ψDANIELIAUTOMATION

ELECTRICAL GENERAL SYSTEMS – GROUNDING CALCULATIONS

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Table of contents Table of contents - .............................................................................................................................1 1 AIM OF THE STUDY..........................................................................................................................2 2 DEFINITIONS AND THERMINOLOGY..............................................................................................2 3 SOFTWARE USED AND INPUT DATA.............................................................................................2 3.1 ELECTRICAL DATA.........................................................................................................................2 3.2 PHYSICAL DATA.............................................................................................................................3 3.3 GEOMETRICAL DATA.....................................................................................................................3 3.4 REFERENCE STANDARD...............................................................................................................4 4 DESIGN AND VERIFICATION CALCULATIONS..............................................................................5 4.1 DESIGN OF THE GRID CONDUCTORS.........................................................................................5 4.2 VERIFICATION OF THE EARTHING GRID LAYOUT.....................................................................6 5 CONCLUSIONS................................................................................................................................17 6 ANNEXES.........................................................................................................................................17

3 SOFTWARE USED AND INPUT DATA The software used is GSA (Grounding System and Soil Structure Analysis). Usp) 3. currents drawn by earthwire(s) and cable shields (Id). as measured without presence of human body Usp (Rb*Ib) = permissible step voltage If (If) = fault current Id (Ie) = drawn current Ie (Ig) = earthing current ts (ts) = intervention time of protections The following terminology will be preferred in this report: “earth” instead of “ground” “earthing grid” to refer to the primary earthing network “down lead conductors” to refer to the conductors which connect the metallic masses to the primary earthing network. a tool whose flow chart is explained in Annex01 and which has been validated for several situations. 2 DEFINITIONS AND THERMINOLOGY According to European Harmonisation Documents CENELEC HD 637 S1 will be used following symbols (brackets the corresponding definitions IEEE Std 80-2000): Rb (Rb) = resistance of the human body Re (Rg) = earthing resistance Ue (GPR) = ground potential rise Ues = earth surface potential Ut (Et) = touch voltage Ust = touch voltage.000 A A portion of the fault current is drawn by the feeding cables shield. The calculations carried out for the design of the earthing network will then account for the overall grid. The place is located in Jubail Industrial City (Al Jubail . .1 ELECTRICAL DATA The steel plant is fed from a 110/34. With reference to the above and to similar conditions of supply networks.5 kV substation via a MV XLPE cables 95 mm2 line at 34. A primary earthing network is already realised on the Painting Line area so that the Galvanization area will be served by an extension of this existing network. The overall area on the plant has a nearly rectangular shape covering a 750x250 m surface. as measured without presence of human body Utp (Rb*Ib) = permissible touch voltage Us (Es) = step voltage Uss = step voltage.5 kV. intervention time of protections (ts) physical data: soil characteristics geometrical data: geometry of the earthing network under study reference standard limits: maximum touch and step voltages (Utp. Inputs for the program are: electrical data: single phase to earth short circuit currents (If). earth fault current and fault duration are not available from UNICOIL. Kingdom of Saudi Arabia). at about 10 km from the Arabian Gulf.ψDANIELIAUTOMATION ELECTRICAL GENERAL SYSTEMS – GROUNDING CALCULATIONS 2 1 AIM OF THE STUDY This report focuses on the calculations made to design the primary earthing network of the UNICOIL Galvanization Plant. Other terms will be in accordance with the used standards. The three-phase short circuit power at the substation (at about 2 km from the plant) is 1500 MVA. considering that the former and the new one will be interconnected. the single phase to earth fault current at the MV coupling point has been conservatively supposed to be: If = 15.

If necessary.34 2 2.68 * a = distance between measurement rods ** RW = Wenner resistance Tab. The external fence will be connected to the grid About the possibility or the opportunity of connecting the fences to the earthing grid.25 0.750 A The intervention time of protections (fault duration) has been supposed to be: ts = 1.55 The current that the earthing grid is called to draw is then: Ie = If – Id = 6.2 PHYSICAL DATA Measurements carried out on site with Wenner method on 3 areas of the plant have given the following results(see annex 3): a(m) Average RW (Ω) ** Resistivity(Ωxm) 0.89 3 1.31 1 0.ψDANIELIAUTOMATION ELECTRICAL GENERAL SYSTEMS – GROUNDING CALCULATIONS 3 According to typical data (see European Harmonisation Documents CENELEC HD 637 S1). In this specific case.5 Ωm at 10°C) In the following. so that to obtain a grid with regular squared meshes the earthing network is included within the fence limits.3 ÷ 0. 1 Measured Wenner resistances for different inter-rods distances Arranging the data as in Table 1 lead to resistivity figures too low to be realistic.0 m depth in order to grant a suitable behaviour of the grid under all the possible humidity conditions on the surface. a distinction must be done between “internal fences” (inside the perimeter of the grid) and “external fences” (outside).054 0. This may be considered as an average between dry sand resistivities (500 ÷ 5000 Ωm .3 GEOMETRICAL DATA The geometry of the primary earthing network is shown in Fig.1 0. this portion amounts to: Id/If = 0. calculations have been carried out considering a more reliable value of: ρ = 200 Ωxm 3.1.see CENELEC HD 637 S1) and sea water resistivities (0. the site is characterised by a soil composed by humid silicate sand due to the presence of sea water at low depth. These considerations may then be done: internal fences shall be connected to the earthing grid: external fences shall not be connected to the grid in order to avoid dangerous touch voltages . Typical figures for the resistivity of this kind of soil may be found in literature.88 4 6. where an interval between 150 e 250 Ωm is usually suggested.00 s 3.23 0.28 5 11. The extension of the grid to the existing one is better detailed in the annexed dwg 00MCED90E86100-Electrical general systems-Primary Earthing System-Key Plan” These guide lines have been followed to design the earthing grid on the galvanization area: the horizontal elements have been considered at a 1. the burying depth may be increased on the side parts of the network in order to limit the gradient of the potential the laying of the horizontal elements is done according to the position of the plinths and basements of the buildings.

Columns connections are made of copper rope having section = 70 mm2 The extension may be obtained using: Horizontal elements (copper stranded rope) – Section 70 mm2 Burying depth = 1. to which some vertical rods have been connected on the corners. buried at about 1. the limits for step and touch voltages for a 50 kg human body are reported in the following. 80-2000. The existing earthing network in the substation area is made of copper rope having section = 185 mm 2 .0 m Connection between primary earthing network and columns – Section 70 mm2 Connection between primary earthing network and metallic masses in electrical cabin – Section 70 mm2 In this case.116 = 0.ψDANIELIAUTOMATION ELECTRICAL GENERAL SYSTEMS – GROUNDING CALCULATIONS 4 if the ground potential rise is lower than the limit for touch and step voltages. buried at about 1. use of vertical rods (copper coated steel) is limited and only related to mechanical stability of the network. 1 Earthing network layout(see Annex 03) The existing earthing network on Painting Line is made of copper rope having section = 120 mm 2.0 m 3. 0 m depth.116 A (IEEE Std 80-2000 Equation 8) ts The resistance of the human body is: . The maximum current through the body may be calculated as: - Ib = 0. Their characteristics could be the following:: Diameter 20 mm length: 3.4 REFERENCE STANDARD The calculations and following conclusions of this study have been carried out in accordance with IEEE Std. 0 m depth. no additional provisions are required Fig. With relation to the protection intervention time “ts”.

ρ r: 1.2).0 V Then: Utp = 116.42 J/°C cm3 which yield: I/A = 0.0 V 4 DESIGN AND VERIFICATION CALCULATIONS The calculations for design and check of the primary earthing network have been carried out with calculation code GSA (see Annex01 for details).880 A. are: E touch = Ib * (Rb + 1.Tr: 20 °C .8 V (IEEE Std 80-2000 Equation 17) E step = Ib * (Rb + 6.TCAP: 3.2 V (IEEE Std 80-2000 Equation 18) The maximum voltage on the human body in both case is instead: Eb = Rb * Ib = 116.78 µΩ cm .αo: 1/242 1/°C .0*ρ ) = 255.1 DESIGN OF THE GRID CONDUCTORS The verification of the section of the grid conductor for thermal purposes may be obtained comparing the maximum current density during fault condition by formula: - I = A  TCAP ⋅10 −4  K 0 + Tm    tα ρ  ln K + T (IEEE Std 80-2000 Equation 37) c r r 0 a   - where: I/A: maximum current density (kA/mm2) Tm: is the maximum allowable temperature (°C) Ta: is the ambient ore initial temperature (°C) Tr: is the reference temperature for material constant (°C) αo: is the thermal coefficient of resistivity at 0°C (1/°C) αr: is the thermal coefficient of resistivity at reference temperature Tr (1/°C) ρ r: is the resistivity of the ground conductor at the reference temperature (µΩ cm) Ko = 1/αo tc: is the duration of fault current (s) TCAP: is the thermal capacity (J/°C cm3) The following values have been considered for the above variables (IEEE Std 80-2000 Table 1) : .ψDANIELIAUTOMATION ELECTRICAL GENERAL SYSTEMS – GROUNDING CALCULATIONS 5 - Rb = 1000 Ω (IEEE Std 80-2000 Equation 10) With reference to a surface resistivity of the soil equal to 200 Ω m (see 1.Ko = 242 °C .00381 1/°C .Ta: 35 °C .tc: 1 s .5*ρ ) = 150. 4. the maximum touch and step voltages which may be measured by an instrument having an infinite internal impedance. This section is suitable to withstand the whole earth current. although it may be considered that a .αr: 0.Tm: 300°C .0 V Usp = 116.184 kA/mm2 A copper conductor having section S = 70 mm 2 has then a maximum admissible current = 12.

If an intervention time of the protections is assumed to be 0.ψDANIELIAUTOMATION ELECTRICAL GENERAL SYSTEMS – GROUNDING CALCULATIONS 6 earth current will always follow at least two different paths of comparable impedance.254 Ω The ground potential rise will then be: .Ue = Re * Ie = 1716 V This calculated value is well above the admissible values for step and touch voltages.5 k A and 70*455 = 31.3 may be obtained with the following steps: calculation of earth resistance and ground potential rise: if the ground potential rise is lower than the maximum step and touch voltages.ρr: 1. Conversely. the maximum admissible currents for the earthing grid and down lead conductors are respectively 70*579 = 40. calculation of step and touch voltages and comparison with the limits as given by the standard IEEE 80: if these values are lower than the limits. 4. 2.Ko = 242 °C . With reference to the above it is possible to assume that the max fault current that the earthing copper conductor can bear is 12.αr: 0. Considering the following values: . The calculation of the down leads to grid conductor may be calculated with the same procedure.2 VERIFICATION OF THE EARTHING GRID LAYOUT The verification of the layout as chosen with criteria illustrated in 1.Tr: 20 °C .αo: 1/242 1/°C .120 A.85 kA.78 µΩ cm . For each electrical cabin. The distribution of the current density is shown in Fig. and the step voltages anywhere.00381 1/°C . the following must be considered. .6 kA. the limit short circuit current for thermal design is about 60 kA. the earthing grid is to be considered correctly designed. in particular by the fence. This assures a correct thermal design for the down lead conductor. being suitable to withstand the overall earth current.Tm: 200°C . hence it is necessary to verify that the maximum touch voltages will not be higher than the limits in correspondence of metallic masses. The calculated resistance of the grid calculated by GSA is: Re = 0. the earthing grid is to be considered correctly designed.tc: 1 s .1 s.8x2=25. This assures a correct thermal design for the earthing conductor. The sections for the grid and down lead conductors are correctly chosen also with reference to the short circuit current which is carried by the earthing grid.145 kA/mm2 A copper conductor having section S = 70 mm 2 has then a maximum admissible current = 10. two lead conductors will be instead installed: assuming that a current injected in the grid will always be divided in at least two branches.TCAP: 3.42 J/°C cm3 the current density G my be calculated as: .I/A = 0.Ta: 50 °C .

ψDANIELIAUTOMATION ELECTRICAL GENERAL SYSTEMS – GROUNDING CALCULATIONS 7 Fig. Fig. 2 Distribution of linear current density on the earthing network(see Annex 03) The earth surface potential distribution on the earthing grid area is shown in Fig. 3 Earth surface potential distribution (3D representation) – Calculation grid 8 x 8 m(see Annex 03) . 4 (see Annex02 for numerical value). 3 and Fig.

. 5. Fig. 4 Earth surface potential distribution (equi level curves) – Calculation grid 8 x 8 m(see Annex 03) The areas where the touch voltages are within the allowed limits in the earthing grid are illustrated in Fig. 5 Areas where the touch voltages with masses connected to the earthing grid stay below the limits light green: actual values Ut (as measured in presence of human body) – dark green: undisturbed values Ust (as measured without presence of human body) (see Annex 03) The whole fence. This is not related at all with the extension made on the earthing network and must be checked with proper measurements of touch voltages. may be subject to voltages above the limits for touch voltages. in particular by the corners and close to the earthing grid.ψDANIELIAUTOMATION ELECTRICAL GENERAL SYSTEMS – GROUNDING CALCULATIONS 8 Fig.

The areas where the step voltages are above the allowed limits in the earthing grid are illustrated in Fig. in particular near the corner.5 m beyond the fence and 1. The same for some areas of plant.ψDANIELIAUTOMATION ELECTRICAL GENERAL SYSTEMS – GROUNDING CALCULATIONS 9 If these measurements will confirm this. No areas will result in step voltages higher than the limits. Fig. it will be advisable to cover these areas with an insulating layer (around 1. 6. 6 Areas where the step voltages are higher than the limits(see Annex 03) Other informations which may be obtained from the calculation code GSA output are reported in the following figures .5 m inside the fence) must be considered (bitumen or crushed rock) to limit the touch voltages.

ψDANIELIAUTOMATION ELECTRICAL GENERAL SYSTEMS – GROUNDING CALCULATIONS 10 Fig. 9 Detail of areas where the touch voltages with masses connected to the earthing grid stay below the limits . 8 Detail of earth surface potential distribution (equi level curves) – Calculation grid 3 x 3 m(see Annex 03) Fig. 7 Detail of earth surface potential distribution (3D representation) – Calculation grid 3 x 3 m(see Annex 03) Fig.light green: actual values Ut (as measured in presence of human body) – dark green: undisturbed values Ust (as measured without presence of human body) (see Annex 03) .

11 Detail of earth surface potential distribution (3D representation) – Calculation grid 3 x 3 m(see Annex 03) .ψDANIELIAUTOMATION ELECTRICAL GENERAL SYSTEMS – GROUNDING CALCULATIONS 11 Fig. 10 Detail of areas where the step voltages are higher than the limits(see Annex 03) Fig.

13 Detail of areas where the touch voltages with masses connected to the earthing grid stay below the limits . 12 Detail of earth surface potential distribution (equi level curves) – Calculation grid 3 x 3 m(see Annex 03) Fig.light green: actual values Ut (as measured in presence of human body) – dark green: undisturbed values Ust (as measured without presence of human body) (see Annex 03) .ψDANIELIAUTOMATION ELECTRICAL GENERAL SYSTEMS – GROUNDING CALCULATIONS 12 Fig.

15 Calculation direction(see Annex 03) . 14 Detail of areas where the step voltages are higher than the limits(see Annex 03) Fig.ψDANIELIAUTOMATION ELECTRICAL GENERAL SYSTEMS – GROUNDING CALCULATIONS 13 Fig.

Ust. Usp = Utp Fig. 16 Touch and step voltages along the calculation direction(see Annex 03) Curves (from top of the figure): Ues. Uss. Us References (from top of the figure): Ue. 17 Calculation direction(see Annex 03) . Ut.ψDANIELIAUTOMATION ELECTRICAL GENERAL SYSTEMS – GROUNDING CALCULATIONS 14 Fig.

Ust. 18 Touch and step voltages along the calculation direction(see Annex 03) Curves (from top of the figure): Ues. Uss. 19 Calculation direction(see Annex 03) . Us References (from top of the figure): Ue.ψDANIELIAUTOMATION ELECTRICAL GENERAL SYSTEMS – GROUNDING CALCULATIONS 15 Fig. Ut. Usp = Utp Fig.

Us References (from top of the figure): Ue. Ut. 20 Touch and step voltages along the calculation direction(see Annex 03) Curves (from top of the figure): Ues. Uss. Ust.ψDANIELIAUTOMATION ELECTRICAL GENERAL SYSTEMS – GROUNDING CALCULATIONS 16 Fig. 21 Calculation direction(see Annex 03) . Usp = Utp Fig.

In any case it is advisable to: .dwg: Installation sketches . Ust. from 01 to 22).if the problem is confirmed by measurements.take some measurements of touch voltages to confirm if they overcome the limits in the actual condition.doc: Flow chart of calculation code GSA Annex02 (Ues Distribution):doc: Earth surface potential distribution Annex03 (Colour prints of Fig .Primary Grounding System . 22 Touch and step voltages along the calculation direction (see Annex 03) Curves (from top of the figure): Ues. Usp = Utp 5 CONCLUSIONS The calculations carried out on the earthing grid under study have not shown any hazardous step and touch voltages on the studied area. cover the area with bitumen if the presence of people is to be foreseen on the critical points. It must be borne in mind that the design of the grid here carried out under pessimistic hypotheses (on current values and resistivity of the soil) is in not substitutive of the measurements of step and touch voltages that must be taken according to IEEE Std.330.ψDANIELIAUTOMATION ELECTRICAL GENERAL SYSTEMS – GROUNDING CALCULATIONS 17 Fig. Uss. 6 ANNEXES Annex01 (GSA Flow Chart).pcx: Teach Report Figures Annex 4 – Soil Resistivity measures Drawings 00MCED90E86101/102/103/109: Electrical general systems-On field grounding system lay outPrimary grounding system Drawing A. Ut.003. 80 when the plant will be built. Us References (from top of the figure): Ue. The touch voltages could pass the limits only close to the fence and near the corner of plant where additional provisions may be taken as indicated. .

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