11 September 1984. The Constitution (Fiftieth Amendment) Act, 1984: This Constitution Act came into force on 11 September 1984 with the assent of the President. The Constitution (Fifty-first Amendment) Act, 1984: Since 16 June 1986, this Constitution has been effective. The Constitution (Fifty-second Amendment) Act, 1985: It was on 1 March, when this Act was introduced. The Constitution (Fifty-third Amendment) Act, 1986: The date of assent of this Act is 20 February 1987. The Constitution (Fifty-fourth Amendment) Act, 1986: This Act was made effective in 1986 on 1 April 1986, as per s.1 (2) of the Act. The Constitution (Fifty-fifth Amendment) Act, 1986: With the assent of the Indian President, this Constitution Act has been made effective since 20 February 1987. The Constitution (Fifty-sixth Amendment) Act, 1987: This Act was introduced on 30 May 1987. The Constitution (Fifty-seventh Amendment) Act, 1987: This Constitution Act was made effective on 21 September 1987.

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The Constitution (Fifty-eighth Amendment) Act, 1987: The date of assent for this Act is 9 December 1987. The Constitution (Fifty-ninth Amendment) Act, 1988: The President gave his assent for this Constitution Act on 30 March 1988. The Constitution (Sixtieth Amendment) Act, 1988: This Act was introduced with the assent of President on 20 December 1988. The Constitution (Sixty-first Amendment) Act, 1988: The date since when this Act has been made effective is 23 March 1989. The Constitution (Sixty-second Amendment) Act, 1989: As per s.1 (2) of the Act, it was made effective on 20 December 1989, on the date, when the Bill for this Constitution Act was introduced to the Council of States. The Constitution (Sixty-third Amendment) Act, 1989: This Act was introduced on 6 January 1990 with the assent of the President of India. The Constitution (Sixty-fourth Amendment) Act, 1990: This Act has been in effect since 16 April 1990, which is the date of assent for it. The Constitution (Sixty-fifth Amendment) Act, 1990: With the assent of the President of India, this Act was introduced on 12 March 1992. The Constitution (Sixty-sixth Amendment) Act, 1990: The date, when this Act was given assent by the President of India is 7 June 1990. The Constitution (Sixty-seventh Amendment) Act, 1990: This Constitution Act was introduced on 4 October 1990. The Constitution (Sixty-eighth Amendment) Act, 1991: This Act was made effective on 12 March 1991. The Constitution (Sixty-ninth Amendment) Act, 1991: This Act came into effect from 1 February 1992. The Constitution (Seventieth Amendment) Act, 1992: As per s.1 (2) of the Act, the Section 3 of this Act was introduced on 12 December 1991. The Section 2 of the Act is yet to receive assent from the Indian President. The Constitution (Seventy-first Amendment) Act, 1992: The date when this Constitution Act was made effective is 31 August 1992. The Constitution (Seventy-second Amendment) Act, 1992: It was on 5 December 1992, when this Act received assent from the President and was introduced.

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The Constitution (Seventy-third Amendment) Act, 1992: With the assent of the Indian President, this Constitution Act was made effective on 24 April 1993. The Constitution (Seventy-fourth Amendment) Act, 1992: This Act was introduced on 1 June 1993. The Constitution (Seventy-fifth Amendment) Act, 1993: The date on which this Act was made effective for amending the constitution is 15 May 1994. The Constitution (Seventy-sixth Amendment) Act, 1994: This Constitution Act was introduced with the assent of the Indian President on 31 August 1994. The Constitution (Seventy-seventh Amendment) Act, 1995: The date of assent for this Act is 17 June 1995. The Constitution (Seventy-eighth Amendment) Act, 1995: The President gave his assent to this Act on 30 August 1995. The Constitution (Seventy-ninth Amendment) Act, 2000: This Act came into force on 25 January 2000. The Constitution (Eightieth Amendment) Act, 2000: 9 June 2000 is the date, when this Constitution Act was implemented. The Constitution (Eighty-first Amendment) Act, 2000: This Act was introduced on 9 June 2000. The Constitution (Eighty-second Amendment) Act, 2000: The date on which this Act was made effective is 8 September 2000. The Constitution (Eighty-third Amendment) Act, 2000: It was on 8 September 2000, when this Act came into force with the assent of the President of India. The Constitution (Eighty-fourth Amendment) Act, 2001: This Constitution Act was made effective on 21 February 2002. The Constitution (Eighty-fifth Amendment) Act, 2002: With the assent of the Indian President, this Act came into force on 4 January 2002. The Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act, 2002: The date of assent for this Constitution Act is 12 December 2002. The Constitution (Eighty-seventh Amendment) Act, 2003: Since 22 June 2003, this Act has been in effect. The Constitution (Eighty-eighth Amendment) Act, 2003: This Act came into force on 15 October 2004.

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The Constitution (Eighty-ninth Amendment) Act, 2003: The President gave his assent for the Bill of this amendment on 28 September 2003. The Constitution (Ninetieth Amendment) Act, 2003: The date on which this Constitution Act was introduced is 28 September 2003. The Constitution (Ninety-first Amendment) Act, 2003: This Act was introduced with the assent of the President of India on 1 January 2004. The Constitution (Ninety-second Amendment) Act, 2003: This Constitution Act was given assent by the President on 7 January 2004. The Constitution (Ninety-Third Amendment) Act, 2005: Since 20 January 2006, this Act has been made effective. The Constitution (Ninety-fourth Amendment) Act, 2006: This Constitution Act came into force on 12 June 2006, with the assent of the President of India.

Prime Minister and Council of Ministers - India

14th Lok Sabha Council of Ministers

NAME Manmohan Singh

PARTY Congress

PORTFOLIO Prime Minister Ministry ofPersonnel, Public grievenances and Pensions Ministry of Planning Department of Atomic Energy Department of Space Ministry of External Affairs Defence HRD Textiles Law

Cabinet Ministers Pranab Mukherjee Arjun Singh Shankersinh Vaghela H. R. Bhardwaj Congress Congress Congress Congress

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Kamal Nath P. Chidamabaram Mahavir Prasad P. R. Kyndiah Meira Kumar Shivraj Patil Laloo Prasad Yadav Raghuvansh Prasad Singh Ram Vilas Paswan Dayanidhi Maran A. Raja T. R. Baalu A. Ramdoss S.Jaipal Reddy Priyaranjan Dasmunsi Sushil Kumar Shinde Sis Ram Ola K. ChandraSekhar Rao ManiShankar Aiyar Murli Deora Prof. Saif-ud-din Soz Sharad Pawor

Congress Congress Congress Congress Congress Congress RJD RJD LJP DMK DMK DMK PMK Congress Congress Congress Congress TRS Congress Congress Congress NCP

Commerce and Industry Finance Minister Small Scale, Agro and Rural Industries Tribal Affairs + North East Social Justice and Empowerment Home Railways Rural Development Chemical and Fertilizer; Steel IT and Telecom Forest + Environment Road Transport, Highways & Shipping Health Urban Development Parliamentary Affairs and Information & Broadcasting Power Mines Labour & Employment Panchayti Raj and Youth Affairs & Sports Petroleum & Natural Gas Water Resources Agriculture and Consumer Affairs,Food & Public Distrileution Coal Minority Affairs Overseas Indian Affairs Heavy Industries and Public

Shibu Soren A.R. Antulay Vayalar Ravi Santosh Mohan Dev

JMM Congress Congress Congress

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Enterprises Ambika Soni Kapil Sibal Prem Chand Gupta Praful Patel Subodh Kant Sahay Vilas Muttemwar Premchand Gupta Oskar Fernandes Renuka Chowdhury Kumari Selja G.K. Vasan Congress Congress RJD NCP Congress Congress RJD Congress Congress Congress Congress Tourism & Culture Science & Technology and Earth Sciences Company Affairs Civil Aviation Food Processing Non-Conventional Energy Souorces Company Affairs Without Portfolio Woman and Child Development Housing & Urban Poverty Alleviation Statistics & Programme Implementation External Affairs Health and Family Welfare Communications and IT Railways Road Transport and Highways Planning Home Affairs Home Affairs Prime Minister's Office Rural Development Parliamentary Affairs Human Resource Development Rural Development Railways Finance

Ministers Of State (Independent charge)

Ministers Of State E Ahmed P Lakshmi Shakeel Ahmed Narayanbhai Ratwa K H Muinayapa M V Rajashekharan Manikrao Gavit Sri Prakash Jaiswal Prithviraj Chavan Suryakanta Patil Md A A Fatimi A Narendra R Velu S S Padmimanikam IUML Congress Congress Congress Congress Congress Congress Congress Congress NCP RJD TRS PMK DMK

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S Raghupati K Venkatapati Subhalaxmi Jagdeesan Namonarayan Meena Akhilesh Singh Pawan Kumar bansal Ajay Maken Dinsha J. Patel M.M. Pallm Raju Akhilesh Das Ashwani Kumar

DMK DMK DMK Congress RJD Congress Congress Congress Congress Congress Congress

Home Affairs Law and Justice Social Justice and Empowerment Environment and Forest Agriculture, Food and Civil Supplies Finance Urban Development Petroleum & Natural Gas Defence Steel Department of Industrial policy & Promotion,Ministry of Commece & Industry Labour & Employment Personnel,Public Grievances & Pensions and Parliamentary Affairs Chemicals & Fertilizers and Parliamentary Affairs Defence Coal Mines External Affairs Agriculture and Consumer Affairs,Food & Public Distribution Agriculture and Consumer Affairs,Food & Public Distribution Textiles Department of Commerce,Ministry of Commerce & Industry

Chandra Sekhar Sahu Suresh Pachouri

Congress Congress

B.K. Handique Rao Inderjit Singh Dasari Narayan Rao T. Subharami Reddy Anand Sharma Kantilal Bhuria

Congress Congress Congress Congress Congress Congress

Taslimuddin

RJD

E.V.K.S.E langovan Jairam Ramesh

Congress Congress

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Kanti Singh

RJD

Department of Heavy Industry,Ministry of Heavy Industries & Public Enterprises Human Resource Development Agriculture,Consumer Affairs,Food & Public Distribution

D. Purandeswari Akhilesh Singh

Congress Congress

List of Awards in Different Categories and winners Civilian Awards
Param Vir Chakra Jnanpith Awards Dada Saheb Phalke Awards Bharat Ratna

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Padma Vibhushan Padma Bhushan Padma Shri Sports Awards 1. Arjuna Award 2. Dronacharya Award 3. Rajiv Gandhi Khel Ratna Award 4. Lifetime Achievement award 5. Dhyanchand Award

The complete list of 2009 padma shri awards recipients:
A total of 133 Padma awards were announced — 10 Padma Vibhushan, 30 Padma Bhushan and 93 Padma Shri. A list of all Padma awardees for 2009: Padma Vibhushan 1.Dr Chandrika Prasad Srivastava — Civil Service 2.Sunderlal Bahuguna — Environment 3.Prof D P Chattopadhyaya — Literature 4.Prof Jasbir Singh Bajaj — Medicine 5.Dr Purshotam Lal — Medicine 6.Govind Narain — Public Affairs 7Dr Anil Kakodkar — Science 8.G Madhavan Nair — Science 9.Sister Nirmala — Social Work 10.Dr A S Ganguly — Trade & Industry Padma Bhushan 1:G Sivarama Krishna Murthy — Art 2:Prof Ramanlal C Mehta — Art 3:Shamshad Begum — Art 4:V P Dhananjayan & Shanta Dhananjayan — Art 5:Dr Vaidyanathan Ganapathi Sthapati — Art 6:S.K. Misra — Civil Service 7:Shekhar Gupta — Journalism 8:Prof. Alappat Sreedhara Menon — Literature 9:C.K. Prahlad — Literature 10:D. Jayakanthan — Literature

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11:Dr. Isher Judge Ahluwalia — Literature 12:Kunwar Narain — Literature 13:Prof. Minoru Hara — Literature 14:Ramachandra Guha — Literature 15:Dr. Brijendra Kumar Rao — Medicine 16:Vaidya Devendra Triguna — Medicine 17:Dr. Khalid Hameed — Medicine 18:Lt.Gen. (Retd.) Satish Nambiar — Security Affairs 19:Dr. Inderjit Kaur Barthakur — Public Affairs 20:Dr. Kirit Shantilal Parikh — Public Affairs 21:Dr. Bhakta B. Rath — Science 22:Shri Conjeevaram Srirangachari Seshadri — Science 23:Dr. Gurdip Singh Randhawa — Science 24:Sam Pitroda — Science 25:Prof. (Dr.) Sarvagya Singh Katiyar — Science 26:Prof. Thomas Kailath — Science 27:Dr. Naganath Nayakawadi — Social Work 28:Dr. Sarojini Varadappan — Social Work 29:Abhinav Bindra — Sports 30:Anil Manibhai Naik — Trade & Industry

Padma Shri
1:Thilakan — Art 2:A. Vivekh — Art 3:Aishwarya Rai Bachchan — Art 4:Akshay Kumar — Art 5:Dr Ameena Ahmed Ahuja — Art 6:Aruna Sairam — Art 7:Devayani Chaymotty — Art 8:Geeta Kapur — Art 9:Govind Ram Nirmalkar — Art 10:Gurumayum Gourakishor Sharma — Art 11:Hashmat Ullah Khan — Art 12:Helan Khan — Art 13:Hemi Bawa — Art 14:Pandit Hridaynath Mangeshkar — Art 15:Iravatham Mahadevan — Art 16:K.P. Udayabhanu — Art 17:Dr Kanneganti Brahmanandam — Art 18:Prof. Kiran Seth — Art 19:Kumar Sanu Bhattacharjee — Art 20:Prof. Dr Leela Omchery — Art 21:Mattannoor Sankarankutty Marar – Art 22:Niranjan Goswami — Art 23:Bhai Nirmal Singh Khalsa — Art

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24:Penaz Masani — Art 25:Prakash N. Dubey — Art 26:Dr. Pratapaditya Pal — Art 27:Ram Kishore Chhipa — Art 28:Saoli Mitra — Art 29:Shri Skendrowell Syiemlieh (Posthumous) — Art 30:Dr. Subrahmanyam Krishnaswamy — Art 31:Suresh Dutta — Art 32:Shri Tafazzul Ali (Posthumous) — Art 33:Udit Narayan — Art 34:Vadakka Manalath Govindan alias Kalamandalam Gopi — Art 35:S.B. Ghosh Dastidar — Civil Service 36:Ameen Sayani — Broadcasting 37:Abhay Chhajlani — Journalism 38:Dr. A. Sankara Reddy — Literature 39:Alok Mehta — Literature 40:Dr Bannanje Govindacharya — Literature 41:Dr Birendranath Datta — Literature 42:Prof. Geshe Ngawang Samten — Literature 43:Prof. Jalees Ahmed Khan Tareen — Literature 44:Jayanta Mahapatra — Literature 45:John Ralston Marr — Literature 46:Lalthangfala Sailo — Literature 47:Laxman Bapu Mane — Literature 48:Dr. Mathoor Krishnamurty — Literature 49:Norden Tshering — Literature 50:Dr. Panchapakesa Jayaraman — Literature 51:Prof. Ram Shankar Tripathi — Literature 52:Prof. Ranbir Chander Sobti — Literature 53:Dr. Ravindra Nath Srivastava — Literature 54:Shamsur Rahman Faruqi — Literature 55:Shashi Deshpande — Literature 56:Sunny Varkey — Literature 57:Suresh Gundu Amonkar — Literature 58:Dr. Utpal K. Banerjee — Literature 59:Dr. A.K. Gupta — Medicine 60:Dr. Alampur Saibaba Goud — Medicine 61:Dr. Arvind Lal — Medicine 62:Dr. Ashok K. Vaid — Medicine 63:Dr. Ashok Kumar Grover — Medicine 64:Dr. Balswarup Choubey — Medicine 65:Dr. D. S. Rana — Medicine 66:Dr. Govindan Vijayaraghavan — Medicine 67:Dr. Kalyan Banerjee — Medicine 68:P.R. Krishna Kumar — Medicine 69:Dr. R. Sivaraaman — Medicine

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70:Dr. Shaik Khader Noordeen — Medicine 71:Prof. (Dr.) Thanikachalam Sadagopan — Medicine 72:Dr. Yash Gulati — Medicine 73:K. Asungba Sangtam — Public Affairs 74:Dr. Shyamlha Pappu — Public Affairs 75:Prof. Syed Iqbal Hasnain — Research on Himalayan Glaciers 76:Goriparthi Narasimha Raju Yadav — Science 77:Prof. Pramod Tandon — Science 78:Bansilal Rathi — Social Work 79:Begum Bilkees I. Latif — Social Work 80:Cheril Krishna Menon — Social Work 81:Rev. Joseph H. Pereira — Social Work 82:K. Viswanathan — Social Work 83:Keepu Tshering Lepcha — Social Work 84:Prof. Shyam Sunder Maheshwari — Social Work 85:Sunil Kanti Roy — Social Work 86:Balbir Singh Khullar — Sports 87:Harbhajan Singh — Sports 88:Mahendra Singh Dhoni — Sports 89:Pankaj Advani — Sports 90:Surinder Mehta — Technology Solutions 91:Arunmugam Sakthivel — Trade & Industry 92:Dr. Bavaguthu Raghuram Shetty — Trade & Industry 93:Shri R.K. Krishna Kumar — Trade & Industry

Bharat Ratna:
India's

highest civilian award given for exceptional service towards the advancement of Art, Literature and Science, and in recognition of public service of the highest order. It was established by the President of India, in 2nd January 1954. The regulations were revised 8 January 1955 (to alter the design) and amended 26 January 1957 (to alter the depiction of the devices on the obverse and reverse). From 13 July 1977 to 26 January 1980, awards of the Bharat Ratna were suspended. The original specifications for the award called for a circular gold medal, 35 mm in diameter, with the sun and the Hindi legend "Bharat Ratna" above and a floral wreath below. The reverse was to carry the state emblem and motto. It was to be worn around the neck from a 2 inches white ribbon. There is no indication that any specimens of this design were ever produced and one year later the design was altered. Recipients of Bharat Ratna :Pandit Bhimsen Joshi(2008)

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Dada Saheb Phalke Awards
MANOJ KUMAR(2009) SHYAM BENEGAL(2008)

Jnanpith Award
The country's highest literary award, the Jnanpith Award, is given to any Indian writer for his or her outstanding contribution in any of the 18 languages mentioned in the Eighth Schedule of the Constitution. It is given for outstanding contribution to creative writing in a specified period of 15 years but excluding the five years immediately preceding the year.The award was instituted in May 22, 1961. The total prize money for the scheme is Rs. 2.5 lakhs.

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List of Gallantry Award winners
Param Vir Chakra Company Havildar Major Abdul Hamid, (4 Grenadiers) Maha Vir Chakra Mohammed Ismail: 1947-48 Operation Brig. Mohammed Usman: Indo-Pakistan War Ashok Chakra The Ashok Chakra is awarded for valour, courageous action or self-sacrifice away from the battlefield. It is the peace time equivalent of the Param Vir Chakra and is awarded for the "most conspicuous bravery or some daring or pre-eminent valour or self-sacrifice" other than in the face of the enemy. Vir Chakra Kirti Chakra Kirti Chakra is awarded for valor, courageous action or selfsacrifice away from the battlefield. It is the peacetime equivalent of the Maha Vir Chakra. It is second in order of precedence of peacetime gallantry awards. 2007: Mohd. Shan Ahmed (posthumous) was posted as Cash Overseer at post office Jhansi. On 26 December, 2005, resisted looting of cash and in the attempt succumbed to fatal injuries inflicted by armed miscreants. He belonged to Jhansi (UP). Shaurya Chakra The Shaurya Chakra is the third level award for gallantry away from the battlefield and by far the nearest equivalent of the Vir Chakra Award for Peacetime. 2009: Lance Havildar Aziz Mohd: 20 Jammu and Kashmir Rifles (Posthumous) Sapper/Operator Executive Machinery Budhu Khan (Posthumous) Naik Mohd Sadiq 2008: Rifleman Abdul Hamid Chara: 162 Infantry Battalion TA (H&H)JAK LI/18 Rashtriya Rifles(posthumous) 2007: Rifleman Raiece Ahmad Ganaie: Jammy & Kashmir Light Infantry/50 Rashtriya Rifles 2006: Ravindra
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Nobel Prize Winners (2008)
PEACE: The Swiss Federal Ethics Committee on Non-Human Biotechnology and the citizens of Switzerland for adopting the legal principle that plants have dignity. ARCHAEOLOGY: Astolfo Gomes de Mello Araujo and Jose Carlos Marcelino for showing armadillos can scramble the contents of an archaeological dig. BIOLOGY: Marie-Christine Cadiergues, Christel Joubert and Michel Franc for discovering that fleas that live on a dog can jump higher than fleas that live on a cat. MEDICINE: Dan Ariely for demonstrating that expensive fake medicine is more effective than cheap fake medicine. COGNITIVE SCIENCE: Toshiyuki Nakagaki, Hiroyasu Yamada, Ryo Kobayashi, Atsushi Tero, Akio Ishiguro and Agota Toth for discovering that slime molds can solve puzzles. ECONOMICS: Geoffrey Miller, Joshua Tyber and Brent Jordan for discovering that exotic dancers earn more when at peak fertility. PHYSICS: Dorian Raymer and Douglas Smith for proving that heaps of string or hair will inevitably tangle. CHEMISTRY: Sheree Umpierre, Joseph Hill and Deborah Anderson for discovering that Coca-Cola is an effective spermicide, and C.Y. Hong, C.C. Shieh, P. Wu and B.N. Chiang for proving it is not. LITERATURE: David Sims for his study "You Bastard: A Narrative Exploration of the Experience of Indignation within Organizations."

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SPORTS
Olympics
List of countries participating in the Beijing Olympics 2008 with their Country Code.
Afghanistan AFG Albania ALB Algeria ALG American Samoa ASA Andorra AND Angola ANG Antigua and Barbuda ANT Argentina ARG Armenia ARM Aruba ARU Australia AUS Austria AUT Azerbaijan AZE Bahamas BAH Bahrain BRN Bangladesh BAN Barbados BAR Belarus BLR Belgium BEL Belize BIZ Benin BEN Bermuda BER

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Bhutan BHU Bohemia BOH Bolivia BOL Bosnia and Herzegovina BIH Botswana BOT Brazil BRA British Virgin Islands IVB Brunei BRU Bulgaria BUL Burkina Faso BUR Burundi BDI Cambodia CAM Cameroon CMR Canada CAN Cape Verde CPV Cayman Islands CAY Guatemala GUA Guinea GUI Guinea-Bissau GBS Guyana GUY Nation Code Haiti HAI Honduras HON Hong Kong HKG Hungary HUN Iceland ISL India IND Indonesia INA Iran IRI Iraq IRQ Ireland IRL Israel ISR Italy ITA Jamaica JAM Japan JPN Jordan JOR Kazakhstan KAZ Kenya KEN Kiribati KIR North Korea PRK South Korea KOR Kuwait KUW Kyrgyzstan KGZ Laos LAO

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Latvia LAT Lebanon LIB Lesotho LES Liberia LBR Libya LBA Liechtenstein LIE Lithuania LTU Luxembourg LUX FYR Macedonia MKD Madagascar MAD Malawi MAW Malaysia MAS Maldives MDV Mali MLI Malta MLT Mauritania MTN Mauritius MRI Mexico MEX Micronesia FSM Moldova MDA Monaco MON Mongolia MGL Montenegro MNE Morocco MAR Mozambique MOZ Myanmar MYA Namibia NAM Nauru NRU Nepal NEP Netherlands NED Netherlands Antilles AHO New Zealand NZL Nicaragua NCA Niger NIG Nigeria NGR Norway NOR Oman OMA Pakistan PAK Palau PLW Palestine PLE Panama PAN Papua New Guinea PNG Paraguay PAR Peru PER

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Philippines PHI Poland POL Portugal POR Puerto Rico PUR Qatar QAT Romania ROU Russia RUS Rwanda RWA Saar SAA Saint Kitts And Nevis SKN Saint Lucia LCA Saint Vincent And The Grenadines VIN Samoa SAM San Marino SMR São Tomé And Príncipe STP Saudi Arabia KSA Senegal SEN Serbia SRB Seychelles SEY Sierra Leone SLE Singapore SIN Slovakia SVK Slovenia SLO Solomon Islands SOL Somalia SOM South Africa RSA Soviet Union URS Spain ESP Sri Lanka SRI Sudan SUD Suriname SUR Swaziland SWZ Sweden SWE Switzerland SUI Syria SYR Tajikistan TJK Tanzania TAN Thailand THA Timor-Leste TLS Togo TOG Tonga TGA Trinidad And Tobago TRI Tunisia TUN Turkey TUR

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Turkmenistan TKM Uganda UGA Ukraine UKR United Arab Emirates UAE United States Of America USA USA UK United Kingdom Uruguay URU Uzbekistan UZB Vanuatu VAN Venezuela VEN Vietnam VIE Virgin Islands ISV Yemen YEM Yugoslavia YUG Zambia ZAM Zimbabwe ZIM

Total Medals By Nation
NATION United States China Russia Great Britain Australia Germany France South Korea Italy Ukraine Japan Cuba Belarus Spain Canada Netherlands Brazil Kenya Kazakhstan Jamaica Poland Hungary Norway TOTAL MEDALS 110 10 0 72 47 46 41 40 31 28 27 25 24 19 18 18 16 15 14 13 11 10 10 10 GOLD SILVER BRONZE 36 38 36 51 23 19 14 16 7 13 8 7 9 2 4 5 3 7 3 5 2 6 3 3 3 21 21 13 15 10 16 10 10 5 6 11 5 10 9 5 4 5 4 3 6 5 5 28 28 15 17 15 17 8 10 15 10 11 10 3 6 4 8 4 7 2 1 2 2

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New Zealand 9 Romania 8 Turkey 8 Ethiopia 7 Denmark 7 Azerbaijan 7 Czech Republic 6 Slovakia 6 Georgia 6 North Korea 6 Argentina 6 Switzerland 6 Uzbekistan 6 Armenia 6 Slovenia 5 Bulgaria 5 Indonesia 5 Sweden 5 Croatia 5 Lithuania 5 Mongolia 4 Thailand 4 Zimbabwe 4 Finland 4 Greece 4 Nigeria 4 Chinese Taipei 4 Mexico 3 Latvia 3 India 3 Austria 3 Ireland 3 Serbia 3 Belgium 2 Dominican Republic 2 Estonia 2 Portugal 2 Iran 2 Trinidad and Tobago 2 Algeria 2 Bahamas 2 Colombia 2 Kyrgyzstan 2 Morocco 2 Tajikistan 2 Bahrain 1 Cameroon 1

3 4 1 4 2 1 3 3 3 2 2 2 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 2 2 1 1 0 0 0 2 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1

1 1 4 1 2 2 3 2 0 1 0 0 2 0 2 1 1 4 2 2 2 2 3 1 2 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0

5 3 3 2 3 4 0 1 3 3 4 4 3 6 2 3 3 1 3 3 0 0 0 2 2 3 4 1 1 2 2 2 2 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0

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Panama Tunisia Chile Ecuador Iceland Malaysia Singapore South Africa Sudan Viet Nam Afghanistan Egypt Israel Mauritius Moldova Togo Venezuela

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

No of Games ,Events
Archery Athletics Badminton Baseball Basketball Beach Volleyball Boxing Canoe/Kayak Flatwater Canoe/Kayak Slalom Cycling BMX Cycling Mountain Bike Cycling Road Cycling Track Diving Equestrian Fencing Football Gymnastics Artistic Gymnastics Rhythmic Trampoline Handball Hockey Judo Modern Pentathlon Rowing Sailing

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Shooting Softball Swimming Synchronized Swimming Table Tennis Taekwondo Tennis Triathlon Volleyball Water Polo Weightlifting Wrestling
THE SUMMER OLYMPIC GAMES

1896 - Athens, Greece 1900 - Paris, France 1904 - St. Louis, Missouri USA 1906 - Athens, Greece* 1908 - London, England 1912 - Stockholm, Sweden 1916 - Not held** 1920 - Antwerp, Belgium 1924 - Paris, France 1928 - Amsterdam, Holland 1932 - Los Angeles, California USA 1936 - Berlin, Germany 1940 - Not held*** 1944 - Not held*** 1948 - London, England 1952 - Helsinki, Finland 1956 - Melbourne, Australia 1960 - Rome, Italy 1964 - Tokyo, Japan 1968 - Mexico City, Mexico 1972 - Munich, Germany 1976 - Montreal, Canada 1980 - Moscow, Russia 1984 - Los Angeles, California USA 1988 - Seoul, South Korea 1992 - Barcelona, Spain 1996 - Atlanta, Georgia USA 2000 - Sydney, Australia 2004 - Athens, Greece 2008 - Beijing, China

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2012 - London, England *Games not recognized by the International Olympic Committee. **Games cancelled due to World War I. ***Games cancelled due to World War II.

THE WINTER OLYMPIC GAMES 1924 - Chamonix, France 1928 - St. Moritz, Switzerland 1932 - Lake Placid, New York USA 1936 - Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany 1940 - Not held* 1944 - Not held* 1948 - St. Moritz, Switzerland 1952 - Oslo, Norway 1956 - Cortina d'Ampezzo, Italy 1960 - Squaw Valley, California USA 1964 - Innsbruck, Austria 1968 - Grenoble, France 1972 - Sapporo, Japan 1976 - Innsbruck, Austria 1980 - Lake Placid, N.Y. 1984 - Sarajevo, Yugoslavia 1988 - Calgary, Alberta, Canada 1992 - Albertville, France 1994 - Lillehammer, Norway 1998 - Nagano, Japan 2002 - Salt Lake City, Utah USA 2006 - Turin, Italy 2010 - Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada *Games cancelled due to World War II.

Common Wealth Games
All Sports summary medal table ordered by gold ranking Rank by Gold Country Rank by Total

Gold

Silver

Bronze

Total

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1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 =9 =9 11 12 =13 =13 =15 =15 =17 =17 =17 =17 =17 =17 =23 =23 =23 =23 =23 =23 =23 =23 =23 =23 =23 =23 =23 =23 =23 =23 =23

Australia England Canada India South Africa Scotland Jamaica Malaysia New Zealand Kenya Singapore Nigeria Wales Cyprus Ghana Uganda Pakistan Papua New Guinea Isle of Man Namibia Tanzania Sri Lanka Mauritius Bahamas Northern Ireland Cameroon Botswana Malta Nauru Bangladesh Grenada Lesotho Trinidad and Tobago Seychelles Barbados Fiji Mozambique Samoa Swaziland

84 36 26 22 12 11 10 7 6 6 5 4 3 3 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

69 40 29 17 13 7 4 12 12 5 6 6 5 1 0 0 3 1 0 0 0 0 3 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

68 34 31 11 13 11 8 10 13 7 7 7 11 2 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 2 1 1 1 0 0 0 3 2 1 1 1 1 1

221 110 86 50 38 29 22 29 31 18 18 17 19 6 3 3 5 2 2 2 2 1 3 2 2 3 2 2 2 1 1 1 3 2 1 1 1 1 1

1 2 3 4 5 =7 9 =7 6 =11 =11 13 10 14 =16 =16 15 =21 =21 =21 =21 =31 =16 =21 =21 =16 =21 =21 =21 =31 =31 =31 =16 =21 =31 =31 =31 =31 =31

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Host City List
Year Numb City er 1911 1930 1934 1938 1950 1954 1958 1962 1966 1970 1974 1978 1982 1986 1990 1994 1998 2002 2006 2010 I II III IV V VI VII VIII IX X XI XII XIII XIV XV XVI XVII XVIII XIX London Hamilton London Sydney Auckland Vancouver Cardiff Perth Kingston Edinburgh Christchurch Edmonton Brisbane Edinburgh Auckland Victoria Kuala Lumpur Manchester Melbourne Delhi Country England Canada England Australia New Zealand Canada Wales Australia Jamaica Scotland New Zealand Canada Australia Scotland New Zealand Canada Malaysia England Australia India 16-23 Aug 4-11 Aug 5-12 Feb 4-11 Feb 30 July-7 Aug 18-26 July 21 Nov-1 Dec 4-13 Aug 16-25 July 24 Jan-2 Feb 3-12 Aug 30 Sept-9 Oct 24 July-2 Aug 24 Jan-3 Feb 18-28 Aug 10-20 Sept 25 July-4 Aug 15-26 March 3-14 Oct Date

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National Games of India
The National Games is a sporting event held in India. It comprises various disciplines in which sportsmen from the different states of India participate against each other. It was in 1924, in erstwhile Punjab, Lahore to be precise, that the Indian chapter of the Olympic movement was born. The founder was G.D. Sondhi, the first Secretary of the Punjab Olympic Association. Lt.Col H.L.O. Garrett, vice principal of Government College, Lahore, was the President of the founder body. The same year, the country's first Olympic Games, now christened as National Games, were organised in Lahore, the then capital of undivided Punjab.[1].[2] Background The Olympic movement in the country actually started in 1919 at the initiative of Dorabjee Jamshedji Tata, the well-known philanthropist. In 1919, Pune's Deccan Gymkhana invited Sir George Lloyd, the then Governor of Bombay, where Dorabjee Tata made a suggestion for according a separate representation to British India in the 1920 Olympic Games. In 1920, India got direct affiliation to the International Olympic Committee and it sent six sportsmen — P . .F Chugle and A. Dattar ( marathon and 10,000 m), K.Kaikadi (crosscountry), P .C.Banerjee (440 yards), G. Navale and N. Shinde (wrestling) to the Antwerp Olympic Games. This brought India on the horizon of international sports. Four years later Punjab joined the Olympic movement, started dominating it and organized the first Indian Olympics Games (now National Games)in Lahore, Punjab.[2] Indian Olympic Games(Early National Games) The Games were held every two years from 1924 as Indian Olympic Games and were renamed as National Games when they were first held in Lucknow in 1948 post Indian Independence.[2] Modern National Games

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The Indian Olympic Association, the premier sports organizing body of the nation, mooted the concept of the National Games. For several years it was conducted on a low key note. However, the Modern National Games on the lines of the Olympics were held in 1985 in New Delhi. Thereafter Kerala(1987), Pune(1994), Bangalore(1997),Manipur(1999), Ludhiana(2001), Hyderabad(2002) and Guwahati(2007) have hosted the Games. The 34th National Games have been scheduled from 01-14 June, 2009 in Jharkhand. Also the 35th National Games will be held across seven centres in Kerala from May 1 to 14, 2010.[3][4][5][6]

Periodicity of National Games The National Games are required to be held once in two years leaving those years in which the Olympic Games and Asian Games are scheduled to be held. Only in exceptional cases or natural calamity, the Indian Olympic Association (IOA) can allow relaxation from the general rule. The duration and the regulation of the National Games is entirely within the jurisdiction of IOA.[2] Datelines INDIAN OLYMPIC GAMES YEAR VENUE 1924 LAHORE 1926 LAHORE 1928 LAHORE 1930 ALLAHABAD 1932 MADRAS 1934 NEW DELHI 1936 LAHORE 1938 CALCUTTA 1940 BOMBAY 1942 PATIALA 1944 LAHORE

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1946 LAHORE NATIONAL GAMES 1948 LUCKNOW 1952 MADRAS 1953 JABALPUR 1954 DELHI 1956 PATIALA 1958 CUTTACK 1960 NEW DELHI 1962 JABALPUR 1964 CALCUTTA 1966 BANGALORE 1968 MADRAS 1970 CUTTACK 1979 HYDERABAD NEW FORMAT NATIONAL GAMES 1985 NEW DELHI 1987 KERALA 1994 PUNE/BOMBAY 1998 BANGALORE 1999 IMPHAL 2001 PUNJAB 2002 HYDERABAD 2007 GUWAHATI 2009 RANCHI (to be held in June,09) 2010 kerala(to be held in May,10)

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2011 GOA (to be held)

[2]

Tennis
Men's Grand Slam Title Winners
YEAR TOURNAMENT 2009 2008 2008 2008 2008 2007 2007 2007 2007 2006 2006 2006 2006 2005 2005 2005 2005 2004 2004 2004 2004 2003 2003 2003 2003 Australian Open U.S. Open Wimbledon French Open Australian Open U.S. Open Wimbledon French Open Australian Open U.S. Open Wimbledon French Open Australian Open U.S. Open Wimbledon French Open Australian Open U.S. Open Wimbledon French Open Australian Open U.S. Open Wimbledon French Open Australian Open WINNER Rafael Nadal Roger Federer Rafael Nadal Rafael Nadal Novak Djokovic Roger Federer Roger Federer Rafael Nadal Roger Federer Roger Federer Roger Federer Rafael Nadal Roger Federer Roger Federer Roger Federer Rafael Nadal Marat Safin Roger Federer Roger Federer Gaston Gaudio Roger Federer Andy Roddick Roger Federer Juan Carlos Ferrero Andre Agassi RUNNER-UP Roger Federer Andy Murray Roger Federer Roger Federer Jo-Wilfried Tsonga Novak Djokovic Rafael Nadal Roger Federer Fernando Gonzalez Andy Roddick Rafael Nadal Roger Federer Marcos Baghdatis Andre Agassi Andy Roddick Mariano Puerta Lleyton Hewitt Lleyton Hewitt Andy Roddick Guillermo Coria Marat Safin Juan Carlos Ferrero Mark Philippoussis Martin Verkerk Rainer Schuettler

Ravindra

183

2002 2002 2002 2002 2001 2001 2001 2001 2000 2000 2000 2000 1999 1999 1999 1999 1998 1998 1998 1998 1997 1997 1997 1997 1996 1996 1996 1996 1995 1995 1995 1995 1994 1994 1994

U.S. Open Wimbledon French Open Australian Open U.S. Open Wimbledon French Open Australian Open U.S. Open Wimbledon French Open Australian Open U.S. Open Wimbledon French Open Australian Open U.S. Open Wimbledon French Open Australian Open U.S. Open Wimbledon French Open Australian Open U.S. Open Wimbledon French Open Australian Open U.S. Open Wimbledon French Open Australian Open U.S. Open Wimbledon French Open

Pete Sampras Lleyton Hewitt Albert Costa Thomas Johannson Lleyton Hewitt Goran Ivanisevic Gustavo Kuerten Andre Agassi Marat Safin Pete Sampras Gustavo Kuerten Andre Agassi Andre Agassi Pete Sampras Andre Agassi Yevgeny Kafelnikov Patrick Rafter Pete Sampras Carlos Moya Petr Korda Patrick Rafter Pete Sampras Gustavo Kuerten Pete Sampras Pete Sampras Richard Krajicek Yevgeny Kafelnikov Boris Becker Pete Sampras Pete Sampras Thomas Muster Andre Agassi Andre Agassi Pete Sampras Sergi Bruguera

Andre Agassi David Nalbandian Juan Carlos Ferrero Marat Safin Pete Sampras Patrick Rafter Alex Corretja Arnaud Clement Pete Sampras Patrick Rafter Magnus Norman Yevgeny Kafelnikov Todd Martin Andre Agassi Andre Medvedev Thomas Enqvist Mark Philippoussis Goran Ivanisevic Alex Corretja Marcelo Rios Greg Rusedski Cedric Pioline Sergi Bruguera Carlos Moya Michael Chang MaliVai Washington Michael Stich Michael Chang Andre Agassi Boris Becker Michael Chang Pete Sampras Michael Stich Goran Ivanisevic Alberto Berasategui

Ravindra

184

1994 1993 1993 1993 1993 1992 1992 1992 1992 1991 1991 1991 1991 1990 1990 1990 1990 1989 1989 1989 1989 1988 1988 1988 1988 1987 1987 1987 1987 1986 1986 1986 1985 1985 1985

Australian Open U.S. Open Wimbledon French Open Australian Open U.S. Open Wimbledon French Open Australian Open U.S. Open Wimbledon French Open Australian Open U.S. Open Wimbledon French Open Australian Open U.S. Open Wimbledon French Open Australian Open U.S. Open Wimbledon French Open Australian Open U.S. Open Wimbledon French Open Australian Open U.S. Open Wimbledon French Open Australian Open U.S. Open Wimbledon

Pete Sampras Pete Sampras Pete Sampras Sergi Bruguera Jim Courier Stefan Edberg Andre Agassi Jim Courier Jim Courier Stefan Edberg Michael Stich Jim Courier Boris Becker Pete Sampras Stefan Edberg Andres Gomez Ivan Lendl Boris Becker Boris Becker Michael Chang Ivan Lendl Mats Wilander Stefan Edberg Mats Wilander Mats Wilander Ivan Lendl Pat Cash Ivan Lendl Stefan Edberg Ivan Lendl Boris Becker Ivan Lendl Stefan Edberg Ivan Lendl Boris Becker

Todd Martin Cedric Pioline Jim Courier Jim Courier Stefan Edberg Pete Sampras Goran Ivanisevic Petr Korda Stefan Edberg Jim Courier Boris Becker Andre Agassi Ivan Lendl Andre Agassi Boris Becker Andre Agassi Stefan Edberg Ivan Lendl Stefan Edberg Stefan Edberg Miloslav Mecir Ivan Lendl Boris Becker Henri Leconte Pat Cash Mats Wilander Ivan Lendl Mats Wilander Pat Cash Miloslav Mecir Ivan Lendl Mikael Pernfors Mats Wilander John McEnroe Kevin Curren

Ravindra

185

1985 1984 1984 1984 1984 1983 1983 1983 1983 1982 1982 1982 1982 1981 1981 1981 1981 1980 1980 1980 1980 1979 1979 1979 1979 1978 1978 1978 1978 1977 1977 1977 1977 1977 1976

French Open Australian Open U.S. Open Wimbledon French Open Australian Open U.S. Open Wimbledon French Open Australian Open U.S. Open Wimbledon French Open Australian Open U.S. Open Wimbledon French Open Australian Open U.S. Open Wimbledon French Open Australian Open U.S. Open Wimbledon French Open Australian Open U.S. Open Wimbledon French Open U.S. Open Wimbledon French Open U.S. Open

Mats Wilander Mats Wilander John McEnroe John McEnroe Ivan Lendl Mats Wilander Jimmy Connors John McEnroe Yannick Noah Johan Kriek Jimmy Connors Jimmy Connors Mats Wilander Johan Kriek John McEnroe John McEnroe Bjorn Borg Brian Teacher John McEnroe Bjorn Borg Bjorn Borg Guillermo Vilas John McEnroe Bjorn Borg Bjorn Borg Guillermo Vilas Jimmy Connors Bjorn Borg Bjorn Borg Guillermo Vilas Bjorn Borg Guillermo Vilas Jimmy Connors

Ivan Lendl Kevin Curren Ivan Lendl Jimmy Connors John McEnroe Ivan Lendl Ivan Lendl Chris Lewis Mats Wilander Steve Denton Ivan Lendl John McEnroe Guillermo Vilas Steve Denton Bjorn Borg Bjorn Borg Ivan Lendl Kim Warwick Bjorn Borg John McEnroe Vitas Gerulaitis John Sadri Vitas Gerulaitis Roscoe Tanner Victor Pecci John Marks Bjorn Borg Jimmy Connors Guillermo Vilas John Lloyd Jimmy Connors Jimmy Connors Brian Gottfried Guillermo Vilas Bjorn Borg

Australian Open (Dec) Vitas Gerulaitis

Australian Open (Jan) Roscoe Tanner

Ravindra

186

1976 1976 1976 1975 1975 1975 1975 1974 1974 1974 1974 1973 1973 1973 1973 1972 1972 1972 1972 1971 1971 1971 1971 1970 1970 1970 1970 1969 1969 1969 1969 1968 1968 1968 1968

Wimbledon French Open Australian Open U.S. Open Wimbledon French Open Australian Open U.S. Open Wimbledon French Open Australian Open U.S. Open Wimbledon French Open Australian Open U.S. Open Wimbledon French Open Australian Open U.S. Open Wimbledon French Open Australian Open U.S. Open Wimbledon French Open Australian Open U.S. Open Wimbledon French Open Australian Open U.S. Open Wimbledon French Open Australian Open

Bjorn Borg Adriano Panatta Mark Edmondson Manuel Orantes Arthur Ashe Bjorn Borg John Newcombe Jimmy Connors Jimmy Connors Bjorn Borg Jimmy Connors John Newcombe Jan Kodes Ilie Nastase John Newcombe Ilie Nastase Stan Smith Andres Gimeno Ken Rosewall Stan Smith John Newcombe Jan Kodes Ken Rosewall Ken Rosewall John Newcombe Jan Kodes Arthur Ashe Rod Laver Rod Laver Rod Laver Rod Laver Arthur Ashe Rod Laver Ken Rosewall Bill Bowrey

Ilie Nastase Harold Soloman John Newcombe Jimmy Connors Jimmy Connors Guillermo Vilas Jimmy Connors Ken Rosewall Ken Rosewall Manuel Orantes Phil Dent Jan Kodes Alex Metreveli Nikola Pilic Onny Parun Arthur Ashe Ilie Nastase Patrick Proisy Mal Anderson Jan Kodes Stan Smith Ilie Nastase Arthur Ashe Tony Roche Ken Rosewall Zeljiko Franulovic Dick Crealy Tony Roche John Newcombe Ken Rosewall Andres Gimeno Tom Okker Tony Roche Rod Laver Juan Gisbert

Ravindra

187

1967 1967 1967 1967 1966 1966 1966 1966 1965 1965 1965 1965 1964 1964 1964 1964 1963 1963 1963 1963 1962 1962 1962 1962 1961 1961 1961 1961 1960 1960 1960 1960 1959 1959 1959

U.S. Open Wimbledon French Open Australian Open U.S. Open Wimbledon French Open Australian Open U.S. Open Wimbledon French Open Australian Open U.S. Open Wimbledon French Open Australian Open U.S. Open Wimbledon French Open Australian Open U.S. Open Wimbledon French Open Australian Open U.S. Open Wimbledon French Open Australian Open U.S. Open Wimbledon French Open Australian Open U.S. Open Wimbledon French Open

John Newcombe John Newcombe Roy Emerson Roy Emerson Fred Stolle Manuel Santana Tony Roche Roy Emerson Manuel Santana Roy Emerson Fred Stolle Roy Emerson Roy Emerson Roy Emerson Manuel Santana Roy Emerson Rafael Osuna C.R. McKinley Roy Emerson Roy Emerson Rod Laver Rod Laver Rod Laver Rod Laver Roy Emerson Rod Laver Manuel Santana Roy Emerson Neale Fraser Neale Fraser Nicola Pietrangeli Rod Laver Neale Fraser Alejandro Olmedo Nicola Pietrangeli

Clark Graebner Wilhelm Bungert Tony Roche Arthur Ashe John Newcombe Dennis Ralston Istvan Gulyas Arthur Ashe Cliff Drysdale Fred Stolle Tony Roche Fred Stolle Fred Stolle Fred Stolle Nicola Pietrangeli Fred Stolle Frank Froehling, III Fred Stolle Pierre Darmon Ken Fletcher Roy Emerson Martin Mulligan Roy Emerson Roy Emerson Rod Laver Chuck McKinley Nicola Pietrangeli Rod Laver Rod Laver Rod Laver Luis Ayala Neale Fraser Alejandro Olmedo Rod Laver Ian Vermaak

Ravindra

188

1959 1958 1958 1958 1958 1957 1957 1957 1957 1956 1956 1956 1956 1955 1955 1955 1955 1954 1954 1954 1954 1953 1953 1953 1953 1952 1952 1952 1952 1951 1951 1951 1951 1950 1950

Australian Open U.S. Open Wimbledon French Open Australian Open U.S. Open Wimbledon French Open Australian Open U.S. Open Wimbledon French Open Australian Open U.S. Open Wimbledon French Open Australian Open U.S. Open Wimbledon French Open Australian Open U.S. Open Wimbledon French Open Australian Open U.S. Open Wimbledon French Open Australian Open U.S. Open Wimbledon French Open Australian Open U.S. Open Wimbledon

Alex Olmedo Ashley J. Cooper Ashley J. Cooper Mervyn Rose Ashley J. Cooper Malcolm J. Anderson Lewis Hoad Sven Davidson Ashley J. Cooper Ken Rosewall Lewis Hoad Lewis Hoad Lewis Hoad Tony Trabert Tony Trabert Tony Trabert Ken Rosewall E. Victor Seixas Jr. Jaroslav Drobny Tony Trabert Mervyn Rose Tony Trabert E. Victor Seixas Jr. Ken Rosewall Ken Rosewall Frank Sedgman Frank Sedgman Jaroslav Drobny Ken McGregor Frank Sedgman R. Savitt Jaroslav Drobny Dick Savitt Arthur Larsen J.E. Patty

Neale Fraser Malcolm J. Anderson Neale Fraser Luis Ayala Mal Anderson Ashley J. Cooper Ashley Cooper Herbert Flam Neale Fraser Lewis Hoad Ken Rosewall Sven Davidson Ken Rosewall Ken Rosewall Kurt Nielsen Sven Davidson Lew Hoad Rex Hartwig Ken Rosewall Sven Davidson Rex Hartwig E. Victor Seixas, Jr. Kurt Nielsen E. Victor Seixas, Jr. Mervyn Rose Gardnar Mulloy Jaroslav Drobny Frank Sedgman Frank Sedgman E. Victor Seixas, Jr. Ken McGregor Eric Sturgess Ken McGregor Herbert Flam Frank Sedgman

Ravindra

189

1950 1950 1949 1949 1949 1949 1948 1948 1948 1948 1947 1947 1947 1947 1946 1946 1946 1946 1945 1944 1943 1942 1941 1940 1940 1939 1939 1939 1939 1938 1938 1938 1938 1937 1937

French Open Australian Open U.S. Open Wimbledon French Open Australian Open U.S. Open Wimbledon French Open Australian Open U.S. Open Wimbledon French Open Australian Open U.S. Open Wimbledon French Open Australian Open U.S. Open U.S. Open U.S. Open U.S. Open U.S. Open U.S. Open Australian Open U.S. Open Wimbledon French Open Australian Open U.S. Open Wimbledon French Open Australian Open U.S. Open Wimbledon

Budge Patty Frank Sedgman Richard A. Gonzales F.R. Schroeder Frank Parker Frank Sedgman Richard A. Gonzales R. Falkenburg Frank Parker Adrian Quist Jack Kramer Jack Kramer Jozsef Asboth Dinny Pails Jack Kramer Yvon Petra Marcel Bernard John Bromwich Frank Parker Frank Parker Lt. Joseph R. Hunt Robert Riggs Donald McNeill Adrian Quist Robert Riggs Robert Riggs William McNeill John Bromwich Donald Budge Donald Budge Donald Budge Donald Budge Donald Budge Donald Budge

Jaroslav Drobny Ken McGregor Frederick Schroeder Jaroslav Drobny Budge Patty John Bromwich Eric W. Sturgess John Bromwich Jaroslav Drobny John Bromwich Frank Parker Tom P. Brown Eric Sturgess John Bromwich Tom Brown, Jr. Geoff E. Brown Jaroslav Drobny Dinny Pails William F. Talbert William F. Talbert Seaman Jack Kramer Francis Kovacs, 2d Robert Riggs Jack Crawford S. Welby van Horn Elwood Cooke Robert Riggs Adrian Quist C. Gene Mako Henry Austin Roderik Menzel John Bromwich Gottfried Von Cramm Gottfried Von Cramm

Frederick R. Schroeder, Jr. Frank Parker

Ravindra

190

1937 1937 1936 1936 1936 1936 1935 1935 1935 1935 1934 1934 1934 1934 1933 1933 1933 1933 1932 1932 1932 1932 1931 1931 1931 1931 1930 1930 1930 1930 1929 1929 1929 1929 1928

French Open Australian Open U.S. Open Wimbledon French Open Australian Open U.S. Open Wimbledon French Open Australian Open U.S. Open Wimbledon French Open Australian Open U.S. Open Wimbledon French Open Australian Open U.S. Open Wimbledon French Open Australian Open U.S. Open Wimbledon French Open Australian Open U.S. Open Wimbledon French Open Australian Open U.S. Open Wimbledon French Open Australian Open U.S. Open

Henner Henkel Vivian McGrath Fred Perry Fred Perry Gottfried Von Cramm Adrian Quist Wilmer L. Allison Fred Perry Fred Perry Jack Crawford Fred Perry Fred Perry Gottfried Von Cramm Fred Perry Fred Perry Jack Crawford John Crawford Jack Crawford H. Ellsworth Vines H. Ellsworth Vines Henri Cochet Jack Crawford H. Ellsworth Vines S.B. Wood Jean Borotra Jack Crawford John H. Doeg William T. Tilden Henri Cochet Gar Moon William T. Tilden Henri Cochet Rene Lacoste John Gregory Henri Cochet

Henry Austin John Bromwich J. Donald Budge Gottfried Von Cramm Fred Perry Jack Crawford Sidney B. Wood Gottfried Von Cramm Gottfried von Cramm Fred Perry Wilmer L. Allison Jack Crawford Jack Crawford Jack Crawford John H. Crawford Ellsworth Vines Henri Cochet Keith Gledhill Henri Cochet Henry Austin Giorgo de Stefani Harry Hopman George M. Lott, Jr. Francis X. Shields Christian Boussus Harry Hopman Francis X. Shields Wilmer Allison William Tilden Harry Hopman Francis T. Hunter Jean Borotra Jean Borotra Richard Schlesinger Francis T. Hunter

Ravindra

191

1928 1928 1928 1927 1927 1927 1927 1926 1926 1926 1926 1925 1925 1925 1925 1924 1924 1924 1924 1923 1923 1923 1923 1922 1922 1922 1922 1921 1921 1921 1921 1920 1920 1920 1920

Wimbledon French Open Australian Open U.S. Open Wimbledon French Open Australian Open U.S. Open Wimbledon French Open Australian Open U.S. Open Wimbledon French Open Australian Open U.S. Open Wimbledon French Open Australian Open U.S. Open Wimbledon French Open Australian Open U.S. Open Wimbledon French Open Australian Open U.S. Open Wimbledon French Open Australian Open U.S. Open Wimbledon French Open Australian Open

Rene Lacoste Henri Cochet Jean Borotra Rene Lacoste Henri Cochet Rene Lacoste Gerald Patterson Rene Lacoste Jean Borotra Henri Cochet John Hawkes William T. Tilden Rene Lacoste Rene Lacoste James Anderson William T. Tilden Jean Borotra Jean Borotra James Anderson William T. Tilden William M. Johnston Francois Blanchy Pat O'Hara Wood William T. Tilden Gerald Patterson Henri Cochet Pat O'Hara Wood William T. Tilden William T. Tilden Jean Samazeuilh Rhys Gemmell William T. Tilden William T. Tilden Andre Gobert Pat O'Hara Wood

Henri Cochet René Lacoste R.Cummings William T. Tilden Jean Borotra William Tilden John Hawkes Jean Borotra Howard Kinsey René Lacoste Jim Willard William M. Johnston Jean Borotra Jean Borotra Gerald Patterson William M. Johnston Rene Lacoste René Lacoste Richard Schlesinger William M. Johnston Francis T. Hunter Max Decugis C.St.John William M. Johnston Randolph Lycett Jean Samazeuilh Gerald Patterson William M. Johnston Brian Norton André Gobert A. Hedeman William M. Johnston Gerald Patterson Max Decugis Ron Thomas

Ravindra

192

1919 1919 1919 1918 1917 1916 1915 1915 1914 1914 1914 1914 1913 1913 1913 1913 1912 1912 1912 1912 1911 1911 1911 1911 1910 1910 1910 1910 1909 1909 1909 1909 1908 1908 1908

U.S. Open Wimbledon Australian Open U.S. Open U.S. Open U.S. Open U.S. Open Australian Open U.S. Open Wimbledon French Open Australian Open U.S. Open Wimbledon French Open Australian Open U.S. Open Wimbledon French Open Australian Open U.S. Open Wimbledon French Open Australian Open U.S. Open Wimbledon French Open Australian Open U.S. Open Wimbledon French Open Australian Open U.S. Open Wimbledon French Open

William M. Johnston Gerald Patterson A.R.F. Kingscote R. Lindley Murray R. Lindley Murray Richard N. Williams William M. Johnston Francis Lowe Richard N. Williams Norman Brookes Max Decugis Pat O'Hara Wood Maurice E. McLoughlin Anthony Wilding Max Decugis E.F. Parker Maurice E. McLoughlin Anthony Wilding Max Decugis Cecil Parke William A. Larned Anthony Wilding Andre Gobert Norman Brookes William A. Larned Anthony Wilding Maurice Germot Rodney Heath William A. Larned Arthur Gore Max Decugis Tony Wilding William A. Larned Arthur Gore Max Decugis

William T. Tilden Norman Brookes E. Pockley William T. Tilden Nathaniel W. Niles William M. Johnston Maurice E. McLoughlin Horace Rice Maurice E. McLoughlin Anthony Wilding Jean Samazeuilh Gerald Patterson Richard N. Williams Maurice McLoughlin Georges Gault Harry Parker Wallace F. Johnson Arthur Gore André Gobert A. Beamish Maurice E. McLoughlin H. Roper Barrett Maurice Germot Horace Rice Thomas C. Bundy Arthur Gore François Blanchy Horace Rice William J. Clothier M.J.G. Ritchie Maurice Germot Ernie Parker Beals C. Wright Roper Barrett Maurice Germot

Ravindra

193

1908 1907 1907 1907 1907 1906 1906 1906 1906 1905 1905 1905 1905 1904 1904 1904 1903 1903 1903 1902 1902 1902 1901 1901 1901 1900 1900 1900 1899 1899 1899 1898 1898 1898 1897

Australian Open U.S. Open Wimbledon French Open Australian Open U.S. Open Wimbledon French Open Australian Open U.S. Open Wimbledon French Open Australian Open U.S. Open Wimbledon French Open U.S. Open Wimbledon French Open U.S. Open Wimbledon French Open U.S. Open Wimbledon French Open U.S. Open Wimbledon French Open U.S. Open Wimbledon French Open U.S. Open Wimbledon French Open U.S. Open

Fred Alexander William A. Larned Norman Brookes Max Decugis Horace Rice William A. Larned Laurie Doherty Maurice Germot Tony Wilding Beals C. Wright Laurie Doherty Maurice Germot Rodney Heath Holcombe Ward Laurie Doherty Max Decugis Hugh L. Doherty Laurie Doherty Max Decugis William A. Larned Laurie Doherty M. Vacherot William A. Larned Arthur Gore Andre Vacherot Malcolm D. Whitman Reggie Doherty Paul Ayme Malcolm D. Whitman Reggie Doherty Paul Ayme Malcolm D. Whitman Reggie Doherty Paul Ayme Robert D. Wrenn

Alfred Dunlop Robert LeRoy Arthur Gore Robert Wallet Harry Parker Beals C. Wright Frank Riseley Max Decugis Harry Parker Holcombe Ward Norman Brookes André Vacherot A. Curtis William J. Clothier Frank Riseley André Vacherot William A. Larned Frank Riseley André Vacherot Reginald F. Doherty Arthur Gore Max Decugis Beals C. Wright Reggie Doherty P. Lebreton William A. Larned Sidney Smith A. Prévost J. Parmly Paret Arthur Gore P. Lebreton Dwight F. Davis Laurie Doherty P. Lebreton Wilberforce Eaves

Ravindra

194

1897 1897 1896 1896 1896 1895 1895 1895 1894 1894 1894 1893 1893 1893 1892 1892 1892 1891 1891 1891 1890 1890 1889 1889 1888 1888 1887 1887 1886 1886 1885 1885 1884 1884 1883

Wimbledon French Open U.S. Open Wimbledon French Open U.S. Open Wimbledon French Open U.S. Open Wimbledon French Open U.S. Open Wimbledon French Open U.S. Open Wimbledon French Open U.S. Open Wimbledon French Open U.S. Open Wimbledon U.S. Open Wimbledon U.S. Open Wimbledon U.S. Open Wimbledon U.S. Open Wimbledon U.S. Open Wimbledon U.S. Open Wimbledon U.S. Open

Reggie Doherty Paul Ayme Robert D. Wrenn Harold Mahoney Andre Vacherot Fred H. Hovey Wilfred Baddeley Andre Vacherot Robert D. Wrenn Joshua Pim Andre Vacherot Robert D. Wrenn Joshua Pim L. Riboulet Oliver S. Campbell Wilfred Baddeley J. Schopfer Oliver S. Campbell Wilfred Baddeley H. Briggs Oliver S. Campbell William Hamilton Henry W. Slocum Jr. William Renshaw Henry W. Slocum Jr. Ernest Renshaw Richard D. Sears Herbert Lawford Richard D. Sears William Renshaw Richard D. Sears William Renshaw Richard D. Sears William Renshaw Richard D. Sears

Harold Mahoney F. Wardan Fred H. Hovey Wilfred Baddeley G. Brosselin Robert D. Wrenn Wilberforce Eaves L. Riboulet Manliff Goodbody Wilfred Baddeley G. Brosselin Fred H. Hovey Wilfred Baddeley J. Schopfer Fred H. Hovey Joshua Pim Fassitt Clarence Hobart Joshua Pim P. Baigneres Henry W. Slocum, Jr. William Renshaw Quincy Shaw Ernest Renshaw Howard A. Taylor Herbert Lawford Henry W. Slocum, Jr. Ernest Renshaw R. Livingston Beeckman Herbert Lawford Godfrey M. Brinley Herbert Lawford Howard A. Taylor Herbert Lawford James Dwight

Ravindra

195

1883 1882 1882 1881 1881 1880 1879 1878 1877

Wimbledon U.S. Open Wimbledon U.S. Open Wimbledon Wimbledon Wimbledon Wimbledon Wimbledon

William Renshaw Richard D. Sears William Renshaw Richard D. Sears William Renshaw John Hartley John Hartley Frank Hadow Spencer Gore

Ernest Renshaw Clarence M. Clark Ernest Renshaw William E. Glyn John Hartley Herbert Lawford V. St. Leger Gould Spencer Gore William Marshall

Women's Grand Slam Title Winners
YEAR TOURNAMENT 2009 2008 2008 2008 2008 2007 2007 2007 2007 2006 2006 2006 2006 2005 2005 2005 2005 2004 2004 Australian Open U.S. Open Wimbledon French Open Australian Open U.S. Open Wimbledon French Open Australian Open U.S. Open Wimbledon French Open Australian Open U.S. Open Wimbledon French Open Australian Open U.S. Open Wimbledon WINNER Serena Williams Serena Williams Venus Williams Ana Ivanovic Maria Sharapova Justine Henin Venus Williams Justine Henin Serena Williams Maria Sharapova Amelie Mauresmo Justine Henin-Hardenne Amelie Mauresmo Kim Clijsters Venus Williams Justine Henin-Hardenne Serena Williams Svetlana Kuznetsova Maria Sharapova RUNNER-UP Dinara Safina Jelena Jankovic Serena Williams Dinara Safina Ana Ivanovic Svetlana Kuznetsova Marion Bartoli Ana Ivanovic Maria Sharapova Justine Henin-Hardenne Justine Henin-Hardenne Svetlana Kuznetsova Justine Henin-Hardenne Mary Pierce Lindsay Davenport Mary Pierce Lindsay Davenport Elena Dementieva Serena Williams

Ravindra

196

2004 2004 2003 2003 2003 2003 2002 2002 2002 2002 2001 2001 2001 2001 2000 2000 2000 2000 1999 1999 1999 1999 1998 1998 1998 1998 1997 1997 1997 1997 1996 1996 1996 1996 1995

French Open Australian Open U.S. Open Wimbledon French Open Australian Open U.S. Open Wimbledon French Open Australian Open U.S. Open Wimbledon French Open Australian Open U.S. Open Wimbledon French Open Australian Open U.S. Open Wimbledon French Open Australian Open U.S. Open Wimbledon French Open Australian Open U.S. Open Wimbledon French Open Australian Open U.S. Open Wimbledon French Open Australian Open U.S. Open

Anastasia Myskina Justine Henin-Hardenne Justine Henin-Hardenne Serena Williams Justine Henin-Hardenne Serena Williams Serena Williams Serena Williams Serena Williams Jennifer Capriati Venus Williams Venus Williams Jennifer Capriati Jennifer Capriati Venus Williams Venus Williams Mary Pierce Lindsay Davenport Serena Williams Lindsay Davenport Steffi Graf Martina Hingis Lindsay Davenport Jana Novotna Aranxta Sanchez-Vicario Martina Hingis Martina Hingis Martina Hingis Iva Majoli Martina Hingis Steffi Graf Steffi Graf Steffi Graf Monica Seles Steffi Graf

Elena Dementieva Kim Clijsters Kim Clijsters Venus Williams Kim Clijsters Venus Williams Venus Williams Venus Williams Venus Williams Martina Hingis Serena Williams Justine Henin Kim Clijsters Martina Hingis Lindsay Davenport Lindsay Davenport Conchita Martinez Martina Hingis Martina Hingis Steffi Graf Martina Hingis Amelie Mauresmo Martina Hingis Nathalie Tauziat Monica Seles Conchita Martinez Venus Williams Jana Novotna Martina Hingis Mary Pierce Monica Seles Arantxa Sanchez-Vicario Arantxa Sanchez-Vicario Anke Huber Monica Seles

Ravindra

197

1995 1995 1995 1994 1994 1994 1994 1993 1993 1993 1993 1992 1992 1992 1992 1991 1991 1991 1991 1990 1990 1990 1990 1989 1989 1989 1989 1988 1988 1988 1988 1987 1987 1987 1987

Wimbledon French Open Australian Open U.S. Open Wimbledon French Open Australian Open U.S. Open Wimbledon French Open Australian Open U.S. Open Wimbledon French Open Australian Open U.S. Open Wimbledon French Open Australian Open U.S. Open Wimbledon French Open Australian Open U.S. Open Wimbledon French Open Australian Open U.S. Open Wimbledon French Open Australian Open U.S. Open Wimbledon French Open Australian Open

Steffi Graf Steffi Graf Mary Pierce Aranxta Sanchez-Vicario Conchita Martinez Aranxta Sanchez-Vicario Steffi Graf Steffi Graf Steffi Graf Steffi Graf Monica Seles Monica Seles Steffi Graf Monica Seles Monica Seles Monica Seles Steffi Graf Monica Seles Monica Seles Gabriela Sabatini Martina Navratilova Monica Seles Steffi Graf Steffi Graf Steffi Graf Aranxta Sanchez-Vicario Steffi Graf Steffi Graf Steffi Graf Steffi Graf Steffi Graf Martina Navratilova Martina Navratilova Steffi Graf Hana Mandlikova

Arantxa Sanchez-Vicario Arantxa Sanchez-Vicario Arantxa Sanchez-Vicario Steffi Graf Martina Navratilova Mary Pierce Arantxa Sanchez-Vicario Helena Sukova Jana Novotna Mary Jo Fernandez Steffi Graf Arantxa Sanchez-Vicario Monica Seles Steffi Graf Mary Joe Fernandez Martina Navratilova Gabriela Sabatini Arantxa Sanchez-Vicario Jana Novotna Steffi Graf Zena Garrison Steffi Graf Mary Joe Fernandez Martina Navratilova Martina Navratilova Steffi Graf Helena Sukova Gabriela Sabatini Martina Navratilova Natasha Zvereva Chris Evert Steffi Graf Steffi Graf Martina Navratilova Martina Navratilova

Ravindra

198

1986 1986 1986 1985 1985 1985 1985 1984 1984 1984 1984 1983 1983 1983 1983 1982 1982 1982 1982 1981 1981 1981 1981 1980 1980 1980 1980 1979 1979 1979 1979 1978 1978 1978 1978

U.S. Open Wimbledon French Open Australian Open U.S. Open Wimbledon French Open Australian Open U.S. Open Wimbledon French Open Australian Open U.S. Open Wimbledon French Open Australian Open U.S. Open Wimbledon French Open Australian Open U.S. Open Wimbledon French Open Australian Open U.S. Open Wimbledon French Open Australian Open U.S. Open Wimbledon French Open Australian Open U.S. Open Wimbledon French Open

Martina Navratilova Martina Navratilova Chris Evert-Lloyd Martina Navratilova Hana Mandlikova Martina Navratilova Chris Evert-Lloyd Chris Evert-Lloyd Martina Navratilova Martina Navratilova Martina Navratilova Martina Navratilova Martina Navratilova Martina Navratilova Chris Evert-Lloyd Chris Evert-Lloyd Chris Evert-Lloyd Martina Navratilova Martina Navratilova Martina Navratilova Tracy Austin Chris Evert-Lloyd Hana Mandlikova Hana Mandlikova Chris Evert-Lloyd R.A. Cawley Chris Evert-Lloyd Barbara Jordan Tracy Austin Martina Navratilova Chris Evert-Lloyd Chris O'Neil Chris Evert Martina Navratilova Virginia Ruzici

Helena Sukova Hana Mandlikova Martina Navratilova Chris Evert Martina Navratilova Chris Evert-Lloyd Martina Navratilova Helena Sukova Chris Evert-Lloyd Chris Evert-Lloyd Chris Evert-Lloyd Kathy Jordan Chris Evert-Lloyd Andrea Jaeger Mima Jausovec Martina Navratilova Hana Mandlikova Chris Evert-Lloyd Andrea Jaeger Chris Evert Martina Navratilova Hana Mandlikova Sylvia Hanika Wendy Turnbull Hana Mandlikova Chris Evert-Lloyd Sylvia Hanika Sharon Walsh Chris Evert-Lloyd Chris Evert-Lloyd Wendy Turnbull Betsy Nagelsen Pam Shriver Chris Evert Mima Jausovec

Ravindra

199

1977 1977 1977 1977 1977 1976 1976 1976 1976 1975 1975 1975 1975 1974 1974 1974 1974 1973 1973 1973 1973 1972 1972 1972 1972 1971 1971 1971 1971 1970 1970 1970 1970 1969 1969

Australian Open (Dec) Evonne Goolagong-Cawley Helen Gourlay U.S. Open Wimbledon French Open U.S. Open Wimbledon French Open Australian Open U.S. Open Wimbledon French Open Australian Open U.S. Open Wimbledon French Open Australian Open U.S. Open Wimbledon French Open Australian Open U.S. Open Wimbledon French Open Australian Open U.S. Open Wimbledon French Open Australian Open U.S. Open Wimbledon French Open Australian Open U.S. Open Wimbledon Chris Evert Virginia Wade Mima Jausovec Chris Evert Chris Evert Sue Barker Chris Evert Billie Jean King Chris Evert Evonne Goolagong Billie Jean King Chris Evert Chris Evert Evonne Goolagong Margaret Smith-Court Billie Jean King Margaret Smith-Court Margaret Smith-Court Billie Jean King Billie Jean King Billie Jean King Virginia Wade Billie Jean King Evonne Goolagong Margaret Smith-Court Margaret Smith-Court Margaret Smith-Court Margaret Smith-Court Margaret Smith-Court Margaret Smith-Court Margaret Smith-Court Ann Haydon Jones Wendy Turnbull Betty Stove Florenta Mihai Dianne Fromholtz Evonne Goolagong-Cawley Evonne Goolagong-Cawley Renata Tomanova Evonne Goolagong-Cawley Evonne Goolagong-Cawley Martina Navratilova Martina Navratilova Evonne Goolagong Olga Morozova Olga Morozova Chris Evert Evonne Goolagong Chris Evert Chris Evert Evonne Goolagong Kerry Melville Evonne Goolagong Evonne Goolagong Evonne Goolagong Rosemary Casals Margaret Court Helen Gourlay Evonne Goolagong Rosemary Casals Billie Jean King Helga Niessen Kerry Melville Nancy Richey Billie Jean King

Australian Open (Jan) Kerry Reid

Evonne Goolagong-Cawley Renata Tomanova

Ravindra

200

1969 1969 1968 1968 1968 1968 1967 1967 1967 1967 1966 1966 1966 1966 1965 1965 1965 1965 1964 1964 1964 1964 1963 1963 1963 1963 1962 1962 1962 1962 1961 1961 1961 1961 1960

French Open Australian Open U.S. Open Wimbledon French Open Australian Open U.S. Open Wimbledon French Open Australian Open U.S. Open Wimbledon French Open Australian Open U.S. Open Wimbledon French Open Australian Open U.S. Open Wimbledon French Open Australian Open U.S. Open Wimbledon French Open Australian Open U.S. Open Wimbledon French Open Australian Open U.S. Open Wimbledon French Open Australian Open U.S. Open

Margaret Smith-Court Margaret Smith-Court Virginia Wade Billie Jean King Nancy Richey Billie Jean King Billie Jean King Billie Jean King Francoise Durr Nancy Richey Maria Bueno Billie Jean King Ann Haydon Jones Margaret Smith Margaret Smith Margaret Smith Lesley Turner Margaret Smith Maria Bueno Maria Bueno Margaret Smith Margaret Smith Maria Bueno Margaret Smith Lesley Turner Margaret Smith Margaret Smith Karen Susman Margaret Smith Margaret Smith Darlene R. Hard Angela Mortimer Ann Haydon Margaret Smith Darlene R. Hard

Ann Jones Billie Jean King Billie Jean King Judy Tegart Ann Jones Margaret Smith-Court Ann Haydon Jones Ann Jones Lesley Turner Lesley Turner Nancy Richey Maria Bueno Nancy Richey Nancy Richey Billie Jean Moffitt Maria Bueno Margaret Smith Maria Bueno Carole Caldwell Graebner Margaret Smith Maria Bueno Lesley Turner Margaret Smith Billie Jean Moffitt Ann Jones Jan Lehane Darlene R. Hard Vera Sukova Lesley Turner Jan Lehane Ann Haydon Christine Truman Yola Ramirez Jan Lehane Maria Bueno

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1960 1960 1960 1959 1959 1959 1959 1958 1958 1958 1958 1957 1957 1957 1957 1956 1956 1956 1956 1955 1955 1955 1955 1954 1954 1954 1954 1953 1953 1953 1953 1952 1952 1952 1952

Wimbledon French Open Australian Open U.S. Open Wimbledon French Open Australian Open U.S. Open Wimbledon French Open Australian Open U.S. Open Wimbledon French Open Australian Open U.S. Open Wimbledon French Open Australian Open U.S. Open Wimbledon French Open Australian Open U.S. Open Wimbledon French Open Australian Open U.S. Open Wimbledon French Open Australian Open U.S. Open Wimbledon French Open Australian Open

Maria Bueno Darlene R. Hard Margaret Smith Maria Bueno Maria Bueno Christine Truman Mary Carter Reitano Althea Gibson Althea Gibson Zsuzsi Kormoczy Angela Mortimer Althea Gibson Althea Gibson Shirley Bloomer Shirley Fry Shirley Fry Shirley Fry Althea Gibson Mary Carter Doris Hart Louise Brough Angela Mortimer Beryl Penrose Doris Hart Maureen Connolly Maureen Connolly Thelma Long Maureen Connolly Maureen Connolly Maureen Connolly Maureen Connolly Maureen Connolly Maureen Connolly Doris Hart Thelma Long

Sandra Reynolds Yola Ramirez Jan Lehane Christine Truman Darlene Hard Zsuzsi Kormoczy Renee Schuurman Darlene R. Hard Angela Mortimer Shirley Bloomer Lorraine Coghlan A. Louise Brough Darlene Hard Dorothy Head Knode Althea Gibson Althea Gibson Angela Buxton Angela Mortimer Thelma Long Patricia Ward Beverly Fleitz Dorothy Head Knode Thelma Long A. Louise Brough Louise Brough Ginette Bucaille Jennifer Staley Doris Hart Doris Hart Doris Hart Julia Sampson Doris Hart Louise Brough Shirley Fry H. Angwin

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1951 1951 1951 1951 1950 1950 1950 1950 1949 1949 1949 1949 1948 1948 1948 1948 1947 1947 1947 1947 1946 1946 1946 1946 1945 1944 1943 1942 1941 1940 1940 1939 1939 1939 1939

U.S. Open Wimbledon French Open Australian Open U.S. Open Wimbledon French Open Australian Open U.S. Open Wimbledon French Open Australian Open U.S. Open Wimbledon French Open Australian Open U.S. Open Wimbledon French Open Australian Open U.S. Open Wimbledon French Open Australian Open U.S. Open U.S. Open U.S. Open U.S. Open U.S. Open U.S. Open Australian Open U.S. Open Wimbledon French Open Australian Open

Maureen Connolly Doris Hart Shirley Fry Nancye Wynne Bolton Margaret Osborne duPont Louise Brough Doris Hart A. Louise Brough Margaret Osborne duPont Louise Brough Margaret Osborne duPont Doris Hart Margaret Osborne duPont Louise Brough Nelly Landry Nancye Wynne Bolton A. Louise Brough Margaret Osborne duPont Patricia Todd Nancye Wynne Bolton Pauline Betz Pauline Betz Margaret Osborne duPont Nancye Wynne Bolton Sarah Palfrey Cooke Pauline Betz Pauline Betz Pauline Betz Sarah Palfrey Cooke Alice Marble Nancye Wynne Bolton Alice Marble Alice Marble Simone Mathieu Emily Westacott

Shirley Fry Shirley Fry Doris Hart Thelma Long-Coyne Doris Hart Margaret Osborne duPont Patricia Todd Doris Hart Doris Hart Margaret Osborne duPont Nelly Adamson Nancye Bolton A. Louise Brough Doris Hart Shirley Fry Marie Toomey Margaret Osborne Doris Hart Doris Hart Nell Hopman Patricia Canning Louise Brough Pauline Betz Joyce Fitch Pauline Betz Margaret Osborne A. Louise Brough A. Louise Brough Pauline Betz Helen Jacobs Thelma Coyne Helen Jacobs Kay Stammers Jadwiga Jedrzejowska Nell Hopman

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1938 1938 1938 1938 1937 1937 1937 1937 1936 1936 1936 1936 1935 1935 1935 1935 1934 1934 1934 1934 1933 1933 1933 1933 1932 1932 1932 1932 1931 1931 1931 1931 1930 1930 1930

U.S. Open Wimbledon French Open Australian Open U.S. Open Wimbledon French Open Australian Open U.S. Open Wimbledon French Open Australian Open U.S. Open Wimbledon French Open Australian Open U.S. Open Wimbledon French Open Australian Open U.S. Open Wimbledon French Open Australian Open U.S. Open Wimbledon French Open Australian Open U.S. Open Wimbledon French Open Australian Open U.S. Open Wimbledon French Open

Alice Marble Helen Wills Moody Simone Mathieu Dorothy Bundy Anita Lizana Dorothy Round Hilde Sperling Nancye Wynne Alice Marble Helen Jacobs Hilde Sperling Joan Hartigan Helen Jacobs Helen Wills Moody Hilde Sperling Dorothy Round Helen Jacobs Dorothy Round Margaret Scriven Joan Hartigan Helen Jacobs Helen Wills Moody Margaret Scriven Joan Hartigan Helen Jacobs Helen Wills Moody Helen Wills Moody Coral Buttsworth Helen Wills Moody Cilly Aussem Cilly Aussem Coral Buttsworth Betty Nuthall Helen Wills Moody Helen Wills Moody

Nancye Wynne Helen Jacobs Nelly Adamson Dorothy Stevenson Jadwiga Jedrzejowska Jadwiga Jedrzejowska Simone Mathieu Emily Westacott Helen Jacobs Hilde Kranwinkel Sperling Simone Mathieu Nancye Wynne Sarah H. Palfrey Helen Jacobs Simone Mathieu Nancy Lyle Sarah H. Palfrey Helen Jacobs Helen Jacobs Margaret Molesworth Helen Wills Moody Dorothy Round Simone Mathieu Coral Buttsworth Carolin A. Babcock Helen Jacobs Simone Mathieu Katherine Le Messurier Eileen Bennett Whitingstall Hilde Kranwinkel Betty Nuthall Margorie Crawford Anna McCune Harper Elizabeth Ryan Helen Jacobs

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1930 1929 1929 1929 1929 1928 1928 1928 1928 1927 1927 1927 1927 1926 1926 1926 1926 1925 1925 1925 1925 1924 1924 1924 1924 1923 1923 1923 1923 1922 1922 1922 1922 1921 1921

Australian Open U.S. Open Wimbledon French Open Australian Open U.S. Open Wimbledon French Open Australian Open U.S. Open Wimbledon French Open Australian Open U.S. Open Wimbledon French Open Australian Open U.S. Open Wimbledon French Open Australian Open U.S. Open Wimbledon French Open Australian Open U.S. Open Wimbledon French Open Australian Open U.S. Open Wimbledon French Open Australian Open U.S. Open Wimbledon

Daphne Akhurst Helen Wills Helen Wills Helen Wills Daphne Akhurst Helen Wills Helen Wills Helen Wills Daphne Akhurst Helen Wills Helen Wills Kornelia Bouman Esna Boyd Molla B. Mallory Kathleen Godfree Suzanne Lenglen Daphne Akhurst Helen Wills Suzanne Lenglen Suzanne Lenglen Daphne Akhurst Helen Wills Kathleen McKane Diddie Vlasto Sylvia Lance Helen Wills Suzanne Lenglen Suzanne Lenglen Margaret Molesworth Molla B. Mallory Suzanne Lenglen Suzanne Lenglen Margaret Molesworth Molla B. Mallory Suzanne Lenglen

Sylvia Harper Phoebe Holcroft Watson Helen Jacobs Simone Mathieu Louise Bickerton Helen J. Jacobs Lili de Alvarez E. Bennett Esna Boyd Betty Nuthall Lili de Alvarez Irene Peacock Sylvia Harper Elizabeth Ryan Lili de Alvarez Mary Browne Esna Boyd Kathleen McKane Joan Fry Kathleen McKane Esna Boyd Molla B. Mallory Helen Wills Jeanne Vaussard Esna Boyd Molla B. Mallory Kathleen McKane Germaine Golding Esna Boyd Helen Wills Molla Mallory Germaine Golding Esna Boyd Mary K. Browne Elizabeth Ryan

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1921 1920 1920 1920 1919 1919 1918 1917 1916 1915 1914 1914 1914 1913 1913 1913 1912 1912 1912 1911 1911 1911 1910 1910 1910 1909 1909 1909 1908 1908 1908 1907 1907 1907 1906

French Open U.S. Open Wimbledon French Open U.S. Open Wimbledon U.S. Open U.S. Open U.S. Open U.S. Open U.S. Open Wimbledon French Open U.S. Open Wimbledon French Open U.S. Open Wimbledon French Open U.S. Open Wimbledon French Open U.S. Open Wimbledon French Open U.S. Open Wimbledon French Open U.S. Open Wimbledon French Open U.S. Open Wimbledon French Open U.S. Open

Suzanne Lenglen Molla B. Mallory Suzanne Lenglen Suzanne Lenglen Suzanne Lenglen Molla Bjurstedt Molla Bjurstedt Molla Bjurstedt Molla Bjurstedt Mary Browne Lambert Chambers Marguerite Broquedis Mary Browne Lambert Chambers Marguerite Broquedis Mary Browne Ethel Larcombe Jeanne Matthey Hazel Hotchkiss Lambert Chambers Jeanne Matthey Hazel Hotchkiss Lambert Chambers Jeanne Matthey Hazel Hotchkiss Dora Boothby Jeanne Matthey Maud Barger Wallach Charlotte Cooper Sterry Kate Gillou Fenwick Evelyn Sears May Sutton Comtesse de Kermel Helen Homans

Germaine Golding Marion Zinderstein Dorothea Douglass Chambers Marguerite Broquedis Dorothea Douglass Chambers Eleanor E. Goss Marion Vanderhoef Louise Hammond Raymond Hazel Hotchkiss Wightman Marie Wagner Ethel Larcombe Suzanne Lenglen Dorothy Green R. McNair Jeanne Matthey Eleonora Sears Charlotte Cooper Sterry Marie Daney Florence Sutton Dora Boothby Marguerite Broquedis Louise Hammond Dora Boothby Marguerite Broquedis Maud Barger-Wallach A. Morton Gallay Evelyn Sears A. Morton A. Pean Carrie Neely Dorothea Douglass Chambers D. Elva Maud Barger-Wallach

Hazel Hotchkiss Wightman Marion Zinderstein

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1906 1906 1905 1905 1905 1904 1904 1904 1903 1903 1903 1902 1902 1902 1901 1901 1901 1900 1900 1900 1899 1899 1899 1898 1898 1898 1897 1897 1897 1896 1896 1895 1895 1894 1894

Wimbledon French Open U.S. Open Wimbledon French Open U.S. Open Wimbledon French Open U.S. Open Wimbledon French Open U.S. Open Wimbledon French Open U.S. Open Wimbledon French Open U.S. Open Wimbledon French Open U.S. Open Wimbledon French Open U.S. Open Wimbledon French Open U.S. Open Wimbledon French Open U.S. Open Wimbledon U.S. Open Wimbledon U.S. Open Wimbledon

Dorothea Douglass Kate Gillou Fenwick Elisabeth Moore May Sutton Kate Gillou May Sutton Dorothea Douglass Kate Gillou Elisabeth Moore Dorothea Douglass F. Masson Marion Jones Muriel Robb F. Masson Elisabeth Moore Charlotte Cooper Sterry P. Girod Myrtle McAteer Blanche Bingley Hillyard Y. Prevost Marion Jones Blanche Bingley Hillyard Francoise Masson Juliette Atkinson Charlotte Cooper Francoise Masson Juliette Atkinson Blanche Bingley Hillyard Francoise Masson Elisabeth Moore Charlotte Cooper Juliette Atkinson Charlotte Cooper Helen Hellwig Blanche Bingley Hillyard

May Sutton MacVeagh Helen Homans Dorothea Douglass Y. De Pfoeffel Elisabeth Moore Charlotte Cooper Sterry Adine Masson Marion Jones E. Thomson Katie Gillou Elisabeth Moore Charlotte Cooper Sterry P. Girod Myrtle McAteer Blanche Bingley Hillyard Leroux Edith Parker Charlotte Cooper xxx Maud Banks Charlotte Cooper xxx Marion Jones L. Martin xxx Elisabeth Moore Charlotte Cooper P. Girod Juliette Atkinson W. H. Pickering Helen Hellwig H. Jackson Aline Terry E. Austin

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1893 1893 1892 1892 1891 1891 1890 1890 1889 1889 1888 1888 1887 1887 1886 1885 1884

U.S. Open Wimbledon U.S. Open Wimbledon U.S. Open Wimbledon U.S. Open Wimbledon U.S. Open Wimbledon U.S. Open Wimbledon U.S. Open Wimbledon Wimbledon Wimbledon Wimbledon

Aline Terry Lottie Dod Mabel Cahill Lottie Dod Mabel Cahill Lottie Dod Ellen C. Roosevelt Lena Rice Bertha L. Townsend Blanche Bingley Hillyard Bertha L. Townsend Lottie Dod Ellen Hansell Lottie Dod Blanche Bingley Maud Watson Maud Watson

Augusta Schultz Blanche Bingley Hillyard Elisabeth Moore Blanche Bingley Hillyard Ellen C Roosevelt Blanche Bingley Hillyard Bertha L. Townsend M. Jacks Lida D. Voorhes Lena Rice Ellen Hansell Blanche Bingley Hillyard Laura Knight Blanche Bingley Maud Watson Blanche Bingley Lillian Watson

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Grand Slam
The four Grand Slam tournaments are the most important tennis events of the year in terms of world ranking points, tradition, prizemoney awarded, and public attention. They are: Australian Open French Open Wimbledon US Open A singles player or doubles team that wins all four Grand Slam tournaments in the same year is said to have achieved the Grand Slam or a Calendar Year Grand Slam. If the player or team wins all four consecutively, but not in the same calendar year, it is called a Non-Calendar Year Grand Slam. If a player wins all four at some point in his or her career, even if not consecutively, it is called a Career Grand Slam. Winning three of the four tournaments is called a Small Slam. If a player wins all the four majors and a gold medal in tennis at the Summer Olympics in the same calendar year, then its known as the Golden Slam.
History The term Grand Slam, as applied to tennis, was first used by New York Times columnist John Kieran according to Total Tennis, The Ultimate Tennis Encyclopedia by Bud Collins. In the chapter about 1933, Collins writes that after the Australian player Jack Crawford had won the Australian, French, and Wimbledon Championships, speculation arose about his chances in the U.S. Championships. Kieran, who was a bridge player, wrote: "If Crawford wins, it would be something like scoring a grand slam on the courts, doubled and vulnerable." Crawford, an asthmatic, won two of the first three sets of his finals match against Fred Perry, then tired in the heat and lost the last two sets and the match. The expression Grand Slam, initially used to describe the winning of the tennis major events in one calendar year, was later incorporated by other sports, notably golf, to describe a similar accomplishment.

Winning "The Grand Slam" in singles: all four majors in the same calendar year 1. 2. 3. 4. Don Budge 1938 Maureen Connolly 1953 Rod Laver 1962 and 1969 Margaret Smith Court 1970

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5. Steffi Graf 1988 Winning "The Grand Slam" in doubles with the same partner 1. Frank Sedgman and Ken McGregor 1951 2. Martina Navratilova and Pam Shriver 1984 Winning "The Grand Slam" in mixed doubles with the same partner 1. Margaret Smith (Court) and Ken Fletcher 1963 Top Five Lists: Most Grand Slam singles titles: men 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Pete Sampras 14 Roger Federer 13 Roy Emerson 12 Rod Laver 11 Bjorn Borg 11

Most Grand Slam singles titles: women 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Margaret Smith Court 24 Steffi Graf 22 Helen Wills Moody 19 Martina Navratilova 18 Chris Evert 18

Most career singles titles: men 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Jimmy Connors 109 Ivan Lendl 94 John McEnroe 77 Pete Sampras 64 Bjorn Borg and Guillermo Vilas each 62

Most career singles titles: women 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Martina Navratilova 167 Chris Evert 154 Steffi Graf 107 Margaret Smith Court 92 Billie-Jean King 67

Most career singles and doubles* titles: men

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1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

John McEnroe 152 Jimmy Connors 128 Ilie Nastase 108 Tom Okker 108 Stan Smith 100

Most career singles and doubles* titles: women 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Martina Navratilova 344 Chris Evert 189 Billie-Jean King 168 Margaret Smith Court 127 Rosie Casals 123

CRICKET
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History of Cricket

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The origins of cricket are obscure, and there are several theories on how it started. One is that shepherds used to play it - one would stand in front of the wicket gate to the sheep fold, and another would bowl a stone or something at him, and he would have to hit it with his crook, which was known as a cricket. Other theories are that it derives from a game called club-ball, or a game played in churchyards... The first reference to cricket being played is thought to be in 1300, between Prince Edward and his friend Piers Gaveston and the first recorded match took place at Coxheath in Kent in 1646. The first match between counties on 29th June 1709, when Surrey played Kent at Dartford Brent. The earliest known cricket photographs were taken in 1857, by Roger Fenton at the Artillery Ground, when the Royal Artillery played Hunsdonbury. As well as shepherds' crooks, early bats were clubs and sticks. These gave way to long, thin battes, which looked a bit like straightened-out hockey sticks, because the ball was bowled under-arm, and the batters swung their bats like clubs!! By the 18th century, the bat had developed into a longer, heavier, curved version of the one we know now, carved out of a single piece of wood. Today's bat was invented around 1853, with the blade made of willow, and a cane handle, which is layered with strips of rubber, tied with twine, and covered with rubber to make a grip. The 'V' shaped extension of the handle into the blade is the splice. The early balls were stones and other missiles. Rather dangerous really, and not surprising that someone came up with an alternative! They're now made of cork, and covered with hand-stitched leather quarters dyed red. The wicket - the stumps are the three posts. Originally there were two, and at one point, four. The size has varied too - in the 17th century, were up to two metres wide!! The bails are the two bits of wood on the top, and if they fall off, it's all over!!

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Test Records :- Highest Team Totals

# Runs 1 956-6 dec 2 903-7 dec 3 849 4 790-3 dec 5 765-6 dec 6 758-8 dec 7 756-5 dec 8 751-5 dec 9 749-9 dec 10 747 11 735-6 dec 12 729-6 dec 13 713-3 dec 14 708 15 705-7 dec 16 701 17 699-5 18 695 19 692-8 dec

Overs 270.0 335.2 258.2 208.1 248.5 245.4 185.1 202.0 194.4 235.2 146.3 232.0 165.3 220.3 187.3 171.2 203.4 256.1 163.0

In Team n 2 1 1 2 2 2 2 1 2 2 1 2 2 1 1 1 2 2 2 Sri Lanka England England West Indies Pakistan Australia Sri Lanka West Indies West Indies West Indies Australia Australia Sri Lanka Pakistan India Australia Pakistan Australia West Indies

Opposition Venue India Australia Colombo (RPS) The Oval

Date 2 Aug 1997 20 Aug 1938 3 Apr 1930 26 Feb 1958 21 Feb 2009 11 Jun 1955 27 Jul 2006 10 Apr 2004 26 Feb 2009 29 Apr 2005 9 Oct 2003 27 Jun 1930 14 May 2004 6 Aug 1987 2 Jan 2004 18 Aug 1934 1 Dec 1989 16 Aug 1930 24 Aug

West Indies Kingston Pakistan Sri Lanka Kingston Karachi

West Indies Kingston South Africa England England South Africa Colombo (SSC) St John's Bridgetown St John's

Zimbabwe Perth England Lord's

Zimbabwe Bulawayo England Australia England India England England The Oval Sydney The Oval Lahore The Oval The Oval

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1995 20 687-8 dec 21 682-6 dec 22 681-8 dec 23 679-7 dec 24 676-7 25 675-5 dec 26 674-6 27 674 28 671-4 29 668 30 664 31 660-5 dec 32 659-8 dec 33 658-9 dec 34 658-8 dec 35 657-8 dec 36 657-7 dec 37 656-8 dec 38 654-5 182.5 177.0 198.4 167.1 167.1 161.5 224.5 151.3 220.3 235.5 170.0 169.2 173.0 166.2 188.0 319.0 178.0 255.5 218.2 1 2 1 1 2 1 2 1 3 1 1 1 2 2 1 3 3 1 4 West Indies South Africa West Indies Pakistan India India Pakistan Australia New Zealand Australia India West Indies Australia South Africa England Pakistan India Australia England England England England India Sri Lanka Pakistan India India Sri Lanka The Oval Lord's Port of Spain Lahore Kanpur Multan Faisalabad Adelaide Wellington 12 Aug 1976 31 Jul 2003 17 Mar 1954 13 Jan 2006 17 Dec 1986 28 Mar 2004 24 Oct 1984 23 Jan 1948 31 Jan 1991 14 May 1955 9 Aug 2007 10 Feb 1995 13 Dec 1946 26 Dec 2003 10 Jun 1938 17 Jan 1958 11 Mar 2001 23 Jul 1964 3 Mar 1939

West Indies Bridgetown England New Zealand England The Oval Wellington Sydney

West Indies Durban Australia Nottingham

West Indies Bridgetown Australia England South Africa Kolkata Manchester Durban

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39 653-4 dec 40 653-4 dec 41 652-8 dec 42 652-7 dec 43 652-7 dec 44 652 45 650-6 dec

193.0 162.0 168.4 175.0 146.0 142.4 189.0

1 1 1 2 1 2 1

Australia England West Indies England Australia Pakistan Australia

England India England India South Africa India

Leeds Lord's Lord's Chennai Johannesburg Faisalabad

22 Jul 1993 26 Jul 1990 23 Aug 1973 13 Jan 1985 22 Feb 2002 3 Jan 1983 5 May 1965

West Indies Bridgetown

Test Records:- Most Wickets in a career

# 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Player Name Muttiah Muralitharan Shane Warne Anil Kumble Glenn McGrath Courtney Walsh Kapil Dev Richard Hadlee Shaun Pollock Wasim Akram

Team Mat Overs Runs SL Aus Ind Aus WI Ind NZ SA Pak WI

Wickets Ave

Best 5w 10w Period 1992 19922007 19902008 19932007 19842001 19781994 19731990 19952008 19852002 19882000

127 42020 17081 770 145 40705 17995 708 132 40850 18355 619 124 29248 12186 563 132 30019 12688 519 131 27740 12867 434 86 21918 9611 431 421 414 405

22.1831 9-51 66 22 25.4167 8-71 37 10 29.6527 10-74 35 8 21.6448 8-24 29 3 24.4470 7-37 22 3 29.6475 9-83 23 2 22.2993 9-52 36 9 23.1188 7-87 16 1 23.6208 7-119 25 5 20.9901 8-45 22 3

108 24353 9733 104 22627 9779 98 22103 8501

10 Curtly Ambrose

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11 Makhaya Ntini 12 Ian Botham

SA Eng

99

20414 11009 388

28.3737 7-37 18 4 28.4021 8-34 27 4 20.9468 7-22 22 4 23.5603 7-76 22 5 22.8122 8-58 23 6 23.9239 7-83 23 7 29.2232 7-71 12 2 22.2545 8-71 20 3 30.4242 8-84 23 5 25.2000 8-43 16 0 30.8194 5-30 10 0 29.0906 8-38 18 2 21.5798 8-31 17 3 25.8384 8-51 17 6 33.5529 7-87 18 3 28.6323 8-97 14 2 28.7105 7-98 14 1 20.9768 6-56 7 26.1390 7-37 8 31.0891 6-54 5 24.8452 7-39 9 0 0 0 1

102 21815 10878 383 81 87 88 70 17584 7876 16224 8788 19458 8258 18467 8493 376 373 362 355

13 Malcolm Marshall WI 14 Waqar Younis 15 Imran Khan 16 Dennis Lillee 17 Chaminda Vaas 18 Allan Donald 19 Harbhajan Singh 20 Bob Willis 21 Brett Lee 22 Lance Gibbs 23 Fred Trueman Pak Pak Aus SL SA Ind Eng Aus WI Eng

109 22988 10345 354 72 77 90 76 79 67 86 92 71 67 58 71 15519 7344 330

21471 10040 330 17357 8190 16531 9554 27115 8989 15178 6625 21862 7674 22398 9831 16586 8332 21364 7637 13169 5433 14234 6770 325 310 309 307 297 293 291 266 259 259 258 252 249 248

24 Derek Underwood Eng 25 Daniel Vettori 26 Craig McDermott 27 Bishan Bedi 28 Joel Garner 29 Jason Gillespie 30 Jacques Kallis 31 Brian Statham 32 Michael Holding 33 Richie Benaud NZ Aus Ind WI Aus SA Eng WI Aus

131 17040 8021 70 60 63 16056 6261 1280 5898

23.6867 8-92 13 2 27.0323 7-72 16 1

19108 6704

1998 19771992 19781991 19892000 19711992 19711984 1994 19922002 1998 19711984 1999 19581976 19521965 19661982 1997 19841996 19661979 19771987 19962006 1995 19511965 19751987 19521964

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34 Matthew Hoggard 35 Garth McKenzie 36 Bhagwat Chandrasekhar

Eng Aus Ind Pak Ind Eng Eng WI Eng Eng Aus Pak Eng NZ Eng Aus Zim Aus Ind Aus Pak Eng WI

67 60 58 67 67 51 51 93 62 58 61 53 61 62 75 37 65 53 65 44 49 49 47

13909 7564 17681 7328 15963 7199 17126 7742 15104 7196 15918 5876 15918 5879 21599 7999 13558 6999 11821 6503 13650 5251 15608 7846 13117 7025 11698 6410 14178 6993 14513 5231 13559 6079 12285 6017 12962 7107 11237 6038 14070 6206 12021 5387 11135 5174

248 246 242 236 236 236 236 235 234 229 228 225 221 218 218 216 216 212 210 208 208 202 202

30.5000 7-61 7

1

29.7886 8-71 16 3 29.7479 8-79 16 2 32.8051 9-56 15 5 30.4915 8-86 10 1 24.8983 7-44 15 3 24.9110 7-44 15 5 34.0383 7-46 13 1 29.9103 7-46 13 1 28.3974 6-42 5 0

37 Abdul Qadir 38 Javagal Srinath 39 Alec Bedser 40 Alec Bedser 41 Garry Sobers 42 Andy Caddick 43 Darren Gough 44 Ray Lindwall 45 Danish Kaneria 46 Steve Harmison 47 Chris Cairns 48 Andrew Flintoff 49 Clarrie Grimmett 50 Heath Streak 51 Merv Hughes 52 Zaheer Khan 53 Stuart MacGill 54 Saqlain Mushtaq 55 John Snow 56 Andy Roberts

23.0307 7-38 12 0 34.8711 7-77 12 2 31.7873 7-12 8 1 29.4037 7-27 13 1 32.0780 5-58 2 0

24.2176 7-40 21 7 28.1435 6-73 7 28.3821 8-87 7 33.8429 5-29 7 0 1 0

29.0288 8-108 12 2 29.8365 8-164 13 3 26.6683 7-40 8 1

25.6139 7-54 11 2

2000 19611971 19641979 19771990 19912002 19641955 19461955 19541974 19932003 19942000 19461960 2000 2002 19892004 1998 19251936 19932005 19851994 2000 19982008 19952004 19651976 1974-

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57 Jeff Thomson

Aus

51

10535 5601

200

28.0050 6-46 8

0

1983 1972-85

Test Records :- Most Runs in a career

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9 62 15 4 5.0 36 2 19 9 22 21 5 19 84 20 00 47 He rsc hel le Gi bb s S A 90 15 4 7 61 67 4 1.9 52 4 22 8 14 26 11 19 96 48 Ne il Ravindra
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Test Records :- Lowest Team Totals

# Runs 1 26 2 30 3 30 4 35 5 35 6 36 7 42 8 42 9 42 10 43 11 44 12 45 13 45 14 46 15 47 16 47 17 47

Overs 27.0 18.4 12.3 22.4 23.2 23.0 17.0 37.3 39.0 28.2 26.0 31.3 35.3 19.1 32.3 47.1 25.3

In Team n 3 4 2 4 1 2 3 2 1 3 4 3 1 4 2 2 3 New Zealand South Africa South Africa South Africa South Africa Australia India Australia New Zealand South Africa Australia South Africa England England New Zealand South Africa West Indies

Opposition Venue England England England England Australia England England England Australia England England Australia Australia Auckland Port Elizabeth Birmingham Cape Town Melbourne Birmingham Lord's Sydney Wellington Cape Town The Oval Melbourne Sydney

Date 25 Mar 1955 13 Feb 1896 14 Jun 1924 1 Apr 1899 12 Feb 1932 29 May 1902 20 Jun 1974 10 Feb 1888 29 Mar 1946 25 Mar 1889 10 Aug 1896 12 Feb 1932 28 Jan 1887 25 Mar 1994 19 Jun 1958 25 Mar 1889 11 Mar

West Indies Port of Spain England England England Lord's Cape Town Kingston

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2004 18 51 19 51 20 52 21 53 22 53 23 53 24 53 25 54 26 54 27 54 28 57 29 58 30 58 31 58 32 58 33 59 34 60 35 61 36 61 37 61 19.1 33.2 42.1 25.3 24.5 22.3 50.0 32.2 31.2 26.4 33.4 12.3 21.4 26.1 21.3 31.5 29.2 15.4 26.2 31.2 4 4 1 4 3 1 2 3 1 3 4 4 2 1 2 1 3 2 3 2 West Indies England England West Indies Pakistan Australia England New Zealand Zimbabwe West Indies South Africa Australia India South Africa India Pakistan Australia England West Indies England Australia Port of Spain 5 Mar 1999 4 Feb 2009 14 Aug 1948 24 Oct 1986 11 Oct 2002 22 Jun 1896 16 Jul 1888 29 Mar 1946 4 Mar 2005 29 Jun 2000 24 Dec 1956 4 Dec 1936 17 Jul 1952 10 Jun 1912 28 Nov 1947 11 Oct 2002 16 Jul 1888 1 Jan 1902 17 Aug 2000 5 Mar

West Indies Jamaica Australia Pakistan Australia England Australia Australia South Africa England England England England England Australia Australia England Australia England Australia The Oval Faisalabad Sharjah Lord's Lord's Wellington Cape Town Lord's Johannesburg Brisbane Manchester Lord's Brisbane Sharjah Lord's Melbourne Leeds Melbourne

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1904 38 62 39 62 40 62 41 63 42 63 43 64 44 65 45 65 46 65 47 66 48 66 49 67 50 67 51 67 52 68 53 70 54 70 55 71 56 71 57 72 58 72 59 72 47.0 25.2 21.2 80.0 47.0 27.3 37.6 38.5 22.4 34.1 25.3 24.2 37.1 59.1 60.2 39.2 31.1 32.5 28.2 50.1 31.3 29.1 4 1 2 1 4 4 1 2 4 4 4 3 3 1 2 1 1 2 1 4 4 3 England Bangladesh Pakistan Australia Zimbabwe England New Zealand England Australia India Australia India New Zealand New Zealand Australia New Zealand Australia England Sri Lanka South Africa Pakistan England Australia Sri Lanka Australia England Lord's 16 Jul 1888 13 Nov 1981 28 Aug 1882 16 Mar 2000 10 Feb 1978 25 Feb 1971 1 Feb 1895 19 Aug 1912 26 Dec 1996 30 Nov 1928 6 Feb 1948 24 Aug 1978 3 Jul 1958 12 Aug 1886 7 Nov 1955 30 Aug 1888 8 Jul 1976 26 Aug 1994 1 Jan 1957 16 Dec 2004 1 Feb 1895

Colombo (PSS) 3 Jul 2007 Perth The Oval

West Indies Port of Spain New Zealand England Australia England South Africa England Australia England England England Pakistan England Wellington Christchurch Sydney The Oval Durban Brisbane Melbourne Lord's Leeds The Oval Dhaka Manchester

West Indies Manchester Pakistan England Australia Australia Kandy Cape Town Perth Sydney

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60 72 61 73 62 73 63 74 64 74 65 74 66 75 67 75 68 75 69 75

29.1 24.5 30.2 62.2 46.0 50.3 44.4 40.1 28.4 30.5

3 3 2 1 1 3 4 1 2 1

England Sri Lanka New Zealand New Zealand Australia New Zealand South Africa England Australia India

Australia Pakistan Pakistan

Sydney Kandy Lahore

1 Feb 1895 3 Apr 2006 1 May 2002 3 Feb 1956 27 May 1909 19 Jun 1958 29 Jul 1907 29 Dec 1894 20 Jan 1950 25 Nov 1987

West Indies Dunedin England England England Australia South Africa Birmingham Lord's Leeds Melbourne Durban

West Indies Delhi

ODI Records :- Most Runs in Career

# Player Name 1 Sachin Tendulkar 2 Sanath Jayasuriya 3 Inzamam-ul-Haq 4 Ricky Ponting 5 Sourav Ganguly 6 Rahul Dravid 7 Brian Lara 8 Jacques Kallis

Team Mat Inns No Runs Ave Ind SL Pak 425 415 39 432 420 18

HS 100s 50s 0s Period 91 20 1989 67 33 1989 83 20 19912007

1668 44.372 1 43 4 3 86* 1315 32.713 189 28 1 9 39.525 1 10 3 37* 42.520 164 26 3 41.021 183 22 7

378 350 53 11739

Aus 315 306 35 11523 Ind Ind WI SA 311 300 23 11363 333 308 40 299 289 32 291 277 51

67 17 1995 72 16 81 13 63 16 19922007 19962007 19902007

1058 39.496 153 12 5 3 1040 40.486 169 19 5 4 1023 45.305 139 16 9 3

73 15 1996

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9 Adam Gilchrist 10 Mohammad Azharuddin

Aus 287 279 11 9619 Ind SL Pak Pak WI SL 334 308 54 9378 308 296 30 9284 269 254 40 9241 247 244 19 8823 238 237 28 8648 268 259 32 8529

35.891 172 16 8 36.921 1 7 3 53* 34.902 145 11 3 43.182 1 15 2 41* 39.213 194 20 3 41.378 1 17 0 53* 37.572 1 11 7 32* 39.351 173 18 9 41.541 150 10 2 32.039 128 10 8 36.371 175 21 0 32.407 1 8 3 34* 32.908 1 3 7 20* 35.846 1 4 2 31* 36.313 1 10 7 38* 41.700 119* 8 6 40.327 1 19 8 53* 32.889 102 5 9 34.926 1 16 1 45* 6

55 19 58 9 64 17 62 15 43 15 57 13 59 13 50 16 53 5

19962008 19852000 19842003 19982008 19892003 19781994 19902007 19882002 1994

11 Aravinda de Silva 12 Mohammad Yousuf 13 Saeed Anwar 14 Desmond Haynes 15 Marvan Atapattu 16 Mark Waugh 17 Shivnarine Chanderpaul

Aus 244 236 20 8500 WI 246 231 37 8059 299 280 29 8042 244 237 16 8038 280 269 21 8037

18 Mahela Jayawardene SL 19 Herschelle Gibbs 20 Stephen Fleming 21 Steve Waugh 22 Arjuna Ranatunga 23 Kumar Sangakkara 24 Javed Miandad 25 Chris Gayle 26 Saleem Malik 27 Nathan Astle 28 Michael Bevan SA NZ

49 23 1998 37 22 1996 49 17 45 15 49 18 48 9 50 8 19942007 19862002 19821999 2000 19751996

Aus 325 288 58 7569 SL SL Pak WI Pak NZ 269 255 47 7456 246 229 25 7408 233 218 41 7381 199 194 14 7259 283 256 38 7170 223 217 14 7090

38 18 1999 47 19 41 19 46 5 19821999 19952007 1994-

Aus 232 196 67 6912 53.581 1

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4 29 Yuvraj Singh 30 Gary Kirsten 31 Andy Flower 32 Viv Richards 33 Virender Sehwag 34 Ijaz Ahmed 35 Grant Flower 36 Allan Border 37 Richie Richardson 38 Matthew Hayden 39 Dean Jones 40 David Boon 41 Jonty Rhodes 42 Ramiz Raja 43 Carl Hooper 44 Hansie Cronje 45 Shahid Afridi 46 Ajay Jadeja 47 Damien Martyn Ind SA 232 213 30 6850 185 185 19 6797

08*

2004 40 12 2000 45 11 55 13 45 7 19932003 19922003 19751991

37.431 139 11 7 40.945 1 13 8 88* 35.343 145 4 8 47.000 1 11 0 89* 34.333 130 11 3 32.335 1 10 0 42* 33.690 1 6 7 42* 30.629 1 3 1 27*

Zim 213 208 16 6786 WI Ind Pak 187 167 24 6721 205 200 8 6592 250 232 29 6564

35 11 1999 37 14 40 18 39 11 44 8 36 9 46 6 37 6 33 12 31 15 29 7 39 8 19862000 19922004 19791994 19831996 1993 19841994 19841995 19922003 19851997 19872003 19922000

Zim 219 212 18 6536 Aus 273 252 39 6524 WI

224 217 30 6248 33.4118 122 5 43.807 1 10 1 81* 44.617 145 7 6 37.043 122 5 5

Aus 161 155 15 6133 Aus 164 161 25 6068 Aus 181 177 16 5964 SA Pak WI SA Pak Ind

245 220 51 5935 35.1183 121 2 198 197 15 5841 227 206 43 5761 188 175 31 5565 272 254 16 5531 196 179 36 5359 32.093 119* 9 4 35.343 113* 7 6 38.645 112 2 8 23.239 109 4 5 37.475 119 6 5 40.809 1 5 2 44*

29 23 1996 30 10 37 10 19922000 19922006

Aus 208 182 51 5346

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48 Younis Khan 49 Graeme Smith 50 Alistair Campbell 51 Roshan Mahanama 52 Gordon Greenidge 53 Andrew Symonds

Pak SA

182 176 20 5317 141 139 9 5251

34.083 144 6 3 40.392 1 7 3 34* 30.500 1 7 0 31* 29.497 119* 4 1 45.035 1 11 1 33* 40.064 156 6 0

35 15 2000 38 8 30 11 35 15 31 3 2002 19922003 19861999 19751991

Zim 188 184 14 5185 SL WI 213 198 23 5162 128 127 13 5134

Aus 194 158 33 5008

29 15 1998

ODI Records :- Highest Individual Scores

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ODI Records :- Most Wickets in a Career

# Player Name 1 Muttiah Muralitharan

Team Mat Overs Runs Wkts Ave SL Pak

Best 4w 5w Period 10 1993 6 1984-2003

329 17713 11485 505 22.7426 7-30 14 356 18186 11812 502 23.5299 5-15 17

2 Wasim Akram

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3 Waqar Younis 4 Chaminda Vaas 5 Shaun Pollock 6 Glenn McGrath 7 Anil Kumble 8 Javagal Srinath 10 Brett Lee 11 Shane Warne 13 Ajit Agarkar 14 Allan Donald 15 Makhaya Ntini 16 Kapil Dev 17 Shahid Afridi 18 Jacques Kallis 19 Abdul Razzaq 20 Daniel Vettori 21 Heath Streak 22 Darren Gough 23 Courtney Walsh 24 Curtly Ambrose 25 Zaheer Khan 26 Shoaib Akhtar

Pak SL SA Aus Ind Ind Aus Aus Ind SA SA Ind Pak SA Pak NZ Eng WI WI Ind Pak

262 12698 9913 416 23.8293 7-36 14 322 15775 11014 400 27.5350 8-19 9 303 15712 9631 393 24.5064 6-35 12 250 12970 8391 381 22.0236 7-15 9 271 14496 10412 337 30.8961 6-12 8 229 11935 8847 315 28.0857 5-23 7 432 14484 11504 313 36.7540 6-29 8 173 8853 6955 303 22.9538 5-22 11 194 10642 7541 293 25.7372 5-33 12 169 8770 6275 288 21.7882 5-20 11 191 9484 8021 288 27.8507 6-42 10 164 8561 5926 272 21.7868 6-23 11 173 8687 6559 266 24.6579 6-22 8 225 11202 6945 253 27.4506 5-43 3 272 11224 8667 249 34.8072 6-38 2 291 9790 7881 247 31.9069 5-30 2 231 9797 7658 246 31.1301 6-35 8 239 11234 7819 241 32.4440 5-7 7 159 8470 6209 235 26.4213 5-44 10 205 10822 6918 227 30.4758 5-1 6 176 9353 5429 225 24.1289 5-17 6 162 8097 6566 225 29.1822 5-42 7 141 6672 5204 220 23.6545 6-16 6 185 9672 6808 207 32.8889 5-31 2 138 7461 5018 203 24.7192 5-44 4 250 10667 7613 203 37.5025 5-42 2 215 8168 6594 201 32.8060 5-42 3 161 8129 6321 196 32.2500 5-27 3 325 8883 6761 195 34.6718 4-33 3 227 9573 6958 193 36.0518 4-34 3 171 7336 5751 192 29.9531 6-49 1 175 7461 4844 182 26.6154 6-14 3

13 1989-2003 4 5 7 2 3 4 8 1 6 2 2 4 1 3 2 3 2 1 2 1 4 1 4 2 1 1 1 1 0 0 6 1 1994 1996-2008 1993-2007 1990-2007 1991-2003 1989 2000 1993-2005 1995-2003 1998 1991-2003 1998 1978-1994 1996 1996 1996-2007 1997 1993-2005 1994-2006 1985-2000 1988-2000 2000 1998 1998 1985-1996 1990-2004 1991-2006 1994-2001 1986-2002 1987-2003 1996-2004 1974-1992

9 Sanath Jayasuriya SL

12 Saqlain Mushtaq Pak

Zim 189 9468 7129 239 29.8285 5-32 7

27 Harbhajan Singh Ind 28 Craig McDermott Aus 29 Chris Harris 30 Chris Cairns 32 Steve Waugh 33 Carl Hooper 34 Lance Klusener 35 Imran Khan NZ NZ Aus WI SA Pak

31 Venkatesh Prasad Ind

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36 Aaqib Javed 37 Andrew Flintoff 39 Nathan Bracken 41 Richard Hadlee Malcolm Marshall

Pak Eng Aus NZ

163 8012 5721 182 31.4341 7-37 2 141 5624 4121 169 24.3846 5-19 6 132 5730 4952 166 29.8313 6-27 3 107 5216 3887 164 23.7012 5-47 5 144 7543 5361 161 33.2981 5-36 3 115 6182 3407 158 21.5633 5-25 1 130 6360 4534 157 28.8790 5-33 4 136 7175 4233 157 26.9618 4-18 6 123 5564 4168 156 26.7179 5-32 4 425 8015 6806 154 44.1948 5-32 4 107 5194 4547 152 29.9145 5-27 4 147 6142 4818 151 31.9073 5-61 4 199 6419 5056 151 33.4834 5-46 3 102 5042 3936 149 26.4161 5-25 6 98 5330 2752 146 18.8493 5-31 2 117 6271 4139 145 28.5448 5-56 3 97 5144 3611 142 25.4296 5-22 3 102 5473 3034 142 21.3662 5-26 5 114 6065 3618 140 25.8429 5-34 3 141 7009 4998 138 36.2174 4-37 1 106 5103 4207 136 30.9338 4-23 7 103 5280 4025 135 29.8148 6-26 5 88 4619 3402 134 25.3881 5-36 4 104 5100 3454 132 26.1667 5-44 4 130 5506 4050 131 30.9160 5-26 2 108 5480 4218 130 32.4462 5-29 3

4 2 1 2 1 5 2 0 2 2 1 1 1 1 3 0 3 1 1 0 0 1 1 2 2 3

1988-1998 1999 2001 2001 1989-2003 1973-1990 1984-1996 1980-1992 1996-2008 1989 2004 1994-2007 1999 2001 1977-1987 1976-1992 1996-2005 1976-1992 1979-1989 1994-2004 2002 2001 1994-2001 1983-1993 2001 1997-2005

38 Dilhara Fernando SL 40 Mushtaq Ahmed Pak 42 Manoj Prabhakar Ind 43 WI Aus Ind SL WI NZ WI Eng Aus NZ SL Eng

44 Brad Hogg 46 Irfan Pathan 47 Upul Chandana 48 Chris Gayle 49 Kyle Mills 50 Joel Garner 51 Ian Botham 52 Jason Gillespie 54 Ewen Chatfield 55 Kumar Dharmasena

45 Sachin Tendulkar Ind

53 Michael Holding WI

56 James Anderson

57 Mashrafe Mortaza Ban 58 Damien Fleming Aus 59 Abdul Qadir 60 Jacob Oram 61 Mervyn Dillon Pak NZ WI

ODI Records :- Highest Team Totals

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# 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Runs Overs Inn Team 443-9 50 438-9 49.5 434-4 50 418-5 50 413-5 50 402-2 50 398-5 50 397-5 44 392-6 50 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Sri Lanka South Africa Australia South Africa India New Zealand Sri Lanka New Zealand South Africa India England India Australia India India India Pakistan Australia England India New Zealand South Africa West Indies Australia Australia Australia South Africa Sri Lanka India South Africa South Africa Pakistan

Opposition Netherlands Australia South Africa Zimbabwe Bermuda Zimbabwe Kenya Zimbabwe Pakistan New Zealand Bangladesh England South Africa New Zealand Hong Kong Sri Lanka Sri Lanka Sri Lanka Pakistan Sri Lanka Canada Zimbabwe Sri Lanka India India Netherlands Bangladesh Bangladesh Pakistan West Indies Kenya England

Venue Amstelveen Johannesburg Johannesburg Potchefstroom Port of Spain Bulawayo Kandy Bulawayo Centurion Christchurch Nottingham Rajkot Basseterre Karachi Taunton Nairobi (Gym) Sydney Nottingham Colombo (RPS) Gros Islet Bulawayo Karachi Sydney Johannesburg Basseterre Benoni Lahore Visakhapatnam St George's Cape Town Karachi

Date 4 Jul 2006 12 Mar 2006 12 Mar 2006 20 Sep 2006 19 Mar 2007 24 Aug 2005 6 Mar 1996 24 Aug 2005 4 Feb 2007 8 Mar 2009 21 Jun 2005 14 Nov 2008 24 Mar 2007 25 Jun 2008 26 May 1999 4 Oct 1996 12 Feb 2006 20 Aug 1992 3 Feb 2009 22 Mar 2007 23 Sep 2001 13 Oct 1987 8 Feb 2004 23 Mar 2003 18 Mar 2007 9 Nov 2008 25 Jun 2008 5 Apr 2005 10 Apr 2007 22 Oct 2001 15 Dec 2005

10 392-4 50 11 391-4 50 12 387-5 50 13 377-6 50 14 376-2 50 15 374-4 50 16 373-6 50 17 371-9 50 18 368-5 50 19 363-7 55 20 363-5 50 21 363-5 50 22 363-3 50 23 360-4 50 24 359-5 50 25 359-2 50 26 358-5 50 27 358-4 50 28 357-9 50 29 356-9 50 30 356-4 50 31 354-3 50 32 353-6 50

Hyderabad (Ind) 8 Nov 1999

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33 353-5 50 34 353-3 40 35 351-7 50 36 351-4 50 37 351-3 50 38 350-9 49.3 39 350-6 50 40 349-9 50 41 349-9 50 42 349-7 50 43 349-6 50 44 349 49.5 45 348-8 50 46 348-6 50 47 348-5 50 48 347-6 50 49 347-5 50 50 347-5 50 51 347-4 50 52 347-3 50 53 347-2 50 54 346-5 50 55 344-8 50 56 344-8 50 57 344-7 50 58 344-6 50 59 344-5 50 60 343-5 50 61 343-5 50 62 343-5 50 63 341-8 50 64 341-3 50 65 340-7 50

1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2

India South Africa Zimbabwe Pakistan India New Zealand India New Zealand Sri Lanka India Australia Pakistan New Zealand Australia India West Indies Australia Pakistan New Zealand Kenya Australia Australia Pakistan Australia Australia Pakistan Sri Lanka Australia Pakistan Australia India New Zealand

New Zealand Netherlands Kenya South Africa Kenya Australia Sri Lanka India Pakistan Pakistan New Zealand Zimbabwe India New Zealand Bangladesh Zimbabwe New Zealand Zimbabwe USA Bangladesh India New Zealand India Zimbabwe South Africa Zimbabwe Australia New Zealand Hong Kong West Indies West Indies England

Hyderabad (Ind) 15 Nov 2003 Basseterre Mombasa Durban Paarl Hamilton Nagpur Rajkot Singapore Karachi Christchurch Kingston Nagpur St George's Dhaka Bulawayo Napier Karachi The Oval Nairobi (Gym) Bangalore Hamilton Karachi Melbourne Hobart Sydney Bulawayo Sydney Perth Colombo (SSC) Basseterre Vadodara Napier 16 Mar 2007 29 Jan 2009 7 Feb 2007 24 Oct 2001 20 Feb 2007 25 Oct 2005 5 Nov 1999 2 Apr 1996 13 Mar 2004 26 Feb 2000 21 Mar 2007 26 Nov 1995 20 Apr 2007 27 Dec 2004 22 Nov 2003 5 Mar 2005 21 Jan 2008 10 Sep 2004 10 Oct 1997 12 Nov 2003 20 Feb 2007 13 Mar 2004 10 Jan 2005 16 Jan 2004 5 Feb 2006 24 Nov 2002 9 Jan 2003 28 Jan 2007 18 Jul 2004 6 Jul 2008 31 Jan 2007 20 Feb 2008

ICC World XI Asia XI

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66 340-6 50 67 340-5 48.4 68 340-2 50 69 339-4 50 70 339-4 50 71 338-7 50 72 338-6 50 73 338-5 60 74 338-4 50 75 338-4 50 76 338-3 50 77 337-7 50 78 337-7 50 79 336-7 50 80 336-4 50 81 335-6 50 82 335-5 50 83 335-5 50 84 334-6 50 85 334-4 60 86 334 45.1 87 333-9 60 88 333-8 45 89 333-7 50 90 333-6 50 91 333-6 50 92 332-8 50 93 332-8 49 94 332-5 50 95 332-5 50 96 332-3 50 97 331-8 50 98 331-7 50

1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1

England New Zealand Zimbabwe West Indies Sri Lanka Zimbabwe Australia Pakistan New Zealand Australia India Asia XI Australia South Africa Australia Pakistan New Zealand New Zealand Australia England New Zealand England West Indies West Indies West Indies India Sri Lanka New Zealand India Australia Australia Asia XI Australia

New Zealand Australia Namibia Pakistan Pakistan Bermuda West Indies Sri Lanka Bangladesh India West Indies Africa XI Pakistan Kenya New Zealand South Africa Australia Bangladesh Scotland India India Sri Lanka India Sri Lanka Zimbabwe Zimbabwe Bangladesh Australia Sri Lanka Pakistan Sri Lanka Africa XI New Zealand

Napier Auckland Harare Adelaide Mohali Port of Spain Melbourne Swansea Sharjah Visakhapatnam Nagpur Chennai Sydney Bloemfontein Auckland Port Elizabeth Perth Napier Basseterre Lord's Christchurch Taunton Jamshedpur Sharjah Georgetown Guwahati Karachi Christchurch Colombo (RPS) Nairobi (Gym) Sharjah Chennai Christchurch

20 Feb 2008 18 Feb 2007 10 Feb 2003 28 Jan 2005 24 May 1997 18 May 2006 9 Feb 2001 9 Jun 1983 28 Apr 1990 3 Apr 2001 21 Jan 2007 9 Jun 2007 4 Feb 2000 31 Oct 2008 18 Feb 2007 11 Dec 2002 28 Jan 2007 28 Dec 2007 14 Mar 2007 7 Jun 1975 8 Mar 2009 11 Jun 1983 7 Dec 1983 16 Oct 1995 7 May 2006 19 Mar 2002 30 Jun 2008 10 Dec 2005 5 Feb, 2009 30 Aug 2002 2 May 1990 10 Jun 2007 10 Dec 2005

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99 330-8 50 100 330-7 49.1 101 330-6 60 102 329-7 50 103 329-6 50 104 329-6 50 105 329-5 50 106 329-5 50 107 329 49.3 108 328-5 60 109 328-5 50 110 328-4 50 111 328-3 50 112 328-2 50 113 328 49.4 114 327-5 50 115 327-4 50 116 326-8 49.3 117 326-3 50 118 325-6 50 119 325-5 50 120 325-5 47.4

1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 2

India Australia Pakistan India South Africa Pakistan Australia Australia Sri Lanka Australia Kenya Australia South Africa Pakistan India Pakistan England India South Africa Zimbabwe England India

Pakistan South Africa Sri Lanka England Zimbabwe India India India West Indies Sri Lanka Scotland Netherlands New Zealand Pakistan India Pakistan England Australia Kenya India West Indies

Dhaka (SBNS) Port Elizabeth Nottingham Bristol Durban Rawalpindi Adelaide Adelaide Sharjah The Oval Mombasa Rawalpindi Sharjah Peshawar Chennai Lahore Lord's Port Elizabeth Dhaka Lord's Ahmedabad

10 Jun 2008 6 Apr 2002 14 Jun 1975 24 Aug 2007 27 Feb 2005 16 Mar 2004 26 Jan 2000 26 Jan 2000 16 Oct 1995 11 Jun 1975 17 Jan 2007 7 Oct 2005 5 Mar 1996 20 Apr 1994 6 Feb 2006 21 May 1997 10 Dec 2005 13 Jul 2002 6 Apr 2002 27 Mar 1999 13 Jul 2002 15 Nov 2002

ICC World XI Melbourne

ODI Records :- Lowest Team Totals

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ODI Records :- Fastest 50s

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09 /11 /2 00 8 32 Ab du l Ra zz aq Pa kis tan Ne w Ze ala nd W ell in gt on 89 23 9 5 17 /0 1/ 20 04 33 Sa lee m M ali k Pa kis tan In dia Ca Ravindra
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ODI Records :- Fastest 100s

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a Au str ali a Jo ha nn es bu rg 17 5 79 21 7 12 /0 3/ 20 06 56 Za he er Ab ba s Pa kis tan In dia La ho re 10 5 79 8 1 31 /1 2/ 19 82

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T20I Records :- Most Wickets in a Career

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66 7 323 0 0 20 08 62 T ho m as O do yo K en 8 15 0 12 2 6 20 .3 33 3 213 0 0 20 07 63 Jo hn Bl ai n Sc ot 6 12 0 10 8 Ravindra
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T20I Records :- Most Runs in Career

# Player Name 1 Brendon McCullum

Team Mat Inns No Runs Ave NZ Pak Pak Aus Eng SA 21 21 14 13 16 15 15 14 15 15 12 12 15 14 11 11 13 10 12 11 17 16 9 9 13 12 16 13 10 10 13 13 15 14 12 11 10 9 7 7 15 14 7 4 6 3 2 1 2 0 1 4 0 1 3 4 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 1

HS 100s 50s 0s Period 4 3 2 2 1 3 2 3 2 4 2 4 2 0 2 0 1 1 3 2 1 2 2 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 2 1 1 2 0 1 0 2 0 0 0 0 1 2 0 4 0 1 0 2005 2007 2006 2005 2005 2005 2005 2006 2005 2007 2006 2005-2007 2005 2005 2007 2005-2008 2005 2007 2007 2006 2006 2006 2005 2007 2006 2006

582 34.2353 69* 0 398 56.8571 87* 0 383 31.9167 57 0 376 31.3333 98* 0 375 26.7857 79 0 364 36.4000 89* 0 344 24.5714 79 0 341 34.1000 88 0 337 56.1667 85* 0 328 29.8182 75 0 323 21.5333 63 0 308 51.3333 73* 0 293 36.6250 66* 0 284 23.6667 43 0 279 31.0000 78 0 272 22.6667 48 0 272 19.4286 66 0 266 26.6000 74 0 262 32.7500 70 0 261 37.2857 117 1 260 18.5714 51 0 258 36.8571 79 0 245 18.8462 90* 0 241 26.7778 55* 0 223 20.2727 68 0 215 26.8750 62* 0

2 Misbah-ul-Haq 3 Shoaib Malik 4 Ricky Ponting 5 Kevin Pietersen 6 Graeme Smith

7 Paul Collingwood Eng 8 Sanath Jayasuriya SL 9 Andrew Symonds Aus 10 Gautam Gambhir Ind 11 Ross Taylor 13 Jacob Oram 14 Albie Morkel 16 Adam Gilchrist 17 Scott Styris 18 Salman Butt 19 Yuvraj Singh 20 Chris Gayle 21 Younis Khan 22 Hamilton Masakadza NZ NZ SA Aus NZ Pak Ind WI Pak 12 Matthew Hayden Aus

15 Jean-Paul Duminy SA

Zim 7

23 Herschelle Gibbs SA 24 Owais Shah 26 Aftab Ahmed Eng Ban 25 Virender Sehwag Ind

14 14 11 9 10 9 12 11

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27 28

Mahendra Singh Dhoni Mahela Jayawardene

Ind SL SA SA Pak SL Pak NZ SL Pak Ban Aus Aus Aus SA NZ WI Eng Ban Aus

13 12 11 11

3 2 2 3 1 2 0 1 2 0 0 1 0 3 3 0 0 0 0 3

215 23.8889 45 0 210 23.3333 65 0 203 22.5556 36* 0 203 50.7500 89* 0 201 25.1250 59 0 197 21.8889 61 0 195 13.9286 39 0 187 31.1667 57 0 182 30.3333 46* 0 182 20.2222 46 0 178 25.4286 81 0 177 35.4000 88* 0 177 35.4000 89 0 176 19.5556 37* 0 176 16.0000 52* 0 174 19.3333 42 0 166 33.2000 61 0 166 55.3333 72 0 164 18.2222 61 0 152 38.0000 40* 0

0 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 2 2 1 0

1 2 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 2 1 0 0 3 1 0 0 0 0

2006 2006 2005 2005 2007 2006 2006 2005 2007 2006 2007 2008 2009 2005 2006 2006 2007 2005-2006 2007 2007

29 Mark Boucher 30 Justin Kemp 31 Imran Nazir 32 Tillakaratne Dilshan

13 11 8 7 10 9 12 11 15 14 8 9 9 7 7 5 7 8 9 7 6 5

33 Shahid Afridi 34 Craig McMillan 35 Jehan Mubarak 36 37 Mohammad Hafeez Mohammed Nazimuddin

38 David Hussey 39 David Warner 40 Michael Clarke 41 AB de Villiers 42 Lou Vincent 43 Devon Smith 44 45 Marcus Trescothick Mohammad Ashraful

16 12 15 14 9 5 3 9 7 9 5 3 9 7

46 Cameron White

ICC Rankings

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2 M Huss ey Aus 814 3 C.H. Gayle WI 782 4 S. Chan derpa ul WI 778 5 Yuvra j Singh Ind 769 6 G Smith SA 749 7 V. Sehw ag Ind 747 8 Moha mma d Yous uf Pak 716 Ravindra
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Football
FIFA
Fédération Internationale de Football Association

Motto Formation Type Headquarters Membership

For the Good of The Game May 21, 1904

SPORTS FEDERATION ZÜRICH, SWITZERLAND 208 NATIONAL ASSOCIATIONS

The Fédération Internationale de Football Association (French for International Federation of Association Football), commonly known by its acronym, FIFA (usually pronounced /fi ːf ə / or /fi ː fæ /), is the international governing body of association football . Its headquarters are in Zürich , Switzerland, and its current president is Sepp Blatter . FIFA is responsible for the organization and governance of football's

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major international tournaments, most notably the FIFA World Cup , held since 1930. FIFA has 208 member associations, which is 16 more than the United Nations and 3 more than the International Olympic Committee , though 5 fewer than the International Association of Athletics Federations . History The need for a single body to oversee the worldwide game became apparent at the beginning of the 20th century with the increasing popularity of international fixtures. FIFA was founded in Paris on May 21, 1904 — the French name and acronym persist to this day, even outside French-speaking countries. Its first president was Robert Guérin . FIFA presided over its first international competition in 1906, but this met with little approval or success. This, in combination with economic factors, led to the swift replacement of Guérin with Daniel Burley Woolfall from England, by now a member association. The next tournament staged, the football competition for the 1908 Olympics in London was more successful, despite the presence of professional footballers, contrary to the founding principles of FIFA. Membership of FIFA expanded beyond Europe with the application of South Africa in 1909, Argentina and Chile in 1912, and Canada and the United States in 1913. FIFA, however, floundered during World War I , with many players sent off to war and the possibility of travel for international fixtures severely limited. Post-war, following the death of Woolfall, the organisation was run by Dutchman Carl Hirschmann . It was saved from extinction, but at the cost of the withdrawal of the Home Nations (of the United Kingdom), who cited an unwillingness to participate in international competitions with their recent World War enemies. The Home Nations later resumed their membership. The FIFA collection is held by the National Football Museum in England. Structure

Map of the World with the six confederations.

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FIFA is an association established under the Laws of Switzerland. Its headquarters are in Zurich. FIFA's supreme body is the FIFA Congress, an assembly made up of representatives from each affiliated member association. The Congress assembles in ordinary session once every year and, additionally, extraordinary sessions have been held once a year since 1998. Only the Congress can pass changes to FIFA's statutes. Congress elects the President of FIFA, its General Secretary and the other members of FIFA's Executive Committee. The President and General Secretary are the main officeholders of FIFA, and are in charge of its daily administration, carried out by the General Secretariat, with its staff of approximately 280 members. FIFA's Executive Committee, chaired by the President, is the main decision-making body of the organization in the intervals of Congress. FIFA's worldwide organisational structure also consists of several other bodies, under authority of the Executive Committee or created by Congress as standing committees. Among those bodies are the Finance Committee, the Disciplinary Committee, the Referees Committee, etc. Aside from its worldwide institutions (presidency, Executive Committee, Congress, etc.) there are confederations recognised by FIFA which oversee the game in the different continents and regions of the world. National associations, and not the continental confederations, are members of FIFA. The continental confederations are provided for in FIFA's statutes. National associations must claim membership to both FIFA and the confederation in which their nation is geographically resident for their teams to qualify for entry to FIFA's competitions (with a few geographic exceptions listed below): AFC - Asian Football Confederation in Asia and Australia CAF - Confédération Africaine de Football in Africa CONCACAF - Confederation of North, Central American and Caribbean Association Football in North America and Central America CONMEBOL - Confederación Sudamericana de Fútbol in South America OFC - Oceania Football Confederation in Oceania UEFA - Union of European Football Associations in Europe. Nations straddling the traditional boundary between Europe and Asia have generally had their choice of confederation. As a result, a number of transcontinental nations including Russia , Turkey , Cyprus , Armenia , Azerbaijan and Georgia have chosen to become part of UEFA despite the bulk of their land area being in Asia. Israel , although lying entirely within Asia, joined UEFA in 1994, after decades of its football teams being boycotted by

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many Arab and predominantly Muslim AFC countries. Kazakhstan moved from the AFC to UEFA in 2002. Australia was the latest to move from the OFC to AFC in January 2006. Guyana and Suriname have always been CONCACAF members despite being South American countries. No team from the OFC is offered automatic qualification to the World Cup. In recent World Cup qualifying cycles, the winner of their section had to play a play-off against a CONMEBOL side, a hurdle at which Australia have traditionally fallen. In an effort to improve their national and domestic teams Australia moved to the AFC in 2006. This allows Australia to play in Asian tournaments of a much higher standard (as well as being more numerous) such as the AFC Asian Cup and the Asian Champions League . Australia successfully qualified for the 2006 FIFA World Cup by winning just such a playoff in a penalty shootout against Uruguay , just a few months after the clearance to move was granted. Initially, the 2010 FIFA World Cup qualification cycle was planned to provide the winner of OFC qualifying with a place in the final AFC qualification group, but this was scrapped in favour of a playoff between the OFC winner and an AFC team for a World Cup place. In total, FIFA recognises 208 national associations and their associated men's national teams as well as 129 women's national teams; see the list of national football teams and their respective country codes . Curiously, FIFA has more member states than the United Nations , as FIFA recognises several nonsovereign entities as distinct nations, most notably the four Home Nations within the United Kingdom. The FIFA World Rankings are updated monthly and rank each team based on their performance in international competitions, qualifiers, and friendly matches. There is also a world ranking for women's football , updated four times a year. Recognitions and awards FIFA awards, each year, the title of FIFA World Player of the Year to the most prestigious player of the year, as part of its annual awards ceremony which also recognises team and international football achievements. In 1994 FIFA published the FIFA World Cup All-Time Team . In 2002 FIFA announced the FIFA Dream Team , an all-time all-star team chosen by fans in a poll. As part of its centennial celebrations in 2004, FIFA organised a "Match of the Century" between France and Brazil Governance and game development Laws of the Game Main article: Laws of the Game

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The laws that govern football, known officially as the Laws of the Game, are not solely the responsibility of FIFA; they are maintained by a body called the International Football Association Board (IFAB). FIFA has members on its board (four representatives); the other four are provided by the football associations of the United Kingdom : England , Scotland , Wales , and Northern Ireland , in recognition of their contribution to the creation and history of the game. Changes to the Laws of the Game must be agreed by at least six of the eight delegates. Discipline of national associations FIFA frequently takes active roles in the running of the sport and developing the game around the world. One of its unique policies is to suspend teams and associated members from international competition when a government interferes in the running of FIFA's associate member organisations or if the associate is not functioning properly. A recent high-profile suspension was of the Greek Football Federation for political interference. [2 ] Another recent suspension was on the Kenya Football Federation because it was not running the game in Kenya properly [3 ] and also of Iraq. The Asia wing of FIFA, the AFC is soon to force 22 leading associations in Asia to increase transparency, competition, quality training and a proper league structure with relegation, promotion and a 2nd division. Suspension will be imposed on any associate which doesn't co-operate with the reform outlines. Notably, one of the associations being targeted is that of Australia , a country whose professional sport leagues are all organised on the model of franchised teams and closed league membership, a system most commonly identified with North America . [4 ] A 2007 FIFA ruling that a player can be registered with a maximum of three clubs, and appear in official matches for a maximum of three, in a year measured from July 1 to June 30 has led to controversy, especially in those countries whose seasons cross that date barrier, as in the case of two former Ireland internationals . The Iraq national team was suspended in May 2008, due to government interference with independent national sports authorities. [5 ] However the decision was overturned by FIFA on May 29, 2008, since the Iraqi government reversed its earlier decision in dissolving the Iraq Football Association. [6 ] FIFA altitude ban La Paz , Bolivia . 3,600 m (12,000 ft) above sea level

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FIFA attempted to address the issue of extreme altitude in May 2007, ruling that no future international matches could be played at an altitude over 2500 m (8200 ft). [7 ] The FIFA altitude ban would most notably have affected the national teams of Andean countries. Under this proposal, Bolivia would no longer be able to play international matches in La Paz (3,600 m), Ecuador would be unable to play in Quito (2,800 m), and Colombia could no longer play in Bogotá (2,640 m). However, FIFA soon backed away from the proposal after international condemnation, [8 ] and under political pressure from the CONMEBOL countries, first extending the maximum altitude to 2,800 m (9,190 ft) in June 2007, which made Bogotá and Quito viable international venues once again, and then waiving the restriction for La Paz in July 2007. [9 ] The ban was reintroduced in December 2007 by FIFA for matches 2,750 metres above sea level, unless players were allowed to acclimatize . [1 0 ] However, the ban was again suspended by FIFA in May 2008. [1 1 ] Allegations of financial irregularities In May 2006 British investigative reporter Andrew Jennings ' book Foul (Harper Collins ) caused controversy within the football world by detailing an alleged international cash-for-contracts scandal following the collapse of FIFA's marketing partner ISL, and revealed how some football officials have been urged to secretly repay the sweeteners they received. The book also exposed the vote-rigging that went on behind closed doors in the fight for Sepp Blatter's continued control of FIFA. Nearly simultaneous with the release of Foul was a BBC television expose by Jennings and BBC producer Roger Corke for the BBC news programme Panorama . In this hour-long programme screened on June 11, 2006, Jennings and the Panorama team submit that Sepp Blatter is being investigated by Swiss police over his role in a secret deal to repay more than £1m worth of bribes pocketed by football officials. All testimonies offered in the Panorama expose were provided through a disguised voice, appearance, or both, save one; Mel Brennan , formerly a lecturer at Towson University in the United States (and from 2001-2003 Head of Special Projects for CONCACAF , a liaison to the e-FIFA project and a FIFA World Cup delegate), became the first high-level football insider to go public with substantial allegations of greed, corruption, nonfeasance and malfeasance by CONCACAF and FIFA leadership. During the Panorama expose, Brennan - the highest-level African-American in the history of world football governance - Jennings and many others exposed allegedly inappropriate allocations of money at CONCACAF, and drew

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connections between ostensible CONCACAF criminality and similar behaviours at FIFA. Brennan's book, The Apprentice: Tragicomic Times Among the Men Running - and Ruining - World Football is due out in 2009. FIFA Anthem Since the 1994 FIFA World Cup like the UEFA Champions League FIFA has adopted an anthem composed by the German composer Franz Lambert . The FIFA Anthem or Hymn is played at the beginning of FIFA structured matches and tournaments such as international friendlies, the FIFA World Cup , FIFA Women's World Cup , FIFA U-20 World Cup and FIFA Club World Cup . [1 2 ]

FIFA World Rankings April 2009
The top three teams in the world in April 2009 are unchanged with Euro 2008 winners Spain at the top with Germany in second place and the Netherlands in third. England are in 7th after impressive results in World Cup qualifying. Japan are in 35th position. South Korea are down one to 45th position. The USA are up at 15th. Scotland are in 24th position. The Republic of Ireland are down eight to 34th position.

Ranking 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13

Team Spain Germany Netherlands Brazil Italy Argentina England Croatia Russia France Portugal Czech Republic Greece

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Ranking 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45

Team Turkey USA Uruguay Paraguay Switzerland Cameroon Bulgaria Israel Ukraine Serbia Scotland Mexico Chile Northern Ireland Romania Denmark Nigeria Ghana Australia Sweden Republic of Ireland Japan Côte d'Ivoire Egypt Bosnia-Herzegovina Honduras Costa Rica Poland Ecuador Colombia Hungary Korea Republic

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Ranking 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 53 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77

Team Norway Slovakia Gabon Mali Morocco Finland Tunisia Iran Guinea Saudi Arabia Burkina Faso Lithuania Venezuela Bolivia Panama Latvia Belgium Slovenia FYR Macedonia Togo Senegal Congo Uganda Gambia Jamaica Bahrain Algeria Wales Cyprus Trinidad and Tobago Uzbekistan South Africa

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Ranking 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109

Team Austria New Zealand Belarus Oman Libya Rwanda Sudan Iraq Mozambique Angola Peru Canada Zambia Albania Moldova Iceland Benin Congo DR Qatar Syria Cuba Ethiopia China PR Tanzania El Salvador Cape Verde Islands Korea DPR Fiji Zimbabwe Kenya Grenada Georgia

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Ranking 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 118 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 127 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 140

Team Sierra Leone Guatemala Malawi Thailand Bermuda Estonia Antigua and Barbuda Montenegro Equatorial Guinea Haiti Kuwait Namibia United Arab Emirates Barbados Botswana Armenia Luxembourg Jordan Guyana Suriname Chad New Caledonia Burundi Singapore Vietnam Madagascar Swaziland Kazakhstan Indonesia Nicaragua Azerbaijan Liberia

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Ranking 142 143 144 145 146 147 147 149 150 151 152 153 153 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173

Team Hong Kong Vanuatu Tajikistan Niger Yemen India Kyrgyzstan Netherlands Antilles Lebanon Malta St. Vincent and the Grenadines St. Kitts and Nevis Puerto Rico Liechtenstein Mauritania Turkmenistan Maldives Myanmar Eritrea Malaysia Philippines Lesotho Solomon Islands Sri Lanka Faroe Islands Somalia Cayman Islands Nepal Laos Palestine Mauritius Seychelles

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Ranking 174 175 175 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 185 187 188 189 189 189 189 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 199 201 202 202 202 202

Team Samoa Cambodia Belize Pakistan Bangladesh Bahamas Chinese Taipei Turks and Caicos Islands Brunei Darussalam Mongolia Afghanistan Djibouti Dominican Republic Guinea-Bissau Guam Bhutan St. Lucia Tahiti Tonga British Virgin Islands Aruba Andorra Macau Dominica Timor-Leste Comoros US Virgin Islands Central African Republic San Marino Anguilla Montserrat American Samoa

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Ranking 202 202

Team Cook Islands Papua New Guinea

Events
2009 02 May 20-21 May 31 May - 03 June 06-10 June 14-28 June 03-26 July 12 August 05-09 September 24 September - 16 October 10-14 October 24 October - 15 November 14-18 November 16-22 November 04-05 December 09-19 December 2010 10-31 January 03 March 11 June - 11 July 11 August 04-08 September 09-13 October 17 November 2011 09 February 26-30 March 04-08 June 10 August 03-07 September 08-12 October FIFA Interactive World Cup Grand Final 2009 Blue Stars/FIFA Youth Cup 2009 59th FIFA Congress Fixed date for official competition matches FIFA Confederations Cup South Africa 2009 CONCACAF Gold Cup Fixed date for friendly matches Fixed date for official competition matches FIFA U-20 World Cup Fixed date for official competition matches FIFA U-17 World Cup Fixed date for official competition matches FIFA Beach Soccer World Cup Final Draw for the 2010 FIFA World Cup South Africa™ FIFA Club World Cup CAF Africa Cup of Nations Angola Fixed date for friendly matches 2010 FIFA World Cup South Africa™ South Africa Fixed date for friendly matches Fixed date for official competition matches Fixed date for official competition matches Fixed date for friendly matches Fixed date for friendly matches Fixed date for official competition matches Fixed date for official competition matches Fixed date for friendly matches Fixed date for official competition matches Fixed date for official competition matches Nigeria UAE -Dubai South Africa United Arab Emirates Barcelona Zurich Bahamas South Africa

Egypt

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2011 12-16 November 2012 29 February 15 August 08-12 September 13-17 October 14 November 2013 06 February 23-27 March 08-12 June 14 August 07-11 September 12-16 October 16-20 November 2014 05 March 13 August 06-10 September 11-15 October 19 November

Fixed date for official competition matches Fixed date for friendly matches Fixed date for friendly matches Fixed date for official competition matches Fixed date for official competition matches Fixed date for friendly matches Fixed date for friendly matches Fixed date for official competition matches Fixed date for official competition matches Fixed date for friendly matches Fixed date for official competition matches Fixed date for official competition matches Fixed date for official competition matches Fixed date for friendly matches Fixed date for friendly matches Fixed date for official competition matches Fixed date for official competition matches Fixed date for friendly matches

Laws of the Game.

The Field of Play
Dimensions The field of play must be rectangular. The length of the touch line must be greater than the length of the goal line. Length: minimum 90 m (100 yds) maximum 120 m (130 yds) Width: minimum 45 m (50 yds) maximum 90 m (100 yds) International Matches Length: minimum 100 m (110 yds) maximum 110 m (120 yds) Width: minimum 64 m (70 yds) maximum 75 m (80 yds) Field Markings The field of play is marked with lines. These

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lines belong to the areas of which they are boundaries. The two longer boundary lines are called touch lines. The two shorter lines are called goal lines. All lines are not more than 12 cm (5 ins) wide. The field of play is divided into two halves by a halfway line. The centre mark is indicated at the midpoint of the halfway line. A circle with a radius of 9.15 m (10 yds) is marked around it. The Goal Area A goal area is defined at each end of the field as follows: Two lines are drawn at right angles to the goal line, 5.5 m (6 yds) from the inside of each goalpost. These lines extend into the field of play for a distance of 5.5 m (6 yds) and are joined by a line drawn parallel with the goal line. The area bounded by these lines and the goal line is the goal area. The Penalty Area A penalty area is defined at each end of the field as follows: Two lines are drawn at right angles to the goal line, 16.5 m (18 yds) from the inside of each goalpost. These lines extend into the field of play for a distance of 16.5 m (18 yds) and are joined by a line drawn parallel with the goal line. The area bounded by these lines and the goal line is the penalty area. Within each penalty area a penalty mark is made 11 m (12 yds) from the midpoint between the goalposts and equidistant to them. An arc of a circle with a radius of 9.15 m (10 yds) from each penalty mark is drawn outside the penalty area. Flagposts A flagpost, not less than 1.5 m (5 ft) high, with a non-pointed top and a flag is placed at each corner. Flagposts may also be placed at each end of the halfway line, not less than 1 m (1 yd) outside the touch line. The Corner Arc A quarter circle with a radius of 1 m (1 yd)

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from each corner flagpost is drawn inside the field of play. Decisions of the International F.A. Board _ Decision 1 If the crossbar becomes displaced or broken, play is stopped until it has been repaired or replaced in position. If a repair is not possible, the match is abandoned. The use of a rope to replace the crossbar is not permitted. If the crossbar can be repaired, the match is restarted with a dropped ball at the place where the ball was located when play was stopped. * (see page 3) _ Decision 2 Goalposts and crossbars must be made of wood, metal or other approved material. Their shape may be square, rectangular, round or elliptical and they must not be dangerous to players. _ Decision 3 No kind of commercial advertising, whether real or virtual, is permitted on the field of play and field equipment (including the goal nets and the areas they enclose) from the time the teams enter the field of play until they have left it at half-time and from the time the teams re-enter the field of play until the end of the match. In particular, no advertising material of any kind may be displayed on goals, nets, flagposts or their flags. No extraneous equipment (cameras, microphones, etc.) may be attached to these items. _ Decision 4 There shall be no advertising of any kind within the technical area or within one metre from the touch line and outside the field of play on the ground. Further, no advertising shall be allowed in the area between the goal line and the goal nets. _ Decision 5 The reproduction, whether real or virtual, of representative logos or emblems of FIFA, confederations, national associations, leagues, clubs or other bodies, is forbidden on the field of play and field equipment

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(including the goal nets and the areas they enclose) during playing time, as described in Decision 3. _ Decision 6 A mark may be made off the field of play, 9.15 metres (10 yds) from the corner arc and at right angles to the goal lines to ensure that this distance is observed when a corner kick is being taken.

The Ball
Qualities and Measurements The ball is: _ spherical _ made of leather or other suitable material _ of a circumference of not more than 70 cm (28 ins) and not less than 68 cm (27 ins) _ not more than 450 g (16 oz) in weight and not less than 410 g (14 oz) at the start of the match _ of a pressure equal to 0.6 – 1.1 atmosphere (600 – 1100 g/cm2) at sea level (8.5 lbs/sq in 15.6 lbs/sq in) Replacement of a Defective Ball If the ball bursts or becomes defective during the course of a match: _ the match is stopped _ the match is restarted by dropping the replacement ball at the place where the first ball became defective * (see page 3) If the ball bursts or becomes defective whilst not in play at a kick-off, goal kick, corner kick, free kick, penalty kick or throw-in: _ the match is restarted accordingly The ball may not be changed during the match without the authority of the referee.

Offside Position
It is not an offence in itself to be in an offside position. A player is in an offside position if: _ he is nearer to his opponents’ goal line than both the ball and the second last opponent A player is not in an offside position if:

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_ he is in his own half of the field of play or _ he is level with the second last opponent or _ he is level with the last two opponents Offence A player in an offside position is only penalised if, at the moment the ball touches or is played by one of his team, he is, in the opinion of the referee, involved in active play by: _ interfering with play or _ interfering with an opponent or _ gaining an advantage by being in that position No Offence There is no offside offence if a player receives the ball directly from: _ a goal kick or _ a throw-in or _ a corner kick

Disciplinary Sanctions
Only a player or substitute or substituted player may be shown the red or yellow card. Cautionable Offences A player is cautioned and shown the yellow card if he commits any of the following seven offences: 1. is guilty of unsporting behaviour 2. shows dissent by word or action 3. persistently infringes the Laws of the Game 4. delays the restart of play 5. fails to respect the required distance when play is restarted with a corner kick or free kick 6. enters or re-enters the field of play without the referee’s permission 7. deliberately leaves the field of play without the referee’s permission Law 12 Sending-Off Offences

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A player is sent off and shown the red card if he commits any of the following seven offences: 1. is guilty of serious foul play 2. is guilty of violent conduct 3. spits at an opponent or any other person 4. denies the opposing team a goal or an obvious goal-scoring opportunity by deliberately handling the ball (this does not apply to a goalkeeper within his own penalty area) 5. denies an obvious goal-scoring opportunity to an opponent moving towards the player’s goal by an offence punishable by a free kick or a penalty kick 6. uses offensive or insulting or abusive language and/or gestures 7. receives a second caution in the same match A player who has been sent off must leave the vicinity of the field of play and the technical area. A penalty kick is awarded against a team which commits one of the ten offences for which a direct free kick is awarded, inside its own penalty area and while the ball is in play. A goal may be scored directly from a penalty kick. Additional time is allowed for a penalty kick to be taken at the end of each half or at the end of periods of extra time. Position of the Ball and the Players The ball: _ is placed on the penalty mark The player taking the penalty kick: _ is properly identified The defending goalkeeper: _ remains on his goal line, facing the kicker, between the goalposts until the ball has been kicked The players other than the kicker are located: _ inside the field of play _ outside the penalty area _ behind the penalty mark _ at least 9.15 m (10 yds) from the penalty mark

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The Referee _ does not signal for a penalty kick to be taken until the players have taken up position in accordance with the Law _ decides when a penalty kick has been completed Procedure _ the player taking the penalty kicks the ball forward _ he does not play the ball a second time until it has touched another player _ the ball is in play when it is kicked and moves forward When a penalty kick is taken during the normal course of play, or time has been extended at half-time or full time to allow a penalty kick to be taken or retaken, a goal is awarded if, before passing between the goalposts and under the crossbar: _ the ball touches either or both of the goalposts and/or the crossbar, and/or the goalkeeper 31 Law 14 Infringements/Sanctions If the referee gives the signal for a penalty kick to be taken and, before the ball is in play, one of the following situations occurs: The player taking the penalty kick infringes the Laws of the Game: _ the referee allows the kick to proceed _ if the ball enters the goal, the kick is retaken _ if the ball does not enter the goal, the kick is not retaken The goalkeeper infringes the Laws of the Game: _ the referee allows the kick to proceed _ if the ball enters the goal, a goal is awarded _ if the ball does not enter the goal, the kick is retaken A team-mate of the player taking the kick enters the penalty area or moves in front of or within 9.15 m (10 yds) of the penalty mark: _ the referee allows the kick to proceed _ if the ball enters the goal, the kick is retaken _ if the ball does not enter the goal, the kick is

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not retaken _ if the ball rebounds from the goalkeeper, the crossbar or the goal post and is touched by this player, the referee stops play and restarts the match with an indirect free kick to the defending team A team-mate of the goalkeeper enters the penalty area or moves in front of or within 9.15 m (10 yds) of the penalty mark: _ the referee allows the kick to proceed _ if the ball enters the goal, a goal is awarded _ if the ball does not enter the goal, the kick is retaken A player of both the defending team and the attacking team infringe the Laws of the Game: _ the kick is retaken If, after the penalty kick has been taken: The kicker touches the ball a second time (except with his hands) before it has touched another player: _ an indirect free kick is awarded to the opposing team, the kick to be taken from the place where the infringement occurred * (see page 3) The kicker deliberately handles the ball before it has touched another player: _ a direct free kick is awarded to the opposing team, the kick to be taken from the place where the infringement occurred * (see page 3) The ball is touched by an outside agent as it moves forward: _ the kick is retaken The ball rebounds into the field of play from the goalkeeper, the crossbar or the goalposts, and is then touched by an outside agent: _ the referee stops play _ play is restarted with a dropped ball at theplace where it touched the outside agent *

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World Cup summaries Year Host Nation(s) 1930 Winner Uruguay Details 1934 Uruguay Italy Details 1938 Italy France Details 1950 Italy Brazil Details 1954 Uruguay Switzerland Details 1958 West Sweden Details Germany 1962 Chile Details Brazil 1966 England Details Brazil 1970 Mexico Details England 1974 West Details Germany Brazil 1978 Argentina Details West 1982 Spain Germany Details 1986 Mexico Argentina Details 1990 Italy Italy Details 1994 United Argentina Details States 1998 Details 2002 Details France South Korea & Japan West Germany Brazil France 2006 Details Germany Brazil Italy

Final Score Runner-up 4–2 2–1 aet 4–2
[note 2]

Third Place Match 3rd Place Score 4th Place United States Germany Brazil Sweden Austria France Chile Portugal West Germany Poland Brazil Poland France Italy Sweden
[note 1]

Argentina Czechoslovakia Hungary Brazil

Yugoslavia Austria Sweden Spain Uruguay West Germany Yugoslavia USSR Uruguay Brazil Italy France Belgium England Bulgaria Netherlands Korea Republic Portugal

3–2 4–2
[note 2]

3–2 5–2 3–1 4–2 aet 4–1 2–1 3–1 aet 3–1 3–2 1–0 0–0 aet (3–2) pen 3–0 2–0 1–1 aet (5–3) pen

3–1 6–3 1–0 2–1 1–0 1–0 2–1 3–2 4–2 aet 2–1 4–0 2–1 3–2

Hungary Sweden Czechoslovakia West Germany Italy Netherlands Netherlands West Germany West Germany Argentina Italy Brazil Germany France

Croatia Turkey

Germany

3–1

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Team Titles Runners-up

Brazil 5 (1958, 1962, 1970, 1994, 2002) 2 (1950*, 1998)

Italy 4 (1934*, 1938, 1982, 2006) 2 (1970, 1994) Germany^ 3 (1954, 1974*, 1990) 4 (1966, 1982, 1986, 2002) Argentina 2 (1978*, 1986) 2 (1930, 1990) Uruguay 2 (1930*, 1950) – France 1 (1998*) 1 (2006) England 1 (1966*) – Netherlands – 2 (1974, 1978) Czechoslovakia# – 2 (1934, 1962) Hungary – 2 (1938, 1954) Sweden – 1 (1958*)

RUGBY
International Rugby League
International Rugby League: Rugby Football is a popular full-contact team sport, played worldwide. Believed to have originated in 1823, at the Rugby School, in Warwickshire, England, this sport has evolved over the years. With the disbanding from the Rugby Football Union (RFU) in 1895, Northern Union is better known Rugby League since 1922.

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Sanctioned and overseen by the International Rugby Board (IRB) and the Rugby League International Federation (RLIF), there are numerous International Rugby League competitions that are held every year, with various countries participating in them. The countries are distinguished as Test and Non-Test playing nations and are named below:
• •

Test Nations – Australia, Cook Islands, Fiji, France, Great Britain/England, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, Russia, Samoa, South Africa and Tonga. Non-Test Nations - American Samoa, Argentina, Austria, Canada, Czech Republic, England, Estonia, Georgia, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Lebanon, Malta, Moldova, Morocco, Namibia, New Caledonia, Netherlands, Niue, Norfolk Island, Portugal, Scotland, Serbia, Solomon Islands, Tokelau, Tuvalu, United States, Wales and West Indies.

The major International Rugby League competitions that are held are listed below as:

• •

The Rugby League World Cup – this international tournament was first held in France in 1954, and is played to determine the best rugby league playing nation in the world. Its current champions are Australia which will also be host to the next Cup event in 2008. The Ashes – a rugby league Test tournament between Great Britain and Australia, this event was first played in 1908 in London. While Australia won the 2003 series, they also expect to be hosts for the 2010 Ashes event. The ANZAC Test – its current name being the Bundaberg Rum Test, this Test event between Australia and New Zealand is held around Anzac Day. The first event was held in 1997 in Australia. Australia have won six of the seven matches played till now, and will also host the 2007 event in April. The Tri-Nations – also known as the Gillette Tri-Nations tournament, it is played amongst Australia, New Zealand and Great Britain. First played in 1999, the next event would be hosted by United Kingdom in 2009. Its current champions are Australia. The Pacific Cup –Started in 1974, this Cup event is for teams from the Pacific region. Held of and on over the years, the event was recently revived by New Zealand in 2004. Tonga are the current champions. The Pacific Rim Championship – a competition held in conjunction with the Pacific Cup, and held biennially. The Mediterranean Cup – An annual tournament which began in 2000, with an unsteady run, is held in Lebanon. The countries participating are Lebanon, France, Morocco and Serbia. The European Nations Cup – Earlier known as European Championship, it began in 1935, and is a Cup event for European nations, which is sanctioned by the Rugby League European Federation. France are the standing 2005 winners. The Emerging Nations Tournament – started in 1995, this international event is for those nations that have failed to qualify for the World Cup. The standing winners are the British Amateur Rugby League Association since 2000. The World Club Challenge – this annual tournament is held between the winners of the Australian NRL and the Super League (Europe). The 2007 champions are St Helens RFC.

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• •

The NRL Telstra Premiership The Liberty Bell Cup

List of international Rugby League teams

Current RLIF full-member test nations
Nation Australia Cook Islands England * Fiji France Great Britain * New Zealand 1st Playing Year RLIF Rank 1908 1988 1904 1992 1934 1908 1908 1st 14th 3rd 4th 5th n/a 2nd 6th 13th 10th 11th 8th

Papua New Guinea 1975 Russia Samoa Lebanon Tonga 1991 1988 1998 1988

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* At the beginning of the 2008 international season Great Britain were split up into England, Ireland, Scotland and Wales on a permanent basis and it was believed all of these nations were granted full-membership into the top tier.

Current RLIF second-tier member nations

These are nations that appear in major international competitions such as the European, Mediterranean and Pacific Cups or in the world cup qualifiers: Nation 1st Year Played RLIF Rank n/a 15th 23rd 7th 18th 17th 11th 24th n/a n/a 29th

American Samoa 1988 Georgia South Africa Ireland Italy Japan Lebanon Morocco Netherlands New Caledonia Niue 2005 1995 1989 1960 1998 1998 1995 2004 2004 1992

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Scotland Serbia Tokelau United States Wales West Indies

1996 2003 1988 1954 1908 2004

9th 16th 30th 15th 12th n/a

Current RLIF affiliates

These are nations that are currently officially recognized as affiliates of the RLIF but do not yet currently compete in major international competitions or world cup qualifiers: Nation Year joined RLIF Rank 2005 2006 1987 2006 2006 n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a 20th 22nd

Argentina Austria Canada Catalonia Côte d'Ivoire

Czech Republic 2006 Estonia 2005

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Germany Greece Hungary Jamaica Kazakhstan Malta Moldova Norfolk Island Norway Portugal Singapore

2004 2003 2007 2006 2006 2004 1993 2004 2006 2005 2004

19th 26st n/a 24th n/a 27th n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a

Solomon Islands 2004 Thailand Tuvalu Uruguay 2007 2004 2007

RLIF World Rankings
Rank Change Team

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1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 24 26 27 28 29

Australia New Zealand England Fiji France Papua New ▲1 Guinea ▲2 Ireland Tonga ▼4 ▲2 Scotland Samoa ▲2 ▼3 Lebanon Wales ▼2 -Russia Cook Islands ▲3 ▼1 United States ▲4 Serbia ▲11 Japan ▼2 Italy ▲3 Germany ▲11 Czech Republic ? Latvia ▲7 Estonia ▲7 South Africa ▲12 Jamaica ▲3 Morocco ▼5 Greece ▼8 Malta ? Ukraine Niue ▼3

---▲2 --

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History of the Nobel Prizes
A pacifist at heart and an inventor by nature, Swedish chemist Alfred Nobel invented dynamite. However, the invention that he thought would end all wars was seen by many others as an extremely deadly product. In 1888, when Alfred's brother Ludvig died, a French newspaper mistakenly ran an obituary for Alfred which called him the "merchant of death." Not wanting to go down in history with such a horrible epitaph, Nobel created a will that soon shocked his relatives and established the now famous Nobel Prizes. Who was Alfred Nobel? Why did Nobel's will make establishing the prizes so difficult?

Alfred Nobel
Alfred Nobel was born on October 21, 1833 in Stockholm, Sweden. In 1842, when Alfred was nine years old, his mother (Andrietta Ahlsell) and brothers (Robert and Ludvig) moved to St. Petersburg, Russia to join Alfred's father (Immanuel), who had moved there five years earlier. The following year, Alfred's younger brother, Emil, was born. Immanuel Nobel, an architect, builder, and inventor, opened a machineshop in St. Petersburg and was soon very successful with contracts from the Russian government to build defense weapons. Because of his father's success, Alfred was tutored at home until the age of 16. Yet, many consider Alfred Nobel a mostly self-educated man. Besides being a trained chemist, Alfred was an avid reader of literature and was fluent in English, German, French, Swedish, and Russian. Alfred also spent two years traveling. He spent much of this time working in a laboratory in Paris, but also traveled to the United States. Upon his return, Alfred worked in his father's factory. He worked there until his father went bankrupt in 1859.

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Alfred soon began experimenting with nitroglycerine, creating his first explosions in early summer 1862. In only a year (October 1863), Alfred received a Swedish patent for his percussion detonator - the "Nobel lighter." Having moved back to Sweden to help his father with an invention, Alfred established a small factory at Helenborg near Stockholm to manufacture nitroglycerine. Unfortunately, nitroglycerine is a very difficult and dangerous material to handle. In 1864, Alfred's factory blew up - killing several people, including Alfred's younger brother, Emil. The explosion did not slow down Alfred, and within only a month, he organized other factories to manufacture nitroglycerine. In 1867, Alfred invented a new and safer-to-handle explosive - dynamite. Though Alfred became famous for his invention of dynamite, many people did not intimately know Alfred Nobel. He was a quiet man who did not like a lot of pretense or show. He had very few friends and never married. And though he recognized the destructive power of dynamite, Alfred believed it was a harbinger of peace. Alfred told Bertha von Suttner, an advocate for world peace, My factories may make an end of war sooner than your congresses. The day when two army corps can annihilate each other in one second, all civilized nations, it is to be hoped, will recoil from war and discharge their troops.* Unfortunately, Alfred did not see peace in his time. Alfred Nobel, chemist and inventor, died alone on December 10, 1896 after suffering a cerebral hemorrhage. After several funeral services were held and Alfred Nobel's body was cremated, the will was opened. Everyone was shocked. The Will Alfred Nobel had written several wills during his lifetime, but the last one was dated November 27, 1895 - a little over a year before he died. Nobel's last will left approximately 94 percent of his worth to the establishment of five prizes (physics, chemistry, physiology or medicine, literature, and peace) to "those who, during the preceding year, shall have conferred the greatest benefit on mankind." Though Nobel had proposed a very grandiose plan for the prizes in his will, there were a great many problems with the will.
• •

Relatives of Alfred Nobel were so shocked that many wanted the will contested. The format of the will had formal defects which could have caused the will to be contested in France.

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• • •

It was unclear which country Alfred had his legal residence. He was a Swedish citizen until age nine, but after that he had lived in Russia, France, and Italy without becoming a citizen. Nobel had been making plans for a final home for himself in Sweden when he died. The location of residency would determine what country's laws would govern the will and the estate. If determined to be France, the will could have been contested and French taxes would have been taken. Because Nobel had wanted the Norwegian Storting (parliament) to choose the peace prize winner, many charged Nobel with a lack of patriotism. The "fund" that was to implement the prizes did not yet exist and would have to be created. The organizations that Nobel named in his will to award the prizes had not been asked to take on these duties prior to Nobel's death. Also, there was no plan to compensate these organizations for their work on the prizes. The will did not state what should be done if no prize winners for a year were found.

Because of the incompleteness and other obstacles presented by Alfred's will, it took five years of hurdles before the Nobel Foundation could be established and the first prizes awarded. The First Nobel Prizes On the fifth anniversary of Alfred Nobel's death, December 10, 1901, the first set of Nobel Prizes were awarded. Chemistry: Jacobus H. van't Hoff Physics: Wilhelm C. Röntgen Physiology or Medicine: Emil A. von Behring Literature: Rene F. A. Sully Prudhomme Peace: Jean H. Dunant and Frédéric Passy

Background and Establishment of the Nobel Foundation
Alfred Nobel died on December 10, 1896. The provisions of his will and their unusual purpose, as well as their partly incomplete form, attracted great attention and soon led to skepticism and criticism, also aimed at the testator due to his international spirit. Only after several years of negotiations and often rather bitter conflicts, and after various obstacles had been circumvented or overcome, could the fundamental concepts presented in the will assume solid form with the establishment of the Nobel Foundation. On April 26, 1897, the Storting (Norwegian Parliament) approved the will and soon afterwards elected members to the prize-awarding Norwegian Nobel Committee of the Storting. In 1898 the other prize-awarding bodies followed suit, approving the will after mediation: Karolinska Institutet on June 7, the Swedish Academy on June 9 and the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences on June 11.

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The testator and his will. The superimposed photo of Alfred Nobel was taken in 1896, the year he died. The will was now settled. The task of achieving unity among all the affected parties on how to put its provisions into practice remained. The final version of the Statutes of the Nobel Foundation contained clarifications of the wording of the will and a provision that prizes not considered possible to award could be allocated to funds that would otherwise promote the intentions of the testator. The Statutes provided for the establishment of Nobel Committees to perform prize adjudication work and Nobel Institutes to support this work, as well as the appointment of a Board of Directors in charge of the Foundation's financial and administrative management. On June 29, 1900, the Statutes of the newly created legatee, the Nobel Foundation, and special regulations for the Swedish Prize-Awarding Institutions were promulgated by the King in Council (Oscar II). The same year as the political union between Sweden and Norway was dissolved in 1905, special regulations were adopted on April 10, 1905, by the Nobel Committee of the Storting (known since January 1, 1977 as the Norwegian Nobel Committee), the awarder of the Nobel Peace Prize.

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A century old. The cover of the Statutes of the Nobel Foundation when it was promulgated on June 29, 1900.

Premises
To create a worthy framework around the prizes, the Board decided at an early stage that it would erect its own building in Stockholm, which would include a hall for the Prize Award Ceremony and Banquet as well as its own administrative offices. Ferdinand Boberg was selected as the architect. He presented an ambitious proposal for a Nobel Palace, which generated extensive publicity but also led to doubts and questions. World War I broke out before any decision could be made. The proposal was "put on ice" and by the time the matter was revived after the war, Ivar Tengbom was busily designing what later became the Stockholm Concert Hall. Meanwhile the Stockholm City Hall was being built under the supervision of Ragnar Östberg. Boberg, Tengbom, and Östberg were probably the most respected architects in Sweden at that time. Because it would have access to both these buildings for its events, the Nobel Foundation now only needed space for its administrative offices. On December 19, 1918, a building at Sturegatan 14 was bought for this purpose. After years of renovation there, the Foundation finally left its cramped premises at Norrlandsgatan 6 in 1926 and moved to Sturegatan 14, where the Foundation has been housed ever since.

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Objectives of the Foundation
The Nobel Foundation is a private institution. It is entrusted with protecting the common interests of the Prize Awarding Institutions named in the will, as well as representing the Nobel institutions externally. This includes informational activities as well as arrangements related to the presentation of the Nobel Prizes. The Foundation is not, however, involved in the selection process and the final choice of the Laureates (as Nobel Prize winners are also called). In this work, the Prize-Awarding Institutions are not only entirely independent of all government agencies and organizations, but also of the Nobel Foundation. Their autonomy is of crucial importance to the objectivity and quality of their prize decisions. One vital task of the Foundation is to manage its assets in such a way as to safeguard the financial base of the prizes themselves and of the prize selection process.

Statutes and Significant Amendments during 100 Years The Statutes, as most recently revised in 2000, assign roles to the following bodies or individuals in the Nobel Foundation's activities:
• • • • • •

The Board and the Executive Director (especially paragraphs 13 and 14) The Prize-Awarding Institutions (especially paragraphs 1 and 2) The Trustees of the Prize-Awarding Institutions (especially paragraph 18) The Nobel Committees and experts (especially paragraph 6) Bodies and individuals entitled to submit prize nominations (especially paragraph 7) Auditors (especially paragraph 19)

Over the past 100 years, there have been a number of changes in the relationship between the Foundation's Board of Directors and the Swedish State. Their links have gradually been severed. According to paragraph 14 of the first Statutes from 1901, the Foundation was to be represented by a Board with its seat in Stockholm, consisting of five Swedish men. One of these, the Chairman of the Board, was to be designated by the King in Council. The Trustees of the Prize

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Awarding Institutions would appoint the others. The Board would choose an Executive Director from among its own members. An alternate (deputy) to the Chairman would be appointed by the King in Council (effective in 1974, by the Government), and two deputies for the other members would be elected by the Trustees. Since 1995 the Trustees have appointed all members and deputies of the Board. The Board chooses a Chairman, Deputy Chairman and Executive Director from among its own members. The first Board of Directors of the Nobel Foundation was elected by the Trustees on September 27, 1900 (Hans Forsell, Ragnar Törnebladh, Henrik Santesson, and Ragnar Sohlman, with Mauritz Salin and Oscar Montelius as Deputies). On the following day, former Prime Minister Erik Gustaf Boström was appointed Chairman of the Board by the King in Council with the Justice of the Supreme Court C. G. Hernmarck as Deputy. On October 3, 1900 the Board elected Assistant Circuit Judge Henrik Santesson as the first Executive Director of the Foundation. Effective on January 1, 1901 the Board assumed management of the Foundation's assets. Until 1960 the Chairman was chosen from the small group of "Gentlemen of the Realm" - prime ministers, ministers for foreign affairs and other high officials. In 1960 for the first time, a renowned scientist was chosen: Arne Tiselius, Professor of Biochemistry at Uppsala University and 1948 Nobel Laureate in Chemistry. Since then the Chairman has been chosen from among members of the Prize-Awarding Institutions. It has also become a rule that the Deputy Chairman as well as one of the members of the Board elected by the Trustees should be persons with financial expertise. This custom began in 1951, when senior banker and industrialist Jacob Wallenberg was elected to the Board by the Trustees. He was also a member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. When his brother Marcus Wallenberg succeeded him in 1968, it was the first time that a member of the Board did not belong to a Prize-Awarding Institution. As to the Deputy Chairman of the Board, appointed by the King in Council, this practice started in 1960, when the prominent banker Gustaf Söderlund was elected to the Board. In most cases, the Executive Director has had a legal and administrative background. As the Foundation's investment policy became more active from the early 1950s onward, financial experience coupled with a knowledge of international relations have been valuable assets for those holding this position.

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Arne Tiselius was Chairman of the Board of the Nobel Foundation 19601964. An important landmark in the history of the Foundation occurred when it added Norwegian representation to the Board. In 1901, the Norwegians refrained from representation on the Board - being appointed by King Oscar at a time when Norway was moving toward a breakup of its union with Sweden was not considered an attractive idea - and they limited their involvement to work as Trustees and auditors. In light of this, it is interesting to note that Henrik Santesson, the first Executive Director of the Foundation, also happened to be the legal counsel of the Storting in Sweden. But in 1986, paragraph 14 of the Statutes was changed and the Board no longer had to consist of five Swedish citizens (the original Statutes had said Swedish men), but of six Swedish or Norwegian citizens. The Statutes were also changed in such a way that remuneration to the Board members and auditors of the Foundation, as well as the salary of the Executive Director, would be determined by the Foundation's Board instead of the Swedish Government.

King Oscar II of Sweden

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According to paragraph 17 of the original Statutes, the administration of the Board and the accounts of the Foundation for each calendar year were to be examined by five auditors. Each prize-awarding body would elect one of these before the end of the year and the King would designate one, who would be the chairman of the auditors. In 1955 the number of auditors was enlarged from five to six; the new auditor would be appointed by the Trustees and had to be an authorized public accountant. This was a very important change, in line with the Foundation's more active financial investment policy. Today the Government's only role in the Nobel Foundation is to appoint one auditor, who is also to be the chairman of the Foundation's auditors. Among other changes that have occurred in the Statutes are the following:

Until 1968, in principle more than three persons could share a Nobel Prize, but this never occurred in practice. The previous wording of paragraph 4 was: "A prize may be equally divided between two works, each of which may be considered to merit a prize. If a work which is to be rewarded has been produced by two or more persons together, the prize shall be awarded to them jointly." In 1968 this section was changed to read that "In no case may a prize be divided between more than three persons." In 1974, the Statutes were changed in two respects. The confidential archive material that formed the basis for the evaluation and selection of candidates for the prizes, which was previously closed to all outsiders, could now be made available for purposes of historical research if at least 50 years had elapsed since the decision in question. The other change concerned deceased persons. Previously, a person could be awarded a prize posthumously if he/she had already been nominated (before February 1 of the same year), which was true of Erik Axel Karlfeldt (Literature Prize, 1931) and Dag Hammarskjöld (Peace Prize, 1961). Effective from 1974, the prize may only go to a deceased person to whom it was already awarded (usually in October) but who had died before he/she could receive the prize on December 10 (William Vickrey, 1996 Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel).

Erik Axel Karlfeldt Copyright © The Nobel Foundation

Dag Hammarskjöld Copyright © The Nobel Foundation

William Vickrey Copyright © The Nobel Foundation

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Financial Management
The main task of the Nobel Foundation is to safeguard the financial base of the Nobel Prizes and of the work connected to the selection of the Nobel Laureates. In its role as a financial manager, the Nobel Foundation resembles an investment company. The investment policy of the Foundation is naturally of the greatest importance in preserving and increasing its funds, thereby ensuring the size of the Nobel Prizes. The provisions of Alfred Nobel's will instructed his executors to invest his remaining realizable estate, which would constitute the capital of what eventually became the Nobel Foundation, in "safe securities." In the original by-laws of the Board, approved by the King in Council on February 15, 1901, the expression "safe securities" was interpreted in the spirit of that time as referring mainly to bonds or loans - Swedish as well as foreign - paying fixed interest and backed by solid underlying security (central or local government, property mortgages or the like). In those days, many bonds were sold with a so-called gold clause, stipulating that the holder was entitled to demand payment in gold. The stock market and real estate holdings were beyond the pale. Stocks in particular were regarded as an excessively risky and speculative form of financial investment. The first 50 years of management came to be characterized by rigidity in terms of financial investments and by an increasingly onerous tax burden. Remarkably, the tax issue had not been addressed when the Nobel Foundation was established. The tax-exempt status that the executors of the will and others had assumed as self-evident was not granted. Until 1914, the tax was not excessively heavy, only 10 percent, but when a "temporary defense tax" supplement was introduced in 1915, the Foundation's tax burden doubled. In 1922, a maximum tax assessment was imposed which exceeded the sum available for the prizes in 1923, the year when the Nobel Prize amount reached its absolute low point. For a long time, the Nobel Foundation was the largest single taxpayer in Stockholm. The question of granting tax-exempt status to the Foundation was debated back and forth in the Riksdag (Swedish Parliament) for years. In 1946, when the Foundation was finally exempted from national income and wealth tax and local income tax, this allowed a gradual long-term increase in the size of the Foundation's main fund, the Nobel Prizes and the sums paid to the Prize-Awarding Institutions for their adjudication work. Without Swedish tax-exempt status, it would have been impossible for the Foundation to receive equivalent tax relief for its financial investments in the United States. In the event, a U.S. Treasury ruling granted the Foundation tax-exempt status in that country effective from 1953. Tax-exempt status created greater freedom of action, enabling the Foundation to pursue an investment policy not dominated by tax considerations that characterize the actions of many investors. However, the restrictions on the Foundation's freedom of investments continued with minor changes until 1953, although the gold clause and resulting protection against declining value had disappeared as early as World War I. Because of two world wars and the depression of the early 1930s, the prizes shrank in real terms from SEK 150,000 in 1901 (equivalent to 20 times the annual salary of a university professor) to a mere one third of this value.

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Then, in 1953, the Government approved a radical liberalization of the investment rules. The Foundation was granted a more extensive freedom to manage its capital independently, as well as the opportunity to invest in stocks and real estate. Freedom of investment, coupled with taxexemption and the financial expertise of the Board, led to a transformation from passive to active management. This can be regarded as a landmark change in the role of the Foundation's Board. During the 1960s and 1970s, the value of the Nobel Prizes multiplied in Swedish krona terms but rapid inflation meanwhile undermined their real value, leaving each prize largely unchanged. The same was true of the Foundation's capital.

Photo of the check received by Prof. J. C. Kendrew, 1962 Nobel Chemistry Laureate. Nowadays, no checks are given. The prize money is transferred by bank according to the Laureate's wishes. During the 1980s, the Foundation experienced a change for the better. The stock market performed outstandingly and the Foundation's real estate also climbed in value. A sour note came in 1985, when Swedish real estate taxes rose sharply and profits consequently vanished. In 1987, the Board decided to transfer most of the Foundation's real estate to a separate company called Beväringen, which was then floated on the stock exchange. In the same year that Beväringen was established, the Nobel Foundation surpassed its original value in real terms (SEK 31 million in 1901 money) for the first time. The Foundation was fortunate enough to sell its entire holding in Beväringen before the real estate crash of the early 1990s.

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The first Nobel Prize in 1901 amounted to SEK 150,000, equivalent to SEK 7.4 million in 2006 money. By 1991, the Foundation had restored the Nobel Prizes to their 1901 real value. Today the nominal fund capital of the Nobel Foundation is about SEK 3.6 billion. In 2006 each of the five Nobel Prizes as well as the Economics Prize was worth SEK 10 million (about USD 1.45 million). This is well above the nominal value of the entire original fund, and higher than the real value of the original prizes. Since January 1, 2000, the Nobel Foundation has also been permitted to apply the capital gains from the sale of assets toward the prize amounts. According to Alfred Nobel's will, only direct return - interest and dividends - could be used for the prize amounts. Capital gains from share management could not previously be used. According to the new rules, return that arises from the sale of Foundation assets may also be used for prize award events and overhead, to the extent that they are not needed to maintain a good long-term prizeawarding capacity. This change is necessary to avoid undermining the value of the Nobel Prizes. The Nobel Foundation may also decide how much of its assets may be invested in shares. In the long term, this may mean that the Foundation can now have a higher percentage of its assets invested in shares, leading to higher overall return and thus larger Nobel Prizes.

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The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel
On the occasion of its 300th anniversary in 1968, the Sveriges Riksbank (Sweden's central bank) made a large donation to the Nobel Foundation. A Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel has been awarded since 1969. The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences is entrusted with the role of Prize Awarding-Institution, in accordance with Nobel Prize rules. The Board of the Nobel Foundation has subsequently decided that it will allow no further new prizes.

The Economics Prize medal's ... and back. front Copyright © The Nobel Foundation

Nobel Symposia
An important addition to the activities of the Nobel Foundation is its Symposium program, which was initiated in 1965 and has achieved a high international standing. Approximately 135 Nobel Symposia, dealing with topics at the frontiers of science and culture and related to the Prize categories, have taken place. In addition to these Nobel Symposia, six Nobel Jubilee Symposia were held in 1991 and six Nobel Centennial Symposia in 2001. Since 1982 the Nobel Symposia have been financed by the Foundation's Symposium Fund, created in 1982 through an initial donation from the Bank of Sweden Tercentenary Foundation and the Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation, as well as through grants and royalties received by the Nobel Foundation as part of its informational activities.

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Donations And Prizes
Around the world, new international scientific and cultural prizes have been established, directly inspired by the Nobel Prize. For example, the Japan Prize and Kyoto Prize - both financially in a class with the Nobel Prize - were established in 1985 and their statutes directly refer to the Nobel Prizes as a model and source of inspiration. Donations from these and many other sources have reached the Foundation over the years. Some of these donations are presented below. In 1962 the Balzan Foundation, based in Switzerland and Italy, gave its first prize of one million Swiss francs to the Nobel Foundation for having awarded its Nobel Prizes for 60 years in an exemplary way, thereby celebrating "l'oeuvre admirable accomplie dans 60 années de travail." In 1972, Georg von Békésy, 1961 Nobel Laureate in physiology or medicine, donated his exquisite collection of art objects to the Nobel Foundation - some 150 objects from four continents (not Australia). The collection is now deposited with various museums in Stockholm, mainly the Museum of Far Eastern Antiquities but also the Museum of Medieval Stockholm, the Ethnographic Museum and the National Museum.

Cover of The Georg von Békésy Collection published by the Nobel Foundation in 1974. Copyright © The Nobel Foundation Also in 1972 the Foundation received a donation from the Italian marquis Luigi de Beaumont Bonelli, who bequeathed his two wine-growing estates outside Taranto, southern Italy, to the Nobel Foundation. The properties were worth SEK 4.5 million. Their sale made possible the establishment of an annual Beaumont-Bonelli fellowship to a promising young Italian medical researcher.

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The two Japanese prizes were mentioned above. On April 20, 1985, the Science and Technology Foundation of Japan established the Japan Prize. At the first award ceremony, a special prize of JPY 50 million was awarded to the Nobel Foundation "in recognition of the role the Nobel Foundation has played since 1901 in promoting science and international understanding." On November 10, 1985, the Inamori Foundation in Kyoto awarded its first Kyoto Prize of JPY 45 million to the Nobel Foundation "with the aim of promoting science, technology and the arts in the spirit of the Nobel Prize."

Nobel Festivities
The Nobel Foundation is an "investment company" with rather unusual facets. Every year this investment company moves into show business by organizing the Nobel Festivities and numerous related arrangements that take place in December. The Nobel Foundation is responsible for organizing the Nobel Festivities in Stockholm, while in Norway the Norwegian Nobel Committee is in charge of the corresponding arrangements. On December 10, 1901, the Nobel Prizes were awarded for the first time in Stockholm and in Christiania (now Oslo) respectively.

Stockholm
The Prize Award Ceremony in Stockholm took place at the Old Royal Academy of Music during the years 1901-1925. Parenthetically, it is worth mentioning that during the first years the names of the Nobel Laureates were not made public until the Award Ceremony itself.

The first Nobel Prize Award Ceremony at the Old Royal Academy of Music in Stockholm (1901). Copyright © The Nobel Foundation Since 1926, the Prize Award Ceremony has taken place at the Stockholm Concert Hall with few exceptions. In 1971 the venue was the Philadelphia Church and in 1972 the St. Erik International Fair (known today as Stockholm International Fairs) in Älvsjö, both times due to repairs at the Concert Hall. In 1975 the Ceremony again took place at the St. Erik International

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Fair and in 1991 at the Stockholm Globe Arena, now due to special commemorations of Nobel history that required large seating capacity. In 1975, it was the 75th anniversary of the Nobel Foundation that was being commemorated, while in 1991 the 90th anniversary of the first Nobel Prizes was the focus of the celebrations. In 1975 about 70 pre-1975 Nobel Laureates attended, and in 1991 approximately 130 pre-1991 Laureates. When the Foundation celebrated the 100th anniversary of the Nobel Prizes in 2001, the number of pre-2001 Laureates in attendance was approximately 160.

Crown Prince Carl Gustaf of Sweden (now King), hands over the 1972 Nobel Prize for Literature to Heinrich Böll during the Prize Award Ceremony at the St. Erik International Fair (known today as Stockholm International Fairs) in Älvsjö. Copyright © Reportagebild When the Prize Award Ceremony returned to the Concert Hall in 1973 after an absence of two years, the whole stage setting had changed. The most significant change was that the King and Queen of Sweden and other members of the Royal Family, who had previously always sat in the front row of the auditorium, were moved up and seated on one side of the stage. The Laureates sat on the other side and members of the Prize-Awarding Institutions behind them. In 1973, Carl XVI Gustaf presented the Nobel Prizes for the first time as His Majesty the King of Sweden. Once before, in 1972, owing to the illness of his grandfather King Gustaf VI Adolf, he had presented the Prizes, but in the capacity of Crown Prince. The next change in the stage at the Concert Hall was in 1992. The stage design was now changed to resemble that of the first Prize Award Ceremony held at the Stockholm Concert Hall in 1926. As in 1926, the chairs on the stage were placed in an amphitheatrical grouping. An effort was made by various means to highlight the simplicity of the room and to emphasize the academic nature of the festivities.

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Prize Award Ceremony at the Concert Hall in 1926. Copyright © The Nobel Foundation

Nobel Prize Award Ceremony at the Stockholm Concert Hall in 1973. Copyright © Pressens Bild

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The Nobel Prize Award Ceremony at the Stockholm Globe Arena in 1991. Copyright © Pressens Bild

The new stage at the Stockholm Concert Hall in 1992. Copyright © Reportagebild Until the early 1930s, the Nobel Banquet took place at the Hall of Mirrors in the Grand Hôtel, Stockholm. In its very first years, 1901 and 1902, the banquet was an exclusive party for men only. Once the Stockholm City Hall had been built, in 1930 a decision was made to hold the Banquet in its fantastic Golden Hall this year and in the future. For some reason the Nobel Banquets of 1931 and 1932 took place at the Grand Hôtel again, but between 1933 and 1973 it was held in the Golden Hall. Over time, the character of the Banquets changed and interest in participating became greater and greater. Starting in 1974, due to the need for more space the Nobel Banquet was moved from the Golden Hall to the larger Blue Hall of the City Hall, which today accommodates some 1,300 guests. The Blue Hall had only been used for the Banquet once before, in 1950, when the Nobel Foundation celebrated its 50th anniversary with approximately 32 pre-1950 Laureates participating.

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The Nobel Banquet at the Golden Hall of the Stockholm City Hall in 1973.

The Nobel Banquet at the Blue Hall of the Stockholm City Hall in 1998. Photo: Hans Pettersson There are always exceptions to the rules. In 1907, there were no festivities in Stockholm because the Royal Court was in mourning. King Oscar II had just died. The Laureates were awarded their prizes at a ceremony at the auditorium of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. During 1914-1918 the Nobel Festivities were called off in Sweden and in Norway, except for a ceremony in 1917 at the Norwegian Nobel Institute in the presence of King Haakon to announce that the International Red Cross had been awarded the Peace Prize. The first Nobel Prizes after the World War I - the 1919 prizes - were awarded in June the next year in order to give the Festivities an atmosphere of early Swedish summer with sunshine, light and greenery instead of dark December with cold and wet snow. The Ceremony took place on June 2, 1920 at the Royal Academy of Music, with the subsequent Banquet at the Hasselbacken restaurant near the Skansen outdoor museum. This was not a success. No members of the Royal

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Family were present because of the death of Crown Princess Margaretha. The weather was gray, rainy and cold. As a result of disappointment at the absence of the King, the bad weather and the questionable suitability of Hasselbacken for banquets of this kind, the Nobel Festivities of 1920 reverted to earlier tradition and were held on December 10; the Prize Award Ceremony - again attended by His Majesty the King - at the Royal Academy of Music and the Nobel Banquet at the Hall of Mirrors in the Grand Hôtel. In 1924 the Nobel Festivities were cancelled in Stockholm. Neither of the two Laureates could be present: the Laureate in Physiology or Medicine was traveling and the Literature Laureate was unwell. The Prizes in Physics and Chemistry were reserved that year. During the period 1939-1943, the Nobel Festivities were called off. In 1939 only the Laureate in Literature, Frans Eemil Sillanpää from Finland, received his Prize in Stockholm at a small ceremony, with a subsequent dinner at the restaurant "Den Gyldene Freden" together with the Permanent Secretary of the Swedish Academy, Anders Österling. During 1940-1942 no Physics, Chemistry or Medicine Prizes were awarded, during 1940-1943 no Literature Prizes, and during 1939-1943 no Peace Prizes. In 1944 there were no Festivities in Stockholm, but a luncheon was held at the Waldorf-Astoria Hotel in New York organized by the American Scandinavian Foundation. Some 1943 and 1944 Laureates received their Prizes from the Swedish Minister (chief diplomat) in Washington, W. F. Boström; two Physics Laureates - Otto Stern (1943) and Isidor Isaac Rabi (1944) - and four Laureates in Physiology or Medicine - Henrik Dam and Edward Doisy (1943), and Joseph Erlanger and Herbert S. Gasser (1944). Speeches by Sweden's Crown Prince Gustaf Adolf and by Professor The Svedberg were broadcast on American radio the same day. The 1943 Laureate in Chemistry, George de Hevesy, received his Prize in Sweden without any ceremonies and the 1944 Literature Laureate, Johannes V. Jensen from Denmark, received his Prize in Stockholm in 1945. Just before and during the war, Adolf Hitler forbade Laureates from Germany - Richard Kuhn (Chemistry, 1938), Adolf Friedrich Johan Butenandt (Chemistry, 1939) and Gerhard Domagk (Physiology or Medicine, 1939) - from accepting their Prizes at that time. However, they received their insignia on later occasions.

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Guests at the Nobel Dinner at the Swedish Academy in 1956. Copyright © The Nobel Foundation In 1956, due to the crisis in Hungary, a smaller, more private dinner at the Swedish Academy replaced the glittering banquet in the City Hall, although the Prize Award Ceremony took place as usual at the Concert Hall.

Christiania/Oslo
In Norway, during the years 1901-1904 the decision on the Peace Prize was announced at a meeting of the Storting on December 10, after which the recipients were informed in writing. On December 10, 1905, the Nobel Institute's new building at Drammensveien 19 was inaugurated in the presence of the Norwegian Royal Couple, and it was announced that Bertha von Suttner had received the 1905 Peace Prize. The Laureate herself was not present. During 1905-1946 the Prize Award Ceremonies were held at the Nobel Institute building, during 1947-1989 in the auditorium of the University of Oslo and since 1990 at the Oslo City Hall. The King of Norway is present, but it is the Chairman of the Nobel Committee who hands over the Prize to the Laureate or Laureates. The Nobel Banquet in Norway is a dignified formal occasion, but much less pretentious than the Banquet in Stockholm. It takes place at the Grand Hôtel in Oslo, with approximately 250 guests.

The Peace Prize Award Ceremony at the Oslo City Hall.

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The Norwegian Nobel Committee and the Nobel Foundation during World War II
In 1940, three members of the Storting's Nobel Committee were in exile due to the occupation of Norway by Nazi Germany, which lasted until 1945. The remaining members and deputies kept the work of the Committee going. Because the Storting could not elect new Committee members, the Nobel Foundation asked existing members to continue in their posts. In January 1944, pro-Nazi Prime Minister Vidkun Quisling and his administration wanted to take over the functions of the Nobel Committee in Norway and seize control of the Nobel Institute's building on Drammensveien. After consultations with the Swedish Foreign Ministry and the Director of the Nobel Institute, the Nobel Foundation declared that the Nobel Institute was Swedish property. Those Committee members who had remained in Norway stated in writing that under the prevailing circumstances, they could not continue their work. Sweden's consul general in Oslo, who had already moved into an office on the Nobel Institute's premises, took over the management of the building and the functions of the Nobel Institute. In 1944-1945 the Nobel Foundation (Hammarskjöld and Ekeberg) together with the members of the Nobel Committee in exile ensured that nominations were submitted for the 1945 Peace Prize. .

Nobel Prize in Physics Winners 2008-1901 2008
The prize is being awarded with one half to: YOICHIRO NAMBU for the discovery of the mechanism of spontaneous broken symmetry in subatomic physics and the other half jointly to: MAKOTO KOBAYASHI and TOSHIHIDE MASKAWA for the discovery of the origin of the broken

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symmetry which predicts the existence of at least three families of quarks in nature.

2007
The prize is being awarded jointly to: ALBERT FERT and PETER GRÜNBERG for the discovery of Giant Magnetoresistance.

2006
The prize is being awarded jointly to: JOHN C. MATHER and GEORGE C. SMOOT for their discovery of the blackbody form and anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background radiation

2005
The prize is being awarded with one half to: ROY J. GLAUBER for his contribution to the quantum theory of optical coherence and one half jointly to JOHN L. HALL and THEODOR W. HÄNSCH for their contributions to the development of laserbased precision spectroscopy, including the optical frequency comb technique

2004
The prize is being awarded jointly to: DAVID J. GROSS, H. DAVID POLITZER and FRANK WILCZEK for the discovery of asymptotic freedom in the theory of the strong interaction

2003
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The prize is being awarded jointly to: ALEXEI A. ABRIKOSOV, VITALY L. GINZBURG and ANTHONY J. LEGGETT for pioneering contributions to the theory of superconductors and superfluids

2002
The prize is being awarded with one half jointly to: RAYMOND DAVIS JR., and MASATOSHI KOSHIBA for pioneering contributions to astrophysics, in particular for the detection of cosmic neutrinos and the other half to: RICCARDO GIACCONI for pioneering contributions to astrophysics, which have led to the discovery of cosmic X-ray sources

2001
The prize is being awarded jointly to: ERIC A. CORNELL, WOLFGANG KETTERLE and CARL E. WIEMAN for the achievement of BoseEinstein condensation in dilute gases of alkali atoms, and for early fundamental studies of the properties of the condensates.

2000
The prize is being awarded with one half jointly to: ZHORES I. ALFEROV, and HERBERT KROEMER for developing semiconductor heterostructures used in high-speed- and opto-electronics and and one half to: JACK ST. CLAIR KILBY for his part in the invention of the integrated circuit.

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1999
The prize was awarded jointly to: GERARDUS 'T HOOFT, and MARTINUS J.G. VELTMAN for elucidating the quantum structure of electroweak interactions in physics.

1998
The prize was awarded jointly to: ROBERT B. LAUGHLIN, HORST L. STORMER and DANIEL C. TSUI for their discovery of a new form of quantum fluid with fractionally charged excitations.

1997
The prize was awarded jointly to: STEVEN CHU, CLAUDE COHEN-TANNOUDJI and WILLIAM D. PHILLIPS for development of methods to cool and trap atoms with laser light.

1996
The prize was awarded jointly to: DAVID M. LEE, DOUGLAS D. OSHEROFF and ROBERT C. RICHARDSON for their discovery of superfluidity in helium-3.

1995
The prize was awarded for pioneering experimental contributions to lepton physics, with one half to: MARTIN L. PERL for the discovery of the tau lepton.

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and the other half to: FREDERICK REINES for the detection of the neutrino.

1994
The prize was awarded for pioneering contributions to the development of neutron scattering techniques for studies of condensed matter to: BERTRAM N. BROCKHOUSE for the development of neutron spectroscopy CLIFFORD G. SHULL for the development of the neutron diffraction technique.

1993
The prize was awarded jointly to: RUSSELL A. HULSE and JOSEPH H. TAYLOR JR. for the discovery of a new type of pulsar, a discovery that has opened up new possibilities for the study of gravitation.

1992
GEORGES CHARPAK for his invention and development of particle detectors, in particular the multiwire proportional chamber.

1991
PIERRE-GILLES DE GENNES for discovering that methods developed for studying order phenomena in simple systems can be generalized to more complex forms of matter, in particular to liquid crystals and polymers.

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1990
The prize was awarded jointly to: JEROME I. FRIEDMAN, HENRY W. KENDALL and RICHARD E. TAYLOR for their pioneering investigations concerning deep inelastic scattering of electrons on protons and bound neutrons, which have been of essential importance for the development of the quark model in particle physics.

1989
One half of the award was given to: NORMAN F. RAMSEY for the invention of the separated oscillatory fields method and its use in the hydrogen maser and other atomic clocks. and the other half jointly to: HANS G. DEHMELT and WOLFGANG PAUL for the development of the ion trap technique.

1988
The prize was awarded jointly to: LEON M. LEDERMAN, MELVIN SCHWARTZ and JACK STEINBERGER for the neutrino beam method and the demonstration of the doublet structure of the leptons through the discovery of the muon neutrino.

1987
The prize was awarded jointly to: J. GEORG BEDNORZ and K. ALEXANDER MÜLLER for their important breakthrough in the discovery of superconductivity in ceramic materials.

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1986
The prize was awarded by one half to: ERNST RUSKA for his fundamental work in electron optics, and for the design of the first electron microscope. GERD BINNIG and HEINRICH ROHRER for their design of the scanning tunneling microscope.

1985
KLAUS VON KLITZING for the discovery of the quantized Hall effect.

1984
The prize was awarded jointly to: CARLO RUBBIA and SIMON VAN DER MEER for their decisive contributions to the large project, which led to the discovery of the field particles W and Z, communicators of weak interaction.

1983
The prize was divided equally between: SUBRAMANYAN CHANDRASEKHAR for his theoretical studies of the physical processes of importance to the structure and evolution of the stars. WILLIAM A. FOWLER for his theoretical and experimental studies of the nuclear reactions of importance in the formation of the chemical elements in the universe.

1982

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KENNETH G. WILSON for his theory for critical phenomena in connection with phase transitions.

1981
The prize was awarded by one half jointly to: NICOLAAS BLOEMBERGEN and ARTHUR L. SCHAWLOW for their contribution to the development of laser spectroscopy and the other half to: KAI M. SIEGBAHN for his contribution to the development of high- resolution electron spectroscopy.

1980
The prize was divided equally between: JAMES W. CRONIN and VAL L. FITCH for the discovery of violations of fundamental symmetry principles in the decay of neutral K-mesons.

1979
The prize was divided equally between: SHELDON L. GLASHOW, ABDUS SALAM and STEVEN WEINBERG for their contributions to the theory of the unified weak and electromagnetic interaction between elementary particles, including inter alia the prediction of the weak neutral current.

1978
The prize was divided, one half being awarded to: PYOTR LEONIDOVICH KAPITSA for his basic inventions and discoveries in the area of low-

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temperature physics and the other half divided equally between: ARNO A. PENZIAS and ROBERT W. WILSON for their discovery of cosmic microwave background radiation.

1977
The prize was divided equally between: PHILIP W. ANDERSON, SIR NEVILL F. MOTT and JOHN H. VAN VLECK for their fundamental theoretical investigations of the electronic structure of magnetic and disordered systems.

1976
The prize was divided equally between: BURTON RICHTER and SAMUEL C. C. TING for their pioneering work in the discovery of a heavy elementary particle of a new kind.

1975
The prize was awarded jointly to: AAGE BOHR, BEN MOTTELSON and JAMES RAINWATER for the discovery of the connection between collective motion and particle motion in atomic nuclei and the development of the theory of the structure of the atomic nucleus based on this connection.

1974
The prize was awarded jointly to: SIR MARTIN RYLE and ANTONY HEWISH for their pioneering research in radio astrophysics Ryle for his observations and inventions, in particular of the aperture synthesis technique, and Hewish for

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his decisive role in the discovery of pulsars.

1973
The prize was divided, one half being equally shared between: LEO ESAKI and IVAR GIAEVER , for their experimental discoveries regarding tunneling phenomena in semiconductors and superconductors, respectively, and the other half to BRIAN D. JOSEPHSON for his theoretical predictions of the properties of a supercurrent through a tunnel barrier, in particular those phenomena which are generally known as the Josephson effects.

1972
The prize was awarded jointly to: JOHN BARDEEN, LEON N. COOPER and J. ROBERT SCHRIEFFER for their jointly developed theory of superconductivity, usually called the BCS-theory.

1971
DENNIS GABOR for his invention and development of the holographic method.

1970
The prize was divided equally between: HANNES ALFVÉN for fundamental work and discoveries in magneto-hydrodynamics with fruitful

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applications in different parts of plasma physics LOUIS NÉEL for fundamental work and discoveries concerning antiferromagnetism and ferrimagnetism which have led to important applications in solid state physics.

1969
MURRAY GELL-MANN for his contributions and discoveries concerning the classification of elementary particles and their interactions.

1968
LUIS W. ALVAREZ for his decisive contributions to elementary particle physics, in particular the discovery of a large number of resonance states, made possible through his development of the technique of using hydrogen bubble chamber and data analysis.

1967
HANS ALBRECHT BETHE for his contributions to the theory ofnuclear reactions, especially his discoveries concerning the energy production in stars.

1966
ALFRED KASTLER for the discovery and development of optical methods for studying hertzian resonances in atoms.

1965
The prize was awarded jointly to: SIN-ITIRO TOMONAGA, JULIAN SCHWINGER and RICHARD P. FEYNMAN for their fundamental work in quantum electrodynamics, with deep-ploughing consequences for the physics of elementary

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particles.

1964
The prize was divided, one half being awarded to: CHARLES H. TOWNES the other half jointly to: NICOLAY GENNADIYEVICH BASOV and ALEKSANDR MIKHAILOVICH PROKHOROV for fundamental work in the field of quantum electronics, which has led to the construction of oscillators and amplifiers based on the maser-laser principle.

1963
The prize was divided, one half being awarded to: EUGENE P. WIGNER for his contributions to the theory of the atomic nucleus and the elementary particles, particularly through the discovery and application of fundamental symmetry principles and the other half jointly to: MARIA GOEPPERT-MAYER and J. HANS D. JENSEN for their discoveries concerning nuclear shell structure.

1962
LEV DAVIDOVICH LANDAU for his pioneering theories for condensed matter, especially liquid helium.

1961
The prize was divided equally between: ROBERT HOFSTADTER for his pioneering studies of electron scattering in atomic nuclei and for his

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thereby achieved discoveries concerning the stucture of the nucleons RUDOLF LUDWIG MÖSSBAUER for his researches concerning the resonance absorption of gamma radiation and his discovery in this connection of the effect which bears his name.

1960
DONALD A. GLASER for the invention of the bubble chamber.

1959
The prize was awarded jointly to: EMILIO GINO SEGRÈ and OWEN CHAMBERLAIN for their discovery of the antiproton.

1958
The prize was awarded jointly to: PAVEL ALEKSEYEVICH CHERENKOV , IL'JA MIKHAILOVICH FRANK and IGOR YEVGENYEVICH TAMM for the discovery and the interpretation of the Cherenkov effect.

1957
The prize was awarded jointly to: CHEN NING YANG and TSUNG-DAO LEE for their penetratinginvestigation of the so-called parity laws which has led to important discoveries regarding the elementary partic les.

1956
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The prize was awarded jointly, one third each, to: WILLIAM SHOCKLEY, JOHN BARDEEN and WALTER HOUSER BRATTAIN for their researches on semiconductors and their discovery of the transistor effect.

1955
The prize was divided equally between: WILLIS EUGENE LAMB for his discoveries concerning the fine structure of the hydrogen spectrum POLYKARP KUSCH for his precision determination of the magnetic moment of the electron.

1954
The prize was divided equally between: MAX BORN for his fundamental research in quantum mechanics, especially for his statistical interpretation of the wavefunction WALTHER BOTHE for the coincidence method and his discoveries made therewith.

1953
FRITS (FREDERIK) ZERNIKE for his demonstration of the phase contrast method, especially for his invention of the phase contrast microscope.

1952
The prize was awarded jointly to: FELIX BLOCH and EDWARD MILLS PURCELL for their development of new methods for nuclear magnetic precision measurements and discoveries in connection therewith.

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1951
The prize was awarded jointly to: SIR JOHN DOUGLAS COCKCROFT and ERNEST THOMAS SINTON WALTON for their pioneer work on the transmutation of atomic nuclei by artificially acce lerated atomic particles.

1950
CECIL FRANK POWELL for his development of the photographic method of studying nuclear processes and his discoveries regarding mesons made with this method.

1949
HIDEKI YUKAWA for his prediction of the existence of mesons on the basis of theoretical work on nuclear forces.

1948
LORD PATRICK MAYNARD STUART BLACKETT for his development of the Wilson cloud chamber method, and his discoveries therewith in the fields of nuclear physics and cosmic radiation.

1947
SIR EDWARD VICTOR APPLETON for his investigations of the physics of the upper atmosphere especially for the discovery of the so-called Appleton layer.

1946
PERCY WILLIAMS BRIDGMAN for the invention of an apparatus to produce extremely high pressures, and for the discoveries he made therewith in the field of high pressure physics.

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1945
WOLFGANG PAULI for the discovery of the Exclusion Principle, also called the Pauli Principle.

1944
ISIDOR ISAAC RABI for his resonance method for recording the magnetic properties of atomic nuclei.

1943
OTTO STERN for his contribution to the development of the molecular ray method and his discovery of the magnetic moment of the proton.

1942-1940
The prize money was allocated to the Main Fund (1/3) and to the Special Fund (2/3) of this prize section.

1939
ERNEST ORLANDO LAWRENCE for the invention and development of the cyclotron and for results obtained with it, especially with regard to artifi cial radioactive elements.

1938
ENRICO FERMI for his demonstrations of the existence of new radioactive elements produced by neutron irradiation, and for his related discovery of nuclear reactions brought about by slow neutrons.

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1937
The prize was awarded jointly to: CLINTON JOSEPH DAVISSON and SIR GEORGE PAGET THOMSON for their experimental discovery of the diffraction of electrons by crystals.

1936
The prize was divided equally between: VICTOR FRANZ HESS for his discovery of cosmic radiation CARL DAVID ANDERSON for his discovery of the positron.

1935
SIR JAMES CHADWICK for the discovery of the neutron.

1934
The prize money was allocated to the Main Fund (1/3) and to the Special Fund (2/3) of this prize section.

1933
The prize was awarded jointly to ERWIN SCHRÖDINGER and PAUL ADRIEN MAURICE DIRAC for the discovery of new productive forms of atomic theory.

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1932
WERNER HEISENBERG for the creation of quantum mechanics, the application of which has, inter alia, led to the discovery of the allotropic forms of hydrogen.

1931
The prize money was allocated to the Main Fund (1/3) and to the Special Fund (2/3) of this prize section.

1930
SIR CHANDRASEKHARA VENKATA RAMAN for his work on the scattering of light and for the discovery of the effect named after him.

1929
PRINCE LOUIS-VICTOR DE BROGLIE for his discovery of the wave nature of electrons.

1928
SIR OWEN WILLANS RICHARDSON for his work on the thermionic phenomenon and especially for the discovery of the law named after him.

1927
The prize was divided equally between: ARTHUR HOLLY COMPTON for his discovery of the effect named after him CHARLES THOMSON REES WILSON for his method of making the paths of electrically charged particles visible by condensation of vapour.

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1926
JEAN BAPTISTE PERRIN for his work on the discontinuous structure of matter, and especially for his discovery of sedimentation equilibrium.

1925
The prize was awarded jointly to: JAMES FRANCK and GUSTAV HERTZ for their discovery of the laws governing the impact of an electron upon an atom.

1924
KARL MANNE GEORG SIEGBAHN for his discoveries and researchin the field of X-ray spectroscopy.

1923
ROBERT ANDREWS MILLIKAN for his work on the elementary charge of electricity and on the photoelectric effect.

1922
NIELS BOHR for his services in the investigation of the structure of atoms and of the radiation emanating from them.

1921
ALBERT EINSTEIN for his services to Theoretical Physics, and especially for his discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect.

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1920
CHARLES EDOUARD GUILLAUME in recognition of the service he has rendered to precision measurements in Physics by his discovery of anomalies in nickel steel alloys.

1919
JOHANNES STARK for his discovery of the Doppler effect in canal rays and the splitting of spectral lines in electric fields.

1918
MAX KARL ERNST LUDWIG PLANCK in recognition of the services he rendered to the advancement of Physics by his discovery of energy quanta.

1917
CHARLES GLOVER BARKLA for his discovery of the characteristic Röntgen radiation of the elements.

1916
The prize money for 1916 was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.

1915
The prize was awarded jointly to: SIR WILLIAM HENRY BRAGG and SIR WILLIAM LAWRENCE BRAGG for their services in the analysis of crystal structure by means of X-rays.

1914
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MAX VON LAUE for his discovery of the diffraction of X-rays by crystals.

1913
HEIKE KAMERLINGH-ONNES for his investigations on the properties of matter at low temperatures which led, inter alia to the production of liquid helium.

1912
NILS GUSTAF DALÉN for his invention of automatic regulators for use in conjunction with gas accumulators for illuminating lighthouses and buoys.

1911
WILHELM WIEN for his discoveries regarding the laws governing the radiation of heat.

1910
JOHANNES DIDERIK VAN DER WAALS for his work on the equation of state for gases and liquids.

1909
The prize was awarded jointly to: GUGLIELMO MARCONI and CARL FERDINAND BRAUN in recognition of their contributions to the development of wireless telegraphy.

1908
GABRIEL LIPPMANN for his method of reproducing colours photographically based on the phenomenon of interference.

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1907
ALBERT ABRAHAM MICHELSON for his optical precision instruments and the spectroscopic and metrological investigations carried out with their aid.

1906
SIR JOSEPH JOHN THOMSON in recognition of the great merits of his theoretical and experimental investigations on the conduction of electricity by gases.

1905
PHILIPP EDUARD ANTON LENARD for his work on cathode rays.

1904
LORD JOHN WILLIAM STRUTT RAYLEIGH for his investigations of the densities of the most important gases and for his discovery of argon in connection with these studies.

1903
The prize was divided, one half being awarded to: ANTOINE HENRI BECQUEREL in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered by his discovery of spontaneous radioactivity the other half jointly to: PIERRE CURIE and MARIE CURIE, née SKLODOWSKA in recognition of the extraordinary services they have rendered by their joint researches on the radiation phenomena discovered by Professor Henri Becquerel.

1902
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The prize was awarded jointly to: HENDRIK ANTOON LORENTZ and PIETER ZEEMAN in recognition of the extraordinary service they rendered by their researches into the influence of magnetism upon radiation phenomena.

1901
WILHELM CONRAD RÖNTGEN in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered by the discovery of the remarkable rays subsequently named after him.

Nobel Prize in Chemistry Winners 2008-1901

2008
The prize goes to: OSAMU SHIMOMURA, MARTIN CHALFIE, and ROGER Y TSIEN for the discovery and development of the green fluorescent protein, GFP.

2007
The prize goes to: GERHARD ERTL for his studies of chemical processes on solid surfaces.

2006

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The prize goes to: ROGER D. KORNBERG for his studies of the molecular basis of eukaryotic transcription.

2005
The prize is being awarded jointly to: YVES CHAUVIN, ROBERT H. GRUBBS , and RICHARD R. SCHROCK for the development of the metathesis method in organic synthesis.

2004
The prize is being awarded jointly to: AARON CIECHANOVER, AVRAM HERSHKO , and IRWIN ROSE for the discovery of ubiquitinmediated protein degradation

2003
The prize is being awarded for discoveries concerning channels in cell membranes with one half of the prize to: PETER AGRE, for the discovery of water channels and the other half of the prize to: RODERICK MACKINNON for structural and mechanistic studies of ion channels.

2002
The prize is being awarded for the development of methods for identification and structure analyses of biological

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macromolecules with one half jointly to: JOHN B. FENN, and KOICHI TANAKA, for their development of soft desorption ionisation methods for mass spectrometric analyses of biological macromolecules and the other half to: KURT WÜTHRICH for his development of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy for determining the three-dimensional structure of biological macromolecules in solution.

2001
The prize is being awarded with one half jointly to: WILLIAM S. KNOWLES, and RYOJI NOYORI, for their work on chirally catalysed hydrogenation reactions and the other half to: K. BARRY SHARPLESS for his work on chirally catalysed oxidation reactions.

2000
The prize is being awarded with one half jointly to: ALAN J. HEEGER, ALAN G. MACDIARMID, and HIDEKI SHIRAKAWA for the discovery and development of conductive polymers.

1999
AHMED ZEWAIL for his studies of the transition states of chemical reactions using femtosecond spectroscopy.

1998
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The prize was awarded for pioneering contributions in developing methods that can be used for theoretical studies of the properties of molecules and the chemical processes in which they are involved. The prize was divided equally between: WALTER KOHN for his development of the density-functional theory and JOHN A. POPLE for his development of computational methods in quantum chemistry.

1997
The prize was divided, one half being awarded jointly to: PAUL D. BOYER and JOHN E. WALKER for their elucidation of the enzymatic mechanism underlying the synthesis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and with one half to: JENS C. SKOU for the first discovery of an ion-transporting enzyme, Na+, K+-ATPase.

1996
The prize was awarded jointly to: ROBERT F. CURL, Jr. , SIR HAROLD W. KROTO , and RICHARD E. SMALLEY for their discovery of fullerenes.

1995
The prize was awarded jointly to: PAUL CRUTZEN , MARIO MOLINA , and F. SHERWOOD ROWLAND for their work in atmospheric chemistry, particularly concerning the formation and decomposition of ozone.

1994
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GEORGE A. OLAH for his contribution to carbocation chemistry.

1993
The prize was awarded for contributions to the developments of methods within DNA-based chemistry equally between: KARY B. MULLIS for his invention of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. and MICHAEL SMITH for his fundamental contributions to the establishment of oligonucleiotide-based, site-directed mutagenesis and its development for protein studies.

1992
RUDOLPH A. MARCUS for his contributions to the theory of electron transfer reactions in chemical systems.

1991
RICHARD R. ERNST for his contributions to the development of the methodology of high resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy.

1990
ELIAS JAMES COREY for his development of the theory and methodology of organic synthesis.

1989

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The prize was awarded jointly to: SIDNEY ALTMAN and THOMAS R. CECH for their discovery of catalytic properties of RNA.

1988
The prize was awarded jointly to: JOHANN DEISENHOFER , ROBERT HUBER and HARTMUT MICHEL for the determination of the three-dimensional structure of a photosynthetic reaction centre.

1987
The prize was awarded jointly to: DONALD J. CRAM , JEAN-MARIE LEHN and CHARLES J. PEDERSEN for their development and use of molecules with structure-specific interactions of high selectivity.

1986
The prize was awarded jointly to: DUDLEY R. HERSCHBACH , YUAN T. LEE and JOHN C. POLANYI for their contributions concerning the dynamics of chemical elementary processes.

1985
The prize was awarded jointly to: HERBERT A. HAUPTMAN and JEROME KARLE for their outstanding achievements in the development of direct methods for the determination of crystal structures.

1984
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ROBERT BRUCE MERRIFIELD for his development of methodology for chemical synthesis on a solid matrix.

1983
HENRY TAUBE for his work on the mechanisms of electron transfer reactions, especially in metal complexes.

1982
SIR AARON KLUG for his development of crystallographic electron microscopy and his structural elucidation of biologically important nuclei acid-protein complexes.

1981
The prize was awarded jointly to: KENICHI FUKUI and ROALD HOFFMANN for their theories, developed independently, concerning the course of chemical reactions.

1980
The prize was divided, one half being awarded to: PAUL BERG for his fundamental studies of the biochemistry of nucleic acids, with particular regard to recombinant-DNA and the other half jointly to: WALTER GILBERT and FREDERICK SANGER for their contributions concerning the determination of base sequences in nucleic acids.

1979

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The prize was divided equally between: HERBERT C. BROWN and GEORG WITTIG for their development of the use of boron- and phosphorus-containing compounds, respectively, into important reagents in organic synthesis.

1978
PETER D. MITCHELL for his contribution to the understanding of biological energy transfer through the formulation of the chemiosmotic theory.

1977
ILYA PRIGOGINE for his contributions to non-equilibrium thermodynamics, particularly the theory of dissipative structures.

1976
WILLIAM N.. LIPSCOMB for his studies on the structure of boranes illuminating problems of chemical bonding.

1975
The prize was divided equally between: SIR JOHN WARCUP CORNFORTH for his work on the stereochemistry of enzyme-catalyzed reactions and VLADIMIR PRELOG for his research into the stereochemistry of organic molecules and reactions.

1974
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PAUL J. FLORY for his fundamental achievements, both theoretical and experimental, in the physical chemistry of the macromolecules.

1973
The prize was divided equally between: ERNST OTTO FISCHER and SIR GEOFFREY WILKINSON for their pioneering work, performed independently, on the chemistry of the organometallic, so called sandwich compounds.

1972
The prize was divided, one half being awarded to: CHRISTIAN B. ANFINSEN for his work on ribonuclease, especially concerning the connection between the amino acid sequence and the biologically active confirmation and the other half jointly to: STANFORD MOORE and WILLIAM H. STEIN for their contribution to the understanding of the connection between chemical structure and catalytic activity of the active centre of the ribonuclease molecule.

1971
GERHARD HERZBERG for his contributions to the knowledge of electronic stucture and geometry of molecules, particularly free radicals.

1970
LUIS F. LELOIR for his discovery of sugar nucleotides and their role in the biosynthesis of carbohydrates.

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1969
The prize was divided equally between: SIR DEREK H. R. BARTON and ODD HASSEL for their contributions to the development of the concept of conformation and its application in chemistry.

1968
LARS ONSAGER for the discovery of the reciprocal relations bearing his name, which are fundamental for the thermodynamics of irreversible processes.

1967
The prize was divided, one half being awarded to: MANFRED EIGEN and the other half jointly to: RONALD GEORGE WREYFORD NORRISH and LORD GEORGE PORTER for their studies of extremely fast chemical reactions, effected by disturbing the equlibrium by means of very short pulses of energy.

1966
ROBERT S. MULLIKEN for his fundamental work concerning chemical bonds and the electronic structure of molecules by the molecular orbital method.

1965
ROBERT BURNS WOODWARD for his outstanding achievements in the art of organic synthesis.

1964
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DOROTHY CROWFOOT HODGKIN for her determinations by X-ray techniques of the structures of important biochemical substances.

1963
The prize was divided equally between: KARL ZIEGLER and GIULIO NATTA for their discoveries in the field of the chemistry and technology of high polymers.

1962
The prize was divided equally between: MAX FERDINAND PERUTZ and SIR JOHN COWDERY KENDREW for their studies of the structures of globular proteins.

1961
MELVIN CALVIN for his research on the carbon dioxide assimilation in plants.

1960
WILLARD FRANK LIBBY for his method to use carbon-14 for age determination in archaeology, geology, geophysics, and other branches of science.

1959
JAROSLAV HEYROVSKY for his discovery and development of the polarographic methods of analysis.

1958
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FREDERICK SANGER for his work on the structure of proteins, especially that of insulin.

1957
LORD ALEXANDER R. TODD for his work on nucleotides and nucleotide co-enzymes.

1956
The prize was awarded jointly to: SIR CYRIL NORMAN HINSHELWOOD and NIKOLAY NIKOLAEVICH SEMENOV for their researches into the mechanism of chemical reactions.

1955
VINCENT DU VIGNEAUD for his work on biochemically important sulphur compounds, especially for the first synthesis of a polypeptide hormone.

1954
LINUS CARL PAULING for his research into the nature of the chemical bond and its application to the elucidation of the structure of complex substances.

1953
HERMANN STAUDINGER for his discoveries in the field of macromolecular chemistry.

1952
The prize was awarded jointly to: ARCHER JOHN PORTER MARTIN and RICHARD LAURENCE MILLINGTON SYNGE for their

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invention of partition chromatography.

1951
The prize was awarded jointly to: EDWIN MATTISON MC MILLAN and GLENN THEODORE SEABORG for their discoveries in the chemistry of the transuranium elements.

1950
The prize was awarded jointly to: OTTO PAUL HERMANN DIELS and KURT ALDER for their discovery and development of the diene synthesis.

1949
WILLIAM FRANCIS GIAUQUE for his contributions in the field of chemical thermodynamics, particularly concerning the behaviour of substances at extremely low temperatures.

1948
ARNE WILHELM KAURIN TISELIUS for his research on electrophoresis and adsorption analysis, especially for his discoveries concerning the complex nature of the serum proteins.

1947
SIR ROBERT ROBINSON for his investigations on plant products of biological importance, especially the alkaloids.

1946
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The prize was divided, one half being awarded to: JAMES BATCHELLER SUMNER for his discovery that enzymes can be crystallized. the other half jointly to JOHN HOWARD NORTHROP and WENDELL MEREDITH STANLEY for their preparation of enzymes and virus proteins in a pure form.

1945
ARTTURI ILMARI VIRTANEN for his research and inventions in agricultural and nutrition chemistry, especially for his fodder preservation method.

1944
OTTO HAHN for his discovery of the fission of heavy nuclei.

1943
GEORGE DE HEVESY for his work on the use of isotopes as tracers in the study of chemical processes.

1942-1940
The prize money was allocated to the Main Fund (1/3) and to the Special Fund (2/3) of this prize section.

1939
ADOLF FRIEDRICH JOHANN BUTENANDT for his work on sex hormones. (Caused by the authorities of his country to decline the award but later received the diploma and the medal). and

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LEOPOLD RUZICKA for his work on polymethylenes and higher terpenes.

1938
RICHARD KUHN for his work on carotenoids and vitamins. (Caused by the authorities of his country to decline the award but later received the diploma and the medal.)

1937
The prize was divided equally between: SIR WALTER NORMAN HAWORTH for his investigations on carbohydrates and vitamin C. and PAUL KARRER for his investigations on carotenoids, flavins and vitamins A and B2.

1936
PETRUS (PETER) JOSEPHUS WILHELMUS DEBYE for his contributions to our knowledge of molecular structure through his investigations on dipole moments and on the diffraction of X-rays and electrons in gases.

1935
The prize was awarded jointly to: FRÉDÉRIC JOLIOT and IRÈNE JOLIOT-CURIE in recognition of their synthesis of new radioactive elements.

1934
HAROLD CLAYTON UREY for his discovery of heavy hydrogen.

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1933
The prize money was allocated to the Main Fund (1/3) and to the Special Fund (2/3) of this prize section.

1932
IRVING LANGMUIR for his discoveries and investigations in surface chemistry.

1931
The prize was awarded jointly to: CARL BOSCH and FRIEDRICH BERGIUS in recognition of their contributions to the invention and development of chemical high pressure methods.

1930
HANS FISCHER for his researches into the constitution of haemin and chlorophyll and especially for his synthesis of haemin.

1929
The prize was divided equally between: SIR ARTHUR HARDEN and HANS KARL AUGUST SIMON VON EULER-CHELPIN for their investigations on the fermentation of sugar and fermentative enzymes.

1928
ADOLF OTTO REINHOLD WINDAUS for the services rendered through his research into the constitution of the sterols and their connection with the vitamins.

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1927
HEINRICH OTTO WIELAND for his investigations of the constitution of the bile acids and related substances.

1926
THE (THEODOR) SVEDBERG for his work on disperse systems.

1925
RICHARD ADOLF ZSIGMONDY for his demonstration of the heterogenous nature of colloid solutions and for the methods he used, which have since become fundamental in modern colloid chemistry.

1924
The prize money for 1924 was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.

1923
FRITZ PREGL for his invention of the method of micro-analysis of organic substances.

1922
FRANCIS WILLIAM ASTON for his discovery, by means of his mass spectrograph, of isotopes, in a large number of non-radioactive elements, and for his enunciation of the whole-number rule.

1921
FREDERICK SODDY , for his contributions to our knowledge of the chemistry of radioactive

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substances, and his investigations into the origin and nature of isotopes.

1920
WALTHER HERMANN NERNST in recognition of his work in thermochemistry.

1919
The prize money for 1919 was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.

1918
FRITZ HABER for the synthesis of ammonia from its elements.

1917-1916
The prize money for 1917-1916 was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.

1915
RICHARD MARTIN WILLSTÄTTER for his researches on plant pigments, especially chlorophyll.

1914
THEODORE WILLIAM RICHARDS , in recognition of his accurate determinations of the atomic weight of a large number of chemical elements.

1913
ALFRED WERNER in recognition of his work on the linkage of atoms in molecules by which he has thrown new light on earlier investigations and opened up new fields of research especially in

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inorganic chemistry.

1912
The prize was divided equally between: VICTOR GRIGNARD for the discovery of the so-called Grignard reagent, which in recent years has greatly advanced the progress of organic chemistry and PAUL SABATIER for his method of hydrogenating organic compounds in the presence of finely disintegrated metals whereby the progress of organic chemistry has been greatly advanced in recent years.

1911
MARIE CURIE, née Marie Sklodowska, in recognition of her services to the advancement of chemistry by the discovery of the elements radium and polonium, by the isolation of radium and the study of the nature and compounds of this remarkable element.

1910
OTTO WALLACH in recognition of his services to organic chemistry and the chemical industry by his pioneer work in the field of alicyclic compounds.

1909
WILHELM OSTWALD in recognition of his work on catalysis and for his investigations into the fundamental principles governing chemical equilibria and rates of reaction.

1908
LORD ERNEST RUTHERFORD for his investigations into the disintegration of the elements, and the

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chemistry of radioactive substances.

1907
EDUARD BUCHNER for his biochemical researches and his discovery of cellfree fermentation.

1906
HENRI MOISSAN in recognition of the great services rendered by him in his investigation and isolation of the element fluorine, and for the adoption in the service of science of the electric furnace called after him.

1905
JOHANN FRIEDRICH WILHELM ADOLF VON BAEYER in recognition of his services in the advancement of organic chemistry and the chemical industry, through his work on organic dyes and hydroaromatic compounds.

1904
SIR WILLIAM RAMSAY in recognition of his services in the discovery of the inert gaseous elements in air, and his determination of their place in the periodic system.

1903
SVANTE AUGUST ARRHENIUS in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered to the advancement of chemistry by his electrolytic theory of dissociation.

1902
HERMANN EMIL FISCHER in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered by his work on sugar and purine syntheses.

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1901
JACOBUS HENRICUS VAN'T HOFF in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered by the discovery of the laws of chemical dynamics and osmotic pressure in solutions.

Nobel Prize in Literature Winners 20081901

2008
JEAN-MARIE GUSTAVE LE CLÉZIO author of new departures, poetic adventure and sensual ecstasy, explorer of a humanity beyond and below the reigning civilization.

2007
DORIS LESSINGthat epicist of the female experience, who with scepticism, fire and visionary power has subjected a divided civilisation to scrutiny.

2006
ORHAN PAMUKwho in the quest for the melancholic soul of his native city has discovered new symbols for the clash and interlacing of cultures.

2005
HAROLD PINTER who in his plays uncovers the precipice under everyday prattle and forces entry into oppression's closed rooms.

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2004
ELFRIEDE JELINEKfor her musical flow of voices and counter-voices in novels and plays that with extraordinary linguistic zeal reveal the absurdity of society's clich s and their subjugating power

2003
JOHN MAXWELL COETZEE who in innumerable guises portrays the surprising involvement of the outsider

2002
IMRE KERTÉSZ for writing that upholds the fragile experience of the individual against the barbaric arbitrariness of history

2001
V. S. NAIPAUL for having united perceptive narrative and incorruptible scrutiny in works that compel us to see the presence of suppressed histories.

2000
GAO XINGJIANfor an oeuvre of universal validity, bitter insights and linguistic ingenuity, which has opened new paths for the Chinese novel and drama.

1999
GUNTER GRASS whose frolicsome black fables portray the forgotten face of history.

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1998
JOSE SARAMAGOwho with parables sustained by imagination, compassion and irony continually enables us once again to apprehend an elusory reality.

1997
DARIO FO who emulates the jesters of the Middle Ages in scourging authority and upholding the dignity of the downtrodden.

1996
WISLAWA SZYMBORSKA for poetry that with ironic precision allows the historical and biological context to come to light in fragments of human reality.

1995
SEAMUS HEANEY for works of lyrical beauty and ethical depth, which exalt everyday miracles and the living past.

1994
KENZABURO OE who with poetic force creates an imagined world, where life and myth condense to form a disconcerting picture of the human predicament today.

1993
TONI MORRISON who in novels characterized by visionary force and poetic import, gives life to an essential aspect of American reality.

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1992
DEREK WALCOTT for a poetic oeuvre of great luminosity, sustained by a historical vision, the outcome of a multicultural commitment.

1991
NADINE GORDIMER who through her magnificent epic writing has - in the words of Alfred Nobel been of very great benefit to humanity.

1990
OCTAVIO PAZ for impassioned writing with wide horizons, characterized by sensuous intelligence and humanistic integrity.

1989
CAMILO JOSÉ CELA for a rich and intensive prose, which with restrained compassion forms a challenging vision of man's vulnerability.

1988
NAGUIB MAHFOUZ who, through works rich in nuance-now clearsightedly realistic, now evocatively ambigous-has formed an Arabian narrative art that applies to all mankind.

1987
JOSEPH BRODSKY for an all-embracing authorship, imbued with clarity of thought and poetic intensity.

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1986
WOLE SOYINKA who in a wide cultural perspective and with poetic overtones fashions the drama of existence.

1985
CLAUDE SIMON who in his novel combines the poet's and the painter's creativeness with a deepened awareness of time in the depiction of the human condition.

1984
JAROSLAV SEIFERT for his poetry which endowed with freshness, sensuality and rich inventiveness provides a liberating image of the indomitable spirit and versatility of man.

1983
SIR WILLIAM GOLDING for his novels which, with the perspicuity of realistic narrative art and the diversity and universality of myth, illuminate the human condition in the world of today.

1982
GABRIEL GARCÍA MÁRQUEZ for his novels and short stories, in which the fantastic and the realistic are combined in a richly composed world of imagination, reflecting a continent's life and conflicts.

1981
ELIAS CANETTI for writings marked by a broad outlook, a wealth of ideas and artistic power.

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1980
CZESLAW MILOSZ who with uncompromising clear-sightedness voices man's exposed condition in a world of severe conflicts.

1979
ODYSSEUS ELYTIS (pen-name of ODYSSEUS ALEPOUDHELIS), for his poetry, which, against the background of Greek tradition, depicts with sensuous strength and intellectual clear-sightedness modern man's struggle for freedom and creativeness.

1978
ISAAC BASHEVIS SINGER for his impassioned narrative art which, with roots in a Polish-Jewish cultural tradition, brings universal human conditions to life.

1977
VICENTE ALEIXANDRE for a creative poetic writing which illuminates man's condition in the cosmos and in present-day society, at the same time representing the great renewal of the traditions of Spanish poetry beween the wars.

1976
SAUL BELLOW for the human understanding and subtle analysis of contemporary culture that are combined in his work.

1975

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EUGENIO MONTALE for his distinctive poetry which, with great artistic sensitivity, has interpreted human values under the sign of an outlook on life with no illusions.

1974
The prize was divided equally between: EYVIND JOHNSON for a narrative art, farseeing in lands and ages, in the service of freedom. HARRY MARTINSON for writings that catch the dewdrop and reflect the cosmos.

1973
PATRICK WHITE for an epic and psychological narrative art which has introduced a new continent into literature.

1972
HEINRICH BÖLL for his writing which through its combination of a broad perspective on his time and a sensitive skill in characterization has contributed to a renewal of German literature.

1971
PABLO NERUDA for a poetry that with the action of an elemental force brings alive a continent's destiny and dreams.

1970

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ALEKSANDR ISAEVICH SOLZHENITSYN for the ethical force with which he has pursued the indispensable traditions of Russian literature.

1969
SAMUEL BECKETT for his writing, which - in new forms for the novel and drama - in the destitution of modern man acquires its elevation.

1968
YASUNARI KAWABATA for his narrative mastery, which with great sensibility expresses the essence of the Japanese mind.

1967
MIGUEL ANGEL ASTURIAS for his vivid literary achievement, deep-rooted in the national traits and traditions of Indian peoples of Latin America.

1966
The prize was divided equally between: SHMUEL YOSEF AGNON for his profoundly characteristic narrative art with motifs from the life of the Jewish people. NELLY SACHS for her outstanding lyrical and dramatic writing, which interprets Israel's destiny with touching strength.

1965

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MICHAIL ALEKSANDROVICH SHOLOKHOV for the artistic power and integrity with which, in his epic of the Don, he has given expression to a historic phase in the life of the Russian people.

1964
JEAN-PAUL SARTRE for his work which, rich in ideas and filled with the spirit of freedom and the quest for truth, has exerted a farreaching influence on our age. (Declined the prize.)

1963
GIORGOS SEFERIS (pen-name of GIORGOS SEFERIADIS ), for his eminent lyrical writing, inspired by a deep feeling for the Hellenic world of culture.

1962
JOHN STEINBECK for his realistic and imaginative writings, combining as they do sympathetic humour and keen social perception.

1961
IVO ANDRI´C for the epic force with which he has traced themes and depicted human destinies drawn from the history of his country.

1960
SAINT-JOHN PERSE (pen-name of ALEXIS LÉGER), for the soaring flight and the evocative imagery of his poetry which in a visionary fashion reflects the conditions of our time.

1959
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SALVATORE QUASIMODO for his lyrical poetry, which with classical fire expresses the tragic experience of life in our own times.

1958
BORIS LEONIDOVICH PASTERNAK for his important achievement both in contemporary lyrical poetry and in the field of the great Russian epic tradition. (Accepted first, later caused by the authorities of his country to decline the prize.)

1957
ALBERT CAMUS for his important literary production, which with clear-sighted earnestness illuminates the problems of the human conscience in our times.

1956
JUAN RAMÓN JIMÉNEZ for his lyrical poetry, which in Spanish language constitutes an example of high spirit and artistical purity.

1955
HALLDÓR KILJAN LAXNESS for his vivid epic power which has renewed the great narrative art of Iceland.

1954
ERNEST MILLER HEMINGWAY for his mastery of the art of narrative, most recently demonstrated in The Old Man and the Sea ,and for the influence that he has exerted on contemporary style.

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1953
SIR WINSTON LEONARD SPENCER CHURCHILL for his mastery of historical and biographical description as well as for brilliant oratory in defending exalted human values.

1952
FRANÇOIS MAURIAC for the deep spiritual insight and the artistic intensity with which he has in his novels penetrated the drama of human life.

1951
PÄR FABIAN LAGERKVIST for the artistic vigour and true independence of mind with which he endeavours in his poetry to find answers to the eternal questions confronting mankind.

1950
EARL BERTRAND ARTHUR WILLIAM RUSSELL in recognition of his varied and significant writings in which he champions humanitarian ideals and freedom of thought.

1949
WILLIAM FAULKNER for his powerful and artistically unique contribution to the modern American novel.

1948
THOMAS STEARNS ELIOT for his outstanding, pioneer contribution to present-day poetry.

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1947
ANDRÉ PAUL GUILLAUME GIDE for his comprehensive and artistically significant writings, in which human problems and conditions have been presented with a fearless love of truth and keen psychological insight.

1946
HERMANN HESSE for his inspired writings which, while growing in boldness and penetration, exemplify the classical humaitarian ideals and high qualities of style.

1945
GABRIELA MISTRAL (pen-name of LUCILA GODOY Y ALCA-YAGA), for her lyric poetry which, inspired by powerful emotions, has made her name a symbol of the idealistic aspirations of the entire Latin American world.

1944
JOHANNES VILHELM JENSEN for the rare strength and fertility of his poetic imagination with which is combined an intellectual curiosity of wide scope and a bold, freshly creative style.

1943-1940
The prize money was allocated to the Main Fund (1/3) and to the Special Fund (2/3) of this prize section.

1939
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FRANS EEMIL SILLANPÄÄ for his deep understanding of his country's peasantry and the exquisite art with which he has portrayed their way of life and their relationship with Nature.

1938
PEARL BUCK (pen-name of PEARL WALSH née SYDENSTRICKER ), for her rich and truly epic descriptions of peasant life in China and for her biographical masterpieces.

1937
ROGER MARTIN DU GARD for the artistic power and truth with which he has depicted human conflict as well as some fundamental aspects of contemporary life in his novelcycle Les Thibault.

1936
EUGENE GLADSTONE O'NEILL for the power, honesty and deep-felt emotions of his dramatic works, which embody an original concept of tragedy.

1935
The prize money was allocated to the Main Fund (1/3) and to the Special Fund (2/3) of this prize section.

1934
LUIGI PIRANDELLO for his bold and ingenious revival of dramatic and scenic art.

1933

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IVAN ALEKSEYEVICH BUNIN for the strict artistry with which he has carried on the classical Russian traditions in prose writing.

1932
JOHN GALSWORTHY for his distinguished art of narration which takes its highest form in The Forsythe Saga.

1931
ERIK AXEL KARLFELDT The poetry of Erik Axel Karlfeldt.

1930
SINCLAIR LEWIS for his vigorous and graphic art of description and his ability to create, with wit and humour, new types of characters.

1929
THOMAS MANN principially for his great novel, Buddenbrooks, which has won steadily increased recognition as one of the classic works of contemporary literature.

1928
SIGRID UNDSET principially for her powerful descriptions of Northern life during the Middle Ages.

1927
HENRI BERGSON in recognition of his rich and vitalizing ideas and the brillant skill with which they have been presented.

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1926
GRAZIA DELEDDA (pen-name of GRAZIA MADESANI née DELEDDA), for her idealistically inspired writings which with plastic clarity picture the life on her native island and with depth and sympathy deal with human problems in general.

1925
GEORGE BERNARD SHAW for his work which is marked by both idealism and humanity, its stimulating satire often being infused with a singular poetic beauty.

1924
WLADYSLAW STANISLAW REYMONT (pen-name of REYMENT ), for his great national epic, The Peasants.

1923
WILLIAM BUTLER YEATS for his always inspired poetry, which in a highly artistic form gives expression to the spirit of a whole nation.

1922
JACINTO BENAVENTE for the happy manner in which he has continued the illustrious traditions of the Spanish drama.

1921

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ANATOLE FRANCE (pen-name of JACQUES ANATOLE THIBAULT), in recognition of his brilliant literary achievements, characterized as they are by a nobility of style, a profound human sympathy, grace, and a true Gallic temperament.

1920
KNUT PEDERSEN HAMSUN for his monumental work, Growth of the Soil.

1919
CARL FRIEDRICH GEORG SPITTELER in special appreciation of his epic, Olympian Spring.

1918
The prize money for 1918 was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.

1917
The prize was divided equally between: KARL ADOLPH GJELLERUP for his varied and rich poetry, which is inspired by lofty ideals. HENRIK PONTOPPIDAN for his authentic descriptions of present-day life in Denmark.

1916
CARL GUSTAF VERNER VON HEIDENSTAM in recognition of his significance as the leading representative of a new era in our literature.

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1915
ROMAIN ROLLAND as a tribute to the lofty idealism of his literary production and to the sympathy and love of truth with which he has described different types of human beings.

1914
The prize money for 1914 was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.

1913
RABINDRANATH TAGORE because of his profoundly sensitive, fresh and beautiful verse, by which, with comsummate skill, he has made his poetic thought, expressed in his own English words, a part of the literature of the West.

1912
GERHART JOHANN ROBERT HAUPTMANN primarily in recognition of his fruitful, varied and outstanding production in the realm of dramatic art.

1911
COUNT MAURICE (MOORIS) POLIDORE MARIE BERNHARD MAETERLINCK, in appreciation of his manysided literary activities, and especially of his dramatic works, which are distinguished by a wealth of imagination and by a poetic fancy, which reveals, sometimes in the guise of a fairy tale, a deep inspiration, while in a mysterious way they appeal to the readers' own feelings and stimulate their imaginations.

1910

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PAUL JOHANN LUDWIG HEYSE as a tribute to the consummate artistry, permeated with idealism, which he has demonstrated during his long productive career as a lyric poet, dramatist, novelist and writer of world-renowned short stories.

1909
SELMA OTTILIA LOVISA LAGERLÖF in appreciation of the lofty idealism, vivid imagination and spiritual perception that characterize her writings.

1908
RUDOLF CHRISTOPH EUCKEN in recognition of his earnest search for truth, his penetrating power of thought, his wide range of vision, and the warmth and strength in presentation with which in his numerous works he has vindicated and developed an idealistic philosophy of life.

1907
RUDYARD KIPLING in consideration of the power of observation, originality of imagination, virility of ideas and remarkable talent for narration which characterize the creations of this worldfamous author.

1906
GIOSUÈ CARDUCCI not only in consideration of his deep learning and critical research, but above all as a tribute to the creative energy, freshness of style, and lyrical force which characterize his poetic masterpieces.

1905
HENRYK SIENKIEWICZ because of his outstanding merits as an epic writer.

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1904
The prize was divided equally between: FRÉDÉRIC MISTRAL in recognition of the fresh originality and true inspiration of his poetic production, which faithfully reflects the natural scenery and native spirit of his people, and, in addition, his significant work as a Provençal philologist. JOSÉ ECHEGARAY Y EIZAGUIRRE in recognition of the numerous and brilliant compositions which, in an individual and original manner, have revived the great traditions of the Spanish drama.

1903
BJØRNSTJERNE MARTINUS BJØRNSON as a tribute to his noble, magnificent and versatile poetry, which has always been distinguished by both the freshness of its inspiration and the rare purity of its spirit.

1902
CHRISTIAN MATTHIAS THEODOR MOMMSEN the greatest living master of the art of historical writing, with special reference to his monumental work, A history of Rome.

1901
SULLY PRUDHOMME (pen-name of RENÉ FRANÇOIS ARMAND ), in special recognition of his poetic composition, which gives evidence of lofty idealism, artistic perfection and a rare combination of the qualitites of both heart and intellect.

Nobel Peace Prize Winners 2008-1901
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2008
The prize goes to: MARTTI AHTISAARI for his important efforts, on several continents and over more than three decades, to resolve international conflicts.

2007
The prize goes to: INTERGOVERNMENTAL PANEL ON CLIMATE CHANGE (IPCC) and ALBERT ARNOLD ( AL) GORE JR. for their efforts to build up and disseminate greater knowledge about man-made climate change, and to lay the foundations for the measures that are needed to counteract such change.

2006
The prize goes to: MUHAMMAD YUNUS and GRAMEEN BANK for their efforts to create economic and social development from below.

2005
The prize was awarded jointly to: INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY and MOHAMED ELBARADEI for their efforts to prevent nuclear energy from being used for military purposes and to ensure that nuclear energy for peaceful purposes is used in the safest possible way.

2004
The prize was awarded to: WANGARI MAATHAI

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for her contribution to sustainable development, democracy and peace

2003
The prize was awarded to: SHIRIN EBADI for her efforts for democracy and human rights

2002
The prize was awarded to: JIMMY CARTER JR., former President of the United States of America, for his decades of untiring effort to find peaceful solutions to international conflicts, to advance democracy and human rights, and to promote economic and social development

2001
The prize was awarded to: UNITED NATIONS, New York, NY, USA KOFI ANNAN, United Nations Secretary General

2000
The prize was awarded to: KIM DAE JUNG for his work for democracy and human rights in South Korea and in East Asia in general, and for peace and reconciliation with North Korea in particular.

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1999
The prize was awarded to: DOCTORS WITHOUT BORDERS (MÉDECINS SANS FRONTIÈRES), Brussels, Belgium.

1998
The prize was awarded jointly to: JOHN HUME and DAVID TRIMBLE for their efforts to find a peaceful solution to the conflict in Northern Ireland.

1997
The prize was awarded jointly to: INTERNATIONAL CAMPAIGN TO BAN LANDMINES (ICBL) and JODY WILLIAMS for their work for the banning and clearing of anti-personnel mines.

1996
The prize was awarded jointly to: CARLOS FELIPE XIMENES BELO and JOSE RAMOS-HORTA for their work towards a just and peaceful solution to the conflict in East Timor.

1995
The prize was awarded jointly to: JOSEPH ROTBLAT and to the PUGWASH CONFERENCES ON SCIENCE AND WORLD AFFAIRS for their efforts to diminish the part played by nuclear arms in international politics and in the longer run to eliminate such arms.

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1994

The prize was awarded joinly to: YASSER ARAFAT , Chairman of the Executive Committee of the PLO, President of the Palestinian National Authority. SHIMON PERES , Foreign Minister of Israel. YITZHAK RABIN , Prime Minister of Israel. for their efforts to create peace in the Middle East.

1993

The prize was awarded jointly to: NELSON MANDELA Leader of the ANC. FREDRIK WILLEM DE KLERK President of the Republic of South Africa.

1992

RIGOBERTA MENCHU TUM, Guatemala. Campaigner for human rights, especially for indigenous peoples.

1991

AUNG SAN SUU KYI, Burma. Oppositional leader, human rights advocate.

1990

MIKHAIL SERGEYEVICH GORBACHEV , President of the USSR, helped to bring the Cold War to an end.

1989

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THE 14TH DALAI LAMA (TENZIN GYATSO) , Tibet. Religious and political leader of the Tibetan people.

1988

THE UNITED NATIONS PEACE-KEEPING FORCES New York, NY, U.S.A.

1987

OSCAR ARIAS SANCHEZ , Costa Rica, President of Costa Rica, initiator of peace negotiations in Central America.

1986

ELIE WIESEL , U.S.A., Chairman of 'The President's Commission on the Holocaust'. Author, humanitarian.

1985

INTERNATIONAL PHYSICIANS FOR THE PREVENTION OF NUCLEAR WAR Boston, MA, U.S.A.

1984

DESMOND MPILO TUTU , South Africa, Bishop of Johannesburg, former Secretary General South African Council of Churches (S.A.C.C.). for his work against apartheid.

1983

LECH WALESA , Poland. Founder of Solidarity, campaigner for human rights.

1982

The prize was awarded jointly to:

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ALVA MYRDAL , former Cabinet Minister, diplomat, delegate to United Nations General Assembly on Disarmament, writer. ALFONSO GARCÍA ROBLES , diplomat, delegate to the United Nations General Assembly on Disarmament, former Secretary for Foreign Affairs .

1981

OFFICE OF THE UNITED NATIONS HIGH COMMISSIONER FOR REFUGEES Geneva, Switzerland.

1980

ADOLFO PEREZ ESQUIVEL , Argentina, architect, sculptor and human rights leader.

1979

MOTHER TERESA , India, Leader of the Order of the Missionaries of Charity.

1978

The prize was divided equally between: MOHAMED ANWAR AL-SADAT , President of the Arab Republic of Egypt. MENACHEM BEGIN , Prime Minister of Israel. for jointly negotiating peace between Egypt and Israel.

1977

AMNESTY INTERNATIONAL London, Great Britain. A worldwide organization for the protection of the rights of prisoners of conscience.

1976

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BETTY WILLIAMS and MAIREAD CORRIGAN Founders of the Northern Ireland Peace Movement (later renamed Community of Peace People).

1975

ANDREI DMITRIEVICH SAKHAROV , Soviet nuclear physicist. Campaigner for human rights.

1974

The prize was divided equally between: SEÁN MAC BRIDE , President of the International Peace Bureau, Geneva, and the Commission of Namibia, United Nations, New York. EISAKU SATO , Prime Minister of Japan.

1973

The prize was awarded jointly to: HENRY A. KISSINGER , Secretary of State, State Department, Washington. LE DUC THO , Democratic Republic of Viet Nam. (Declined the prize.) for jointly negotiating the Vietnam peace accord in 1973.

1972

The prize money for 1972 was allocated to the Main Fund.

1971

WILLY BRANDT , Federal Republic of Germany, Chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany, initiator of West Germany's Ostpolitik, embodying a new attitude towards Eastern Europe and East Germany.

1970

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NORMAN BORLAUG , Led research at the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center, Mexico City.

1969

INTERNATIONAL LABOUR ORGANIZATION (I.L.O.) Geneva.

1968

RENÉ CASSIN , President of the European Court for Human Rights .

1967-1966
The prize money was allocated to the Main Fund (1/3) and to the Special Fund (2/3) of this prize section.
1965

UNITED NATIONS CHILDREN'S FUND (UNICEF) New York, founded by U.N. in 1946. An international aid organization.

1964

MARTIN LUTHER KING JR. , leader of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, campaigner for civil rights.

1963

The prize was divided equally between COMITÉ INTERNATIONAL DE LA CROIX-ROUGE (INTERNATIONAL COMMITTEE OF THE REDCROSS) Geneva, founded 1863. LIGUE DES SOCIÉTÉS DE LA CROIX-ROUGE (LEAGUE OF RED CROSS SOCIETIES) Geneva.

1962

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LINUS CARL PAULING , California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA. Campaigner especially for an end to nuclear weapons tests.

1961

DAG HJALMAR AGNE CARL HAMMARSKJÖLD , Secretary General of the United Nations (awarded the Prize posthumously).

1960

ALBERT JOHN LUTULI , President of the South Africal liberation movement, the African National Congress.

1959

PHILIP J. NOEL-BAKER , Great Britain, Member of Parliament, life long ardent worker for international peace and co-operation .

1958

GEORGES HENRI PIRE , Belgium, Father of the Dominican Order, Leader of the relief organization for refugees, l'Europe du Coeur au Service du Monde.

1957

LESTER BOWLES PEARSON , former Secretary of State for External Affairs of Canada, President 7th Session of the United Nations General Assembly .

1956-1955
The prize money was allocated to the Main Fund (1/3) and to the Special Fund (2/3) of this prize section.
1954

OFFICE OF THE UNITED NATIONS HIGH COMMISSIONER FOR REFUGEES Geneva, an international relief organization, founded by U.N. in 1951.

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1953

GEORGE CATLETT MARSHALL , General, President American Red Cross, ex-Secretary of State and of Defense, Delegate to the U.N., Originator of the Marshall Plan.

1952

ALBERT SCHWEITZER , Missionary surgeon, Founder Lambaréné Hospital in République du Gabon.

1951

LÉON JOUHAUX , France, President of the trade union C.G.T. Force Ouvrière. President of the International Committee of the European Council, Vice President of the International Confederation of Free Trade Unions, Vice President of the World Federation of Trade Unions, member of the ILO Council, delegate to the UN.

1950

RALPH BUNCHE , Professor Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, Director of the UN Division of Trusteeship, Acting Mediator in Palestine 1948.

1949

LORD JOHN BOYD ORR OF BRECHIN, Physician, Alimentary Politician, prominent organizer and Director General Food and Agricultural Organization, President National Peace Council and World Union of Peace Organizations.

1948

The prize money was allocated to the Main Fund (1/3) and to the Special Fund (2/3) of this prize section.

1947

The prize was awarded jointly to:

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THE FRIENDS SERVICE COUNCIL (The Quakers), London. Founded in 1647. THE AMERICAN FRIENDS SERVICE COMMITTEE (The Quakers), Washington. The society's first official meeting was held in 1672.

1946

The prize was divided equally between: EMILY GREENE BALCH, former Professor of History and Sociology, Honorary International President Women's International League for Peace and Freedom. JOHN RALEIGH MOTT Chairman of the first International Missionary Council, President of the World Alliance of Young Men's Christian Associations .

1945

CORDELL HULL Former Secretary of State. One of the initiators of the United Nations.

1944

COMITÉ INTERNATIONAL DE LA CROIX-ROUGE (INTERNATIONAL COMMITTEE OF THE RED CROSS)

1943-1939
The prize money was allocated to the Main Fund (1/3) and to the Special Fund (2/3) of this prize section.
1938

OFFICE INTERNATIONAL NANSEN POUR LES RÉFUGIÉS (NANSEN INTERNATIONAL OFFICE FOR REFUGEES) an international relief organization in Geneva started by Fridtjof Nansen in 1921.

1937

CECIL OF CHELWOOD, VISCOUNT, (LORD EDGAR ALGERNON ROBERT GASCOYNE CECIL) , Writer, Former Lord Privy Seal. Founder and President of the International Peace Campaign.

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1936

CARLOS SAAVEDRA LAMAS Foreign Minister. President of the Société des Nations (League of Nations), Meditator in a conflict between Paraguay and Bolivia in 1935.

1935

CARL VON OSSIETZKY Journalist (with Die Weltbühne, among others), pacifist.

1934

ARTHUR HENDERSON Former Foreign Secretary. Chairman of the League of Nations Disarmament Conference 1932-1934.

1933

SIR NORMAN ANGELL (RALPH LANE) Writer. Member of the Commission Exécutive de la Société des Nations (Executive Committee of the League of Nations) and the National Peace Council. Author of the book The Great Illusion, among others.

1932

The prize money for 1932 was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.

1931

The prize was divided equally between: JANE ADDAMS Sociologist. International President of the Women's International League for Peace and Freedom. NICHOLAS MURRAY BUTLER President of Columbia University. Promoter of the Briand-Kellogg Pact.

1930

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LARS OLOF NATHAN (JONATHAN) SÖDERBLOM Archbishop. Leader of the ecumenical movement.

1929

FRANK BILLINGS KELLOGG Former Secretary of State, Negotiated the Briand-Kellogg Pact.

1928

The prize money for 1928 was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.

1927

The prize was divided equally between: FERDINAND BUISSON Former Professor at the Sorbonne University, Paris. Founder and President of the Ligue des Droits de l'Homme (League for Human Rights). LUDWIG QUIDDEHistorian. Professor at Berlin University. Member of Germany's constituent assembly 1919. Delegate to numerous peace conferences.

1926

The prize was awarded jointly to: ARISTIDE BRIAND Foreign Minister. Negotiator of the Locarno Treaty and the Briand-Kellogg Pact. GUSTAV STRESEMANN Former Lord High Chancellor (Reichs-kanzler). Foreign Minister. Negotiator of the Locarno Treaty.

1925

The prize was awarded jointly to: SIR AUSTEN CHAMBERLAIN Foreign Minister. Negotiator of the Locarno Treaty. CHARLES GATES DAWES Vice-President of the United States of America. Chairman of the Allied Reparation Commission. Originator of the Dawes Plan .

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1924-1923
The prize money for 1924-1923 was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.
1922

FRIDTJOF NANSEN , Norway. Scientist. Explorer. Norwegian Delegate to Société des Nations (League of Nations). Originator of the Nansen passports (for refugees).

1921

The prize was divided equally between: KARL HJALMAR BRANTING Prime Minister. Swedish Delegate to the Conseil de la Société des Nations (Council of the League of Nations). CHRISTIAN LOUS LANGE Secretary General of the Inter-Parliamentary Union, Brussels.

1920

LÉON VICTOR AUGUSTE BOURGEOIS, France. Former Secretary of State. President of the Parliament (Sénat). President of the Conseil de la Société des Nations (Council of the League of Nations) .

1919

THOMAS WOODROW WILSON, President of the United States of America. Founder of the Société des Nations (League of Nations)

1918

The prize money for 1918 was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.

1917

COMITÉ INTERNATIONAL DE LA CROIX ROUGE (INTERNATIONAL COMMITTEE OF THE REDCROSS) , Geneva.

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1916-1914
The prize money for 1916-1914 was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.
1913

HENRI LA FONTAINE, Belgium. Member of the Belgian Parliament (Sénateur). President of the Permanent International Peace Bureau, Berne.

1912

ELIHU ROOT Former Secretary of State. Initiator of several arbitration agreements.

1911

The prize was divided equally between: TOBIAS MICHAEL CAREL ASSER, the Netherlands. Cabinet Minister. Member of the Privy Council. Initiator of the International Conferences of Private Law at the Hague. ALFRED HERMANN FRIED, Austria. Journalist. Founder of the peace journal Die Waffen Nieder (later renamed Die Friedenswarte).

1910

BUREAU INTERNATIONAL PERMANENT DE LA PAIX (PERMANENT INTERNATIONAL PEACE BUREAU) , Bern.

1909

The prize was divided equally between: AUGUSTE MARIE FRANÇOIS BEERNAERT, Belgium. Former Prime Minister. Member of the Belgian Parliament. Member of the Cour Internationale d'Arbitrage (International Court of Arbitration) at the Hague. PAUL HENRIBENJAMIN BALLUET D'ESTOURNELLES DE CONSTANT, BARON DE CONSTANT DE REBECQUE, France. Member of the French Parliament (Sénateur). Founder and President of the French parliamentary group for international arbitration (Groupe parlementaire de l'arbitrage

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international). Founder of the Comité de défense des intérêtsnationaux et de conciliation internationale (Committee for the Defense of National Interests and International Conciliation).

1908

The prize was divided equally between: KLAS PONTUS ARNOLDSON, Sweden. Writer. Former Member fo the Swedish Parliament. Founder of the Swedish Peace and Arbitration League. FREDRIK BAJER, Denmark. Member of the Danish Parliament. Honorary President of the Permanent International Peace Bureau, Berne.

1907

The prize was divided equally between: ERNESTO TEODORO MONETA, Italy. President of the Lombard League of Peace. LOUIS RENAULT, France. Professor International Law, Sorbonne University, Paris.

1906

THEODORE ROOSEVELT, USA. President of the United States of America. Drew up the 1905 peace treaty between Russia and Japan.

1905

BARONESS BERTHA SOPHIE FELICITA VON SUTTNER née COUNTESS KINSKY von CHINIC und TETTAU, Austria. Writer. Hon. President of the Permanent International Peace Bureau, Berne. Author of Die Waffen Nieder (Lay Down Your Arms).

1904

INSTITUT DE DROIT INTERNATIONAL (INSTITUTE OF INTERNATIONAL LAW) , Gent, Belgium. A scientific society.

1903

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SIR WILLIAM RANDAL CREMER, Great Britain. Member of the British Parliament. Secretary of the International Arbitration League .

1902

The prize was divided equally between: ÉLIE DUCOMMUN, Switzerland. Honorary Secretary of the Permanent International Peace Bureau, Berne. CHARLES ALBERT GOBAT, Switzerland. Secretary General of the Inter-Parliamentary Union, Berne. Honorary Secretary of the Permanent International Peace Bureau, Berne.

1901

The prize was divided equally between: JEAN HENRI DUNANT, Switzerland. Founder of the International Committee of the Red Cross, Geneva; Initiator of the Geneva Convention (Convention de Genève). FRÉDÉRIC PASSY, France. Founder and President of the first French peace society (since 1889 it has been called the Société Francaise pour l'arbitrage entre nations).

Bank of Sweden Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 20081969

2008
The prize goes to: PAUL KRUGMAN for his analysis of trade patterns and location of economic activity.

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2007
The prize was awarded jointly to: LEONID HURWICZ , ERIC S. MASKIN , and ROGER B. MYERSON for having laid the foundations of mechanism design theory.

2006
The prize goes to: EDMUND S. PHELPS for his analysis of intertemporal tradeoffs in macroeconomic policy.

2005
The prize was awarded jointly to: ROBERT J. AUMANN and THOMAS C. SCHELLING for having enhanced our understanding of conflict and cooperation through game-theory analysis.

2004
The prize was awarded jointly to: FINN E. KYDLAND and EDWARD C. PRESCOTT for their contributions to dynamic macroeconomics: the time consistency of economic policy and the driving forces behind business cycles

2003
The prize was shared between: ROBERT F. ENGLE for methods of analyzing economic time series with time-varying volatility

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(ARCH) and CLIVE W. J. GRANGER , for methods of analyzing economic time series with common trends (cointegration)

2002
The prize was shared between: DANIEL KAHNEMAN for having integrated insights from psychological research into economic science, especially concerning human judgment and decision-making under uncertainty and VERNON L. SMITH, for having established laboratory experiments as a tool in empirical economic analysis, especially in the study of alternative market mechanisms

2001
The prize was awarded jointly to: GEORGE A. AKERLOF, A. MICHAEL SPENCE, and JOSEPH E. STIGLITZ, for their analyses of markets with asymmetric information.

2000
The prize will be shared between: JAMES J. HECKMAN for his development of theory and methods for analyzing selective samples and DANIEL L. MCFADDEN for his development of theory and methods for analyzing discrete choice.

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1999
ROBERT A. MUNDELLfor his analysis of monetary and fiscal policy under different exchange rate regimes and his analysis of optimum currency areas.

1998
AMARTYA SEN for his contributions to welfare economics.

1997
ROBERT C. MERTON and MYRON S. SCHOLES for a new method to determine the value of derivatives.

1996
JAMES A. MIRRLEES and WILLIAM VICKREY for their fundamental contributions to the economic theory of incentives under asymmetric information.

1995
ROBERT LUCAS for having developed and applied the hypothesis of rational expectations, and thereby having transformed macroeconomic analysis and deepened our understanding of economic policy.

1994
The prize was awarded jointly to: JOHN C. HARSANYI , JOHN F. NASH and REINHARD SELTEN for their pioneering analysis of equilibria in the theory of non-cooperative games.

1993
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The prize was awarded jointly to: ROBERT W. FOGEL and DOUGLASS C. NORTH for having renewed research in economic history by applying economic theory and quantitative methods in order to explain economic and institutional change.

1992
GARY S. BECKER for having extended the domain of microeconomic analysis to a wide range of human behaviour and interaction, including nonmarket behaviour.

1991
RONALD H. COASE for his discovery and clarification of the significance of transaction costs and property rights for the institutional structure and functioning of the economy.

1990
The prize was awarded with one third each to: HARRY M. MARKOWITZ , MERTON M. MILLER and WILLIAM F. SHARPE for their pioneering work in the theory of financial economics.

1989
TRYGVE HAAVELMO for his clarification of the probability theory foundations of econometrics and his analyses of simultaneous economic structures.

1988
MAURICE ALLAIS for his pioneering contributions to the theory of markets and efficient utilization of resources.

1987
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ROBERT M. SOLOW for his contributions to the theory of economic growth.

1986
JAMES M. BUCHANAN, JR. for his development of the contractual and constitutional bases for the theory of economic and political decision-making.

1985
FRANCO MODIGLIANI for his pioneering analyses of saving and of financial markets.

1984
SIR RICHARD STONE for having made fundamental contributions to the development of systems of national accounts and hence greatly improved the basis for empirical economic analysis.

1983
GERARD DEBREU for having incorporated new analytical methods into economic theory and for his rigorous reformulation of the theory of general equilibrium.

1982
GEORGE J. STIGLER for his seminal studies of industrial structures, functioning of markets and causes and effects of public regulation.

1981
JAMES TOBIN for his analysis of financial markets and their relations to expenditure decisions, employment, production and prices.

1980
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LAWRENCE R. KLEIN for the creation of econometric models and the application to the analysis of economic fluctuations and economic policies.

1979
The prize was divided equally between: THEODORE W. SCHULTZ and SIR ARTHUR LEWIS for their pioneering research into economic development research with particular consideration of the problems of developing countries.

1978
HERBERT A. SIMON for his pioneering research into the decision-making process within economic organizations.

1977
The prize was divided equally between: BERTIL OHLIN and JAMES E MEADE for their pathbreaking contribution to the theory of international trade and international capital movements.

1976
MILTON FRIEDMAN for his achievements in the fields of consumption analysis, monetary history and theory and for his demonstration of the complexity of stabilization policy.

1975
The prize was awarded jointly to: LEONID VITALIYEVICH KANTOROVICH and TJALLING C. KOOPMANS for their contributions to the theory of optimum allocation of resources.

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1974
The prize was divided equally between: GUNNAR MYRDAL and FRIEDRICH AUGUST VON HAYEK for their pioneering work in the theory of money and economic fluctuations and for their penetrating analysis of the interdependence of economic, social and institutional phenomena.

1973
WASSILY LEONTIEF for the development of the input-output method and for its application to important economic problems.

1972
The prize was awarded jointly to: SIR JOHN R. HICKS and KENNETH J. ARROW for their pioneering contributions to general economic equilibrium theory and welfare theory.

1971
SIMON KUZNETS for his empirically founded interpretation of economic growth which has led to new and deepened insight into the economic and social structure and process of development.

1970
PAUL A SAMUELSON for the scientific work through which he has developed static and dynamic economic theory and actively contributed to raising the level of analysis in economic science.

1969
The prize was awarded jointly to: RAGNAR FRISCH and JAN TINBERGEN for having developed and applied dynamic models for the analysis of economic processes.

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Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine Winners 20081901

2008
The prize was divided equally, one half to: HARALD ZUR HAUSEN for his discovery of human papilloma viruses causing cervical cancer and the other half jointly to: FRANCOISE BARRE SINOUSSI, and LUC MONTAGNIER for their discovery of human immunodeficiency virus

2007
The prize was awarded jointly to: MARIO R. CAPECCHI, SIR MARTIN J. EVANS, and OLIVER SMITHIES for their discoveries of principles for introducing specific gene modifications in mice by the use of embryonic stem cells

2006
The prize was awarded jointly to: ANDREW Z. FIRE, and CRAIG C. MELLO for their discovery of RNA interference - gene silencing by double-stranded RNA

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2005
The prize was awarded jointly to: BARRY J. MARSHALL, and J. ROBIN WARREN for their discovery of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori and its role in gastritis and peptic ulcer disease.

2004
The prize was awarded jointly to: RICHARD AXEL, and LINDA B BUCK for their discoveries of odorant receptors and the organization of the olfactory system

2003
The prize was awarded jointly to: PAUL C. LAUTERBUR, and SIR PETER MANSFIELD for their discoveries concerning magnetic resonance imaging.

2002
The prize was awarded jointly to: SYDNEY BRENNER, H. ROBERT HORVITZ and JOHN E. SULSTON for their discoveries concerning genetic regulation of organ development and programmed cell death.

2001
The prize was awarded jointly to: LELAND H. HARTWELL, R. TIMOTHY HUNT and PAUL M. NURSE for their discoveries of "key regulators of the cell cycle."

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2000
The prize was awarded jointly to: ARVID CARLSSON, PAUL GREENGARD and ERIC KANDEL for their discoveries concerning signal transduction in the nervous system.

1999
The prize was awarded to: GÜNTER BLOBEL, for the discovery that proteins have intrinsic signals that govern their transport and localization in the cell.

1998
The prize was awarded jointly to: ROBERT F. FURCHGOTT, LOUIS J. IGNARRO and FERID MURAD for their discoveries concerning nitric oxide as a signalling molecule in the cardiovascular system.

1997
STANLEY B. PRUSINER for his discovery of Prions - a new biological principle of infection

1996
The prize was awarded jointly to: PETER C. DOHERTY and ROLF M. ZINKERNAGEL for their discoveries concerning the specificity of the cell mediated immune defence.

1995
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The prize was awarded jointly to: EDWARD B. LEWIS, CHRISTIANE NÜSSLEIN-VOLHARD and ERIC F. WIESCHAUS for their discoveries concerning the genetic control of early embryonic development.

1994
The prize was awarded jointly to: ALFRED G. GILMAN and MARTIN RODBELL for their discovery of G-proteins and the role of these proteins in signal transduction in cells.

1993
The prize was awarded jointly to: RICHARD J. ROBERTS and PHILLIP A. SHARP for their independent discoveries of split genes.

1992
The prize was awarded jointly to: EDMOND H. FISCHER and EDWIN G. KREBS for their discoveries concerning reversible protein phosphorylation as a biological regulatory mechanism.

1991
The prize was awarded jointly to: ERWIN NEHER and BERT SAKMANN for their discoveries concerning the function of single ion channels in cells.

1990
The prize was awarded jointly to:

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JOSEPH E. MURRAY and E. DONNALL THOMAS for their discoveries concerning organ and cell transplantation in the treatment of human disease.

1989
The prize was awarded jointly to: J. MICHAEL BISHOP and HAROLD E. VARMUS for their discovery of the cellular origin of retroviral oncogenes.

1988
The prize was awarded jointly to: SIR JAMES W. BLACK , GERTRUDE B. ELION and GEORGE H. HITCHINGS for their discoveries of important principles for drug treatment.

1987
SUSUMU TONEGAWA for his discovery of the genetic principle for generation of antibody diversity.

1986
The prize was awarded jointly to: STANLEY COHEN and RITA LEVI-MONTALCINI for their discoveries of growth factors.

1985
The prize was awarded jointly to: MICHAEL S. BROWN and JOSEPH L. GOLDSTEIN for their discoveries concerning the regulation of cholesterol metabolism.

1984
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The prize was awarded jointly to: NIELS K. JERNE , GEORGES J.F. KÖHLER and CÉSAR MILSTEIN for theories concerning the specificity in development and control of the immune system and the discovery of the principle for production of monoclonal antibodies.

1983
BARBARA MC CLINTOCK for her discovery of mobile genetic elements.

1982
The prize was awarded jointly to: SUNE K. BERGSTRÖM , BENGT I. SAMUELSSON and SIR JOHN R. VANE for their discoveries concerning prostaglandins and related biologically active substances.

1981
The prize was divided equally, one half awarded to: ROGER W. SPERRY for his discoveries concerning the functional specialization of the cerebral hemispheres. and the other half awarded jointly to: DAVID H. HUBEL and TORSTEN N. WIESEL for their discoveries concerning information processing in the visual system.

1980
The prize was awarded jointly to: BARUJ BENACERRAF , JEAN DAUSSET and GEORGE D. SNELL for their discoveries concerning genetically determined structures on the cell surface that regulate immunological reactions.

1979
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The prize was awarded jointly to: ALAN M. CORMACK and SIR GODFREY N. HOUNSFIELD for the development of computer assisted tomography.

1978
The prize was awarded jointly to: WERNER ARBER , DANIEL NATHANS and HAMILTON O. SMITH for the discovery of restriction enzymes and their application to problems of molecular genetics.

1977
The prize was divided equally, one half awarded jointly to: ROGER GUILLEMIN and ANDREW V. SCHALLY for their discoveries concerning the peptide hormone production of the brain and the other half awarded to: ROSALYN YALOW for the development of radioimmunoassays of peptide hormones.

1976
The prize was awarded jointly to: BARUCH S. BLUMBERG and D. CARLETON GAJDUSEK for their discoveries concerning new mechanisms for the origin and dissemination of infectious diseases.

1975
The prize was awarded jointly to: DAVID BALTIMORE , RENATO DULBECCO and HOWARD MARTIN TEMIN for their discoveries concerning the interaction between tumour viruses and the genetic material of the cell.

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1974
The prize was awarded jointly to: ALBERT CLAUDE , CHRISTIAN DE DUVE and GEORGE E. PALADE for their discoveries concerning the structural and functional organization of the cell.

1973
The prize was awarded jointly to: KARL VON FRISCH , KONRAD LORENZ and NIKOLAAS TINBERGEN for their discoveries concerning organization and elicitation of individual and social behaviour patterns.

1972
The prize was awarded jointly to: GERALD M. EDELMAN and RODNEY R. PORTER for their discoveries concerning the chemical structure of antibodies.

1971
EARL W. JR. SUTHERLAND for his discoveries concerning the mechanisms of the action of hormones.

1970
The prize was awarded jointly to: SIR BERNARD KATZ , ULF VON EULER and JULIUS AXELROD for their discoveries concerning the humoral transmittors in the nerve terminals and the mechanism for their storage, release and inactivation.

1969
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The prize was awarded jointly to: MAX DELBRÜCK , ALFRED D. HERSHEY and SALVADOR E. LURIA for their discoveries concerning the replication mechanism and the gentic structure of viruses.

1968
The prize was awarded jointly to: ROBERT W. HOLLEY , HAR GOBIND KHORANA and MARSHALL W. NIRENBERG for their interpretation of the genetic code and its function in protein synthesis.

1967
The prize was awarded jointly to: RAGNAR GRANIT , HALDAN KEFFER HARTLINE and GEORGE WALD for their discoveries concerning the primary physiological and chemical visual processes in the eye.

1966
The prize was divided equally, one half awarded to: PEYTON ROUS for his discovery of tumorinducing viruses and the other half to: CHARLES BRENTON HUGGINS for his discoveries concerning hormonal treatment of prostatic cancer.

1965
The prize was awarded jointly to: FRANÇOIS JACOB , ANDRÉ LWOFF and JACOUES MONOD for their discoveries concerning genetic control of enzyme and virus synthesis.

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1964
The prize was awarded jointly to: KONRAD BLOCH and FEODOR LYNEN for their discoveries concerning the mechanism and regulation of the cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism.

1963
The prize was awarded jointly to: SIR JOHN CAREW ECCLES , SIR ALAN LLOYD HODGKIN and SIR ANDREW FIELDING HUXLEY for their discoveries concerning the ionic mechanisms involved in excitation and inhibition in the peripheral and central portions of the nerve cell membrane.

1962
The prize was awarded jointly to: FRANCIS HARRY COMPTON CRICK , JAMES DEWEY WATSON and MAURICE HUGH FREDERICK WILKINS for their discoveries concerning the molecular structure of nuclear acids and its significance for information transfer in living material.

1961
GEORG VON BÉKÉSY for his discoveries of the physical mechanism of stimulation within the cochlea.

1960
The prize was awarded jointly to: SIR FRANK MACFARLANE BURNET and SIR PETER BRIAN MEDAWAR for discovery of acquired immunological tolerance.

1959
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The prize was awarded jointly to: SEVERO OCHOA and ARTHUR KORNBERG for their discovery of the mechanisms in the biological synthesis of ribonucleic acid and deoxiribonucleic acid.

1958
The prize was divided equally, one half awarded jointly to: GEORGE WELLS BEADLE and EDWARD LAWRIE TATUM for their discovery that genes act by regulating definite chemical events and the other half to: JOSHUA LEDERBERG for his discoveries concerning genetic recombination and the organization of the genetic material of bacteria.

1957
DANIEL BOVET for his discoveries relating to synthetic compounds that inhibit the action of certain body substances, and especially their action on the vascular system and the skeletal muscles.

1956
The prize was awarded jointly to: ANDRÉ FRÉDÉRIC COURNAND , WERNER FORSSMANN and DICKINSON W. RICHARDS for their discoveries concerning heart catherization and pathological changes in the circulatory system.

1955
AXEL HUGO THEODOR THEORELL for his discoveries concerning the nature and mode of action of oxidation enzymes.

1954
The prize was awarded jointly to:

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JOHN FRANKLIN ENDERS , THOMAS HUCKLE WELLER and FREDERICK CHAPMAN ROBBINS for their discovery of the ability of poliomyelitis viruses to grow in cultures of various types of tissue.

1953
The prize was divided equally, one half awarded to: SIR HANS ADOLF KREBS for his discovery of the citric acid cycle and the other half to: FRITZ ALBERT LIPMANN for his discovery of co-enzyme A and its importance for intermediary metabolism.

1952
SELMAN ABRAHAM WAKSMAN for his discovery of streptomycin, the first antibiotic effective against tuberculosis.

1951
MAX THEILER for his discoveries concerning yellow fever and how to combat it.

1950
The prize was awarded jointly to: EDWARD CALVIN KENDALL , TADEUS REICHSTEIN and PHILIP SHOWALTER HENCH for their discoveries relating to the hormones of the adrenal cortex, their structure and biological effects.

1949
The prize was divided equally, one half awarded to: WALTER RUDOLF HESS for his discovery of the functional organization of the interbrain as a coordinator of the activities of the internal organs

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and the other half to: ANTONIO CAETANO DE ABREU FREIRE EGAS MONIZ for his discovery of the therapeutic value of leucotomy in certain psychoses.

1948
PAUL HERMANN MÜLLER for his discovery of the high efficiency of DDT as a contact poison against several arth ropods.

1947
The prize was divided, one half awarded jointly to: CARL FERDINAND CORI and GERTY THERESA CORI née RADNITZ for their discovery of the course of the catalytic conversion of glycogen the other half awarded to: BERNARDO ALBERTO HOUSSAY for his discovery of the part played by the hormone of the anterior pituitary lobe in the metabolism of sugar.

1946
HERMANN JOSEPH MULLER for the discovery of the production of mutations by means of X-ray irradiation.

1945
The prize was awarded jointly to: SIR ALEXANDER FLEMING , SIR ERNST BORIS CHAIN and LORD HOWARD WALTER FLOREY for the discovery of penicillin and its curative effect in various infectious diseases.

1944
The prize was awarded jointly to

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JOSEPH ERLANGER and HERBERT SPENCER GASSER for their discoveries relating to the highly differentiated functions of single nerve fibres.

1943
The prize was divided equally, one half awarded to: HENRIK CARL PETER DAM for his discovery of vitamin K. and the other half to: EDWARD ADELBERT DOISY for his discovery of the chemical nature of vitamin K.

1942-1940
The prize money was allocated to the Main Fund (1/3) and to the Special Fund (2/3) of this prize section.

1939
GERHARD DOMAGK for the discovery of the antibacterial effects of prontosil. (Caused by the authorities of his country to decline the award, but later received the diploma and the medal.)

1938
CORNEILLE JEAN FRANÇOIS HEYMANS for the discovery of the role played by the sinus and aortic mechanisms in the regulation of respiration.

1937
ALBERT SZENT-GYÖRGYI VON NAGYRAPOLT for his discoveries in connection with the biological combustion processes, with special reference to vitamin C and the catalysis of fumaric acid.

1936
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The prize was awarded jointly to: SIR HENRY HALLETT DALE and OTTO LOEWI for their discoveries relating to chemical transmission of nerve impulses.

1935
HANS SPEMANN for his discovery of the organizer effect in embryonic development.

1934
The prize was awarded jointly to: GEORGE HOYT WHIPPLE , GEORGE RICHARDS MINOT and WILLIAM PARRY MURPHY for their discoveries concerning liver therapy in cases of anaemia.

1933
THOMAS HUNT MORGAN for his discoveries concerning the role played by the chromosome in heredity.

1932
The prize was awarded jointly to: SIR CHARLES SCOTT SHERRINGTON and LORD EDGAR DOUGLAS ADRIAN for their discoveries regarding the functions of neurons.

1931
OTTO HEINRICH WARBURG for his discovery of the nature and mode of action of the respiratory enzyme.

1930
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KARL LANDSTEINER for his discovery of human blood groups.

1929
The prize was divided equally, one half awarded to: CHRISTIAAN EIJKMAN for his discovery of the antineuritic vitamin and the other half awarded to: SIR FREDERICK GOWLAND HOPKINS for his discovery of the growth-stimulating vitamins.

1928
CHARLES JULES HENRI NICOLLE for his work on typhus.

1927
JULIUS WAGNER-JAUREGG for his discovery of the therapeutic value of malaria inoculation in the treatment of dementia paralytica.

1926
JOHANNES ANDREAS GRIB FIBIGER for his discovery of the Spiroptera carcinoma.

1925
The prize money for 1925 was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.

1924
WILLEM EINTHOVEN for his discovery of the mechanism of the electrocardiogram.

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1923
SIR FREDERICK GRANT BANTING and JOHN JAMES RICHARD MACLEOD for the discovery of insulin.

1922
The prize was divided equally between: SIR ARCHIBALD VIVIAN HILL for his discovery relating to the production of heat in the muscle and OTTO FRITZ MEYERHOF for his discovery of the fixed relationship between the consumption of oxygen and the metabolism of lactid acid in the muscle.

1921
The prize money for 1921 was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.

1920
SCHACK AUGUST STEENBERGER KROGH for his discovery of the capillary motor regulating mechanism.

1919
JULES BORDET for his discoveries relating to immunity.

1918-1915
The prize money for 1918-1915 was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.

1914
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ROBERT BÁRÁNY for his work on the physiology and pathology of the vestibular apparatus.

1913
CHARLES ROBERT RICHET in recognition of his work on anaphylaxis.

1912
ALEXIS CARREL in recognition of his work on vascular suture and the transplantation of bloodvessels and organs.

1911
ALLVAR GULLSTRAND for his work on the dioptrics of the eye.

1910
ALBRECHT KOSSEL in recognition of the contributions to our knowledge of cell chemistry made through his work on proteins, including the nucleic substances.

1909
EMIL THEODOR KOCHER for his work on the physiology, pathology and surgery of the thyroid gland.

1908
The prize was awarded jointly to: ILYA ILYICH MECHNIKOV and PAUL EHRLICH in recognition of their work on immunity.

1907
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CHARLES LOUIS ALPHONSE LAVERAN in recognition of his work on the role played by protozoa in causing diseases.

1906
The prize was awarded jointly to: CAMILLO GOLGI and SANTIAGO RAMON Y CAJAL in recognition of their work on the stucture of the nervous system.

1905
ROBERT KOCH for his investigations and discoveries in relation to tuberculosis.

1904
IVAN PETROVICH PAVLOV in recognition of his work on the physiology of digestion, through which knowledge on vital aspects of the subject has been transformed and enlarged.

1903
NIELS RYBERG FINSEN in recognition of his contribution to the treatment of diseases, especially lupus vulgaris, with concentrated light radiation, whereby he has opened a new avenue for medical science.

1902
SIR RONALD ROSS for his work on malaria, by which he has shown how it enters the organism and thereby has laid the foundation for successful resesarch on this disease and methods of combating it.

1901

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EMIL ADOLF VON BEHRING for his work on serum therapy, especially its application against diphtheria, by which he has opened a new road in the domain of medical science and thereby placed in the hands of the physician a victorious weapon against illness and deaths.

Academy Awards History Of The Oscar

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From its initial creation in 1927, one of the first goals of the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS) was the method to honor achievements in the motion picture industry. A committee of seven members was formed and given the task of creating an Academy Awards presentation. The first Academy Awards ceremony was held on May 16, 1929. It was definitely a low key affair compared to the glamor and glitz that surround the ceremonies of today.

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Two hundred and fifty people attended the black-tie banquet that evening in the Blossom Room of Hollywood Roosevelt Hotel. Emil Jannings, who was the winner for best actor, decided to go back to his home in Germany before the ceremony. But before he departed, Emil Jannings was handed the very first Academy Award. We all know the focal point is the actual Oscar statuette. Early on, the Academy Awards knew that the success of the Awards was the centered around the actual trophy, so it could be presented at the Awards. MGM art director Cedric Gibbons was tasked with designing the statuette. The statuette is a simple, stylized golden knight standing on a reel of film and gripping a sword. The award was actually created by sculptor George Stanley. One question that often arises, is how did the Oscar get its name? The official name of the statuette is the Academy Award of Merit. The statuette is almost exclusively known as the Oscar. The exact reason is not known, but the most popular story involves then Academy librarian and future executive director, Margaret Herrick. When Herrick saw the statuette sitting on a table, stated “it looks just like my Uncle Oscar!” The name stuck and that magical golden statuette has been called Oscar ever since. Over the past 80 plus years, the actual Oscar statuette has undergone relatively few changes. Compared to the 1929 version, they are almost exactly the same. It is 13 ½ inches tall and weighs 8 ½ pounds. But there have been some very fundamental changes. 15 Oscar statuettes were awarded during the first Academy Awards ceremony on May 16th, 1929. They were made of gold-plated solid bronze and placed upon a pedestal made of Belgian black marble. In 1945, two minor changes occurred with the pedestal. It was made slightly higher and is currently made of metal, rather than marble. Beginning in 1949, the statues began to be numbered. For whatever reason, the starting number began with 501. The number is written behind Oscar’s heels. An example would be: 2008, 2,698.The record for the most Oscar awards during a career is Walt Disney, who was awarded the statuette 26 times.

The Academy Awards Oscar presentation for excellence in the film industry has a long and rich history.

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In 1927, the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS)was formed by 36 of the film industry's most prominent individuals, choosing film actor Douglas Fairbanks, Sr. as its first president. In 1929, AMPAS presented the first Academy Award. This award was for recognition of excellence in the motion picture industry. This award has remained the ultimate industry standard of recognition. Voting members of AMPAS represent fourteen branches of the film industry to determine who receives the coveted awards. The Oscar voting process begins in November of each year. Movie studios, publicists and film distributors begin their attempts to coax the voting members of AMPAS to view their film offerings. These attempts are regulated in the interest of fairness. The following January, the Academy Awards ballots are distributed to voting members, who have one month to make their nominations and return these nominations to the offices of PricewaterhouseCoopers, formerly Price Waterhouse, a professional service used to tabulate the votes. PricewaterhouseCoopers guarantees the security of the balloting. Only two people employed by PricewaterhouseCoopers know the results of award balloting before the ceremonies. The nominations for the award are made by members of the craft categories for each of the rewards. In the Best Picture category, however, all voting members are allowed to submit nominations. In February, PricewaterhouseCoopers announces the result of the nominations. Voting members then receive ballots to cast their votes to select winners in each category. They are then returned to the tabulating service. Although many of the fourteen Oscar categories have been broadened or changed since 1927, the awards still fall within the main branches of the Academy. This includes actors, producers, directors, writers and technicians. Even the names of some of the awards have changed. For example, the Best Picture award was known as the Best Production award prior to 1933. In that year, two Best Picture awards were given. One, to "Wings" for the Best Production and another to "Sunrise" for the Best Unique and Artistic Picture. After that year's awards the latter category was dropped. Until 1939, the award was called the "Academy Award of Merit" and was not a statuette but a plaque. The first Oscar statuette was awarded to actor Emil Jannings, who was named Best Actor for his role in "The Last Command" and "The Way of All Things". How the awards statuette came to be known as "Oscar" is not known but it is generally accepted that Katherine Herrion, a future Academy Executive Director, remarked upon seeing the statue that it reminded her of her uncle Oscar and began referring to it by that name. Academy staff followed her lead and the name Oscar has been used ever since. The Oscar itself is a statuette, made by the R.S. Owens Company of Chicago. It is approximately 13.5 inches high and weighs 8.5 pounds. It is made from a copper, silver and nickel alloy and covered with 25-Carat gold. During World War II, the statues were made of plaster. Recipients turned in these plaster statues after the war for golden Oscars. In the 1930's juvenile recipients of the award were given miniature versions and there is one instance where a wooden Oscar was awarded to ventriloquist Edgar Bergen. Walt Disney received seven miniature Oscar statuettes for the film Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs, the first all-animated feature film. The statue was designed by Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer art director Cedric Gibbon and sculptor George Stanley. The Oscar depicts a knight holding a sword, standing atop a reel of film. The film reel has five spokes, representing the five original branches of AMPAS. 1949 marked the first year that the Oscar statuettes were numbered, beginning with number 501. In a surprising turn of events, 55 Oscars vanished before the awards program in March, 2000. Later 52 of the statues were found in a Los Angeles dumpster.

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The first awards presentations were actually large banquet-type dinners. Anyone who wished to attend could simply purchase a ticket. These affairs were first held in the larger hotels such as the Ambassador and the Biltmore in Los Angeles. As public interest and crowds increased, the affairs were moved to larger theaters, where the ever-growing crowds could be accommodated. While awards programs are now watched by millions on television, the first awards were broadcast live through radio. The first televised ceremonies took place in 1953, at the 25th annual presentation. The Academy Awards have been held annually without fail except on three occasions. In 1938, Los Angeles floods delayed the event for one week. Thirty years later, in 1968, the program was delayed two days so as not to coincide with the funeral of Martin Luther King. The last postponement to date was in 1981 when the attempted assassination of US President Ronald Reagan took place, when the awards were delayed for 24 hours. The suspense that is now an accepted part of the Oscar ceremony did not always exist. The results of the Oscar poll was released to the press in advance of the awards ceremony and could be found in the late edition newspapers on the night of the awards. The tradition of revealing the results on camera at the awards was not adopted until 1941. As well as the suspense involving the winners, the Oscar awards programs have had their share of unexpected excitement. In 1973, a nude streaker ran across the stage of the televised proceedings. In 1972, in a surprise move, winner Marlon Brando sent an actress who identified herself as Sacheen Littlefeather to read a political statement and refuse his award. The awards also broke some barriers. Actress Hattie Mcdaniel received the first Oscar awarded to a Black actor in any category for her supporting role in Gone with the Wind, amovie which received a record-breaking 13 nominations and 8 wins. The Academy Awards continues to evoke the same excitement and intensity that it had at the beginning. Below is a list of the winners in the five main categories of Best Picture, Best Actor, Best Actress, Best Supporting Actor and Best Supporting Actress which covers the past twenty years. Each year, millions of movie fanatics worldwide gather in groups and parties to enjoy the hourslong Academy Awards extravaganza, filled to the brim with the world's hottest celebs and their outlandish fashion. But how many of them know the true history behind the Oscar Awards, and understand exactly what it is they are watching, and how it came to be? Oscar Awards History dates back 80 years. With only 250 attendees, the very first Academy Awards, held on May 16, 1929, was not broadcast, and was hosted at the prestigious Hollywood Roosevelt Hotel. Throughout the years, the Awards were celebrated at Graumen's Chinese Theater, Melrose Avenue Theater, the Shrine Civic Auditorium and The Dorothy Chandler Pavilion. Since 2001, the Kodak Theatre has been home to the Awards festivities There are numerous theories as to how the Academy Awards became know as "The Oscars" throughout history. Margaret Herrick, who was a librarian at Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences Awards in the 1920s, once quipped that the award trophy "looked just like my Uncle Oscar." However, others, including Academy President Bette Davis, have claimed to have come up with the "Oscar" name themselves. Who to believe? If we told you that, it wouldn't be a "legend!"

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THE OSCAR AWARDS
The Oscar Award is an award statue that stands 13.5 inches high and weighs 8.5 lbs. It is comprised of nickel and silver alloy, and the surface is coated with 25-Karat gold. During the World War II era, however, such luxuries could not be afforded, and the statues were made from plaster. Marvelously designed by art director Cedric Gibbons in 1928, the "Oscar" is a knight who stands atop a film reel, sword in hand.

OSCAR NIGHT
The electric, captivating aura Oscar Night radiates is simply breathtaking. 24-foot-tall golden Oscar statues for all to see flank the Kodak Theatre! Oscar Night is thrilling indeed, as it is an infamous show. This glittery, glamorous event is held once a year, and spectators are allowed (and encouraged) to gawk at the stars from grandstands near the Kodak Theatre. The spectacular awards event has morphed into quite a ritual for some, who even conjure up large gambling pools before the Awards winners are announced. The big winner of the night is likely to be someone in that very room! Now that we've given you a glimpse into Oscar Awards History, why not own a piece of that very history, or better yet, host your very own Oscar Night the day of the big event? A variety of beautiful, exquisite and unique items and hundreds of complementary accessories can be found on this website, customized to your specifications:

Background on The Awards:
The Academy Awards®, affectionately known as the Oscars®, are the oldest, best known, most influential, most prestigious, and famous of film awards. The awards (and gold-plated statuettes) have been presented annually (the first awards ceremony was held in May of 1929) by a non-profit professional organization - the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS), based in Beverly Hills, California, and founded in 1927. Pricewaterhouse (now PricewaterhouseCoopers) has managed the Academy Awards balloting process since 1935 - all but the first six years of the Oscars. Ever since 1941, when their now-famous confidential envelope system was introduced, marking the first year of complete secrecy, "the Envelope Please" has become a familiar phrase that evokes the thought of the Academy Awards® ceremony. Except for the early years of the institution, the awards honored films made during the previous 12month calendar year. [At first, to be eligible for an award, a film had to open in Los Angeles during the twelve months ending on July 31 of the preceding year. To allow each ceremony to cover films for a single calendar year - matching the eligibility period, the 1932/33 awards were based on a 17month qualifying period. Ever since then, beginning with the 1934 awards ceremony, all awards have been based on openings in the previous calendar year. Films also had to be over 40 minutes long to qualify as feature-length.] Until 1954, the Oscars were presented mostly on a Thursday evening. From 1955 to 1958, they were presented on a Wednesday. From 1959 until 1998 the

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Oscars were, with a few exceptions, presented on a Monday night. Only since 1999 has the Awards ceremony taken place on a Sunday (traditionally in March). In 2004, the ceremony was moved even earlier to improve ratings and to be more relevant to the awards 'season'. Comments About the Awards Themselves: The establishment of the Academy (and its awards system) has had a major effect and influence upon the film industry, due to the enormous boost a nomination or award (for a film or actor) creates, by giving prestige and bottom-line profits to a studio or performer. Studios have often engaged in expensive marketing and advertising campaigns to sway votes, and to encourage contractual loyalty during voting. The Academy has, with limited success, tried to limit the influences of pressure groups and promotion, box office gross receipts, and studio public relations and marketing on voting results. It has also attempted to limit votes for melodramatic sentimentality, atonement for past mistakes, personal popularity, and "prestige" or epic scale, but those influences have often had a decided effect upon the outcome of some of the poll results. Unfortunately, the critical worth, artistic vision, cultural influence, and innovative qualities of many films are not given the same voting weight. Especially since the 80s, moneymaking 'formula-made' blockbusters with glossy production values have often been crowd-pleasing titans (and Best Picture winners), but they haven't necessarily been great films with depth or critical acclaim by any measure. See The Worst Academy Awards Oscars for more. Like any other awards, recognitions, or "best" lists, the top nominees and winners do not necessarily reflect or objectively measure the greatest that cinematic history has to offer. Many of the most Deserving Films of All Time (see Films Without Awards) did not win Academy Awards® (and in some cases were not even included in the nominees). In addition, Top Box-Office Films aren't always guaranteed awards success either. And certain Film Genres (notably westerns, science fiction, and comedy) as well as independent films are not represented in balanced numbers throughout Oscar history - see an analysis of Best Picture Genre Biases.

BestPicture
(originally known as Best Production)

BestDirector
(Best achievement in directing)

BestActor
(BestperformancebyanActor in a leading role)

BestActress
(BestperformancebyanActress in a leading role)

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BestSupportingActor
(BestperformancebyanActor inasupportingrole first awarded in 1936)

BestSupportingActress
(BestperformancebyanActress inasupportingrole first awarded in 1936)

BestScreenplay/Writer
(Knownbymanynamesthroughouttheyears: Motion Picture Story, Adaptation, Original Story, Screenplay, Writing Achievement, etc.)

ACADEMY AWARDS® WINNERS and HISTORY (1927/28 - 1939)
Note: The films that are marked with a yellow star are the films that "The Greatest Films" site has also selected as the "100 Greatest Films." The winners are listed first, in CAPITAL letters, in each category.

1927-28
Production (Picture): "WINGS", "The Racket", "Seventh Heaven" ["The Way of All Flesh" and "The Last Command" are omitted from the latest official Academy list] Unique and Artistic Picture (also known as Artistic Quality of Production): "SUNRISE", "Chang", "TheCrowd" Actor:

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EMIL JANNINGS in "The Way of All Flesh" and "The Last Command", Richard Barthelmess in "The Noose" and "The Patent Leather Kid" [Charles Chaplin, originally announced for "The Circus," was removed from the category and given a special Honorary Award instead] Actress: JANET GAYNOR in "Seventh Heaven", "Street Angel", and "Sunrise", Louise Dresser in "A Ship Comes In", Gloria Swanson in "Sadie Thompson" Director: FRANK BORZAGE for "Seventh Heaven", Herbert Brenon for "Sorrell and Son", King Vidor for "TheCrowd" Comedy Direction: LEWIS MILESTONE for "Two Arabian Knights", Ted Wilde for "Speedy" [Charles Chaplin, originally announced for "The Circus," was removed from the category and given a special Honorary Award instead]

1928-29
Production (Picture): "THE BROADWAY MELODY", "Alibi", "Hollywood Revue", "In Old Arizona", "The Patriot" Actor: WARNER BAXTER in "In Old Arizona", George Bancroft in "Thunderbolt", Chester Morris in "Alibi", Paul Muni in "The Valiant", Lewis Stone in "The Patriot" Actress: MARY PICKFORD in "Coquette", Ruth Chatterton in "Madame X", Betty Compson in "The Barker", Jeanne Eagels in "The Letter", Corinne Griffith in "The Divine Lady," Bessie Love in "Broadway Melody" Director: FRANK LLOYD for "The Divine Lady" (also nominated or considered for "Drag" and "Weary River"), Lionel Barrymore for "Madame X", Harry Beaumont for "Broadway Melody", Irving Cummings for "In Old Arizona", Ernst Lubitsch for "The Patriot" Art Direction: CEDRIC GIBBONS for "The Bridge of San Luis Rey" and other pictures, Hans Dreier for "The Patriot", Mitchell Leisen for "Dynamite", William Cameron Menzies for "Alibi" and "The Awakening", and Harry Oliver for "Street Angel"

1929-30
Production (Picture): "ALL QUIET ON THE WESTERN FRONT", "The Big House", "Disraeli", "The Divorcee", "The Love Parade" Actor: GEORGE ARLISS in "Disraeli", George Arliss in "The Green Goddess", Wallace Beery in "The Big House", Maurice Chevalier in "The Big Pond", Maurice Chevalier in "The Love Parade", Ronald Colman in "Bulldog Drummond", Ronald Colman in "Condemned", Lawrence Tibbett in "The Rogue Song" Actress: NORMA SHEARER in "The Divorcee", Nancy Carroll in "The Devil's Holiday", Ruth Chatterton in "Sarah and Son", Greta Garbo in "Anna Christie", Greta Garbo in "Romance", Norma Shearer in "Their Own Desire", Gloria Swanson in "The Trespasser" Director:

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LEWIS MILESTONE for "All Quiet On The Western Front", Clarence Brown for "Anna Christie", Robert Z. Leonard for "The Divorcee", Ernst Lubitsch for "The Love Parade", King Vidor for "Hallelujah"

1930-31
Production (Picture): "CIMARRON", "East Lynne", "The Front Page", "Skippy", "Trader Horn" Actor: LIONEL BARRYMORE in "A Free Soul", Jackie Cooper in "Skippy", Richard Dix in "Cimarron", Fredric March in "The Royal Family of Broadway", Adolphe Menjou in "The Front Page" Actress: MARIE DRESSLER in "Min and Bill", Marlene Dietrich in "Morocco", Irene Dunne in "Cimarron", Ann Harding in "Holiday", Norma Shearer in "A Free Soul" Director: NORMAN TAUROG for "Skippy", Clarence Brown for "A Free Soul", Lewis Milestone for "The Front Page", Wesley Ruggles for "Cimarron", Josef von Sternberg for "Morocco"

1931-32
Production (Picture): "GRAND HOTEL", "Arrowsmith", "Bad Girl", "The Champ", "Five Star Final", "One Hour With You", "ShanghaiExpress", "The Smiling Lieutenant" Actor: FREDRIC MARCH in "Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde" and WALLACE BEERY in "The Champ" (tie), Alfred Lunt in "The Guardsman" Actress: HELEN HAYES in "The Sin of Madelon Claudet", Marie Dressler in "Emma", Lynn Fontanne in "The Guardsman" Director: FRANK BORZAGE for "Bad Girl", King Vidor for "The Champ", Josef von Sternberg for "Shanghai Express" Special Award: Walt Disney for creating Mickey Mouse

1932-33
Picture: "CAVALCADE", "A Farewell to Arms", "42nd Street", "I Am a Fugitive From a Chain Gang", "Lady for a Day", "Little Women", "The Private Life of Henry VIII", "She Done Him Wrong", "Smilin' Through", "State Fair" Actor: CHARLES LAUGHTON in "The Private Life of Henry VIII", Leslie Howard in "Berkeley Square", Paul Muni in "I Am a Fugitive From a Chain Gang" Actress: KATHARINE HEPBURN in "Morning Glory", May Robson in "Lady for a Day", Diana Wynyard in "Cavalcade" Director: FRANK LLOYD for "Cavalcade", Frank Capra for "Lady For a Day", George Cukor for "Little Women"

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1934
Picture: "IT HAPPENED ONE NIGHT", "The Barretts of Wimpole Street", "Cleopatra", "Flirtation Walk", "The Gay Divorcee", "Here Comes the Navy", "The House of Rothschild", "Imitation of Life", "One Night of Love", "The Thin Man", "Viva Villa!", "The White Parade" Actor: CLARK GABLE in "It Happened One Night", Frank Morgan in "Affairs of Cellini", William Powell in "The Thin Man" Actress: CLAUDETTE COLBERT in "It Happened One Night", Grace Moore in "One Night of Love", Norma Shearer in "The Barretts of Wimpole Street" Director: FRANK CAPRA for "It Happened One Night", Victor Schertzinger for "One Night of Love", W. S. Van Dyke for "The Thin Man"

1935
Picture: "MUTINY ON THE BOUNTY", "Alice Adams", "The Broadway Melody of 1936", "Captain Blood", "David Copperfield", "The Informer", "Lives of a Bengal Lancer", "A Midsummer Night's Dream", "Les Miserables", "Naughty Marietta", "Ruggles of Red Gap", "Top Hat" Actor: VICTOR MCLAGLEN in "The Informer", Clark Gable in "Mutiny on the Bounty", Charles Laughton in "Mutiny on the Bounty", Franchot Tone in "Mutiny on the Bounty" Actress: BETTE DAVIS in "Dangerous", Elisabeth Bergner in "Escape Me Never", Claudette Colbert in "Private Worlds", Katharine Hepburn in "Alice Adams", Miriam Hopkins in "Becky Sharp", Merle Oberon in "The Dark Angel" Director: JOHN FORD for "The Informer", Michael Curtiz for "Captain Blood", Henry Hathaway for "Lives of a Bengal Lancer", Frank Lloyd for "Mutiny on the Bounty"

1936
Picture: "THE GREAT ZIEGFELD", "Anthony Adverse", "Dodsworth", "Libeled Lady", "Mr. Deeds Goes to Town", "Romeo and Juliet", "San Francisco", "The Story of Louis Pasteur", "A Tale of Two Cities", "Three Smart Girls" Actor: PAUL MUNI in "The Story of Louis Pasteur", Gary Cooper in "Mr. Deeds Goes to Town", Walter Huston in "Dodsworth", William Powell in "My Man Godfrey", Spencer Tracy in "San Francisco" Actress: LUISE RAINER in "The Great Ziegfeld", Irene Dunne in "Theodora Goes Wild", Gladys George in "Valiant Is the Word for Carrie", Carole Lombard in "My Man Godfrey", Norma Shearer in "Romeo and Juliet" SupportingActor: WALTER BRENNAN in "Come and Get It", Mischa Auer in "My Man Godfrey", Stuart Erwin in "Pigskin Parade", Basil Rathbone in "Romeo and Juliet", Akim Tamiroff in "The General Died at

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Dawn" Supporting Actress: GALE SONDERGAARD in "Anthony Adverse", Beulah Bondi in "The Gorgeous Hussy", Alice Brady in "My Man Godfrey", Bonita Granville in "These Three," Maria Ouspenskaya in "Dodsworth" Director: FRANK CAPRA for "Mr. Deeds Goes to Town", Gregory La Cava for "My Man Godfrey", Robert Z. Leonard for "The Great Ziegfeld", W. S. Van Dyke for "San Francisco", William Wyler for "Dodsworth"

1937
Picture: THE LIFE OF EMILE ZOLA, "The Awful Truth", "Captains Courageous", "Dead End", "The Good Earth", "In Old Chicago", "Lost Horizon", "One Hundred Men and a Girl", "Stage Door", "A Star is Born" Actor: SPENCER TRACY in "Captains Courageous", Charles Boyer in "Conquest", Fredric March in "A Star is Born", Robert Montgomery in "Night Must Fall", Paul Muni in "The Life of Emile Zola" Actress: LUISE RAINER in "The Good Earth", Irene Dunne in "The Awful Truth", Greta Garbo in "Camille", Janet Gaynor in "A Star is Born", Barbara Stanwyck in "Stella Dallas" Supporting Actor: JOSEPH SCHILDKRAUT in "The Life of Emile Zola", Ralph Bellamy in "The Awful Truth", Thomas Mitchell in "The Hurricane", H. B. Warner in "Lost Horizon", Roland Young in "Topper" Supporting Actress: ALICE BRADY in "In Old Chicago", Andrea Leeds in "Stage Door", Anne Shirley in "Stella Dallas", Claire Trevor in "Dead End", May Whitty in "Night Must Fall" Director: LEO MCCAREY for "The Awful Truth", William Dieterle for "The Life of Emile Zola", Sidney Franklin for "The Good Earth", Gregory La Cava for "Stage Door", William Wellmann for "A Star is Born"

1938
Picture: "YOU CAN'T TAKE IT WITH YOU", "The Adventures of Robin Hood", "Alexander's Ragtime Band", "Boys Town", "The Citadel", "Four Daughters", "Grand Illusion", "Jezebel", "Pygmalion", "TestPilot" Actor: SPENCER TRACY in "Boys Town", Charles Boyer in "Algiers", James Cagney in "Angels With Dirty Faces", Robert Donat in "The Citadel", Leslie Howard in "Pygmalion" Actress: BETTE DAVIS in "Jezebel", Fay Bainter in "White Banners", Wendy Hiller in "Pygmalion",

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Norma Shearer in "Marie Antoinette", Margaret Sullavan in "Three Comrades" Supporting Actor: WALTER BRENNAN in "Kentucky", John Garfield in "Four Daughters", Gene Lockhart in "Algiers", Robert Morley in "Marie Antoinette", Basil Rathbone in "If I Were King" Supporting Actress: FAY BAINTER in "Jezebel", Beulah Bondi in "Of Human Hearts", Billie Burke in "Merrily We Live", Spring Byington in "You Can't Take it With You", Miliza Korjus in "The Great Waltz" Director: FRANK CAPRA for "You Can't Take It With You", Michael Curtiz for "Angels With Dirty Faces", Michael Curtiz for "Four Daughters", Norman Taurog for "Boys Town", King Vidor for "The Citadel"

1939
Picture: "GONE WITH THE WIND", "Dark Victory", "Goodbye, Mr. Chips", "Love Affair", "Mr. Smith Goes to Washington", "Ninotchka", "Of Mice and Men", "Stagecoach", "The Wizard of Oz", "Wuthering Heights" Actor: ROBERT DONAT in "Goodbye, Mr. Chips", Clark Gable in "Gone With The Wind", Laurence Olivier in "Wuthering Heights", Mickey Rooney in "Babes in Arms", James Stewart in "Mr. Smith Goes to Washington" Actress: VIVIEN LEIGH in "Gone With The Wind", Bette Davis in "Dark Victory", Irene Dunne in "Love Affair", Greta Garbo in "Ninotchka", Greer Garson in "Goodbye, Mr. Chips" Supporting Actor: THOMAS MITCHELL in "Stagecoach", Brian Aherne in "Juarez", Harry Carey in "Mr. Smith Goes to Washington", Brian Donlevy in "Beau Geste", Claude Rains in "Mr. Smith Goes to Washington" Supporting Actress: HATTIE MCDANIEL in "Gone With The Wind", Olivia de Havilland in "Gone With The Wind", Geraldine Fitzgerald in "Wuthering Heights", Edna May Oliver in "Drums Along the Mohawk", Maria Ouspenskaya in "Love Affair" Director: VICTOR FLEMING for "Gone With The Wind", Frank Capra for "Mr. Smith Goes to Washington", John Ford for "Stagecoach", Sam Wood for "Goodbye, Mr. Chips", William Wyler for "Wuthering Heights"

ACADEMY AWARDS® WINNERS and HISTORY (1940 - 1949)
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1940
Picture: "REBECCA", "All This, and Heaven Too", "Foreign Correspondent", "The Grapes of Wrath", "The Great Dictator", "Kitty Foyle", "The Letter", "The Long Voyage Home", "Our Town", "ThePhiladelphiaStory" Actor: JAMES STEWART in "The Philadelphia Story", Charles Chaplin in "The Great Dictator", Henry Fonda in "The Grapes of Wrath", Raymond Massey in "Abe Lincoln in Illinois", Laurence Olivier in "Rebecca" Actress: GINGER ROGERS in "Kitty Foyle", Bette Davis in "The Letter", Joan Fontaine in "Rebecca", Katharine Hepburn in "The Philadelphia Story", Martha Scott in "Our Town" Supporting Actor: WALTER BRENNAN in "The Westerner", Albert Basserman in "Foreign Correspondent", William Gargan in "They Knew What They Wanted", Jack Oakie in "The Great Dictator", James Stephensonin"TheLetter" Supporting Actress: JANE DARWELL in "The Grapes of Wrath", Judith Anderson in "Rebecca", Ruth Hussey in "The Philadelphia Story", Barbara O'Neil in "All This, and Heaven Too", Marjorie Rambeau in "Primrose Path" Director: JOHN FORD for "The Grapes of Wrath", George Cukor for "The Philadelphia Story", Alfred Hitchcock for "Rebecca", Sam Wood for "Kitty Foyle", William Wyler for "The Letter"

1941
Picture: "HOW GREEN WAS MY VALLEY", "Blossoms in the Dust", "Citizen Kane", "Here Comes Mr. Jordan", "Hold Back the Dawn", "The Little Foxes", "The Maltese Falcon", "One Foot in Heaven", "Sergeant York", "Suspicion" Actor: GARY COOPER in "Sergeant York", Cary Grant in "Penny Serenade", Walter Huston in "All That Money Can Buy", Robert Montgomery in "Here Comes Mr. Jordan", Orson Welles in "Citizen Kane" Actress: JOAN FONTAINE in "Suspicion", Bette Davis in "The Little Foxes", Olivia de Havilland in "Hold Back the Dawn", Greer Garson in "Blossoms in the Dust", Barbara Stanwyck in "Ball of Fire" Supporting Actor: DONALD CRISP in "How Green Was My Valley", Walter Brennan in "Sergeant York", Charles Coburn in "The Devil and Miss Jones", James Gleason in "Here Comes Mr. Jordan", Sydney Greenstreet in "The Maltese Falcon" Supporting Actress: MARY ASTOR in "The Great Lie", Sara Allgood in "How Green Was My Valley", Patricia Collinge in "The Little Foxes", Teresa Wright in "The Little Foxes, Margaret Wycherly in "Sergeant

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York" Director: JOHN FORD for "How Green Was My Valley", Alexander Hall for "Here Comes Mr. Jordan", Howard Hawks for "Sergeant York", Orson Welles for "Citizen Kane", William Wyler for "The Little Foxes"

1942
Picture: "MRS. MINIVER", "The Invaders", "Kings Row", "The Magnificent Ambersons", "The Pied Piper", "The Pride of the Yankees", "Random Harvest", "The Talk of the Town", "Wake Island", "Yankee Doodle Dandy" Actor: JAMES CAGNEY in "Yankee Doodle Dandy", Ronald Colman in "Random Harvest", Gary Cooper in "The Pride of the Yankees", Walter Pidgeon in "Mrs. Miniver", Monty Woolley in "The PiedPiper" Actress: GREER GARSON in "Mrs. Miniver", Bette Davis in "Now, Voyager", Katharine Hepburn in "Woman of the Year", Rosalind Russell in "My Sister Eileen", Teresa Wright in "The Pride of the Yankees" Supporting Actor: VAN HEFLIN in "Johnny Eager", William Bendix in "Wake Island", Walter Huston in "Yankee Doodle Dandy", Frank Morgan in "Tortilla Flat", Henry Travers in "Mrs. Miniver" Supporting Actress: TERESA WRIGHT in "Mrs. Miniver", Gladys Cooper in "Now, Voyager", Agnes Moorehead in "The Magnificent Ambersons", Susan Peters in "Random Harvest", Dame May Whitty in "Mrs. Miniver" Director: WILLIAM WYLER for "Mrs. Miniver", Michael Curtiz for "Yankee Doodle Dandy", John Farrow for "Wake Island", Mervyn LeRoy for "Random Harvest", Sam Wood for "Kings Row"

1943
Picture: "CASABLANCA", "For Whom the Bell Tolls", "Heaven Can Wait", "The Human Comedy", "In Which We Serve", "Madame Curie", "The More the Merrier", "The Ox-Bow Incident", "The Song of Bernadette", "Watch on the Rhine" Actor: PAUL LUKAS in "Watch on the Rhine", Humphrey Bogart in "Casablanca", Gary Cooper in "For Whom the Bell Tolls", Walter Pidgeon in "Madame Curie", Mickey Rooney in "The Human Comedy" Actress: JENNIFER JONES in "The Song of Bernadette", Jean Arthur in "The More the Merrier", Ingrid Bergman in "For Whom the Bell Tolls", Joan Fontaine in "The Constant Nymph", Greer Garson in "Madame Curie" Supporting Actor: CHARLES COBURN in "The More the Merrier", Charles Bickford in "The Song of Bernadette", J. Carrol Naish in "Sahara", Claude Rains in "Casablanca", Akim Tamiroff in "For Whom the Bell Tolls"

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Supporting Actress: KATINA PAXINOU in "For Whom the Bell Tolls", Gladys Cooper in "The Song of Bernadette", Paulette Goddard in "So Proudly We Hail", Anne Revere in "The Song of Bernadette", Lucile Watson in "Watch on the Rhine" Director: MICHAEL CURTIZ for "Casablanca", Clarence Brown for "The Human Comedy", Henry King for "The Song of Bernadette", Ernst Lubitsch for "Heaven Can Wait", George Stevens for "The More the Merrier"

1944
Picture: "GOING MY WAY", "Double Indemnity", "Gaslight", "Since You Went Away", "Wilson" Actor: BING CROSBY in "Going My Way", Charles Boyer in "Gaslight", Barry Fitzgerald in "Going My Way", Cary Grant in "None But the Lonely Heart", Alexander Knox in "Wilson" Actress: INGRID BERGMAN in "Gaslight", Claudette Colbert in "Since You Went Away", Bette Davis in "Mr. Skeffington", Greer Garson in "Mrs. Parkington", Barbara Stanwyck in "Double Indemnity" Supporting Actor: BARRY FITZGERALD in "Going My Way", Hume Cronyn in "The Seventh Cross", Claude Rains in "Mr. Skeffington", Clifton Webb in "Laura", Monty Woolley in "Since You Went Away" Supporting Actress: ETHEL BARRYMORE in "None But the Lonely Heart", Jennifer Jones in "Since You Went Away", Angela Lansbury in "Gaslight", Aline MacMahon in "Dragon Seed", Agnes Moorehead in "Mrs. Parkington" Director: LEO MCCAREY for "Going My Way", Alfred Hitchcock for "Lifeboat", Henry King for "Wilson", Otto Preminger for "Laura", Billy Wilder for "Double Indemnity"

1945
Picture: "THE LOST WEEKEND", "Anchors Aweigh", "The Bells of St. Mary's", "Mildred Pierce", "Spellbound" Actor: RAY MILLAND in "The Lost Weekend", Bing Crosby in "The Bells of St. Mary's", Gene Kelly in "Anchors Aweigh", Gregory Peck in "The Keys of the Kingdom", Cornel Wilde in "A Song to Remember" Actress: JOAN CRAWFORD in "Mildred Pierce", Ingrid Bergman in "The Bells of St. Mary's", Greer Garson in "The Valley of Decision", Jennifer Jones in "Love Letters", Gene Tierney in "Leave Her to Heaven" Supporting Actor: JAMES DUNN in "A Tree Grows in Brooklyn", Michael Chekhov in "Spellbound", John Dall in "The Corn Is Green", Robert Mitchum in "The Story of G.I. Joe", J. Carrol Naish in "A Medal for Benny" Supporting Actress: ANNE REVERE in "National Velvet", Eve Arden in "Mildred Pierce", Ann Blyth in "Mildred

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415

Pierce", Angela Lansbury in "The Picture of Dorian Gray", Joan Lorring in "The Corn Is Green" Director: BILLY WILDER for "The Lost Weekend", Clarence Brown for "National Velvet", Alfred Hitchcock for "Spellbound", Leo McCarey for "The Bells of St. Mary's", Jean Renoir for "The Southerner"

1946
Picture: "THE BEST YEARS OF OUR LIVES", "Henry V", "It's A Wonderful Life", "The Razor's Edge", "The Yearling" Actor: FREDRIC MARCH in "The Best Years of Our Lives", Laurence Olivier in "Henry V", Larry Parks in "The Jolson Story", Gregory Peck in "The Yearling", James Stewart in "It's A Wonderful Life" Actress: OLIVIA DE HAVILLAND in "To Each His Own", Celia Johnson in "Brief Encounter", Jennifer Jones in "Duel in the Sun", Rosalind Russell in "Sister Kenny", Jane Wyman in "The Yearling" Supporting Actor: HAROLD RUSSELL in "The Best Years of Our Lives", Charles Coburn in "The Green Years", William Demarest in "The Jolson Story", Claude Rains in "Notorious", Clifton Webb in "The Razor's Edge" Supporting Actress: ANNE BAXTER in "The Razor's Edge", Ethel Barrymore in "The Spiral Staircase", Lillian Gish in "Duel in the Sun", Flora Robson in "Saratoga Trunk", Gale Sondergaard in "Anna and the King of Siam" Director: WILLIAM WYLER for "The Best Years of Our Lives", Clarence Brown for "The Yearling", Frank Capra for "It's A Wonderful Life", David Lean for "Brief Encounter", Robert Siodmak for "The Killers"

1947
Picture: "GENTLEMAN'S AGREEMENT", "The Bishop's Wife", "Crossfire", "Great Expectations", "Miracle on 34th Street" Actor: RONALD COLMAN in "A Double Life", John Garfield in "Body and Soul", Gregory Peck in "Gentleman's Agreement", William Powell in "Life With Father", Michael Redgrave in "Mourning Becomes Electra" Actress: LORETTA YOUNG in "The Farmer's Daughter", Joan Crawford in "Possessed", Susan Hayward in "Smash Up - The Story of a Woman", Dorothy McGuire in "Gentleman's Agreement", Rosalind Russell in "Mourning Becomes Electra" Supporting Actor: EDMUND GWENN in "Miracle on 34th Street", Charles Bickford in "The Farmer's Daughter", Thomas Gomez in "Ride the Pink Horse", Robert Ryan in "Crossfire", Richard Widmark in "Kiss of

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416

Death" Supporting Actress: CELESTE HOLM in "Gentleman's Agreement", Ethel Barrymore in "The Paradine Case", Gloria Grahame in "Crossfire", Marjorie Main in "The Egg and I", Anne Revere in "Gentleman's Agreement" Director: ELIA KAZAN for "Gentleman's Agreement", George Cukor for "A Double Life", Edward Dmytryk for "Crossfire", Henry Koster for "The Bishop's Wife", David Lean for "Great Expectations"

1948
Picture: "HAMLET", "Johnny Belinda", "The Red Shoes", "The Snake Pit", "The Treasure of the Sierra Madre" Actor: LAURENCE OLIVIER in "Hamlet", Lew Ayres in "Johnny Belinda", Montgomery Clift in "The Search", Dan Dailey in "When My Baby Smiles at Me", Clifton Webb in "Sitting Pretty" Actress: JANE WYMAN in "Johnny Belinda", Ingrid Bergman in "Joan of Arc", Olivia de Havilland in "The Snake Pit", Irene Dunne in "I Remember Mama", Barbara Stanwyck in "Sorry, Wrong Number" Supporting Actor: WALTER HUSTON in "The Treasure of the Sierra Madre", Charles Bickford in "Johnny Belinda", Jose Ferrer in "Joan of Arc", Oscar Homolka in "I Remember Mama", Cecil Kellaway in "The Luck of the Irish" Supporting Actress: CLAIRE TREVOR in "Key Largo", Barbara Bel Geddes in "I Remember Mama", Ellen Corby in "I Remember Mama", Agnes Moorehead in "Johnny Belinda", Jean Simmons in "Hamlet" Director: JOHN HUSTON for "The Treasure of the Sierra Madre", Anatole Litvak for "The Snake Pit", Jean Negulesco for "Johnny Belinda", Laurence Olivier for "Hamlet", Fred Zinnemann for "The Search"

1949
Picture: "ALL THE KING'S MEN", "Battleground", "The Heiress", "A Letter to Three Wives", "Twelve O'Clock High" Actor: BRODERICK CRAWFORD in "All the King's Men", Kirk Douglas in "Champion", Gregory Peck in "Twelve O'Clock High", Richard Todd in "The Hasty Heart", John Wayne in "Sands of Iwo Jima" Actress: OLIVIA DE HAVILLAND in "The Heiress", Jeanne Crain in "Pinky", Susan Hayward in "My Foolish Heart", Deborah Kerr in "Edward, My Son", Loretta Young in "Come to the Stable" Supporting Actor: DEAN JAGGER in "Twelve O'Clock High", John Ireland in "All the King's Men", Arthur Kennedy in "Champion", Ralph Richardson in "The Heiress", James Whitmore in "Battleground" Supporting Actress: MERCEDES MCCAMBRIDGE in "All the King's Men", Ethel Barrymore in "Pinky", Celeste

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417

Holm in "Come to the Stable", Elsa Lanchester in "Come to the Stable", Ethel Waters in "Pinky" Director: JOSEPH L. MANKIEWICZ for "A Letter to Three Wives", Carol Reed for "The Fallen Idol", Robert Rossen for "All the King's Men", William A. Wellman for "Battleground", William Wyler for "The Heiress"

ACADEMY AWARDS® WINNERS and HISTORY (1950 - 1959)
1950
Picture: "ALL ABOUT EVE", "Born Yesterday", "Father of the Bride", "King Solomon's Mines", "Sunset Boulevard" Actor: JOSE FERRER in "Cyrano de Bergerac", Louis Calhern in "The Magnificent Yankee", William Holden in "Sunset Boulevard", James Stewart in "Harvey", Spencer Tracy in "Father of the Bride" Actress: JUDY HOLLIDAY in "Born Yesterday", Anne Baxter in "All About Eve", Bette Davis in "All About Eve", Eleanor Parker in "Caged", Gloria Swanson in "Sunset Boulevard" Supporting Actor: GEORGE SANDERS in "All About Eve", Jeff Chandler in "Broken Arrow", Edmund Gwenn in "Mister 880", Sam Jaffe in "The Asphalt Jungle", Erich von Stroheim in "Sunset Boulevard" Supporting Actress: JOSEPHINE HULL in "Harvey", Hope Emerson in "Caged", Celeste Holm in "All About Eve", Nancy Olson in "Sunset Boulevard", Thelma Ritter in "All About Eve"

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418

Director: JOSEPH L. MANKIEWICZ for "All About Eve", George Cukor for "Born Yesterday", John Huston for "The Asphalt Jungle", Carol Reed for "The Third Man", Billy Wilder for "Sunset Boulevard"

1951
Picture: "AN AMERICAN IN PARIS", "Decision Before Dawn", "A Place in the Sun", "Quo Vadis?", "A Streetcar Named Desire" Actor: HUMPHREY BOGART in "The African Queen", Marlon Brando in "A Streetcar Named Desire", Montgomery Clift in "A Place in the Sun", Arthur Kennedy in "Bright Victory", Fredric March in "Death of a Salesman" Actress: VIVIEN LEIGH in "A Streetcar Named Desire", Katharine Hepburn in "The African Queen", Eleanor Parker in "Detective Story", Shelley Winters in "A Place in the Sun", Jane Wyman in "The Blue Veil" Supporting Actor: KARL MALDEN in "A Streetcar Named Desire", Leo Genn in "Quo Vadis?", Kevin McCarthy in "Death of a Salesman", Peter Ustinov in "Quo Vadis?", Gig Young in "Come Fill the Cup" Supporting Actress: KIM HUNTER in "A Streetcar Named Desire", Joan Blondell in "The Blue Veil", Mildred Dunnock in "Death of a Salesman", Lee Grant in "Detective Story", Thelma Ritter in "The Mating Season" Director: GEORGE STEVENS for "A Place in the Sun", John Huston for "The African Queen", Elia Kazan for "A Streetcar Named Desire", Vincente Minnelli for "An American in Paris", William Wyler for "Detective Story"

1952
Picture: "THE GREATEST SHOW ON EARTH", "High Noon", "Ivanhoe", "Moulin Rouge", "The Quiet Man" Actor: GARY COOPER in "High Noon", Marlon Brando in "Viva Zapata!", Kirk Douglas in "The Bad and the Beautiful", Jose Ferrer in "Moulin Rouge", Alec Guinness in "The Lavender Hill Mob" Actress: SHIRLEY BOOTH in "Come Back, Little Sheba", Joan Crawford in "Sudden Fear", Bette Davis in "The Star", Julie Harris in "The Member of the Wedding", Susan Hayward in "With a Song in My Heart" Supporting Actor: ANTHONY QUINN in "Viva Zapata!", Richard Burton in "My Cousin Rachel", Arthur Hunnicutt in "The Big Sky", Victor McLaglen in "The Quiet Man", Jack Palance in "Sudden Fear" Supporting Actress: GLORIA GRAHAME in "The Bad and the Beautiful", Jean Hagen in "Singin' In The Rain", Colette Marchand in "Moulin Rouge", Terry Moore in "Come Back, Little Sheba", Thelma RItter in "With a Song in My Heart"

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419

Director: JOHN FORD for "The Quiet Man", Cecil B. DeMille for "The Greatest Show On Earth", John Huston for "Moulin Rouge", Joseph L. Mankiewicz for "Five Fingers", Fred Zinnemann for "High Noon"

1953
Picture: "FROM HERE TO ETERNITY", "Julius Caesar", "The Robe", "Roman Holiday", "Shane" Actor: WILLIAM HOLDEN in "Stalag 17", Marlon Brando in "Julius Caesar", Richard Burton in "The Robe", Montgomery Clift in "From Here to Eternity", Burt Lancaster in "From Here to Eternity" Actress: AUDREY HEPBURN in "Roman Holiday", Leslie Caron in "Lily", Ava Gardner in "Mogambo", Deborah Kerr in "From Here to Eternity", Maggie McNamara in "The Moon is Blue" Supporting Actor: FRANK SINATRA in "From Here to Eternity", Eddie Albert in "Roman Holiday", Brandon de Wilde in "Shane", Jack Palance in "Shane", Robert Strauss in "Stalag 17" Supporting Actress: DONNA REED in "From Here to Eternity", Grace Kelly in "Mogambo", Geraldine Page in "Hondo", Marjorie Rambeau in "Torch Song", Thelma Ritter in "Pickup on South Street" Director: FRED ZINNEMANN for "From Here to Eternity", George Stevens for "Shane", Charles Walters for "Lili", Billy Wilder for "Stalag 17", William Wyler for "Roman Holiday"

1954
Picture: "ON THE WATERFRONT", "The Caine Mutiny", "The Country Girl", "Seven Brides for Seven Brothers", "Three Coins in the Fountain" Actor: MARLON BRANDO in "On The Waterfront", Humphrey Bogart in "The Caine Mutiny", Bing Crosby in "The Country Girl", James Mason in "A Star Is Born", Dan O'Herlihy in "Adventures of Robinson Crusoe" Actress: GRACE KELLY in "The Country Girl", Dorothy Dandridge in "Carmen Jones", Judy Garland in "A Star Is Born", Audrey Hepburn in "Sabrina", Jane Wyman in "Magnificent Obsession" Supporting Actor: EDMOND O'BRIEN in "The Barefoot Contessa", Lee J. Cobb in "On The Waterfront", Karl Malden in "On The Waterfront", Rod Steiger in "On The Waterfront", Tom Tully in "The Caine Mutiny" Supporting Actress: EVA MARIE SAINT in "On The Waterfront", Nina Foch in "Executive Suite", Katy Jurado in "Broken Lance", Jan Sterling in "The High and the Mighty", Claire Trevor in "The High and the Mighty" Director: ELIA KAZAN for "On The Waterfront", Alfred Hitchcock for "Rear Window", George Seaton for "The Country Girl", William Wellman for "The High and the Mighty", Billy Wilder for "Sabrina"

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420

1955
Picture: "MARTY", "Love is a Many-Splendored Thing", "Mister Roberts", "Picnic", "The Rose Tattoo" Actor: ERNEST BORGNINE in "Marty", James Cagney in "Love Me or Leave Me", James Dean in "East of Eden", Frank Sinatra in "The Man With the Golden Arm", Spencer Tracy in "Bad Day at Black Rock" Actress: ANNA MAGNANI in "The Rose Tattoo", Susan Hayward in "I'll Cry Tomorrow", Katharine Hepburn in "Summertime", Jennifer Jones in "Love is a Many-Splendored Thing", Eleanor Parker in "Interrupted Melody" Supporting Actor: JACK LEMMON in "Mister Roberts", Arthur Kennedy in "Trial", Joe Mantell in "Marty", Sal Mineo in "Rebel Without a Cause", Arthur O'Connell in "Picnic" Supporting Actress: JO VAN FLEET in "East of Eden", Betsy Blair in "Marty", Peggy Lee in "Pete Kelly's Blues", Marisa Pavan in "The Rose Tattoo", Natalie Wood in "Rebel Without a Cause" Director: DELBERT MANN for "Marty", Elia Kazan for "East of Eden", David Lean for "Summertime", Joshua Logan for "Picnic", John Sturges for "Bad Day at Black Rock"

1956
Picture: "AROUND THE WORLD IN 80 DAYS", "Friendly Persuasion", "Giant", "The King and I", "The Ten Commandments" Actor: YUL BRYNNER in "The King and I", James Dean in "Giant", Kirk Douglas in "Lust for Life", Rock Hudson in "Giant", Laurence Olivier in "Richard III" Actress: INGRID BERGMAN in "Anastasia", Carroll Baker in "Baby Doll", Katharine Hepburn in "The Rainmaker", Nancy Kelly in "The Bad Seed", Deborah Kerr in "The King and I" Supporting Actor: ANTHONY QUINN in "Lust for Life", Don Murray in "Bus Stop", Anthony Perkins in "Friendly Persuasion", Mickey Rooney in "The Bold and the Brave", Robert Stack in "Written on the Wind" Supporting Actress: DOROTHY MALONE in "Written on the Wind", Mildred Dunnock in "Baby Doll", Eileen Heckart in "The Bad Seed", Mercedes McCambridge in "Giant", Patty McCormack in "The Bad Seed" Director: GEORGE STEVENS for "Giant", Michael Anderson for "Around the World in 80 Days", Walter Lang for "The King and I", King Vidor for "War and Peace", William Wyler for "Friendly Persuasion"

1957
Picture: "THE BRIDGE ON THE RIVER KWAI", "Peyton Place", "Sayonara", "12 Angry Men", "Witness for the Prosecution" Actor:

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421

ALEC GUINNESS in "The Bridge On The River Kwai", Marlon Brando in "Sayonara", Anthony Franciosa in "A Hatful of Rain", Charles Laughton in "Witness for the Prosecution", Anthony Quinn in "Wild Is the Wind" Actress: JOANNE WOODWARD in "The Three Faces of Eve", Deborah Kerr in "Heaven Knows, Mr. Allison", Anna Magnani in "Wild is the Wind", Elizabeth Taylor in "Raintree County", Lana Turner in "Peyton Place" Supporting Actor: RED BUTTONS in "Sayonara", Vittorio De Sica in "A Farewell to Arms", Sessue Hayakawa in "The Bridge On The River Kwai", Arthur Kennedy in "Peyton Place", Russ Tamblyn in "Peyton Place" Supporting Actress: MIYOSHI UMEKI in "Sayonara", Carolyn Jones in "The Bachelor Party", Elsa Lanchester in "Witness for the Prosecution", Hope Lange in "Peyton Place", Diane Varsi in "Peyton Place" Director: DAVID LEAN for "The Bridge On The River Kwai", Joshua Logan for "Sayonara", Sidney Lumet for "12 Angry Men", Mark Robson for "Peyton Place", Billy Wilder for "Witness for the Prosecution"

1958
Picture: "GIGI", "Auntie Mame", "Cat on a Hot Tin Roof", "The Defiant Ones", "Separate Tables" Actor: DAVID NIVEN in "Separate Tables", Tony Curtis in "The Defiant Ones", Paul Newman in "Cat on a Hot Tin Roof", Sidney Poitier in "The Defiant Ones", Spencer Tracy in "The Old Man and the Sea" Actress: SUSAN HAYWARD in "I Want to Live", Deborah Kerr in "Separate Tables", Shirley MacLaine in "Some Came Running", Rosalind Russell in "Auntie Mame", Elizabeth Taylor in "Cat on a Hot Tin Roof" Supporting Actor: BURL IVES in "The Big Country", Theodore Bikel in "The Defiant Ones", Lee J. Cobb in "The Brothers Karamazov", Arthur Kennedy in "Some Came Running", Gig Young in "Teacher's Pet" Supporting Actress: WENDY HILLER in "Separate Tables", Peggy Cass in "Auntie Mame", Martha Hyer in "Some Came Running", Maureen Stapleton in "Lonelyhearts", Cara Williams in "The Defiant Ones" Director: VINCENTE MINNELLI for "Gigi", Richard Brooks for "Cat on a Hot Tin Roof", Stanley Kramer for "The Defiant Ones", Mark Robson for "The Inn of the Sixth Happiness", Robert Wise for "I Want to Live!"

1959
Picture: "BEN-HUR", "Anatomy of a Murder", "The Diary of Anne Frank", "The Nun's Story", "Room at the Top" Actor: CHARLTON HESTON in "Ben-Hur", Laurence Harvey in "Room at the Top", Jack Lemmon in

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422

"Some Like It Hot", Paul Muni in "The Last Angry Man", James Stewart in "Anatomy of a Murder" Actress: SIMONE SIGNORET in "Room at the Top", Doris Day in "Pillow Talk", Audrey Hepburn in "The Nun's Story", Katharine Hepburn in "Suddenly, Last Summer", Elizabeth Taylor in "Suddenly, Last Summer" Supporting Actor: HUGH GRIFFITH in "Ben-Hur", Arthur O'Connell in "Anatomy of a Murder", George C. Scott in "Anatomy of a Murder", Robert Vaughn in "The Young Philadelphians", Ed Wynn in "The Diary ofAnneFrank" SupportingActress: SHELLEY WINTERS in "The Diary of Anne Frank", Hermione Baddeley in "Room at the Top", Susan Kohner in "Imitation of Life", Juanita Moore in "Imitation of Life", Thelma Ritter in "Pillow Talk" Director: WILLIAM WYLER for "Ben-Hur", Jack Clayton for "Room at the Top", George Stevens for "The Diary of Anne Frank", Billy Wilder for "Some Like It Hot", Fred Zinnemann for "The Nun's Story"

ACADEMY AWARDS® WINNERS and HISTORY (1960 - 1969)
1960
Picture: "THE APARTMENT", "The Alamo", "Elmer Gantry", "Sons and Lovers", "The Sundowners" Actor: BURT LANCASTER in "Elmer Gantry", Trevor Howard in "Sons and Lovers", Jack Lemmon in "The Apartment", Laurence Olivier in "The Entertainer", Spencer Tracy in "Inherit the Wind" Actress: ELIZABETH TAYLOR in "Butterfield 8", Greer Garson in "Sunrise at Campobello", Deborah Kerr in "The Sundowners", Shirley MacLaine in "The Apartment", Melina Mercouri in "Never on Sunday" Supporting Actor: PETER USTINOV in "Spartacus", Peter Falk in "Murder, Inc.", Jack Kruschen in "The Apartment", Sal Mineo in "Exodus", Chill Wills in "The Alamo" Supporting Actress: SHIRLEY JONES in "Elmer Gantry", Glynis Johns in "The Sundowners", Shirley Knight in "The Dark at the Top of the Stairs", Janet Leigh in "Psycho", Mary Ure in "Sons and Lovers"

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Director: BILLY WILDER for "The Apartment", Jack Cardiff for "Sons and Lovers", Jules Dassin for "Never on Sunday", Alfred Hitchcock for "Psycho", Fred Zinnemann for "The Sundowners"

1961
Picture: "WEST SIDE STORY", "Fanny", "The Guns of Navarone", "The Hustler", "Judgment at Nuremberg" Actor: MAXIMILIAN SCHELL in "Judgment at Nuremberg", Charles Boyer in "Fanny", Paul Newman in "The Hustler", Spencer Tracy in "Judgment at Nuremberg", Stuart Whitman in "The Mark" Actress: SOPHIA LOREN in "Two Women", Audrey Hepburn in "Breakfast at Tiffany's", Piper Laurie in "The Hustler", Geraldine Page in "Summer and Smoke", Natalie Wood in "Splendor in the Grass" Supporting Actor: GEORGE CHAKIRIS in "West Side Story", Montgomery Clift in "Judgment at Nuremberg", Peter Falk in "Pocketful of Miracles", Jackie Gleason in "The Hustler", George C. Scott in "The Hustler" Supporting Actress: RITA MORENO in "West Side Story", Fay Bainter in "The Children's Hour", Judy Garland in "Judgment at Nuremberg", Lotte Lenya in "The Roman Spring of Mrs. Stone", Una Merkel in "Summer and Smoke" Director: JEROME ROBBINS and ROBERT WISE for "West Side Story", Federico Fellini for "La Dolce Vita", Stanley Kramer for "Judgment at Nuremberg", J. Lee Thompson for "The Guns of Navarone", Robert Rossen for "The Hustler"

1962
Picture: "LAWRENCE OF ARABIA", "The Longest Day", "The Music Man", "Mutiny on the Bounty", "To Kill a Mockingbird" Actor: GREGORY PECK for "To Kill a Mockingbird", Burt Lancaster in "Birdman of Alcatraz", Jack Lemmon in "Days of Wine and Roses", Marcello Mastroianni in "Divorce - Italian Style", Peter O'Toole in "Lawrence of Arabia" Actress: ANNE BANCROFT in "The Miracle Worker", Bette Davis in "What Ever Happened to Baby Jane?", Katharine Hepburn in "Long Day's Journey Into Night", Geraldine Page in "Sweet Bird of Youth," Lee Remick in "Days of Wine and Roses" Supporting Actor: ED BEGLEY in "Sweet Bird of Youth", Victor Buono in "What Ever Happened to Baby Jane?", Telly Savalas in "Birdman of Alcatraz", Omar Sharif in "Lawrence of Arabia", Terence Stamp in "Billy Budd" Supporting Actress: PATTY DUKE in "The Miracle Worker", Mary Badham in "To Kill a Mockingbird", Shirley Knight in "Sweet Bird of Youth", Angela Lansbury in "The Manchurian Candidate", Thelma Ritter in "Birdman of Alcatraz"

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424

Director: DAVID LEAN for "Lawrence of Arabia", Pietro Germi for "Divorce - Italian Style", Robert Mulligan for "To Kill a Mockingbird", Arthur Penn for "The Miracle Worker", Frank Perry for "David and Lisa"

1963
Picture: "TOM JONES", "America, America", "Cleopatra", "How the West Was Won", "Lilies of the Field" Actor: SIDNEY POITIER in "Lilies of the Field", Albert Finney in "Tom Jones", Richard Harris in "This Sporting Life", Rex Harrison in "Cleopatra", Paul Newman in "Hud" Actress: PATRICIA NEAL in "Hud", Leslie Caron in "The L-Shaped Room", Shirley MacLaine in "Irma La Douce", Rachel Roberts in "This Sporting Life", Natalie Wood in "Love with the Proper Stranger" Supporting Actor: MELVYN DOUGLAS in "Hud", Nick Adams in "Twilight of Honor", Bobby Darin in "Captain Newman, M.D.", Hugh Griffith in "Tom Jones", John Huston in "The Cardinal" Supporting Actress: MARGARET RUTHERFORD in "The V.I.P.'s", Diane Cilento in "Tom Jones", Edith Evans in "Tom Jones", Joyce Redman in "Tom Jones", Lilia Skala in "Lilies of the Field" Director: TONY RICHARDSON for "Tom Jones", Federico Fellini for "8 1/2", Elia Kazan for "America, America", Otto Preminger for "The Cardinal", Martin Ritt for "Hud"

1964
Picture: "MY FAIR LADY", "Becket", "Dr. Strangelove or: How I Learned To Stop Worrying...", "Mary Poppins", "Zorba the Greek" Actor: REX HARRISON in "My Fair Lady", Richard Burton in "Becket", Peter O'Toole in "Becket", Anthony Quinn in "Zorba the Greek", Peter Sellers in "Dr. Strangelove or: How I Learned To Stop Worrying..." Actress: JULIE ANDREWS in "Mary Poppins", Anne Bancroft in "The Pumpkin Eater", Sophia Loren in "Marriage Italian Style", Debbie Reynolds in "The Unsinkable Molly Brown", Kim Stanley in "Seance on a Wet Afternoon" Supporting Actor: PETER USTINOV in "Topkapi", John Gielgud in "Becket", Stanley Holloway in "My Fair Lady", Edmond O'Brien in "Seven Days in May", Lee Tracy in "The Best Man" Supporting Actress: LILA KEDROVA in "Zorba the Greek", Gladys Cooper in "My Fair Lady", Edith Evans in "The Chalk Garden", Grayson Hall in "The Night of the Iguana", Agnes Moorehead in "Hush...Hush, Sweet Charlotte" Director:

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425

GEORGE CUKOR for "My Fair Lady", Michael Cacoyannis for "Zorba the Greek", Peter Glenville for "Becket", Stanley Kubrick for "Dr. Strangelove or: How I Learned To Stop Worrying...", Robert Stevenson for "Mary Poppins"

1965
Picture: "THE SOUND OF MUSIC", "Darling", "Doctor Zhivago", "Ship of Fools", "A Thousand Clowns" Actor: LEE MARVIN in "Cat Ballou", Richard Burton in "The Spy Who Came In From the Cold", Laurence Olivier in "Othello", Rod Steiger in "The Pawnbroker", Oskar Werner in "Ship of Fools" Actress: JULIE CHRISTIE in "Darling", Julie Andrews in "The Sound of Music", Samantha Eggar in "The Collector", Elizabeth Hartman in "A Patch of Blue", Simone Signoret in "Ship of Fools" Supporting Actor: MARTIN BALSAM in "A Thousand Clowns", Ian Bannen in "The Flight of the Phoenix", Tom Courtenay in "Doctor Zhivago", Michael Dunn in "Ship of Fools", Frank Finlay in "Othello" Supporting Actress: SHELLEY WINTERS in "A Patch of Blue", Ruth Gordon in "Inside Daisy Clover", Joyce Redman in "Othello", Maggie Smith in "Othello", Peggy Wood in "The Sound of Music" Director: ROBERT WISE for "The Sound of Music", David Lean for "Doctor Zhivago", John Schlesinger for "Darling", Hiroshi Teshigahara for "Woman in the Dunes", William Wyler for "The Collector"

1966
Picture: "A MAN FOR ALL SEASONS", "Alfie", "The Russians Are Coming, The Russians Are Coming", "The Sand Pebbles", "Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf?" Actor: PAUL SCOFIELD in "A Man for All Seasons", Alan Arkin in "The Russians Are Coming, The Russians Are Coming", Richard Burton in "Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf?", Michael Caine in "Alfie", Steve McQueen in "The Sand Pebbles" Actress: ELIZABETH TAYLOR in "Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf?", Anouk Aimee in "A Man and a Woman", Ida Kaminska in "The Shop on Main Street", Lynn Redgrave in "Georgy Girl", Vanessa Redgrave in "Morgan!" Supporting Actor: WALTER MATTHAU in "The Fortune Cookie", Mako in "The Sand Pebbles", James Mason in "Georgy Girl", George Segal in "Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf?", Robert Shaw in "A Man for All Seasons" Supporting Actress: SANDY DENNIS in "Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf?", Wendy Hiller in "A Man for All Seasons", Jocelyn Lagarde in "Hawaii", Vivien Merchant in "Alfie", Geraldine Page in "You're a Big Boy Now" Director: FRED ZINNEMANN for "A Man for All Seasons", Michelangelo Antonioni for "Blow-up", Richard Brooks for "The Professionals", Claude Lelouch for "A Man and a Woman", Mike Nichols for "Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf?"

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1967
Picture: "IN THE HEAT OF THE NIGHT", "Bonnie And Clyde", "Doctor Dolittle", "The Graduate", "Guess Who's Coming to Dinner" Actor: ROD STEIGER in "In the Heat of the Night", Warren Beatty in "Bonnie And Clyde", Dustin Hoffman in "The Graduate", Paul Newman in "Cool Hand Luke", Spencer Tracy in "Guess Who'sComingtoDinner" Actress: KATHARINE HEPBURN in "Guess Who's Coming to Dinner", Anne Bancroft in "The Graduate", Faye Dunaway in "Bonnie And Clyde", Edith Evans in "The Whisperers", Audrey Hepburn in "Wait Until Dark" Supporting Actor: GEORGE KENNEDY in "Cool Hand Luke", John Cassavetes in "The Dirty Dozen", Gene Hackman in "Bonnie And Clyde", Cecil Kellaway in "Guess Who's Coming to Dinner", Michael J. Pollard in "Bonnie And Clyde" Supporting Actress: ESTELLE PARSONS in "Bonnie And Clyde", Carol Channing in "Thoroughly Modern Millie", Mildred Natwick in "Barefoot in the Park", Beah Richards in "Guess Who's Coming to Dinner", Katharine Ross in "The Graduate" Director: MIKE NICHOLS for "The Graduate", Richard Brooks for "In Cold Blood", Norman Jewison for "In the Heat of the Night", Stanley Kramer for "Guess Who's Coming to Dinner", Arthur Penn for "Bonnie And Clyde"

1968
Picture: "OLIVER!", "Funny Girl", "The Lion in Winter", "Rachel, Rachel", "Romeo and Juliet" Actor: CLIFF ROBERTSON in "Charly", Alan Arkin in "The Heart is a Lonely Hunter", Alan Bates in "The Fixer", Ron Moody in "Oliver!", Peter O'Toole in "The Lion in Winter" Actress: KATHARINE HEPBURN in "The Lion in Winter" and BARBRA STREISAND in "Funny Girl" (tie), Patricia Neal in "The Subject Was Roses", Vanessa Redgrave in "Isadora", Joanne Woodward in "Rachel, Rachel" Supporting Actor: JACK ALBERTSON in "The Subject Was Roses", Seymour Cassel in "Faces", Daniel Massey in "Star!", Jack Wild in "Oliver!", Gene Wilder in "The Producers" Supporting Actress: RUTH GORDON in "Rosemary's Baby", Lynn Carlin in "Faces", Sondra Locke in "The Heart is a Lonely Hunter", Kay Medford in "Funny Girl", Estelle Parsons in "Rachel, Rachel" Director: SIR CAROL REED for "Oliver!", Anthony Harvey for "The Lion in Winter", Stanley Kubrick for "2001: A Space Odyssey", Gillo Pontecorvo for "The Battle of Algiers", Franco Zeffirelli for "Romeo and Juliet"

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1969
Picture: "MIDNIGHT COWBOY", "Anne of the Thousand Days", "Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid", "Hello, Dolly!", "Z" Actor: JOHN WAYNE in "True Grit", Richard Burton in "Anne of the Thousand Days", Dustin Hoffman in "Midnight Cowboy", Peter O'Toole in "Goodbye, Mr. Chips", Jon Voight in "Midnight Cowboy" Actress: MAGGIE SMITH in "The Prime of Miss Jean Brodie", Genevieve Bujold in "Anne of the Thousand Days", Jane Fonda in "They Shoot Horses, Don't They?", Liza Minnelli in "The Sterile Cuckoo", Jean Simmons in "The Happy Ending" Supporting Actor: GIG YOUNG in "They Shoot Horses, Don't They?", Rupert Crosse in "The Reivers", Elliott Gould in "Bob & Carol & Ted & Alice", Jack Nicholson in "Easy Rider", Anthony Quayle in "Anne of the Thousand Days" Supporting Actress: GOLDIE HAWN in "Cactus Flower", Catherine Burns in "Last Summer", Dyan Cannon in "Bob & Carol & Ted & Alice", Sylvia Miles in "Midnight Cowboy", Susannah York in "They Shoot Horses, Don't They?" Director: JOHN SCHLESINGER for "Midnight Cowboy", Costa-Gavras for "Z", George Roy Hill for "Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid", Arthur Penn for "Alice's Restaurant", Sydney Pollack for "They Shoot Horses, Don't They?"

ACADEMY AWARDS® WINNERS and HISTORY (1970 - 1979)
1970
Picture: "PATTON", "Airport", "Five Easy Pieces", "Love Story", "M*A*S*H" Actor: GEORGE C. SCOTT in "Patton", Melvyn Douglas in "I Never Sang For My Father", James Earl Jones in "The Great White Hope", Jack Nicholson in "Five Easy Pieces", Ryan O'Neal in "Love Story" Actress: GLENDA JACKSON in "Women in Love", Jane Alexander in "The Great White Hope", Ali MacGraw in "Love Story", Sarah Miles in "Ryan's Daughter", Carrie Snodgrass in "Diary of a Mad

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Housewife" Supporting Actor: JOHN MILLS in "Ryan's Daughter", Richard Castellano in "Lovers and Other Strangers", Chief Dan George in "Little Big Man", Gene Hackman in "I Never Sang For My Father", John Marley in "Love Story" Supporting Actress: HELEN HAYES in "Airport", Karen Black in "Five Easy Pieces", Lee Grant in "The Landlord", Sally Kellerman in "M*A*S*H", Maureen Stapleton in "Airport" Director: FRANKLIN SCHAFFNER for "Patton", Robert Altman for "M*A*S*H", Federico Fellini for "Fellini Satyricon", Arthur Hiller for "Love Story", Ken Russell for "Women in Love"

1971
Picture: "THE FRENCH CONNECTION", "A Clockwork Orange", "Fiddler on the Roof", "The Last Picture Show", "Nicholas and Alexandra" Actor: GENE HACKMAN in "The French Connection", Peter Finch in "Sunday, Bloody Sunday", Walter Matthau in "Kotch", George C. Scott in "The Hospital", Topol in "Fiddler on the Roof" Actress: JANE FONDA in "Klute", Julie Christie in "McCabe and Mrs. Miller", Glenda Jackson in "Sunday, Bloody Sunday", Vanessa Redgrave in "Mary, Queen of Scots", Janet Suzman in "Nicholas and Alexandra" Supporting Actor: BEN JOHNSON in "The Last Picture Show", Jeff Bridges in "The Last Picture Show", Leonard Frey in "Fiddler on the Roof", Richard Jaeckel in "Sometimes a Great Notion", Roy Scheider in "The French Connection" Supporting Actress: CLORIS LEACHMAN in "The Last Picture Show", Ann-Margret in "Carnal Knowledge", Ellen Burstyn in "The Last Picture Show", Barbara Harris in "Who is Harry Kellerman, and Why is He Saying These Terrible Things About Me?", Margaret Leighton in "The Go-Between" Director: WILLIAM FRIEDKIN for "The French Connection", Peter Bogdanovich for "The Last Picture Show", Norman Jewison for "Fiddler on the Roof", Stanley Kubrick for "A Clockwork Orange", John Schlesinger for "Sunday, Bloody Sunday"

1972
Picture: "THE GODFATHER", "Cabaret", "Deliverance", "The Emigrants", "Sounder" Actor: MARLON BRANDO in "The Godfather", Michael Caine in "Sleuth", Laurence Olivier in "Sleuth", Peter O'Toole in "The Ruling Class", Paul Winfield in "Sounder" Actress: LIZA MINNELLI in "Cabaret", Diana Ross in "Lady Sings The Blues", Maggie Smith in "Travels With My Aunt", Cicely Tyson in "Sounder", Liv Ullmann in "The Emigrants" Supporting Actor: JOEL GREY in "Cabaret", Eddie Albert in "The Heartbreak Kid", James Caan in "The

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Godfather", Robert Duvall in "The Godfather", Al Pacino in "The Godfather" Supporting Actress: EILEEN HECKART in "Butterflies Are Free", Jeannie Berlin in "The Heartbreak Kid", Geraldine Page in "Pete 'n' Tillie", Susan Tyrrell in "Fat City", Shelley Winters in "The Poseidon Adventure" Director: BOB FOSSE for "Cabaret", John Boorman for "Deliverance", Francis Ford Coppola for "The Godfather", Joseph L. Mankiewicz for "Sleuth", Jan Troell for "The Emigrants"

1973
Picture: "THE STING", "American Graffiti", "Cries and Whispers", "The Exorcist", "A Touch of Class" Actor: JACK LEMMON in "Save the Tiger", Marlon Brando in "Last Tango in Paris", Jack Nicholson in "The Last Detail", Al Pacino in "Serpico", Robert Redford in "The Sting" Actress: GLENDA JACKSON in "A Touch of Class", Ellen Burstyn in "The Exorcist", Marsha Mason in "Cinderella Liberty", Barbra Streisand in "The Way We Were", Joanne Woodward in "Summer Wishes, Winter Dreams" Supporting Actor: JOHN HOUSEMAN in "The Paper Chase", Vincent Gardenia in "Bang the Drum Slowly", Jack Gilford in "Save the Tiger", Jason Miller in "The Exorcist", Randy Quaid in "The Last Detail" Supporting Actress: TATUM O'NEAL in "Paper Moon", Linda Blair in "The Exorcist", Candy Clark in "American Graffiti", Madeline Kahn in "Paper Moon", Sylvia Sidney in "Summer Wishes, Winter Dreams" Director: GEORGE ROY HILL for "The Sting", Ingmar Bergman for "Cries and Whispers", Bernardo Bertolucci for "Last Tango in Paris", William Friedkin for "The Exorcist", George Lucas for "American Graffiti"

1974
Picture: "THE GODFATHER, PART II", "Chinatown", "The Conversation", "Lenny", "The Towering Inferno" Actor: ART CARNEY in "Harry and Tonto", Albert Finney in "Murder on the Orient Express", Dustin Hoffman in "Lenny", Jack Nicholson in "Chinatown", Al Pacino in "The Godfather, Part II" Actress: ELLEN BURSTYN in "Alice Doesn't Live Here Anymore", Diahann Carroll in "Claudine", Faye Dunaway in "Chinatown", Valerie Perrine in "Lenny", Gena Rowlands in "A Woman Under the Influence" Supporting Actor: ROBERT DE NIRO in "The Godfather, Part II", Fred Astaire in "The Towering Inferno", Jeff Bridges in "Thunderbolt and Lightfoot", Michael V. Gazzo in "The Godfather, Part II", Lee Strasberg in "The Godfather, Part II" Supporting Actress: INGRID BERGMAN in "Murder on the Orient Express", Valentina Cortese in "Day for Night", Madeline Kahn in "Blazing Saddles", Diane Ladd in "Alice Doesn't Live Here Anymore", Talia

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Shire in "The Godfather, Part II" Director: FRANCIS FORD COPPOLA for "The Godfather, Part II", John Cassavetes for "A Woman Under the Influence", Bob Fosse for "Lenny", Roman Polanski for "Chinatown", Francois Truffaut for "Day for Night"

1975
Picture: "ONE FLEW OVER THE CUCKOO'S NEST", "Barry Lyndon", "Dog Day Afternoon", "Jaws", "Nashville" Actor: JACK NICHOLSON in "One Flew Over The Cuckoo's Nest", Walter Matthau in "The Sunshine Boys", Al Pacino in "Dog Day Afternoon", Maximilian Schell in "The Man in the Glass Booth", James Whitmore in "Give 'Em Hell, Harry!" Actress: LOUISE FLETCHER in "One Flew Over The Cuckoo's Nest", Isabelle Adjani in "The Story of Adele H.", Ann-Margret in "Tommy", Glenda Jackson in "Hedda", Carol Kane in "Hester Street" Supporting Actor: GEORGE BURNS in "The Sunshine Boys", Brad Dourif in "One Flew Over The Cuckoo's Nest", Burgess Meredith in "The Day of the Locust", Chris Sarandon in "Dog Day Afternoon", Jack Warden in "Shampoo" Supporting Actress: LEE GRANT in "Shampoo", Ronee Blakley in "Nashville", Sylvia Miles in "Farewell, My Lovely", Lily Tomlin in "Nashville", Brenda Vaccaro in "Jacqueline Susann's Once Is Not Enough" Director: MILOS FORMAN for "One Flew Over The Cuckoo's Nest", Robert Altman for "Nashville", Federico Fellini for "Amarcord", Stanley Kubrick for "Barry Lyndon", Sidney Lumet for "Dog Day Afternoon"

1976
Picture: "ROCKY", "All the President's Men", "Bound for Glory", "Network", "Taxi Driver" Actor: PETER FINCH in "Network", Robert De Niro in "Taxi Driver", Giancarlo Giannini in "Seven Beauties", William Holden in "Network", Sylvester Stallone in "Rocky" Actress: FAYE DUNAWAY in "Network", Marie-Christine Barrault in "Cousin, Cousine", Talia Shire in "Rocky", Sissy Spacek in "Carrie", Liv Ullmann in "Face to Face" Supporting Actor: JASON ROBARDS in "All the President's Men", Ned Beatty in "Network", Burgess Meredith in "Rocky", Laurence Olivier in "Marathon Man", Burt Young in "Rocky" Supporting Actress: BEATRICE STRAIGHT in "Network", Jane Alexander in "All the President's Men", Jodie Foster in "Taxi Driver", Lee Grant in "Voyage of the Damned", Piper Laurie in "Carrie" Director:

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JOHN G. AVILDSEN for "Rocky", Ingmar Bergman for "Face to Face", Sidney Lumet for "Network", Alan J. Pakula for "All the President's Men", Lina Wertmuller for "Seven Beauties"

1977
Picture: "ANNIE HALL", "The Goodbye Girl", "Julia", "Star Wars", "The Turning Point" Actor: RICHARD DREYFUSS in "The Goodbye Girl", Woody Allen in "Annie Hall", Richard Burton in "Equus", Marcello Mastroianni in "A Special Day", John Travolta in "Saturday Night Fever" Actress: DIANE KEATON in "Annie Hall", Anne Bancroft in "The Turning Point", Jane Fonda in "Julia", Shirley MacLaine in "The Turning Point", Marsha Mason in "The Goodbye Girl" Supporting Actor: JASON ROBARDS in "Julia", Mikhail Baryshnikov in "The Turning Point", Peter Firth in "Equus", Alec Guinness in "Star Wars", Maximilian Schell in "Julia" Supporting Actress: VANESSA REDGRAVE in "Julia", Leslie Browne in "The Turning Point", Quinn Cummings in "The Goodbye Girl", Melinda Dillon in "Close Encounters of the Third Kind", Tuesday Weld in "Looking for Mr. Goodbar" Director: WOODY ALLEN for "Annie Hall", George Lucas for "Star Wars", Herbert Ross for "The Turning Point", Steven Spielberg for "Close Encounters of the Third Kind", Fred Zinnemann for "Julia"

1978
Picture: "THE DEER HUNTER", "Coming Home", "Heaven Can Wait", "Midnight Express", "An Unmarried Woman" Actor: JON VOIGHT in "Coming Home", Warren Beatty in "Heaven Can Wait", Gary Busey in "The Buddy Holly Story", Robert De Niro in "The Deer Hunter", Laurence Olivier in "The Boys From Brazil" Actress: JANE FONDA in "Coming Home", Ingrid Bergman in "Autumn Sonata", Ellen Burstyn in "Same Time, Next Year", Jill Clayburgh in "An Unmarried Woman", Geraldine Page in "Interiors" Supporting Actor: CHRISTOPHER WALKEN in "The Deer Hunter", Bruce Dern in "Coming Home", Richard Farnsworth in "Comes a Horseman", John Hurt in "Midnight Express", Jack Warden in "Heaven Can Wait" Supporting Actress: MAGGIE SMITH in "California Suite", Dyan Cannon in "Heaven Can Wait", Penelope Milford in "Coming Home", Maureen Stapleton in "Interiors", Meryl Streep in "The Deer Hunter" Director: MICHAEL CIMINO for "The Deer Hunter", Woody Allen for "Interiors", Hal Ashby for "Coming Home", Warren Beatty and Buck Henry for "Heaven Can Wait", Alan Parker for "Midnight Express"

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1979
Picture: "KRAMER vs. KRAMER", "All That Jazz", "Apocalypse Now", "Breaking Away", "Norma Rae" Actor: DUSTIN HOFFMAN in "Kramer vs. Kramer", Jack Lemmon in "The China Syndrome", Al Pacino in "...And Justice For All", Roy Scheider in "All That Jazz", Peter Sellers in "Being There" Actress: SALLY FIELD in "Norma Rae", Jill Clayburgh in "Starting Over", Jane Fonda in "The China Syndrome", Marsha Mason in "Chapter Two", Bette Midler in "The Rose" Supporting Actor: MELVYN DOUGLAS in "Being There", Robert Duvall in "Apocalypse Now", Frederic Forrest in "The Rose", Justin Henry in "Kramer vs. Kramer", Mickey Rooney in "The Black Stallion" Supporting Actress: MERYL STREEP in "Kramer vs. Kramer", Jane Alexander in "Kramer vs. Kramer", Barbarie Barrie in "Breaking Away", Candice Bergen in "Starting Over", Mariel Hemingway in "Manhattan" Director: ROBERT BENTON for "Kramer vs. Kramer", Francis Ford Coppola for "Apocalypse Now", Bob Fosse for "All That Jazz", Edouard Molinaro for "La Cage Aux Folles", Peter Yates for "Breaking Away"

ACADEMY AWARDS® WINNERS and HISTORY (1980 - 1989)
1980
Picture: "ORDINARY PEOPLE", "Coal Miner's Daughter", "The Elephant Man", "Raging Bull", "Tess"

Actor: ROBERT DE NIRO in "Raging Bull", Robert Duvall in "The Great Santini", John Hurt in "The Elephant Man", Jack Lemmon in "Tribute", Peter O'Toole in "The Stunt Man" Actress: SISSY SPACEK in "Coal Miner's Daughter", Ellen Burstyn in "Resurrection", Goldie Hawn in "Private Benjamin", Mary Tyler Moore in "Ordinary People", Gena Rowlands in "Gloria" Supporting Actor: TIMOTHY HUTTON in "Ordinary People", Judd Hirsch in "Ordinary People", Michael O'Keefe in "The Great Santini", Joe Pesci in "Raging Bull", Jason Robards in "Melvin and Howard" Supporting Actress: MARY STEENBURGEN in "Melvin & Howard", Eileen Brennan in "Private Benjamin", Eva Le Gallienne in "Resurrection", Cathy Moriarty in "Raging Bull", Diana Scarwid in "Inside Moves" Director:

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ROBERT REDFORD for "Ordinary People", David Lynch for "The Elephant Man", Roman Polanski for "Tess", Richard Rush for "The Stunt Man", Martin Scorsese for "Raging Bull"

1981
Picture: "CHARIOTS OF FIRE", "Atlantic City", "On Golden Pond", "Raiders of the Lost Ark", "Reds" Actor: HENRY FONDA in "On Golden Pond", Warren Beatty in "Reds", Burt Lancaster in "Atlantic City", Dudley Moore in "Arthur", Paul Newman in "Absence of Malice" Actress: KATHARINE HEPBURN in "On Golden Pond", Diane Keaton in "Reds", Marsha Mason in "Only When I Laugh", Susan Sarandon in "Atlantic City", Meryl Streep in "The French Lieutenant's Woman" Supporting Actor: JOHN GIELGUD in "Arthur", James Coco in "Only When I Laugh", Ian Holm in "Chariots of Fire", Jack Nicholson in "Reds", Howard E. Rollins, Jr. in "Ragtime" Supporting Actress: MAUREEN STAPLETON in "Reds", Melinda Dillon in "Absence of Malice", Jane Fonda in "On Golden Pond", Joan Hackett in "Only When I Laugh", Elizabeth McGovern in "Ragtime" Director: WARREN BEATTY for "Reds", Hugh Hudson for "Chariots of Fire", Louis Malle for "Atlantic City", Mark Rydell for "On Golden Pond", Steven Spielberg for "Raiders of the Lost Ark"

1982
Picture: "GANDHI", "E.T. - The Extra-Terrestrial", "Missing", "Tootsie", "The Verdict" Actor: BEN KINGSLEY in "Gandhi", Dustin Hoffman in "Tootsie", Jack Lemmon in "Missing", Paul Newman in "The Verdict", Peter O'Toole in "My Favorite Year" Actress: MERYL STREEP in "Sophie's Choice", Julie Andrews in Victor/Victoria", Jessica Lange in "Frances", Sissy Spacek in "Missing", Debra Winger in "An Officer and a Gentleman" Supporting Actor: LOUIS GOSSETT, JR. in "An Officer and a Gentleman", Charles Durning in "The Best Little Whorehouse in Texas", John Lithgow in "The World According to Garp", James Mason in "The Verdict", Robert Preston in "Victor/Victoria" Supporting Actress: JESSICA LANGE in "Tootsie", Glenn Close in "The World According to Garp", Teri Garr in "Tootsie", Kim Stanley in "Frances", Lesley Ann Warren in "Victor/Victoria" Director: RICHARD ATTENBOROUGH for "Gandhi", Sidney Lumet for "The Verdict", Wolfgang Petersen for "Das Boot", Sydney Pollack for "Tootsie", Steven Spielberg for "E.T. - The Extra-Terrestrial"

1983
Picture: "TERMS OF ENDEARMENT", "The Big Chill", "The Dresser", "The Right Stuff", "Tender

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Mercies" Actor: ROBERT DUVALL in "Tender Mercies", Michael Caine in "Educating Rita", Tom Conti in "Reuben, Reuben", Tom Courtenay in "The Dresser", Albert Finney in "The Dresser" Actress: SHIRLEY MACLAINE in "Terms of Endearment", Jane Alexander in "Testament", Meryl Streep in "Silkwood", Julie Walters in "Educating Rita", Debra Winger in "Terms of Endearment" Supporting Actor: JACK NICHOLSON in "Terms of Endearment", Charles Durning in "To Be or Not to Be", John Lithgow in "Terms of Endearment", Sam Shepard in "The Right Stuff", Rip Torn in "Cross Creek" Supporting Actress: LINDA HUNT in "The Year of Living Dangerously", Cher in "Silkwood", Glenn Close in "The Big Chill", Amy Irving in "Yentl", Alfre Woodard in "Cross Creek" Director: JAMES L. BROOKS for "Terms of Endearment", Bruce Beresford for "Tender Mercies", Ingmar Bergman for "Fanny and Alexander", Mike Nichols for "Silkwood", Peter Yates for "The Dresser"

1984
Picture: "AMADEUS", "The Killing Fields", "A Passage to India", "Places in the Heart", "A Soldier's Story" Actor: F. MURRAY ABRAHAM in "Amadeus", Jeff Bridges in "Starman", Albert Finney in "Under the Volcano", Tom Hulce in "Amadeus", Sam Waterston in "The Killing Fields" Actress: SALLY FIELD in "Places in the Heart", Judy Davis in "A Passage to India", Jessica Lange in "Country", Vanessa Redgrave in "The Bostonians", Sissy Spacek in "The River" Supporting Actor: HAING S. NGOR in "The Killing Fields", Adolph Caesar in "A Soldier's Story", John Malkovich in "Places in the Heart", Noriyuki "Pat" Morita in "The Karate Kid", Ralph Richardson in "Greystoke: The Legend of Tarzan, Lord of the Apes" Supporting Actress: PEGGY ASHCROFT in "A Passage to India", Glenn Close in "The Natural", Lindsay Crouse in "Places in the Heart", Christine Lahti in "Swing Shift", Geraldine Page in "The Pope of Greenwich Village" Director: MILOS FORMAN for "Amadeus", Woody Allen for "Broadway Danny Rose", Robert Benton for "Places in the Heart", Roland Joffe for "The Killing Fields", David Lean for "A Passage to India"

1985
Picture: "OUT OF AFRICA", "The Color Purple", "Kiss of the Spider Woman", "Prizzi's Honor", "Witness" Actor: WILLIAM HURT in "Kiss of the Spider Woman", Harrison Ford in "Witness", James Garner in "Murphy's Romance", Jack Nicholson in "Prizzi's Honor", Jon Voight in "Runaway Train" Actress: GERALDINE PAGE in "The Trip to Bountiful", Anne Bancroft in "Agnes of God", Whoopi Goldberg in "The Color Purple", Jessica Lange in "Sweet Dreams", Meryl Streep in "Out of Africa"

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Supporting Actor: DON AMECHE in "Cocoon", Klaus Maria Brandauer in "Out of Africa", William Hickey in "Prizzi's Honor", Robert Loggia in "Jagged Edge", Eric Roberts in "Runaway Train" Supporting Actress: ANJELICA HUSTON in "Prizzi's Honor", Margaret Avery in "The Color Purple", Amy Madigan in "Twice in a Lifetime", Meg Tilly in "Agnes of God", Oprah Winfrey in "The Color Purple" Director: SYDNEY POLLACK for "Out of Africa", Hecter Babenco for "Kiss of the Spider Woman", John Huston for "Prizzi's Honor", Akira Kurosawa for "Ran", Peter Weir for "Witness"

1986
Picture: "PLATOON", "Children of a Lesser God", "Hannah and Her Sisters", "The Mission", "A Room with a View" Actor: PAUL NEWMAN in "The Color of Money", Dexter Gordon in "'Round Midnight", Bob Hoskins in "Mona Lisa", William Hurt in "Children of a Lesser God", James Woods in "Salvador" Actress: MARLEE MATLIN in "Children of a Lesser God", Jane Fonda in "The Morning After", Sissy Spacek in "Crimes of the Heart", Kathleen Turner in "Peggy Sue Got Married", Sigourney Weaver in "Aliens" Supporting Actor: MICHAEL CAINE in "Hannah and Her Sisters", Tom Berenger in "Platoon", Willem Dafoe in "Platoon", Denholm Elliott in "A Room with a View", Dennis Hopper in "Hoosiers" Supporting Actress: DIANNE WIEST in "Hannah and Her Sisters", Tess Harper in "Crimes of the Heart", Piper Laurie in "Children of a Lesser God", Mary Elizabeth Mastrantonio in "The Color of Money", Maggie Smith in "A Room with a View" Director: OLIVER STONE for "Platoon", Woody Allen for "Hannah and Her Sisters", James Ivory for "A Room with a View", Roland Joffe for "The Mission", David Lynch for "Blue Velvet"

1987
Picture: "THE LAST EMPEROR", "Broadcast News", "Fatal Attraction", "Hope and Glory", "Moonstruck" Actor: MICHAEL DOUGLAS in "Wall Street", William Hurt in "Broadcast News", Marcello Mastroianni in "Dark Eyes", Jack Nicholson in "Ironweed", Robin Williams in "Good Morning, Vietnam" Actress: CHER in "Moonstruck", Glenn Close in "Fatal Attraction", Holly Hunter in "Broadcast News", Sally Kirkland in "Anna", Meryl Streep in "Ironweed" Supporting Actor: SEAN CONNERY in "The Untouchables", Albert Brooks in "Broadcast News", Morgan Freeman in "Street Smart", Vincent Gardenia in "Moonstruck", Denzel Washington in "Cry Freedom" Supporting Actress: OLYMPIA DUKAKIS in "Moonstruck", Norma Aleandro in "Gaby - a True Story", Anne Archer in "Fatal Attraction", Anne Ramsey in "Throw Momma From the Train", Ann Sothern in "The Whales

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of August" Director: BERNARDO BERTOLUCCI for "The Last Emperor", John Boorman for "Hope and Glory", Lasse Hallstrom for "My Life as a Dog", Norman Jewison for "Moonstruck", Adrian Lyne for "Fatal Attraction"

1988
Picture: "RAIN MAN", "The Accidental Tourist", "Dangerous Liaisons", "Mississippi Burning", "Working Girl" Actor: DUSTIN HOFFMAN in "Rain Man", Gene Hackman in "Mississippi Burning", Tom Hanks in "Big", Edward James Olmos in "Stand and Deliver", Max von Sydow in "Pelle the Conqueror" Actress: JODIE FOSTER in "The Accused", Glenn Close in "Dangerous Liaisons", Melanie Griffith in "Working Girl", Meryl Streep in "A Cry in the Dark", Sigourney Weaver in "Gorillas in the Mist" Supporting Actor: KEVIN KLINE in "A Fish Called Wanda", Alec Guinness in "Little Dorritt", Martin Landau in "Tucker: the Man and His Dream", River Phoenix in "Running on Empty", Dean Stockwell in "Married to the Mob" Supporting Actress: GEENA DAVIS in "The Accidental Tourist", Joan Cusack in "Working Girl", Frances McDormand in "Mississippi Burning", Michelle Pfeiffer in "Dangerous Liaisons", Sigourney Weaver in "Working Girl" Director: BARRY LEVINSON for "Rain Man", Charles Crichton for "A Fish Called Wanda", Mike Nichols for "Working Girl", Alan Parker for "Mississippi Burning", Martin Scorsese for "The Last Temptation of Christ"

1989
Picture: "DRIVING MISS DAISY", "Born on the Fourth of July", "Dead Poets Society", "Field of Dreams", "MyLeftFoot" Actor: DANIEL DAY-LEWIS in "My Left Foot", Kenneth Branagh in "Henry V", Tom Cruise in "Born on the Fourth of July", Morgan Freeman in "Driving Miss Daisy", Robin Williams in "Dead Poets Society" Actress: JESSICA TANDY in "Driving Miss Daisy", Isabelle Adjani in "Camille Claudel", Pauline Collins in "Shirley Valentine", Jessica Lange in "Music Box", Michelle Pfeiffer in "The Fabulous Baker Boys" Supporting Actor: DENZEL WASHINGTON in "Glory", Danny Aiello in "Do the Right Thing", Dan Aykroyd in "Driving Miss Daisy", Marlon Brando in "A Dry White Season", Martin Landau in "Crimes and Misdemeanors" Supporting Actress:

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BRENDA FRICKER in "My Left Foot", Anjelica Huston in "Enemies, a Love Story", Lena Olin in "Enemies, a Love Story", Julia Roberts in "Steel Magnolias", Dianne Wiest in "Parenthood" Director: OLIVER STONE for "Born on the Fourth of July", Woody Allen for "Crimes and Misdemeanors", Kenneth Branagh for "Henry V", Jim Sheridan for "My Left Foot", Peter Weir for "Dead Poets Society"

ACADEMY AWARDS® WINNERS and HISTORY (1990 - 1999)

1990
Picture: "DANCES WITH WOLVES", "Awakenings", "Ghost", "The Godfather, Part III", "GoodFellas" Actor: JEREMY IRONS in "Reversal of Fortune", Kevin Costner in "Dances With Wolves", Robert De Niro in "Awakenings", Gerard Depardieu in "Cyrano de Bergerac", Richard Harris in "The Field" Actress: KATHY BATES in "Misery", Anjelica Huston in "The Grifters", Julia Roberts in "Pretty Woman", Meryl Streep in "Postcards from the Edge", Joanne Woodward in "Mr. and Mrs. Bridge" Supporting Actor: JOE PESCI in "GoodFellas", Bruce Davison in "Longtime Companion", Andy Garcia in "The Godfather, Part III", Graham Greene in "Dances With Wolves", Al Pacino in "Dick Tracy" Supporting Actress: WHOOPI GOLDBERG in "Ghost", Annette Bening in "The Grifters", Lorraine Bracco in "GoodFellas", Diane Ladd in "Wild at Heart", Mary McDonnell in "Dances With Wolves" Director: KEVIN COSTNER for "Dances With Wolves", Francis Ford Coppola for "The Godfather, Part III", Stephen Frears for "The Grifters", Barbet Schroeder for "Reversal of Fortune", Martin Scorsese for "GoodFellas"

1991
Picture: "THE SILENCE OF THE LAMBS", "Beauty and the Beast", "Bugsy", "JFK", "The Prince of Tides"

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Actor: ANTHONY HOPKINS in "The Silence of the Lambs", Warren Beatty in "Bugsy", Robert De Niro in "Cape Fear", Nick Nolte in "The Prince of Tides", Robin Williams in "The Fisher King" Actress: JODIE FOSTER in "The Silence of the Lambs", Geena Davis in "Thelma & Louise", Laura Dern in "Rambling Rose", Bette Midler in "For the Boys", Susan Sarandon in "Thelma & Louise" Supporting Actor: JACK PALANCE in "City Slickers", Tommy Lee Jones in "JFK", Harvey Keitel in "Bugsy", Ben Kingsley in "Bugsy", Michael Lerner in "Barton Fink" Supporting Actress: MERCEDES RUEHL in "The Fisher King", Diane Ladd in "Rambling Rose", Juliette Lewis in "Cape Fear", Kate Nelligan in "The Prince of Tides", Jessica Tandy in "Fried Green Tomatoes" Director: JONATHAN DEMME for "The Silence of the Lambs", Barry Levinson for "Bugsy", Ridley Scott for "Thelma & Louise", John Singleton for "Boyz N the Hood", Oliver Stone for "JFK"

1992
Picture: "UNFORGIVEN", "The Crying Game", "A Few Good Men", "Howards End", "Scent of a Woman" Actor: AL PACINO in "Scent of a Woman", Robert Downey, Jr. in "Chaplin", Clint Eastwood in "Unforgiven", Stephen Rea in "The Crying Game", Denzel Washington in "Malcolm X" Actress: EMMA THOMPSON in "Howards End", Catherine Deneuve in "Indochine", Mary McDonnell in "Passion Fish", Michelle Pfeiffer in "Love Field", Susan Sarandon in "Lorenzo's Oil" Supporting Actor: GENE HACKMAN in "Unforgiven", Jaye Davidson in "The Crying Game", Jack Nicholson in "A Few Good Men", Al Pacino in "Glengarry Glen Ross", David Paymer in "Mr. Saturday Night" Supporting Actress: MARISA TOMEI in "My Cousin Vinny", Judy Davis in "Husbands and Wives", Joan Plowright in "Enchanted April", Vanessa Redgrave in "Howards End", Miranda Richardson in "Damage" Director: CLINT EASTWOOD for "Unforgiven", Robert Altman for "The Player", Martin Brest for "Scent of a Woman", James Ivory for "Howards End", Neil Jordan for "The Crying Game"

1993
Picture: "SCHINDLER'S LIST", "The Fugitive", "In the Name of the Father", "The Piano", "The Remains of the Day" Actor: TOM HANKS in "Philadelphia", Daniel Day-Lewis in "In the Name of the Father", Laurence Fishburne in "What's Love Got to Do With It", Anthony Hopkins in "The Remains of the Day", Liam Neeson in "Schindler's List" Actress: HOLLY HUNTER in "The Piano", Angela Bassett in "What's Love Got to Do With It", Stockard Channing in "Six Degrees of Separation", Emma Thompson in "The Remains of the Day", Debra Winger in "Shadowlands"

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Supporting Actor: TOMMY LEE JONES in "The Fugitive", Leonardo DiCaprio in "What's Eating Gilbert Grape", Ralph Fiennes in "Schindler's List", John Malkovich in "In the Line of Fire", Pete Postlethwaite in "In the Name of the Father" Supporting Actress: ANNA PAQUIN in "The Piano", Holly Hunter in "The Firm", Rosie Perez in "Fearless", Winona Ryder in "The Age of Innocence", Emma Thompson in "In the Name of the Father" Director: STEVEN SPIELBERG for "Schindler's List", Robert Altman for "Short Cuts", Jane Campion for "The Piano", James Ivory for "The Remains of the Day", Jim Sheridan for "In the Name of the Father"

1994
Picture: "FORREST GUMP", "Four Weddings and a Funeral", "Pulp Fiction", "Quiz Show", "The Shawshank Redemption" Actor: TOM HANKS in "Forrest Gump", Morgan Freeman in "The Shawshank Redemption", Nigel Hawthorne in "The Madness of King George", Paul Newman in "Nobody's Fool", John Travolta in "Pulp Fiction" Actress: JESSICA LANGE in "Blue Sky", Jodie Foster in "Nell", Miranda Richardson in "Tom and Viv", Winona Ryder in "Little Women", Susan Sarandon in "The Client" Supporting Actor: MARTIN LANDAU in "Ed Wood", Samuel L. Jackson in "Pulp Fiction", Chazz Palminteri in "Bullets Over Broadway", Paul Scofield in "Quiz Show", Gary Sinise in "Forrest Gump" Supporting Actress: DIANNE WIEST in "Bullets Over Broadway", Rosemary Harris in "Tom and Viv", Helen Mirren in "The Madness of King George", Uma Thurman in "Pulp Fiction", Jennifer Tilly in "Bullets Over Broadway" Director: ROBERT ZEMECKIS for "Forrest Gump", Woody Allen for "Bullets Over Broadway", Krzysztof Kieslowski for "Red", Robert Redford for "Quiz Show", Quentin Tarantino for "Pulp Fiction"

1995
Picture: "BRAVEHEART", "Apollo 13", "Babe", "Il Postino", "Sense and Sensibility" Actor: NICOLAS CAGE in "Leaving Las Vegas", Richard Dreyfuss in "Mr. Holland's Opus", Anthony Hopkins in "Nixon", Sean Penn in "Dead Man Walking", Massimo Troisi in "Il Postino" Actress: SUSAN SARANDON in "Dead Man Walking", Elisabeth Shue in "Leaving Las Vegas", Sharon Stone in "Casino", Meryl Streep in "The Bridges of Madison County", Emma Thompson in "Sense and Sensibility" Supporting Actor: KEVIN SPACEY in "The Usual Suspects", James Cromwell in "Babe", Ed Harris in "Apollo 13", Brad Pitt in "12 Monkeys", Tim Roth in "Rob Roy"

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440

Supporting Actress: MIRA SORVINO in "Mighty Aphrodite", Joan Allen in "Nixon", Kathleen Quinlan in "Apollo 13", Mare Winningham in "Georgia", Kate Winslet in "Sense and Sensibility" Director: MEL GIBSON for "Braveheart", Mike Figgis for "Leaving Las Vegas", Chris Noonan for "Babe", Michael Radford for "Il Postino", Tim Robbins for "Dead Man Walking"

1996
Picture: "THE ENGLISH PATIENT", "Fargo", "Jerry Maguire", "Secrets and Lies", "Shine" Actor: GEOFFREY RUSH in "Shine", Tom Cruise in "Jerry Maguire", Ralph Fiennes in "The English Patient", Woody Harrelson in "The People vs. Larry Flynt", Billy Bob Thornton in "Sling Blade" Actress: FRANCES MCDORMAND in "Fargo", Brenda Blethyn in "Secrets and Lies", Diane Keaton in "Marvin's Room", Kristin Scott Thomas in "The English Patient", Emily Watson in "Breaking the Waves" Supporting Actor: CUBA GOODING, JR. in "Jerry Maguire", William H. Macy in "Fargo", Armin Mueller-Stahl in "Shine", Edward Norton in "Primal Fear", James Woods in "Ghosts of Mississippi" Supporting Actress: JULIETTE BINOCHE in "The English Patient", Joan Allen in "The Crucible", Lauren Bacall in "The Mirror Has Two Faces", Barbara Hershey in "Portrait of a Lady", Marianne Jean-Baptiste in "Secrets and Lies" Director: ANTHONY MINGHELLA for "The English Patient", Joel Coen for "Fargo", Milos Forman for "The People vs. Larry Flynt", Scott Hicks for "Shine", Mike Leigh for "Secrets and Lies"

1997
Picture: "TITANIC", "L.A. Confidential", "As Good As It Gets", "Good Will Hunting", "The Full Monty" Actor: JACK NICHOLSON in "As Good As It Gets", Matt Damon in "Good Will Hunting", Dustin Hoffman in "Wag the Dog", Robert Duvall in "The Apostle", Peter Fonda in "Ulee's Gold" Actress: HELEN HUNT in "As Good As It Gets", Judi Dench in "(Her Majesty) Mrs. Brown", Helena Bonham Carter in "The Wings of the Dove", Kate Winslet in "Titanic", Julie Christie in "Afterglow" Supporting Actor: ROBIN WILLIAMS in "Good Will Hunting", Robert Forster in "Jackie Brown", Anthony Hopkins in "Amistad", Greg Kinnear in "As Good As It Gets", Burt Reynolds in "Boogie Nights" Supporting Actress: KIM BASINGER in "L.A. Confidential", Joan Cusack in "In and Out", Minnie Driver in "Good Will Hunting", Julianne Moore in "Boogie Nights", Gloria Stuart in "Titanic" Director: JAMES CAMERON for "Titanic", Peter Cattaneo for "The Full Monty", Atom Egoyan for "The Sweet Hereafter", Curtis Hanson for "L.A. Confidential", Gus Van Sant for "Good Will Hunting"

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1998
Picture: SHAKESPEARE IN LOVE, "Elizabeth", "Life is Beautiful" (Best Foreign Language Film winner), "Saving Private Ryan", "The Thin Red Line" Actor: ROBERTO BENIGNI in "Life is Beautiful", Tom Hanks in "Saving Private Ryan", Ian McKellen in "Gods and Monsters", Nick Nolte in "Affliction", Edward Norton in "American History X" Actress: GWYNETH PALTROW in "Shakespeare in Love", Cate Blanchett in "Elizabeth", Fernanda Montenegro in "Central Station", Meryl Streep in "One True Thing", Emily Watson in "Hilary and Jackie" Supporting Actor: JAMES COBURN in "Affliction", Robert Duvall in "A Civil Action", Ed Harris in "The Truman Show", Geoffrey Rush in "Shakespeare in Love", Billy Bob Thornton in "A Simple Plan" Supporting Actress: JUDI DENCH in "Shakespeare in Love", Kathy Bates in "Primary Colors", Brenda Blethyn in "Little Voice", Rachel Griffiths in "Hilary and Jackie", Lynn Redgrave in "Gods and Monsters" Director: STEVEN SPIELBERG for "Saving Private Ryan", Roberto Benigni for "Life is Beautiful", John Madden for "Shakespeare in Love", Terrence Malick for "The Thin Red Line", Peter Weir for "The Truman Show"

1999
Picture: "AMERICAN BEAUTY", "The Cider House Rules", "The Green Mile", "The Insider", "The Sixth Sense" Actor: KEVIN SPACEY in "American Beauty," Russell Crowe in "The Insider," Richard Farnsworth in "The Straight Story," Sean Penn in "Sweet and Lowdown," Denzel Washington in "The Hurricane" Actress: HILARY SWANK in "Boys Don't Cry", Annette Bening in "American Beauty", Janet McTeer in "Tumbleweeds", Julianne Moore in "The End of the Affair", Meryl Streep in "Music of the Heart" Supporting Actor: MICHAEL CAINE in "The Cider House Rules", Tom Cruise in "Magnolia", Michael Clarke Duncan in "The Green Mile", Jude Law in "The Talented Mr. Ripley", Haley Joel Osment in "The Sixth Sense" Supporting Actress: ANGELINA JOLIE in "Girl, Interrupted", Toni Collette in "The Sixth Sense", Catherine Keener in "Being John Malkovich", Samantha Morton in "Sweet and Lowdown", Chloe Sevigny in "Boys Don't Cry" Director: SAM MENDES for "American Beauty", Spike Jonze for "Being John Malkovich", Lasse Hallstrom for "The Cider House Rules", Michael Mann for "The Insider", M. Night Shyamalan for "The Sixth Sense"

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ACADEMY AWARDS® WINNERS and HISTORY (2000 - present)
2000
Picture: "GLADIATOR," "Chocolat," "Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon," "Erin Brockovich," "Traffic" Actor: RUSSELL CROWE in "Gladiator," Javier Bardem in "Before Night Falls," Tom Hanks in "Cast Away," Ed Harris in "Pollock," Geoffrey Rush in "Quills" Actress: JULIA ROBERTS in "Erin Brockovich," Joan Allen in "The Contender," Juliette Binoche in "Chocolat," Ellen Burstyn in "Requiem for a Dream," Laura Linney in "You Can Count On Me" Supporting Actor: BENICIO DEL TORO in "Traffic," Jeff Bridges in "The Contender," Willem Dafoe in "Shadow of the Vampire," Albert Finney in "Erin Brockovich," Joaquin Phoenix in "Gladiator" Supporting Actress: MARCIA GAY HARDEN in "Pollock," Judi Dench in "Chocolat," " Kate Hudson in "Almost Famous," Frances McDormand in "Almost Famous," Julie Walters in "Billy Elliot" Director: STEVEN SODERBERGH for "Traffic," Stephen Daldry for "Billy Elliot," Ang Lee for "Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon," Steven Soderbergh for "Erin Brockovich," Ridley Scott for "Gladiator"

2001
Picture: "A BEAUTIFUL MIND," "Gosford Park," "In the Bedroom," "The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring," "Moulin Rouge"

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Animated Feature Film: "SHREK," "Jimmy Neutron: Boy Genius", "Monsters, Inc." Actor: DENZEL WASHINGTON in "Training Day," Russell Crowe in "A Beautiful Mind," Sean Penn in "I Am Sam," Will Smith in "Ali," Tom Wilkinson in "In the Bedroom" Actress: HALLE BERRY in "Monster's Ball," Judi Dench in "Iris," Nicole Kidman in "Moulin Rouge," Sissy Spacek in "In the Bedroom," Renee Zellwegger in "Bridget Jones's Diary" Supporting Actor: JIM BROADBENT in "Iris," Ethan Hawke in "Training Day," Ben Kingsley in "Sexy Beast," Ian McKellen in "The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring," Jon Voight in "Ali" Supporting Actress: JENNIFER CONNELLY in "A Beautiful Mind," Helen Mirren in "Gosford Park," Maggie Smith in "Gosford Park," Marisa Tomei in "In the Bedroom," Kate Winslet in "Iris" Director: RON HOWARD for "A Beautiful Mind," Ridley Scott for "Black Hawk Down," Robert Altman for "Gosford Park," Peter Jackson for "The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring," David Lynch for "Mulholland Drive"

2002
Picture: "CHICAGO," "Gangs of New York," "The Hours," "The Lord of the Rings: The Two Towers," "The Pianist" Animated Feature Film: "SPIRITED AWAY," "Ice Age," "Lilo & Stitch," "Spirit: Stallion of the Cimarron," "Treasure Planet" Actor: ADRIEN BRODY in "The Pianist," Nicolas Cage in "Adaptation," Michael Caine in "The Quiet American," Daniel Day-Lewis in "Gangs of New York," Jack Nicholson in "About Schmidt" Actress: NICOLE KIDMAN in "The Hours," Salma Hayek in "Frida," Diane Lane in "Unfaithful," Julianne Moore in "Far from Heaven," Renee Zellweger in "Chicago" Supporting Actor: CHRIS COOPER in "Adaptation," Ed Harris in "The Hours," Paul Newman in "Road to Perdition," John C. Reilly in "Chicago," Christopher Walken in "Catch Me If You Can" Supporting Actress: CATHERINE ZETA-JONES in "Chicago," "Kathy Bates in "About Schmidt," Julianne Moore in "The Hours," Queen Latifah for "Chicago," Meryl Streep in "Adaptation"

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Director: ROMAN POLANSKI for "The Pianist," Rob Marshall for "Chicago," Martin Scorsese for "Gangs of New York," Stephen Daldry for "The Hours," Pedro Almodovar for "Talk to Her"

2003
Picture: "THE LORD OF THE RINGS: THE RETURN OF THE KING," "Lost In Translation," "Master and Commander: The Far Side of the World," "Mystic River," "Seabiscuit" Animated Feature Film: "FINDING NEMO," "Brother Bear," "The Triplets of Belleville" Actor: SEAN PENN in "Mystic River, "Johnny Depp in "Pirates of the Caribbean: The Curse of the Black Pearl," Ben Kingsley in "House of Sand and Fog," Jude Law in "Cold Mountain," Bill Murray in "Lost In Translation" Actress: CHARLIZE THERON in "Monster," Keisha Castle-Hughes in "Whale Rider," Diane Keaton in "Something's Gotta Give," Samantha Morton in "In America," Naomi Watts in "21 Grams" Supporting Actor: TIM ROBBINS in "Mystic River," Alec Baldwin in "The Cooler," Benicio Del Toro in "21 Grams," Djimon Hounsou in "In America," Ken Watanabe in "The Last Samurai" Supporting Actress: RENEE ZELLWEGER in "Cold Mountain," Shohreh Aghdashloo in "House of Sand and Fog," Patricia Clarkson in "Pieces of April," Marcia Gay Harden in "Mystic River," Holly Hunter in "Thirteen" Director: PETER JACKSON for "The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King," Fernando Meirelles for "City of God," Sofia Coppola for "Lost In Translation," Peter Weir for "Master and Commander: The Far Side of the World," Clint Eastwood for "Mystic River"

2004
Picture: "MILLION DOLLAR BABY," "The Aviator," "Finding Neverland," "Ray," "Sideways" Animated Feature Film: "THE INCREDIBLES," "Shark Tale," "Shrek 2" Actor: JAMIE FOXX in "Ray," Don Cheadle in "Hotel Rwanda," Johnny Depp in "Finding Neverland," Leonardo DiCaprio in "The Aviator," Clint Eastwood in "Million Dollar Baby"

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Actress: HILARY SWANK in "Million Dollar Baby," Annette Bening in "Being Julia," Catalina Sandino Moreno in "Maria Full of Grace," Imelda Staunton in "Vera Drake," Kate Winslet in "Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind" Supporting Actor: MORGAN FREEMAN in "Million Dollar Baby," Alan Alda in "The Aviator," Thomas Haden Church in "Sideways," Jamie Foxx in "Collateral," Clive Owen in "Closer" Supporting Actress: CATE BLANCHETT in "The Aviator," Laura Linney in "Kinsey," Virginia Madsen in "Sideways," Sophie Okonedo in "Hotel Rwanda," Natalie Portman in "Closer" Director: CLINT EASTWOOD for "Million Dollar Baby," Taylor Hackford for "Ray," Mike Leigh for "Vera Drake," Alexander Payne for "Sideways," Martin Scorsese for "The Aviator"

2005
Picture: "CRASH," "Brokeback Mountain," "Capote," "Good Night, and Good Luck," "Munich" Animated Feature Film: "WALLACE & GROMIT IN THE CURSE OF THE WERE-RABBIT," "Howl's Moving Castle," "Tim Burton's Corpse Bride" Actor: PHILIP SEYMOUR HOFFMAN in "Capote," Terrence Howard in "Hustle & Flow," Heath Ledger in "Brokeback Mountain," Joaquin Phoenix in "Walk the Line," David Strathairn in "Good Night, and Good Luck" Actress: REESE WITHERSPOON in "Walk the Line," Judi Dench in "Mrs. Henderson Presents," Felicity Huffman in "Transamerica," Keira Knightley in "Pride & Prejudice," Charlize Theron in "North Country" Supporting Actor: GEORGE CLOONEY in "Syriana," Matt Dillon in "Crash," Paul Giamatti in "Cinderella Man," Jake Gyllenhaal in "Brokeback Mountain," William Hurt in "A History of Violence" Supporting Actress: RACHEL WEISZ in "The Constant Gardener," Amy Adams in "Junebug," Catherine Keener in "Capote," Frances McDormand in "North Country," Michelle Williams in "Brokeback Mountain" Director: ANG LEE for "Brokeback Mountain," George Clooney for "Good Night, and Good Luck," Paul Haggis for "Crash," Bennett Miller for "Capote," Steven Spielberg for "Munich"

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2006
Picture: "THE DEPARTED," "Babel," "Letters From Iwo Jima," "Little Miss Sunshine," "The Queen" Animated Feature Film: "HAPPY FEET," "Cars," "Monster House" Actor: FOREST WHITAKER in "The Last King of Scotland," Leonardo DiCaprio in "Blood Diamond," Ryan Gosling in "Half Nelson," Peter O'Toole in "Venus," Will Smith in "The Pursuit of Happyness" Actress: HELEN MIRREN in "The Queen," Penelope Cruz in "Volver," Judi Dench in "Notes on a Scandal," Meryl Streep in "The Devil Wears Prada," Kate Winslet in "Little Children" Supporting Actor: ALAN ARKIN in "Little Miss Sunshine," Jackie Earle Haley in "Little Children," Djimon Honsou in "Blood Diamond," Eddie Murphy in "Dreamgirls," Mark Wahlberg in "The Departed" Supporting Actress: JENNIFER HUDSON in "Dreamgirls," Adriana Barraza in "Babel," Cate Blanchett in "Notes on a Scandal," Abigail Breslin in "Little Miss Sunshine," Rinko Kikuchi in "Babel" Director: MARTIN SCORSESE for "The Departed," Clint Eastwood for "Letters From Iwo Jima," Stephen Frears for "The Queen," Paul Greengrass for "United 93," Alejandro González Iñárritu for "Babel"

2007
Picture: "NO COUNTRY FOR OLD MEN," "Atonement," "Juno," "Michael Clayton,""There Will Be Blood" Animated Feature Film: "RATATOUILLE," "Persepolis," "Surf's Up" Actor: DANIEL DAY-LEWIS in "There Will Be Blood," George Clooney in "Michael Clayton," Johnny Depp in "Sweeney Todd the Demon Barber of Fleet Street," Tommy Lee Jones in "In the Valley of Elah," Viggo Mortensen in "Eastern Promises" Actress: MARION COTILLARD in "La Vie en Rose," Cate Blanchett in "Elizabeth: The Golden Age," Julie Christie in "Away From Her," Laura Linney in "The Savages," Ellen Page in "Juno" Supporting Actor: JAVIER BARDEM in "No Country for Old Men," Casey Affleck in "The

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Assassination of Jesse James by the Coward Robert Ford," Hal Holbrook in "Into the Wild," Philip Seymour Hoffman in "Charlie Wilson's War," Tom Wilkinson in "Michael Clayton" Supporting Actress: TILDA SWINTON in "Michael Clayton," Cate Blanchett in "I'm Not There," Ruby Dee in "American Gangster," Saoirse Ronan in "Atonement," Amy Ryan in "Gone Baby Gone" Director: JOEL COEN AND ETHAN COEN for "No Country for Old Men," Julian Schnabel for "The Diving Bell and the Butterfly," Jason Reitman for "Juno," Tony Gilroy for "Michael Clayton," Paul Thomas Anderson for "There Will Be Blood"

2008
Picture: "SLUMDOG MILLIONAIRE," The Curious Case of Benjamin Button," "Frost/Nixon," "Milk," "The Reader" Animated Feature Film: "WALL-E," "Bolt," "Kung Fu Panda" Actor: SEAN PENN in "Milk," Richard Jenkins in "The Visitor," Frank Langella in "Frost/Nixon," Brad Pitt in "The Curious Case of Benjamin Button," Mickey Rourke in "The Wrestler" Actress: KATE WINSLET in "The Reader," Anne Hathaway in "Rachel Getting Married," Angelina Jolie in "Changeling," Melissa Leo in "Frozen River," Meryl Streep in "Doubt" Supporting Actor: HEATH LEDGER in "The Dark Knight," Josh Brolin in "Milk," Robert Downey, Jr. in "Tropic Thunder," Philip Seymour Hoffman in "Doubt," Michael Shannon in "Revolutionary Road" Supporting Actress: PENELOPE CRUZ in "Vicky Cristina Barcelona," Amy Adams in "Doubt," Viola Davis in "Doubt," Taraji P. Henson in "The Curious Case of Benjamin Button," Marisa Tomei in "The Wrestler" Director: DANNY BOYLE for "Slumdog Millionaire," Stephen Daldry for "The Reader," David Fincher for "The Curious Case of Benjamin Button," Ron Howard for "Frost/Nixon," Gus Van Sant for "Milk”

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MostOscar®WinsByFilm
(Films Receiving 6 or More Competitive Awards) Oscars® Movie Title Films with 11 wins - 3 11 11 11 Titanic Ben-Hur The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King West Side Story The English Patient Gigi The Last Emperor Gone With The Wind From Here to Eternity On The Waterfront My Fair Lady Gandhi Amadeus Cabaret * Slumdog Millionaire Shakespeare in Love Dances with Wolves Schindler's List Out of Africa 1997 1959 2003 14 12 11 Year Nominations

Films with 10 wins - 1 10 9 9 9 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 7 7 7 7 1961 1996 1958 1987 1939 1953 1954 1964 1982 1984 1972 2008 1998 1990 1993 1985 11 12 9 9 13 13 12 12 11 11 10 10 13 12 12 11 Films with 9 wins - 3

Films with 8 wins - 8

Films with 7 wins - 10

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7 7 7 7 7 7 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6

Going My Way Lawrence of Arabia Patton The Sting The Best Years of Our Lives The Bridge on the River Kwai All About Eve Forrest Gump Chicago Mrs. Miniver The Godfather, Part II Star Wars * A Place in the Sun * An American in Paris A Man for All Seasons

1944 1962 1970 1973 1946 1957 1950 1994 2002 1942 1974 1977 1951 1951 1966

10 10 10 10 8 8 14 13 13 12 11 10 9 8 8

Films with 6 wins - 9

* did not win Best Picture

MostOscar®NominationsByFilm
(Films Receiving 11 or More Nominations) Nominations Movie Title Films with 14 nominations - 2 14 14 13 13 13 13 13 13 Titanic All About Eve Gone With The Wind From Here to Eternity Shakespeare in Love Forrest Gump Chicago Mary Poppins * 1997 1950 1939 1953 1998 1994 2002 1964 11 6 8 8 7 6 6 5 Year Oscars®

Films with 13 nominations - 9

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13 13 13

Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf? *

1966

5 4 3

The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship 2001 of the Ring * The Curious Case of Benjamin Button 2008 * Ben-Hur The English Patient On The Waterfront My Fair Lady Dances With Wolves Schindler's List Mrs. Miniver Gladiator A Streetcar Named Desire * The Song of Bernadette * Reds * Johnny Belinda * Becket * The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King West Side Story Amadeus Gandhi Out of Africa The Godfather, Part II Oliver! Terms of Endearment Saving Private Ryan * The Aviator * Sunset Boulevard * The Godfather Julia * 1959 1996 1954 1964 1990 1993 1942 2000 1951 1943 1981 1948 1964

Films with 12 nominations - 13 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 11 9 8 8 7 7 6 5 4 4 3 1 1

Films with 11 nominations - 22 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 2003 1961 1984 1982 1985 1974 1968 1983 1998 2004 1950 1972 1977 11 10 8 8 7 6 5 5 5 5 3 3 3

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11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11

Rebecca Sergeant York * Judgment at Nuremberg * A Passage to India * Mr. Smith Goes to Washington * The Pride of the Yankees * Chinatown * The Turning Point * The Color Purple *

1940 1941 1961 1984 1939 1942 1974 1977 1985

2 2 2 2 1 1 1 0 0

* did not win Best Picture

MostActingNominationsByFilm
(FilmsReceiving4orMoreActingNominations) (Includes Both Leading and Supporting Nominations) Acting Movie Title Nominations Films with 5 acting nominations - 9 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 Network * Mrs. Miniver From Here to Eternity On the Waterfront All About Eve Bonnie and Clyde * The Godfather, Part II Peyton Place * Tom Jones A Streetcar Named Desire * Gone With the Wind Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf? * Kramer vs. Kramer The Last Picture Show * Julia * 1976 1942 1953 1954 1950 1967 1974 1957 1963 1951 1939 1966 1979 1971 1977 3 2 2 2 1 1 1 0 0 3 2 2 2 2 2 Year Acting Oscars®

Films with 4 acting nominations - 26

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4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4

Coming Home * Terms of Endearment The Song of Bernadette For Whom the Bell Tolls * Gentleman's Agreement Johnny Belinda * Judgment at Nuremberg * Guess Who's Coming to Dinner * The Godfather Reds Chicago My Man Godfrey ** I Remember Mama ** Sunset Boulevard * The Defiant Ones * The Hustler * Othello ** Rocky The Turning Point * Doubt **

1978 1983 1943 1943 1947 1948 1961 1967 1972 1981 2002 1936 1948 1950 1958 1961 1965 1976 1977 2008

2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

* did not win Best Picture ** was not nominated for Best Picture

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Oscars® Best Picture Winning Movie Titles Year 11 11 11 10 9 9 9 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 6 6 6 6 6 6 Titanic Ben-Hur 1997 1959

Nominations 14 12 11 11 12 9 9 13 13 12 12 11 11 10 13 12 12 11 10 10 10 10 8 8 14 13 13 12 11 8

The Lord of the Rings: The Return 2003 of the King West Side Story The English Patient Gigi The Last Emperor * Gone With The Wind From Here to Eternity On The Waterfront My Fair Lady Gandhi # Amadeus Slumdog Millionaire Shakespeare in Love Dances with Wolves Schindler's List Out of Africa The Sting Patton Going My Way Lawrence of Arabia The Best Years of Our Lives The Bridge on the River Kwai All About Eve Forrest Gump Chicago Mrs. Miniver The Godfather, Part II An American in Paris 1961 1996 1958 1987 1939 1953 1954 1964 1982 1984 2008 1998 1990 1993 1985 1973 1970 1944 1962 1946 1957 1950 1994 2002 1942 1974 1951

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6 5 5 5 5 4 4 3

A Man For All Seasons Gladiator Oliver! Terms of Endearment The Sound of Music No Country for Old Men Million Dollar Baby The Godfather

1966 2000 1968 1983 1965 2007 2004 1972

8 12 11 11 10 8 7 10

# the most successful British film to date * the only Best Picture winner to have been produced outside of the US or UK, and

ACADEMY AWARDS® MISTAKES and OMISSIONS
Although the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences® has awarded many deserving honors to its nominees over the years (Academy Awards® Winners from 1927/8 to the present), many other Great Films have been entirely overlooked, receiving not even a single Academy Nomination. Other Great Films received Academy Awards® Nominations but failed to win a single award. The same can be said for various great acting performances that were snubbed or passed over.

Academy Awards®-Nominated Great Films That Didn't Win a Single Oscar®
(Number of Nominations Received in Parentheses) About Schmidt (2002) (2) The Letter (1940) (7) Ace in the Hole/The Big Carnival (1951) (1) Libeled Lady (1936) (1) Adam's Rib (1950) (1) Life with Father (1947) (4) An Affair to Remember (1957) (4) Lifeboat (1944) (3) The Agony and the Ecstasy (1965) (5) Little Big Man (1970) (1) Alfie (1966) (5) Little Caesar (1930) (1)

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Algiers (1938) (4) Alice Adams (1935) (2) All This and Heaven Too (1940) (3) Amelie (2001) (5) American Graffiti (1973) (5) Anatomy of a Murder (1959) (7) Angels With Dirty Faces (1938) (3) Anna Christie (1930) (3) The Asphalt Jungle (1950) (4) Atlantic City (1981) (5) Auntie Mame (1958) (6) Baby Doll (1956) (4) Bad Day at Black Rock (1955) (3) Ball of Fire (1941) (4) The Band Wagon (1953) (3) Basic Instinct (1992) (2) Beau Geste (1939) (2) Being John Malkovich (1999) (3) The Big Chill (1983) (3) Billy Elliot (2000) (3) Birdman of Alcatraz (1962) (4) The Birds (1963) (1) The Blackboard Jungle (1955) (4) Blade Runner (1982) (2) Blazing Saddles (1974) (3) Blow-Up (1966) (2) Blue Velvet (1986) (1) Das Boot (1982) (6) Boyz N The Hood (1991) (2) Brazil (1985) (2) Bride of Frankenstein (1935) (1) Brief Encounter (1946) (3) Broadcast News (1987) (7) Broadway Danny Rose (1984) (2) Bull Durham (1988) (1) Bus Stop (1956) (1) Cabin in the Sky (1943) (1) The Caine Mutiny (1954) (7) Camille (1936) (1) Captain Blood (1935) (2) Carrie (1976) (2) Cat on a Hot Tin Roof (1958) (6) Changeling (2008) (3) Charade (1963) (1) The China Syndrome (1979) (4) A Clockwork Orange (1971) (4) The Color Purple (1985) (11)

The Little Foxes (1941) (9) Lolita (1962) (1) Long Day's Journey Into Night (1962) (1) The Long Voyage Home (1940) (6) Love Affair (1939) (6) The Love Parade (1930) (6) Madame Curie (1943) (7) The Magnificent Ambersons (1942) (4) Magnificent Obsession (1954) (1) The Magnificent Seven (1960) (1) Magnolia (1999) (3) Malcolm X (1992) (2) The Maltese Falcon (1941) (3) The Manchurian Candidate (1962) (2) Manhattan (1979) (2) The Man Who Shot Liberty Valance (1962) (1) The Man Who Would Be King (1975) (4) Marathon Man (1976) (1) The Mark of Zorro (1940) (1) Maytime (1937) (2) McCabe and Mrs. Miller (1971) (1) Meet John Doe (1941) (1) Meet Me In St. Louis (1944) (4) Memento (2000) (2) The Miracle of Morgan's Creek (1944) (1) Mogambo (1953) (2) Monsieur Verdoux (1947) (1) Morocco (1930) (4) Mulholland Drive (2001) (1) Munich (2005) (5) My Favorite Wife (1940) (3) My Man Godfrey (1936) (6) The Naked Spur (1953) (1) The Nightmare Before Christmas (1993) (1) Ninotchka (1939) (4) Nixon (1995) (4) North By Northwest (1959) (3) Notorious (1946) (2) The Nun's Story (1959) (8) The Odd Couple (1968) (2) Odd Man Out (1947) (1) Of Human Bondage (1934) (1) Of Mice and Men (1939) (4) Only Angels Have Wings (1939) (2) The Ox-Bow Incident (1943) (1) Papillon (1973) (1)

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The Conversation (1974) (3) Crimes and Misdemeanors (1989) (3) Crossfire (1947) (5) The Crowd (1928) (2) Dark Victory (1939) (3) David Copperfield (1935) (2) A Day At the Races (1937) (1) Dead End (1937) (4) Death of a Salesman (1951) (5) Deliverance (1972) (3) Diner (1982) (1) Do The Right Thing (1989) (2) Dr. Strangelove or: How I Learned To Stop Worrying And Love The Bomb (1964) (4) Double Indemnity (1944) (7) Drums Along the Mohawk (1939) (2) Duel in the Sun (1946) (2) Easy Rider (1969) (2) The Elephant Man (1980) (8) Empire of the Sun (1987) (6) The End of the Affair (1999) (2) Far From Heaven (2002) (4) Fatal Attraction (1987) (6) Father of the Bride (1950) (3) A Few Good Men (1992) (4) Field of Dreams (1989) (3) Five Easy Pieces (1970) (4) Forbidden Planet (1956) (1) Foreign Correspondent (1940) (6) 42nd Street (1933) (2) The Four Feathers (1939) (1) Four Weddings and a Funeral (1994) (2) The French Lieutenant's Woman (1981) (5) Friendly Persuasion (1956) (6) The Front (1976) (1) Frost/Nixon (2008) (5) Full Metal Jacket (1987) (1) Funny Face (1957) (4) Gangs of New York (2002) (10) The General Died at Dawn (1936) (3) The Ghost and Mrs. Muir (1947) (1) Ghostbusters (1984) (2) The Godfather, Part III (1990) (7) The Gold Rush (1925) (considered for awards in 1942) (2) Good Night, and Good Luck (6)

The Pawnbroker (1965) (1) Peyton Place (1957) (9) Planet of the Apes (1968) (2) The Player (1992) (3) Poltergeist (1982) (3) Possessed (1947) (1) Pretty Woman (1990) (1) Pride & Prejudice (2005) (4) The Prince of Tides (1991) (7) The Princess Bride (1987) (1) The Prisoner of Zenda (1937) (2) The Private Lives of Elizabeth and Essex (1939) (5) Psycho (1960) (4) The Public Enemy (1931) (1) Quiz Show (1994) (4) Quo Vadis (1951) (8) Ragtime (1981) (8) Random Harvest (1942) (7) Rear Window (1954) (4) Rebel Without A Cause (1955) (3) Red River (1948) (2) The Remains of the Day (1993) (8) Requiem for a Dream (2000) (1) Revolutionary Road (2008) (3) Richard III (1956) (1) Salvador (1986) (2) Sands of Iwo Jima (1949) (4) Saturday Night Fever (1977) (1) Seabiscuit (2003) (7) The Sea Hawk (1940) (4) Serpico (1973) (2) Se7en (1995) (1) The Seven Samurai (1956) (2) sex, lies, and videotape (1989) (1) Shadow of a Doubt (1943) (1) Shall We Dance (1937) (1) The Shawshank Redemption (1994) (7) She Done Him Wrong (1933) (1) Short Cuts (1993) (1) Silkwood (1983) (5) Silverado (1985) (2) Singin' in The Rain (1952) (2) Sleepless in Seattle (1993) (2) Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs (1937) (1) Sorry, Wrong Number (1948) (1)

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Grand Illusion (1938) (1) The Great Dictator (1940) (5) The Great Escape (1963) (1) The Grifters (1990) (4) Gunga Din (1939) (1) Hail the Conquering Hero (1944) (1) A Hard Day's Night (1964) (2) Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone (2001) (3) The Heart is a Lonely Hunter (1968) (2) Heaven Can Wait (1943) (3) Hell's Angels (1930) (1) Henry V (1946) (4) High Society (1956) (3) Hoop Dreams (1994) (1) The Hunchback of Notre Dame (1939) (2) Hush Hush, Sweet Charlotte (1964) (7) I Am A Fugitive From A Chain Gang (1932) (3) I Remember Mama (1948) (5) Inherit the Wind (1960) (4) In the Bedroom (2001) (5) Interiors (1978) (5) It's A Wonderful Life (1946) (5) The Killers (1946) (4) Kings Row (1942) (3) The Lady Eve (1941) (1) Lady for a Day (1932) (4) The Ladykillers (1956) (1) The Last Detail (1973) (3) Last Tango in Paris (1973) (2) The Last Temptation of Christ (1988) (1) Lenny (1974) (6) Lethal Weapon (1987) (1)

The Spiral Staircase (1946) (1) Stage Door (1937) (4) A Star Is Born (1954) (6) Stella Dallas (1937) (2) The Story of G.I. Joe (1945) (4) Strangers on a Train (1951) (1) Suddenly, Last Summer (1959) (3) The Sweet Hereafter (1997) (2) A Tale of Two Cities (1936) (2) The Talented Mr. Ripley (1999) (5) The Talk of the Town (1942) (7) Taxi Driver (1976) (4) They Were Expendable (1945) (2) The Thin Man (1934) (4) The Thin Red Line (1998) (7) To Be or Not To Be (1942) (1) Top Hat (1935) (4) Trainspotting (1996) (1) True Lies (1994) (1) The Truman Show (1998) (3) The Turning Point (1977) (11) 12 Angry Men (1957) (3) Two for the Road (1967) (1) The Uninvited (1944) (1) Vertigo (1958) (2) Wait Until Dark (1967) (1) Waterloo Bridge (1940) (2) When Harry Met Sally... (1989) (1) White Heat (1949) (1) Wild at Heart (1990) (1) The Wild Bunch (1969) (2) The Wings of the Dove (1997) (4) Witness for the Prosecution (1957) (6) The Wrestler (2008) (2) You Can Count on Me (2000) (2) Young Frankenstein (1974) (2) Young Mr. Lincoln (1939) (1)

Great Films That Weren't Nominated For A Single Academy Award®

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458

Advise and Consent (1962) An Angel at My Table (1991) Applause (1929) The Ballad of Cable Hogue (1970) Bananas (1971) Beat the Devil (1954) The Big Clock (1948) The Big Heat (1953) The Big Sleep (1946) Blood Simple (1984) Bringing Up Baby (1938) Brute Force (1947) Chimes at Midnight/Falstaff (1966) City Lights (1931) Clockers (1995) Cul-de-Sac (1966) Cutter's Way (1981) The Day the Earth Stood Still (1951) Destry Rides Again (1939) Dinner at Eight (1933) Dirty Harry (1971) Don't Look Now (1973) Dracula (1931) Drugstore Cowboy (1989) Duck Soup A Face in the Crowd (1957) Fail-Safe (1964) Farewell My Lovely (1944) Fort Apache (1948) The Four Feathers (1939) Frankenstein (1931) Freaks (1933) The Front Page (1975) Gilda (1946) Go Tell the Spartans (1978) Gun Crazy (1949) Gunga Din (1939) Hairspray (2007) Hard-Boiled (1992) The Haunting (1963) Heat (1995) High Sierra (1941) His Girl Friday (1940)

TheMisfits (1961) ModernTimes (1936) Moonlighting (1982) Monty Python and the Holy Grail (1974) The Mummy (1933) Murder, My Sweet (1944) My Darling Clementine (1946) National Lampoon's Animal House (1978) A Night at the Opera (1934) The Night of the Hunter (1955) Nightmare Alley (1947) Nothing Sacred (1937) Oliver Twist (1948) Once Upon a Time in America (1984) Once Upon a Time in the West (1969) The Others (2001) Out of the Past (1947) The Palm Beach Story (1942) The Parallax View (1974) Paths of Glory (1957) Petulia (1968) The Plainsman (1936) Play It Again, Sam (1972) Point Blank (1967) The Postman Always Rings Twice (1946) Queen Christina (1933) Repulsion (1965) Reservoir Dogs (1992) Ride the High Country (1962) Rio Bravo (1959) The Roaring Twenties (1939) Scarface: The Shame of the Nation (1932) The Scarlet Empress (1934) Scarlet Street (1945) The Searchers (1956) The Servant (1964) The Shining (1980) The Shop Around the Corner (1940) A Shot in the Dark (1964) Sid and Nancy (1986) State of the Union (1948) Sullivan's Travels (1941) The Suspect (1944)

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459

Hobson's Choice (1954) House of Games (1987) Sweet Smell of Success (1957) In a Lonely Place (1950) They Live By Night (1949) The Innocents (1961) They Won't Forget (1937) Intruder in the Dust (1949) Thieves Like Us (1974) Invasion of the Body Snatchers (1956) The Thing (1951) The Invisible Man (1933) Things to Come (1936) It's a Gift (1934) The 39 Steps (1935) Johnny Guitar (1954) This Gun for Hire (1942) The Killing (1956) This is Spinal Tap (1984) Kind Hearts and Coronets (1948) 3:10 to Yuma (1957) King Kong (1933) Three Women (1977) Kiss Me Deadly (1955) To Have and Have Not (1944) The Lady From Shanghai (1948) Touch Of Evil (1958) The Lady Vanishes (1938) Trouble in Paradise (1932) Legally Blonde (2001) Walkabout (1971) Letter From an Unknown Woman (1948) A Walk in the Sun (1946) The Life and Death of Colonel Blimp (1943) The Wedding March (1928/29) Local Hero (1983) The Wild One (1953) Lonely are the Brave (1962) Winchester '73 (1950) The Long Goodbye (1973) The Wind (1928/29) The Long Riders (1980) The Women (1939) A World Apart (1988) The Wrong Man (1957) Zentropa (aka Europa) (1992)

Ravindra

460

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