You are on page 1of 340

JCN

HANDBOUND AT THE

UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO PRESS

THI PERJPLl S OF INK RYTHR/KAN SEA


i

PRAVEl

\\D
\n

K \DI

l\

111

I\DI \\
i

KUI

\\

in

OM
\\
II
I

THI

AND
v

PCD

KM) H
f

>(

IK

HI.

Commercial Mutfttm,

uNGMANS, GREEN, \ND


I

ol K

II

\\

\t

M.I

Mkl
:

I.

\\

YORK

191

I'YKKiirr
I

1912
I

Hi:

COMMERCIAL MI'M
PHILADELPHIA

\l

<1
roFTO"

\HI.I

<>|

<)\

IN

Illl
Hilt!
I

1'IKIPI.Uf

HI

l-l

NOTES
\KI
I

\1I

!"M

l>

IN

HI

PI

KIT

H
DATI
"i
i

HI

KIIM

US AS

.NI

i>

UN

m
I'l

Ml \
INDI
\|
\|'

|o\l

|>

l\

HI

Kll'l

2*4

|i)

II

N| K

HI

IM Kll'l

.1

A'l

OR]

\\

>

D
I

Philtddph

came

Kfencc
-tie

%**tnc

Acil pur|*s'
rKl's

tiunu-

cumin

TheV luxe

lost

no
s

in

presenting
world.

of the

scums urulcrtook the


HKiphic
his-

m
sent
-

the

e.r

ami barter ilown


author
.

tin

>t

this

translation
iihit,

wraj

ntmsteil with the study and


in its early stages of
n.
It

prepu
sh..\\ii

which

developin
t<

at

the

u as
-d

the
the

prcpa
its

interest

in

the carlv historx


Kr\rhr.r.iM

<t

iuinmerce
is

lus of tlu-

Sea
.f

the
\*

first

Aith the nations


vessels
I

the

luiilt

ami cominaruicil lv cat

sul>jri-fs

<-t

thr \\'estern uorld.

interesr, i;i\-iny as

the\

Jo an exhaustive

the international trade betueen the great empires of


thrr with a collect
hiriLj

tlu-

carlx

trade of a

numhrr

ot

other cmintries

The

\vfi

-rltl

is

e\

vomini more
\\

ami more umler exact laws

of J< in.i'ul
its

ami supplx.
Jaxxn to
its

hen the

nmerce from

earliest

present tre-

roportions shall be caretullx x*ritten.


A
ill

turnish

moil

inter* s'-riu

part of such early

ul the

Commercial

Museum
o

will

not haxetoapu'
it

fpr rescuing this


ral

work from

ami presenting
\\.
IV

to the

public.
\\
II

\. S

'

trml>cr.

INTRODUCE K)N
//>/!
.

/ iht

Kryltrfum
'

Aa
.1..

like thr j..unui

un.l

one of Columbus and Vi


awakening of i
imer-h

rcss nut only individual

enterprise, but the

geograpl
*

'.!

>

>f

organized tn
a inlr
;

the

ni

<>t

the

List,

HI

vessels built
It

and commanded by subjects of


f

\CNtrrn World.
!

marks ihr turning


years before

ncrte
the

set

in

interrupt,

dawn
I

the

the

HI

s.lV.l

U
.

nf

the

I'll. I

human

culture

and com

untru-N l>inierin^' "ii the

Persian (.
II
i

ami

Bal\\ Ionia,

and
!

in the

"\vh..lr
is

land of

where there

it

of that land

good;

there

bdellium and the

ilture in

h.ih direction*, KgypC


c

and

in.ii.i

canu- into t>eing, and a


B
>f

>rd f>r
r

tl

product* u
!

ithin

those

of exchanges nr.ir the heail


us
ic

the Persian

Ciulf.

The

peoples of tha'
or intermediaries.

Arab

tribes

and more

mystefious R*4
.

Mm.
and
but
that

The growth of
,

in India

created an.
id

trading to the Kuphrates

eastward
tolerated

we know

not whither.

The Arab
tin

merchants,
\frica,

<

:itl>,

the presence of

Indian trad
the
i

uhich supplied

stones and spiers and


the gods of Keypc.
th-

Was

their prero.j.i:

:i

trm

the Pharaohs

The
he Indian
.

carrying

them

in

turn over the highlands to the up;


:i

-r

through the Rr
In the rare

and

desert to Thetx-> or
s

Memphis.

of Egypt were turned eastward, and voyafes of lerce and conquest were despatched to the Eastern Ocean, the

officers of
in the

the Pharaohs found the treasures of


ports, .nui

nearest

all its shores gathered sought no further to trace them to their

sources.

As the current
F.upl. rates to the
p<

of

trade gradually
I

Mowed beyond
their

the Nile and

the

north, and

curiosity

began

to

trace the better things toward then source in India,

new

trade-routes

gradually opened.

The

story ot

the world

for

many

centuries

upon the- Nile and Kuphratcs Q all the territory through \\hich thi- neu routes passed, and so to prevent the northern barbarians from trading with others than theinseluv It uas early in this struck- that one branch of the people

was

that of the Struggles of the nations

known

as

Phu-mcians

left

their

home on

the Persian

iulf

and

settled

on the Mediterranean, there to win in the West commercial which competition in the Kast was beginning to deny them.

glories

The

Greek

colonies, planted at the terminus of every trade-route,

measure of commercial independence; but never overthrow of the Kast by the great Alexander was the control of the great overland caravan-routes threatened by a western people,
for themselves a
until the

and

his early death led to

no more than a readjustment

of conditions

as they

had always existed.


of the Phoenicians and their kinsfolk in
..bject

Meantime the brethren

Arabia continued in control of the carrying trade of t! to their agreements ami alliances with the merchants of India.

()

in-

Arab kingdom
with
its

after

trade in

another retained the great eastern const of Africa, gold and ivory, ostrich feathers and oil; the shores
in

of the Arabian Gulf produced an ever-rising value

frankincense

and myrrh;
spices
vessels,

while the cloths and precious stones, the timbers and

particularly

cinnamon

brought from India largely by Indian

and carried to Gerrha and Obollah, Palmyra and Petra, Sabbatha and Mariaba were all partners in this commercial The Kgyptian nation in its later struggles made no effort to system. The trade came and the price was paid. And oppose or control it. the infusion of Greek energy after Alexander's day, when the Ptolehad made Egypt once more mistress of the nations, led to nothing more than the conquest of a few outposts on the Red Sea and at the head of the Gulf of Aden; while the accounts of Agatharchides are sufficient proof of the opulence which came to Southern
redistributed at Socotra or Guardafui,

were

the Nile and the Mediterranean.

trade control

Arabia with the increase of prosperity in Egypt. Here, indeed, the was more complete than ever; for changes in the topog-

raphy of India, the westward shifting of the Indus delta, the shoaling of the harbors in the Cutch region, and the disorder incident to

of Astatic people*, had tapped ihe vigor of the Indian

in

Arabia

itself

r
t-

truggl<

.ml
rote and
fell

in

kingdom
-.

and

pa*s<
left
\r.tl>
tr

i?h

bru
irvrlf jt

an coast was

ibr

ML L !.,:-. rd
itself

ihr Sinks,

.1%

adversary, establishing \-\ building up ibr kmi'dom


.

in

the old **L

the
in
tl:

state

\\huh ;<,srttrd

lit

former

home
to
i,

It

was
>

r
i,

that tbr rule of tbr I*To|emir%

came

SO
rhe

end under

and tbr new

ruler of
:ypt.

posses
its

Control <f the iara\


of a direct .sea-route to tbe
sts
I

and thus added to and


i*tolc

.asrt t

by way of tbe

on tbe R<
t

tbe

Roman
ail

inquests

and
ic

spoliation of

tbe

people was a rich inran


.

treasures a>

taste

for

tl

he East was developed almost oier-nighf.

unpbs

<f tbe

conquerors
I

d
fr

I:mr
i

arul .s\na glrt-

bicb tbe people


tbitber

lain. -ret!

was

pi
in

rWkcd
tbe center

:i(;esofti>

vas mo%'ed
of

Alexaml
us.

But a wise derision


iicp.irtc(i

tbe

mperor

only mice
t<>

fmni and that disastrously, limited the


.

dominion

tbe

bank of tbe Kupbrates


paid
its tolls t,, tb<

so that

all

this rich

trade tbat flowed to


to

Rome

'urthia

and
a

tbe

Arab kinndoins, unless


h an enterprise

Rome
all

couKi

itrol

At;

the energy and subclct

\rab

was

called

No

information was allowed to reach the

he imagination could create

was

tl

tuinir

tbe least disturbance of th

human mem.r\
unknown ocean,
uith oni\ the \aguest
ideas
f

be-jan

And
it

in

an

tbe

vurce*
along

of the

souubt, and tbe routes that led to them,


e a

might ru\e
b.wfcle
iian

Roman
.m,

vessel,

coasting
fa^

uld

reach the goal.

Hut accidents

amb-

srabia,

smaning under the realm was courting the Roman alliance.


t

Ul

trading-posts atGuardafui, formerly under

Arab

control, \M

re-

new

free,

through the A ho might seek.

quarrels of

thru overlords, and their markets

And

then a
to sea

Roman

subject, perhaps

and earned in an open .in service, in the \\hemc he returned in a few months with a favorable Then Hippalux, a \enturesome naviwind and much information. much honor in Roman annals as that deserved as name -.\hosr

was driven

of Columbus
Indian
bnldlv
in-

in

modern

historv,

doubtless long
--id at

observed the periodic- chaise of the known to Arab and Hindu

the proper season

made

a successful tradin

age and returned with a cargo of

all

those things for which

Rome

was p.' pearls, ebony and samlalwood, The old channels of tradebut balms and spices, especially pepper. was the age-long unso but not strong were paralleled conquered;
-encmus
I

and

derstanding between Arab and Hindu, that cinnamon, which had made the fortune of traders to I. i:\pt in earlier times, was still found

by the Romans only at (Juardafui and was scrupulously kept from he-red and their knowledge in the markets of India, where
it

distributed;

while the leaf of the same tree producing that precious

bark was freely offered to the

Malah

Roman merchants throughout the and as malabathrum formed the basis of one of their
this entry of

alued ointments.

Great shifting of national power followed


shipping into the

Roman

Indian Ocean.
itself,

One
hands.
its

by one Petra and (r


sapped by the diversion of

Palmyra and Parthia accustomed trade, fell


in

their revenues

into

Roman

The Homerite Kingdom


capital

South Arabia
its

fell

upon hard times,

into ruin,

and some

of

best

men

migrated northward and as the Ghassanids bowed the


Abyssinia flourished in proportion as its old enemy of things had continued, the whole course of

neck to Rome.
declined.
later events

If this state

and a greater Rome might have left from the Thames to the Ganges.
strong.

might have been changed. Islam might never have appeared, its system of law and government

Gradually the treasure that


in

fell

But the logic of history was too to the Roman arms was ex-

pended
civil

suppressing insurrections
at

wars

home, and

in a

in the conquered provinces, in constant drain of specie to the east in

settlement of adverse trade balances;

a drain

which was very

real

and menacing to a nation which made no notable advance in production or industry by means of which new wealth could be created. As
x.urces of the
itinople.

West

diminished the center of exchange shifted


trade-routes leading to that center were the

The

old routes through Mesopotamia,

where a

revivified

power under

the

Sassanids

was
1

able

to

Arab

states

conquer every passage to the East, including which had nut yielded submission tt
i

Ksarhad>;
iL'rr

thr

Constantinople
east of th.
aui
IP.

uchadreaar or Darius ihr ( irrat. Egypt, highway of commerce, became a mere gran.* \i>yssinia, drum from iu hard-won footholds
.4,

could otfrr ihr


i

Hw.

ht

And the hirl power. welded the 1 a*trrn World as no force the West for another millennium
!

N<>(

until

'

tramp
stern

those vast chain duttry and the nineteenth century did the Wrtfrrn
itf

'

markets on

their

own

Stood in need, and b)ing terms, turn h.uk the

direction.

rds of the
.ire

s,

who

strove during the age* to stem


vi..r>
.

of enduring interest in thr


.1

human
it

hem
Penplui of
tht

the most fascinating


this

this

Erytkraa* Sta

plain and painstaking log of a

subject,,
i

who

stee
first
i

vessel into the

brought h.u k the

detailed record of

.>orts

of

its

markets, an<i of the


..n!\
its

ondition* and alh-

he
n this trade in

record
entirety,

fa eeattriai that and the gloom


.

p^*kt

ography.
t

Islam broke and trading, by grafting Jreek theory, laid the foundat! dern geNot Strabo or Pliny or Ptolemy, however great the store of
f

uas not

lifted until the

wider

Arab secrecy

ered together, can

etju.il

In.

rot

this

merchant who wrote merely


-those peoples of
so
htr

of the things he dealt in


-ill

and

knows
in to

ses so

much; who brought


S<

to the restless

the ordered and industrious East,

and

he waters of the "Krythraran

'INI
I

DAM AND AUTHORSHIP OK

INI

PKRIPI

he manuscript COpiea of the IVriplusat Heidelberg and lx>ndon The Heiddberf enable us to fix either date or authorship.
rk to Arrian, apparently

because in that

plus follows a report of a voyage


ule

around the Black


of Cappadocia
I

by the historian Arnan,


\

who was governor

1M
:;>t

I)

This

is

manifestly a mistake, and the


re fern

ndon

does not contain that

The

only guidance to date or authorship must he found


the sea-route to India, described in

m
.-

the

itself.

Hippal
,ncent
\'r
at

about 47 A.

).

journey

<'f

a frccdman of

from Pliny's account VI, 24) of the accidental Annius Plocamus who had fanned from
<

easury the rc\cm,

from the R<

This freedman

was carried away by a gale and in fifteen days drifted to Ceylon, \\here \ months returned he was hospitably received ami after a St

home;

after

Pliny says that this occurred during the

which the Ceylonese kings sent an embassy to R..me. reign of Kmpcror Claudius,

come

The discovery of Hippalus must have which began in the year 41. first after. soon (The question suggested by tl. very what the freedman was doing outside the Straits of l$ah--cl-Mandeb

and from
Pliny
is

whom
in

silent.

Can

Annius Plocamus farmed the revenues. As to this it have been the friendly Abyssimans. or were the
Arabia
still

Greek colonies

in

existence?)
in

The discovery of Hippalus, described

57,

seems

to ha\<

curred not long before the author of the Periplus made hi> \ He evidently feels a deep respect for the discoverer, and goes on to

"

say that

from

that time until

now"

voyages could be made

<i

across the ocean by the

monsoon.
Hippalus, suggesting that

Pliny has but a passing reference to

between 73 and 77 A. D. when he was writing, the memory of the discoverer had faded somewhat from view. Assuming 50 A. D. as a date earlier than which this Periplus
can not have been written,
side.

we must

look next for a limit on the other

In

38

is

mentioned

"the sea-coast of Scythia"

around the

mouth
In
in the

of the Indus, and the metropolis of Scythia, Minnagara,


ibject to Parthian princes at

which

war among themseh


Minnagara, which,
for

<

$41

is

mentioned another
is

city

as indicated

notes,

simply the

Hindu name

"city of the invaders.'*

In

47

is

mentioned the "very war-like inland nation of the


in the notes, the Scythians of the Periplus are the

Bactrians."

As explained
Saka
chi,
tribe,

who had been

driven from Eastern Turkestan by the


valley,

Yueh-

and overran Beluchistan, the lower Indus


the coast of

and

a<:

parts of

India

itself.

They

submitted to the Parthian

Kingdom, of which they formed an important part. ern extension under Sandares, the ruler mentioned in
a growing pressure from the

Their
52, indicates

Kushan kingdom on the

north, but prior

conquest

-.uthaiu.

fhe "war-like iu
r

r
.

which occurred Boctnaiu ., the

Kush.m,, former!] >.,


.1

who,
.1
h,
..
.
:

after

.1

>lmen westward by the Hun s overran and Mrt up there ;...;\. :tul kingdom xvhu
had

km^i mlhc fteCOdd


. .

cenhr
in the valleys

ed most of northern Iiulu


the Indut and
.nd pr..iv

r..

>

commrm r<j
'icral

its*

if

the

Pancrun
*hi%
I

cd

in

>"
:

I)

throughout Imlu and would not


.nn ai

let!

our

.tut!

*V uhuh
thi% i'rriplus

Lites,

90 and 95 A
ttea

I)..

Lter ilun

In

4 and

our author metitions the

<

ity

of the Axumiir%, and

ast

and inland,
the
:

nileii

/oacales;

whom
by him

Hrnr>
in the

\\ith
/;

.unc

"/a HakaJe" found


kings
i^
f

>r

'I

of the

Ah>\x
(

r duration
e,

i>f

this

/.i

ll.ik.il.
\\\->

t> the

was

thirteen

years,

ami

dates Salt Hxes at 76 to 89

wing a n

-he birth of Christ took place in the eighth year of


i

HA.ile's predecessors, Zabaesi Bazen.


si

The

date of the

accesMnn
kale.

Bazen was 84 years prior to


>f

Mini in the
after the e\< nts,

/a Maname if probably correct, but the Chmnulr* were written some centuries
that of

the

abseii
ii\

'

and can hardly be accepted as safe authority in the c\uinu< The fact that nearly all the reigns are
that the

en as lasting an even number of years, or else as so

-s

many years and were only estimating the time,


fit

.is
it

obliged to rearrange their chronology in order to

t.>

known
:

f.ut>, .uui
\\
!.

quite possible that his rearrangement has


-hat of

/a

Hakale.

Obvkwsry

Salt's

th

more than
c

South Arabian inscriptions disthe separation of Axum from its mother-land,


his dates.
!i

Arabia, not long before the date of


is

US;

and the

f.n-t
i

that there

no mention of
<

Axum

in

any

work same conclusion; namely,


earlier than the

.md not
that the

lliny, suggests the

AlnsMSiun Chronicles are unreli-

able, at

any

rate in their earlier portions.

kings a

number

of rulers

who mu>t

They count as independent huvr been subject to the Arabian


is

mother-laml;

the order of events they relate

uncertain, and their

dates are merely approximations.

10

ran

if

Zotcalcs with /.i Hakalc were


i

the dates in the Chronicle, and Salt's identification of strictly correct, the date generally ac.S

for

the birth of Christ.


\

\\.

C., would bring


t

/a Hakalc' s

acces^

n to 71 A. D. and his death

is earlier than .irly all the commentators think that the IVriplus to is which known have heen \\ituml Plim's published beHistory, is their indication simiL The I> A. tween 7.1 and 77 principal seems to condci, where of Arabia the d< I'chx, Pliny
i

Periplus;
sixth

but,

on the other hand, there


facts in
(

arc-

many
v

statements

in
p;

Pliny's

ho. k \\hieh describe


Periplus

disagreement with, and


ipiler

earlier than, the


!

)f

course Pliny
lie

and

op\-

usually not \ery discriminating, and


,,nly

may have chosen

to follow

the Periplus
lulu
II

where

it

did

not contradict the earlier;,

of

Mauretania, for
Pliny has

whose knowledge he repeatedly ex-

information about Mene than pressed respect. H but he not mention Axum. does in the Periplus, appears ist at the Promontory of Mosyllum and says that the

much more

Atlani

there.

In this he follows

King Juha;
>

but

known the Periplus he ought to have included the African ./.ibar. He has an account of Mariaba, the ro\al city of Arabia
Felix,
in

which the Periplus has


,

not.

He

quotes Aelius (Jallus, writing

24 B. C.
.

as stating that the Sabaeans are the richest tribe in south-

rabia.

The

Periplus,

ites,

tempted to imagine that Pliny's account of the- \<>yage to India (VI, 26) in which he refers to "information on which reliance
is

who One

rccci\c only passing mention

however, has them subject to the from Aelius (Jallus.

II

placed, here published for the first time," refers to the Perithen pliiN. existing merely as a merchant's diary; and Glaser has based much of his argument as to the authorship of the IVriplus on that pa-s-

maybe

age; but Pliny goes on to describe a voyage different in many \\ays from that of the Periplus, and giving quite a different account of the
>f

India.

At the time

Pliny wrote, the sea-route to India had

been opened for nearly thirty years, and he might have had this information from any sea-captain, as indeed he might have had th nu-nt concerning Arabia Felix which seem to be in such cl<
with the Periplus.

The argument

that Pliny,

whose work was


is,

dedi<

cated in 77 A. D., borrowed from the Periplus

thei,.

and

even plausible, but by no means conclusive. Return 11, the reference to the anarchy in the In do- Parthian or Saka region does not suggest the consolidated power of that

King

<f

Kathiawar and Ujjain


;

who founded

the
th.;

^a era

of 78 A. D.

indicating for the Periplus a date earlier than

.*

'4,,

helpful.

>rthwest China, at the dale of

Ynplus
gag*

the-

must

p.. wniid

>

the Kate* of China, ind actively en-

:idahct
>
tl...t

and influence

c*waid acrcw
Singanfu

Mipoofted in br (he

modem

.land Indu." hir

erland from chat country lo me from there and seldom ."


.

suggests
in
'

thr

l;.i.i>

-.iilet aCTUM'l

urkeWan urrr

Uill

J
ith of thr dt -srtt

Panchao.

>tan

was
l>r
>f

finally

opened by him wat opened as early

)
,

indk
is

ami'.! that

thr IVnplus must


1

hxr.i

u -i.,rr

that date.
Aft

In

>

1'*

nirntiuni

M.iluhas, kinu

th- Nahataeans.

mportant indicaJosephiis in
.1

/
\%

ikt

M.ii> hi.s.

'

Aiuhia,

under

hit

name be
in

itaran
iition

km. -.I.. in, as having aMtsted Titu


\.1

ixalrm,

in

the year 70 j*.

A.

D
'as
(

/>'...

<'.-;.,

IN.

'iihrms

that

Nahataean
I

king

Han
Ji

npcror*

ilx-nus

and Ca-

hus

III

.1

about 40 to

1)

It

wat a

sister

<>f

tln>

M.iKluiN \\ho married Herod Antipas, r his brother Philip's

him
to
>

to

Josephus, Ant. yw. X V 1 1 1 8). war with his father-in-law,


,

as,

and doubtless explains

it

the policy

hat
as

Judea.

This must ha\r been the vamc


against JcruNulrm
infer that
if

must have

the Periplui

had

lu-t-M

\v

ntten after that exp<


haribael

Maiichas also would have been


rnnerof/* and iher^

fore

th.i

lus \\a.s

written before Titus' campaign of the year 70


e
I

hi

^
i

have the names of C'hanbael, king of the

and the Sabahes, and of Kleazus, king of It was the .pim..n of GUser, based on :ntry. by him in South Arabia, that both these names
1>

han persona] names, and that


thr

era! rulers during


I

a kinir Kleazus

who was
of

niler in

was from
the

"a friend

!xjrne by aev\v 1619 ;,:;;, 29 A. D., and a king ChaThe mendoii of A. D. for a date answer might
i
i

under Vespasian

after the

succession

>t

short
tin-

reigns

ilt.n

followed

but the years of turmoil throughout


cars after the death of
;phis
ID

Roman
'

hmpirc. Forsev-

Nero, were not years ot prospeiou Tinmduates a dale eark dex nhcx.
>ie

the rt-iun of Nero. br!

the

memorv
<

of

his p; vdci exxor


'

Claudius

had faded;
In

nuijhk. an\ time between


:

l>

';,!

destruction nt

.\iai)ia

,U<

nion

Our

present km>ul<

\rahian

histon dors not

^kcus
(

any positive date for the war leading

to the destruction ot this Sab. ican


c

ommcnted port, hut the inscriptions discovered and of the first rentir middle the time after to a point
In

on

In

il.^ci

Author mentions the


\vas
;>'

it\

ol

Mc-.<

This

apMal

of

.ihian kin-.'dom

se\cr<-l\

treated hy the

Romans soon

after

their*
.

The Nubian queen Candace had

attacked

lated

and an expedition >ent out a-jainsf Iter u.uler IVtroniiis annihiher army and destroyed many of her rities, nu ludinu that of
I

his

\\as

in

H.

I'hat anotlier
in

queen

'and.

\uhia retained considerable power

the

first

half of the
this,

first

century
the

I)
E

is

shown
left

in

Aits VIII,

27.

After

Phm

relates,

tribes of

what was
quiry

the neighboring deserts came down and plundered of the Nubian Kingdom, so that an expedition of in-

sent by
a

the emperor
in

Nero

Pliny,

contemplating

campaign and reported that they had met with nothing but deserts on their -routes. that the building in Meroe itself were but few in number and were
still

the South,

when In VI, SS ventured as far as Meroe

ruled over by a queen named Candace, that name having 'I his stare of things can Infrom queen to queen for many >ear>. It is obviously later than the- account in the fixed at about 67 A. 1).
;

Periplus
\ er\

sunn after Pliny's time

Meroe must ha\e been

destroyed,

be

name does

not appear atrain for several centuries.

A
in trade

suggestive fact

is that the Periplus tells only of the ureat increase with India, and has no mention of a cessation or decline of

that trade

M
The

consequent upon the burning of Rome, JuK


out

L 9-25

in the year

Ten
loss

of the

fourteen districts of
fire

the city were destroyed.


It

was not equalized;

insurance did not exist

is

true
Hein

that this great calamity hardly receives


refers to the baseless story of

mention

in

Plim's work
the
fire,

Nero's having
In

started

and

several passages to the destruction


;

of building, temples and the


places,

like,
in

some- reticence.

many

however,

once

so

many

\\ords, he

mentions the

crisis

through which

Rome passed
and of the

in

the

ears of

Nero and

his short-lived successors,

11

brought Hut
i

r strong

hand

um Rome
whose sudden expansion was due enn
>

ion of (hr iruir depression that im.vf ha%e

follow

r.l

MII h

a destruction of capital in.! ihr ensuing political dit>4 probable.

The

facts of this conflagra-

tion a
i

\\III.
...k,

stated in Revelation, ihr hstanding the different point the iicumstance* he describe I are of importance
I
,

hr tithe
k

mi's

..(

thr earth

shall

beuail hrr, and lament


r

shall see the sin


.irth

burning,
..-..
r

and

man
and

lui\eth

weep and mourn handise anymore


shall
:>

h'

s,

ami of
all

pearls,

and hue

linen,
all

and

silk,

and and

scarlet,
all

and

sweet wood, and

manner

vessels of i\<>ry,

manner

vessels of
-

of brass,
,

and marble, and and frankincense, and wine, and


.>

most precious wood, and .1 odourm, and otntoil,

and

fine

Hour, and

and

beasts,
in.

and sheep, and horses, and


' I

chariots,

and

slaves,

and souls

of

thrsr things,

which

ill

stand afar off for the fear of her tor-

.is

wailing, and saying, Alas, ala>, that great city, ilothnl in Hue linen, and purple, and scarlet, and tl<
1

and precious

ST.,IU-S,
>(

and

pearls'

-i

one hour to
all

great

An.:

ipmaster, and

the

com^

s,

and as many as trade by


the-

sea, stood afar off,

\shrn thr\ v.m


.

smoke

.-t

her burning, saying,

like unto tins And they cast dust on their heads ned, weeping and uailmi:, saying, Alas, alas, that great city, ere made rich all that had ships in the sea by reason of her

For thy OX
earth

e the great

men

of the

Now our author was one ut m Ins .u -count there


h as
writt
-iiat

same shipmasters trading by no suggestion of standing afar off. would probably have appeared if he
of those
is
r

great disas
ii

iowmu the sudden and enormous


ticularly
in

increase

in

Mippalus thrrc seems to have her thr Roman trade with India, and parIndian products.

the
4 *

The
of

I'enpli

the
<

larger ships" now needed

for the

cinnamon trade,
can 6e

ease,

particular 1>

the importation

luxuries,

Ascribed to the fashion of


i.uu
^
\

extravagaiu e
Sah.i.i

set In

Nero's comt, during the

i.:

his

t.ixontc
in

I'oppia.
Pliny* a

whose

influence

lasted
ti

until

her death

65

A
.it

I).

reference to the

IM

quantity of spurs usc!

nulh Poppa-a s funeral XII, 41 rased trade; \\hich he further confirms VI, 2<> In
>

ing that specie

.dance

the-

trade,

amounting and that


tt

to a
these-

nun

p<- r yea--

was rcqu
in

Indian imports sold

Rom.

hundred times
in

Pliny's figures are untrust\Mrthy, as


litt!

XII. 41, he estimates a


<

S4,UOO,OOU
with
i

as

the

h.ilain

(juneil

for the entire trade


iiu
i-

India,

Arabia and C'ln


'in-

hut a

sudden

rease

in

commerce
in
'

less e\

idem.

Th-

of any description

the I'eriplus of trade with the


to

^s of the Persian (iult,

Martina, sumrests that


(

it

was
at

written at a time

when
e\en

Is

.1

Parthia W(

)m

author's descriptions,

ot

the
its

southern coast of Arahia.

stop

the Frankincense Country and


!-c

dependent'), the island of Masira;

"
suhjci

explains that the coast lu-vond the islands of Kuria Muria


t

to
i

Persia"

and thus
<

closeil

to

him.

Acc'ordini;

to

the

by Rawlinson, nenian succession

>/.v//; .1

A;///r,7n

XVI.

conHictn
Parthia in

leil

Rome

to

make war on

The Parthians. at the I)., the second \ear of Nero's rei^n. time occupied with ci\il war in the South (possibly even in their
5$ A.
-ja\r hostages and abaiulnewly-actjuired South Arabian poagesstons \ inenian pretensions; which, in however, they when war broke out anew. continued in a desui Hostilities 58,
,
1

way until 62, when the two powers agreed upon a mutual evacuation of Armenia and a settlement of the dispute by a Parthian embassy which to \isit Rome. This truce occurred in the summer of 62. The its \isit in the autumn and returned without a treaty. made embassy The truce was broken the same winter by a Roman invasion of
Armenia, which was repulsed and the truce renewed.
Parthian embassy to

second

Rome

in

the spring of

h.4 settled

the matter by

placing a Parthian prince on the to receive investiture from the

Armenian throne and requiring him Roman Emperor. This cerem>

occurred

in

65 A.

).

between the two countries certainly ceased in the winter of 62 and probably, as far as commercial interests were conHostilities

cerned,

in

the

summer

of

that

year.

Therefore, the date of the

Periplus, or at any rate the date of the voyage on which it was based, can probably be fixed at not later than the summer of 62 and not eai

than the

summer

of 58.

The

possibilities are rather in favor of

the second or third year of

u
.rn thr
i

h
rarrst
HIS
IS,
ill"

sinu'lr

vtur

thai
>

"

cuggrt%

il-lf

a% tlir

A<

ujthtirxhip,
^1

if

i*

bet*

iii

admit

ihui

n4hin^

rililuiii of

the

I'enpluft atirilniir.!

Alrv

ml olm.'i
I
I

name
in

altogrti

laser, in

an artulr published

trm|>lin<;

J..

truef

He aMimo
\%ai)iaiof
<Hhcf
t>

in llir IVripUi%.
iiiijuiMi
uilil

huh
li.ixr

iMin\

nu-!.ti..ii..
;

cjut

hn-ri

qUOlcd
of
t

.nul

ilu
tin-

>n
rmi
)><

4Ufhorifir%

nr appearing in the
II.UIM
:.
.

uKI

the

ur
'

untilajj
'

lt>

x.

meant
t

.mr
.

U..

.1:1.

the

"
'f

that

artuK

Ha
in thai

thr

1*1-11;

Hut

I'linv
.f

himrlf
a:^

as tin- author
.1

thr upprr Nil

than ihe

mus
on
I;

au'amst
s,

Nuhia

in

J4

t..

J^

un.i
'.

.,

is

iju

Pfa.

p.

rd
..uit
t.,
1
1

Hckkrr

\\h..sr

u%ra*wrila half lx-f.rr the


.

utury and
r.ithrr

IVnplu
!ike

In-

this s.mu- Hasilis,

ihan

latrr

\^

name.

IV
L
'

* h.

nU-ss,

th.

Cilaicr aanimt

ffcrcnl mail fr..n> thr Basi!

hen. tOO, a mafl

'f

I'luu's staiulu.

lu\r brca apt lo


'

;UI

onm

an ohsoirr *eaK.-apcau
h reli-

.s his text .units him. rrfrrrinu inrrrk lo "infrnuti..i.

ihr .ms:.il

R..HU-.

ami thr uritrr


Plinv

..t

thr

!'<'!j>lu*

did

nol

"

"Scion*

>..ssihihtv that

may have used

his

account does
-jumenl
ll

n*

imply

his

namr
blc

Alto^rth.

rerninactive

uiti

men ham

16

trade \\h'
.

4j

made
aii

the \o\aue to

liulia,

is

c\ ulcnt In
is

the text

that
1

he

lixt'd in

Berenice rather than Alexandria


<mnt of
thr journey

indicated h\

the

al

up the Nile and aCTOSS


Pliny describe
at

the desert from C\ptos. \\hu-h Straho and


ossiblc that

length.

he made the voyage from Cape Guardafm to /.anis so vague and nurd-tain that lu- seems rather to the text but zibar, be quoting from someone else, unless indeed much <>t this part ot the

work has been

lost in

copying.

The

coast of

Arabia

east

of the

Frankincense Country, the entire Persian ( Julf and the coasts ot Persia and Heltu histan as far as the Indus rixer, serin to have been
\.

to

him only by

hears.,',

They were subject

to Parthia,

an enenu of

Rome. That he was not a highly educated man is ijuent confusion of Greek and Latin words and

evident from his h<


his

clumsy and some-

The value of his work consists, times ungrammatical constructions. not in its literary merits, but in its trustworthy account of the trade of
the Indian
ing

Ocean and
until

of the settlements around

its

iboretj

concernan
intel-

which,

his time,

we

possess almost

nothing of

ligent

and comprehensive nature.

Itllil
(

[OCR
th

Xl'in
I

ol
aii
..?

III
i>(

I'l

KII'I.US

Junrni

thr

thr

-he

in\rrMt\

Hn.iriu-r,uiul

during
.ind

Tenth Century, in It was token 10 r., .Jer Nav


v of wkucH tDC

was

restored in Heidelberg in
'WrillV
.IS

iliffrrrnt tillr

folloU
i
.

I.

Argumentum
I

A llaZJ, who packed


t.

and shipped thr Heidelberg


II

I.ihruf>

Ron.
dc
PqfllO

-.igmenliim

de

1'uludr

M^.ituir rl

111

\:
I

iamM

l\

luaden
il
i

'unum qua
i.nti:
N

pcriptut

Pond

Rulni

\'|

H.in:...iiis prripliis

1^,391.
th
;>osctl

A
to

panliiiu-nf. supposed
in

lo be

i>f

the Four-

(Yntur\.

the Hritish

Musrum.

A
of

portion

h.\r (.oinr

from the monxslcn


in

Mount

.tains

common

with the Heidel-

berg manuscript seems to haxr been copied therefrom, or from a


In this

tl.r

Periplus

is

anonymous.
N
.

AkkivM M H

\SS.-MN
S

I'I.RIIM.I

1'n

ARI HI
/-'retrx.

>

DE FU7MINIMM IT

MOM n
I

RAKMfn

ii'ii"\n

Httnlae Ann*

Ml) \.\.\l II.


his
ire

Sitiimundui G<l<nm>

Jnulm*
full

E^rrm

Mi*

S.

apt and

of error* due to lack

of

of the sub--

cd nexertheless for three cen-

turies as the basis of

later editions,

because of the disappearance

of the Heidelberg

ma;
'*TT.

DELI

RAMUSSO.

In

n<

//,;,

n,fa Stamp*
1,

d< C,iu*n,

Ml

>

III.

Vol.

pi

n*
<ttl

muiM, ttpra
icritta

la

navigatHmt

Mar Ru
a

fit* *U*

Gw. fi^miar R*1*4* OrWat*


Ltmgt*

per

Arnaw

and

begins

\*uit*t9m*
im

M m*r
rtt,&

Rwojini
J't

AUt Indtt

Ontntali u rin* per

Arricm

qutlla

fi

TrtH&tta ntUa Itaba**.

1SSO, 1S54,

There were editions of Ramusio's ISbJand S88.


1

Collection at Venice in

IS

ARRIAM

HISTORICI ET PHILOSOPHI P>N

l-'.i

\i\
\

.v

\l

\is

.m
<

MK.I
(,

PERIPLUS,

AD ADRIANUM G*SAKI\I
Latinum
versus, plur'wiu^ut
(Y
/////////

////////
.

urmoHf
lit/mo

in

/.

Stvckio Ti/vrino avthore.

.;non t

1577.

This

text

is

based on that

<>t

Jelenius.

\\itli

feu

m
\\i\\\
I

'.datlons

ARRIAM
\IM.
v

PICA,
Pi
'.
1

AMIS CONTRA ALAKOS, I'IKH-KS


I 1

/.

UK

1.

1111

ll
/

\.\
.

lu\|

.17

M
text

/r*7/7'//.

..

A',.

Blancardi,

Am
of
;

This
'<APHI.

is

protrssvdk based on that


ii'ioKis
'
.

Stink.
c;/////

VBTI
hniano,

i:

/;////.

:ncrtti tion ihus,

'a,;

MlX'.XCl
I

ill.

Joannes llud-

18,
'I

DissrrtatiuiK-x
"his
)

li-nnri

)od\vrlli.

onitains as

its

h'fth title,

l\riplns
I,.

Mans

I'.rytlinti

( jfrriano

i<n/go <i(htrif>tus.
is

lnt<rpr<l<

Guilulm* Stucki*

Ti^i,

>

The

text

based on (Jelenius and Sturk.


i\

Li-noMfi rois PALAI GEOCRAPHBTHENTON


<i<ip(in<i
i>>n
>.\

pkifatmoi
/>//','.

Kannirttn
Hf/li'nikii

/>/ii/^,

/nsiMi.ADos

Jiarin

t'in

/is

pu'nlfia$
/

f/>hi</>.

H,ll<n'.n.

En

Hifnn'>i tis Austria* fk tis Scliniunhltk'o

-v/V/j,

It

contains,

pp.

2 (<

1 Tr'uimn

/'////*/-///.

//'j

i.i

\thnn

Tfalatfft, with notes translated from Hudson.

KI\\II

ARRIAM Nu o\u DII .\>is QPBRA


This contains,
Thetc-xt

GftJECC ad
I

r,]ttinnu

,<liiiw f s

Studi* Jngnsti CltrutUOti Btrktck.


pp.
is

1-1 21,

Arriantu Ptripkui

//.

A/T////V/J

from Hudson.
iifRiAN
;tiw of
Si
ti;.

TNI PBU1 An Account


/
:

\.

Part

the

first,
//

ronta
.s/v/'z

*/'//.

,Jrotn

inguebar.
'

With Dissertations,
./////.,

li>

\\illiani \'in-

//,

TNI CoMMCRCC AND NAVIGATION


IN
//

Ol

IHI
/

.\\MIN

IN
<

Mi

INDIAN
In

11'illittm

I'm,,':;.

/>./)..

I!
7.

tnnn v///.
Vol.
Erytln
>,i

tun \olumcs.
'

Lwdw: Cadf II
.'luts.
(

&D
7V/-/////J
/

I.

\
first
"i

Vol.

II,

'/'///

'if tin

Part

the

staining,
&//

//w Account of the


/'/

Navigation

An
I

////

.S///^

/
containinu,
./;/

\\ ith

>!xsc-rta:ioi)s.

Part the second

./v//;// o/

If

tr.m
///</

<h

W/

.VY/.

Thev
,'lish

.mi. ful

\olumrs, presenting
al

k lett and

translation in parallel column*.

a by dtwrrtttiom
tn
r

that

i!rii..fr

exhaustive tieoyraphu
st

and

of

tl-

.mil

linpunjiur

I.,

the olmlriK

n ilriMirih, jrc ..f ihr i'l rip| u

*iill

IHfrd
ul. I II,
p.irt
II

nbtain

'

ute

*i-

nriicr.ill\

Irss

uxrtul ili.m lu> geographical


IM

and romn

!,

.ire

still,

lame pan,

illn

and truwonh>, and


li-jrnt

wt

preientaik>fi of thr tub.

I)

Ml I'lKIIMI
l\

>

III

K^
(

SEA

(ast rib-

.nslatt-.l

\\

\iiumf.

)vf<jrd,

,9.

tfUCHUN

*
<

IIN/M

M GtOMTAIMDI
'

HIM

8CHK HI

I.

,k..s,,|,

;rtt t

IVnplux. translated into

rrman.

SAMM.
>HIS
I

IIK

MM n
--/ii.

M>

\IIIN

(Htu.KM'llll

(i

Kin

rk.

pp
.!/;/.;;,.
.V
rr,.'-'

4%.

-\\AKI

DCS PsEUDO-ARK \^ (jMtCHirrUIIO DB ERVTHKABttCHIM \IuRl3


I

7/f, d'u uhrigen


tfr:
^

im .lunaff.

I (fArr-

eub<r\\\ Jahrtt-Btrickt

ukr At
Berlin,

$trmla*tr k*ktr<

rnilatlrt

Hartung

DrxuL

his partial translation is


i

based on the
\alur

te>

Hud-

sonant!

IN <>f

little

ARRIAM

irn

>

>

IMR^I

Rnmtmit

ti

kmi awt*tatiw imtruxil


.

B. hatn<

H-

.!//

20

GBOGRAPHI GRJECI

M INGRES.
Didot,

E codcibut

rtcognovit, prolegomenis^
ineisis
I

anno-

tarionf, indicibutque instruxit, tabu/is

trri

illustravit

Carolus

MSA n
Vol.
I,

Pawn.
pp.
id

MDCCCL
AnwrnH

M* OQ

bftl

Prolegomena Anonymi Periplus


Jrriani,
///

pp. 2 S 7-305

fcrtur

Pfriplus

Marts An-Mnr/, being the eighth title included in that volume. \,.| HI contUAS four inapt, xi-xiv, especially drawn to illustrate the IVriplus, ami four more, vi-vin and xv, drawn for other
titles

Inn presenting details that further elucidate this work.

This edition

is

.1

\.ist
is

improvement over
still

all its

predeo
moditi-

presenting a text \\hirh


cation only in

the standard, admitting of

minor

details.

The Greek

text, carefully

corrected

from the Heidelberg manuscript, and


proved,
is

critically revised

and imI

he presented side by side with a Latin translation. notes, which are in Latin, reflect almost everything of importance

to the subject

which had been written up


OP

to that time.

THK COMMERCE AND NAVIGATION


1.

mi: ERYTHRAEAN SKA,


Calcutta, 1879.
t lit

H\

IV.
.-,/;'//

McCrindU, M.A., LL.D.,


j
ii

This W////Ks

translation ( with

commentary) of

PMRIPU

KRYTH-

R.I MARIS, by an unknown writer of the first Christian ,V;////;T, and of the second part of the INDIKA of Arrian. The translation of the Periplus was also printed in the Indian
.Intiquary of

Bombay, Vol. VIII,

pp.

108-151.

This excellent translation, while based professedly


ler's
text,
is

on Muland
thus

often reminiscent rather of

Vincent's,

repeats various errors

which Muller's notes had corrected.

notes are valuable for the original material they contain Concerning Hindu names, places and commodities, hut show
lack of acquaintance with

The

German

writers.

DKR
1

PKRIPLUS DES ERYTHRAEISCHEN MEERES VON EINEM


1

UNBEKANNAnnurI'abriciu*.

GritcAucA
nebst

und

deutsch mit kritischen

und

erkuJrenden

kun&n
\

volls tandigem

Worteruerztichnisse

von

B.

Comp., 1883. movt scholarly presentation of Greek text and German translation on opposite pages, with clear and exhaustive notes.
IsifruK, I'frlag von Veit

The

Irerk

text,

which

has been revised with

extreme

are,

mains many verbal corrections of Muller's standard text, and leaves little to be desired. The historical and commercial notes
call

for revision
Knirlish

where they omit conclusions previously reached


and
in

by

writers,

so far as they are affected by later

research.

SJ

The

present translation

is

hated on MGUer's

text,

adopting
far at

most of Fabnciuf* verbal emendations, but conforming as


possible with the results of later research.
translation

Vincent's text and

have also been consulted frequently.

References in

Pliny and other contemporary writer*,


authorities.

as well as with

modern

12

The Voyage around


1.

the Erythraean Sea

Of

tlu-

designated ports on the Kr\ thr:r.in


ns
]
I

and the market-to\\


\1

around
larhor.

it,

the

first

is

thr ]-^\ p-

To
The

those sailing
alter

down

from
dred

that place,

on the nidit hand,


is

eighteen hun-

stadia, there

Berenice.
K.^\ pt,

harbors of both are

at the

boundary

of

and are hays opening from

the Krythrran Sea.

is

right-hand coast next below Berenice the country of the- Berber-. \lon^ tin- shore are the
I.

On

the

Fish-Haters, living in .-cattered cavea in the narro\\


l-'urther inland are the Berbers,

and beyond them


each trihe ^o\
-

the \Vild-Hesh-Katers and

C'alf-I\atei>,

crned h\
in

and behind them, further inland, the country toward the WCBt, there lies a cit\ called
its

chiei

'

e.
J,

lielow the C'alf-Maters there


after sailing

is

little

market-

town on the shore


stadia

about four thousand


the-

from

Men-nice,

called

Ptolemais of

Hunts,

from which the hunters


thed\nast\ of
the-

started for the interior

under

Ptolemies.

This market-town has


;

the true land-tortoise- in small quantity

it

is

white and
a
little

Smaller in the shells.


ivory,
like-

And

here also

is

found

that of Adulis.

But the place has no harbor

and

i-

4.

reached only by small boats. Below Ptolemaic of the- Hunts,


stadia, there
is

at a

distaiu
es-

about three thousand

Adulis, a port
of a

tablished by law, lyin^ at the inner end

bay that
lies

runs in toward the south.

Before the harbor

the

o-caDed Mountain
in the
the-

t
lir.ii!

two hundred Md
Ships ho.m
the
r at

\er\

of

the hay. with the shores of


side*.
<>'

mainland close

to

if

on hoth

cause
l.uul.
I

th
i

iir.it!

ot

the lu\. h\ an
\\

isl.uul

called Diodorus.

-the

shore,

hu h

ould le re.u

hcdon
tuuivot
al

-in

the l.uul; In
'.md.

orhich

means the barbaroui


Mount.iii)
I

shi !(!.

n the in.iinI.iinltv\rMi\ st.ulia

xill.i'^r.

from \\huh
inland t\v n
t

<urnr\
and
rit\
'

t>

i.t

>lc

l>)in that plancalled \n\ninitcN


'

the

jotirne)

in

that

pl.iee

all

the

i\

hroii^ht
ih

Mintrs l>e\<ud the Nile through the

called

'\rm-um. and then


iniinher
ot

.alls

the

\\hole

elephants

.did

rhinoceros that
at

killed live in th
C
:ie

% inland, although

rare inter-

hunted on the seacoast even near Adulis.


of that
1

harhor

market-town, out

at

sea

on

^ht hand, there


called

ind\ islands
tortois<--shell,
'

Alalai.

Melding
;

which

is

drought
th<

5.
aiiot:

lit

hundred

stadia
it

hexond

mound
this
IN

of

sand

piled

up

at

the-

ri^ht

't

the entrap.

the Ixittom

iiich th<-

nd
prodiurJ.
..ther

the only
-inn the

\\herv

These p lierher countr\


in

are -o\rrned
!

\sho

is

miserlx

his

\\

aUvayt

it

otlu-r\N iae upright, aiul

acquainted

'ire.

24

6.

There

are imported into these places, undressed

cloth
sinoe;

made

in

Egypt

for the Berhers;

robes from Ar-

cloaks of poor quality dyed in colors;

douhle-

frin^cd linen mantles;

others of
is

many articles of Hint glass, and murrhine, made in Diospolis; and brass, which

used for ornament and in cut pieces instead of coin;

sheets of soft copper, used for cooking-utensils and cut

up
is

for bracelets

and anklets

tor the-

women

iron,

\\

Inch

made

into spears used against the elephants

and other

wild beasts, and in their wars.

Besides these, small axes

are imported, and adzes and swords;


cups, round and large:
to the
a little-

copper drinking-

coin for those


Ital\
,

coming

market; wine
not

of

Laodicea and

not

much

oli\e

oil,

much;

for the king, gold


,

and

silver plate-

made
I

after the fashion of the countrx

and

for clothing,

military cloaks,

and thin coats of skin, of no great value.


district of

,ikewise

from the

Ariaca across this

sea,

there

are imported Indian iron, and steel, and Indian cotton

cloth; the broad cloth called


Sii(rniiif^cm\

ttiotnic/ic

and that called


skin and mallac.

and

girdles,
a

and coats

of

low-colored cloth, and

few muslins, and colored


these places i\or\
,

There are exported from


shell

and

tort

and rhinoceros-horn.
to this

The most from Kg\


of
to

pt

is

brought

market from the month


is,

January to
but scason-

September, that

from Tyhi

Thoth:
of

abl\ they put to sea about the


7.

month

ScptemK
to

From

this place the

Arabian dulf trends


just

the east and becomes narrowest


Aval\fter

before the dull' of


stadia, for those

about four thousand

sailing eastward along the

same

coatt,

there are other

Berber market-towns, known

King

at interxals

"far-side" ports; one after the other, without harbors


as the

but haxing roadsteads ui


iret is

>ips

can anchor ami he


this

called
to

in
flu-

Arahi.i
th<

the
i

far-side
siu.ill

coast

shortest
\\.ilm-.

Hen\\

in.ii

tou

ii

called

Inch must

I*.

ami

ratts.

Hiere are imported into d


r

Hint glast,

assorted

gra|X-s

from

>

cloth .assorted,
a littK- tin.
I

for the Ber


-

and

1\\

tlu-

r\prtrtl from HcrluTs then


tlu.1

tlu- s;iinc-

place,

nd Mu/.i on
little
ii-ll.

opposite ihoie,
\cr\
little
-.vh

Npic-e*.

and

nixrrh. hut
li\e in

hriti-r

than the reM.


r\

\nd the

Ii

the

unrul\.
\\alitex
tlu
M.il..

inarket-toxMi.
int a
sail

lu-ttc-r

than

fins. Called

of alxuit

ei'^ht
.

hundred
sheltered

stadia.

llu
spit

.nu

cn roadeast.

In

running out troin the


peaceable.

ire

more
the-

There
ss<-d

are im-

d into this pl.u c


\

things alreadv mentioned, and


.

tnnies.

cloaks

troin

\rsin

and d\ ed

drinkin^-rnps, sheets of aoft copper in small qiiantitN, Iher K1 and silxrr coin, not miu h.
troin these phuc-s

m\

rrh. a little trankiiR-cnsc,

(thatknown ai far-ride), the harder einnamon, JtuKa^


hulian copal an.

\v

Inch are imported into Arahia;

ami

sla\es,

hut rarelx

9.

Twodaxs'
:i

sail,

or three, hevoiul
xx

Malao
\\

is

the

mark
There
a

of

Mmulu.s.
a p:

here the ships

.it

anchor

sateh behind

and

close- to

the shore.

into this place the things previously


d

from

it

likexxise

d the

mer-

26

chandise alread

and the incense called wocrotu.

And

tlu- trailers

li\ing here an-

more quarrelsome.
touard the
cast, alter

10.
fief

Bc\ond Mundus,

Bailing

tWO

days'
a

sail,

or three-, \ou

reach Mosvllum,
arc-

beach. \\ith

had anchorage-.

There

imported

here the same tiling alread) mentioned, also siber There are shipped little iron, and glass.

from the place

great c|iiantit\ of c'innanion,

(so

that

:n,.rket-to\vn

requires
a little

shijvs

of

hi;

and and
nifj^

fragrant minis, spice>,

tortoise shell,

(poorer

than
r\

that

of

Mimdns), frankincense,
in small quantities.

ithe

and myrrh

Sailing alon^ the coast he\

ond Mosvllum.
and
ha\,

at\\oda\s' course sou

come

to the- so-called Little Nile


a

Kuer, and

a tine-

spring, and

small laurel-^ro\

c\

Cape

I-.lephant.
a

Then
called
1

the shore recedes into

and has

river,

Klephant, and
\\-herealone
is

lar^e laurelthe- far-

C called

Acanna

produced

side Frankincense, in u;reat quantity


12.

and

of the hest ^rade.

Beyond

this place, tin- coast


is

trending toward

the Market and Cape of Spices, an abrupt promontory, at the- \er\ end of the Berber coast toward the east. The anchorage is dangerous at times
the south, there

from the ground-swell, because the place


the north.

is

exposed to
is

sign of an
place,
is

approaching storm which


that
its

diar to the

the-

deep water becomes

more
they

turbid and changes


all

color.

When

this

happens

run

to a large

offers safe shelter.

promontory There are imported

called Taba?,
in to this

which

market-

town the things already mentioned; and there are produced in it cinnamon and its different varieties, gizir,
asypha,
are/>';<

nui^la^

and moto) and frankincense.

13.

Beyond Taba
t

.mr lunulrcd
\iul

stadia, there

I'ano.

thru,
.

.ttter

sailing

four

hundred

al.mga pn>montor\ touard u Inch place uncut also draws \ou. tlirrr is another marketstadi.i

t(\\ n

called

)pone, into
se alread)

\\

iiu

li

tlir

same thing* arr


in
it

1111-

mentioned, and
prodi,
'

thr greatest

imn
and

is

;neAo

and moto),
t(rtoise-

slaves ot the hetter KMt,

hu h arr hrou^lit to Egypt


.t

in increasing nnmhcrs; and a :;r<-at ijnantit\ slu-11. hrttrr than that found cKru h.
14.

Th.

all

tlu-sr tar-side
>t

inarkrt-r\vns
|nl\.
titled

b made from Eg]rpc about die mootb lii. And .ships arc also nl\
^

that

is

out from

placet across this *ea,

from

Aria*, a

and

Barygaza,

in- to these tar-side markel-fo\\ M s the products of


their o\\n
oil.

places;

wheat.
the

'untied butter,

sesame

Cotton rloth,
girdles,

mOKOcAl and the

safpfMtofrhlt) 9
sacchtiri.

and

and hone\
the vo>

trom the reed called

.Some

make

dl\ to these market-toxs ns.

and others eu'han^e their Cargoes while sailing along


the (XMSt
I'his v-onntr>
ii

is

not suhjnt
1>\

to

King, but

each market-tou
15.

is

ruled

its

separate chief.

Beyond Opone.
rirst

the shore trending

more

to-

the south,
dJ

there are the small and great bluffs


is

\/.ima;

this ^oast

destitute of harU>rs.
D
lie at

hut there

are places

where

ill

atK'hor. the shore l>cing

ahrupt; ami this o>nrMsouth-west.

is <>t

six days,

the direction hcing


i

Then
days'

conic- the small atul great lx-;u


in

another

si

course and ahcr that

order,

the

Course* of Azania, the tirst being called Sarapion and the next Nicon; and after that several rixerx and other
aiu-horages. one atter the other, separately a rest

and a

28

run for each day, seven in all, until the P\ralaa> islands and \\hat is called the channel: beyond which, a little
to the

south of south-ucst, after two courses of

day

and

night

along

the

Ausanitu

t,

is

the

island

Menuthias, about three hundred stadia from the mainland,

low ami and wooded,

in

which there

arc-

rixers

and man\

kinds of birds and the mountain-tortoise.

There tre no wild b xcept the crocodiles; but there in this place there- athey d<> not attack men. and canoes hollowed from single logs, which
,

the\

use

for

fishing

and catching

tortoise.

In
in

this

island the) also catch

them

in a peculiar

wax,

wicker

which

the) fasten across the channel-Opening

between the breakers.


16.

Two

days'

sail

beyond, there

lies

the-

very
is

hut market-town of the continent of A/ania, which


called

Rhapta: which has


i

its

name from

the

Sewed

already mentioned; in which -<//>/V/ /yfouiri'jH and tortoise-shell. there is ivory in great quantit)
,

Along
in

this coast live

men

of piratical habits, very

great

mature, and under separate chiefs for each place. The Mapharitic chief governs it under some ancient
right that subjects
is

it

to the so\ereignt\ of the state that

become
hold

first
it

in Arabia.

And
,

the

people

of

Mii/a

and send thither many large ships; using Arab captains and agents, who are familiar with the natives and intermam with them, and
his authorit)

under

u ho

know the whole coast and


17.

understand the language.

There are imported

into these markets the lances

made

at

Muza

especially for this trade,

and hatchets

and daggers and awls, and various kinds of glass; and at some places a little wine, and wheat, not for trade, but

29

to sc

thr ^tMul-uil!

,>f

the savages.

There
.s-horii

if -MI these places a great

hut

that
II

of

Adulis, and
is

quant rhinocen

and ton
:n

'\\huh
a little

in l>est

demand
ti

after th.it

India

palm-od. \nil these markets ot \/ania are


i,

and

last

ot the

continent th

lies
;d

down on

the ri^ht

from

these places theunexpl

around
In the

to\\ aril

the west, and running along


i

regions to the south of Anhia. it mingles \\ith the uestern sea*

Libya and

19.

Nou

to

the

let!

sailing for t\so


rovs the
fortirir
is

or three- da\- from Mussel Harhor eMtti


unit, thereis

.mother harbor and


X'illa^e.

which
road to
tlu-

i-

called
1'etra.

White
is

from \\hich there


\lalichas.

which
It

suhjrct to

Kin

Nahata-an^.
ie

holils the position of a


t

mark
and so a
one-fourth
force, as

small vessels sent


is

>m Arabia;
*>f

cc-nturion
of

stationed there as a collector

the merchandise imported, with an on.


I<>.

armed

Dirccth
ot
n

lu-lou
in
it-

tln^

place

is

the adjoining

countrs

Arahia.

the

Knthnran
in

length horderin^ a great ilisSea. Different trilxrs inhabit


their speech,
s,,

tlu-

conntr), ditlerin^

me
is

partiallx

The land next the sea and some altogether. and there with ca\es of the
I

similarly
.

but

ountr) inland
ani^uages,
In

is

peopled by

rascal 1\

men

speaking

who

live in villages

whom
A

those xiilin^ orT those

and nomadic camps, the middle course are plun-

dered, and
slaves.

surviving shipu recks arc taken for

they too are continual 1\ taken prisoners

30

In the chiefs

and

k\\\<^ of
is

Arabia;

and the\

arc-

called

Carnaitcs.

Na\ Ration
toul,

dangerous alon^
because of

this

whole

coast of Arabia, \\hichis\\ithout harbors, with bad an-

chorages,

inaccessible

everyway. our course down the middle of the ^ulf and


fast as possible- In

rocks, and terrible in

bfcaken and Therefore \\ e hold


pass

on

as

the country of Arabia until

we connot cattle,

to the

Burnt Island; directly below which there art

regions of peaceful people, nomadic, pasturer.s

sheep and camel.s.


11.

Be\ond these

places, in a ba\ at the- foot of the


is

ide of this gulf, there

place by the shore called


In

Mir/a,

market-town established

law, di.vtant alto-

gether from Berenice for those


t\\

.sailing

southward, about
i.s

eh

thousand

stadia.

And

the whole place

en >wded
is

Arab shipowners and seafaring men, and with the affairs of commerce; for the\ carry on
\vith

bus\
trade
rlu-ir

with the far-side coast and with Ban

j^a/a,

sending

own
,'

ships there.
12.

Three days inland from


a

this

port

then-

is

city

called Saua,

in the midst of the region called

Mapharitis; and there is bus who lives in that city.


23.

vassal-chief

named

'hol;r-

And

after nine da\s

more then-

ifl

Sapiiar, tin-

metropolis, in

which

lives

C'haribael,

lawful

kin

two

tribes,

the Homerites ami those lixin^ next to

them, called the Sabaites; through continual embassies and gifts, he is a friend of the Kmpem
24.

The market-town

of

Muza

is

without

har-

good roadstead and anchorage because of the sandy bottom thereabouts, where the anchors hold safely. Tin- merchandise imported there consists
bor, but has a

of purple cloths,

Arabian
d,

st} le,

both fine and coarse; clothing in the iniwith sleeves; plain, ordinar
saffron,

or interwoven with gold;


aks, l>lankcts (not

sweet rush.

many), some plain and


flashes of

others

made

in

the

local

fashion;

different
.

iragrant ointments in moderate i|u.mtitx

xvinr

ami
in

xx

heat, not

mm h.
1

liir

ouintr) produces grain


f

moderate amount, ami

great deal

xx

m<

the Chief arc gixen horses ami Mimp-

iiiles,

VCSM
!

gold ami

polished
I

Mixer,

tinrlx
'rtnl

copper raids.
c

!'

the

same
and

pl.iv

the

thin^ prodiueil

in the

imnfrom
this

sclccteil

m\rrh, and the (irhanitr-Mm.i-.!


all

alahastcr
.\\aliti-s

the things alrrailx


t.u

iiirntioneil

ami the

llde

000 t

he

x..\.i^r

to

made
After

best about the


is

month
to prevent
this
it

cr. that

loth; hut there

nothing

exen

earlier.

sailing

he\ond
of

place ahout

three
licrk-r

hundred

stadia,

the oast

Arabia and the

countrx about the Axalitic ^ulf


Aether,
B

mm
it

coming ch
in extent,
x\

tlu-i

channel, not long


her and shuts

hich

the M

into a narroxx strait.

passage through \\hich, sixtx stadia in length, the


island

Diodonis
\\ith

dixides.

Th
\\ith

boet

rushing currents and


tlu-

through strong winds


mountains.
a xilla.
xx

,rse

hhmiiig doun from rtly on this strait


Arabs, subject to the
is

adjacent

nd^e
<

of
is
'

In the shore there

same

chief, called
it

Inch

not so

much

a market-toxx n as

is

an anchorage and

xxatering-placc
into the gulf.

and the

first

landing for those sailing

Beyond

Ocelis, the sea widenii

to\\ard

32

the east and soon giving

LCW of the open ocean, after


is

about

txx-elvc

hundred
shore,

stadia there

Kuda-mon
of

Arabia,

a village- In

tin-

abb

of

the

Kingdom

Chari-

bael.

and having conxenient anchorages, and wateringthose- at Ocelis; it lies at places, sweeter and better than
entrance of
a

tluIt

bay, and the land

recedes from

it.

\va- called
citx

the

when

Kuda'inon, because in the early da\ the vox age xx as not x rt made- from India
\vlu-n
tlu-v

to Egxpr.

and

did

not dare to

sail

from
to-

Egypt
gether

to the- ports across this ocean,


at

hut

all

came

this place,
as

it

received the cargoes from both

Alexandria noxv receives the things But not brought both from abroad and from Kgvpt. long before our oxvn time C'haribae' destroyed the
countries, just

phu
27.

After

Eud-cmon Arabia
a

then-

is

continuous

bay extending two thousand stadia or more, along which there are Nomads and Fish-Katers
lixing in villages;
this

length of coast, and

just

beyond the cape projecting from


n
In

bay there
of the

is

another market-ton
of

the shore,

('ana,

Kingdom

Kleazus, the Frankincense

Country; and facing it there arc- two desert islands, one called Island of Birds, the- other Dome Island, one

hundred and twenty


this place
lies

stadia

from Cana.

Inland from

the metropolis Sabbatha, in \\hich the

King

lives.
is

-All

the

frankincense

produced

in

the

brought bx camels to that place to be stored, and to Cana on rafts held up by inflated skin> after the And this place manner of the country, and in
country
!

trade also with the far-side potts, with Marxgaza

and Scythia and


Persia.

Ommana

and the neighboring

into tins place (nnii


\\inr. us at

Kgypt
,uiri-

little-

\\hiMt .mil
st> Ir,

Muza;
.1

clothing in the

Arahian

plain

ami i<innioii and most


and
i

:ul tin

oral

i\

and other
'

things ^;, h as go to
Id

\Iu/a;

and
.1!

for the

km'K

usual!)

and

silver plate,
ulit\
.

^es,
tlu

and

thin dot
tins p' aiul thr
llu-r
at

\nd

\ported

dvc produce, fran


tlu-

thin;- that enter into


t

tinis

trai

ports,

Ihr M\a^r
I

this pl.uv
>r

U^t made

the

rather earlier.
^reatlx. there-

Ctna,
hivh

tlu- laiul

rx rdin^
.1

\\

is i-alleil

-^le.it W*J .tciXMi, deep ha\ streu-hin^ Saehalitev; and the 'ranknu cns<- C'oun1

iiu>untaiiu>us

md
!

forbidding, urapjx-d f<>, and \ieldin^ frank

anil

in

thick
the

>m

-hearing
tlu-\

trees

are

not of great

:it

or thu-knes.s;
^

hear the tranknuense stk'kju^t

on the hark,
their

the

tn-c-s

amon^
t<>

us

pt
In
ti

weep

gum.

The

fnuikiooe
.sent

laVtt

and those \\ho are

tin-

For these places ar unpunishment. health), and j)estilc-ntial even to tho.sc tiling along the
Coast:
\\

hut almost alua\-

tatal to

those working there,


d.

ho

also perish often

from
thru
ii

30.

On

this ha>

\er> great

promonton

Eating the east, called Syagrut; on \\hich is a for: the defence *t the oumtr\ ami a harhor aiul storehouse
.

opposite tins an island, King bct\v cape, well out at sea, there nit nearer it and the C !</es opp ap< Syagms:
ti.

for the frankiiu-en.se

:ul

is

and

is

very large but desert and

34

marshy, having snakes and threat


the
fat

rivers in

it

and crocodiles and


tle-sh is

mum
island

lizards, of

which the

eaten anil

melted and used instead of oli\c

oil.

The

neither vine nor grain. The inhabitants are few and tlu-\ live on the coast toward the- north,
yields

no

fruit,

which tn>m
i

this

side-

faces the- continent.

The\

are

mixture- of Arabs and Indians and (.reck-,


to

who have emigrated

earn on

trade- there.

The

island

produce^ the true sea-tortoise, and tlu- land-tortoise-, and the- white tortoise which i> \cr\ numerous and preferred for
is

its

lar^e shells; and the mountain-tortoise-,


all

which

largest of

and has the thickest

shell

of

which the

\\orthlessspecimenscannotbecutapart on the- under hut those of valuesiele, because- they are even too hard
;

are cut apart and the shells

made
this

\\hole into ca
that sort of ware,

and small

plates
also

and cake-dishes and

There
called
trees.

is

produced in

island

cinnabar, that
tin-

Indian,

which

is

collected in

drops from

happens that just as Axania is subject to Charibael and the Chief of Mapharitis, this island is subject to the King of the Frankincense Country.
31.
It

Trade

is

also carried

on there by some people from

by those who chance to call there on thevoyage from Damirica and Barygaza; they brin^ in rice and wheat and Indian cloth, and a feu female

Muza and

slaves;

and they take


quantity of

for their

exchange
No\\
is

carin>,

great

tortoise-shell.

the

island

is

farmed out under the Kings and


32.

garrisoned.
the-

Immediately beyond Sya^rus


the-

ha\ of
it

Omana
six

cuts deep into the coast-line,

\\idth of

bein^

hundred

stadia;

and beyond

this there are

mountains,

Ji

anil

roi-ky

and

steep, inhabited

by
tin, is a port

\e

hundred
t.r

stadia

more; and beynul

established

rciciMii^ the S.u h.ditu


tiled

tr.inkuu'
call

the

irl\

Moscha, and ships from C'ana and ships returning from Dam
tin-

anil

Baryga'/a,
\\ith

if

season

i-

latr,

\\intrr there,
th-

and

trade
anil
in

the Kind's officers, exchanging


oil for

wheat and sesame


all

frankincense, which
itr\
.

lies

heaps

o\er the Sachaln


if

oprii

and un-

drd. as

the plat<
i

under the protean her openly nor In stealth tan

it

Ixr

loaded on board ship \\ifh.mtthc King's permission; were loaded without this, the ship could
i

not

From the harhor.

ond
hundred
stadia

the harbor of
as far as
at

Moscha

for about fr

Asich, a mountain range runs


.

along the shore:


i

the end of \\hich. in a n>\\

lie
i-

islands, railed

/enobian.
ii

He.orul these there

barbarous region \\huh


doni, hut
v

no longer of the same


to

now helon^s
Islands, there

Per

tiling

alon^

oast uell out at sea for

two thousand

stadia

from

meettyOU an island called Sarapis, about one hundred and twenn stadia from the It is about two hundred stadia u ide and SIX mainland.
/cnohian

hundred lon^. inhabited


\illainous
lot,

In three settlements of

|-'j>h-

who

use the Arabian language

and

palm-leaves.

The

island pnni

iderable tort. i,e-shell of tine quality,

and small

sail-

and cargo-ships are sent


.1.

there

regularly

from

MIL;

alMnjr the coast,


of

which trends north-

\\ard

touard the entrance

the Persian Sea. there are

36

main

islands

known

as

tin-

Cahri, aftrr

about

two
in-

thousand

stadia,

extending along the shore.


lot,

The

habitants are a treacherous


35.

very

little civili/ed.
is

At

not range of far hc\ond, the mouth of the IVrsian Gulf, where there
is

upper end of these Caliri islands mountain- railed C'alon, and there follows
the-

much
if. iits

diving for the pearl-mussel.


arc-

To

the

left of

great

mountains called Asabon, and


full

to

tlu-

right there rises in

view another round and

high mountain called Semiramis; between them the passage- across the strait is about six hundred stadia; he;

ond which

that very great

and broad

sea,

the Persian

Gulf, reaches far into the interior.


of this
called
.

At the upper end

Gulf there

market-town designated In law, \pologus, situated near Charax Spasini and the
is

River Fuphrau
36.
a
si

s.

Sailing through the


is

mouth

of the Gulf, after


of
I

\-da\s' course there

another market-town

\TH.I
large-

called

Ommana.

To

both of these market-towns

vessels are regularly sent

from Baryga/a, loaded with c< >pper and sandalwood and timbers of teakuood and logs of blackwood and ehom To Ommana frankincense
.

i.s

also

brought from Cana, and from Ommana to Arabia sewed together after the fashion of the place;

these are

known
many

as

maJam hi.

From
to

each of these
also

market-towns, there are exported


to Arabia,

Banga/a and

pearls, hut inferior to those of

India;

purple, clothing after the fashion of the place, wine, a


great quantity of dates, -old and slaves.
37.

Beyond the Ommanitic region there is

coun-

try also of the Parsida*, of

another Kingdom, and the bay of Gedrosia, from the middle of which a cape juts

out

int<

the bay.
nps.

Urnuith

lin-rr i* a river
a
little

affording an
t,.

market

MI at the
in-

iniuitli.

ailed Or.i-a:
ii

tod

hai k

from the place an


iriirN

land cit\,

frmii tlir M
ro|>Ii v\

\\hirh also
ahl\

is

thr Kin.
\

called
:rlds

Kluml.i

mm
coast

um<
hut hdellium.

but along

the

flirt

region, the continent n>

from the
'iic

r.ist

across thr depths

the hays,
lies

ct,i

na, \\hii-h

ul
\\

thr

north;

thr \\hnle

marshx

hii-h tio\\s

ili>\\

n tlu- rivet

Nmthus. the greatest o


I-

that

tlo\\

into the

r\

ii:

.in

Sea, hrin

tlo\\n.in

mormons \olmnr
is

\\.trr;

so that a
.

lm^

of the

ocean
tliis

chin^ fresh from it.


t(

this o>nntr\

ti:

Now

as a si^n of ap-

h to

oumtry
;i

those i-.min^ from the tea,


forth

ire

from the depths to meet of the plao-s jnst mentioned ami in This n\er has | those called gnur.

ming

mouths, \rr\

shallt)\\

and m.ir-h\

M> that the\ art


at

;t the-

one

in

thr middle;
n.

which
Before
is

In
it

the shore,

is

the markrt-to\\
in.dl island,
in.i.

Barharicum.
it

thrn

and inland hehind


it

the

me-

Minn.i^ar.i;

is

subject to I'.irtln.m

princes \\ho
39.

art

mtlx dri\ ing each other out.


lie at

Thr

ships

anchor

at

Barharicum. but

all

thrir i.ir^oes arc carried


.

up

to the

metnpoli>

1>\

the

imported into this margreat deal of thin clothing, and a little spur:
to tin
I

here

.ire

figured

hum-,

topaz, coral, storax, frankincense, vessels

38

of
tlu-

gla.ss.

silver

and gold

plate,

and

little

wine.

On

other hand there are exported costus, bdellium,


nard, tiirquoi.se. lapis lazuli, Scric skins, cotton

Kcium.
with
the-

cloth, silk \arn,

and indigo.

And

sailors set out thither

Indian Ktesian winds, ahout the


is

month
direct,

of

Jul), that

Kpiphi:

it

is

more- dangerous thru, hut


is

through these winds the voyage


sooner completed.
40.

more
is

and

Beyond the
its

river Sinthus there


in

another
it

gulf,

not na\ liable,


I-.irinon;

running

toward the north;

is

called

parts are called

separately the- small gulf

and the great; in hoth parts the water is shallow, with shifting sandbanks occurring continually and a great
\\a\

from shore;

so that very often

when

the shoreif

i.s

not CNCII in sight, ships run aground, and

they

at-

hold their course they are wrecked. A proinontorx stands out from this gulf, curving around from

tempt

to

Kirinon toward the East, then South, then West, and


enclosing the gulf called Baraca, \\hich contains seven
islands.

Those who come


it

to the entrance of this ba\

ipe

by putting about a

out to sea:

but those

who
is

and standing further are drawn inside into the


little

gulf of Baraca are lost;


\iolent,

for the waves are high and very

and

the-

sea

tumultuous and

foul,
is

and hain

eddies and rushing whirlpools.

The bottom

some-

places abrupt, and in others rocky

and sharp,

so that

the anchors lying there are parted,

cut

off,

and others

some being quickly As a sign chafing on the bottom.


from the
sea there

of these places to those approaching

are serpents, very large and black;


places on
this coast

for at the other

and around Barygaxa, they are


running into gold.

smaller, and in color bright green,

41.

He\ond the

-ult <t

Bantca

is

that of Barygaza
IN

and

tin-

\riaca, \vhich

the
1

Ixr-

ginning of the

Kingdom
it

<>t

\amhanusandofall
is

Hut

part

of

King inland and adjoining Srul


called S\ r.isirmr.
It

called Ahiria, hut the coast

is

.leldin^ u heat and rue and


oil
.tn.l
1

reame
!iiaii>

hutter. cotton

.ind
[

the Indian cloths


-\

sort*.

cattle arr pastured there,

and the men are

of

great ftat-

nd hlark

in i-olr.

The metropolis
i

of this

ountry
Imuiglit

Minna^ara.
to the present

troin

\v

Inch nuu h otton


In these

loth

is

do\\ n to Har\'^a/a.

phues there remain c-\en


^edition
<.t

time
\\all

ulcr.

Mu
to

h as aiu-ient shrines,
irse

'ts

The
and

alon^ this coast,


called

and great welN. from liarlxiricum

the proinontorx
;

Papica, opposite Barygaza,


of three tlunisand stadia.

another gulf exposed to running up toward the north, at the mouth of which there i> an island called Ha-oruthis
is

.ond

there

its

innermost part there


sailing
to

is

great river called Mais.


this gulf,

Those
is

Barygaza pass across


\isihlr

which

three hundred stadia in width. leaving behind to their


the island
traiglit to
just

lett

from their tops touard the


of the
ri\

the \er\
^alU-il

mouth

er of liarxgazi;

and

this ri\c-r

i-

Nammailu-.

df

i-

hard to na\
i.s

narrow to Barygaza and \er> this those coming from the ocean
\er\
;

the case with hoth the right and


is

left

passages, hut
r

there
right

a better passage

through the
full

lef

on the

-it

the \er\
.

mouth
and

of the gulf there lies a shoal.

and narrou

of

n>cks. Called

lerone.

-ill

ig
the- left

the village
projects

<>f

tammoni; and
proinontorx
that
is

opposite- this
lies
a

theis

hrfoiv

campra, \\hich

railed Papica,

and

had anchorage
it

USe of the .strong current setting in aroiuul

and

because the anchor- are cut

otT,
the-

the hottoin being rough

and rockx.

made
with
he

satelx

And e\en the mouth of

it

entrance to
er
.it

theis

gulf

is

the- ri\

Marx ga/a
lo\\
it.

found

difficulty,

made

out until
it

because the shore isverj \ on are close upon


the passage
is

and c-annot

And

\\hen

\ou haxe found


shoals
at the-

difficult

hecausr of the

mouth
<>t

of the liver.
this, native

44.

Because

fishermen

in the-

Kind's

Service, -tationed at the very entrance in

well-manned
^o
pilot

hirge hoats called

/;v//>/w^/

and

c'jtymhti*

up the
\<

as far as Sx rastrene,

from \\hich thex

And thex steer them straight from the to Baiygaza. mouth of the hax lu-txxcen the shoals \xith their crews;
and thex
toxx

them
in

to fixed stations,

heLnnning
in

of the Hood,

going up \xith the and lying through the ehh at

anchorages and
places
tiie

basins.
as far

These
as

hasins

:ir e

deeper-

by the

river,

Barxga/a; \\-hich lies about three hundred stadia up from the


ri\-er

mouth.
45.
rivers,

Now the
at

and XCTX
the

whole country of India has great ehh and rlow of the


at

\erx

many
int<>r

tides;

creasing

new moon, and

the

full

moon

three daxs, and falling off during the inters ening days of the moon. But about Barxga/a it is much greater,
so that the bottom
is

suddenlx seen, and nox\ parts of

the dry land are sea, and


sailing just before;

now

it

is

dry where ships \\ere

and the

rivers,

under the inrush


is

of the flood tide,

when

the whole force of the sea

,mst them, are driven

upwards more strongly

against their
t

n.itur.il

Current, for

mam
are r

sta.

tli^ reason

entrance and departure of vesiose

who

\\

ho come
..t

to this

market
-it

f.>u

n fur the

first
is

tun
irresistible,

the rush

Watefl

tlir

nnomin^
-t

tiilr
it;

ind the anchors cannot hold against


utflit up cm throunh the speed the shoals and \\ n

so that

large

In th<
of

it.

tiinird broadside

the run-rut, ami so driven on

and smaller IxMtB are over-

turned:

ami those that ha\e heen turned aside


at

amon^
left

the channels h\ the receding WttCtl

the ehh. are

on their
i

sides,

and
^

if

tide

not hrld on an e\en keel In props, thrin suddrnlx and undrr .ipon
tilled \\ith

irst

head of the current the) are

uatrr.
at

in the rush of

the sea
at
\\

the

ne\\ that

nmon.
it

ill\

during the flood tidr


at

ni^ht.

\ou

lu-'^in

the entraiu'r

the moinrnt
is

hrn the
\<>ti

PC Ntill.

on the instant
a \\Ol9t

there-

home

to

at

the

mouth
1

of the n\cr.
a tar;

like

ti

trom

and \er\ soon the

sea

ir.se It

of an army tomes rush

the shoals u ith


47.
In

a hoarse- roar.
is

ThromntrN
tribe-.

inland from Uarygaza

inhabited

numerous
(

MU'h
the-

as

the

\raftn. the
I'

the

and

people of

n
is

whii'h

is

Chains .\lr\andria.

\bo\e these
are

th

\ar-

hkr nation

ot

the

Ha^trians. \\h

under thrir

oun

And Alexander,
tratrd
to the (.
'iithern part of
vii-nt

setting out

from these

parts,

and lra\m^ India; and to the prrx-nt day anaside Dainirir.t

draihma

arr current in Bars ^a/a.

coming

fnm
and

this

rountrv, hearing inscriptions in (Jrcek

letters,

4:

the device-

<t

those

\\ho

reigned

after

Alexander,
the
this

ApollodotUs and Mcnander.


Inland from
citx
tliis

placea

and to the

east,

is

called

O/ene. formerb

ro\al capital;

from

place an- brought down all things needed for the welfare of the country about Barygaza, and many things
tor

our trade:
cloth,

agate and carnelian, Indian muslins and

ordinary cloth. this sanu- region and from the upper countrx
;>ikenard that

mallow

and

much

Through
is

brought

comes through Poclais; that is, the \ip\renc and Paropanisene and C'abolitic and that
brought through the adjoining country of Scuhia; aKo costus and bdellium.
imported into this market-town, \\ine, Italian preferred, also Laodicean and Arabian; copper, tin, and lead; coral and topaz; thin clothing
49.

There

arc

and inferior
cubit wide;

sorts of all kinds;

bright-colored girdles a

storax, sweet clover, flint glass, realgar, ansilver. coin,

timony, gold and

on which there

is a

profit

when exchanged
the

for the

money

of the country;

and
for

ointment, but not \cr\ costK and not much.

And

King

vessels of

brought into those places very costly siber, singing bo\s, beautiful maidens for the
there- arc-

harem,

tine

wines, thin clothing of the finest weaves,

and the choicest ointments.


these

There

are exported

from

places spikenard, costus, bdellium, ivory, agate


all

and carnelian, Ivcium, cotton cloth of


cloth,

kinds, silk

long pepper and such other things as are brought here from the various markettowns. Those bound for this market-town from Egypt
cloth, yarn,

mallow

make
that
is

the voyage favorably about the

month

of July,

Epiphi.

41

Be\ <>nd Harygaza the adjoining coast extend* north to south; and o this re^ragt lin
is

called Dachinabades, for Jachanos in the lanoi

guage

the

natives

means "south."

inland

coimtrx hack from the coast toward the east comprises deser us and grett mountains; and all kinds
ild

beasts

leopards, tigers, elephants,

enormous
n

hyenas, and baboons of


ir .is

many sorts; and


.;
I

the (Ganges.
).u

>1.

\mon;r the market-touns

hinalttdes

thet
aboi:
1

l'i

th.uu. distant
!*-

journey south from Baryga/a;


\\hich, about
ten
dax^'

another \ery
>

gresit

journey east, the here .ire hrou^ht Tagara.


I

Barygaza from these places In \\a^ons and


tracts \\ithout roads,

through ^reat

from Pathana car-

reat quantity,

mon

cloth,

all

kind.s of

and from Tagara much commuslins and mallou cloth, and

other merchaiulise brought there local 1\ from th


ea-coast.

the \\hole course to

the end ot

Damirica

is

seven thousand stadia;

but the

to the

Coast Countrx

The

market-tou-ns of this region are. in order,


i

C'alliena. \\lucb Barygaza: Suppara, and the at] in the time of the elder Sara^amis became a lauful

markc

t-tt>\\

hut since
i-

it

came

into the possession of

Sandares the port

much

obstructed, and

Greek

ships

landing there max

chance to be taken to Barygaza


market-towns
.

under guard.
llcxoiul C'alliena there are other
of thi^ re-ion:
.im.i Scmylla, Maiulai; urn and Aunmnohoas. .ntium.
I

Meh-

The

there are the islands called Sesecriense ami that

<>t

the

Aegidii, and that of the Csenitae, opposite tin place called t'hersom-Mis ami in these places there are piraf

and

after this the

White

Island.

Thru come Nauru

and Tyndis, the first markets >f Dainirica, and then Mu/iris and Nelcynda, which are now of leading importance.
54.
is

Tyndis

is

of

the

Kingdom

of C'crohothra:

it

a village in plain sight In the sea.

Mu/iris, of the
thereit

same Kingdom, ahounds in ships .sent goes from Arabia, and by the Greeks:
a

with carlocated on

is

river,

distant
stadia,

hundred
stadia.

from Tyndis by river and sea ti\e and up the- river from the shore twcntx

sea

Nelcynda is distant from Mu/iris In river and about five hundred stadia, and is of another KingThis place also about one hundred and twcnn
is

dom, the Pandian.


river,

situated

on

stadia

from the

55.
river,

There

is

another place
to

at

the

mouth

of this

which ships drop down on the outward voyage from Nelcynda, and anchor in the roadstead to take on their can because the
the village of Bacare;
river
is

full

of shoals

and the channels are not


live in

clear.

The

kings of both these market-towns

the in-

terior.

And

as a sign to

those approaching

these- places

from the

sea there are serpents


in

coming

forth to

meet
the

you, black

color,

but shorter,
e\
<

like snakes

in

head, and with blood-red


56.

send large ships to these market-towns on account of the great quantity and hulk of pepper and

They

malabathrum.

There

are imported here, in the


:

first

place, a great quantity of coin

topaz, thin clothing, not

red

liiic-fi.s.

antimom, COnd.
nut
intuit, luir as IIHR h as at

tin,

lead;

\\inc -.

Barygaza;

realgar

for the sailoI

and orpimcnt; and wheat enough leah in l\ thr nirn liailtfc


prpprr, uhlih
l-

produced

in

i|uantit\
i

in

onl\
(

one
ira.

re-/ion

urar these markcti, a

.died

Besides this th

Teat quant

tmc
Ganges,

pearls

silk clMth.

in.il.ilvathnim

frmn the
all

in

tli

isparrnt stone* of
tnrt)isf-Nhcll
;

kinds,

ilumnmls and sapphires, and


C'hrvsr M.uul, and that taken
I

that

from

in
lit

amon^ the- islands along Dannrua. hey make the \o\atfr t. this favorahle season who set out from Kgypl
<>t

the

month

|vd\, that

i-

l-piphi.

57.

Thi- \\holc

\oyagc as above described, from


Araliia. thry used to

and Eudiemon
veasel.s.

make

small

sailing close

around

the-

B!

the milfx; and

Hippaln
of thr

-he pilot \\ho hy obscn'ing the location

ports and the conditi.


to
la\

he

sea. first discov-

ered

lio\\
.it

hi-

ronrse straight arross the ocean.

the sanu- tune \\hrn \\ith us the Ktrsian winds

arc-

hlo\\iii'4.

OH the thoTCI

India the \\iiul sets in

tromthroi'
palus.

Muth\\rst \\uui i^iallrd HIJV


;>f

from the nameI

him u ho
time

first di-,

the

paSKi
start.

rom

that

to the prrsrnt ilay ships

ma, and some from the Cape

of

Sp
head
for

.md those hound for Damirica


i

thnm
\\hile

the

ship's

onsiderahlN

orT

the

wind;

tluwe

hound

Harygaza and Sothia keep along shire not more than three days and for rhc rest of the time hold
the

same Bourse

straight out to sea

from

that region.

46

\sith a favorable
ill

wind, quite away from the land, and


tlic

outride pa-t

aforesaid gulfs.

Besom! Bacare there is the Dark Red Mountain,


anil

another distru

,nng along the coast toward

the south, called Paralia.


it

The

first

place

is

called Balita

has

fine

harbor and a village


of

h\ the shop-.
at

He\ond

this

there

i>

another platv railed C'omari,

which

are the

Cape

Comari and

a harbor;

hither

come
and

those

men

\vho \\ish to consecrate themselves for the

rest of their livrs.

and bathe and dwell


for
it

in celibacy;

women
59.

also

do the same;

is

told

that a goddess

once dwelt here and bathed.

From
In

C'omari toward the south this re-urn


(the\

extends to Colchi, where the pearl-fisheries are;

to the

belongs Pandian Kingdom. Colchi there folBeyond lows another district 'called the Coast Country, which
it

worked

condemned

criminals);

and

lies

on

bay, and has a region inland called Argaru.

At

this place,

and nowhere

else, are

gathered on the coast thereabouts; orted muslins, those called Argaritic.

bought the pearls and from there are

Amon^the market-towns

of these countries,

and the harbors where the ships put in from Damirica and from the north, the most important are, in order
the\
in
lie,

hr^t C'amara,

then Poduca, then Sopatma;

which there

the shore as
sel.s

made

of

countn coasting alonjj far as Damirica; and other MTN lar-v single logs bound together, called .iw//tw/v/;
are ships of the
\

but those \\hich


-

make

the voyage to C'hnse and to the

-ailed cfj/iimliii,

and

art-

very large.

There
in
at

are imported into these places

mirica, and the greatest parr

even thing made of what is brought

Daany

M
time from Egypt comes h
of ill

-ether uith

most kinds

the thing! that ait brought from l)amiric;i


th.it
ire

carried through I'aralia.


e trend-

\bout thr following region, th

ml the
the

cast.

King out
is

.it

sea

touard thr

we*

IS

island Pala

simimdu.

called
a

-I

ipro-

banc.

The

northern part
;

distant.

and the southern

ds graduall) toward thr west,


the

and almost tOUchd

opporifi

'

<f A/.ima.

It

pnuhues
11.

pearls,

transparent stones,

muslins, and tor-

\hout these
stretching a
grt-.:'

plac'es

is

the region

\lalia

ilong the cirast Ix-fore the inland


ijuantit\

conn
ml
tin-

^reat

of

muslins

is

made

ti

ward the east and CTossiag


iy,

there is the region thc i\or\ knoun Afl Dosarenit.


;in^
rihes,
<-n

)i>sarene, \irldthis,

He\on,l

the
l>ar-

toward the north, there arc man\


are the C'irrhada
\
(

among \\hom
;ul

\\ith flattened noses.

-r\

vi\age; another
ul

tril>c.

the

the

II.

the Lon^-fuCCS,

wh>
ul

to he cannibals.

After the M. the course turns touard the east


sailing \\ith the

ocean to the right and the


left,

shore\ie\\,
C

remaining hexond
and near
.

to the
last

Ganges
called the

into

it

the \er\

land touard the east,


it

hr\ M
it

lit.

danges,

and

rise's

and

falls in

the same ua\

as the Nile.

On

market-toun which
the

has the same nan

Ganges. malahathrum and


river,

ii"

i-h this place are brought


tic

muslins of the

finest SOTtS,

spikenard and jx-arls. and u Inch are called (.aiu

48
It
i-

said

that there arc gold-mines m-ar these places,


is

and there
just

a gold coin

\\hich
is

is

called
i.slaiul

<w///.r.

And
ocean,

opposite this rixcr there the last part of the inhahited

an

in the

world toward the


is

under thr

rising

Mm

itself:

it

called

Chr\se;

and
l-.r\

it

he hest tortoise-shell of
thra-an Sea.
64.

all

the places on the

After this region uiuler the very north,


i

th<
a

outside ending

land culled This, there-

is

\er\
silk

great iidand cit\ culleil Thina-,

from \\hich raw

and

silk

\arn and silk cloth

arc-

brought on foot through

Bactria to
rica In

Bur\gu/u, and are also exported to


of

Dumi-

way

the river

This

is

not easy of -access;

But the land of Ganges. few men come from there,


lies

and seldom.

and
the-

is

said to

The country horder on the

under the Lesser Bear,

farthest parts of
lies

Pontusand
all

Caspian Sea, next to which

Lake Ma'ot is;

of

which empty into the ocean. 65. Kverx \ear on the horders

of the land of

This

lu-re

comes together
rlut

a trihe of

men

with short hodies


they

and hroud,

faces,

and

In

nature peaceahlc;

are culled Besata\ and ure almost entirely uncix ili/ed.

They come with

their wives

and children,

cam

mi;

gn-ut pucks and plaited hasketsof

what looks like green grape-leaves. They meet in a place hetween their own countn and the land of This. There they hold a
spreading out the haskets under themsc-Kcsas mut>, and then return to their own phuv
for several da\s,
the-

interior.

And then

come

into that place

natives wutching them and gather up their mats; and

the

they pick out from the braids the rihers which the\
pctri.

call

They

lay the leaves closely together

in.

several

rs

\\ith

and make them into lulls, \\hifli they pierce tin- tilers from the matt. And thrrr arc tlircr
those

made

of

the largest
;

raves are callctl the


iniii'
r.

large-hall

malahathrum
and those
:st

th.^e

<

-I

tin-

the inr-

cliuin-hall;

of
s<

thr sinallrsC. thr -mall-lull.


iialaluthrnin. and
it

three
1>\

i*

(it

into India

those-

u ho

j.

:t.

mid thrM- places arc cither


access because of
their evces
ntcr*

and ^reat iold. or


6

else

cannot
the

Jit out because

divinr intliK

NOT]
(Numerals
Title.
rr -'l >lls Minilarlv refer to paraK

numbered

in

the tev

Periplus

\\.is

the

name

applied ID a

numerous

class of
ti.i\-

wrmngs

in

Roman

limes. \\hich

answered

fnr sailing-chart

aiul

hand-book.

The

title

might be rendered as
the term applied by
its

Guide-Book
(

ID

Title.

Erythraean Sea was


to the Indian
(iulf.
(

ircek and

Ro-

man

geographers Sea and the Persian

Kean, including

adjuncts, the

Red

A/T////Y/

means

R< f/< SD that the

modem

name

perpetuates the aneient;

but

we

are assured by Agatharchides


Kin-_
r

means, not Red Sea. but Sea of


Persian legend.
'I'he

l.iythras,

folio-.-.

following
'

is

the account gi\en In Agatharchldes oi the


Erythnir*,
is

of the name:

/)<

Man

5.

'The
famous
islands

Persian account
his

after this

manner.
i

There was

man

for
ot

birth, s'.n

and wealth, by name I, \thras, a Persian by His home was by the sea, facing toward \I\D/,eus.
\alor
desert, but \\ere BO at the time of

which are not now Medes, when

the

emin-

pire of the
to

Kryrhras

li\ed.

In the u'inter-time lie used


at his

uo

to Pasaru'ada?,
in

making the journey


life.

o\\n cost;

and he

dulged

these changes of scene no\\ for profit, and

now

for sonic
larire

pleasure of his
>f

own

On

a time the- lions

hanjed into a
rest,

his mares,

and some were slam;

while the

unharmed

but terror-stricken at what they had seen, fled to the sea. A strong wind was blowing from the land, and as they plunged into the waves in their terror, they were carried beyond their footing; and the

continuing, they

swam

through the sea and came out


of the

n the sip
a

the island opposite.

With them went one

herdsmen,
clinging
his

\outh
to

of

marked bravery, who thus reached the shore by

the

shoulders of a mare.
seeing them,
strength
of
first
its

Now

Krythras looked for


si/.e,

mares, and not


in

put together a raft of small

but secure

the

pushed

off into

building; and happening on a favorable wind, he the strait, across which he was swiftly carried by the

his mares and found their keeper also. Arfd with the island, he built a stronghold at a place then, being pleased well chosen by the shore, and brought hither from the main-land op-

waves, and so found

h as

were

dis>atisfied

with their

life

there,

and subsequently

II

all

(he other uninlufuird

.,:ai> v
t..
I

uh

numerous populations
iMilar

uh
of

was the

iflorv
t!
.it

ascribed

these- hit tire-vis,

even

d'lttn

our

un

(utir

.mm
th,

hrrr

is

irferenl tiling Iron,

>

fur

(I

'

..ost
t<>

illustrious

..

.,.-

,.f

ilui *rm,

while

(he

V.-.v
IN

vpbnaiNM)
srj

of thr

lume,

as

due

to thr io|,-r,
it

falsi

not

asinbmu
UN thr
i

t..

thr

nun u
..:

Yrsian story
in

tcsii'

Hrrr ^

kernel

tru(h,
of

referring,

hour
(I

iier (iiiH-

tlun thr

injure

thr
(

Mriirt ami
..>hir
1

PlSanrad^-.
art >und

It

Suggests thr th<


i>\

i.iuntr
!

Arabia, as set fnnh


.tin,
\\

(,

,1

|{.,min

h.i M-ttlrd in tht-ir

thr lul.
rpithrt of

.U

the aocy ol a and thru %pread


or

altmu South Arahu, Iraxing

"Rrd"

"rudd-.

many

Deluding thr M.I that u.i-Ju-.i thnr shores and floated o( the Rrd People^" or, oooidbi t> Acathar.1

under

1.

Designated ports.
.IN

Trade
it,

U.IN

hunted to
i

pn
I

of entry
Mipcr-

cstahlt

the text has

'*d

l>\

l.i

vbed
MIC h

unriit
ports

ohSuaUuhn
.

U-vird .lui.o
1'tolein
-

on the

under the

many u r rc alv.

ports of entr\ maintained In the \.ibat.ran Kin ji>in, h\ the I |..mrriir ^ -in in .:id In tl slahlished Kingdom of thr
<

Axumitrs.

the latter, possibly,

farmed

v:\ptun (Ireeks,

now Ro-

man

subjects.

.iesiuna(ed."

and
>i

translates

therein strainmu' (he

n.

and losing

"frequented," its obvious dr-

MTIptlon
I

,.t

tuier the early

Ptolemies,

who

succeeded Alexander the (rcaf,


I

Egypt went
i'tole.m
II.

far

toward recovering her former \\ealth and glon


-

called I'lnladelpln.
<

the canal
*ii:u'

and the Red Sea


about (he
<>(},

oriumallx
,

h\

.,nr

..f

the
1

tl .,,:.

reojx-ned under the l.mpire in the

Sih

century, and partly reopened hy the Persians under Darius


lenti.

the Sfh

more open
\\ells

to

comment
1

\arious canmui-n*j(r%,

carefulK pn>\ ided with


the river

and (he

sea,

and stoppmu-places, were opened be;uted pom of miry and where


t

'.ished

and colnni/c

.1

.m shipping on the
the

Red

Seat

was encouraged, and

regular trade

was oper

\rahia,

and the

tribes of the

Somali
this

Ihe nanu-s
1\ -i

of

all

these ports, and a


'

dcsi riptmn

of

ne\\

reatcd

commcn c,

in

tomantic enthusiasm, are given by A.Mth.uvhides in his \\ork At the time of this Pcriplus, tin- remainn the l.nthnran Sea.
ing settlements

seem to be Arsinoe, M\os-hormus,


The other places
mentioned

IJcrcnicc, Ptolcmais

and

Adulis

by Agatharclmlcs

had

probably

lost their

beyond the straits r.ulf of Aden.


1.

importance as the l.^vptian ships ventured farther and frequented the richer markets that fringed the

\\ithintheheadland
.<5

Mussel Harbor (Myos-hormus is identified with the bay now known as R.is Aim .Somer, 2712'N.,
,

55'

K.

It
it

uas founded by Ptolemy Philadelphia


1

II.

274.

He

selected

as the principal port of Kuyptian trade with India, in


,

which uas closer to prefcieiuc t< Arsinoe (near the modern Sue/. the Kgyptian capital, but difficult of access because of the bad

Myos-hormus \\as distant through the upper waters of the Red Sea >r se\en days from I'optos on the Nile, along a road opened Straho \YII. I. 4S through the desert by Ptolemy Philadelphia.
"at present C'optos

are frequented.

and Myos-hormus are in repute, and they Formerly the camel-merchants tra\eled in the night,

directing their course by


ried with

obsen

in g

the stars, and, like mariners, car-

them

a supply of water.

But

now

watering-places are pro-

vided;

water
is

is

also obtained by digging to a great depth,


rain

and

rain-

water

found although

rarely

falls,

which

is

also collected in

reservoirs.
\

essels

Coptos is the modern Koft, in the bend of the Nile. bound for Africa and Southern Arabia left Myos-hormus

about the autumnal equinox, when the N. W. wind then prevailing Those bound for India or Ceycarried them quickly down the gulf. lon left in July, and if they cleared the Red Sea before the first of

September they had the monsoon


ocean.
1.

to

assist

their passage across the

Sailing.

The

ship used by the author of the Periplus prob-

ably did not differ very materially

from the types created

in

Egypt long

before, as depicted in the reliefs of the Punt Kxpedition in the I)er-elBahri temple at Thebes, and elsewhere. By the first century A. I)

the single square


height of the
B. C.
,

sail,

with two yards, each

much

longer than the


1

sail,

which distinguished the shipping

of the

5th century

had been modified by omitting the lower yard and by increasing the height of the mast; while a triangular topsail had come into

The artimon or sloping foremast, later developed into a general use. bowsprit, was not generally used, even in the Mediterranean, until The accompanying illustration of a modern Burmah the 2d century.

Irr,

uliuh
.

;>

in

iii.uiy

ways thr shipbuilding ideas of anall

probably gives a better idea of our author' * ship than any


<>r
,

of the (Jreek
r.u

Roman oins

or rrlicK, \\huh were

of

Molttrr-

and purposes. In the Indian Ocean naxiuation drprudrd on the trade- wind*, \..\.i L nrd so that the slup ould run bcforr the wind in
built f>r tliffrrcnt c-oiuiitioiis
'(
.
i

\\ithout

i-alliiii!

the rudder info


tiller

nun h use

ThbwBft

he quarter, the steersman plyinu the


.

fnun

hi* station high in

oxc-rlookinu the

whole
a

\essel
--t

Hippalus* d
in

the pernuiu n\
it

the trade-winds, described

S 57, carried with


the
\\ind, to

knowledge of steering fhe boat somewhat


This

off

reach a destination farther M>uih than the straight


jv.sxihle

was done

partly bv the rudder,

but lar^elx bv shiftinu the

"hi-

lateen

sail,

as exemplified

in

the

Arab

,///>,;<,
II

the

Bombay

loria, and so on, came into use about used lv. Arab and Hiiuiu, rather th.i

tin-

4th centu".
in

C., but was

CM (iieek
.s

Ancient an.:
////ten ntif A-

Sailing Ships an./ their Pritrhnt: M/ tches of SAi/>/-tri ,111.: //>/; :nt Shipping anJ Ancient Commerce \ Charnnck.
:

//.-/.,

II

>

Ja

Archfologie Naval*.

1.

Stadia.

Three
l

.stadia

were

iii

use in the
(

Roman
)lympic

world
ol

at

thi> time.

the Philctcrian of 525 to the decree, the


;cncs, of

anil

Jin.

Reduced
.

to Knglish

measure

this

would make the Phili-u-rian stadium equivalent to alxmt h.Sn ;id that ilu-iu-s ah<ut OI\mpK- ahni-;adium of the IVriplns
fnillvspeakinu, ten
st

feet, tin-

seems
the

to In- that of

Kratostheiu
Km_'lish
statute mile
that
all

ulia of

IVriplus to the
it

\vuihl he a fair calculation.

But

must not he forgotten

.imeil in this text are

approximations, based prindpallv on


in

the

length of time

consumed
t<>

iroinir

naturally \arieil

according

directi.m
well.

of the

from place toplaie, \\liuh wind and current, of


'I'he

sailing-course,

and other factors as

distan

icrally

ami without any means of arrix imj at an irixen in round numbers; exact calculation, the h'jures in the text ran be considered only as
approximation*,

system <>t mrasiirement laid do\\ n b> I'tolrmy, the circumference of the earth was estimated at 180,000 stadia

According

to the

SOO

stadia to the degree.


'I'he true length

is 600 stadia. Greek stadium (being the length of the race-course at Olympia), was 600 (Ireek feet, or S to the Roman There was a later stadium of which 7'- went to the Roman mile.

O f the degree

The Olympic

or standard

mile (1000 paces, 4854 Knglish feet). survived in Arabic science, and thence

This, the 1'hileterian stadium,


in

the calculations of

Kurope;

being very nearly the Knglish furlong.


to Col.

According
1

Olympic stadium
Nautical mile

Leake's calculations, 606.75 Knglish

feet.

10
1

=6067.50

or,

1 Admiralty knot by Clarke's measurement,

= 60S= =
1
.
,

= 6075. 50
6087

Therefore,
In

Olympic
t 4

stadia
* 4

minute of the equator.


44
( (

1 de.

Roman
i

milr
nu .|,sh mile

M
til

m,tr
Illllrs

"

1000*n/*/ 1000 pa**

4SS4 Knglnh 5090


|

(ret.

degree.

*9 to

Roman

miles

be exa
1'v

The

earth's

Kngluh * 1 mar mi nautical milev


'
-

dearer

<>n tlu-

..-...i-

to

69.5

SUM
K

Has geographers, in

|4'*4,

^\c 21.62$
followed
is.

naiir -In- globe 1-lhth larger

than

it

really

Vespucci, following I'toleim ami Alfra.-an. figured 6000

HUM Ron
umhus.
Ml
tin
foli

as the measure- of tlir car*

360, 16*3 leagues


.irious

made

Arabian Beographcrs,

nude

the

leagues.
>n

goesback tosomr drtiuiti(n based


to

<>n IS.I.

iini:

the valuation of 1734 league*

to

the

degree had become general. .is admitted on both


figure
is

At the
sides,

treaty of /aragcr/a, in

\cr\

lost- (..

17>7 leagues.

All ancient calculations


d
i

\\rre based
1

on dead reckoning.

'l"he

omr
ilc

info use until

Saint- Martin, Lt
1

Ntnt Jt rAfrtqtu Jams

I'Amtx^mtik frr*fme

nmmimt. Paris, 1863 p. 197. Samuel Edward Dawson


:

The

hut of Drmarraftim /

/V

Altx*mJ<

tk*t of tht Trtaty of TorJfiiltat, in Tranxactioni of the Royal Society of 2, pp. 467 ff. Canada, 1199: Vol. V.

mm*

I.

Berenice (named
th

for the
'

I'mn
I

mother of holcmv Phibdelphus), Hay, below Ras

and.i

fe

Roman

miles,

or

11
still

da*

s,

a road across the desert


in

c ruins

ttstble,
is

from r\en

the center
.reek

an trmple with hieroglyphics and bas-rrl


I

'hen-

is

a
:

tine natural harbor, hut the bar

b mr
rod

at

lou

Strabo

XVI.
IVr.pius,

l\

6) mention* dangerous

and \iolrnt \\nuis from the sea.


the
>:
f

tune of

this

Berenice seem

to

ha e been the

port of
the an
1

Egypt

for the

Kastern trade, and

was probably the

S6

Berber Country.

This word means more than the "land


like

of the barbarians," and seems,

our modern "Barbary

States,

to

refer to the Berber race, as represent ing the

am -lent

Tlamitic stock of

North Air

The name
.tils

itself

seems

to be foreign to the people,

and

is

prob-

ably related to the

Arabic bar, a desert;


or ruddy people,
all

and

its

application to

North

that ancient

when

the

Red Men,

nu e-oppositmn about the (iulf of Aden, oxercamc the "children of the


North Africa and carried the name with

ad over

them, submitting: time after time to similar Semitic conquests, I'hcrnician, Carthauinian or Saracen.

The
Me.

occurrence

of the

name throughout North Africa


of
its

is

re-

We
district

have the modern Somali port


of Berber (and

Bcrbera, the Nile

toun and
rins or

inhabitants, the Barbara, Barbe-

Barbarins,
the

who

appear

in

the ancient

Beraberata

Barbary States, the

Theban inscriptions as modern Berbers or Kalnles;


coast of

and

at

the western extremity, on the Atlantic


tribe calling

Morocco,

still

another

themselves Berabra.

ancient Egyptians extended the word to include the meanings of savage and outlandtr, or public enemies in general; and from them the Greeks took the word into their own language, with like mean-

The

The

Berbers of the Periplus probably included the ancestors of

the Bcjas between the Nile and Red Sea, the Danakils between the I'pper Nile, Abyssinia and the (Iulf of Aden, and the Somals and
Gallas.
2

Cave -Dwelling Fish -Eaters, Wild -Flesh -Eaters,


,

Calf-Eaters.

The original names, Ichtkyipkep (Tiogfodytae add nothing to our ethnic knowledge, being Moschophagi, dgriophagi, merely appellations given by the Greeks; and they are therefore
:

These tribes are represented by the modern Bisharins.

"C'alf-l.au -rs"

seems

to

mean

eaters after the style of calves,

i.

e.

of

green

things, rather than eaters of calves.

Some commentators would


the

replace dgriophagi by Acridophazi, locust-eaters.


2.

Meroe

was the

final capital of

Kingdom

of Nubia.

It

became

the royal seat about 560 B. C. and continued as such until a after this Periplus, when the kingdom, worn out by con-

tinued attacks by the tribes of the desert and the negroes of the Sudan,
fell

to pieces.

It

was located on the


fertile
is

Nile,

below the 6th

cataract,

but just within the


\tbara;

and

region that begins ab<.\e the confluence of identified with the modern Begerawiyeh, about

57 VI*
frrtilr v.illrv
,.t

thr n\cf IS flf a* ihr

comprttrd the Nilr drka and ihr 1 Cat araCt, ihr modem AttUMt

madr
tiatunU barrier.

thr

oirram

unpayable for
detrrt hug
it

b>tS
ihr

Jiul

Above Auuan the

mrr

close until above the Sth (ataratt,


the-

uhm
I

gitrs plate to iiprn fertile

island
it

the dixtame
.

<-r

about
I

<>OH

inilc-s

lepham.ne and Assuan, and the dim i Imr, and by about 480 n ln narrow strip of river -hrd was Ndbss
..(
,

lie
s

Atbara,

nd> thr

Nile

tome 40 nulr
at

brluw

<

MI

nonhcrn Abvuii
.m
..t (

Khartum, about ISO


lilur
r

above Meroc, thr from the IIIHIIMI.IIMS


n
lest M>
1
1

lirs

a^um,

ihr

Nilr fuming

'rnirul

Anthara, and the

1-

Nyanza

lake*

.>n<

urrr mure or
Hamitic slock
uiui\ili/rii

">u at diffrrriu (xruuix, but fhrir population

Nsinian highlands u-crc peopled h\ a


,ui.ins
.is

\\.ll

..s

tn

thr

Mill

.idem and western desert, hut with a in nefro and a strong strain of Arabian origin Ihr upper reaches of
peopled
or licrber.
I

tribes,

cnprelv

From

the
i

mouth
rc.u

of

thr
t

from <J! \mut Red Sea there wa a


thr Atlura Ri\

.UTOXX the
xo to tin
da.
\iit-.

.Mjhlands

and other mutrx

hrd \|rmr from the Sudan and


\*

Theiue
market for
the

the products of trade found their

ay down-stream
to
-

:>hantine,
ic
its

beyond uhuh
all
I

no nruro wax permmed

dem

town, Anuan, rtpcMS

history, as

\ery

name means "market."

mdan

i\<>r>, panther xkms and ostru h feathers, from the Nubian desert east of the Nile, cold, from the Red Sea across h, frankincense, and various fragrant woods and resins: \\lmh ufrc in Constant demand for the Kgypcian treasury and

ny and

the service of the temples, and provided a constant reason for


LX)ntrol of this

important avenue of
i

In the early period of the Kgyptian nation the jw.wrr

entered in

the Delta, but a loose control


t

seems

to

have been maintained between

Old

tribes appearing in the inscriptions as During the prosperous period of the probably negroes. Kmudom, between the .<0th and 2>th i enturm H. C* the river-

and 2d cataracts over

routes

and Egyptian ships sailed the Red Sea as Then came a period of disorder and ike far as the untry. fall of the Delta dynasties, followed m the :2d century by the rise of

were kept

in order,

the

rheban or Middle Kingdom, the dynasties of the Amenemhets These kings fully conquered the nver tribes to the >esostrises

58
tin- eastern desert, 2d cataract, as well as the Nubian troglodytes" where they dexelopt -d the ^old-mines that added 10 imu h t> their In this period, from tin- 22d to the IXthcenwealth and power.
>t

he

name "Cush"

fiitt

ration overland to the Nile

appears in the inscriptions, imliby the wan-

dering C 'ushite-1. lamite tribes who had left their home at tin- lu the IVrsian (Iidt some 300 \cars previously. and who, after M-tiling
in

the incense-producing regions of Southern Arabia and

Soma
i

whence the\ had opened trade with Mesopotamia, had The name Clish" the same trade to its others cat market in l.<j\pt. seems to ha\e included not only the Nile \alley between the M\ and
and 6th
ently a
cataracts, but

much

of the highlands.
in great

These people, apparh\ the


1

mongrel race, were held


annals contain

contempt

"._'>

ptians,

numerous references such as the follov "Impost of the wretched Cush: gold, negro slaves, male and female; oxen, and calves; bulls; vessels laden with ivory, ehonv,
all

the good products of

this

country, together with the harvc

this country.*'

tf

M0
of the

After the

fall

XMth

dynasty, 1788 B.

C, came

a period
f

of feudal disorder, followed by an invasion from Arabia and a

This was ended dynasty, the H\ksos, probably Minsean Beduins. of the establishment of the Umpire Arabs and the the expulsion by

These U reat IM.aunder the XYlIIth dynasty (1580-1350 B. C.). raohs carried the Egyptian arms to their widest extent, from Asia Minor
and possibly even farther south. The collapse of Rameses III (1167 B. C. ) left Nubia still Invasions from the west resulted in a series of Libyan Egyptian. which began, under Sheshonk or Shishak I, by reasserting dynasties, over Syria and by plundering the temple of Solomon and sovereignty
to the 4th cataract

npire at

the death of

the treasures of the newly-established


latter part

Kingdom

of

Israel;

but the
princes

of this administration was so inefficient that

Theban

established in

Nubia separated from Kgypt and formed a new king,

dom, now

called Ethiopia (indicating a growing Arabian settlement with capital at Napata, below the 4th cataract (the modern ( Jebel

Barkal), subsequently invading Egypt and establishing their over the whole valley, from ~22 to <><>; H. C Then came the Asfirst the definite syrian invasions, conquest of by Esarhaddon and then
,

Thebes is Nahtim (III, 8-10). The Nubians withdrew to Napata. There they were attacked by the resof under Psammetichus II, and about 560 15. C., transpower Egypt
Egypt proper by Assurbanipal
in

661 B. C.

The

ruin of

vividly described by the prophet

ferred their capital to

Meroe; a much

better location, less

open

to

59

attack

tr

>nh,
I

a fertile region
r

id the

dim
I

|.ufh

-.f

the
<

41-.

u.ulr
.

capita)

fmm the outh and eari. Hrrr they hm ked the army of s<->. ulmh ma.ie .-ypt a Persian pro\i The M! mt his hands for 4 time. t>ut the country waa not Mb
iiM.iisturhr,!.
4ii.l

^ypl by Alexander rhe Great. with hit fUCCCMOn, the Htolemie*, ihry
*

notwithstanding the active policy

un Miprenui
>;'
I

in

rhr

Kcd

Sea.

N. Y., If
province and the Ni
the
t)i<

r.

Roman
I'heir

quern,

<

iVtroniuftdettroyrd
.Inl
.Irsert;
I

-rmbo,

kingdom was

engulf'

and

Plnu, u hovr
'

\ itur*J
t

HnHty
in

wm
I

)
,

notei thai
t

and towns

embasty

67

Id tr

and

that tlu

<,

wafcbut a

and

tl

tt

M
C
!

National decay had done its work; bud from the attacks of the Derhers had joined
:l
.!
:

"Kin'jilom

.f

rhr .\\unur.,'

/hlandf to the

In

i,

under the

l'\ /.:

>ia

again
mriu-

md
tuin.

prosperity.

Its

new capital,

the mi*.
its

hrr.unr a

KM

hristian thought,
1

and nuintained
KgypC;

.nl

<>\rrrun
.

new
1

irruption

only hnally to from the

desert,

under thr spur


d<

and

t.

leave .ja

\byvinian

highbnds the

onophysite C Christianity.

of //if Jnif,
of the Kizyptians a-

II,

9) has an account of a war

;M:III>,

utuier rhe

command of Mote*.
-mnl-

puns were
.

hnally driven hack into their capital. Sjru


aft
it

Cambyses
:

the
tx-

name of Met

to his Msrc

ing situated at the conrKix of the N va^hnall rhr >uth


>

men

as the conditmi

.luuhtcr

Thar!

^e<' marriage with the had fallen in love with him.

the ohvious anachronisms in thisitory.

M
rulnl,
if

the
not

name

of

the-

Saha.

indicate* that

one fact is of Nubia wa

mamlx peopled, by Arabs, wh> had followed the the R<M Sea. from the mouth trade-mutes
f

Punt ittut fa tufarakuktn R**k<.

*e* that N.

60
also
rian
is

inscriptions,

a Semitic name, probably Nabat, allied to Nabatu of the Assyto Nebaioth (son of Ishmacl), and to the later

Nabaurans of Herodotus (II, 8) refers to the "mountain of Arabia" extending from north to south along the Nile, stretrhiin.: up to the Krythr.ran is a t\\<> Sea, and says that at its greatest width from east to west
it

months' journey; and that "eastward its confines produce frankinHere also is an indication of the connection of Nubia \\ith cense."
SomaJiland, confirmed by the
in

pompous

titles

of the later Cushite kings

Meroc (Ed. Meyer:


.<.

Geschichte Aegyptens t

359):

"Kings

of the

four quarters of the world and of the nine distant peoples."

Ptolemais.

This

is

identified with

Kr-nh
delta.

island,
It

189'N.,
fortified

38

27' E., the southern portion of the

Tokar

was

by Ptolemy Philadelphus (B. C. 285-246), and became the cento of the elephant-trade. Being situated near the Nubian forest, where elephants abounded,
its

location

was very

favorable.

formerly imported their elephants

from Asia;

The Egyptians had but the cost was high


hunters to Nubia,

and th

supply uncertain, and Ptolemy sent his

own

against the will of the inhabitants, to obtain a nearer supply. From very early times there was a trade-route from the
to the Nile at this point, terminating near

Red

Sea

closely to the railway recently built

Meroe, and corresponding between Berber on the Nile and

Port Sudan on the


3.

Red

Sea.

Adulis.

The

present

port
lies

is

Massowa,

center

of

In-

Italian

colony of Eritrea, which

near the mouth of the bay of

Adulis.

Zula.

The ancient name is preserved in the modern villa The location has been described by J. Theodore Bent
of
the Ethiopians,

the west side of Annesley Bay, and

It is on London, 1896: pp. 228-230'. numerous black basalt ruins are still visible there. Adulis was one of the colonies of Ptolemy Philadelphus, and was always of commercial importance because it was the natural port for Abyssinia and the Sudan. It seems to have been built by Syrian Greeks. Here was the famous inscription reciting the

crtd City

conquests of Ptolemy Euergetes (B. C. 247-223) with an addition by Aizanas, or El Abreha, King of Abyssinia about 330 A. D., for a

copy of which
Indicopleu
4.

we

are indebted to the Christian Topography of

Cosmas

Coloe.

The

ruins of

Coloe were found by Bent


It
is

at

Kohaito,

flat plateau Chap. XII,). miles in the above many extent, high surrounding country (7000 feet) and thus cool and comfortable. It seems to have been the main set-

{Sacred City of the Ethiopians,

a large

dement, and Adulis the trading-post, which was inhabited no mote

61

necessary because of
fig,

its

hoc climate
fret
,

and

gates 5

one place 74 mi hrs v\ i.Jr fen


in
%

here i a fae dam, mche* above bed-ruck, with


I

the

u hole buik

of large cut

MOMS

Urge Ukr uiniM hate formed arc numerous MUMS of stone templo and dwelling, the ar\\
111

hm

u xr

nrr

resembling
:

that
a*

at

Adulis,

apparently Hloiema

many

il.isrr
xe

thin(<>

'.MI

near Adulu in be the ancient i'*lne.


i

kit iu

mis

ovrrlnok the

sfiH

Inn

up the

niountjii.,

uhu

I.

vrpdd

,ke longer in pmp.>riiMii than thr %ul*r<|urnl niad ofer fhr


luhlr
l.iiul
1

In-

nap

(ilaier note*

the

same
Islands
II,

as the Arabic Kala'a.

insrnr
ii.fi

anas), and

is

Punt and df imiamtiukm Re*k< \\huh .;<-a-, ,-. the Adult* tirmnl f-.-m the tame wiurce as
t
<

.,

and Calon mountaniH


tlu
Al.il
i
i

in

southeastern Arab'
?:

deriviH
i

Islands in tlm

fn.m the tame

f'.lUH-.

K.llll

!\<>i\
Kin-!
\!

In

die
'

HIM -iipthiiiN of
tlu
v
\

llarkhuf, an
II
I

Assuan noble
.< iu r% fhr

|ih

|)x,,.,stx
ia I

as a

Com men
(

artulr in Kk!)p<

:iled

(from

the-

oumtrx

am, southrrn Nubia) with

^scs laden
anil

with inirnse, ebony, grain, panthrr>, i\.r>, throw-

exrry

good
I.

proilin't

uas

m.rr
bet

vijtlant

than any
h-.
.,

caravan-conductor
'.rdi 9
I

who had been

sent to

Yam

f Egypt,

hrrr arc numerous records of the receipt of i\ry,

in

commerce
.

under the

XV

Nth

>\

nasty;

\rabia-, (inhn
h

NKIIIIIX

coming from Trhenu Nomaliland God's Kuna Muria Island* ;. CttSfc


.*nd
i

C'ountries,
.

Retenu

Isy

(Cyprus).

Also

.tile

of i\.t\

hairs, tahirs,

hests, Statues,

and whips

ular records OCCU1


in
il
I

the

km/

unde-r the XlXrh an.l XXlh dynasties; the Papymi Harrii, bring an item in a Iwt of gift* of Rato the god Ktah. N. .m.. x throne was of ivory, overlaid whh L'ld. and harshixh" brought him the ivory every three yean,
I,

ii

together with nold ami sil\er

apes and peacocks

Kui^

Cyeneum
4
first ki

is

the

modern Sennaai

Eastern Sudan.

City of the people called Auxumite*. This i% the of Axum, and senes very nearly to
its

fix

the date of

foundation

Pliny

mention the Asachar

living south of

of this period and oth Men* and known as eirphaiM-

62

hunters j

and

their

stronghold,

Uppidum

Sac<e,

probably the
t!

same

settlement as

Axum.
of

Bion speaks of Asachae five days from


in the
>4

and Ptoleim locates a "city of the Sacse"


has no knowledge

Tiure highlands, hut


;he
.

A xu in

Pliny

VI,

iltoi

\scit.i

\\ho brought myrrh and frankincense to South Arabia cm their raits dcrixation <f'the name from supported on inflated skii), and
askus,

bladder;

but both

names' reproduce rather

tin-

mountainous

coast of South

Arabia, east of

Hadramaut,
.

called

li.isik

ASK

in

identlyan ethnic and geographic


Ascitae,

between Hasik, the Asaoh* or

and

Axum
\\

Axum,
ma.
is

the ancient capital and sacred city of the kingdom


still

e call
is

the place of coronation


its

for

its

kings.
call

Abyssinia

the I^atinized

form of Mabash. while

people

thcmsel\<

Habash is translated by modern ftwiwr, Hellenized into Acthiopians. while Herodotus Arabs as "mixture," explained Aethiopia as "land
of the sunburned faces;" each explanation being, probably, incorrect.

The

Habashat appear likewise along the eastern terraces of South cenArabia (Mahra) where they were the dominant race
t
1

turies before the Christian era.

Pausanias

'

d<

S//H

<

speaks of a "deep bay of the Krythr.i an Sea, having islands, Abasa the Roman andSacaea" (probably Kuria Muria. Masira, and Socotra
'

writers mention an Abissa Polis in this region, and Stephanus of

P>\-

/antium says "beyond the Sab;rans are the Chatramotitae (Hadrathe I^tr\ptian inscriptions we learn maut) and the Abaseni."
1

mm

that

one of the Punt-people visited in their trading voyages Hirst/, and dwelt, apparently, not only in Mahra, but also
1. astern

\\;is

tailed

in

Socotra

and

Somaliland.

Glaser derhes the

name Habash from

a Mahri word, meanine

"uaihere Synonymous with this is Aethiopian or Itiopyavan, which he derives from atyoh, "incense;" and it is Significant that evefl in the time of the Periplus their ancient home in Mahra \\as still the

"Frankincense Country."
the mission of
tin

As "gatherers

of incense," then, \\eha\e

This people, like their predecessors from the same region, the Cushites u ho traded with lialnlon and Thebes, a branch of whom, 'Intermarrying with the names" 16 >, helped found the Nubian Kingdom, and like the 'Periplus,
Asaclut- or Axumites.

ments

Punt or Poen-people of the Theban inscriptions, left their settlein Mahra, Socotra and Somaliland (the true frankincense

country) and migrated westward, settling hnally in the Tiure hiirhlands, where for the first time they established an endurin-j puer.
Hut their migration was different from the others,
.irfare
in that
it

was due

and oppression rather than

trade.

41
'

Ir.

Habathac or
use-land*,

tamtfcn" were
and. perhap*. reU-

and thnr
ihrin

aliie*

h- Saforans,

worked with

thr

jm

and imrrtw trade

'lirn at thr hri.-ht of

lift

procprn!\
hrl.i

..t

thr

Tstr.i h>

hnSTHIHM power AgatharchioW Thr Hafaaiiat


and
inui h
f

Ufuirr

ihr

TW

Sococra and

Cape

(tuarc!afui,

the

r-**i

A
lentr*

coast.

Hut the

MI.

rdrr aloog

the south

Arabian
,

Humar
of
flu-

ti:.-

Naki-ans.
il>rs iintit
t

ladranuut.
ii

k. .:..)'.. i.

and ihr Habjhaf


of

IVtxian
id,

\\ ith ihr cattMiatunrnt

I'urthun, or A:
thr.>

N.I.

rin;

r a

wave
.vt

tongue* by
In
,

ihr

Parthians

Arahi.i
in.
I

ftin

l'f..l(

-u rjrtr%, taid

inn

on thr
.itii

Siiin.il
hit
I

rne-

Unls
Hadr.i
CJIas*

lien

came
;.,i:.
x

"
.ii.|iu-sr

<?

kaiakin h)

.trinii.-

h\

Himyar
<>f
.

againaf the Sabvaiia.


t

M npti.ni
.Mih thrr<tuui
.iiiauiNt

telling

an alluUH

Umi.
for

MIH rsM
Hnii\.ir

.tlu,

mutual

Madraiiuiit and
>t
(.

This tJatrs

!rom abHil
..f

Uidorus
nit-lit!..

'hai.i

MN

a
,'

v!
tlu- lanu'ua-jf
>t

(J...HN..S

tin-

Auguatltf, thr InoefMe-Couflffy, named (, ^ H.iS.^Ki


in
1
.

thr tinir

L'trrward thr
.ittai

ParthuiiN rrnrwrd
>.thg

tmm

thr

East]

II

..

and demoliihed
a

t,

and Hadianiaut moved on Habasfa


;IL'

and

*T

its

grpcwatti iM'U'nimn"
I

had way.

airiii'.:

a dirt-it sea-tradr
MI;

from

It

\mu
I..H L
-

Indian emhaaiie*, and


gulf to

up

tli

\\huii had so
I

Jusrd thr Arabian

Indian shippmu
.il

)rsp,,ilrd of thru
at (

Arabia and of

artuitu-s
I

uardaftn, ihr Haba*hat MMieht a


!nu!t
i

nru

-i

in

thr

in

highlands
the

!mh soon hecamr


.ttural
tra.

it\

thnr ctronghold, the <>? \\unt It lay


\dulis the
d through a
fertile

trom
Ri\(

India

:>ara

(.ttiintn

instrad ot

thr drsrrt to thr north


thr lowlands could

Urn.

thru, to long as
.

hr

domnutrd.

viale

Could

.>:ui

IK-IK

i-

thr

"mi%erl>

in Ins

,m\mv:
>f

for ni
its

MX irniunr* ihr

net*

kinudom
I'arthians

Abyssinia krpt up
its

allunir \\\r

and C'm*iannallir*

auainst

am

irnt

and Persians
\rahia;

rnrnnrs thr Hoinrntrs. and thor Thr kinmlom ^rew apace, and lu u
until thr latrr

thr

it

o%rr-

and not

Mohammedan

conquests

64

us
to

power broken and


for

preserve,

its people shut up in hundreds of years unknown

their
to

mountains, there

the outside world,

their

Monophysite

Christianity.

The

Alnssinian Chronicles
<>f

make

/. scales
kiii'js at
t->r

a:

the time of
It

the

IVriplus, the sue* esx..t

a lonu line of

.\\uni.

is

probable

iahashat had frequented the


Mirypt receded. Init
until

oumm
i..|.nists

arrnturx bet
than
state-builders,

as

railu-r
>t

driven from

Arabia,

and
tribal

that

most

/..scales'
final

predn

ualrlucfs and not

kin^s.

The

migration

G
\

places not far from the Christian era.

The Abymnians were


Before that time then

converted to Chriitianit]
I

al>out

330

I)

outside

iiitluenre
,

may ha\e been


I,

Buddhism.

Janu--

History of Architfctut,

142-S

notes

Monoliths

at

Axuin
Indian inspiration;

that the great

monolith

at

Axum
Indian.
first

is

of

"the idea
p.,

Egyptian,

but the details

An

Indian nine-storied

translated in Egyptian in the

century of the Christian era!"

He

notes

its

likeness to such Indian temples as

Uodh-(

iaya,

and

represents **that curious marriage of Indian with Kiryptian art which we would expect to find in the spot where the two people aim- in
(

and enlisted architecture


Mi-

r,

%ymbojtw

il,

A us to thr
'

flopped thnr
-.iking

\reb

advantage of (hr Hindu iradm. af Oorfis on ikr Arabian iiioti

lYnplus,

their

tarv-.r^
all.. \\.-.i

ihnu
dirtn
t..

,,i

wai a new power


utui

that
h
>-.

trj.ir

t..

by caravan; \\jlnr%and
In

rxrii
I

(*>

m.r
!

rrlami and takr (hnr v%arr

EfFpt

lUiarukarha.
(

\\utn and Alexandria

lie

fine

and second Chriitian ccntuhc%. Mid

Bodh-Gaya, India,
the

dttinff

from

early

Mh

rrntury

scr\cr if the early relations Urtxveen

may

find along this frequented route greater evidence of


MJ

Buddhism and ChradaniQr mutual innV


overland
route*

the

relatively obstructed
;>hesus.

through

Parth

By

the third ceniun. with the


fall

he u'r\\th
^ai-id
l\r)ast>',

.f AntnHh and Byzantium, and the ne teudeiu-y would be the nher

66
Scr

GUser:
.;

Dif Abcstintfi
in

:/</.

Munich, 1895.
fo

(A
nnJ

masterly marshaling of inscriptions

support of his thesis. ibOTC Miimnati/ciM


Berlin,

Pmtt MM./

:tflirn

Rcichr,
;

1899;
1880.

G*9grafihif Arahimi, Berlin, 1890 in Kon. PrrusN. ALul. il


I

Dillinai
!in,
1

<.r

the inter

Buililhi.Mn aiul cat!

'miiuls:
'"

BuitJh'nt
I

an./

C.hrntnin
,

(!o.i/>f/.<

n>.

il.ulrlphu

4th edition

1908.

4.

Alalaei

Isl.uuU.

fiete

preserve th!

name.

lu-in<j

called

Dahalak.
5.

Thc\ lir at thr entrance to Anncslcv Bay of the Opsian stone. \\\\^
a>
,

is

uh-rmhnl
I

with

Mauakil
IN

north of Ras

U
I

lanhlah. I4

44'

4<l

lanfilah"

Ainphila, the Jntipluli Portu* of Artrmulorus.


Ph:

\\.\\
\\.is

'

I.

the ol>M;ui >tonc

.is

lie

sprlU

it

of

Acthiopia

\rr\ dark, soiiR-tinu-s transparent, hut dull to the

M'jht.

and

reriei'ted the

shadow

rather than the ima-je.

It

\\

as used in

his da\
It

for i'\velr\
\\.is

and

for statues

and \oti\e oflerinus.


a

used by the Kmperor Doniitian to face


IK-

poituo,
detect

that

from the refections on the polished surface approaehinn from behind.


It

ini'jht

am

one

seems

to ha\ e

been

\nlfank- ulass, feldspar

in a inor.

pure

state,
It

and the same


also,

as our obsidian.

was found
in

ItaK,

and

Portugal;
Salt
(

anordinu to Pliny, in India, and it was extensively imitated


Jhyssinia, pp.

at

Samnium
j_'lass.

in

in

Henry
to the

I'rjyagf into

190-4

f,

describes his
h\
a hill,

\isit

Bay of the Opsian stone, which he "was delighted with the

which was marked


siirht

near
<>!
.1

of a urcat

many

pieces

black substance, bearing a \ery hiyh polish,


that lay scattered about

much
it,

resembling

on the uround

at a

short distance from the sea;

and

collected nearly a hundred specimens of

most

of

uhich were

<\\o. three,

or four inches in diameter.


in

)ne of the natives told


arc-

me
to

that a

few miles farther

the interior, pieces

found

of

much
m\ return
Yule
the

dimensions.

This substance has been

air.ily/cd

since-

Kivjlaml and found to be tnu- obsidian."


5.

Coast Subject tO ZoSCaleS.


/Wo,
)iintr\
II.
tlic-

Col.

Me
at

nr\

his

10th ccntui)

least,

\\hole

of the
!..

Red

.Sea.

\b\ssmia.

from near Herbera probably to Suakin. At this time u hear only of 'Mus.i!c-

man

families'

"
5.

residing in '/eila
..I-.

and
udi.
dt.

the ..ther ports


Ill,

and tributan

to the

C'hristians

Mas'

34.)
identities this

ZoSCaleS.1

4hO-5

name
The

with

/a
i>

Hakale, which appears in the AbyMiniafi Chronicles, < said to ha\e lasted \ears, and Salt h\cs the date-

reinn
\.

I).

4f
Bur
l.r

...im.K

460)

that

"no

great

dgpandnc

CM) be placed"

upon

thr Chronicles.

thr rpatf," who rngnrd 400 200, I \iuzaba, /a^dar, 100; /axeta* IWdyear*, h /a "n. hrr 4ih year the went Axum, Zakawasya hrr rrfiirn rrtu'iird 2S >r
'
'

Mrm
Barti lia/rn.

followrd h\
I'-

IS
"

,.

month*.
du.

ir

\c-.its.

"..ml

hth year
year*,

'

ni

namc%, OK

uml /
'

rar
I/.IM.IS
'

4 rnont lix, and At/aru*


il HI

rl

Ahrcha ).
I

thr

<th year

of th
If

iMlniiluir.l."
(Ji,
I)
(
,

MM
>a

/a Make-da uas
.M in

tin-

who
lirnd',

vwtrti

kin^

thr

l'tli

.ciitir.
I'

'

L'rrjf oniift-

/4 Baei
ill

t)

i%

xaui

H-^un in K
Sat/atu% from ihrir

ua%

..Mi/,

(1

i..

M.IN aiul

places in thr t'hnmulr, .m.!

ihrm

>

\rarx, in order tu

them

t.ilK

\\ith tiinr
t<>
I

\\tini .uul AiiuliN

HIM rtptuxu, and lh

respondnuc

kn..\\ n

man Imp
in

and Conjcantiui
list,
t

hrrrfrr /a Hakale'i
lijrdlt

thr

in

tin-

rminu r\iciciur. ian


.mas. he must

h\ thr
i>
it

daft-

thr IVriplns, ;s prop, .M:


Ixr

\lirc pr<4iable
in

that.

advaiuc-d
thr<

the I'hrmr
in

U\

in..\inj
I

him
.

u]>
.

thr line hit

accession

is

hnui^lr

.1

])rohahlr date.
<

Thr AlnsNiman
thr

C'hr..nul.-

\v

a>

>mpo*rd lome
'Ms
..f

titnr after the

pi-.,p!r
it

.irlirr

portions are,

\%hi<

h Salt examined

t.

that
in

tuuml

t.

differ maieriaUy.
Salt,

thr Mrs? ("hi

:ur\, as |

arc at

Bat-si H.;
.ttu,

>rars.

innth>

68

The
gives

'La prefix,

recalling the

Dja

of Glaser'
list

way
6.
6.

in the

3d century

to a long

beginning with
T

Arabian mscnpn. /./, indu at inn


<>

perhaps a change of dynasty from the Habash stock

tin

Sab;ean.

Egyptian cloth.

This was

linen,

made from
(lull, corre-

Arsinoe was

at

the head of the

Hcroopolm

sponding to the modern Sue/, but now some distance inland owing It was named for the favorite \\ to the recedence of the Gulf.

Ptolemy Philadelphus.
tion,
it

At one time

it

was important commercially,


it

as an entrepot for the Eastern trade;

and while

soon

lost tha:

continued for centuries to be a leading industrial center, par-

ticularly in textiles
6.

Glass.

Pliny U/>.

</'/.

XXXVI,

65) says

that

glass-making

originated in Phoenicia, and that the sand of the river Bclus \\as long He attributes the the only known material suitable for the industry.

this

discovery for the process to the wreck of a ship laden with nitre on shore, and the accidental subjection of nitre and sand to heat as

the merchants set caldrons

on the beach

to

cook

their food.

Later

the Phoenicians applied themselves to the industry; and their experiments led to the use of manganese and other substances, and to an

advanced stage of perfection

in the product.

mouth of the river Yolturnus was mixed with three parts u{ which was subinto a mass called hamm9-*itrum' t jected to fusion a second time, and then became pure white glass. Throughout Gaul and Spain a similar process was used, and th
In Pliny's time a white sand at the
in

was much used nitre and fused

glass-making.

It

doubtless the process used in Egypt, as mentioned

in

the Periplus.

The
was
6.

color

was added

in the

second fusion,

after

which

th<

either blown, turned or engraved.

Murrhine.

See the note to

49.

It

was probably

and carnelian from the Gulf of Cambay; but was extensively imitated The murrhine mentioned in glass by the Phoenicians and Egxptians.
here was evidently a cheap trading product, probably colored
6.
.

tropolis of the Egyptian

God) was probably Thebes, the meEmpire the modern Karnak. This was its name under the Ptolemies and Romans. There was another Diospolis in Egypt, mentioned by Strabo; it was in the Nile delta, abo\e the Sebennytic mouth; Still but it was not of great importance. another, known as Diospolis Parva, was on the Nile some distance below Coptos. The greater Diospolis Diospolis Magna was a center of commerce and industry, being no great way above Coptos, from which the caravans started for Berenice.
Diospolis
(City of

ft

As

illustrating chc
h

fume

..I

th.

her hundred K a-

lunidrrd Mint uith horses and ihariolS."


'

pn.phrl Sahuin
u

III.

capture by the Afttyr(,.,,1

"populoiiN
Fl,

\
(>ut
.rr
I.

that

WM
I

finHM

f..und

abut K
\,i

and

strength,
h>

and
lu-Ip.
:>v!

it

\\

.,

-htupu and l.ubmi

nt
and
6.

int..

was die carried away, Inldrrn abu were dashed in


;

the streets,

and they cast


.-,d

lots

lonourable

all

her great n

in

hains."

Brass.
IM.nv

'M

(*

\\\l\
alloys.

makes

int., a h>l.rid.

as

brass, a >rll..\\ .illoy, asdtstineui\hrd


<>r
tli

fr>m purr copper

hiuh ropiest, but sa

it as an ore of copper lone in had been found for a long time, the earth It was used for the * .nd double been quite exhausted.

Pliny describes

as,

ppcr brini:
ili

tliouu'ht UIKK!

h M-rnis
in /IIH
.

t<>

h.ivc

emMigh for the as. been a n.ti\r hras* obtained by tmcking


inrulluru)' did not di*finguih xinc

uindant
as a separate
\I

the

Kmnan

thi.i
u-.

held in the hi^hot etimatH>n, and deeply reuretted, as in the case of the "CorinBut l.itci it \\.iv tound fn aiiident that the natite eanh,
;iiL
r

MII h

>rcN \\rrr

is

an impure oxide

added
and
this the

to

Romans

molten copper, would did without under-

i^

ului the earth

u.l^, just a> they used native oxide of cobalt without knouin^ the metal cobalt.

\\\\
..t

II,

44, and

Beckmann. Hntorj if
230 A
I

/irvnttimt,

IMnl.. stratus

I.enuios, about
picti,

>
.

mentions a shnne

in

Taxila in which were hunjr


in

>pper tablets representinc the

''The \anous Heum were portrayed a mosaic of orichakum, silver, gold, and oxidized copper, but the ns in irun The meiaU wtrt n in niously worked into one

Mexander and Porus.

<

another that the pu tures \\huli


pnuliH tions of
-2).

uii

were comparable to the

the most

famous (Jreek

artists"

ruuilr

1*nt*t

The

>

,tuel> used by
the

Oscar Wilde

in his

poem

God

of the Attyrisa,
kit

Whotc wing,

like

Piuntnl with silver

stnmge tnuupveot tale, row high above and with rrd and ribbed with nxb of

tuwk-fccnd

70
6.

Sheets of soft copper.

The

text

is

'honey-copper."

That

the metallurgy of

Roman

days included a fusion with honey or

other organic substances. such as cow's blood, to produce greater Miillcr makes a more ductility, has been asserted, but not proven.
-le

suggestion, that this

\\

as

ductile

copper

in thin

sheets,

and

was
allo\

called

"honey-copper" because

the sheets

honey-cakes
\\ith 5 to

Ductile copper in Roman 10 per cent of lead.

were shaped like times generally meant an

6.

Iron.
is

Phm
fatal

XXXIV,
instrument

<

<-4'

speaks of iron as "the


of

most useful and most

in the

hand

man." The

ore,

found almost everywhere; "even in the Isle of Klha says, is worked like copper, and its quality depends somewhat on the water Bilhilis and TunasM> in into which the red-hot metal is plunged.

he

Spain, and
I

Comum

in

Italy,

are distinguished
is

for

the use of their the Seres,

in

send
is

it

to

smoking. " us with their tissues and skins


In
all

The

best iron

that

made by
Next

"who
is,

to this in quality
is

the Parthian iron.


is

other kinds the metal

alloyed, that

apparently, the ore

impure.

Coats of skin.
were
of

The

text
left

is

kaunahn.
later

Originally

rough skins with the hair

on;

they were imitated

in

-otamia by a hoaxy woolen fabric, suggesting the


Mxcrooat,

modern

frie/e
is

which

\\as

largeK

exported.

It

is

not

known which

meant here.
6.

Ariaca.

This
of

is

the

northwest coast of
the
it

India, especially

around the Gulf


Gujarat.

C'ambay;

As

the

name

indicates,

modern Cutch, Kathiauar and was at the time of the Periplus


incidentally of

one of the strongholds of the In do- Aryan races, and Buddhism, the religion then dominant among them.

Marco Polo (Yule ed. I, 93) 6. Indian iron and steel. Book I, chap. XVI I, mentions iron and ondanlquc in the markets of Kerman. Yule interprets this as the andante of Persian merchants
visiting

derives

it

Venice, an especially fine steel for swords and mirrors, and " " steel. Indian from hundwamy

Kenrick suggests that the "bright iron

'I

/ekiel

XXVI

1,

19,

must have been the same. f such material which Ctesias mentions two wonderful he had from the King of Persia. Probably this was also the ferrum candidum of which the Malli and Oxydraca? sent 100 talents' weight as a present to Alexander.
Ferrum indicum also appears
in the lists of dutiable articles

under

Marcus Aurelius and Commodus.

Salmasius notes a Greek chemicaJ treatise


of
In.
'

"
(

)n the

tempering
iron.

ifi

says
l>o

Hindu-

the manufacture ol

woriuhopt wherein are forged the must

in

ti><

mpoMiblc

(o rind jnythin,

Cotton.
.
I

Sanscrit,

karpju.
in

Hebrew,
ln<lu. .mil

.4i

.rlanu
'

the -

(i9tnpitm ktrt*t*m

a.

ttrfar,
I

fa/uav*) lunxe
"t
it

woven
hutory
II

into cloth

by

di.it

.re

(he

(bun

..i

The
!!.
,

facts

Mini:

li.ur )>rrn .idmirably

Cillon Plant, a report of

the

Is

Mated by

Mr K
..(

in

Tkt

Department
\
it

A^ru uhurr,
h.%

iurd
in the

.n thread and cloth are repeatedly mentioned


i'rofess..r
(

Sayce in

HMieft

sho\\s Around for the belief that


t>
t

head of
its

in

the 4th millennium

\\M exported by tea to the C and K ftMind


I'.
,

wa.
f

Herodotu* describes
sheep, the
fruit

it

as a wool, better

of trees u rowing wild in India.

nuiui:
r

iotton cloth
fine

was
the

at its best in India until

limes, and the

Indian muslins were in great

demand
i

mmanded

hi^h

prices,

both

in

Roman
that

in

r industry
nt India,
<

was one

of the

mam
mdu

factor* in the

and the transfer of


.

tgbnd met

s,

and the

heapemng
'>
:

of the process by

rininu
in the
I'linx
1st

and weavinu.
-tir

perhaps the unrated single factor


jypi in their
sively
is

and Pollux

state

nu n that ruuun was


I)

gr.

ami 2nd centuries A.

unknown.
this

the

Permian (Jul

d the IVnplus
.HIM-.:
't

cottinm

-^

.!

-:t

;>ort

from

)mmana.
and
11
>

.dso

to

luxe hern -jmwn


to

the
,

ritx-r

known

Josephusas <kt&n,
appears
in

km'

n,

(the same

vumd
.

I'lm

and

Chalii(I

\ers states that the inhaixu


>n

made use
in

of coiion. and that

the Ph.rnut.ins exported Syrian cotton cl<xh to Sabva.

n U ro\\msays
that
it

ura,

and

was

:li

by the

women
It

of

I'atnr;

but tbt%

isi\e industry.

was

quite certainty not

during

Roman

day*.

\rabic kat'rn

or ihe it reek

are mu.rrtam, because those- words

urn

applied also to

flax,

which was
It

in

very general use in

all

the Mediterranean coimti u -s


in

is

noteworthy that the word used

the Periplus

is

uniformly
in suitable

tkonion,

meaning simpK 'Yloth,"

hut usually cotton

doth; while the

Atmatismos, translated as

"clothing," was very

likely cloth

lengths to be

worn

as tobe or toga.

6.

Monache cloth.
sagnui, a saddle)

for sagmatogrne to stuff;

would read "the


But these words

Vincent says cloth "singularly fine," and from ><isso, sort used for stuffing"

being the

ium arboreum.
particulars of

down from the tree-cotton, Gossyfimaybe Greek omiptions of some


<

Indian trade-names for different grades or dyes of

cloth, as

to

the

which we cannot determine.


the occurrrm
<

Fabricius alters monai/ti to mrjlochini because of

of the same word in the following line, and makes a similar alteration wherever the word appears in the text, but it is difficult to see just

what

is

gained.

This "broad cloth' was no doubt used for garments sue h as the modern Somali "tobe," described by Burton (first /v//j///>., p. " It is a cotton sheet eight cubits long, and two breadths srun 29)
:

together.

It

is

worn

in

many ways;

sometimes the

right

arm

is

bared; in cold weather the whole person is muffled up, and in summer it is allowed to fall below the waist. Generally it is passed In-hind the back, rests upon the left shoulder, is carried forward over the

and ends hanging on the left shoulder, This is the where it displays a gaudy silk fringe of red and yellow man's Tobe. The woman's dress is of similar material, but differently worn; the edges are knotted generally over the right, sometimes over the left shoulder; it is girdled round the waist. In-low which hangs a lappet, which in cold weather can be brought like a hood
breast, surrounds the body,

over the head.

Roman
dresses;

toga, the Somali

Though highly becoming and picturesque as the Tohe is by no means the most decorous of
towns often prefer the Arab costume
a short-

women

in the

sleeved robe extending to the knee, and a Futah or loin-cloth under-

neath."

McCrindle, Ancient
tree-cotton.
yields

India, p. 26, notes that

India has

two
the

dis-

tinct species of cotton, Gossypium herbacenm^

and Gossypium

arh'jn uni or
latter

The
and

former only
silky texture,
(

is

made
is
>

into cloth, while

a soft

which
1

used for padding cushions,

pillows, etc.

Pliny says

MX.

that

Upper Egypt

also produces
is

"a

shrub bearing a nut from the inside of which wool

got,

white

and soft."

71

6.

Molochine,

or

mallow

cloth, was a coarse

h a preparation of a variety of the hibtscuf

This purplish cloth must have corresponded closely to the iinlls still in .ieman.l on this COMt
6.

Lac.
lakkku.
ti

McCnndle
It

notes that the Sanscrit


rwj|/,

it

l**tk. a bapf

form of
form
is

rifJiA./,

lonneited with the root

to dye.

The

Praknt
feet,

was used by women


<

for dyeing the natlt

and

also as a
I

in-

lac

insect

7W4*n0

4*01,

Kerr)

native in India

and

Still

practualls confined to that countr\

Ai
ds

to

Watt (Cwwm/nrW /Wurft if /*4w, pp


>ducts:

1<

two

dt

a dye

and a
"\.

resin.

The
dla*

dye competed

vorable terms with the Mexican cochineal


placed by mamif.u lured aniline, \\hen
c
1

until fetch

were

div-

again

hfCHM

important
'he

resin

is

formed ar..und the young swarms as they adhere to


t

res;

the lac being a minute hemipterous inset

h\ ing

on the

plum-juices sucked up by a probost

The
r

dye

is

a bright red color during the process of

taken from the bodies of the females, which assume For a comreproduction
its

account of the product and

uses see Watt.

Of somewhat

similar nature to lac

duced on the Mediterranean holm-oak; carmesin, cramoisi, crimson or carmine;


scarlet;

was the "kermes-berry" prowhence the dye known as


insect,

or, referring to the pupa-stage of the

mother derivation, vermiculum or

vermilion.

These insect dyes were used


*

separately, or, associated with

murex,

as an element in the so-called


6.

'Tynan pun"
his

Tortoise-shell.

was a

great article of

commerce

in

man

world, being used for small receptacles, ornaments, and


It

for mla\mu' furniture and woodwork. quently-mentioned commodities in the

is

one of the most

fre-

Periplus.

The

antiquity of

the trade

is

and of Punt by B C.
6.

uncertain, but this seems to be the "shell" brought from Queen Hatshepsut's expedition in the ISth ceo-

skin,

Rhinoceros. The horns and the teeth, and probably the were exported from the coast of Abyssinia, where Bruce found the '\ of this animal still a trade and described it 7V*tr/t, ^
.: <

Avalites
43
28' E.
It
is is

is

identified with the

79 miles from the

straits

ancient

name

preserved by the village

modern ZeiU, 11 20' N., he of Bab-d-Mandeh Ahalit, on the north shore of


I

the bay.
ating: the

The

Somali tribes

call

the place Ausal, apparently perpetu..ist;

Ausan of the South

A
East

which

also

at

one time

possessed

much

of the coast of

A
is

died the "Ausanitir


thought In Korster (Hisnatc the

coast"
ttrical

in

$ IS of the Periplus).
\ '!.
I

Avalites
'

Gtography of Arabia,
<

son of Joktan

(Jen.

IV

'

whose name
1

is

almost

name of Ohal, unknown in Arabia;


mouth on

uhcating a very early migration of tins tribe to the Somali coast.


)hollah
at

the l.uphratcs

the Persian (Julf

which

\\as the t'hulu of the Assyrian inscriptions,

and the Apol.

Of
v

'/eila,

Ibn Batuta, writing


sea,

in

the 14th centun, said:

"I then

went from Aden by


a

and

after four days

came

to the city of '/eila.

settlement of the Berbers, a people of Sudan, of the Shafia

sect.

Their country is a desert of two months' extent; the first part The greatest number of the inis termed Zeila, the last Makdashu. Ratizah sect. Their food is mostly habitants, however, are of the
fish.

camel's flesh and

The- stench of the country

is

extreme, as

IB

tilth,

from the stink of the fish and the blood of the camels
in
it

which are slaughtered


Zeila
as
is

described by Burton

'

First Footsteps in

East Africa,

p.

14)

"the normal African port a strip of sulphur-yellow sand, with a The deep blue dome above, and a foreground of the darkest indigo. buildings, raised by refraction, rise high, and apparently from the

bosom
Zeila.

of the deep.

No

craft larger than a

canoe can

ride near

After bumping once or twice against the coral reefs, it was considered advisable for our ship to anchor. companions put me

My

into a cockboat,

The

situation

is

and wading through the water, shoved a low and level spit of sand, which
island.

it

to shore.

high

tides

make almost an

There

is

no harbor;

a vessel of 250 tons

cannot approach within a mile of the landing-place; the open roadstead is exposed to the terrible north wind, and when gales blow from
it is almost unapproachable. Kvery ebb leaves a from the mile half a seaward town; the reefy extending sandy anchorage is difficult of entrance after sunset, and the coraline bottom

the west and south


flat,

renders wading painful."


ila, the nearest port to Harrar in the interior, had, when Burton wrote, lost the caravan trade to Berbera, owing to the feuds of its its rulers; so that the chara< people had not (hanged
f

from the account given

in

7 of the Periplus

At
honey,

that

time the

exports

from /eila were

slaxes. ivory, hides,

antelope horns, clarified butter,

and gums.

The coast abounded


were about twenty

in sponge, coral,

and small

pearls.

In the harbor

.rge
Imiiu,

and maJI, they traded with llcrbcra. Arabia. and and were navigated by "Rajput" or Hindu
tii.
t

Burton

(<p.

"I rrpeatedU heard at

*ys /rib and


1
'

a*;

ac

Harrar thai traders had


j

srxrn months
ing v:ldeii hraielrts,
sail
till

they rrai

hrd the

Suit

country of paean* Va upon * hit h Frank*

in ship*.

of nuggets, bracelets
t'\

thr an.

once saw a traveler descending ihr th a store and gold rine% similar to thine uird ai money Mr k .,pl relates a tile current in Abytpnans trut (here i> u rrnuunt of thr ^Lxr trade Kefween
.

(iuim-h
Jllil

the
'

GlMMft OOMt) Hid Shot.


rxistrtl.
:i

C'

uinn

tion
|,

between tae CMI


the

urst

in

thr tlinr of Jcijo

PnU|fur%r

tin-

C'nnuo
:

Irurnril thr rxistnu r of


I

the

AbytMMM

\\hri

MIMU thr

Afrua asvcn thut akihx or prir%i%, rlbtah muniry piltzninaue, pass from thr
\\
(

-xtrrn

through Abys&inia to thr

oast ot thr Rr.i


;>rn fr.Mii th<-

AIM!
i

it

has btri.
licn L'urU

/.m/ihar
:

al In

Thr
trade
-

!>rr^oing, wrinrn hrforr mndrrii 4 the samr mmimon


a

had altered the

ax that (-\i>ti:,-

ancient

urll-rstaMished trade to Kir\pt and Nuith Arabia, cnming -nhr to tnhr through the heart of Afru dioancr*

and South.

The
.,trs

**Far-Milc

cCM8t.

Aci-ording to

Hunon

>f>

mali tribe> railed thnr i-oiintr> the Btirr tl .Irum, uhuh he " .is "barbarian land, but gors on t. explain that 1iam mean*
V.ib.
just

as

among

Kgyntian* and (treelu


trade
at

**bar-

banan" meant

all

nations not of their iountr\

The name seems to apply to the migration and thr mtx-s who had crossed the -julf at Aden
,

from South
the

various periods

history

brini:

rrtrrrr*!

to

In

their

imntr>mrn

as

lhoe "of

nirh our author has rendered into (Jrrek asjwrvftJM

Juice of sour grapes. -Thr


\ll
ic
II

trxt

is

/;../

).nphai-ium
the formrr
is

is

a kind

of

oil

obtained from thr


t

white;

the laner from the Amina-an grape,


rising

prodm rd by pressing hr nhteuhile when the u*e of a


of

:k-pea, just before the


into

thr

Dog-star.

The

%r

ranhrn \essrU, and then stored in vessels of Cyprian copper. Also tbe unnpe grape best is reddish, acrid, and drv to the taste pounded in a mortar, dried in the sun, and then divided into

The Amiiuean

grape he deM.nbr>

m MY,

4:

alto

76

woolly grape
\\ere

"so

that

we

of the Seres or the Indians."

not be surprised at the wool-bearing trees These latter were cotton; the former
,/!

mulberry trees with silkworm cocoons bred on them.


.

Virgil,

11.
,

i:i
foliis

"

Velleraque ut

depectant tenuia Seres."

Pliny (XXIII, 4) says again: the humid parts of the body, such

"Omphacium
as the
is

heals uK erations ot

mouth,

tonsilla;\ -Jamls.

Thr
of

powerful action of omphacium


It is

modified In the admixture

honey or raisin wine. of blood, and quinsy."

very useful, too, for dysentery, spitunu

And

in

than olive)

is

XXIII, 39: "The most useful of all kinds of oil other It is t <>>d for the gums, and if kept from omphacium.
r

time to time

in the

mouth, there
It

of the whiteness of the teeth.


7.

is nothing better as a presc!\.m\e checks profuse perspiration.

\Vheat.

Triticum
says

vu/gare,

Yillars, order
is

(innnini,/
It

The
is

Candolle, than the most ancient languages, each of which has independent and The Chinese grew it 270(1 H ('. It definite names for the grain.
prehistoric

cultivation

of wheat,

De

older

was grown by the Swiss lake-dwellers about 1500 U. ('., and has been found in a brick of one of the Egyptian pyramids dating from about 3350 B. C. Originally it was doubtless a wild grass which under cultivation assumed varying forms. In the early Roman Empire vast quantities of wheat were raised in Sicily, Gaul, North Africa, and particularly Later a great wheat area was opened Egypt, for shipment to Rome. in now what is Southern up Russia, which finally supplanted Egypt
in

the markets of Constantinople, after Alexandria and Antioch

fell

into Saracen hands.


is

The

trade in

wheat

as described in the Periplus

interesting.

It

shows

that South Arabia, Socotra and

East Africa

had wheat not only from Egypt but also from India, which has not \\ att usually been considered as a wheat country at that time.
(op. fit.
p.

1082) thinks wild

rice

(Oryza

coarctata)

may have been


rice

intended, but the Periplus distinguishes between wheat and

as

The Hindus might certainly have had the seed coming from India. from Egypt and cultivated it, but Watt notes the complete absence,
so far as
7.

known,

of wild

wheat

in

modern
juice of

India.
t'itis

I'itacta.

Wine. The fermented The culture of the vine


It

rinifem,

Linn., order

seems

to have

begun
it

in
is

Asia Minor

and

Syria, but within the period of written history

almost uni-

versal.

introduction

was ascribed
to

to the gods:

by the Greeks to

Bacchus, the Egyptians to Osiris; or in the case of the Hebrews, to the patriarch Noah. The vine and the
Dionysos, the

Romans

77
iuirint:

loniinurd cultivation from fear to year,

nomadic coftdkiont, and die product


li

Industrie* appears in
h.-

commerce from
alley
.

ihe eariicft time*.

tnnr

,,f

l-./rku-l

\\\

II.

,,i

wat an important export MI the the Greek winet ihr be* were

hi-

\-

',-.,:.

inlands

and the Asiatic coast near Kphc*u


>

<rabo,
and the

\l\

carried the vine to Spain,

eks to southein (iaul


fostered
hs,

It

\\as
.

unknown

in

early Italy, but

hv

tin-

Roman
valleys

irpuhiit
,>orts
<>f

and
In
:

Mum

u ln> h restricted imports of by restricting viticukurc in the pro*-

ihr

thr

Seme and Moselle wine wat not

until the later


..?

days of the

Roman

l.mpire

At the tune
gums,
-intuition

thr IVnplus. thr popular taste

demanded

wine

\\ith
i

extraneous substances, such as myrrh and other


salt.

and

i'enplus
:

tells

us that Italian and laodicean wines

were im-

into

.V
V,.'>:.m

the

Somali

I' oast,

East Africa, South Arabia,

ami h-..

\Nine

was

also carried to India;

UK

lulled grape
.in

ncn
(iuir
I

?i.<6>.

this may have 24) but was principally dateItalian wine was preferretl t..

all

ot)

his

was from the

plain of
tells

Campania,
us

in the

vuimtN
"the

ot

the

modern Naples, whence Strabo


their H nest wines, the
->t
I

\, VI.

Romans procured

Kalerman, the Slatanian,

and the t'alenun these, it havini: hern


tpeneil

h.f

Surrentum

is

now esteemed
it

equal to
r

lateK disr..\rrrd
1

that

can be kept

I*

mentions a Falernian wine which had

Ihe
50
11.
''

in

ume

milc-s

was from l^xlicca on thr Syrian coast, the modern Latakia. Strabo \\ I,
<

nyi

is

a \er\

well-built cit>. with a

its

fernliu
part
i

>ther

respects,

good harbor; the abounds with \%i.-

ter-

\\huh the greater

is
it\

.mu'mu the
1

The whole mounexported to Alexandria. is planted almost to its summit with vines.*'
>anscnt, k+itktr*.

in.- Hebrew, Mi,


iiulustnallv at

ttannum

This metal, the product of (Jaluu and Cornwall,


a

was

utili/rd

comparatively
i

late, period,

having been

introduced after u>M.

made
found

its
t

appearance
the
1'h.rm.
fust
v
I

in

and mercury. It tipper, the Mediterranean world soon after the migrasilver,

iron,

lead,

Syrii

"he Phoenician traders

ma> ha%r

it

on the Hlack Sea coast, coming overland from tribe to soon they discovered the Spanish tin and traced it to in
finally that of

Cornwall.

The

vahie of tin in hardening

78.

H soon understood, and


h\

the

tin- tnuk \\.is monopoli/.ed tor ccnPhu-mcians ami then descendants, tin- C'anliaiinians.

Ho\s

carefull\

thc\

guarded

the
tin\

lecrei

>t

its

production appears
captain

in

Scrabo's story (III,

V, 11'

of

Phu-nician

himself

followed by a

Roman

esscl

n the Atlantic'

who, finding o.-M of S|>am,

ran his ship ashore rather than divulge his destination, ami collected the

damage from his government on returning home. There is much ronfusion in the earl\ references to M the Hebrew Mr/ (meaning "the departed") was
from silver-smelting
a

this

metal,

also applied
silver,

to the metallic residue

mixture

lead,

The same comparison applies and occasionally copper and mcrcur\. for to kauitfrot and stannum. example, distinguishes ft lunihuni Pliny, stannum. \Vithout any definite and '., lead, plumbum uindidum,
iusis for

determining metals, appearance


(//////.
(

\\as otten the only unide.

Suetonius

\'I,

)1

'

says that the

Kmperor

Vitellius took

away
pure

all

the gold and silver from the temples,

stituted tiurii/iakum
tin,

and stannum.

) and subThis stannum could not have been

o9 A. D.

but rather an alloy of lead, like pewter.


letters

The

from the King of Alashia

yprus), in the Tell-el-

Amarna
l.'j\pt;

tablets, indicate the possibility of the use of tin there in the

15th century H. C., and of the shipment of the resultant bron/e to

and

tin, as a

separate metal,
111
(

is

thrice
11.

mentioned
).

M/rm,

under Rameses
tin
it

>S-1

16"

C.

in the Pupyrm This confirms the


1

mention of

in

Numbers \\.\I,
Spain.

12.

By

the time of

vckiel

\\\
iron,

II,

\1

was, of course, well

and
a

lead, as
hall

coming from
the god

known; here it appears with silver, The stela of Tanutamon debuild by the

scribes
i

for

Amon,

Pharaoh Taharka

at

N. pata (688-663 B. C.), of stone ornamented with m>ld, with a tablet of cedar incensed with myrrh of Punt, and double doors of elect rum
with bolts of
tin.
C

Breasted, .Indent Records of Egypt, Vol. IV).


true tin

By

the

Greeks the

was understood and


of

extensively used,

and the establishment of their colony

\lassiliawaslanrelydueto the discovery of the British metal coming overland to the mouth of the Rhone. The Romans ultimately conquered both (Jalicia and Cornwall,

and then controlled the trade;


it

but to judre from

Pliny's ac-

count, their understanding of

Accordinir to

was vague. the Periplus, tin was shipped from Ku\pt


I,

to

both

Somaliland and India.


La-ssen
(

Indische Alterthumskundc,

J4'>

ami

)ppert. aii'intm

from the similarity between the Sanscrit kasthlra and the (ireck kassitfm, would transfer the
it

earliest tin trade to India

and Malacca;

but

seems probable

that the Sanscrit

word was a

late addition

to the

.nr,

bornmril from
lVnp!u>
l""-rs.
IM
/

(l>

nh (hr
t

nirlal
!,,

Urlf,
'

uh
we*.

In thr

Si 49 uml

Se,,
\'..|

am r
III,

|idu

Itr.

kmaitn,

*
S

./

11,

Malao
now
(liti

.s

ii..

HrilH-ra,

i,

4S

ltt%

ItMiiuiL' J...JT

.mil the

nusi, ihe capital of enter of (he caravan trade to the


..i

(ln%

Hniuh

F:

K U K KA

II

From

Burton: ffr//

F**tj*r}> i*

F.** j/Htm.

<

19b) \viuilti identit) it with Hulhar. about SU miles farther west; p. hut the description of the "sheltering spit running >ut from tin- cast" hexond doubt at Berhera, which has just such a spit,
while Ilulhar
is
ftp.

on the open heach.


.//.,

Uurton
the
it.

pp.

407-4 IS
of

give*
t

detailed

description

of

town and

harbor,

the stream

sweet water flowing into


fair,

and of the interior trade and the great periodical

frequented

by caravans from the interior and by sailing \cssels from ^S Vmen, the South Arabian COMt, MnM.it. Uahrein and Kassora, and beyond
.

inbay;
S.

the

same

trade as that described in

14.
ID

"Far-Side" frankincense.
see under
at
It
.-

Coiu-erninr frankineense
:.

genera I,
of
earlier.
It

Somali frankin-

res in the trade

Kgypt

the

time of the
different

uas

Punt expeditions, and probably much from, and often superior to, the Arabian.
//'/.,-(////,/
;/,

is.

indeed, possible that the true frankincense

was native here, and that the Arabian \arieties (Boswellia serrtitu, .ibru ius ^ in curious di^' were a later cultivation. p. 124
'

etc.

>

<

of the text, thinks the

Malao frankincense was imported from Arabia!


(
)

8. Duaca is identified by Cilaser Mzz/-, 197 with duakli, which appears in several Arabic inscriptions as a variety of frankincense; duka^ he says, is a trade-name in modern Aden for a certain quality

of frankincenliurton (op.
ninir parallel
</'/.,

p.

with

this coast,

416) describes the range of mountains runsome .$0 miles inland from Merbera,
covered with
r i_

"4000
8.

to

6000

feet, thickly

i'm-arabic and frankincense

trees, the wild rt^

and the Somali pine."

Indian COpal.

The
in

text

is

kankanidn which
t

is
I

mentioned by
)iosi

Pliny as a dye (probably

confusion with
'

lac

by

orides as
Pliny

the exudation of a

XII, 44

says that

wood like myrrh, and used for incense. it came from the country that produces
it

cinnai

mon, through
(

the Nabataean Troglodyte, a colony of the Nabat.i


is

no Arabian product. Glaser Skhnu-, 196) is positive that it with Indian copal. Malabar tallow, or white Henry Yule identifies

dammar,
carp**;

the

gum exuded from


is

I'atfria

Indun, Linn., order


//.,

/>//>/,/*-

which

described by

Watt
f<

*/>.

p.

1105,) as

a "large

evergreen of the forests


to
in

at the foot of the

Western Ghats from Kanara


This
is

Travancorc, ascending to 4000


turpentine or drying
oils,
is

gum

or resin dissolves

and, like copal,

chiefly used for


in

making
i-

varnishes.

The
is

bark

also very astringent, rich

tannin, and

used to control fermentation.


8.

Macir

Pliny (XII, 16) says that

mentioned by Dioscorides as an aromatic bark. it was brought from India, being a red bark

tl

ng upon a large root, bearing the


it

name

of the irer thai

produced
(hi* hark.

Hr was
-A

ignorant
in

<-

itvelf

decoction of

mi\'-,i

ith

hones, was used


.

medicine as a specific foe


it

dyr
a-

*.:

HI,

identifier

of the root-lurk

wilh mutant, a feme u r nallte i. ll lltr MUI-:

coast,
I

i-ut

he does not ulrntifx


"....,

tlir
!l,r

his

\\.s tloulxless
,

i,,,.t

i-.tr,

,.;

H^rrkfHH autumn*.

as

order JfHryiMx.r "a small den.!


linn

Wall

de* nhrd !>> \\j-r uml th:..p/h..ui India and Burma,


tn

the louet

lliin.ii.i\.i

ono

t<

,r.

.mil

tn a
M--

imibr altitude

on the
are
H\ the
merit

hills of

Southern lnlu

lioth
s

hark and
thr

amM>/
in

the most nnp.irt.int inc. in me


this

in

Hindu maltrui ms&4.


(ming
found
t<i
it

Portuguese
thr

was

allrii Jitrka nttiJalmniii,


.,

it%

great

trratinrn'
'

thc-\
'Iv

h.txin^
in thr

on the
and
used

m
hi|uiii

form

..f

a solid or

n,
I

is
.1

astringent,

antidysenteric
is

anthelnnntu
in

he sc-eds

\M-|.

a fi\.

ml, and the vv<od-ash


for

vKemu

much

used

caning, furniture and

turn*
9.

Muiullls
S<
<

prohahK
>r

the-

m...!ern
)

liandar

HaJS,
it

10

N., 46
hut

u..u!d identif>
sail"

utth lierhera

the text

three

da>>'

hetueco MaLaoand
or levs, he
1

Mundus.

altogether

I.MI

miu

fr

the So miles,

more

hulhar ami

hcrbera.

And
de

just as
lie

the

"sheltering

Malao,
ax

s,

"island rlu*c to shore-

"

spit"

identifies

identify flats

Mundus.
uiti

Vivien
ft

Saint-Manm
;

h A/W

tU

t dfnqtu 4ant

Rrttqut

nmiiinft
says
it

:es 4 -rihes

a small island pron

this little harbor,

and

ua> much frequented by Arab and Somali


uith

\lullrrs identiru-aiioM
^

Burnt
i>

Ubnd(ll

IS'

17

IS'

less

probable because that island

too far from shore to afford

vtion to small

MoCfOtU was
(Skhsu, 199-201
mghnirot, or in
note
s

r raiie ,,f frankmi ensr ( ilaSCT probably a hiuh u tor the bem %-ar name that the Arabic

Mahn, m^nur

Somaliland as
is

mMr

and

that the

same word appears

this to the

(ireek of the text the change

negligible.

10.

(11

28*

Mosyllum is N ., 49 35*1
?

placed by most commentators at Ras Mantara,


I
I

Ras Kham/.r
he

<

10

S>

\
the

4S

SO' E.)

many

miles farther west


'tion.
It is

text Ln\es

no help
of

noteworthy

that Pliny says the Atlantic

Ocean

begins

here;

ignoring not only

the

coast

A/anu.

as

82
:>ed in
>i

15, but the

Cap?

of Spu-rs itself.

\Ius\llum \\aspmharoast, altoorther

hl\, therefore, rather a

prominent headland on the

xiu-h

.is

Rax Hantara.

thr

This, by the u.iv. \\as reputed to have been the eastward limit of conquests of Ptolemy Kuenjetes. King of Ki:\pt, in the 3d

century B. C.
in

Cinnamon.,x.
I

h<-

text

from Hebrew

kezia

\\ \.

/,-K

meant

usually,

\\\ II. in Roman

19,

\\\.
the

24), the

modern

cassia.

This

tunes,

wood

split

lengthwise, as dis-

tinguished from the flower-tips and tender bark, which rolled up into small pipes and was called kinnamomon, from Hebrew klinieh^ a pipe;

khmtm
(ttfina,

'.

xod.

XXX,

21,

Pn.x.

VII.

1",

Cant. IV, 14-;

Latin

French

canntllf.

Cinnamon and
.d

cassia

are

the flmver-tips. hark,


in

varieties of laurel native

India, Tibet,

Kngler and Prantl, Die Natur/ic/un


follows:

and wood of Burma and China. Pjiamnfamil'nn, classify them as

Laurace*
Persoideae
:

Cinnamomeae:
1.

Cinnamomum
Sect.
1.

Malabathrum
including: C.

javaneum

C. xeylanicum C. culilawan
C'. C'.

tamala
iners

Sect. 2.

Camphora
including C.
C'.

camphora
partiienoxxlnn

Cinnamon
anointing
oil

one of the ingredients of the sacred of the Hebrew priests Exod. XXX). The Kuyptian
is

mentioned

as

inscriptions of
,

Queen

Hatshepsut's expedition,

in

the

5th

century

mention cinnamon wood as one of the

"marvels of the

country of Punt" which were brought back to K<:\pt. Cinnamon was familiar to both the ( ireeks and Romans, and

was used as an incense, and as a flavor in oils and salves. It is mentioned by Hippocrates, Theophrastus, and Pliny. Dioscorides gives
a long description of it. He says it **grows in Arabia; the best sort is red, of a fine color, almost like coral; straight, long, and pip\ and it bites on the The best sort is palate with a slight sensation of heat.
,

II

that called zigir, with a scent like a rate.

The
But the hetl
it

many names, from the different that whu h is like the


callc-tl

placet

where

it

grows.

\|o%yllum, and thit cinnamon

\ls\llinc, as well
he-di, in
its

athecav
i%

And

this

cinnamon, he

says,

"\\iim
'

greatest perfection,
v

of a dark color,

n the

me and

a dark ash, like

tomethinf a small twig or spray

full

of knots,

and

\cr>

frat;

Roman

mrr was
nu-ntious.it

untcrs distinguish l>ctwrrn true imumon mil rtiliij valued at 1500 denarii (about $<25) the pound; thr
.cm
I

he Penplus nukes no distim tion

"caaua"

it

Mosyllum and
I

O pone, and
h

the "harder cassia" at

Mabo.

Ciniunion, under the


tips of
>.

"oluhK meant the tender fthoots and were reserved for the emperor* and p*and distributed by them on solemn occasions. Cassia was
the tree,

whu
.tnd

mi

lu.

led the hark, the split

wood, and the


it i

root.

The Romans

could not distinguish between species, and their


to the

classification

was according

appearance of the product as

ante

to

them.

As
cassia

to the
;

->f

origin,

Herodotus (book III)

states that
it

was from Arabia

naturally so, as the

Phoenicians brought

theme.

He distinguishes om the nests of

nni.ini-n, and gives a fabulous Story of It* great birds "in those countries in which

The Bacchus was nursed," which in (Jreek legend meant India. IVnplus says that it was pr<iiucd in .Soinalibnd, to whuh Strabo and
other

Roman
is

Hut there

where
\
I.

the
(

writers refer as the rtgio innamtmiftra in the same belief. no sign of a cinnamon tree in that region at present, requisite conditions ,.f sml and climate do not exist. P1in>
i

2
I.

'

indicates
,

that
that

it
it

\\

l\

14)

N.IVS

was merely trans-shipped there. Strabo came from the "far interior" of thi
Pliny

K ^IM, and that nearer the coast only the "false cassia*' grew.

\\l, 42)
in

sa\

came from Aethiopia and was brought


N

by the Troglodytes, who took five yean are indications that the true cmiuHere making trip. mon was brought from India and the Far Kast to the Somali coast, and there mixed with bark from the laurel-groves mentioned in $ The Penplu* \rabia and l-.gvpt and by Strabo, and taken th< he "larger ships" required at M.s\llum for the
acts of sea"

the round

cinnamon trade Punt" whence


befon

This
th

was probably the very midst of the "1-ind of brought cinnamon 15 centuries
and twigs are sold as castia and cinnamon. SIS' it is still almost impossible to '/., p.

In India various barks

and according

to

Watt (p.

M
uish them.
torically the
first

Cassia hark

*>

Of Cassia lignta
qualities

was

his-

to be

known, and the best


about 27d(l IV C.
tecords

came from China,


Malabar bark was
i

rdcd
left valuable.

first

The
refer
t<.

Persian

iman.ibU

mnamon

as

)./

Chini,

"Chinese bvk;" and between the 3d and 6th centuriei V I) a-trade in this article, in Chinese ships, from was an
i

China to Persia. Marco Polo describes


and Tibet.

miumon

as

growing

in

Malabar, Ceylon,

The

British Last India

Compam's
trade

records

show
11,

that

it

came

usually from China; and Millhurn describes both bark and buds, and warns

mm. 1H1S,
^t

Sd'ii

the "c<

dark and badly packet!" product of Malabar.


ice the later years of the iSth century the variety C. zsyiannnm has been e\tensi\cl\ culmatcd in Ceylon; but the best quality is still

shipped from Canton, being from C. Cassia, native throughout Assam. It seems altogether probable that the Burma, and Southern China.
true

cinnamon of the ancient

K-jvptian

Herodotus and Pliny, reached the Mediterranean nearer place than Burma, and perhaps through the
from China
itself

and Hebrew records, <t nations from no


Straits of

Malacca

Many, indeed, must ha\e been the hands through which it passed on its long journex to Rome. The maldhathrum of the Romans, which they bought in India while still unable to obtain cinnamon there, was the leaves of three
varieties:

that of the

Malabar mountains from


(.'.

(J.

2>v/tf >//</////,

and

that

of the

Himalayas from
trees are

himala, with a of
fairly large

little

from C.

iners.
risin

These
in

all

growth, evergreen,

about 6000 feet


April,

altitude.

The

tree flowers in January, the fruit ripens


it

stripped

off

and the bark is full of sap in May and June, when is and forms the best grade of cinnamon. The strippings
delicate

of later

months are not so


Watt,
of>.

and are
701-16;
Polo,

less valued.
*/>.
<-/'/.,

<//.,

pp.
II,

.-MO-SB;
130,

Lasscn,

I,

2~V-2S5,

II,

555-561;

Vincent,

Fluckigcr and
l.d..
II,

Hanbury,
5o, 315,

Pfiannacographia, 519-527;

Marco

Yule
in
<

49,

389;
Coll.,
I,

and for malabatkritm

folium indicum, see Garcia de Orta,


Ball

\\III;
also

also

comment by
K.

Roy.

Ir.

Acad., 3d

icrv,

409;
11.

Linschoten, Yoy.

Ind. text

Kd. Hakl.
is

Soc

II.

L3I

Little Nile River.

The

NfilopotarnioH, perha|>s a
/'//>-

Another reading is \, ptobmaiw, which might also suggest a connection with one of the But in Kgyptian records there is no mention of settlement Ptolemies.
reflection of

Kgyptian (ireek settlement.

or

c<

mquest so far Muller identities

this river

with the

Tokwina

(11

Mf N., 49

ss

high;

there are ancient ruin* here

which empties below a mountain, Jrhcl Haima, 3800 The "uiull (aurrl gnnr

feel

places at Bandar

Muriyeh (11

4U* N., SO

.clow the

Muriych, 4000
11.
1

feet high

Cape Elephant
It
.

t..

IK-

thr

m.Nirrii

RJU
>%

el

ih.k

a prornontury 800 fort

40 miles west

of

Cape (iuardafm
the

Thr
rast
.!

-.<

h*h, about wild aHo iu

mean "elephant," and

hapr
just

..f

thr headland %ugge*i* the

ipnes into the gulf

thr

promontory

(tiucr, 199) think> this is too far ea*t, and prefer* Ra% .;>h.iit Rivrr he idrnnhe* uith the )j^ui. (48 -^
I I

Hadadeh
4'.
|

or the Tokwiiui '49


iiuense
is

-rom w hu h thr
But
l>\

hnutuht
is

Aden.
t.ir

plui in-/

u.dcrn fttmt frank\lmllum at Ra Khatntlir

.isrt
i>f

rnlireK !.)
in
>t

west t. admit nf ni\eriiit;


?:

rntMindrr

this

oust

two
the
.it
i

da\s' journry, as stated in


n.ist just

11.

And

the
*5

"outhI.'

erKtrriul"

Ix-furc

iuuniafui, nu-ntn >nn\ in

Kas

el

HI.

(Il.isc-1

the relatively shtirt

two

day*' *u\

between Ras
/

Hantara and Ciuardafui; hut he t.uU to takr IM'.I aiouuit the pre\ailn i alms mirth >( thr ape-, u hu h umild jusiifx a shorter da-,
i

that

Nuimi\ than farther uest. \\hrrr thr \\:nds are


Salt (/>. <//.,

st

97-8)

varceU

'(iuardafm

\\hen the wind deadened.


si-an rl\
\vh<>l<

we had made
remained the

an\ progress.
<>f

und the cape At daylight we found that The same marks on the shore
hail

day abreast

11

Acannae

is

uirntihrd with

Bandar

I'lulah.

McCrindle notes that Captain Saris, an English navigator, railed here in 1611, and reported a n\rr, empmni' into a bay, Set eral sorts of gums, offering safe anchorage for three ships abreast. in burning, were still purchased by Indian ships from the Gulf of Camba\. whuh touched here for that purpose on their voyage
50
42' K.
-

\l.cha.
i:

The Cape
as

Of Spices
11
So"

is

>f

our>r. the

modem Cape
Ma'r.ndlr
if
it

Guardafui,
s it

or Ras Asir,

N., Sl
out
of

"a

bluff

point,

2SOO

feet high,

as perpendicular a%
it

scarped.

The
tin

current

comes round
it

the (Ju
a brisk

Ailrn

with siu-h \iolence that


s \\
is

is

not to be
the

stemmed without

wimi. and during

mmsoon

moment you

are past the

Cape

to the north there

a stark calm with insufferable

From

Salt:

Voyage

into Ahyssinia.

This
.iftcr

is

the

"Southern

Horn"

of

Straho, \\hosa\s

XVI. IV,
of
th<

si

doubling this cape toward the south, nptions of harbors or places, ho ause nothing' "

we
is

have no more dc-

kno\\n

coast

beyond

this point.

Pliny prefers the account of

from
at

earlier information, in

King Juba of Maurctania, compiled which the end of the continent is placed
this

Mosyllum;
The

so that

if
it

he had before him


gives of this coast.
is

lYnplus, he ignored

completely the account

Market of Spices
modern Olok, on
if

identified

by Glaser (Mazy,

II.

with the

the N.

W.

side of the

Cape.
is

Strabo's description

a* followi

\\1. IV. 14): "Next

the

country which produces frankincense; it has a promontory and a In the inland parts is a tract along temple with a grove of poplars. the banks of a river bearing the name of sis, and another that of
I

Nilus, both of
filled

which produce myrrh and frankincense.

Also a lagoon

with water from the mountains;

and the port of Pythangelus.

The

next the watchpost of the Lion, next tract bears the false cassia,

There

are

many

tracts in succession

on the sides of

rivers

on which

frankincense grows,

an(j

r j ve rs

The river which bounds this Then follows another river, and
called Apollo's,

extending to the cinnamon country. tract produces rushes in abundance.

the mountain Klephas projecting into the sea, and a (reck; then the large harbor of Psyumus, a watering-place tailed that of the
is

mon. Next

The

the port of Daphmis, and a \alley which bears, besides frankincense, myrrh and cinnalatter is more abundant in places far in the interior.

Cynoccphali, and the Southern Horn


12.

last

promontory of

this coast,

Notu Ceras

the

Tabae

is
>

Cilaser (Sk'nau^

201

placed by Muller at the Ras C'hcnarif, 11 5 thinks the distance from Olok too great, and

places Tabae just behind the eastern point of the cape.

1<

Pano
village
%li<

ahU ka* H.m,a, 11

12*

N.SlTK
of the point,

Phew

isamo.lcrn
affortis
I

on the north
n the >
i>
!

snir,

little

wet

<

Opone
\
"

rlu

rrmarkahle headland
Hnit'KJ llu r ,
|

Hafun. I"

now ki> M,, vv (-.,,.


( >j
.f

KAS

(I User rinds a
,:ypiian

en
the m.
s

-hesc
';-.,.-.

naim-%, Pano and


of Virgil
'

the isLn.l
<4//<i

I'a^mk

the

uns (Sococra
I'h.r:

'.

GWr
limnr

l'.uu liuu PIIILMIIH ut


.

..ul

the I'uni

..r

lu-

thinks, dixulnl
I

thrir

in the

Persian (lull

<>t i\rliru% in the %tory quoted b> KIM/ branch uini: to the coast* of S\ru. the other to South Arabia and r^ist Africa.

thr

islamis

tie

l>

Cinnamon produced.
I

Imcr from

\lr

Drake-

MM,
w,//:/i/W,

^
.

EL

G
/m//'

'lammalt if

&.

and now

at

\\

/7n;) dated

licrbera, January 7,

"llumrtmtt

'Mom
The
reM

.in.-nn:

exported.

w.is kn.\\:i die Roman* at the rvgw the lar^e quantines of myrrh that were country abounds \\\ thr \ an ou* species of the acacia*,
.

produce gums of
"I have so far
I

var>*int;

commercial value, alv> certain trees

across any trees of the

cinnamon group,
is
'

heard of their existence.


-(luciiiii

"The
IS,

myrrh, or maimal as

it

known

to the
I

is

ulled farrtn;

but

>uin<: t" thr .utixitus

the Mullah
'

n able to penetrate the southern Dholbanta and

rnrs
,\

.itiam.

where M.

it

irrn
I

have never heard of the exportation of

It IN just possible that there cinnamon from thiN p.irr of Africa nuuht be some species of laurels in the Dholbanta country and south

of

it.

tnit

it

is

not possible

t<>

\rnture so far

oumu

<<

(he hosblit)' of

the Mullah."
If there was any aromatic bark produced near Cape (tuardafui ami not merely trans-shipped there, it seems almost certain that it was ati .t.lulterant added thr re :.. the true cinnamon, that came from India

U
in
I

Ships
\'

from Ariaca.
IN

The
t

amiquit)

of

Hindu

trade

isl

id
I

asserted by Soeke />i*wrr %f tkt Sntnf if tkt he Puranas described the Mountains of \
I

loon and the Nyanza lakes, and mentioned as the source of


thr Nile the
district north ot

"country of Amara. \\anza.


.

wrmh

IN

the native

name

of the

A map

based on this description.

88

:!.

\Vilford,

was printed

in the

Vol.

III.

\Ion,

as far as

>ast

was ever written concerning then Country of the we know, until the Hindus, who traded with the of Africa, opened commercial dealings with its people in
hing
f,

possibly

some time

prior to the birth of our Saxiour,

when, associated with their name, Men of the Moon, sprang into These Men of the M-.on existence the Mountains of the Moon. arc hereditarily the greatest traders in Africa, and are the only people,
who.
f>r love

of

barter

porters

and go to the
still

coast,

and change, will leave and they do so with

their
as

own country as much /est as our

country-folk go to a
tins,

fair.
it

As

far

back as

we can

trace they ha\e done

and they

do
the

as heretofore.

"The Hindu
intercourse

traders had a firm basis to stand upon, from their

with

Abyssimans

through

whom

they

must

have

heard of the country of Amara, which they applied to the Nyan/.a and with the U'tinyamuau or Men of the Moon, from whom they

heard of the Tanganyika and


missionaries,

Karague

mountains.

Two

church

Erhardt, without the smallest knowledge of the Hindus' map, constructed a map of their own, deduced from
in/.ibar traders,

Rebmann and

something on the same

scale,

by Mending the
whilst to their

Victoria Nyanza, Tanganyika, and Nyassa into one;

triuned lake they gave the

name

of

Moon, because
'

the

Men

of

the

Moon happened to
less

live in front of the central lake.'

This trading-voyage of the first century by Indian vessels, although extended, was in other respects similar to that of the Arab traders of a century ago as described by Salt op. <-/'/., p. 103)
( :

"The common

track pursued by the

Arab

traders

is

as follows:

they depart from the Red Sea in August (before which it is dangerous to venture out of the gulf', then proceed to Muscat, and thence to
the coast of Malabar.
Africa,
visit

In

December
direct

they cross over to the coast of

Mogdishu,
Islands;

Merka,

Barawa,

Lamu, Malindi, and


to

the

Ouerimbo
Islands,

they then

their course

the

Comoro
stretch

and the northern ports of Madagascar, or sometimes


as Sofala;
this

down southward as far when they run up into

the

Red

occupies them until after April, Sea, where they arrive in time to refit

and prepare a fresh cargo for the following year."


14.

The products
The
;

of their

own

places.

For a discussion
that these ag-

of the products of

India imported into the Somali ports, see later,

under 8 41.
ricultural

important thing to be noted here

is

products were regularly shipped, in Indian vessels, from the that these vessels exchanged their cargoes at Cape Gulf of Cambay

99

Guardafm ami preceded along ihr


ami
that, ai
i

i oast, tome MHithuard, hut mart $ 2S, ( hells, at the entrant c to fhc !<! Sea, was their terminus, the A:ah% Ixddin;; them to trade Imiia and Cape (niardaS. they apparently enjoyed

ordifi<; to

ilk

of

the trade, shared

MIMIC rxtri.t

l>,

Arabian thippinff and


'hr N.nuli

quite rci-rntl) In (Jrcck ships


i

from
\\

'N pi L
,

IM>

the trade ID an
clis

im

idcntal

as

an.!
f

i!

Cargor

and shared imnr


..f

the

1'

the Arabs

c-mm had
had

iiiiiM.i|<.li/rd,

IHJI in

ihe dtyt

.ins

!art;rl\ (ak*t\\\n\i

the IVripiiis, thr K-itiuMs,


MI
t!

to the i<nu|iirsf

.,!

l^ypc by
ihit

tin-

\\trinfr KiM.fdiMii. and a irnJed

Rome

o|

iiiltxatiMi:
nu'.
<>r

ilireit

..MHIHMIU

at

um

\%

ith

In.iia.

ailiatur.

luturen Arahia and htdu


\car*
cv

\\huh

had existed
for the

ertainly
at

fur

2001)
of
t

and

pn*Kal>lv

shoxxn to ksiniMU

the

point

hucstillt-.be

enough
i

Romans
e.

to kn<>\\

.n-baik only 99 a

product

>f

the Arab;
i

hdc the
thrv
kn.
-idrr the

i-lcaf,

a later artule of

-onnneri

name

of nuiltibat/trum, as a product of India and Tibet.


(

l.mfieil

butter.- Ihe
i

text

is

4t/rrw.
.\oiild

Some
^|><

of

the

Lassen and fat>rum\


he

"ver\

wrOOf

to

suppose

tliat

butter could have been brought from India, in this hot

ilimatr.

to the eastern coast o!

Therefore they propose

substitutes, as noti-d
'I'hc

under

?5

41.

have
will

.1

xoyage from India to Africa by the \s shown under


in the tropics not

\
fi

monsoon may
but the
that

41. clarified butter

keep

onl\ for \ears, but for centuries;


:r$t footttfps,

pp. 1.^6 and 24"

shows

is

take

it

for trips

si\

\sreksorniore. under the same


C'ruttenden.
in

h*>t

.md Lieut
llcrbcra Fair,
trlls

hu descnplion
ghee

of

the

of

modern Cambay

ships laden with

> oinahland

in ioast.
butter,

That
it it

is,

probably along the the Somali had learned the art of ilariKun*
for trade elsewhere,

of

in the P'th icntury b> the same class of ships them from India in the st tent \lungo Park found the same product cntcnn-j int.. the ..nuiirri e a: the much more humid Senegal coast

ami exported
hrouuht

iiad

to

the milk chiefly as an article of diet, and that

not until

it

is

sour.

The cream which


't

it

affords

is

\cn

th

rtcd into butter In stirring

\iolcntl\ in a lar-r

a la bash.

This

90
butter,

when melted over a


in
it

gend<

ul

heed
a

tnm
in
is

xnl
dixhcs.
liberally
il..n:

small rarthrn pots, ami

forms

part

most of their
best.
.\\

sc-rxrs

likruisi- to anoint thru

heads, anil
f

ed \e:\
(

on

their faces

and arms."

/...

.r.

|.,>ii-

1799.
14.

Chap.

l\

Honey from
tluIt

the reed called sacchari


uorlil
ot

is

the

tirxt

nu-nlc
ix
t

tion in the histor\ of

commerce. Prakrit torm

European was known to Pliny

su^ar

.i>

an artu
Sniihari

of
lie-

as a medicine.

of the Sanscrit i<uk<ini,

Arabic tukkar^ Latin

..,.//,///////.

Grinding su^ar

in

Western India

The modern

languages

rerlect

the Arabic form

Porn,

The %nckit\ Kntrlish sugar. Spanish tnuitir, sutrf, order Grtimhn-tc. is derived from Saa'/tarum suu'ar officinnrum, Linn., uas produced in India, Burma, Anam and Southern China, long It
French

German

before

it

found

its

way

to

Rome, and seems

to

have lu-cn cultivated

and crushed
14.

first in

India.

Exchange
Opone and

their cargoes.
elsewhere,
is

This trade

of

the

Indian

ships at

so like that described on the

same

91

coast

t>.

Lieut

C'ruttenden in

184H, that his account deserve* iu be

in full:

"the
season
ihari.-.-

(dun

(In-

the quotation b from Button, u pUr dewned \., -%thr mlaiui tnU move down toward the coaet,
>

anil prepare-

their

huts t"i

their ex;

have in opportune <f j>un haaing the full could arrive, hastened across, followed two
r

tin

11

MuiCU,

Sur.

and Has

el

Kh\ MM, ami

th<

hted 4fa4rj from Bahrein, liattora,


\vealth>

l.a>tl

and

Bunun

trader*

from Pore-

bandar, Mandavi
anil
\\

atui

B<>mlu>, mllcd acron


npt>'

in their
j

clumsy

Mt

gher

i\rr chc

quancn

oi

their

\t-NsrU, ellxmeii

thnnsel\es into a permanent position in the


:>,.-.

the IMI

and

l>\

their superior capitaJ, cunning,

unl

i;>etiton.

the fair there


n lanuiM^es.
I

is

a perfect Babel, in con-

DI.
f

.u kti'>\\ Ic-tl-rii,

are the laws

the plai

e.

and the cuaHNBt Disputes between the in-

lutul

tnhes daily arise, and are settled by the spear and dagger, the
N

retiring to the
in.i\

beach

at a

short ilutaiue

:!ui du-\
-.\*

n..r

disturb the trade.


niuht,
i;

from the town, in Ixing strings of cameisare

and depaninu day and


MiUlren

escorted generally by

women

and an occasional group of


arrival of

dusty and the intei


inali

marks the

the slave-caravan

or (ialla

slave

merchant

meets

his

cone*
safaaje

sora,

Bagdad or Bandar Abbas;

and the

with Ins head tastefully ornamented with a scarlet sheep:

lien of a \\ig, is

seen peacefully bartering his ostrich feathers

and gums with (he smooth-spoken Banian tmm Porehandar, who, on board his ark, and locking up his puggaree, which
:

infallibly

be

knocked

ofl

the instant he

was seen wearing

it,

rum
-pread
>n

of

his

wares

at

a time, under a miserable

the heai h

the
all

end

"t

Man

h the fair
sailing

is

nearly at an end,

and

craft of

kinds, deeply laden,


e their :ain

and

homeward

generally in parties of thrBy the first week in April journey

and nothing > If ft to mark the sm taming 20,000 inhabitants, beyond bones of slaughtered
deserted,

92

camels ami sheep, and the hameuork of a few huts, which piled on the beach in readiness tor the ensu;:
15.

is

carefully

The Bluffs of Azania


*
Rft*

ll.i/m. emlm...
IS.

"

are the rugged coast

known

as II

K>1.

44' N.,

49

coast,"

The Small and great beach is M? \ ending at R.i> .Wad, 4


as six days' jounu
\

the
.

>ii

el
I.

I. mil <>r
;

"i,.\\
is

47

55'

Inn this

actually a

lunger course than the bluffs, \\hereas the

IVnplus

rates

them both
IS.

tending below the equator.


sections, the first called

The Courses Of Azania are the strips of The Arabs divide this
Barr
Ajjtin
'

desert

coast

into

UNO
,

prcscrx ing

the ancient

name

sriond Bcnadir, or "coast of harbors" apion may he the Nicon is, perhaps, the modern Mogdishu, 2 5' N., 45 IS' K. modern Barawa, 1 10' N., 44 5' K. The "rivers and anchor
the

are along the

ncerning the
Contfntpon,
.

modern El Djt-snir or "mast of islands name A'/ania, R. N. I>yne, in


and
C'ol.

his

'/jin-uh<ir in

Henry Yule,
,

Polo, have

much

of interest

The name

survives in the

/ibar 'the Portuguese

not only to the

island, but to

form of '/anuhihar the whole coast,

Marco modern /..mwhich Marco Polo applied


in

his edition of

and

it

is

popularlx

derived from bar^ coast, and zang, black:


the

"land of the blacks

Hut

be older, and to refer to the ancient Arabic and Persian division of the world into three sections, Hind, Sind and /in],
to
c
1.

name seems

wherefrom even Kuropean geographers in medi;r\al times East Africa as one of the Indies, and Marco Polo located Abyssinia
Middle India."

Cosmas

Indicopleustes, writing in the nth cen-

tury A. D., indicates that the


tainly

whole "Zingi"

coast, to a point

cer-

below Mogdishu, was subject to the Abyssinian Kingdom.


that the Japanese
in the S.

Yule notes
the

Encyclopaedia describes a

'country 01

ocean, where there is a bird called plung, which in its flight eclipses the sun. It can swallow a camel, and its This is doubtless the '/aixjhihar quills are used for water t.

Tsengu

W.

the

name and legend

The

lack of distinction in ancient geography

reaching Japan through the Arabs between Asia and


of
letters.

L"es back to the

dawn

Hecataeus in the 6th century

divided the world into the Mediterranean;


stream.
ature.

Asia,

The

distinction

two equal continents Kurope, north of south of it. Around them ran the ocean is supposed to have been based on tempert

~l*azer( History of

dm isn

Geography,

p.

69) refers

it

to ancient

Assyria, a$u (sunrise) and irib (darkness) frequently occurring in inscriptions there.

94
IS.

The Pyralaae Islands


is

arc evidcntU

Patta,
tin-

Manila, and
protected

Lamu, back of which there waterway on the whole coast.


*<' tncrc s empty >"' 18' S., 40 ami |,4mu, 2
.

a thoroughfare,
'I'his
is

only

the

'

a passage to
50'
1

"channel;" several rivefl the ocean between Manila


<>t

Vincent's identification
of a canal no\\

the
t<

:u-l"

with

Mombasa, on account

kno\\n

ha\e been due the-e


15.

mm h

later,

is

impossible.
a
district

AusanitlC Coast.

Ausan was
b\

ot

Katahan

in

South Arabia, u Inch had been absorbed

Himyar

shortly before the

time of the Periplus;


the conquered
state

hence the natural

result, that a

dependency of

should be exploited for the advantage of the

H.imerite port, Mir/a.


15.

Menuthias.
material
'at about 5
'

'I'his

whole passage

is

corrupt,

and there are

probably

omissions.
S.
).

The

first

island

south of

Manda
is

is

Pemba

But the topographic description


S. ),

perhaps

and the name seems perpetuated in Our author was possibly unthe modern Monfiyeh (about 8 S. ). acquainted with this coast, and included in his work hearsay reports from some seafaring acquaintance, in which he may have lumped the
truer to /an/ibar

about 6

into one; or if he is describing places he has vi.sited suggested by the mention of the local fishing-baskets and the like), some scribe may have omitted a whole section of the text.

three
(

islands
is

which

16.

Rhapta.

This location depends on the condition of the

If that be Pemba, preceding text regarding the island Menuthias. at the Rhapta would be the modern Pangani (5 25' S., 38 59' K
,

muth
near

of the river of the

same name;
38
.

if

Zanzibar,
if

it

would

b<

Bagamoyo (6
''8

M'

S.,
I

50' K.

);

Monfiyeh, the modern

Vincent's insistence upon KiKva is very likely well grounded, from the suggestion of the ancient name;
that
exist
is,

Kilwa

if

the text

is

a mutilated description of three islands kno\\ n to


"last market-town of the continent" below the southernmost island, Monfiyeh. Hut

in

close proximity, the

would
for

naturally be

the distances given by Ptolemy between

Rhapta and IVasum

su

the former a location


42' S.,

near Bagamoyo, perhaps I)ar-es-Salaam,


of

(6
in

39

5'

K.

The Prasum
is

Ptolemy, the farthest point

Africa
.<'
i

known

to him,

evidently

Cape Del
Menuthias with Mad.,
is

40

The

later identification of

was due

to the discoveries of the Saracens, and

impossible for Ro-

man

times.

Rhapta, (ilaser notes, has


nd.

its

name from an Arabian word

96
16.

Great
in

in stature.
Africa, or rather
tor the slaves,

'he

uii..u-

s\stem
u
.it

sla\cholding
i-

by the Arabs

on

the coast
in

/an/ibar,

ex-

ceedingly strange,

both

indixidual strength ami in

numbers, are so superior to the Arab foreigners, that if the\ chose to It happens, rebel. ihr\ might send the Arabs thing out of the land.

knowing tlu-ir strength any than domestic animals, and they seem to consider that they uoulti be dishonest if they ran away after being purchased, a<.d so brought pecuniary loss on their o\\ IK eke, '!>.
hat

thcv arc

spell-bound,

not

liuition

Sovereignty of the state that


Arabia.
Arabs

is

become

first in

\i\ul picture

is

here given us

of the earls policies of the

Prevented by superior force from expanding nortlmard. hut

useful commercially to their stronger neighbors, they


exploit Africa.
<s

were

early Egyptian records bear testimom to their The- "Authe second millennium B. C., if not earlier.
in $ 1-5 was probably a possession of Ausan was independent, which was not later than the 7th Later the coast became Katabanic, then Salxran, then

The

samtu l'oast" mentioned

when

that state

century B. C.

Homente
In

from

the

,*d

to the 6th centuries

A.
it

I).,

according to
Al\vssinian.

the Adulis inscription and Cosmas Indicopleustes,

was

Mohammedan

times

it

returned to the Arab allegiance, and until

bar and the adjacent coast accepted the Knglish protectorate they

were dependencies
(Sknzs,
II,

of the Sultan of

Muscat
undoubted
f

Cilaser has well expressed this

\-ab
that

dominion

209):
first
in

"We

must

finally

abandon the idea


and

Moham!

med was
histon

the

to bring Arabia into a leading position in the world's


as

Rome

and Persia

vjxpt and Babylon

retained their power, the Arabs could


lint as
si

expand

in

Africa only,
hurst forth

M in

as these states

became exhausted, then Arabia

irresistibly

and overflowed the northern world."


AY/,//,, 20-..

also

Punt und

.Jaratiuhtn

Previous translators of the Periplus have

much misunderstood

the

meaning

of this passage in the text.

Arab captains

who know

the

whole

coast.

The

discovery by Carl Mauch in 1871, of strange temple-like structures in northern Rhodesia, led to a great deal of wild assumption as to their
hist,r\

The

ruins are loosely-built stone enclosures,

some

of

them

form, having conical pillars within, and apThe largest of them were parently facing North, Kast and West.
irregularly elliptical in

situated

somewhat South of the present Salisbury-Beira railway line, near the upper waters of the Sabi River and w ithin reach of the trade

97
Mia,
nirs
rti'ti:

known
it

to ha\e
at

h.

ucntcd by Arab traders in mediit

was

once aaMimed thai .mint ;MI-.U ur.t.,jt,i!'.

>jK*-*n or
Mjbjrci

The

*a

toJumiii-

ous|\ hut

Htm up
by
Hall

See
....

for

...Nfji

ami

IVM.
,,

l/*iwA0,
./'

I,....:
I I

M**k*l*m*. by
form of am
with the

lir.it,

l.omion.
ure* suggerted tbc

.n

temples,

and the
(

localit)

\\us

at

once

identified

ubiquitous "fond ol

>plm
j ,

II.

20

N.lomon't voyage*. Profewr a resemblance be*


..r,d

rntulmc
at

endow
upiral
.f

ihr trmplr
of Southern

M.inl),

ilu-

the

a:

.luran

kingdom

'll>f

:i

irumrnt was of course pure aawmption, as ancient literature to any knowledge of the
port of Sofala
I

M
.

M\ hundreii miles of the


in.nic
Is
.1

Randall- \Iav i\r.uul p*


ia %

careful iiurstigjlion of the ru


Ins

in

amount
of

of that work,
e the

Mdunml

London,

1906, that the sin.

Kaflirs, if the so-called

kingdom
I

work of negroes, Monomofapa. A piete

nkin clu

period, found in the

he structures, showed that they could not dale


earlier than the

14th or

Sth century.

They were
their

enclosures for de-

mit of loose stone,

and

supposed orientation was

found to be inexact and probably accidental.


It
this Kaffir kraal

done by Dr.
did
not,

\l.n href in disprotini: the antujur

however, need to be supplemented h> his the prol-. Arabian trade far down this coot

.i.T

south of
Pluler

tl

The Periplus mentions Rhapta, some distance -he last settlement on the coast; and
l)elirad.
a^
I

)r.

\lau\er ma\ ha\e knou


(

Periplus only through the


-,ir

ven b\

iuillam

in

IS.
tho>c v

[)**.

rhiititrt, la ffefrap/i/f ft It
>res

cvmmtnt de f.Jfrii ut OntntaU

hut

;.t

a'

the detailed account ii\en in


is

Kth

and

in the

IVnplus the statement


S.
)

definitely,

made

that thi*

uhole
\

coast (to about 10

under some ancient right was sovereignly of the power which held the primacy in Arabia;** that is, A D the right was still s ancient as to be beyond in the If]
t >

.,tin of

the merchant
ships
in

who desi rihed command of Arab

it

The

coast

was

captains \\ho

knew

the language of the natives

and intermarried with

This condition is corroborated by the known Arab infusion in the negro peoples on the whole coast, whirh is of far earlier origin than
the

Mohammedan
\\|M
xsere
in

olom/ation.
natives

the

and what ua> then language,


.1

as

men-

tioned

the

IVriplus:

Re\

1'orrcnd.

S.

J.,

in

a
its

papci

the Rhodesia Si icntihV Ass, .nation, included in


'.

Proceedings

Buluxvaxo,

1905), analyzes the languages of the coast ami

hiuls a striking similarity

belween the speech


of
S.

of the
4<l'

Tana

Rixcr,
that

which
of
list

empties beloxs the island

Lamu
).

ahout 2"

S.,and

the
of

nU
words
sax inu
in

xi

IX-19
(juotes Dr.

He

gives a long comparative

these so-called

identical
thai

He
the

Pokomo and Ci/imha tongu--, evidently Krapf and other German philologists as
the aboriginal languageit;
<>f

Pokomo
is
is

is

the coast, and

that the that

modern Swahili
ex

derived from

and he himself heliexes

the C'l/imha
the

en

more

primitive,

and

that

it

gives

the

kex to most of

modern

dialects

of

the

southern

coast.

lather

ml,

full

of the Sofala-Ophir theor>-, argues that the language

W9

brought from the

/amhesi, not by land because the modern tribes are of peaceful disposition, but rather by sea, and particularly by sea-traders, assuming such to haxe come from Arabia.
to the

Tana River

The

assumption

is

certainly far-fetched, as

it

is

hardK

likely that

any

traffic,

however busy, would have brought this negro language and he transplanted it 1500 miles down the coast to a different tribe.
I

>non

is

rather that this branch of the Bantu race migrated south-

ward within

historical times,

through the African

rift-valley,

and

that the

modern

the lower Zambesi, said to be speaking to-day the most primitive language, are their descendants, while those who retribes

of

mained on the Tana have had


later contact

their speech modified

more

notably by

with the outside world.


C'nimha, borne by the

The name
Afn\mba
marched
of the

modern
which

dialect, suggests the

Roman

geographers;

x\as

known
I

to

them

Matemus, who months southward from the (Jaramantes \ /./an and brought back word of a region abounding in rhinoceros, inhabited It seems not by negroes and bearing that name Ptolemy, I, 8, 5
through the report of an adventurous \outh, Julius
for four
,

>.

an unreasonable assumption that he did reach the head-waters of the Nile and found somewhere in that great rift-valley the ancestors of
Bantu tribe which later migrated southward and formed, among other confederations, the so-called A/wowo/afta of the media -\al
this

raphere.

This

rift-valley of

Kast Africa

is

a striking feature of
its

its

topog-

raphy, and must have had a great bearing on

early trade.

good

99
'

It
,.f

is
!>.

natural depretuon br^ni...^ an thr lower

the

Red

.Sf.i

in possessions,
^4,

UtfOWa ami the fctrjlU, faking fOUfhAbyvuma t., thr Itrituh an< im ludmi; lakes R u 4i.-um.kj and
.,;h
.

and running almost


\\as

to

thr

/.nnlu
i

it

t%

n.

that this \alle\

me
tii.it

unclrr thr
inhabiti.

.,tttro|

of

am
in

Ana bun

hahle
left regular

thr

tnt>c >

T
..;,.!

mmmeuial
1
1

i-|.,ti,,:is

uith the

N<.rtli,

that
its

more or II Wit A

'f
hr.ilth\
S\\.IIII;N
l.i>
.it

trade than the fCS-coasC with


cjuite

broad un-

IN

miirrd

possihle lint the

Mjthunalaiid

UiKl,

uhuh
h.ivr

M"

^r< at ilistuiur

viulh of thr \j||e\, nn^ht t.

extnit

toumi

its

u..\
id
it

.il-m-j
is

this natural

entirely

unnciTHsan.
tin

iradc-nmtc by r \ihan-jr in ili%pn*\inu he


xe the m.. ican CoaJC
'

antit|uit>

of ihc

Mashunalaml

ruins, in attempt

ah influence and infusion alon^


it

necessary to
|

uVm

t!

'.

infikntKNI
of thr

r .!,

Arabian

i-ulturr in

'

from the heail-uatrrs

iln\\n the ntt-\

Nur. southuur^i westward throuuh the Sudan toward th< .it sprc.ni <>( tulturr. 'Ik-lore ami religious
'

Fl

and

pr.t>

well attested to admit of denial

1"
narfi/ios
t

Palm
a

oil. The word in the text, >/,//,/>//>, isiorword which appears in modified forms in other

<

geographers.
.Kid the
is

arikda^ nariktra,

Praknt

narft.\

appearance of the word on the Zanzibar coast


<>f

of course a
.

mnnimatmn

Indian trade there.


hi.\ t

!'(.>,
i
t

whence

the ad jcctixe 4Mofii-

pAoro),

from which the

Periplu-.

adjective koukinw.

This palm
probahl)
nati\r
\\rll

oil

was from

Cocos

;/.v

..

in

the Indian archipelago,

l.inn., order Palm**. and carried by natural

causes
is

Hindu ;uti\ityto most of the tropical world. It known, providing timber for houses an. slnps, K.ues for thatch and fiber for binding and weaving, aside As a from the food value of the nut, fresh and dried, and the oil. medicine also it was of importance to the Hindus, the pulp of the ripe fruit being mixed with i laritied butter, coriander, cumin, carda>r n their m//7>fr-440*4r, aspei ih\ mn^ dyspepsia and
.is

as

one
I

of the most useful plants

consumption.
the 6th century'
(I,

The nut was described by Cosmas Indicopleustes in and by Marco Polo in the Hth century as <//////.
248) as Indian
nut.

10:.

II,

:<'>.

(Sec also Watt, if

349-3

100

101

Unexplored ocean.
was
<.

it

<

mnnaiigated.
h did NO about

Thi* refects the settled M*t of -dd be by die ocean JIM! Herodocu* gives an account, by no mcam imp****ur rounded
MH-dilh.i,.

under
i..
I

tr

uhu
(lint

600

B.

returning

g>pt in the third year of

jour
v

.itosthrne*

and

Scran* i

placed ihr MMJthern


it
it

occw

Mow Cape
ucsl
.r

Guardafm,
it

I'lmy thought
shift*

began
tn thr

Moss\luni
Channel,
.uid

(iiiardafui;

our author

/uMJohar

Ptolemy carried

as far a> the

M iflafiirii
kmm
hut
knit

The
until

actual southern extrusion thr


I'ltrtuguefe

>!

Aim
in

.1

wa n*
r

'peant

diicovrncs
-d
it

the ISth*
(

in

the

*th

loth irntur>.
>ra coart

thrir

kmmlrdi:r
part
to

did not reach

was

and
aiul thus

KHIII.UIS.
joiiic-<i

.uid

they supposed that

uni dur rastwurd


'

thr link,

on Sea."
I'hr
i

iirrrnt

ideas of geography at thi> tnnr arc rrHcctrd by the


to

map according

Thr

>f

the author of the IVnplus


.1

Pomponius Mrla, about 44 A. D. was to establish the ami India, t<> a distance nr\rr lx-t<.:r
of a

m.
I

<)

the
1

left.

-This srctmn
r<>

l>ejin> tl"

tecond

voyage, from

India.
,1

\\'hiti- Vilhiyitors at HI

by most commenta-

Haura, 25
island.
itself

7'

N., .C'

.\\\n h lirs

a lu\

protected

by Husani

Arab name

means "uhitr. and the The pbie is on the appears as Auarn^ in Ptolrrm te that led, and still leads, from Aden to thr \Irdialso

The name Ha urn

Thr
ni\

Muvsel Harbor."
through an error
in

in

the

text,

arr

probably

are

more nearly right named at the beginning

The distance and direction from Berenice, which is the <*arting-riMt


iupyinu.
C

of this paragraph.

Petra
the \\
\\ith
..:>
<

N..
of

.<5

lay

thr

\\

.4

,u

Mum,

i-Araha, the great \alley connci-tmi: the

Dead Sea
r

the

(Julf
Arai^s,

Akaba.

nonhrrn
,

and the junction


it

runninu fr.un ^

was the great trading enti <>f the of numerous important car emen northward, and frm the Per*iai
It
i

eastward.

Thus
r

Controlled the Fastern trade


ijr until

(mm

both directions,
hating been

ami held
ferred

the results of Trajan's conquests trans-

the

overland

trade to

Palmyra;

the sea-trade

already diverted to Alexandria.

hi- district

of Arabia Pctraca has MS


t<.

name

frm
\\
. '.

this cit\.
.

The
/

native

name, according
theltihlir.il

Joscphus

'

Ant. Jn,<

wu

referring to

\ariegatcd color of the rocks


\/<;.
I.

in

the \Vad\

Musa.

name was
1.

"l

OQ
\7//

Edom"
(Arabic

Isaiah.

XVI,
in

Judges.

16)

,W means a
I

"hollow
that

en rocks," and Obadiah.


dwcllest
the
clefts

\ apostr>phi/< -s

"thou
is

on high." Siraho (XVI, IV, -1 Myi "IVtra is situated on a spot which is R|Trounded and fortified h\ a smooth and level n>, k, \\ hu h externally is
of

the

rocks,

whose

habitation

'

abrupt and precipitous, hut within there are abundant springs of u.un Hc\ond the both for domestic purposes and for watering gardens.

cm

Insure the country

is

for the

most part a
friend,

desert, particularly tou.u.l

Juda-a

Athenodorus,

my

who

had been

at Petra,

used

to relate with surprise, that

he found many Romans and

also

main

other strangers residing the


itnianus Marcellinus

XIV.

<\

IS

describes the place as "full

of the most plenteous variety of merchandise, and studded with strong


forts

and

castles,

which the watchful


in suitable defiles, in

solicitude of

-its

ancient inhabi-f

tants has erected

order to repress the inroads

the neighbor! nu nations'

The

of Flinders Petrie
cipitous

topography of Petra and others.


cliffs,

is

well

known through

the descriptions

It

with a long,
It

was a fertile bit of valley surrounded narrow and winding entrance, and
have been,
first,

almost impregnable.

seems

to

place of

and a safe storehouse

for the myrrh, frankincense,


Biblical references

sil\c

miinu

from Yemen.
hold;
but,
after the

The

show

it

as an

Kdomite strong-

being abandoned when the Kdomites entered Palestine Babylonian captivity, it was taken by the Nabat.i-ans; \\hom Josephus makes the descendants of Nebaioth, son of Ishmael, while (Jlaser and others see rather Nabatu, an Aramaic tribe noted in an
inscription
of

Tiglathpileser

III

-745-727

H.

C.
1 , I

J,
i

who

migrated to

the valley of

Kdom

probably

in

the 6th centun

Here the Nabat^-ans were


attai k

from
Si

at first nomadic and predatory, inxitmg land from by Antigonus, and by sea on the Gulf of Akaha, the Ptolemies Agatharchides, 88; Strabo, XVI, IV.

in.

however, they sen led


as the ruins of

down

to orderly
testit\

exceeding,

Petra

commerce and prospered One may suppose that a

part, at least, of their trouble

with Syria and Kgypt was due to their commercial aggressiveness rather than their predatory habits. They fought hard to maintain and control the caravan trade against the
In their dealings with Rome they competition of Kgyptian shipping. cam water on both shoulders; helping Titus against Jeru-

tried to

101

salem, but supporting (hr Parthian* again* Rome as occasion or This B "as terminated in H'S A |) rajan thrill )io CaSfillft, \\ III. \"rr tiut fa]
!
I
I

sea-,

the

2tl

the desrrt \%a* Manketrd hv the fchip incd, thr ship and when thr ..vnlaiid iracic revived, toward thr end of was Palmvra whuh reaped the advanta, irntur\,
!

it

19.

Malichai.

The

,<',
(hr
t<

,,

this k.i. r

..(

the

Sahamm

name might Hebcrw mtUik, king, which appears in MM h llrt>rr\\ names a* "Abimr .uui "\lcli hi/* \\\\; ti> the \\r!ttn^s of Jovrphns, who as a Jew would have bern likt-U t<> tiistmguiHh l>rtwrcn (he name and r kings having that name in what hr called (he the title,
in M\iii.' thr il.ttr of

Mut

:nurilv (he

rd as a tnuut-ripimn

>ulik

>f

Arabia,'
In
his

\\hi.h

\\as certainly the

tame

as that of (he
1

Nabatvans
tions

Antiquititi

of

tki

7ra

XIV. U,

King <f Arabia. uh. hail In-fricndcd Herod and had loaned him tniu\ just before his case was taken up by Antony, and the Roman Senate agreed to make him King of
M.iK
IniN,

the Jews.

This
BtlL

<

u the year 31

MIS

me
Aulut
to

>aned cavalry to Julius Carsar for his siege of Alexandria

M in ins,
him
t>
I

Alt*.

I,

';

and

Pacorus, the Parthian emperor, for

subsequent sent which Mark Ant

auxiliaries

;>elled

hiN

pay an indemn Malchus can not,

course, be the one mrntionrd in (he

But Josephus (Jnvi$h War, III, 4, 2) mentions a King of Arabia, Malchus, who sent a thousand horsemen and rive thousand
Pcriplus.

footmen
irr

to the assistance
c in the year 7u A.

in his

attack
this
in

1).,

and

than the

mentioned

upon Jerusalem. These King Malchus can hardly the text. See also Vogue,
IiJx--

Syrit Ctntrah,

who

quotes HIM nptions of this Malichas or Malik, and

father Aretas Philodemus. oi

Hareth, a contemporan of

and Caligula.
19.

Small vessels from Arabia.


account of
handise
is

StraK

\\
.e

l\

has

this trade:
I
<

conveyed from
is

to Petrt,

thence

Rhn
at
fs

n Phoenicia near Kgypt,

and

th

>ther nations,

present the greater part

transported by the Nile to Alexandria.

brought from Arabia and India to Myos Hormus, and is then rd on camels t<> I'optus of the Thebais, situated on a canal of Nile, and to Alexaml The policy of the Ptolcmus. m seeking to free Egypt from cornmunicarial dependence on Yemen, and to encourage dr

104

tion with India,

had been continued


>
1

In
'

Rome

at

the expense
t.

The

"small vessels" of

from Mu/.i
1

the
?i

\ahat.ran

port arc to be contrasted with the

"large vetaehT
the

of

1" that traded


In-

from Mosyllum
in

to l.gypt.

The

caravan trade could not


i

reached

the

same way, and along the Red Sea


This remained

amel could alwavs comhalf-

CCntur\.

pete with the ship. when the


jection to
1*).

Arabian hands for another

l.mpcror Trajan reduced the \ahat.ransiosuh-

Rome.

Centurion.

Vincent

assumes
it.

that

this

was

Roman

At this time the kingdom of the \abat. rans was independent, powerful and prosperous; as it might well ha\e been, from the 25 per cent duty our author tells us
officer, hut the text
it

does not indicate

levied

on the

rich trade

between Arabia and Romemeanings are attached


it

Arabia.
n this
^l
it

Two
and
in

to this

word
;

in

the

S 49

refers to the entire peninsula

in

every
as

other instance

means Yemen,

the

Homerite-Sabaite

kingdom

distinguished from the other

kingdoms and

political divisions of

the

peninsula
20.
t.tans

Differing in their speech.

In

the

north

the

spoke a dialect of the Aramaic; along the coast the "C/aniaitcs"

spoke various Ishmaelite dialects, out of which has grown the modern Arabic; at the trading-posts of the true Minseans, their own lanallied to Hadramitic, was spoken; speech was Himvaritic.
.

on reaching Yemen,

the

1^.

Similarly,

that

is,

to the opposite coast below


2 voyage, in Compare the observations
first

Berenice.

ibed at the beginning of the


20.

Rascally

men.

of

other-

writers concerning these

same Beduin robbers:


plowing, and the asses feeding beside them
' :

"The oxen were


and the Sabeans
have
slain
fell

upon them, and took them away; the servants with the edge of the- sword/ Job

yea, they
I,

14-15.

These

are not the Saba?ans of


tall

Yemen,

but

men

of Saba in CVntral

Arabia, the "nation

and smooth" of

Isaiah

XVIII.

Beduins have reduced robbery in all its branches to a complete and regular svstem, which offers many interesting details." Burckhardt
(

"Th-

"Before
need.

we

lightly

condemn

the robber

we must

reali/.e In

According

to

Doughty and other

travelers three-fourths of the

In the Bedmns of northwest Arabia suffer continual famine. summer drought when pastures fail and the gaunt camel-herds

long
give

no milk they are in a very sorry plight; then it is that the housewife cooks her slender mess of rice secretly, lest some would-be guest

its

should smell thr pot

hr h

,,..->

gnawing of the Arab

le**ened by the coffcc-cup ami chr ceaseless 'tobacco-drinking* from

4k*
H

shjlt

cull his

nuinr

&**

bcCMMt /^
nuui
,

AW **/*
will

And
the -present r

he

will In

a wild
.mil

hit

hand
arid

be
...

MM
of
all hi* brrfli

I.

again* him,

he

thaJI dwell

'V|. 11- IJ
wild tribes are called in the

Curnaitea.
win. h
.ini..f i>r

Thew*

ten

identified with

unentators
tins, follow

\\.-tilil

any other contemporary record. han^r the name t.. ( and Kafari...

nirrr, substitutes ^.Wm;'


s

'laser's

<rzz/ t

165-6).
t

raed,

cm

srttlnnrnts of

-i

irnt km L'l.in ..t the Min^-aiu, twhich Beduin tribes were nominally Mjhjrft IMiiu ng l't..|-m\ l>oth mention this place as a city of (he Muutaati Tims desi ribcs as the oldest commercial people in Arabia,

makmu the am

(:nrn

m^

He thinks that Kama Ivrmg one

thr

suggev n and

of the north-

monopolv

in

the trade in nurrh and frankincene ( througi

ontrol of the iara\an-routes

doubtfully to their
.unsrans to
IMitu
m-i-ii

legend of
..

from the producing regions. He the relationship of Mirurmns and


;ui
hi*,

Minos

brother

Rhadamanthus.
prrer\ing this Ptolemy adds

nt

h.i\r

doubted, and

is

to be

thanked

for

ice of early

Arabian trade
the

in the

Mediterranean.
this

stimom
east near the
called

to

wide extent of
:de
ralleil

earl\
\\

Arabian trade,
in the

when

Rhamn.t

ho dwelt

extreme

banks of the

Purali.
-\

and whi> planted


l./ekiel

their capital at a

Khamba
>tu bu

Crete to the txirders of India was

u-an sphere of activity.

Compare
tlu>
all

\XV1I,

and Raamah.
i

\t<re thy
spices,

merchants

the>

ied

in

thy fairs with


"

hief

of

and
.r

wkh

all

precious

stones,

and gold

Sirabo also

(XVI,
i-hief

III.

dev
is
i

toward the Red Sea, whose


Saba-ans. whose-

largest city

e.xt

Mm.r, in the part to them are the

the time of the Periplus the term


:

"Xluuran" was no longer


-led

t> thr

southern traders, hut had

t><

to include the

nomadii

Uhmaehtes o\er

whom

their settlements along the caravan>f

routes exerted a varying measure

authont\

The Mm.ran kingdom had


been i-on.juered by the Sabarans.
sferred

long since lost itsidentit). ha\m^ When Saba fell before Htmyar its
but

likewise;

we may assume

that at the

106

When the Homerite it was almost independent. m..-t <>t tin it asserted its authority over became powerful, dynasty
date of the Periplus
Hejay.;
.u

when

the Abyssinians conquered


1'he

Yemen

their rule

was

not

knnwlciltjril MI far north.

msurgcnce

of the Ishmaelites
c

under

the spur of

Islam was a logical consequence of centuries of

ml war

aimum

their

former overlords

in

Yemen.

Tair, 15

Burnt Island is identified by Ritter and Miiller with Jebel ^ \ 41 50' E. a volcanic island in the direct course
.

nice
of the

to

Mu/a.
16

ahi in us prefers

Disan, the most northerly


;

45' N., 41

40' E.

but this

location

is

improbable, as hnni; out of the course "straight the niilf," and in the midst of "foul waters."

down

the middle of

Chiefs and Kings of Arabia.


Arabia
at this

The turmoil

in

South

Within a few \ears time has already been mentioned. the Habashat had been driven to Africa, Kataban and Saba had suc-

The Homerite cumbed, and Hadramaut and Himyar remained. condition of the country and the not was established, yet firmly dynasty was feudal, each tribe enjoying a large measure of independence.
Such
is

the condition
its

here described,
taxes

Homerite, levied

own

where Mapharitis, nominally on commerce, and maintained its own


our author as a seaport,
19'
is

colonial enterprise in Azania.


2
1
.

with the

Muza, mentioned by modern Mocha (13


village of

identified
to

N., 43

20' E.).

According

Pliny and Ptolemy, the market-town


at

was some miles

inland, probably

the

modern

Mauza;
still

and Pliny distinguishes the seaport


(Glaser, Sk'nze, 138-40;
.

as Masala.

Both names

exist

In the Periplus the the port.


1\.

name

of the city

is,

apparently, extended to include

Twelve thousand
stadia.
It

Stadia.

The

actual distance

is

about

800 miles or 8000


easy matter with

may be

a mistake in the text (a very

if Ancimt Geography,

or, as Bunbury suggests (History 455) our author may have calculated the distance as so many days' sail of 500 stadia each. No calls being made on the coast, contrary winds might readily cause such an error in calculation. Where no instruments existed for measuring distances,
II,

Greek numerals),

estimates would necessarily be rather general.


21

Sending their

own
orci<rn

ships,

to the Somali

coast and

India in competition with the Egyptian Greeks; down the east African coast to their own possessions ( 16) where they doubtless en-

joyed special privilege

>

shipping was

unwelcome

at

Muza,

which preferred

to supply the

north-hound caravans.
in

Roman
^ifts to

subjects,

such as our author, had to pay dearly,

the form of

the rulers,

107

for permission to trade thrrr

Hindu tupping was UttpfH

at OceJts

(*:
s.i u.i

identified
I

by Sprenger with the Sa'bof Ibo Mogiwir,


Midler,
55*

(13
the

N., 44

KUon and
(13
35' N.,

(..(lowing N*btihr,
,

prate

modern

IV is

43

in the

mountains about

40 miles above Mocha.

Mapharitis
tic

the

OOUMH
i -I.
<

of the

Ma' a*r,
..rikiel

a tribe belonging

stock,

whoic

cikh had, evidently, especial

:ioin his "lawful king'*

Their location

was

in the southern

V ham a
is

22. 23.

ChoUebus

the Arabic Kula'ib.


i%

located

Saphar, mcncioncd by Arabian geographers as Zalar, Mocha on the road by Nicbuhr about 100 miles N
i

Co

Sanaa, near the

mode:
<

miles southeast of

whuh, <>n the summit <>f a uvular hill, its ruins still exist, /afar was the capital of the Homcritc dynasty, displacing Manh, that of the Sabsran, Timna of the Gebanite, and Carna of the Mm.ran Here, in the 4th century A. D., a Christian church was built, following r Constantius and the Honegotiations between the Roman ubba ibn Hassan, who had embraced Judaism In the mcntr was the scat of a one incumbent of uhuh. f.th irntui\
ir
i

resenting a profanation of the church at Sanaa by cerpired the Abyssinian government, then ruling

the kin

Yemen, to undertake Charibael.


,1

a disastrous
!

<

\pedition against

the

Arabic

Kariha-il,

Mecca. and means

blessed
)

hi

p.

84.

(i laser has

and has edited mini

(Hommel, The Anttrnt Hchmi Tnrfim, shown this to be a ro\al title, rather than a name, rtptions of a king named Kanba-il Watar
,

Juhan'im
this

who

ruled about 40-70 A. I)


(

and

whom

he

identifies

with

Charibael.

Die Abeuinier

Homerites and
trih.il

.Irabu* und .4frika t pp. 37-8.) Both were of the Joktanite Sabaites
in

race of South Arabia, the former being the younger branch.

In the

genealogy in Genesis X, we are shown their relation to the Three of the children of Shem are given as Semites of the North.

grandson Ould.ra.
is

.Whir, and Arphaxad. Arphaxad's. son was Salah, and his These names are associated with Babylonia and Kber's second son was Joktan, of which the Arabic form
1

kahtan. which appears farther south along the Persian (lulf. in the Of the sons of Joktan, most are identified >ula of El Katan.

with the southern coast;


.

two
call

of

The

and Jerah ;/: last-named the Arabs


( 4

the Jtraki*

them being Hazarmaveth lladraAVm/of Ptolemy, nonh of Dhofar). Yarab: his son was Yashhab (</!

101

the

Aabi

in

Oman,
)

named Abd-es-Shcms
to have

mi 35), and his grandson "Saba the Gre.i-" is said to have founded the city of MariK .nui

begun

its

great

dam, on which the

irritation

<>f

the vu-imtv

The Sabzans are thus connected with this Saha, a dedepended. scendant of Jcrah, and not with Sheba, son of Joktan, who is referred rather to Central Arabia; whom Glaser and Hommel would make a
colony from

Yemen,
to

while

Weber would
at

reverse the process, having

the Saharans migrate southward for the conquest of the

Minxans

Acn inline
tain
at that

Arab accounts the dam

Marib was

finished by a

King /ul Karnain, suggesting the primacy of the Mina?an d\ nasty time; but from about the 7th century B. C. the Sab.eans were
in
all

supreme
stations

forcing the wild tribes into caravan service.

southern Arabia, controlling the caravan-routes, ami Colonies and restm^-

the

We learn from were established at intervals along the routes. Koran (Chap. XXXIV) that the journey was easy between these
and
travel secure

cities,

by night or by day;

the distances bei

short that the heat of the day might be passed in one, and the ni^ht
in the next, so that provisions

need not be carried.

The number

of

such settlements

may be

inferred

from Strabo's statement

that the cara-

and

vans took seventy days between Mina?a and Aelana; and all the Greek Roman writers, from Eratosthenes to Pliny, testify to the value

of the trade, the wealth of those

who

controlled

it,

and their jealous

hindrance of

all

competition.

The

entry of the fleets of the Ptolemies into the


its

Red

Sea, and

their establishment of colonies along

shores, dealt a hard blow to

the caravan-trade.
of the

If

we

sift

fact

Koran,

we

find

that the

result

from homily in the same chapter was abandonment of many


im-

of the caravan-stations,

camel-hire and of the provisions which

and a consequent increase in the c< now had to be carried;

poverishment, dispersion and rebellion of the dwellers in the stations, so that finally "most of the cities which were between Sabaand Syria

were ruined and abandoned," and a few years later than the Periplus, Marib itself, stripped of its revenues and unable to maintain its public works, was visited with an inundation which carried away its famous
sion of

reservoir-dam, making the city uninhabitable and forcing the disperits people. Many of them seem to have migrated northward
settled in the

and to have
the

kingdom of the Ghassanids, which was

country southeast of Juda-a, founding Hie for generations a bulwark of

Roman Km pi re at its eastern boundary. The great expedition against Saba~a by

the

Romans under

Aelius

(Strabo, XVI, IV, 22-4; Pliny, VI, 32) never got h the valley of the Minaeans; turning back thence, as Vincent surmised

Callus,

m
'M and as Glaser prove* <#//, 56-9), without reaching and Manb, probably without inflicting any luting injury on die tribe* It wai the merchant-shipping of the Roman*, and ulonu' ihcir route
II
,

IK

it

their soldiery, thai

undermined the

the Saba-an*
its

power was resolved into its elements, and was reorganized by a neighbor of the same Mood. >ldest son of Sana the Great, founder of Marib, was Himyar, whose descendants included most of the town-folk of the southwest
i

As

the wealth of

Marib declined,

of Arabia.

Two sons of

Himyar, Malik and Arib, had carried

ktamte arms back toward the east again, subduing the earlier inhabitants of the frankincense region north of Dhofar. The center
tribe

was

at

nearer the sea.

Allied with the sheikh

Zafar, southwest of Marib, and some day*' journey at /afar uas he .f the Ma'anr.

limn the port of

Muza.

the old order, Zafar supplanting Marib,


of
its

This combination was able to overand Muza stripping Aden


Thereafter the

trade and

its

privileges along the African coast.

Hiimarite dynasty

the Homerite kings assumed the title This was during the first century H xiba and Raidan."

"Kings

The subsequent policy of the Kariba-ils of Zafar was to expand both north and east, to regain the old supremacy over the "Carnake*"
along the caravan- routes, and to control the shipping from the east (See Prof. D. H. Muller's article, r/m/w, in the Kncydopardia Rritannica, 9th Ktiition,
(ilaser,
in

\t/zz/and Dtt dbtntnur

Weber,

Arabitn vor Jtm Islam


inmel's- chapter,

Leipzig, 1901; Arabia, in Hilprecht, Expkratuni

Dtr

all/ ()rifnt> 111,

BM
N
.

Un<i^ Hula, 1903;


1904;
23.

Hogarth, and the reports of the Austrian South-Arabian Kxpedrtx

Tk< Ptnttnik*

Ar*ku.

Embassies and
It

gifts.

was soon ended. Mm.tan.


with
India,

was no

part of the

This wooing of Yemen by Rome Arab policy, whether Ho-

necessary
a,

or Nabauran, to let Rome cultivate direct relations and as the empire expanded stronger measures uere Fifty years later than the Periplus, Trajan had captured
to attack

and Abyssinia was being subsidi/ed

Yrm<

23.
f

pose that

this

friend of the Emperors. Some commentators suprefers to a time when two Roman emperors ruled

together, thus dating the Periplus well into the 2d centm\


thing in the text to requur
M

I)

but

The Homerite king, uho


Claudius, was stmpl>.
the reign of
in

began to
(in the
i

rule,

probably,

in

the

last

days of

mind of our
>

author, writing early

Nero

the

of both those

Kmnerors, as he was also of several other* A list of the Kmperors of omuulrti with his.
this:

Roman

the 1st

and 2d centuries confirms

110

ROMAN
B.C
A.D.
istus

PARTHIAN
B.C.

39- 14
14
:

Carsar

Phta..tes

IV

372-

B.C. A.l>.

Tilu-Miis
,da

Phraataces

On.des
\

II
I

41

ims

ononei
ibanuj

K,
III

S4- 68
(I.ilba

16-

42
51

Van.
*
i

42- 46

69 69
6981
81

)tho

.u/cs
I

Vitcllms
..sun

\'oiiones

51

Volauases
Paioius

51-

Titus

Domitiar
rva

108-

%
117

11- U8 K8-161
161-169 169-180
180-192
193

Trajan Hadrian Antoninus Pius

^111

IV
disputed succession
)

I'M

-209

Marcus Aurelius Volagases V Artabanus III Lucius Verus Marcus Aurelius Artabanus (Knd Commodus
1 1
1

209-215
)

215of Parthian

Empire)

Pertinax

193

Didius Julianus Septimius Severus


iracafla

211-212
'

(Jeta

212-217

Caracalla

217-218
218-222
222-2
I

Mac

rinus

Heliogabalus

.<

Alexander Severus
serving together:

u<>

Roman Emperors
M-ta

Marcus

Aurelius, Lucius

Verus

161-169.

211-212. 253-259.

Valerian, Gallienus

Diodctian, Maximian
ing reigns.
24.

286-305, and through several succeed^

Saffron

(Crocus satr,ns, Linn., order Induct*}.

The
the
in

part

thai entered into trade

was the stamens and

pistils

of

flower,

which \sere used medicinally, as a paint or dye, a seasoning ery, and a perfume or ingredient of ointments.

cook-

As

a perfume,

halls, theatres

and courts

<

-d

with

th<

ill

MOII of

many pintuouf

extract*,

whuli

n-!..

%ame

scent.

(Sec Pliny, XIII

an(/>/k/n<//;</,

IX, 80
..(

of

lu'

.'

issues

from (Mr limbs

a >tv

Saffron al*o entered into


It

many
.

of the scented

was mu
s-

.itr.l

In

adding (he stigmata of other plants, Mich it


order

the

Cartkamui rin^nn
jffiaxtiln.

(*m/nr*" and
t

the

mangold

<W4r
IMi:
.

order (*m/m..
says, "Saffron
in
it

\\l, 81)

i*

blended with wine or water


It

ami

is

-v

.seful

mrtiu inr
disperses
is

Applied uith egg


s

all

is generally kept in horn kinds of inflammations, those

in

pan
It

employed

also for hysterical tuffocm-

uicerations of the stomach, chest, kidneys, liver, lung*.

and bladder
parts,

is

particularly useful in cases of inflammation of those


pleurisy.
.

and for cough and

is

used

I-H ally

with 1'imolian chalk for erysipelas."

(See also Beckmann,

*p

fusion

is kyptru. There is much conbetween various species of aromatic rush, some including the calamui of the Hebrew anointing oil (Exodus \ \ \ which was probably Actrut calamity Lmn <rdcr ./ru<r. a

24.

Sweet

rush.

The

text

among
,

the

Roman

writers

srnn -.uju.itu
Hut

sub-tropical

herb,

useful

medicinally and as a flavor


'

Plnu

XIII,

distinguishes
>th

'Syrun calamus" and components of the Parthian "regal ointrather have been

between

it

sweet-rush

may
its

Andnpqp* ukar***-

production is gi\en medicinal properties That most highly esteemed, he says, came from near the temple of Jupiter Ammon in Egypt, the next best from Rhodes. It had an odor retAus,
,

Linn

order Gramtntte.

An

account of

its

h\

I'l.nv

-XII. 48), and of

sembling that of nard;


ments,
it

and aside from


as a diuretic,

was employed

its use in perfumes and ointand with wine and vinegar for

thr..at ul
It

M liniments for

ulcerous sores generaJU

is

possible, also, that the hf*roj of the text

may have been

the

Egyptian papyrus (Cypents papyrus, Linn., order CjpmKor); used, according to Pliny (XIII, 21-:) for boat-building, sails and mats,
cloths, coverlets

and ropes, and the roots for

fuel.

He

notes

it

as a

product of Syria, growing in conjunction with the sweet calamus, and much favored by King Antiochus for cordage for his navy,
spartum. which was preferred by the Romans.
favored next to pine wood.

Again (XXX II I. 30) he says papyrus was used for smelting copper and iron, being

11J

suggestion in the text is, however, for an aromatic rather than cordage or fuel, so that Andropcgon tchcenanthu is thr more prob-

The

able identification.

McCrindlc's suggestions of turmeric ( Curcuma lon^a. Linn., order and galartgal {Alpinta officinarum, Hancc, order are not borne out by Plim's d< M riptions; and these arc Imtli
products of tl Mediterranean product.
24.
ast,

while the text indicates an Egyptian or

Fragrant ointments. ury thought Ht t( minule all known


single

Pliny

(Mil,

sa\s that

"lux-

odor of the whole;

fragrant odors, and to make .. inTin the invention of ointments hence

Persians use

and

so,

and they quite soak themselves in it, by an adventitious recommendation, counteract the bad odors

them

extensively,

which are produced by

dirt."

His account of the manufacture of ointments


light

Mil,

tlm>\\s

on numerous

articles of trade

in

his time.
oils

There were two

principal

components.

They consisted of

or juices, and solids

the former

known

as stynimata, the latter as hedysmata.

third ele-

ment was the coloring matter, usually cinnabar or gum were added to fix the odor. Among the
mastich, pomegranate-rind, saffron
oil, lilies,

alkanet.

Resin and

stymmntti

were

oil

of

roses, sweet-rush, sweet calamus, xylo-balsamum, myrtle, cypress,

fenugreek, myrrh,

The hedysmata included nard, and cinnamon. and costus, marjoram. balsam,
Myrrh used by
t/attf
itself,

amomum,

nard, myrrh,

without

oil,

only that

must be used, for otherwise

formed an ointment, but it was it would be too bitter.

The
,

formula of the "regal ointment," made for the Parthian

included myrobalanus, costus,


spikenard,

amomum, cinnamon, comacum,

cassia, storax, ladanum, <>p<>balsamum, Syrian calamus and Syrian sweet-rush, cenanthe, malabathrum, serichatum, cypress, aspralathus, panax, saffron, cypirus, sweet marjoram, lotus, honey and wine.

cardamom,

marum, myrrh,

The Mendesian
nus,

ointment included resin and myrrh,


oil

oil of

bala-

metopion (Fgyptian
resin of terebinth.

of bitter almonds),

mom,
and

sweet-rush, honey, wine, myrrh, seed of


the

omphacium, rai dabalsamum, galbanum,


sampsuchum,
lilies,

Another included
24.
ith

oils

common

kinds),

fenugreek, myrrh, cassia, nard, sweet-rush, and cinnamon.

Myrrh,

Arabia, and to

gum exuded from the bark of a small tree, name some extent in Oman, and the Somali oa4
<

of Africa ; classified as Bakamodendron

Myrrhn
It

(Engl.

),

order Burseracca.

Nees) or Ctmmiplnra forms the underwood of


(

Ill

forests of acacia, moringa,

Aether
\

and euphorbia. From car lieu time* it hat with frankincense, a conctituei me, perfumes It was an ingredient of the 1 1 ebrcw anointing oil

and was also onr


!

..f

the p

component*

of the

ated kypht of the


-nr,

and embalming
Suhuic.

It

a preparation used in fumig.* was the object of numerous trading


,.
t-

;>s

of the Kuyptian kings

the

"Lund

of Punt

"

monu-

ment

of

2Sth

century

B.

C,

record* receipt!

measures of myrrh h-.m


centutv
list

I'unt. The expedition of HatshepMjt 1 Sth a^ain records nurrh UN the most important cargo, it ..f of the "man-els of the I'unt" was as follow*

Hi

goodly fragrant woods of God's Kami, hcapt of myrrh-retin purr iv, Mm. mnamon wood, I'oM c.f
1
. ;

wood, ihmut incense,

sonter

intense,

eye cosmetic, apes,

mo:ikevs, dogs, skins of southern panther, natives and their children.

The

inscription adds:

who
tf Egypt,
Plu,,

"Never was brought the like of this for un> " has been snue the Ixrirmnmg. Breast ;/ R*wr4i
(
<

II,

109

<r

ami Hanbury,
.ir

op. nt.

140^

Ml
made
in

uum:
v

"liu-ismns are

account of the gathering of the the myrrh-tree twice >ear, and at the
.

>rason as in the incense-tree;


are

hut in the case of the myrrh-tree


root as far as the branches

made

all

the
it

way up from the

which arc able


in.
.1

to bear

The

tree spontaneously exudes, before the

t..

nude, a liquid which bears the \\huli thru- is no myrrh that

name
is

i>f

;/*/*

superior.

(sum, to Second only

in quality to

tlm

is

tin'i

cultivated

nurrh

of the wild or forest kind,

the hr>t

is tl

IN

gathered in

summ<

rh, at

maximum
is

old as high as 40 denarii the pound; cultivated of 11 denarn, rythncan at 16, and *Wwnur
I

They
because
the
i^ht
it

give

no tithes of myrrh

to the

god,

the produce of other countries as well;


part of
it

but the grower!

fourth

to the

king of the Gebanibr.

Myrrh

is

up indiscriminately by the
Init

common

into

tiai:>.

<>ur
its

principal tests of
smell.

goodness being

perfumers separate it its unctuousness and

people and then packed without any difficulty, the


its

aromatic

"There
the

are

several kinds of

Troglodytic;
tnatic,

myrrh: the first among the wild and the next are the Muuran. which mof Ausaritis, in the
the

and

that
is

uue.

third kind

myrrh, or ,&//<//;.-. from a city


r

a fifth
in

kingdom of the Diamtu. and a fourth is the mixed again is the Sambracenian. which is
of the Saba-i, near the sea;

the

kingdom

and a

114

sixth

is

known by
is

the

name
I

of Ausaritic.

There
is

is

a white myrrh

also

which

produced
^r,

in only
his
is

one
the

spot,

and

carried

tt

sale to
i

lu-

cky of Messalum."

same

as the

port of Masai.

or

Mu/
"bit: M

MX*. Pis

The name The


>.

myrrh
he

from the Hebrew and Arabic

mm\
A/
or

me. mm*.:

ancient l.<j\ptian
I

word was

bola or bal,
it

and the San/,',/,;.

..

modern

lYisian ami Indian rail

24.

Gebanite-Mmaean
Miiller and
in
I

stacte.

The

text

is

corrupt,
-a

ha\mu
dis-

gahfirminaia :

ahru lus alter this to

"Ahn.

ami \lm.ra,"

which appear
trict.

Sprenger's

map

of Arabia, hut not in the myrrh


as the

Stattt has already

been described

gum

yielded In natural

exudation from wild trees, as distinguished from that coining from us on trees either wild or cultivated; while the qualifying adiec

n\c can hardly be other than (jebanite-Miniean, which was


(See aU
(

the best varieties in Pliny's classification.

ilasi-r,

8824. Alabaster. Pliny (XIII, 3), says, "Ointments keep best boxes of alabaster, and perfumes when mixed with oil, which conduces all the more to their durability the thicker it is, such as the oil
in

of almonds, the sun


is

for instance.

apt to spoil them, for

Ointments, too, improve with age; but which reason they are usually stowed
lead."

away
12;

in a

shady place
7\

in vessels of

(See also Pliny,

XXXVI,
is

Mark, XIV.
24.

John, XII, 3.)

Avalites and the far-side coast.


Fabricius translates

The

text

corrupt,

"aus dem gi-geniiber gele having ddulii; But Adulis was not opposite Muza, its exports were quite Aduliv The reladifferent, and it is not mentioned that they went to Mu/a
tions of

Habash and Himyar,

at

the date of the

IVriplus,

were not

those of friendly commerce, and Adulis was distinct 1\ an K^yptian On the other hand, the text desc rihes, in 7, the trading-station.
articles carried
sale

by the Berbers from Avalites

to

there;

to

which

this

passage refers as
that

Ocehs and Mu/a for "already mentioned"


copied

must
instead of
25.

conclude,

therefore,

the

scribe

"Adulis"

"Avalites," which was what our author wrote.

narrow

Strait.

This

is,

of course, the

strait
1

of Babso railed

cl-Mandeb, or "Gate of Tears" (12 35' N., 43 because of its treacherous winds and currents.
IS.

12

The
I

island

DiodoniS

is

the

modern Perim (12

38' N.,

43

18'

25.

Ocelis

is

name

surviving in the

the Acila of Strabo, Artemidorus and Pliny; the modern Cella. Forster traces in this name the

in
(,r !lf ,., W nh whom he alao Utal, ton of Joktan in chc r-unkinfeftae Country connects Ausar (Ausal or Ausan
tribe of
i

modern Ras el Sair. Thi% i% the district ".\iisamtu- coa*" near Zanzibar, at Mated in .UK irtit The S $1 ny of Uzal it ihe modern Sanaa. is uleimHcd by Gbucr with a bay on the northern tide of kh Sa'id (12* 4T N., 43* 21 a volcanic thepr
which survive*
in the
-i

the
i

formation

ui... M

jutto*

fam

tat

a narrow channel from the island


that

\rabianthoreand i* separated by of Pcrtm He notes the probability

Indian ships were permitted to go no further than this place, The text says merely argoes went by land to Muza.
v\.is

"noi
.

.4

m.uket-town, but the


\va\

first

landing for those sailing

int<>

the

L-uIt

hut Pliny (VI, 104) states

authority of Oneaithe most convenient port for those coming

on the

India.

He

mentions two other ports,


in

Muza (Maaala) and


were only

Cana, win
for the

not frequented by Indian travellers, but

merchants dealing
I

frankincense and Arabian spices.


is

udaemon Arabia
',

the

modern Aden

12

48

from very early times an important trade center, where the from east were trans-shipped for the Mediterranean markets. goods and the chief port ,iuhl\, the Eden of E/ek..

45

0'

E.

of the

uiuirr the Home-rite kings,


\

While temporarily in eclipse Minaran and Sabxan dynasties. it had regained its position by the 4th cen!)

ulu-n

mst.mtui> nojotiated for a church to be built there;


its

ami the Arabian geographers and Marco Polo refer to terms almost as glowing as those of Agatharchuies

activities in

The
Eudtrmw
.itin,

Periplus gives the


like
/ir//jr,
'

port the

name
;

of the entire disir

being an attempt

at translating

to the right hand*

(as

one faces the

east

m/, "the country the Arabic, like the (


to the right hand.

attaching the idea of

good fortune

6*

had the same Mgniticance, of good fortune.


26.

Charibael destroyed the place.


.;/

The

text is corrupt,

It

is

quite certain that


1st

no Roman emperor attacked


title i&

:hi>

place during the

century, and the

equally suspicions,

our author having more as ,;/<;;*;/' Mullrr ami

correctly referred to -his sovereign, in 1-abruuis

Babatl&aH

/'.

Iftti

',

23, "

word, and suppose him to have been a king of ankinccnse C ountr>. But Schwanbeck {Rkft*i*kfn A/***m '>nMofi,, VII. Jahrgang, 1850) prefers CbriM* and Glasrr supports him by proving that EUmut, and not Elisar, was the name <f
second
syllable of the
%

:>K

mentioneii
indications are against a westward

The

movement by

the

mon-

116

arch

at

Sabbatha;

his outlook

was

in the

other direction.

The

Peri-

plus indicates his control of the fertile frankiiu cnse valleys far beyond the account of Strabo, who knew Chatramotitis as a producer of myrrh

only;

t)u>

movement followed
it

the

Habash migration.

The

Chatra-

had,
si.ms

is

true, to

cope with an alliance of Homerites and Per-

which ultimately pressed them on cither side and engulfed them; was in a later century. Saphar and abbatha were not yet K-\nnd the period of expansion within their respective spheres. rum the Red Sea to the summits of the Arabian Alps was that of the
but this
1
.

the NV.uli

Hadramaut, on the eastern slope,

that of the latter.


history

Between the two


alike discredit

lay precipitous mountains.

Topography and

an attack upon

Aden by

the Chatramotitae.

But

in

the alliance of

the destruction of Aden.

Muza The

with Saphar
foreign

we

have the motive for


at

trade

was centered

the

Homeritc port, and Chola-bus gained for his merchants the rights The loss which those of Aden had enjoyed under the Sabaran kings. Ihn Khaldun Kay's edition, p. 158 tells us that the <t great;
(
;

city

was

built

common

there.
fair,

mostly of reeds, so that conflagrations by night were It involved hardly more than the discontinuance of
as described in the account by Lieut. Cruttenden at
14.

an annual

Berbera, quoted under

Cana may
48
text.

be identified with Hisn Ghorab


protected from
all

14

lu'

20' E.), a fine harbor,

winds by projecting

capes on either side and by islands in the offing, as described in the


tion, of

Here are numerous ruins and one famous Himyaritic inscripwhich a version is given by Forster. The "Island of Birds" is described by Miiller as 450 feet high, covered with guano, and thus U name from the same cause as the promontory Hisn Ghorab (Raven Castle). The modern town is called Bir Ali.
Fabricius (pp.

Cana
jecting

slightly

farther west, at Ba-l-Haf.

141-2), following Sprenger and Ritter, locates This seems not to accord

with the text, which says the port was "just beyond the cape profrom this hay," while Ba-l-Haf would be "just before." The
identification
fails

and

to take
I

depends too literally on the stated distance of the islands into account that they are described as "facing the
is

port.'

his

true of

Hisn Ghorab and not of Ba-l-Haf.

Muller <p.
<

I.

278) and Glaser (Skmze t pp. 174-5) support the ihorah location by comparison of the distances given by Ptolemy between his 7. HI smfwrion and the neighboring ports.

AW
the

From Hisn Ghorab

way

to the interior leads

up the Wadi

Maifa, which empties into the ocean a short distance to the east.

JIT

The Cina

of the

lYnplu*

probably the

same

at the

Canneh

of

Ezek.el \.\\ll.
"!e u'i:>i'

enjoyed ptate*
the
r
.is:

.mil

now through the port the capital of the country


shiham
'

has shifted

in like

manne: eastward to the

Eleazus,
Arabic
1
1

King of the Frankincense Coun trj v God if miir* :ame uh


t.

hu

><!,, i:/r,i

several king* of
Jalit,
!

mines with lli-a//u


1)
,

die Hadramaut, and (hu whose rnjn, dating about

he fhreaaji inacripcioa

/>//

Abtuin.

tc).
the

M
.

ii\en

the

kiiU'l"M
>(

> a translation notable, t>rin L

the "I

Habadtt,
i
!

already mrntinnril.

Phit ancient objflGlol

was now divided between Hadramaut and Panhta, ami its name was, apparently, assumed by the king of (he Hadramaut, perhaps uriu-iall), but icrt.unh !>> the popular voice, and by merchants
thr IMH.IHN

such as the author ot the Peripl

stcd

in

the product of the

country and not

in its politics.
Iru
its

glance at the topography of this an understanding of its dealings with


coast of Arabia from Hah
el

CM ><-!. .nul uill help toward


neighbors.

The

southern

Mamleb

to

Ras

el

Hadd

has a length of

about 1200 miles, divided almost equally in climatic conditions. western half is largely sandstone bluff, sun-scorched and arid;
Sy occasional ravines which bring
the

The
cut,

monsoon

scanty rains dunng the western to fertilize a broad strip of coast plain.

down

On

edge the mountains of Yemen, rising above 10,000 feet, attract a good rainfall \\ hu h waters the western slope toward the Red Sea.

On
but

on the upper
'

the eastern slope the water-courses are soon lost in the sand, levels the \alleys are protected and fertile Such

\vhii

last

\hn.ran Jauf, and the \alleyof the Sahara ns, was made rich by the great dam that stored its waters for

and these three


north toward
their position
tl

valle\-.

nters of caravan-trade

I-

:iid

Kuphratcs,

owed
all

their

prop<
(<

ily

to

above the greatest of


amaut.

the east-Howing courses, the

This great cleft in the sandstone rock,

all>,

I'.ent

believes an ni

arm

of the sea,

now

silted

up

which ga:hers

from the

highest

peaks,

for

more than 200


,-e;

miles, fertile

runs parallel with the coaat and productive for nearly the entire
its

then

it

turns to the south and


desert like the

water; are

lost,
1

of the \al.

cliffs that line its

course.

hi*

was
arrf

the best frankincense

Beyond the mouth

of the

Wadi Hadramaut

'

IIS

Here the climate changes; the monsoon, Cape Guardafui. no longer checked by thr African mast, leaves its effect on tinwhich gradually rise above 4000 feet, clot In -d with r hills, The northwhile the coast plains are narrow and broken. vegetal ion
north of
i

ern slopes of these mountains (known to our author as Asich. ^ K- w.itcr -course now know n as the Wadi Rekot. about 1(K) miles
."*

<

lone,
fertile

which empties
coast plains as

into the
far

Kuria Muria Bay;

as

Ras

the Dhofar and Jenaba districts,


islands,

beyond which are These mountains, and facing which lie the Kuria Mima
el

Hadd.

were the
districts

oldest

incense
various

of Arabia;

and perhaps the most productive of the frankand it was always the ambi'ion of tin-

powers of that region to extend their rule so as to include the Dhofar mountains, the Hadramaut valley, and the opposite Somali thus controlling the production and commanding tincoast of Africa
price;
in short,

forming a "frankincense trust."

The

restricted area

of the Arabian incense-lands, bordered as they

were by the steppe and

the desert,
different

made them

constantly subject to attack and control by

wandering
\alue,

tribes;

while at the same time their local cona controlled product of


great

ditions, of
::it

intensive cultivation of

and
a

made

for a peculiarly ordered state of society

for

development of caste unusual in Semitic lands, and in which the culm.itor, the warrior, and the privileged slave, had their place in the
order given.

Of

know today
the Arab

the age-long struggle for control of these sacred lands \\ c little more than the Greek writers of two thousand >ears

The modern

world takes
it

its little

supply of frankincense from or

vessels that carry

to

Bombay

Aden;

its

armies are sent

of to the conquest or defence of lands in other lines of productivity to But the ancient a a Manchuria. a Kimberley, Witwatersrand,

world the Incense-Land was a true Eldorado, sought by the empires and fought for by every Arab tribe that managed to ei
by trading incense for temple-service on the Nile or Euphrates, The archjeologic al on Mount '/ion, or in Persia, India, or China. that in shall finally succeed penetrating these forbidden expedition
itself

regions,

and recovering the records of

their past,

cannot

fail

to

add

greatly to our store of

knowledge showing the complement to such records as those of Hatshepsut in Egypt and Tiglath-Pileser III in Assyria, and by giving the groundwork
for the treasured scraps of information preserved by Herodotus,

of the surrounding civ illations, by

Theo-

phrastus,

Eratosthenes,

Agatharchides, Strabo,

Pliny, and Ptolenu.

At present we must be satisfied with such knowledge of the IncenseLand as may be had from these, and from inscriptions found by

119

UMT

in

it

of

iu neighbor*.
'

UMHUM
Dunn.the Jd

and

1st

centuries

II

(.

liun.M-l.and wa* held


Habashat
of

h\
ti<

,|r,

the greater part of ihr the Aetl

Pressure by
tiiuiiii

forced an alliance,

\\lmli (ilusrr
.1

thr :rt.. r ,iut

Man!..

!<-

Hahashat.

Hadr..
I

Saba on one
not

h.,n,i, ...-.nnst

Him>ur and Kaidan on the


ami Marib ruled by
jplr
cif

Ins

was

iu and
lir

"
Raulan.
.1

utpocfs,

uhilr

.."

ffrnrr.

IVnplu>

>li-.us U s

lioinrritr
.st,
|
,,t

km- uho
and
I

rule* alio over


>f

Sab*

ami Raidan and

th<

a kinu

the

whose whose

tttlr

ihr
(

rule r \u-n.U over thr


all f<>!

islands
-ir

KUTM

Hadnunaut and >cotni and


'

M.IMCU,

fiabasbat.

tlu-

4(1.
'

I),

the kitvjs
.i,

had abvirbcd the


*

\vhl(
\\lnlc the
tlurini: that (ft

.as

'Ki:
.

Kaidan,

ladramauc and

Abyssinian kinu s

'

-d a foofhold in Arabia
MM. Hinu.tr. Rai-

Hahashat, Sal

The name "Hadramaut,"


runihlings

the

Ma/arma\eth

of (J<

;>r<>hably to (he crater of Hir

ILrhut,

were held

ertson Smith

Rfligion of the

be the groans of lost souls Sfmitfs, p. 1 S4 and auth<


to
-

\V. Rob-

r<?//iv of

humty
hun-.
1

to

tkt
.

Ru'mt

/
*

\atft
II

tl

Hiy'tr

of the

K
S"
;
,

VII. 2o.
\
.

n in Arabien, Mraunsi

\\

\anden
(la*

iramaut

et

/a Colonies .Iraki dtini

C Ankipcl

ln<tun,

1886;
iccnth
Journal,

J.

Theodore Bent:
1

Tht Hadramaut, a
to

Jnnuj,

C'entury,
1'

:
.

xpttKthn

tht

Hadramaut, Geographical

Ihrsvh

Rtn<n

in

SM-Arafr*, Makra-l**4

und Hadkramuti Leiden, 1897; the works alrea. .laser. Hoinmrl, Weber, Hogarth, and /wemer; and the Austrian Expedition

Reports,)

Sabbatha.
motit.i

lu

n
.uii

;al

of the Chaira-

.ihwa.
..li

It

Hex in the \\

Rakhiym, tome

distance

ibam.
it

>f the present Madramaut, and about Hent Accordinu (,f>(rap*u-al Journal, \\
t

is

jio\\

lirst-rtc.

who work
while the natives are

the smk

miiu-N in thr \irimt\;


.lley.

now

all

in

the lower

120
1'his
is

tin-

"

Sabota of Pliny (VI, 32) "with sixty temples within

hi wall27.

Frankincense, one
commerce, order Hur
is

articles of
.

a resin

of the most ancient and exuded from various I]


in

pic

:iative
s
.

Somaliland ami .South

Arabia

liirdwood (Tram. Linn


larly

\\\'ll,

H. Frerfana^ B.

Rhau-Dqjiana (the mocretu of

1871), distinguishes particu9 ', ami /'


B. M///;/',/, Ma ti\c

urii,

the last-named yielding the best incense.

India, yields a resm of less fragrance,

mm

used as an adulterant

Frankincense

is

thus J.sc!y allied to myrrh, bdellium, and brn/.om.


is

The Greek word

lilxinoi,

from Hebrew

///*/////,

Arabic

/i//>////,

meaning "white"; cf. " which is the Chinese term perfumc, calls it "white incense.' always
'

laben^ the Somali

word

for cream,

and "milk-

for frankincense.

Marco Polo

Another Hebrew name was shekhcldh, Kthiopic seklnn, which Himnu-l \\ould connect with the "Bay of Sachalites" of 29.

Frankincense trees, from the Punt Reliefs in the Deir el Bahri temple at Thebes; After Naville. dating from the 15th century B. C.

The

inscriptions of the early Egyptian dynasties contain, as

we

might expect, few references to the trade in incense, which was brought overland to the upper Nile by the "people of Punt and God's Land' and not sought out by the Pharaohs. That incense was in
'

me

is

sufficiently clear

from the

early ritual.

The

expedition to the

121

Incense-l,and undc

-h

dynasty

28th century

li

was

a notable

In
,

rlu-

\ Ith

d>nat>, under IVp.

II

centut
,

a royal officer Sebm, M-MI to the Tigre highland*,

h..v\

Ix

"defended
.%,.

(.1

YVawat and
bearing

I'thck.

and

M-HI

on the

royal attendant In, with


coitoi
-titk,

.,ihrr%,

imene,
1,
*

clothing 'probably
In the Xltii d>-rd

nasty,

and one hide" (as spe< under Mentuhottp IV ~Uf irnturv


of

of

ihc

completion
Koats

a royal sarcophagus state* that

"('atii'

^ugh-

were slum, nu rnte was put un the hrr lie hold, an arm) henomes of the Northland Dclu of ihc
'

i..li..\\r.i

it

in vatrt\

to

Egypc."

And

in

thr

\Ilth dynaity, under

Ainrix-ini

was

sent for stone to


tlu.ir.r.

Hammamat

.mother royal officer named I ntcf alon^ what was, in the tmir of thr

iVnpluN.

optos to Berenice Mout success, then provtr.'.fr*! hnnvlf

Mr
"t

koughc

\lir in-Magic, and aO the fodtol this highland, gi\ Then all scattered in sranh, lothein nuensr upon t!

and

found

it,

and the entire army was p raisin

.nth ohri-

Montu
rn followed a period of disorder and Arabian domination
A
in

huh Arab merchants


I

controlled the trude


II
.

hiswa*

million described in (Jenes.N

\\\\
Ciileail,

' '.

'

u traveling

came from

with their
4 j.

iameU U

:v

\
all

It and balm and myrrh, iM'i"v: to r.rr\ n nded by a native reaction under the great Pharaohs of the Ith or Thehan il\ nasty, under whom the land increased in p

direi-tions
.1

These monarchs were not content to remain in dependence upon Arabia, but nruani/.ed great rleets which went "Land >f Punt" each season and brought back unprecedented
This land
ie
if

treasure

in

people

knew

former times, according to the Deir el Bahri not; it was heard of from mouth to mouth

tbe ancestors.

The
l.<:\pt,

marvel* brought thence under th\

fathers, the kings of

Lower
t'

were brought from one


'

to another,

and Mine the tune

ot

the kings of t'pper Kgypl,

who

fold, as a return for

mam

p.t\ments.

mme

reaching them

But Amon-Ke, so the HIM ription continues by land and sea, until it came to the Incenseand brought back great store of myrrh, ebony and ivory* gold, cinnamon, nu apes, monkeys, dogs, panther-skirts,
.

er

was brought the


1

like of this for

x\ho has been since the heginnn


planted in the court of the temple.

nee ne -trees were

"hea\en and earth are flooded

uith

odors arc
glad.

in

ihedreat House," and the heart

of

Amon

made
I'hrn

followed a scries

<>r

tampamns m

Syria, resulting in the

submission of that country, and annual remittances of great quantities UK ense, oil, grain, wine, gold anil .ibian and l-.astcm treasure while even the "Chief of Shinar" at Ualn Ion stones Mixer, precious
sent
gifts

of

lapis

la/.uli,

and the "Genabd"

of

the Incense-l.aiul

came direct, offering Thcban dynasty made Amon, and the setting
'

sudden opulence of the a enrichment in the worship of possible great aside of enormous endowments for the temSo Rameses II, of the ples, as well as annual gifts of princely \alue. "founded for his father offerings 12 c *2-i::5 \\ (' \l.\ih d\ nasty
their tribute.
.

The

growing for him;" wine, incense, while the court responded that Rameses himself was "the god of al! is BUO people, that they may awake, to give to thee incense."
forhis/d
all fruit,

cultivated trees,

Merneptah was bidden by the All-Ix>rd to "set free multitudes who arc bound in every district, to give offerings to the temples, to ^cnd
in

incense before the god."


III
'

And
),
it

in

the

XXth
as
if

dynasty, under Ra-

meses
nation
for

198-1

17

B. C.

seemed

the resources of the

The god opened were poured bodily into the lap of Amon. the Pharaoh "the ways of Punt, with myrrh and incense for thy
diadem;"
"the Sand-Dwellers came bowing down to thy that great record of his gifts and
his

serpent

" And in the Papyrus Harris, name endowments to Amon, compiled for
every year as "gold, silver,
lapis

tomb, there are such entries


malachite, precious stones,

lazuli,

copper, garments of royal linen, jars, fowl; myrrh, 21,140 white incense 2,159 jars, cinnamon 246 measures, incense 304,093
various measures;" stored of necessity, in a special "Incense

House."

(The
At

quotations are from Breasted, Anatnt Records of Egypt.

in Egypt and and them also frankincense naturally among migrated to Palestine; was counted holy. The sacred incense of the priests (Exod. \\.\\ was composed of "sweet spices, stacte, onycha, galbanum, \\ith

this

time the Hebrews ended their servitude

pure frankincense; of each a like weight "

perfume
offering
oil

pure
II.

and ho!)
it

And "when any


flavor,
. . .

will

offer a
shall

meat
shall

shall

be of fine

and he

pour

frankincense thereon

and the

priest

and put burn the memorial

upon

it,

upon
for

the altar, to be an offering

made by
rooms
<

fire,

of a sweet savour unto

the Ix>rd."
storing
it

There were
under
priestly

special

in

the temple at Jerusalem

guard

Chron. IX, 26-30);


as a dwelling,
it

and

later,

when one

of these

sidered a sacrilege

rooms was occupied (Nehemiah XIII, 4-9;.

was con-

The

trade in the days of

123
*

prosperity

was importai
(lir iiirrih.li.-

thi

thai

cometh out of

Itlerness like pillars of

tmoke, perfumed wich myrrh and I rank.ig

of Solomon III,

multituilr
\li.ii.

..t

cmell
M

^iui

he dromedaries of
*hall con.
nli the pmifcc shall

hah:

all

Shcha

bong

Mej

ami

rKa "gtvr the king an hun%tore,

and

us stones
l

there

tame no

nx>rr

MH

jhundamc

of spice*

\\huh

<ing*

he

Nmmul
cell

InsiTiptKin of the great Assyrian


-f

monarch TigUth-

111,

tlu- hnlli.ui* r

.f

Ashur,

my

lord, ovor'

Merodach-baladai

and
Mihuiissmii, hrm^iiii; a* tnhutc

how he came and made


dust of
his

"gold
,

the

land

in

abundance, vessels of cold.


in.
t

of gold,

<t thr

MI
all

4u-wood,
kinds."

r/Af/t/-wood f pany-<
In the Persian

.nhinu. spu'cs of

dotus

tells

us that the
is

empire frankincense was equally treasured. HeroArabs brought a tribute .: 1000 talents' weight
HI, 97), ant tnat a
'

sirnil^r

quantity

was burnt
Babylon
.ht

the
in

t'h.iKhrans on
the
sp..ils

their great altar to

Bel at

of

Gaza
vlcr

in Syria,

500

tal<

of

license

was

sent h.

the Great to his mtnr

(Plutarch, Iji,
altars t<>"
I.

t\iNhl\

iad rebuked him for loading the reiii.irkui'j that he must be more economical

Leomdas Macedonian
until

had conquered rhe countries that produced the frankincense! The temple of Apollo in Miletus was presented Plim Ml, 31) with 10 talents' weight in 24 S B. C, by v II. Kmj ..t Sym,
he

and

his hrothrr
.s

Antiochus Hierax, King of

Cilicia.

The

temple of

at

Paphos was fragrant with frankincense:


"Ipsa Paphum sublinns
La?ta suas ubi
.t!>n,
illi,

sedesque

revisit

templum

ccnrumque Sahco
//iW,
I,

Turc

calent

anr sertisquc recentibus halant


416.

And
from the

to the infant Saviour in


gifts,

east, with
.

Bethlehem came "three wise men Matt II. gold, frankincense, and myrrh"
<

according to a Persian legend quoted by Yule,

"the

gold the kinship, the frankincense the divinity, thr myrrh the healing powers of the Child."

l.M

Likewise
of

Amon

in funerals were its virtues required. under the XVIIIth dvnastv were instructed
i

The
to

priests
\

"be

he ye not careless onccrnmg ;in\ lant ni! your duty, divine concern he clean be inn things yc ye pure, your rules;

concern

bring ye up

for

me

that

which came

forth before, put offer ye to

on
of

th<
:dl
f

ments of
give ye

my statues, consisting me shoulders of beef,


"
in his

of linen;
fill

me
571

ye for

me
0/>.

the altar with milk,


II,

let

incense be heaped thereon.


buried

(Breasted,
. .
.

<//.,

"They
which
1
i

him

own

sepulchres

and

laid
<>t

him
spuv-

in

the bed

was

filled

with sweet odours and divers kinds

the

apothecaries' art; and they made a very great burning for him." At the time of the Periplus this was pa: (II Chron. XVI, 14).
.larly
\ II.

the

fashion

in

Rome,

as

Pliny observes

\\ith

<lisapp:u\al

42):is

"It

the

luxury which
that has

phernalia of death,

is displayed by man, even in the paia" rendered Arabia thus "happ\ ami
;

which prompts him to bury with the dead what was originally unde; Those who stood to have been produced for the service of the nods.
-

are likely to be the best acquainted with


<ntry

the

matter, assert that this


i

does not produce, in a whole year, so lame a quantity of fumes as was burnt by the Emperor Nero at the funeral obsequie
his wife Poppaea.

And

then

let

us only take into account the

number

of

funerals that are celebrated throughout the


in

whole world honor of the

each year, and the heaps of odors that are piled up


bodies of the dead;

the vast quantities, too, that are offered to the

gods
ing

in single grains;

and

yet,

when men were

in the habit of

offer-

up

to

them the

salted cake, they did not

show themselves any

the

less propitious;

nay, rather, as the facts themselves prove, they

were

even more favorable to us then than they are now.


portion, too,
I

How

lar

these perfumes really " to the gods of heaven, and the deities of the shades below:
all

should like to know, of

comes

The

customs ruling the gathering and shipment of frankincense


foil.

are carefully described by Pliny (XII, 30), as

"There

is

no country

in

the

world,"

(forgetting,

however.

"that produces frankincense except Arabia, Almost in the very center of and indeed not the whole of that.
the Somali peninsula),
that

region are the Atramitae, a


is

community
this
is

of the Sab;ri, the capital

of

whose kingdom
the

Sabota, a place situate on a lofty mountain

a distance of eight stations from

the incense -bearing region.

known by

name

of Saba {Aktsaf).
side,

This
it

district

is

inaccessible
right

because of rocks on every


the sea, from which
it

while

is

bounded on the
cliffs.

by

is

shut out by tremendously high

inigih and

In M-hirm in breadth.

(A *
c

n
rotd.
in
le
f

Minari, a pro; the sole transit for the frankincense, along a


'

'I

"ere the n>


It

people

who can
and no other
and not
all

frankincense.

among

the Sabsri alone, the Arabians, that beheld the u


is

tin

-MM) families
itary successi<>

have a right

wlege by

MIS reason these person* are called sacred, while prumn- thr trees or gathering the harvest, >urie with women or coming pollution, either
i,
:

ii.ii

\\

ith

the dead;
v is

by these religious observances so enhaiu


about the mini;
f

it

is

that the

iutur.il
..I

the Dog-*tar,

\\hen the

most intense, <n \\ huh occasion (hey cut here the bark appears to be the fullest and exhr.it
is
,

thin,

from being distended


is

t..

the greatest extent

The

in-

gradually extended, hut nothing is removed; the consequence of \\hi.h is, that an unctuous foam oozes forth, \vhuh
risi..n

thus

made

gradually coagulates and tin


rt-ijuires
it.

When

the nature of the locality

\ed upon mats of palm-leaves, (hough in plaies the space around the tree is made hard by being well The frankincense (hat is gathered rammed down for the purpose.
thi

he former method

is

in the purest state,


in

though

that

which

falls

upon the ground "

is

the he.mest
.illotted in
at
it

weight
is
i

The

certain portions, and such


quite safe

the mutual
>r:
.

prohitN of the
is

is

from

all

depredat

indeed,

no one
!s< \c

left to
t

watch (he

tree after the incisions are


liut,

made, and

at

.\le\andn.i, \\hrre the

k:,"un to plunder his neighbor incense is dressed for

by Hercules!

sale,

the workshops

can never be guarded with sufficient care; a seal is even placed upon and a mask put upon the head, or else a net
with \er\ close meshes, \\hile the people are stripped naked before

So true it is that punishments afford they are allowed to leave work. to be found by these Arabians amid ty among us than is
their

woods and

forests!
.luring (he

summer

is

gath-

Vfe

II.

LM
Sob In ct turn vtrga
tura

** arboribus patrur.
in-num, solis

And

K*in,

I,

57:

India mittit ebur,

modes *ua

i)

the
..1

autumn;

it

i>

the purest of

all,

ami

is

of

a white

gathering takes place in the spring, incisions be-innter;


this,

made
.s

in

the bark for that purpose dun:


lor,
-.el

however,
in the

of a

ami not

to b<
all

<-d

with the other ince;


i

of the Storage of

the incense ol the country

apital,

I'liny -jixes a

further account

XII, 32)

"I'hf

incense after being Collected,


I

is

carried on

>.u

ks

tiu

h pl;u

left

open

for

lo deviate from the high road while carrying


1'v
\\

i, the la\\N

ha\e
,

made

At this place the priests take by measi IK


eight, a tenth part in
it

and not

honor of

their god,
it

indeed,

is

n.

le to

dispose of

whom they call Sahis; before this has been


.

nut of this tenth the public expenses are defrayed, for the

divinity

generously entertains

all

those strangers

who have made

a certain

The incense can only number of days' journey in coming thither. be exported through the country of the Gchanit.r, and for this it is that a certain tax is paid to their king as well.
;

"There

are certain portions also of the frankincense

u!mh

are

given to the priests and king's secretaries: and in addition to these. the keepers of it, as well as the soldiers who guard it, the gate-keepers

And then beand various other employees, have their share as well. all along the route, there is at one place water to pay
f

another fodder, lodging of the stations and various taxes and imposts
besides;

the consequence of which


it

is,

that

the expense for each


<

camel before
is

arrives at the shores of our sea (the Mediterranean


after all this, too, there are certain

688

denarii;

payments

still

to

be made to the farmers of the revenue of our empire.

"Hence

pound
at 5,

of the best incense sells at 6 denarii, of the


at 3 denarii."

second quality

and of the third quality


rafts.

To Cana on
frankincense,
\\

as

distinguished

!u

would naturally

This was the Dhofar, or "Sachafrom that of the Hadramaut go by camel direct to Sabbatha. Pliny

rafts, derived, he thinks, from a fancied resemblance to the name given the African tribe
\
I.

<4

(iou^s the story of the inflated

-them

Atctta\

the

Greek word

askos

meaning "bladder."

But the Ascitz, as already shown, were from Asich ( 33) and \\ere the founders of Axum. And the inflated raft is authentic, being the

well-known kfhk, a type still in general use on the Euphrates, \\hence the migrating Arabs no doubt brought it to the south coast. This is
probably, also, the "cargo-ship" of
Island for tortoise-shell.
?i

S3, sent

from Cana

to Masira

lariated raft,

from a

relief at

Nineveh.

After
that part of

The neighboring
ith

coast of Persia meant

uhuh

Arabian coast between Kuria Muria Bay and Ras el Hadd, liati recently been conquered by the Parthian Empire. The
irthia"

did likewise,

our author avoids, and it is likely that this coast knowing rather the independent sphere of influence of

nstitiu-nt

Kingdom

of Persia;

sacid possessions, maintained


:

its

which, while an integral part of local government to an extent

the districts nearer Ctesiphon.

the nature of the trade

imports indicates wheat, wine, and cheap clothing for the Hadramaut, and graven images for the household worship
:

Imported into
a

this place.

The list of

little

>pp<-r, tin, coral and storax, pr in demand (49), and where were i'lm-ut India, they whither they went in Hadramaut shipping ( 57), along with the frankincense produced in the country. The outlook of Hadramaut, then as now, was toward India by sea, and toward Kgypt by land. Bent found the same conditions; the capital full of Panee merchants, the natives going to India, the Straits and Java, and returning when they had amassed a competence; the Knglish protectorate accepted

and the Mediterranean


to

because of England's domination of India,


conxictions of rulers and people
(

in the face of the religious

Gttfrvpkxml /MrrW, IV. Malt/an described the Hadrami traders in Cairo as the keenest of the

lot,

and spoke of their activities in the East; while the Dutch government, rinding the islands of Java and Sumatra overrun with Ha..it

Arabs, stimulated inquiries of them in Batavia, which re-

sulted

in

Van den Berg's book on


H/

their country, comprising

more

details than

Bent could gather on the spot!


people, these Chatramotitr,

An

enterprising and

who may

have been the

128

power
both of
north, in

in

whom

the Mirnran dynasty and the Sahara n that followed it, c of frankincense to the subsisted nuiulv on th

which they were the mediators between the profane- world ar.d the unpolluted caste of those who were able by propitiati shed and gather its blood for the pimhcavpirit
tion of maiiK

Coral.

commanded a high price ul Roman exp.rts

Tins u as the red coral of the Mediterranean, whirh in India and China, and was one of the

thither, heing shipped to Barbaricum, \\.u\~ As an import at ('ana Si 49, and 56. ) pa/a and Mu/i intended for reshipment to India in Arab or Hindu bottoms

28.
solid,

Storax

in

Roman

was the

resin of
.

Styrax

times meant two different things: one, a somewhat officinalis, order >
t

resembling ben/<> m
of Liquidambar

and used

orientalis,

in incense. Liquid storax was order HamamiUdacue^ native- in S \V. Asia


(

ctgraphia t pp. 271-6), as far as China.

Minor, and exported, according to Kliickiger and Hanbury P/mrniiiIt was an expectorant and

The Periplus does stimulant, useful in chronic bronchial affections. in t distinguish between them, but Hiickiger thinks that the storax dealt
in at Cana was the liquid storax, destined for India and China; \\ In. n would have had little use for an incense of less value than their own. There was, however, a local use for storax in defending the f rankincense gatherers from the 'serpents" guarding the trees; seepp. 1S1-2. Mirth in his China and the Roman Orient quotes Chinese annals covering this period, which state that the Syrians "collect all kinds of which fragrant substances, the juice of which they boil into su-Ao"
*

he
are

identifies

with storax.

Later annals, referring to the 6th century,


is

more complete.

"Storax.
it is

made by mixing and

boiling the juice


It

of various fragrant trees;

not a natural product.

is

further said

that the inhabitants of Ta-ts'in (Syria) gather the storax (plant, or parts

squeeze the juice out, and thus make a balsam (hsiang-kao)


then
sell
its

they

dregs to the traders of other countries;

it

thus goes

through
is

many hands
"

before reaching China, and,


indicate that the
tree.

when

arriving here,

not very fragrant.

These references
(

Chinese su-ho may not have

been the product of one particular


Jlaser

notes the

state to

have been the

name su-ho, which the Chinese annals further name of the country producing the storax, and

connect with the


Pctra,

city Li-kan, supposed to be the same as Rekam or which was a point of shipment. He compares this with the wet-wood mentioned in several Assyrian inscriptions a tribute received from Arabia, and with a city called I'suu, placed by Delitzsch south

129

of

Akko on

(he sea

but

Glaer

think*

it

may have been

farther north,

MOW,
entirely in Socotra.

kiuiri

lathaitu,

bcfcq
I

<ded
hit waft
.1

from Akt Pfrrji, Baker, order times an important article


\\

from %ery early was produced almoM les% in demand, was from .41* AnothArabia, particularly m (he Hadramauc valley,
/....,..-

but also as far as northern

Onun
This
it

he

failurr

t'eriplut to

n Socotrine aloes

IN

surprising, unless the product of the island

was monopolized
subject to the
In

in

('ana.

quite possible, as the island

was

Had rani.
\aneiie% are in

modern times these and many other


and very
little

uw, hoth
field*

wild and culmatrd. throughout the rr.'pus

Item

SourAtm Jraha,

aloes collected in Socotra, but

many

enclosed by walls, where it had formerly been produced. Hr drthe an thod still used to prepare the gum; thr I
leaves piled

up

until th<
\\

to dry in the sun for x.\


29.

.Irs of their own weight, then allowed rrks and finally packed in skins for shipment
I

The Bay

surveyed, there

was an

of Sachalites. H idea

mil the Arabian coast


all

was

held by

the geographr

a deep indentation in the coast-line between Ras el Krlb ( 14 1" 48 4 md Ras Hasik 1" : midway bewhu-h Ras Fartak, or Syagnis 14 0' N. 52 *cted The error is very eudcnl in Ctolemy's observathe supposed gulf.
\
.

\\IIK h

m.ikr Ras Fartak one of the most striking features of the


its

coast,

whereas

actual projei -tn>n

is

unimportant, and

its

height less

than that of the ranges farther east

The name
of coast; as the district of
is

as applu-.I

in

^ 2
it

'

hat part of

lying east of

seems to apply to this whole strip Ras Fartak is subdivided


v< the

Omana;

but

in

name

is

resumed.

This

with the Arabian geographers, whose SJukr extended beyond


* *

The word

Sachalitts

is

llellem/ed from the Arabic Sakil,

*
roast,

die same word that appears in East Africa as &ruw4/V. where the s are called SwatiK. This narrow strip of coast plain was diftopographically and ethnologically from the \ alle\ of Hadra-

maut.

The
t

mediaeval form of the

val port that replaced

word was Sheher or Shehr, and Cana was Ks-thehr thr


I

the

Ibn

Khaldun
this coast:

has the following acis,

count

t.t

"Axh-Snihr

like

Hijaz and

Yaman, one

of

no
the
It is separate from Hadrakingdoms of the Arabian peninsula maut and Oman. There is no cultivation, neither an- there palm-

trees in the country.

The
is

wealth of the inhabitants (diiMsis.it camels


tish,

and

goats.

Their food

Mesh, preparations of milk ami small

with which they also feed their beasts.


as that of

The

country

is

alv

knwn

Ash-Shihr
tiguous to

Mahra, and the camels called Mahriyah camels are reared is conis sometimes conjoined with Oman, hut cnnstitutn it been has described as and Hadramaut,
it

ikorfi of that country.

It
is

the Shihritc ambergris

produces frankincense, and on the seashore found. The Indian Ocean extends along
if

die south and on the north Hadramaut, as


of the
latter.

Shihr were the sea-shore

this

Both are under one king." Hommel (in Hilprecht, op. cit. 700-1) argues for a derivation of name from some word allied to the old Hebrew term for frankin-

cense, shtkhtleth;

which does not seem


178-9.)

to

have been
is

in

use on

tin-

south coast, while the evidence of the Arab writers


also Glaser,
Skrzxe,

against him.
.

(See
him,

The

Periplus in

-ain>t

by using the adjective Sachalitic as qualifying

"frankincense,

whirh

would be quite redundant. Vaughn {Pharm. Journ. XII, 1853) speaks of the Shaharree luban from Arabia, as yielding higher prices than that produced in a term exactly corresponding to the 'Sachalitic frankincense' Africa
*
'

of the Periplus.
29.

Always

this coast,

The reports of the unhealthy character of fatal. spread by the earliest traders, have been assumed to be their

The fate of Niebuhr's party in device to discourage competition. Yemen, and the more recent tragic outcome of Bent's explorations,
sufficiently

confirm the dangers from malaria, dysentery and the scorch-

ing sun.

But aside from the question of physical health, the tapping of the frankincense tree was believed to be attended by special dangers, expressed
in

the faith of the people, and arising from the supposed

divinity of the tree itself.

W.

Robertson Smith {Religion of


religious value

the Semites, p.

427) recounts
independent of

this belief as follows:

"The
animal
of tree,

of incense

was

originally

sacrifice, for

frankincense was the

gum

of a very holy species

which was collected with


appears to have

religious precautions.
in

Whether,
like

therefore, the sacred odor


altar sacrifice,
it

was used

unguents or burned
its

an

owed
it

virtue, like the

gum

of the

tamora (acacia) tree, to the idea that

was the blood of an animate

and divine plant."

HI
133):
In

Hadramaut

it

is still

dangerous to couch

the sensitive mimosa, becmuse the spini that reside* in the (flam will thr !:.'u:. The same idea appear* in the story of Harb b.

Omayya and Mirdas


\
I

hiorical persons
these

who

died a gen-

"hammed.

When
\\u\i

two men
doleful

tet

hre to an un-

trodden and tangled thulet,

the design to brine * under cukiva-

w away wnh
ite
it

me* m

the shape

serpents,

an!

tiir

intruder* died

soon afterwards.
*

TV
jm*

was

Ixriirvol

>lcw

them because they had

their dwelling-

place.

Urn

the

spirits

of the tree* take terpent

form when they

leave their natural seats, and similarly in


of the *tMr

Moslem

superstition the

v
i

and kamata are serpents which frequent trees of thetr But primarily supernatural life and power reside in the trees

selves,

which are conceived

as animate

and even as
that the tree

Or
is

again the value of the gum of the acacia as an amu uith the idea that it is a clot of menstruous blood, /.
a

-.,

woman.
like

and act

And similarly human beings


in the

the old

Hebrew

fables of trees that speak

(Judg. IX, 8

ff.,

2 Kings XIV.

'<

hj-.r

original source

savage personification of vegetable species.

"

The Romans
souls of the dead

and Greeks, it is well known, believed were incarnate in the bodies of serpents and

that the

revisited

the earth in that form;

hence, as Frazer has shown (G4sV* Assf4 such 3d cd., IV, 74), practices as that described in the B<K(k* of when nursing mothers entered the Dionysiac revels clad in ides,

deer-skins and girded with serpents,


also, the

whuh

they suckled.

Hence,

of keeping serpents in every household, and the serpent-worship connected with their god Aesculapius, to whose s, as well as to those of Adonis in Syria, childless women repaired that they might be quickened by a dead saint, a./mn. or by the god himself, in serpent form. Such was the belief concerning the
births of

Roman custom

Alexander of Macedon and the Kmperor Augustus.


to this

Herodotus refers

same
he

belief

in

two passages (HI, 107


styrax,

and
the
size

II,

75)

which have been laughed

at as travellers' yarns.

Arabians gather frankincense,"

says,

"by burning

'*The which
in

Phoenicians import into Greece;

for

winged serpents, small

form, guard the trees that bear frankincense, a These are the same serpents that ingreat number round each tree. vade Egypt They are driven from the trees by nothing else but the
in

and various

smoke
he

of the styrax."

That

is,

the wrath of the incense-spint


styrax-spirit.

was

appeased by the perfume provided by the

says, these winged serpents Hew into near Buto, where they were met by the ibis and defeated;

And every spring. Egypt through a narrow paw


hence the

132

veneration for the


tree-spirit

ibis in

Egypt.
its

Here

is

evidently a belief that the


it

hovered over

blood as the traders earned

to

market.
In
I

and

that the

danger that threatened the Egyptians was averted

the

defensive
is

power of their own sacred bird. The location of this int.. disputed, but it was probably al<>nu some ancient desert trade-route
f

tin- IVriplus. such as that between Coptos and Berenice at the timewas also the name of an Egyptian deity, borrowed from "<

> mien). Thcophrastus has the same story of the tree guarded by \\ serpents, but refers it t.> cinnamon (Hist. Plant., IX, 6). Accord in t< Herodotus, all the fragrant gums of Arabia similarly guarded, except myrrh; which may suggest that myrrh

Land'

<j

\\

.s

from a more purely Joktanite


of the earlier races of Arabia.

district, less

imbued with the animism

The same
of Isaiah

belief probably appears in the "fiery flying serpents

\\.\.

bO.

Medicinal waters were guarded by similar powers; a d sacred to Ares protected the sacred spring above Ismenian Apollo while among the Arabs all medicinal er, Pausanias, V, 43-5);
waters were protected by jinns

(W.

Robertson Smith,

op. cif..

The
mon

faith of

the Incense- Land presents

many
is

features in

comin

with that of the Greeks.

While Frazer

no doubt

right

warning against indiscriminate assimilation of deities Greek, Kgyptian and Semitic, there is certainly some truth in the words of Euripides*
lus

(son of Jove and Semele, daughter of the Phoenician


to

who came
I.

Greece

"having

left

the wealthy lands of the

\dians and Phrygians and the sun-parched plains of the Per

and the Bactrian walls; and having come over the stormy land of the Medes, and the happy Arabia, and all Asia which lies along the
of the Salt Sea,

there having established my mysteries" "every one of these foreign nations celebrates these or
. . .

and

the

According to Herodotus (III, 8 and I, 131), the only deities of Incense-Land were Dionysus and Urania, whom they called Orotal and Alilat; while the Semitic people of Meroe worII.

>

shipped Zeus (Ammon) and Bacchus (Osiris)


.nth the Katabanic gods

whom
<

Jlaser a>sim;die
,V.

'Am

and Uthirat

Punt und

of

Dionysus were "Evoe, Sabai, Bacchi, Hues, Attes, Attes, Hues! :mg to Cicero (Dc natura durum, I, iii, 23) one of the names Bacchus was Sabazius; in whose mysteries at Alexandria, we arc
'

Nou

the invocations of

in

the mys-

told

by Clement drawn through

Prttnpt.
r

ii,

16)

their robes,

persons initiated had a serpent and the reptile was identified

Ill

he

tMui

76).

Here seems

to

be

i.

,11

<>f

the god of the lncense-land

in

I'll:.

ir

name
c

\//'/;,

Miiks

identical

with Shams,

dir

appears also in the capital


Hir
MI
I..IIM

it>,

(Ptmt* etc p. sun-cod, and whose Sabou or Sabbatha Shabu


,

whom Gbser

.sabsrsn

<

..

the legions concerning the


<>f
*.

Hadramaut, and Aetna, on the lop of


..-N

the people offering incense to


sacrificed

also,

(o appease

the

spirit*

who were

supposed to dwell

sinian

O
rr>

rrat

mtin-

the descent of the

monarch*
liu

uho
CUM*;.
[II

migrated from
to

land, heads the


P

4oO> and luidolfut

in hi%

tnr

'great dragon

who

li

mrst asunder by the prayers of nine


tian saints

srr

als,,

J.unrs

rrgusson,

7w
<

</W Strpni
36*

ll'tnktp.

huh
.

ft

Dundt
is

an.:

tratukntm.)

Syagrrus

unquc*

<as Fartak, 1S

N., 52
visible for

niu to a height of about 2500


miles along the coast.

feet,

This name, meaning "wild boar"


.md
folk,
r,

in

probably a corruption of the Arabic tribe-name tautar, plural


,

appearing also

in

in the

modern
n.,nr

village of
Pfing

Saulur

Tim

was an incense-gatherinc
.reek for "hoi
;

uh..x<-

from mtr, the root

Mifitfr.

1~1

See (Jlaser, ,S>i z^, he modern name Fartak, according to Footer (ip. tit. \\ Id Boa/s Snout/' the media-val has the same meanin
1
,

geographers having po&sibl) follouetl Ptolemy's


30.

nomencbture

Dioscorida, (nearer
iitimifN
its

the Arabian coast than the Afn<


if

of population and language,

not

in

location
(

as our author

name
of

in

the

modern Socotra

12

30*

N., S4
as

uptKMis of the Sanscrit Ditpa SttiktiAim,


iaiul
:

abode

Agatharchides

refers to

iff

of

tlir

place for the voyagers

between India
the
\
(

ancient the

Hindu name ma\ he

is

unknown;

poSM
i

the language in

uhuh
<

tale of
i

the Xlllth

dynasty

expressed 18th centun* II


it

is

iepn
:

of the \'th Congress of Oriental

the Iiu-ense-l.and. and in the "( ienius


I

/V-w/ maybe
good

inn or spirit of the sacred tree

here

is

134

for believing that

this is

also the

"Isle of the

Blest,"

the farthest

point reached by the wandering hero of that Babylonian Odx^ey, the narrative of Gilgamesh; which joins to the story of a search o\er tin-

known world

for the soul of a departed friend, found in the

end

In

prayer offered to Nergal, god of the dead, the material record The theory of early migration around the shores of Arabia.

this

Cushite-Klamite migration, outlined by Glaser (Skixzs, \<>l. recounted by Hommel (An. famr, p. .19):

II

is

thus

logical evidence.

"Egyptian records furnish us with an important piece of ethnoFrom the Xllth dynasty (2200 B. C. r onwanfa
race

a
in

new

makes

Nubia.

tin its appearance on the Egyptian horizon: This name was originally applied to Elam ( Babyl. kashu:

cf.

the Kissioi of Herodotus,

and

KaM
this

in

India

the modern Khuxistan; cf. also dutch \ and according to Hebrew translation, was
central and

afterwards given to various parts of

southern Arabia;

he argues that in very early times prior to the 2d millennium B. C. northeast Africa must have been colonized by the Kl. un-

from

who had to pass around Arabia on their way thither This theory supported by the fact that in the so-called Cushite languages of northeast Africa, such as the Galla, Somali, Beja, and other allied dialects, we find grammatical principles analogous to those of the early
ites,
is

tax presenting

Egyptian and Semitic tongues combined with a totally dissimila: no analogy with that of the Semites or with any Negro
in Africa,

tongue

but resembling closely the syntax of the Ural-ahaic


to

languages of

Asia,

which

...

the

Elamite language belongs.

According to this view, the much-discussed Cushites (the Aethiopians of Homer and Herodotus) must originally have been Elamitic KassA
It

ho were

scattered over Arabia

and found

their

way

to Africa.

is

interesting to note that the Bible calls

Nimrod

a son of Cush, and

that the

name Gilgamesh has an Elamitic


epi:
tells

termination.

What

the

Nimrod

us of his wanderings around Arabia must therefore

be regarded as a legendary version of the historical migration of the Nimrod is merely a personifiKassites from Elam into Last Africa.
cation of the

Elamitic race-element of which traces are

still

to

be

found both

in

Arabia and in Nubia."


the

And
2000

in

same book,

pp. 35-6-,
its

Hommel

thus describes the


at

references in the epic, which in


B. C.
:

present form he dates

about

"In the 9th canto we are

told

how

he

set out for the land of

Mashu
the

(central Arabia), the gate of

which (the rocky pass formed by

cliffs of Aga and Salma), was guarded by legendary scorpion-men. (Hence perhaps the name "land of darkness" applied to Arabia in

us
early

Hebrew
:h

annals.

mile* the hero had to


at

make

his

way

dense darkness;

length he

came

to an enclosed spa

the sea-n
that

"no one
tii

durli (hr virgin goddess Sabttu; who idU him since eternal days has ever crossed the sea, save Sha.r

mash,

crowing, and eitremely

And cloMd
How,
(

are ihr

,,

cri of
wilt

danfrau tW way. Death which boll tu mtr*


the

then,
is

GUgmmeth.

thou rru

*
itaptthiim.

itlgamesh

to
.1
,

A rail
Him
he uskk (>

rest trlliii.<

r,l.,i

/cm

hint across

Blest."

-nnu 120 tm.


it,

lung

(surely not

"oars," as the translation has and smearing them with


;.

but rather logs for an

neth and Arad-Ea embarl

The

fthip

towed to and

fro while they

were on

their way.
in three dayt,

nid five days they

arrompluhed
uth"

And

thus

Arad-Ka

arrive,

of the Blest"

which may have been Rah

el

Mandeb, and

at

the

"Nc

'lash-Napishtim, great-grandfather of Ciilgamesh.

The
itself

island Pa-antk of the Egyptian tale is obviously the same at c-land Panchaia of Virgil dVv and the tale I, indicates that Socotra was an important center of international
<

.:

trade not far


pr iiu-t

from the time of Abraham.


of

Here the occasional navies


in greater

the peoples of Arabia and Africa and the traders of India,

from the Gulf


Eirinon of
n

C'amhay and perhaps


<-a

numbers from the


of Cut*, h
(he

ports in that

of past ages, the

Rann

40);

a condition not changed at the time of (he Pert-

the inhabitants

were a "mixture of Arabs and Indians and

Greeks," nor yet when Cosmas IndicopfeMM visited the place, noting its conversion to Christianity, and observing that the <
nt

found

still

Marco Polo Hi was planted there by the Ptolemies. "a great deal of trade there, for many ships come from
with goods to
sell

all

to the

natives.
)

multitude of corsairs
they

[called Baiuarv,

from

Uti h

and Gujarat

frequent the island;

come

put up their plunder for sale; and this they do to good profit, for the Christians of the island purchase it ng well that it is Saracen or Pagan gear."

there and

encamp and

The names
and the

Pa-**tk and Pamkain Glaser would connect, at

already noted, with such others as

Pm

and

(Jfiuit,

the land of

/W

Pum

or

Phcrnicians,

whose sacred

bird

was likewise coothe

h Panchaia.

\ Pliny gives the story Phcrnix, that famous bird of Arabia


brilliant

wxe of an

eagle,

and has a

golden plumage around the neck, while the

136
rest of the

body

is

of a purple color;

except the
a
roseate
a tuft of

tail,

whu

is

a/me,
is

with

long

feathers
crest,

intermingled

of

hue;

the

thm.it
It

adorned with a

ami the head with

featheis

is

sacred to the Ml
sprigs of incense,

When
which
I

old

it

builds a nest ot

cinnamon ami
its

it

fills

with perfumes, and then la\s

l>od\

torn its bones and marrow there spring upon them to die. which changes into a little bird; the t.ist thm ;h.. worm,
to

small

perform the obsequies of

its

predecessor, ami

to

cirrj

th<
it

entire to the City of the

Sun near Panchaia, and there deposit

upon

the altar of that divinity.


pleted with the
life

The

revolution of

tin

Comin tin-

of this bird, and a

new

cycle

comes round
seasons and

with the same characteristics as the former one,

appearance of the M Seyffarth has supposed this to refer to the passage of

Mercury every
18:

625

years,

and Glaser connects the legend with the hawk


(

Egyptian god Horus


said,
I

Kftor nest,

).

Compare Job XXIX,


I

"Tin

shall die in

my

and

shall

multiply

my

days as the Ph<r-

m\"
his

Klior or Khol).

The

bird

came from an Arabian


as the
in

name from the people thereof; just name phoinix to the date-palm, native

land, hence Greeks gave the same that land; which ma\ be

assumed to have been the southern shore of the Persian Gulf, whence
convulsions of nature, climatic or political changes, dro\e its inhabitants in opposite directions, carrying their culture with them and duplicating Persian Gulf place-names continuously in the Mediterranean

and Krythraean Seas. (Seethe introduction Ueber


Nub'nche Grammatik;
,

die

I'olker

und Sprachcn Afrikus


di<
1

in

Glaser,

Punt und

Shdarabhchcn
-Expedition.)

and the reports of the Austrian South Arabian

30.

Great

lizards, of
niloticus,

which the
family

flesh

is

eaten.
/,</,,/ //////,

These
native

arc probably I'aranus

I'dran'uL:-,

order

throughout the African region, and attaining a length of more than Another species. /. sa/va/or, while somewhat larger, seems five feet.
to be native only in India
anidtr.

and farther

east.
is

The

flesh of all the I'tir-

although offensive to the smell,

eaten by the natives, and

iered equal to that of fowls. The name I'aranus is from the Arabic Ouaran^ lizard; which by a mistaken resemblance to the .n^lish "warn" has been rendered into a popular Latin name, Monitor.
1

>nbnd z, Natural Hnton, VIM. 542-5.)


30.
-

-shell of

Tortoise. It is uncertain what species commerce is from Clukn* imbricate


all

are meant.

The

family CJiehnidte,

the so-called "hawks-bill" tunic, found in

tropical waters, but sel-

dom

reaching a length of more than thirty inches.

This

is

"true

ir
sea-tortoise,"

as our author puts

it,

but he goe

on
hc.

to describe a

n.iiii-tortoise,
lorn

the large* and with thcthtcken

mm.
.:uis of

also a sea-tortoise

'.

but

may u more
it
-

molt arc
gascar
.

while others, like


inlands.

!*4*t4r) which apWestern Indian Ocean; ol </* /nfjftt&tWn only recently in Mada/ giganlia and 7. Ouuam^ are tfiil
the
I

in lets iretiurnted
m.i\
Mil

hr

'land-tortoise"
>

and the

"wheu+

al

tpeciet of

WrWr*
30.

Cinnabar, that called Indian.


:.

Dr^mi \hUHi

The

between dragon's blood (the exudation of a draoena -red sulphide ,,f uniMtu: it of longstanding, but le% our it at first than seems The absurd sight. story given by Pliny \ \\lli, 38, and VIII, i: The word kinnatan, he sa-. k the- luinr i!i\rn to thr thu V nullrr which ISSUCS from the
.Nion
i

dragoi

uslu-il

he blood of either animal

beneath the weight of the dying elephant, mixed The occasions were (he continual
believed
to to

combats

which

were

take

place

between thr

A as said

have a passion for elephant's blood; he around the elephant's trunk, ftxed his teeth behind the
all

ear,

and drained

the blood at a draught


in

to the ground,

his fall

crushing the

when the elephant fell now intoxicated dragon.


guen
1

;uk red earth was thus attributed to such combats, and


>riiriiully

red ochre 'peroxide of iron

was

loiter the Spanish quicksilver probably the principal earth so named. of was red earth sulphide mercury), given the same name and pre-

as a

pigment

to

the

iron

loiter,

again, the exudations ol


in

Drac**a and Calamut drac* and Hadramaut (order /V</,,/v//,r name kiitnakari. the were Being of given Pa/mf*),
cinntit

-votra

and Draaena xknfntka


,

Somaliland

in India (order

similar texture

tppearance,

th<
.

>ion

is

not surprising, as the

Romans had

owledge

ot

hemistry.

Pliny noted errors

made by
^

physicians in his day, of prescribing

xsonous Spanish
a solution of

mnalut nurcad of the Indian; and proposed

the problem tn calling the mercury earth minium, (he the vegetable product kimma^an, but usage did not and ochre m///w,

give the mercury earth the old Greek name the dried juice we give the same name in and agon's blood,

him.

\\ e

now

noted the two Wellsted (Tr<nvb in Araka, 18<8, II. 450-1 the of leaves camels which had could eat, one of Drac*na, varieties

138

while the other was loo

bitter.

Bent (Southtrn Arabia, 379, 381

.387)

with its thick, twisted gives a good description of this peculiar tree, turned inside He notes out. umbrella an trunk and foliage resembling
that

MTV

little

is

now

exported from Socotra,

tin-

cultivated product
it.

from Sumatra and South America having superseded


is

The method

the simplest possible, the dried juice deing k IKK kid of gathering tree into off the bags, and the nicely-broken drops fetch the best price.

According to the Century Dictionary the word cinnabar


eastern origin:
</^

Persian zinjarf, zinjafr,

is

Hindu

shangur.*.

cin-

nabar."

The

bit

of folk-lore quoted by Pliny confirms the Indian con-

nections of Socotra.

Combats with
countries;

a dragon or serpent for possession


all

of a sacred place, or for the relief of a suffering people, appear in

the

Mediterranean

such were related of Apollo

at the faith

oracle of Delphi, of Adonis in Syria (perpetuated in the in St. George in the same locality), to say nothing of

modern

Marduk and

But in all these legends, in the Babylonian creation-story. borrowed or from Semitic held by them, the contender people while in Socotra it is an elephant. h*ro or a god Pliny offers a ma-

Tiamat

terialistic

explanation,

which

is

unconvincing because elephants are


It is e\ i-

not found in Socotra or in the neighboring parts of Africa.


dently a local faith rather than a natural fact, and light

may

be thrown

upon
blood

it

is

by Bent's observation (Southern Arabia, 379) that dragon's still called in Socotra "blood of two brothers."

In the Mediterranean world this


as a dye; in India
it

gum was
uses.

used medicinally and

had also ceremonial

One

must

refer, not to

the

Buddhism of the Kushan dynasty, apparently dominant as far south as the modern Bombay at the time of the Periplus, but rather to the Brahmanism overlaid upon nature-worship, then pre\ aearlier faith The members ot the lent among the Dravidian races farther south. Brahman triad were Brahma, Vishnu and Siva, the creator, presence, and destroyer; they were worshipped especially at a shrine on an

nd

in Bombay harbor, called Elephanta (in constant connection nmcrcially with the Gulf of Aden), and an elephant's head

the visible
triad,

emblem

of

the sacred syllable


at the

AUM,

representing

which was pronounced

beginning and the end of any

reading of the sacred books, and had

many
first

elephant signified

more

particularly the

The mystic properties. person of the triad, Brahma


Pliny,

the creator, while the dragon or serpent, in the form of the cobra,

represented Siva the destroyer;

and these combats of

between

an elephant and a dragon, the blood from which was called "blood

Iff

c a reflection of the perpetual conflict be*


i

and

titirtl

IH

iu triad.

it

is

notable tiut the

Hindu name

for Sucucra appear* likewise

M MM. legations of the


\1
of
IJ.rths,
...

power

their

H,,,.,
tk<
!.-

,,

AU+
tra

if

IMdle Refton, Pitt* indicating chat the

iklaml

had
ry

In..

who had "emigrated


i>n
iaJI>

on

in
\\

tint

legendary

i'

aoena, and

s.

(hut

the

name

as old a% thr

Xlllth

dynav Anuthr
M.

^amcxl.
..!

<

of

Hindu

iiiriur.it r

M-CV

the MMJr* of

ii,

the badge of

baptism

in

modern AbyMuuan

h sunu'csts,

\rab cuvfoin, thr


prieat
.uid

or sac re
(S<

the

Brahman
'/.,

Porphyr)',

^ ./
ITieldl
ii<>

268;
fhii
iiuiNt
IK-

^>,

\l.,

Indian Antiqui:.

fruit.
-i

CO

agn
-.!

"as

p.iituularly rich in

understood as referring natur.il product* of


\%

\.ilur.

Mod

and frankincense
to the

plentiful, alv>

the

nurrh and other uiuns, but owmi; market at Cana. trade, Init no present
.

monop
many
walled
'lie

Bent found

the frankiiu
>f

rrh

and dragon's blood unin the

t.ui

the

the people
\
-

employed
full

production

of cattle,

and the Sultan

and

jars of clarified butter to the

was
tkent

in

demand

as far as

Muscat and Zanzibar.

Suhjfi
ml
polii,

to the

Frankincense Country.
<

By speech,

Socotra has been joined to the

Mahn

La Rogue's map of
:;

':<

KlH.'<;

[h,

;?>.
'

listed,

writing in

IS^S

.-

4^
Kissin,

id

as a
.died

dependency
id

of the Sheikh

of

K
for

Bent found the same

the
SI.

numerous

Garrisoned;

rumor
:ui

defence again*! the two enemies of (he hard pressed on either side:

the I'arthians.

The Bay
alit'

of

Omana,
s

her
the

miHiern

umion of the Kumar Bay.

liay of
t

16

140

IS'

N., S3

30' E.).

The

''mountains, hi-h and roe kv and steep,

inhabited by cave-dwellers," are the

modern

Jebel

Kamar and
(

Jehel

Gara, reaching altitudes of over 3,000 feet. he name "Omana," the same as the modern
I

)man, seems
in-

to

have extended

at

the time of the

IVriplus

\i-r

lamer area,
to

cluding

much

of the south shore of the Persian (Julf as well as the


;

coast of South Arabia as far as Ras Hasik

all

of

winch seems

have

been subject

to

the Parthians, bin recently

for

Uidorus of C'haiax
esut,

i, writing in the time of Augustus. xpeakx of the Omanita* in the Frankincense Count

Kim^

The mast between

in

Ras Hasik and Ras Kartak, likewise associated with the name Omana the Periplus, had fallen to the Chatramotit;r in the recent partition
I

of the

ncensc- Land.

32.

The harbor
2'

called

Moscha.
),

This

is

identified
n

with

Khor
at
I

Reiri (17
tide

N., 54

26' K.
into

a protected inlet

low

by a sand-bar);

which empties the \\adi Dirhat.


of

couple of miles east of the

modern town

Taka,

in

the east-

ern part of the plain of Dhofar, a fertile strip of some 50 miles along the coast between Ras Risut and Ras Mirhat. surrounded by the ( iara

Mountains.
India."
Byzantius.
of

Marco Polo
is

describes
great

it

(III, xxxviii

as

"a very good


this

haven, so that there


It

traffic

of

shipping between

and

is,

no doubt, the "harbor of the Abaseni" of Stephanus


ancient capital, Saphar

The

(whence

the

modern name
in

Dhofar, confused by

many

mediaeval geographers with Saphar or

Zafar, the capital of the Homerites in

Yemen

'

lay

probably

the

western part of the plain, near the modern Hafa. Saphar seems to mean no more than "capital

or "royal resiix

dence,"
Ptolemy
distance

so that the true


calls
it

name

of

the ancient

cit\

unknown.

Abma

Po/is, "City of the Habashat."

and the mountains behind it and for someon either beyond side, are the original, and perhaps always the most important, Incense-Land of Arabia. We are fortunate in vivid a of the whole having description region, by J Theodore Dent
Plain of Dhofar,

The

Gngraphical Journal, VI, 109-134, with a map facing page 204; reprinted in his Southern Arabia) with careful corrections by ( ilaser
(

soil

(Die Abcttmierin Arabten und Afrika, 182-192 ;. The plain is alluvial washed down from the mountains, which are of limestone.
It,

and high enough

to attract the rains;

so that instead of the


is

sandstone and volcanic rocks elsewhere on the south coast, here

"one
of

large oasis

by the sea," abundantly watered the year round, and


all

producing crops of

kinds.

Theenc
in lakes

many

streams, gathering

ire !mj mountains are the source on the upper levels and falling to

141

thr plum through densely


>u

wooded
to thr

valleys,

utc*, cactus, aloes, aitd

form on
i

all

fides a delightful

thr lakrs urr

lad almost
v

itnest in

form, and the mountain* above ftummit with limber. Sufh a tcene Arabu it reminded us mote of tbr
,

.illeyt

leading up (> the tableland of Abytiitu


in garland*

'ssammr hung
grant with thr odor
.:ir\s
<>f

Sweet-teemed from ibe tree*, and ihc air wu It it probable thai a kfiuwlnuny Mowers

as

"
oral wealth

tbee gained

And
h
falls

tin it harbor,
id

wlm
(he

for Arabia it% ancient reputation following up the stream leading to the anover a remarkable limestone diff, lirnc found

grassy plain used for grazing, and in the midst a


local
faith

wooded
;

take,

of

the (Jara ml>c.

"they affirm that

jinnies
to ha\.

h\r in the water, and that whoever wet* his feet here
1

\e:\

thr

llrduins of
is

the (Jura

\.\rmbcr a fair is held here, to whi tribe come and make merry. The

considered by them the great festival of the year. A round h thr us on whit hief shown was rock magician sits to exorcise the >( thr Like, 11:1111 and around him the proplr dai

A
.i:<-

short

way up
a

the

mountain-side

just

back of

Hafa,
v

the

modern tou
irep

great cave

hung with
in

stalactites,

below
i

the ruins of an ar

rn, in the

which
around
large of a

a natural

and about SO
*

diameter;

this hoi

the remains of walls, and the


rs told licnt,

entrance gate

"

an ancient oracle, mentioned as such


ochc

was the "well of the Aditei," no doubt h> PtoU-nu. Ibn Katuta and
capital,

Sell

Hafa are the ruins of the ancient


polis

"by the
.1

vca,

some 100
in
.1

feet in height, encircled by


still

full

of

water;

and

thr

center,

cmn
ground
is

the sea, but

tiny harbor.

The

covered with the


at

us of ancient temples, tin

.\huh
at Adulis,

oner

them with
built

that of the

columns
txr

Color and .\\urn entertained that the same people

them
In

all."
in piles

Hafa the Bents tund "a bazaar with frankincense


in
still

for shipment, JUSt as depicted A as while a large tract of


their bright green leaxrs

the

Deir

el

liahn temple,"

**covered with frankn

like

and their insignificant


This plain, \\ith
its

"

ash trees, their small green


later, p. ^

fruit

(Sec

ancient
Of Adite,

>aphar. wjs the tenter of the

empire
-

fn.m Ad, umndson of luthern Arabia and much

Hum

which

142
u\iiiA.ition

and religion similar to and derived from the


.

'ha!

according to the Aral entered and conquered South Arabia, but \\en
v

tribes

.hsorbed In the

as a result of which the second, an, empire formed, in which the J>ktamtes became the sacred ami land-owning caste, while the political and economic activities remained
\ishite stock;

of

Ad was

with the Cushites.

This was probably the power

that dealt with the


at
I

Egyptians under the \Vlllth dynasty, as pictured


1

)eir-cl-Bahri;
1

;ion und rning which the publication of tin ;i little too positive that the "Land of Punt'' could not be in

testimony of Arabia \\nuld be


v

Arabia because the faces of the Punt people were not Semitic Latci tin at fault if they were.
ushites,

The
Si

conquered by the Banu Ya'rub,


int

Joktanite stock from

Ye-

men, migrated

-lishing

themselves

in

Ab\

iiued the ancient conflict for six centuries

The
a hint of

account of Ibn Khaldun

the northern origin of the

Shihr and

people

it

aid

Oman, he says, was conquered by the Banu YaVub, son of Kahtan Joktan that the Banu Ad were led thither by Rukaym son &f
the country in

Kay's edition, pp. 179-80) gives "Adit: Hadramaut, to "originally belonged Ad, from uh<e
(
.

who had formerly visited He returned to the Hud.


country and to
its

people of

Ad and
wrested

company with led them in


it

the IVophet
ships to the
of
its

invasion.

They

from the hands

inhabitants, but they were themselves subsequently conquered b

Kahtan ruled over the country, and Banu Ya'rub, son of Kahtan. si>n was named." his was governed by Hadramaut, after whom
it

it

Makrizi varies the legend by making

Ad

son of Kahtan, by

whom

he was made

"

ruler oixr Babylonia,

and

his brother

Hadramaut
th<

Habassia;" and he preserves a

memory

of the trade of

Land with

India, in the tale of a hero of that land

who came

b\ re-

to the land of the

Indians in the form of a vulture,

whence he

turned bearing seeds of the green pepper, as proof of his journey.


It
is

regrettable that

Bent could not ha\e learned more of the


annual reunion
tl

local faith of the (Jara tribe, exemplified at the

at the

Dirbat lakes, which


faith.

is

probably an interesting survival of


represent

For as the Mahri


incense

the

the earlier

the Himyarite conquerors of do the Gara coast-land, represent to some Bent found a state of armed truce under heinhabitants.
so
t

restraining Muscat; Haines, Carter, and C'ruttenden had found the villages of the plain fighting among themselves, and the mountain folk fighting with the plain, the gatherers with the

influence of

lords, as of old.

Bent

tells

enough, however,

to indicate the

w-

141

of ihr
ot of

the lake, the water* of

which might not be polluted by


spirit
>.\

mini

the propitiation of the


of gathering ihr

funkim
.robably
it

rn*c,

"chief magiand the celebration

thr

of the harvest by a "tribal

<

mniniscenc of baccha-

nalian rite*,
hal ihc

at

ft

the product
,rll,

sent to
x%,,r,i%
,,f

Bombay

for dtttnbu-

rr>t

in

thr

I'auwi.u*

l\

may "worship The name


Muscat, with
to Forster (?.
flated skin,

God

with other peoj


is

Mwka

another of thoar place-name* that are ret


.

peated along the coast from raxt

west, and

n the

modern

whuh
*//.
,

Muller mistakenly identihc* this pon. According this IN an Arabic word meaning 11, 1"4-S
i
,

from the

Kaien" or
t

"floater*

on

.k

The word
word
and

continues in the (irrek monAoi.

all

Gbser supposes
!

to be the

same

as Al^fia,

and

the "

t-

harbor,

to the author of the IVnplus,

and

to Ptolemy,

Mwhalimin meant "Incense Harbor;"


l.urr

it \\ probable that m*uJ*) meaning also "i


i
-

Greek any perfume, even

to that of strawberries
l.u>ut<i.

as

the same idea was uppermost with

Milton:

Camoes

\.

.:'!

and with

Now

gentle gmles,

Fanning their odoriferous wings, dispense Native perfumes, and whisper whence they Molt

Those balmy spoils. As when to them who Beyond the Cape of Hope, and now are past Mosambic, off at sea northeast winds blow
Sabcan odors from the spicy h<rr Of Araby the Blest, with such delay

sail

Well pleased they slack their course, and many a Ottered with the grateful smell old Ocean si.

Imgm

fen*/**/ /**/. IV.

(See the works already cited of Bent, Wellsted, Glaarr. Hommel. Xwemer, and Hogarth; Lenormant and Chevalier, .l/</*AW/./*.js*/ History 9ft*eEatt. VII. 12, aU,, J H Haines, in the 7*wfW*/*,

actiw 9f

Rj^il G^frapkical Shifty for 18^9 and 184S; 11 tkt B*i*ay Atiate .Wim, for 184$,

Cure..
1K4".

Trmmt-

and

18S1;
am./

Maknzi Dt I'M Hadramaut. Bonn, 1866; Wellhauten, Sin*,*


V//rn, III,

US-146.)

32.

ship could not clear. Compare the trading of the expeditions with the 'YhirK of the land of Punt" o\rr these of incense," and again Marco Polo'* description 111, x\
<

The

*'A great deal of w


great revenue to the Prince
,

rtse

for

grows in this country, and brint no one darrs veil it to any one ebe;
at

and whilst he takes

it

from the people

10 lures of gold for the

144

hundi'
is

he

sells

it

to the

mervh.mts

at

'<>

h\res. SM hi>
,

protit

immen

And

according to the Man'uid-nl-lttiln

an Arab geoifl

graphical dictionary of about the

same

period,
to

"tins inrenxe

Dhafar, where the Sultan full) is made over to the rest the for the best himself; people part keeps But any one who should carry it elsewhere than to Dhafar would In"

watched, and can be taken only

put to death.
33.

Seven Islands
about 17

called Zenobian.
20'

These an- now


I

railed

Kuna Muria,

N.,

56
of

K., and belong to


(

upland,

which acquired them from the Sultan

)ma;i.

In the

time of the

Periplus they belonged to their western neighbors, the Hadramaut.

The name
(ienab;
the

Ysnobian

is

Helleni'Aed from

the

Arabic
the-

/enah

or

tribe of

Beni

Genab having
in

possessed

neiL-hbocm^

coast

This same numerous Kgyptian

tribal

name,

the form of

Gmahn, appe

of Punt.''

one of the peoples of the ''Land (See Glaser, Punt und die Sudarabi^ /'//// AV/V///-, p. 1'
inscriptions as
relation of these islands to the early frankiiu-en.se

Concerning the
portant.

trade, a bit of folk-lore

preserved by

Marco Polo

is

particularly im-

Pauthier

in

his

French

text rightly connects the story with


its

geographical position; Yule and Vincent, in his edition of the Periplus (II, 347) refers the "fable," without explanation, to these islands. Its actual source, so far as known, has not been observed.
the Kuria

Muria group because of


it

Cordier repudiate

as nonsense.

About half-way between Makran and Socotra, Marco Polo says xxxi), are the two islands ''called Male and Female, KIM,: about 30 miles distant from one another. ... In the island called Male dwell the men alone, without their wives or any other women. Every year when the month of March arrives the men all set out for the other island, and tarry there for three months, to wit, March, At the end of April, May, dwelling with their wives for that space.
111,

these three months they return to their

own island, and pursue their husbandry and trade for the other nine months. ... As for the children which their wives bear to them, if they be girls they abide with their mothers; but if they be boys the mothers bring them up
till

they are fourteen, and then send them to the fathers


islands.

Siu h

is

the

custom of these two

The
all

wives do nothing but nurse their

children and gather such

fruits

as their island
necessaries.

husbands do furnish them with


edition, II,

"

produces; for their (Yule's Mono /Va,

404-6.)

This story is a reflection of the belief, already noted from Pliny, that the ceremonial value of the incense depended on the personal
purity of the gatherers,

who were

considered sacred.

No man touch-

ing the tree, whether a proprietor according to the casie system of the .se-Iand, or a farmer or gatherer, Oave or free, might undergo
pollution through the presence of
of the

women or of the dead 'IV dec was a woman, and the protecting Mrrpentt were the fouls
If

dead.
tiuIM..S-

gathered without pollution, the incense


..-.

commuted
tmeretgn
by both

.-.-,..

,le of

prayer,

and had

jlv,

certain

uses in
.ins
.

purification

after

conjugal

intercourse,

availed of
1,

and B

uns, as deicribed by Herodotu%

.,,

\\l
-he
Asciiar,

l'lin>'s

swimming

to the

mainland on
writing in the

inflated skin*, has

ben
says

4th centui\
thr
i -11111.11111111

"beyond the Sabari and the Chatramoiiar biui >irK)> imrrh, aloes, frankincense, whose Abateni,
\

1).,

ami
Mo,,

\\huh resemble* the color of


isania*
a in

Tynan
,//

purple

(dragon's
1

thr

269)

mentions

bay of
\\-\\\c\\

islands,

Abasa and

Saca-a.

\\crc

the

home
'

of these
j enefa

describes t he
>ii

these Kuria

Muna
^

islands,

pursuing sharks on inflated skins,


liro.

(Jcneba" spread

-nth

Arabia and

Oman,
s,"
>g.

"shark-rtshers
in

swinv
8 32. 1846)
pay

ininj on

inflated

skins,

and pastoral
retre.i

folk,

luin-r

skin tents, but

the S.

W.

monsoon
I

as noted in
,

;ttr.ulrn
Life*
'

Soc.

VII. 121,

(;cog.
i

S.-

that the coast of

Arabia

every season by parties of Somalis, the privilege of collecting the frank


obviously the fount
c

who

Mere
wanderinu

is

Marco
..

Polo's

tale.

The

n.tK

\\

:.>-<

.ihty

included the

Kuru Muna

.ist

north and east thereof, would act as fishermen

and herdsmen during certain seasons, while during the remainder of


.vould

gatherinu;

nuui
too

in

engage in the more profitable occupation of mwhich they were subjected to the rigid rules the Sayyit/ or saintly caste of landed proprietors, themin

digJi
first

den

lierg,

s;

'-44

).

rush of sap occurred in the spring they left their wives of the white gum, remaining on the perforce, to gather the best races for later gatherings until the trees became dormant
the

When

when And
i

their

v*

md they
naturally remain with their

returned home,

their sons

would

mothers only during


as the

childhood,
:i

past uhuh thcN uould be under the same ** men, and would begin work as gatherers.

146

.:

from being a
.

fairytale,

it

is

quite

potpibfe that at the time

Man-

.our

the caste-system of the

Hadramaut being

fully

this story of the Christian dwellers crystalized under the rule of Islam was literally true, as it u.is in the Islands" on the "Male and Female

earlier

times

in

the race-conflict between

Joktamte overlords and

Cushite gatherers.
Island" was, of course, the coast, and the Vmalc disincluded the entire islands; the Arabic dialects failm-1
t

The "Male

tinguish between "coast" and "island.'


3S.
is

Beyond Moscha.
the

The "mountain range along the modern Jebel Samhan, and the name Asieh is preserved
in

2" 24' N., 55 in the modern Ras Hasik, 17 westernmost of the Kuria Muria Islands, which faces it. Sarapis is the modern Masira Island, :u 20' N.
E.,

the

58

4d'

the

first

syllable

only being from the native name,


(

uhieh our

author assimilates to that of the Alexandrian

)siris of

the hull-worship,

llapi, Sarapis, or in the Latin, Serapis.

ship, in high favor at the time of the Periplus,

Concerning this worsee Straho, book \\ 1,


1

Plutarch, di Isidi
Fray.er'
s

et Osiride,
II,

Maspero,

Hisfoire Anciennc,

pp.

SO

ff.,

l\uisania>,

17 5-6. )

The
tribe-name

syllable

Au-wr
is

&;-apis or Ma-i/V-a is probably the same or Ausan mentioned in $ 15


curiously confused by Pausanias
silk culture,

the

This island

VI,

2<>

with the

After describiny: the Chinese


island of Seria
is

he observes:* "the

known

to

be situated
is

in a

recess of the

Re

formed, not by the Re but by a river named the Ser (this beinu Masira Channel), just Delta of Egypt is surrounded by the Nile and not by a sea, siu h aUo, k M said, is the island of Seria. Both the Seres and the inhabitants
But
I

have also heard that the island

of the neighboring islands of


race;

Abasa and Sacaea are of the Aethiopian

some

say,

however, that they are not Aethiopians, but a mixture


of

of Scythians and Indians."

Here are confirmations of the Periplus, as to the possession a and Kuria Muria by the Habashat, and as to the comr
.

of

the Indo-Scythians, then in possession of the Indus \alley.

The

use of the "Arabian language" (Himyaritu or Hadramitic,

represented by the modern Mahri), noted in .M, confirms the accompanying statement that the island was then subject to Hadramaut, and its trade controlled from Cana. Ordinarily the connection would "

be rather with the

Fish- Eaters"

of the adjoining (icnaba

subject at that time to the

Parthians,

so that the language

spoken

would have been Aethiopic or Geez.

A
hie
'

barbarous region ^
,

huh now belongs to Persia.


Mu/u
at

conquered by the Parthian Kmpin


*>e

u
it

Islands being now recentijr v%uh Rome, wa n

iYnpKit ami
\1..
'

drtcnbed by

apparently from hearsay.


.,

tailing-count
Maaira, and thence direct to the

Indus.

Calffi Island*.

These
s

arc (he IXiimaniyat Island* N. \\


c

obviously the

duiam r hen k calculated same as the modern Kalhat,


.

'

trading port,

1>

I'lim

I.

lit

be confused with
:

nen),
dxvrllrts,

with
i

"a city of ihc Saixri Asmbu a nation is is their 'I numerous islands. nurt, from
I.

persons en bar L

(<>r

In
ivas el Had and Muscat, are the modern ul Miles Anfuhuh. inthewordi S-6) "arc Oman, CJc<ur.ipliK al Junul. \ II, ic CanluKc and tbe race whom we
.

<

nti/9/tin Excursion in

at

Phcrim

i.uis,

ami u

lui,

earlier than

the (unc of

.-stations alonu the southi-m i-usr


r

Arabia.

Solomon, Their conen-

aiui

important p
>n

mst op(>ositc Indu must have led to


f

by the me:
of this

tho>c time*
tsi

who were

gaged

in

rxdianuini: the product


iiion
t:

and

\^

-name

is

strongly

lieluchistan.
\
,
i

little

civilized.
that

II.

folios*

Fsbri

of a doubtful passage in the text;

offered In

Muller,

"who do
noted

not tee well

in

the daytime/'

while less probable, recalls the fact


that

us observers in
:its

Oman,
.

good

proportion of the indue, largely, to the

suffer
.f

from ophrhalmu
this
.

total blindness,
jiicly

rernfu heut

otSI

\vhich

was

dcMrnbcd by Abdin

//-ik, a 15th century Persian, i^


.N

so intense that
its

it

burned the marrow

the

bones; the sword in

scabbard melted like wax, and the gems which adorned the handle of the dagger were rediurd to coal. In the plaint

ame
CrWwi.

a matter of perfect CAM:, for the desert


(

Quoted from Curzon

/Vru*

was

filled

tkt Ptrtic*

See also Hakluyt Society's ed.

.XXII

Galon mountain.
and was supposed to mean "t.. and is probably a tribal name

While the name has a Greek form, the same as that of the u "mountains of tin- Kalhat

148

ireen Mountains/' behind range is ihe Jebcl Akhda feet in altitude. Good descriptions aie Muxv.it. a ml about 10,000

The

given In \\rlUted.

/wemer, ami Hogarth, and


and populous
S.
11.

of

espei

i.il

inte

the account of the fertile


visited In

\V;uli
(//;

Tyin, enclosed In these

(irneral

Miles

35.

The pearl-mussel,
,

Aftltajpina mar^.

..mily

is

found

in

many

parts of the Indian

Ocean,
in the

hut particularly

n the southern shores of the Persian Clulf


n India

and

shallow water

The pearl is a deposit formed around a and Crylon. foreign substance in the mantle of the mussel, generally a parasitic r fisheries ind Kxamination by Prof. Herdmanatt lar\a.
.

that the nucleus of the pearl

was generally

Platyhrlmmthian

pa;

which he
-h

identified as the larval condition of a cestode or

tapeworm.

This cestode passes from the body of the pearl mussel into that of a

and thence
\\att,
9p.

into
.;/.
,

some

larger animal, possibly tin

or

ray.

pp. 557-8;

Cambridge Natural History,

III,

100, 449.)

Asabon mountains.
"mountains
as
still

This
Assah,

is

another

of the Asabi," or
'

Hem

whom

tribal name, Wellstcd described

living there

rf. fit.,

I,

239-242;, a people very different from


the
.1

Oman, living in exclusion in their mountains whom Zwemer (Oman an<i huttm .Inihia, in the Bulletin of
her tribes of

American Geographical Society, 1907; pp. 5^ ontiden remnant of the aboriginal race of South Arabia, their speech being allied to the Mahri and both to the ancient Himyantic; who were
probably not as

Zwemer
\<

thinks,

driven

northward by Semitic mi-

but represent rather a relic of that pre-Joktantte southuard

migration around this

The mountain
2800
in the
feet,

preserves the name, being

now

the Jebcl
of th-

Sihi,

26

20' N.,

56

25' K., continued at the end

promontory of Ras Musandum.

S5.

round and high mountain called Semiramis.


and
Ritter,
r

Fabricius, following Sprenger

ideniities
50'
is

this
1

\\ith

Koh-iA

mubarak,

"Mountain
on the

of the Hlest" '2S


feet,

N., 57

huh,

while not high, being only about 600

of the shape here described

and

directly

strait.

Fabricius (p. 146) suggests that the

the Arabic Shamarida "held precious."

name Semiramis 1\ Musandum


-

is

probably

has been a

sacred spot to Arabian navigators from time immemorial.

The

aphers describe
it,

some

.of

the practices of the ship-captains passing


II.

and Vincent

tells of

those in his time as follows


it

o4

"All

the Arabian ships take their departure from

with

some ceremoni

149

.perstnion, imploring 4 blessing ..n thnr voyage,


like a

and
n
i%

vessel

nt^'ed

and decorated, uhuh,

if

dathed to

a* an offering fur

the escape

<>f

he \estel"

Apologus.
was an important
it

Thi

wat
\s

ihr

i. iv

known
in the

at

Obolkh. w

p..:i

during Sarairn ume%, and from w Im h caravaiv-

"t hulu.

land
It

hguies

lit

in

man
'laces

and Assyrian inacripciom


in (he
|

was anion.ikin
tin

th<

named
1

Nimrud Intcnptioo of
^r. ) from Merodach;

*h.,sr

"as
<>f

far

as the n\rr
i

lum

the

oast

thr

and wh
:

Balad.i

of

the sea,

.t

tnhutr of

"gold

the dust of
>

his land

-precious stones, timber, striped

loihin^, spices of all

canle and sheep."


>:>ollah
il
i

enter.

ruler

seems always to hu\ e \\ the Selem ul.r, Jid


\>

m u imponance
in

the time of

Sera h<>

feredofl
>ttollah

uas the

l-.iiin/

port,

\\hile

in

the time of

the

had regained its former posr us derived from ( )bal, son of Joktan
is

Ge
(

Charax Spasini
48
1>

the mo,i,
its

..niniarah

30'

.:-

n the Shatt-el-Arab, at

confluence uith the Karun


(ireat,

xays

(VI, .U

'

that

it

was founded by Alexander the


Krhia,

whose

-.1

hv inundations of the rivers, rebuilt by Anftagain o\erriou-cd, and


three miles of

piph.iiu-N

under the nanu

again
(f

embankments, bySpasimis,
Juba has incorrectly desays,
o\\ n
.

the

m-iu'!

\rabians,

whom

ed as a satrap of bus." Stood near the shore and had a harbor of its
rr.iMr
allu\ uil
it
<l

Km

it

"but

now

stands a

in the

sea.

In no part of the world have


rivers

deposits been formed by the

more
it

rapidly

and to a greater

than he

(At the present day


>

is

about 40 miles from the

Pliny's
.n
i

ref(

the of
1

possession

of

the

1'

sin an

hieftam, the
f

name

whov
l.im.

-uU to the

Vrurain the

iliNtru-t

l-'.l\mais,

..r

imitates

how

large a

pan

of the

Parthian Umpire ma\ h.ive been played, at the dale of


subjects south of the Persian
( Julf

Charax was an
its

ant
.

stronghold of the Parthian Kmpire. protecting


,.?

shipping
in the

and was the home


R.-in.i.
i

th.t!

Uuiorus whose works, wrinen


.iravan-route

time ut the

Augustus, include the


i

Mmnumtt Ptriku*,
i

a detailed .u^-unr of the oxeriar.ii

from Antioch

ISO
to

the borders of
iption of the

India;

tin-

tlu-

author of the

world" mentioned by Pliny \L <1 who Wtt -in missioned by Augustus "to gather all necessary information in the out for Armenia to take the cast, when his eldest son was about to set
i
i

'mmand
36.
in

against the Parthians

and Arab

market-town of Persia
-UK h

called

Ommana.

The

geographei cerning this port, and supposed that it \\as geographical!), instead of politically, "of Persia," and that the "six days' sail" from the sti.uts
of
of

confused hy similar statements con-

Hormus mentioned
M.IKM:
Hut

in

the Periplus,
is
(

was eastward along the


it

Pliny this time

better informed, and locates


iulf,

on
Kl

the Arabian side of the


.iM.l

Persian

between the Peninsula

of

id

Musandum, then a Persian or Parthian dependency. "the the river Cynos (Wadi ed Dawasir? ) he says \ L 32
R.IN
'

impracticable on that side, according to Julia, on account of the rocks; and he has omitted all mention of Batrasave, a town of nani, and of the city of Omana, which former writers hai< as also of Homna and Attan.i, cut to b* a famous port of Carmama
ion
IN
'

the present day, our merchants say, are by far the " unous ones in the Persian Sea.
at

u huh

The

spelling

"Ommana,"

as distinct

from

Omana,"

is

due to

Ptoletm, and, while perhaps incorrect for the Periplus, it convenBoth are certainly iently distinguishes between the two districts.
the

same

as

the

modern Oman, which maintains


to that of

nominal, as
the

a century ago a real,

dominion over the whole coast-land from


Kuria Muria.
of

bay of Kl

Kztan
th

This was no doubt the


C'harax Spasmi,
re-

dominion of

"Km-j
cent 1\

of the

U mentioned by Isidorus Omanita: in the Incense- 1, and,"


the

and had only

come under

Parthian control.

After

numerous

tit

Between dependence and freedom the whole country submitted "4 again to Persia in InSn, remaining under Persian control until
1

The

exact location of the port of

Ommana

is

uncertain owing

to the limited

knowledge

yet at
it

hand concerning
important
24

this coast.

Ptolemy
(

confirms Pliny in locating


(possibly the

east of the peninsula,

hy a rixer
)

)mmano,
(

Wadi

Yabrin, an

trade-route
pp.

and
(

argues strongly for the bay of Kl Katan.

(Skiw,

1X

M94
21'
1
,

\1

most any location between Abu Thabi

30' N., 54

and

Khor ed Duan (24


distance stated,
six

N., 51 27' E.) might be possible, but the days, or 3000 stadia, from the straits, indicates
17'
fertile

Abu Thanni
the coast;

or Sahakha, at both of which there are

spots on

Mukabber on the Sabakha coast (24 N., being perhaps more closely in accord with Ptolemy.
Kl

51

ISl

As

the obvious linking of Apologus port*, in $ 35 and .<'>, the tc*t givei two further proofs. 'sewed boats" are such as are iiill made along this cuan, and
ilf
I

in

8 36

as

in export

lo

Indu u
I

referre.:

49

an

an imp.. n

at

Barygaza /nnw Artba


iKNts
at

he

"many

pearls"

and export*
(

in

| J6t

suggest such a trade


\\

is

Bahrein
iir

>S

and

'

>mmana

in

the hoy of

Ouhlur on
\

the

Makran

coast (2S

IS'

N., 60
.,(

days 'sail eastward from the

.sn.uts

II

>oma*

H.-l.lu h !..l!..u

ui on Anturnt
J-urnal, 1K96,
,

ami MtJunml Mtkrrnm


It
.

\ 11,

S^>-i>

notable that in hit

(pp. 299- JOO ) he abandons

this po<.

the activity of the Chahbar ports to the


61

rm-.ii.rv.il

prn.Kl

teneraJ

lb4-S

(Journal R..>al argues for Sohar, on the Batinch coast of ( )nun, n<:c ocean terminus cut and important caravan. route;
<

of

the

AM.

>. X, pp.

but

tt

:i

tlocs

tun

tally

with the statement in the text, that


Straits.

i.uu

was

six

nmana

days Msw/4, or faW, the was the center of an ac


t

\tensive shipping trade

with Imii.t* r,)iun-,K-ii'l\ L^.ttni with

re?'

the

tranv-Anhun

caravan-routes; and Glaser points out the probability that this coast of itan was also the "land of Ophir" of King Solomon's tradingcr

where

the

the

Kast were re-

and reshippcd,
36.

sent

>\erlafld, to the Mediterranean.

Copper
i'i

is

here mentioned as an am<

;xrt

from
rd in

to the
init

no longer

was formerly >mrltcii m considerable quantities in South kajputana, and at various parts of the outer Himalaya, where tbe a killas-hke rofk persists along the whole range and
i

Kullu.

and Bhutan
/"/jftv v p
*

<

that this

\|x>rted
>.irygaza (
.<'*

copper imp from C\ma


the:;

>mmana
>J

included

JS

to the Indus

mouth
Par-

and 49) and

Me Persian
<

the susp

n the

Roman and

war, this would ha\e been a natural trade

rut
\
1.

26) speaks of copper, iron,


::mir

ars,

,i

red lead, as

hipped to Persian (Julf and


again that

Ommana

was no

Carman

1.1

n port

152

36.

SandalWQOd.
(
-

SanM/nm

,///>/////,

Linn.,

order

S, in hi bice*.
.is

A small

ocigrcen Western

tree native in the dry regions of South India


in North India and Coimbatore) Sandalwood has been known in India
<,
;
.

the

rim-fly as

a cultivated plant.

1mm
.*//

the

(he Sanskrit authors


C.htimlanti
is

distil

\anous
for the scries,

>ior.

flic

name

and pit^hnmiana the inferior, or yellow, from S<intalum a/hum. derived both They disti: being sandal,
the
tree-,

01

white, sandal,

two kinds
and

of red sandal or raktachanddna,

namely, Pttrocarpus mntalinut

Ca-stilpinia sappan.

This mention
(6th century A.

in

reference to sandalwood.

Penplus seems to be the earliest Roman is mentioned by Cosmas Indu opleustes under the name Tzandana; and thereafter frethe
It

quently by the early Arab traders who visited India and China. mas and the Arabs attributed it to China, this mistake arising, as Watt
points out (op.
cit.,

p.

976) from the

fact that

Chinese vessels

at

this

time

the voyage between China and the Persian Gulf, stopping to trade in Ceylon and India, and disposing of their cargoes finally to the Bagdad merchants.

made

The wood

is

not native of China.


at

According to experiments at the Royal Botanic Gardens cutta, sandalwood is a root-parasite on many plants.
:

Cal-

further

references

see

Lassen:

Indische

Alterthumskundf^

I,

287.
36.

Teak wood.

large

deciduous tree indigenous


is

Ttctm* [rtm&i Linn., order Verbenacea. A The in both peninsulas of India.

wood
larly

that chiefly exported


is

from India

at

the present time, particu-

from Burma, and

the most important building timber of the

country.

Watt, (op. cit., p. 1068), quoting Gamble, says that the western Indian teak region has for its northern limit the Narbada and Mahanadi rivers, although it is occasionally found farther north. Climaticchanges since the date of the Periplus have probably restricted its
area.
It is

plentiful in

Bombay and Travancore.


its

The wood owes


fact that
fills
it

value to

its

great durability, ascribed to the

contains a large quantity of fluid resinous matter, which


resists

up the pores and

the action of water.

Watt mentions one

structure

be over 2000 years old, and the discovery of teak in the Mugheir ruins indicates its use there under Nabonidu century B. C. ), and possibly very much earlier.
to 36.

known

Blackwood.

The

text

is

sasamin,

which Fabricius
in

.,

and

translates

"white mulberry," from conjecture only.

McCrmdle

shows

that the text refers to the

wood

still

known

India as sisam,

'>

\\att ocacfiocc
<>f

/>.

//.

pp. 484-$i

one
I-

(he beti hard*

wood*
'"

the

Punjab and
^>lic,

Wettem Indu
highly
l

i>

vrry durable, due*

uiui
'

i%

c>-

f,r

all

purposes *
as

""

rl ^' u

agriculmnil implement*.

and
Wh.
\\
.itt

ttf

..it-ltuildin>:,

rd

as

well

furniture

uj
to

In

ppcr Indu

rlir

./mm takes the place of


or blickwood,

distinguishes the true

>am

/sgumin'.i.r
>uth,
is

MM
latifclta.

Indian rotewood. native

somewhat

farther

l).uirt<i

D.

tilt* is

deicnbed as fub-HimaajqriB,
torrential ritrr*.
it

on the banks of sandy, stony,

uuh

a the

and Narbada,
I

ft

h tin-

i'mplu* sayt
order

was exported.

h..n>.
/>

/>wfcrnM,

Linn,

fciu

and

jMs/4/wMrr/ojf

arc the leading varieties producing


/>.

ebony

wood;

India has also

D. tmbrytpurit and
<>f

ttmrnma

This hnr Mack heart-wood (from the date plum tree) has been
i-mli/.it.

Kgypcian inscription of

nasty (B.

brought down and the expedition of


about 1500) brought
pro ha:

C. about 2500), mmr,.,,,, ebony as from the "negro-land" on the Upper

Queen
from
ti

Hatshepsut
:

<

XVIIlth dynasty,
might have

it

of Punt." in this case


it

\byssinian highlands, although

come

II

definite

Old Testament

reference

is

K/ekiel

it

appears as a commodity

in the trade of Tyre:


isles

men

of

Dedan were they merchants; many


If

"the were the merchan-

of thine hand;

they brought thee for a present horns of ivory and


editor's
identification

the

Oxford

of

Dedan with

the

shore of the Persian Gulf be correct, this passage indicates a


trade in

ebony from India prior to the 7th century B. C., and


it

confirms the statement of the Periplus that

was

fhffyfll

Barygaza to
Plm\

Ommana

and Apologus.

9) says that ebony

came

to

Rome

from both India

Egypt, and that the trade began after the victories of Pomp' >ia. He notes two kinds, one precious, the other ordu
.

(Gforfiis

II,

116-117)

speaks

tree, as peculiar to India

in glowing terms of the Herodotus, however, has preferred

to ascribe

it

(III,

97) to Aethiopia, and

states that the

people of that

-re in the habit of paying to the


>y

King

of Persia, every third

way

of tribute, 100 billets of

ebony-wood, together with a

tin

quantity of gold

and

ivory.

36.
p.
1^'

Sewed

boats

known

as maiiarata./////////..

cilasd
.

<

this to

he the Arabic

which included, first, the fibers and second, those taken from tin- husks ..t the This latter is what Marco Polo calls "Indian nut." It cocoanut.
fiber,"
;>ctilcs of the date;

ned with palm sheathing the base of the

was a
not

late
it

ion in Arabia than the date,

ami the IVriplus does


it
i;

include

amonu Arabian
i

exports, although noting

Uland.

that these

sewed b.it>

x\r;

the South Coast,

Yemen and Hadranuut

.1

description of these craft, as

**Their ships are \vreu hed affairs, and many of then for they have no iron fastenings, and are only stitched together with twine made from the husk of the Indian nut. They beat this nut
until
it becomes like horse-hair, and from that they spin twinwith this stitch the planks of the ships together. It keeps well and >rrodcd by the sea-water, but it will not stand well in a

is

The

ships are not pitched, but are rubbed with fish-oil.

They have

w
nil, and one rudder, and have no deck, but only a This cover const** of spread over the canto when loaded. hides, and on the top of these hides they put the hones which they take- i> India for saJc hey have no iron to mfca nails of, and for

one ma*, one

4* in rhey yae only


(.it
li

wooden

trenail* in thrtr shipbuilding,


I

and

the

pUnk

uitit

twine as

have told

><> u

Hcme

'n% a

,is

them

are lost,

business to go a voyage in one of ihotr ships, and many of f<>r in that .Va India the sforros are often lembir
'
'
.

mcili Carrrn, \\h..


1

-.

T
A.

,.x

,,at in 1691-9, fives

a similar

'apt.

W.

Siiffc:

"graphical Journal,

/rmtr TrmAng Cfmim Mil. .!'*4


:

"Instead of

nails.

\\

hu h they

.trr

without, they use pegs of


strings

ham-

boo

nt

.mr. ami furthrr

imn thr planks with

made

of

For anchor, they have a large stone with a hole, and .siih htilr round plank attached to the end."
-A

for oars, a

ule'sA/fTO/V*, Cor,

"are

still

used.

have seen them of 200 tons

hunlm.
caaM
-(I

hut they arc being driven out by iron-fastened vessels, a^

gets cheaper,

cxrept
.

where (as on the Malabar and Coromandd


stitched boat
is

is

useful in a surf."

But the

InnUi in the

iult

now conrined

to fishing-boata.

ised to rub the ships

was

whale-oil.

The
from

old

Arab

voyagers of the

*>th

century describe the fishermen of Siraf in the Gulf


hale-blubber and drawing the
oil
it,

which

was mixed
ing.

"i;
:.

.tnd

Kflation dei

used to rub thr joints of ships' plankI'oyaza, \, 146.)

hurnal,

Chap II'. writing -,r Ormes." ays nd of barque or ship called Jatt t being cornwent on board into one of is. And
1
1

any iron

at all,

and

in the

space of

iys
<

arrived at the city of


,

Thana" (on
fiair

Sabette Island,
friar"

north of Bornb.iv

"wherein

of our

"
irist.

Jatf.
I.

MC
-hi!

\rahu l^ttkf^.

\laiuic\illr

.:i\esa legend arising


,

from
p.

this

method

ustruction

d'tyaff ami Trout!


isU.-:
1

Chap,

f-lll,

125, Ashton'*

"Nearthat
m(

rrr are ships without naik of iron


r.H

the

i-abuiuLint there in that

ksof adamants (loadstones), for they sea (hat it is marvellous to speak of, and

hip passed there (hat had iron

bonds or iron
iron
t
-

nails

it

would
it

perish.

.nan:. In
:

itx

nature,

draws

it.

and v>

would

should m-\rr depart from

156

Theodore Bent (Southern Arabia,

p.

8) describes these boats as

having "very long-pointed bows, elegantly carved and decorated with When the wind is contrary they are propelled by poles or shclk
paddles, consisting of boards of any shape, tied to the end of the poles " with twine, and the oarsman always seats himself on the mmwalrs /wemer, (op. '/., p. 101), further confirms the Periplus

Sinbad the Sailor might recognize every rope and the odd All the boats have good lines and are well Unit spoon-shaped oars.
i

by the natives of Indian timber.


facture except their pulley-blocks,

For the

rest, all

is

<f

Bahrein manuSailin riulc


t

which come from Bombay.

cloth

is

woven

at

Mcnamah and

ropes are twisted of (fate-fiber

Kvcn rope walks which have no machinery worth mentioning. OIK out on the anvil hammered one are nails iron soft by long

he-

"Kach boat has

a sort of figurehead called the kubait, generally

covered with the skin of a sheep or goat which was sacrificed \\hcn This blood-sacrifice Islam has never the boat was first launched.
uprooted.

The

larger boats used in diving hold

from twenty

to forty

men

less

than half of

whom

are divers, while the others are rope-

holders and oarsmen."


36.

Pearls inferior to those of India.

This

is

said

still

to

be the case, the Bahrein pearls being of a yellower tint than those of the Manaar fisheries, but holding their lustre better, particularly in
tropical climates,

and therefore always

in

demand

in India.

36.

Purple.

dye derived from various species of Murex>

Pliny (IX, 60-63) family Murictda^ and Purpura, family Buccinida. "The purple has that extells of its use at the time of our author:
quisite juice
cloth.
. . .

which

is

so greatly sought after for the purpose of dyeing

vein,
of

This secretion consists of a tiny drop contained in a white from which the precious liquid used for dyeing is distilled, being

the tint of a rose


is

somewhat
it

inclining to black.
It
is

The

rest of

the

body
fish

entirely destitute of this juice.

a great point to take the

alive;
it

for

when

dies

it

spits

ones

is

extracted after taking off the shell;

out this juice. From the larger but the smaller fish are

crushed

alive,

together with the shells,

upon which they


in
.

eject this

secretion.

"In Asia the


and
left

Gartulia,
it

and

"After

is

is that of Tyre, Kurope that of Laconia. taken the vein is extracted and

best purple

Africa that of
. .

Mcnmx
are

in

salt is

added.

They
tin,

to steep for three days,

and are then boiled


is

in vessels of

by
to
in

moderate heat; while thus boiling the liquor


time.

skimmed from time


is still

About the tenth day the whole contents of the cauldron are

a liquid state; but until the color satisfies the liquor

kept on the

.(

that

iiu

hue* Co red

is

looked

inferior to

th*

.1

is

Irlt

(Q

lie in

vouk
K

f..r

wn
The
him.:
if

in again, until

hvr hour, and then, after ha% fully imbibed die color.

pi. .per

proper
fxliifi*.

ng arc, for hfty pounds of wool, two he Ituftxum and one hundred and eleven

th-

From

thif

combinat

..dwrdihr
the

admirable
the

tint
i*

known

as amethyst color.
juice of the

To prodm r
its
It

Iyrun hue
i%

irod

soaked
the

in the

ptlap* while ihr muiurr


tint
is

in

an uncooked and raw state; after which


:

is

changed by bring

in

juirc
it

of the

kmeumm.

considered of the best

ho* exactly the color of cloned blood, and is of a .4 ,h hue to the sigh shining appearance when held up

ben

the htiht;
,

hemc

it

IN

that

e hn.i

i<

>mcr speaking of purple blood.

'

ft] :'. ichus Ncpos,

who

stus,

has

left

the following remarks:


in favor, a

died in the reign of the late emperor 'In the days of my youth

thr \iolet purple

was

denarii;
I

and not long

after the

pound of which used to sell at 100 Tarrnimr red was all the fashion.

his

last

was succeeded by

i-ouKI
I

not be bought for even

there

who

Tynan ditxipka (double dyed) which 1000 denarii per pound. Nowadays does not have purple hangings and coverings to his
the

touches, even?'
\\ IIH
t>
11
ji

(his

was probably date wine.

Its

destination, ac-

49, was
(

India.

Krere
'-

Amixn.
1
.

x/., 750, quoted in Yule's


says

Marco

Polo.
It

Cordu
is

"a

spirit is still

distilled

from

dates.

mentioned by Strabo and Dioscorides, according to Kampfer, who was in his time made under the name of a medicinal stomachic;

h added radix China (rhubarb root), ambergris, and aromatic absinth." spices; the poor, licorice and Persian
tain

This may, however, have included grape wine also, the moun\.illcy> >f ( )man having been the region originally producing the

I) .iti -N
:

Pkamix

dactyltftra,

IJnn.,
Plantti

order Palms*.

Act

De Candollc (L'OripiuJtt

Culm*,

has

existed from r

tunes in the warm, dry zone which extends

from Senegal to the Indus basin, principally between the parallels 1 5 It was an important article of cultivation in Egypt, Arabia, and :i. otamia, and the Indus valley, for its wood, fiber, juke, and

15*

Date-wine is mentioned as an 1. t:\ptian product shipped up the Nile to the "negro-land," in an inscription nf the reiun of Menu-re,
Vlth dynasty,
I

"0

I}.

(Breasted,

./,/,/,///

AW,/,,

1,

Dates appear as food, in an Abydos inscription of the reign of Khen785). In the coronation inscription of I, /ri, l~th century B C

Thothmcs
.

111

and Queen Hatshcpsut, XVIIIth dynasty, 15th cen-

di\me offerings to Amon-Rc included wine, fowl, fruit, Similar h>ts appear amonu bread, vegetables, and dates (11, 159). I nder the feasts and offerings from conquests during the same reign.

Rameses

III

IV, 244, 295, 299, 347) the

I>,, t

.\rm

//
v
t

u 65,480 measures, S.I on branches; again, 241,500 measures; and as "offerings to the Nilegod/' dried dates, 11,871 measures, 1,396 jars; dates, 2,396 ures. I^ter, under Psamtik II, \\Vlth dynasty, 6th century B C

"offerings

for

new

feasts/'

dates,

(IV, 944) the Adoption Stela of Nitocris says: "Sail was set; the men took their weapons, and every noble had his pn>\iM<>n. " supplied with every good thing: bread, beer, oxen, dates, herbs
great

The Greek name for the date, pkoinix, was the same as that Phoenicians given the traders from Sidon and Tyre Phoinikcs, whence numerous commentators, including Movers himself /);, Pkonnifr, II, i, 1) suppose the name of race and country to ha\e been derived from the date, which was one of the leading exports to
the northern Mediterranean;
of that race.

But

this in itself

noting that the date-palm was a symbol is better evidence that the tree received

the

name of the race, being truly, for Mediterranean peoples, the "tree of the Phoenicians." (So Lepsius in the introduction to his
die falker

Nubian Grammar, Ueber Punt und dit Sudarabitchcn

und Sprachen Afrikas, and Glaser,

Reiche^

66-9 J.

Pliny (XIII, 7) has a long description of the date-palm and its numerous uses; he says the Arabian date was the best, and describes
fully

the different sexes of the trees, and the pollination of the flowers.
variety of dates

specially fine

comes from the "southern


it

parts,

called Syafri,"

which Pliny

translates

"wild boar," ascribing such


fruit

taste to the fruit;

but as he connects

with the story of the plm-nix,


c

count means no more, probably, than that the


uthcrn coast of Arabia.

ame from

(See under

30.

The
fertilized

in

date-palm being dioecious, the flowers must be artitu tally order to ripen the fruit, and this involves a knowledge of

the habit of the tree, and regular cultivation, in favorable surroun<

including intense heat and drought during the fruiting season.


t-nnditions are
all

only

partially fulfilled

on the Syrian

coast,

and not

at

nn the Northern Mediterranean.

They

exist to perfection

around

199
still

iif,

the principal,

of supply.
certain
nt,

When
The
the

the cultivation

and probably the became important

earliest,

source
i

in Kcypf

un-

earliest inscription, in the

Y 1th

dynast), rrler% nut to


is

hut to \vuir
first
1.

made from the


i

tap), and the time

centuries

"un
es
1

Egyptian Punt -voyages.


M

Not

until the 17th

cen-

the

i:\pt..

date-fruit
It
its

appear as food, and not

until the

Sth

a>

temple-off er m^:
iulti\.ition to
it

it

this

intercourse
in

by no means impossible thai Egypt with Southern Arabia


turn from the Prr%tan (iulf, that

7V-..

had come

rythnran, or in a larger sense Arabian, Sea.

Among
cimns

the classical references to this home-land of the Ph


cited the
(

may be

)dvs>c\.

I\

81-5, where

$idoma and Ae.iu1,

opiaa
later

ncd. buth clearly Arabian*

';/: Strab...

n.

*4.S

The Old Testament


migrations
frort) that

gives

numerous accounts
t.

of

quarter to Palestine,

/.,

/ethariah IX.

The
is

historian Justin

for the earlier migration:

( XVIII. 3. 2) gives the reason "the people of Tyre were sprung from thJ
-

own land, being greatly distressed by earth time in the marsh-land of Babylonia, but quakes, and dwelt some the In of the shores later (Mediterranean) Sea, where they built a

who

left their

town which they


fin is
.1

called Sidon because of the

abundance of thr
the relation of this

the

Mum u-ian

word

for fish."

to the fish-god of Chaldxa, Oannes, see William Simpson, The connection is noted by the poet Prnctan, Thf hnak Le&nd.

set! litora

iuxta

rognomine Quos misit quondam marc rubrum laudibus aurto*, ChaMiro nimium dccoratam sanguine grnirm, Arcmnuque Dri rclrhratam Irgibus unain.

Phcrnices vivum

vctcri

Ac.
readily the

./w,

p.

12:

(N. Y.. 190"


but Simpson

-rd

.ms to kttnt rather than to fish;

shows how

whole legend changed according to the surroundmgt


Phirnu-uns, Syncellus den\e> them
(
>

thr prople.
As* to the race-origin of the

from "ludadan," and Josephfls Jutig. J*J. % I, 6, 2 from Drdan. was a son of Raamah, the son of Cush, according to the grne>

later

then, from J.luh. uh<>m


ild indicate

that

account (Ckn*. fW4., I, 54) dernret 'I"hi% jnu a logy makes a son of Joktan
>ely

for Pi

the

same experience

as that of

tum

Arahi.i

MII leedu'.j \\.i.rs of

migration, the later tending to

nr absorbed b\ the eurher.

160
It
is

significant that

even the Greeks knew Phoenice as Canaan.

Hecat;rus refers to "Chna, as Phornice was formerly called," and the cd as late as an inscription of Antiochus Epiphanes, being nan

lomu-cted with the legendary hero Chna, who can be no other than Canaan of Genesis X, a brother to Cush, and who "begot Sulon, " This word, according to Movers, means "lowland, his first brn." particularly a strip of coast under the hills; and the same meaning is
the

attached to Cush, Cutch, or in :,-s of India, }S), and to the

its

Indian form,

Kachh (Holdich,
of

modern Sawahil

Kast Africa,

and

>hchr of South Arabia, the Sachalites of the Periplus.

Another derivation of "Phoenician" from p/tonioi, (bloody, murderous), rests on the activities of that people as sea-folk, traders and So do the habits of the race survive in the puns of the rre pirates. The author of the Periplus ( 33) found the dwellers on Sarapis Island anthropois ponfrois, and the Roman shipping out of Kgypt had always m-d or under convoy.
(

Gold.

The

Periplus mentions gold coin as an export from


itself

Rome

to India, but gold

as an export from

)mmana

only, and

as a product of the
Id

Ganges

region.
best fields

was an important product of Eastern Arabia, the


the middle courses of the

being
I

in

Wadi
was

er

Rumma,

the

Wadi

ed

)awasir,

and the

Wadi

Yabrin.

Glaser (Skiw, 347-9) locates


It

alto-

gether ten Arabian gold-fields.


\

this

rian Tiglath-Pileser III to refer to gold as the

production that K-d the "dust of the coun-

of Merodach-Baladan, king of Bit-Yakin, and to

make

the

Man

(julf ports centers also for the gold

produced farther to the

in Persia,

eastern Arabia

The watercourses of northCarmania, and the Himalayas. were probably the producing areas of the "land of Havilah" of Genesis II, 11-12, which could readily supply caravans

Canaan; while El-Yemama and the southern fields, of were probably the "land of Ophir" of Solomon's voya Kings X) and according to the tribal genealogy (Genesis X, 29) Ophir was a son of Joktan and therefore purely Arabian. Into this
for Chalda-a or

richer yield,
I

\oluminous controversy it is not necessary to go farther; the evidence is summed up by Glaser (Sk'neu, 357-^88).

To the Greeks and Romans the "gold of Ophir" was known as apynn, which Diodorus Siculus (II, 50) assumes to be a Greek word, ;thout fire," and goes on to explain that it was not reduced by
roasting the ores, but
'icstnuts.

was found

in the earth in shining

lumps the

size

with this

Agatharchides and Pliny (XXI, 1 1; are both acquainted apyrvn gold, and Pliny (VI, 23) mentions also a river Apirus

161

na, inaregioi
.<,

,J>
.

described by Alexander

as gold-producing.

Pod

ne*u, theJoJuaimr
..ngs,

Oph
cosmopolitan
I

and the Ignite Kaamah


>t

Ommina
The
(

the Penplut, under Parthian rule,

was (he

Slaves.
.mil

Arabs were inveterate slave-traders then a*


ulway* active slave-markets.

(he

p-.rts of

)IIUM \srr

Ara-

..MIIIII..M .ii..ii
!

the African ciMut had this as


In international

one of K%

agrccincm

u?-

pat

TheCnimiix
Parthian

.!

Parsida

tiu-r

kingdom.
lu the
.t

nplus gives the

name

power

in

Kmpire and refers to the This "country East and South Arabia.

mn

Peru*,
:

<>r

Perm,

of that

of

the-

iv ^

Persia proper, including

of

tin
;>er.

Carmania; a vassal state in the Areacid fol.Ul not have shared, as a state, in the Arabian spoils >mmana was subject to the Parthian monarchy, not
is

Pliny

VI. 28) says "Persia

but has
\
1,

changed

its

name

a country opulent even to luxury, for that of 'Pan: Scrabo

in.

-4) observes more exactly,

separate people,

governed by kings

to the kings of Maccil<>n in


37.
all,

"at present the Persians are a who are subject to other kings; tomu-i times, but now to those of Parthia."
hardly a separate bay at

The Bay
(25

of Gedrosia, while
to be that
f

may be assumed

Ras 66 64

Nuh
4
i

bounded by the strip of coast beN. 62 18' K.) and Cape Monze (24* 45 \ 6' N., e the "jutting cape" is Ras Ormara (2S
.

Oraea.

The

bay

is

the

modern Sonmiani Bay

<

25

0'

66

^\\\c Purali.
.it

According to Holdich. the

ilu

time of the Periplus emptied into a bay running some


ted

distance inland, an-.

up to the coast lines. These are the ./*/ Altx*9ultr, \\. 1\-1.

/,

\\!\

\\\

.-tderthena-

or Oribans, their councry

called Ore. The river was called Arabia, and on its eastern bank dwelt "an Indian nation called Arabians;" while the Orior on the western bank were "dressed like the Indians and equipped with *' -.ipons. but their language and customs were different.
(

i-oast-hsu- ran

westward from the Arabb 160 miles;

or,

accord-

Pliny

VI. 2S4>), 200 miles.

They dwek on

the inland hills

162

and along the shore, the latter being distinguished as Fish-l Alexander conquered the hill-folk and colonized their capital, Rhamwhile bacia, under his own name (Diodorus Su-ulus, \\ 1, li>4 Nearchus fought the coast-folk, reporting' them 'Yoxered with hair
;

on the body, their nails like wild birds' claws, used like iron for killing and splitting fish, and cutting softwood; other things they cut
their
ribs

Strabo (XV, ii, 2) describes with sharp stones, having n<> iron." of whales and ureat shells; the of the made bones dwellings,

being used for beams and

rafters,

and the jawbones

for don-

Here are more echoes of the early migrations that radiated outward from the Persian Gulf. The river Arabis and the Arabia: sufficiently reminiscent of Arabia, while the capital, Rhambac ia, appears in Ptolemy as a city of the Rhamnrc, derived from the same
source.

The Oritx

are represented by the


hill-folk,"

modern
one
in

Brahui.

Both
tin-

names have the same meaning,


other in Persian; but this
lation, like that of
is

(Jreek and

probably no
into

more than

a punning trans"fish-

Makran

Main Khnran,
is

Ichthyophairi,

eaters."

The

country of

()m

rather related to the

Uru

of C'hal-

da-an place-names; being connected with the sun-worship that survived


well into the Christian era.

The

Brahui are a Dravidian tribe

left

behind by their race on its way to Southern India; in earlier days the connection of both with the Persian Gulf was less broken. The
as shown by Curzon ( Geographical Journal, VII, Dravidian; while "Brahui" is thought to refer to the hero of the tribe, Braho, a name having the same root as Abraham Imperial
is
<

name "Makran,"

are probably the same "Asiatic Aethiopians, and " who were similar airain (VII, 70) as "Aethiopians from the sunrise, to the Aethiopians of Southern Arabia, both peoples being represented
Gtnutteer of India > IX, 15-17).
'

These people

as those called

by Herodotus (III, 94)

in

the

Persian army, and both having presumably sprung from


as witness the record in Genesis

he-

same stock;

X,

7,

"the sons of

C'ush: Seba, and Havilah, and Sabtah, and Raamah, and Sabteca; and the sons of Raamah: Sheba, and Dedan." The Cushite name seems to survive in Kej, in the valley of Makran; the "Kesmac <>ran"

of

Marco

Polo.

The names

of the

Pharaohs of the

XXVth

or "Aethiopian"

dynasty in Egypt, point to a like origin:


i'a-anch, Pocn, etc.
),

Kashta, Shabaka, Piankhi


Katar, Socotra).

and Taharka

(cf.

Wcllsted
Beni
coast.

Genab

v) noted the strong racial similant\ between the in South Arabia and the people found on the Makran
(I, ch.

Holdich (Gt^raphUal Journal, VII, 388) finds the

island of

Haftalu off the

Makran

coast

the Astola of Ptolemy, a center of the

worship

gave to
\l..

locally known as Serandipi a Ceylon, but uhu h, apart from its la syllable, the Sanscrit uid, seerm to be related to the island of Sen. Strap*, or
off

ira,

the Arabian coast

n
ulixed by Got/.
<

between both wing* of thu tyurm


im Di,mt,
.i<>

it

ltrMnu*g'

H'tttkamAt

is

"Turanian-Ham H ;<///!
.in

it

.ms"

ui

-MS I., ru\r in mind a rarr f/" /rntin, " Astatic Aethiopinegroes as the original of the Makran. But their descent h<ajld havr been from the
<

in (iult
!

IM

John Mandevillr hup Mime ways seems nearer the truth


had three sonv
t.>nk ih
.':-.,f,-r

ves a legend

"Noah
;>t

n and Japhei
aiul the best part,

.am,
that

toward the ea*.

Cham

and Japhet t.n.k l.un.pc was the greatest and the most mighty, and of him came
t....k

Asia, and

Shnn

Africa,

And of his son Chute generations than of the other. Nimrod the giant, that began the foundation of the
. . I

to.

And of the generation of Cham be come the Paynims Babylon and divers folk that be in isles of the sea by all
also Lassen,
;.

/>.

146-161 j and

Got M
name

R.

us Hold.ch, G*in Ham. i:gn*fail Jnnui,

VII. <j68-674.

Rhambacia.
:

I'hc

of the capital

is

not given in the

rills

the lacuna with that mentioned h\

A man.
to

Fabri-

efers Parsis, the capital of


:>lace

Gedrosia according

Ptolemy;

but

was probably much farther west. Rhambacia was at no great distance from the modern Las Beat
According
,

to

Holdich

(,*

.f

/sW,
early

this

whole neighborhood

is

full

of evidences of

Arabian occupation; but the exact


I

site is

undetermin<
Sanscrit

'he

mbc-name, Rhamnar, Lassen connects with the

ramana, happy, utmh, while possibly a mere pun, may explain the Hindu name "blessed" for Socotra, which had been identified with
tlu-

Raam. same

shite stock generally

he root of &wt/r-a

u evidently
at

Katar peninsula, adjoining Bahrein MamariJa, "precious," an Arabic name for the mountain
as Kl

ihc

Straits

Hormus; the "Island of the Blest" of the Babylonian nesh epic; may these reflect a Cushite race-appdbnon, like
of

chosen people" of the Hebrews?

Bdellium

is

an aromatic

gum exuded from R*h*m*AmJim


in

order Kurtfnin*, a small tree natixr

n>nhwrtern

India,

164

Beliu hi>tan.

Atrua; closely allied to m> rrh and employed from a very early date. AcXII. 19) the best sort came from Bactria, and the ng to Pliny from India and Arabia, Media and Babylonia. The- um, he
Arabia,
aiul
l..ist

ilarly

>t

says,

"ought

to

unctuous when subjected to \\nhout the slightest acidity.

he transparent and the color of wax, odont. friction, ami bitter to the taste, n

When
it

used for sacred pu:


still

steeped in wine, upon which The price in Rome he

emits a

more powerful odor


it

S denarii

per pound, making

equal

only to the poorest quality of myrrh.

Bdellium was particularly the product of the hills between the Hindu Kush and the Indian Ocean, and found its way wo

through the Persian ( Julf ports or overland through Babylonia. Arrian (Anabasis, VI, 22) tells how the army of Alexander, returning through
the country of the

Orit, came upon "many myrrh trees, lamer than from which the Phoenician traders accompanying the army It is probably the hth... gathered the gum and carried it away. Genesis II. 12, which reached the Hebrews from the "land of
"
uMial,

Haxilah,*' the south shore of the Persian Gulf, the district of

Ommana
authorities

of

36.

Bdolach^ however,

is

thought by some

Hebrew

to be a crystalline

of Benjamin of

gem; while the same word is used in the Itimnm Tudela (Adler's edition, p. 98) for the pearls of the Bahrein fisheries, and with the same meaning in the Meadows of Gold
i.is'udi

(Sprenger's translation,
op. at.,

p.400; Lassen,

See also Watt, p. 544). 1,290; Glaser, Skbcze, 324-5, 364-7.

op. <//.,

passage in the Book of Numbers XI. 1 is pcrh;.ps of interest as reflecting the ancient classification of fragrant gums by size and The shape of the piece, rather than by distinguishing the tree.

manna

of the Israelites

is

there said (in the R. V.

to

have been "like

coriander seed," and the "appearance thereof as the appearance of The A. V. has the "color as the color of bdellium," in bdellium/'
contradiction to

Exodus XVI,

31,

where the color was

said to

be

white;

bdellium being brown, like myrrh.

The

marginal

note in

"Hebrew, eye," points to the true meaning. Glaser has already shown the and incense of the Egyptian Punt Reliefs to be an Arabian word, a-a-nete, "tree-eyes" (Punt und <iu Sudunihuchcn Reiche, p. 7), and to refer to the large lumps, exuded through cracks in the bark, or through substantial incisions, as distinguished

the Revised Version,

from the small round drops, which were supposed to be tree-tears ( The Hebrews 29) or the the tree-blood (as shown under 29). after the Exodus would have had the same classification ; so we may
conclude that the author of

Numbers meant

to

compare the

IAS
.illine

panicles of the tamaritk-root syrup, oriander seed, wh

whu h
lc

thu

the larger and comer


(<

the lump* of bdellium


\\

with

huh he was

familiar in t;
i

4 ) ritual.

KIM
SixtAut
is

sniihiis.
in

mit*. and thi* form


'<

unusual

m^' generally

known
i

at /W*j.

Hnuiu

n. tines rr.idii:!/

the

West ^rnrrulK drop

the

and Subffr

uths
'

Su\ir,

argue-

basis for

in his HiU<pp. 136 an ancient sea-trade between India and the

mixlm.
thing.

iiiriKiniir.i in
(

an ancient

This

is

the f*tf* of the

)ld

Tetftament.

:n&n of the

IrreLs
I

The
Yangtse, (none

great rs
h

rtVtt
IJrahnu;

lndu
:

is

exceeded

b>

the

V
is

i:cs,

and Shan-cl- Arab


It* lYnplu* The sediment

had been seen by the author


mini:
"i

of the

discharge
in

greater than that of the Hoanc-ho.

down
1

square miles in area and normal coax

a single year an island 65 The delta projects link beyond yard deep. to the distribution of silt along shore by

ocean currents, and to the deposit of the remainder in a vast subthe river ic trough 1200 feet deep and upwards, due south of Ihs Urdus. /.;. 111.
.<K.

Graa>
ill

The presence of great water>anscrit fraka. observed along these coasts, in the bays and at the mouth*
This name
is

<8.

Barbaricum.
id

evidently

Hellennrd from

one suspects Bandar,


remains of

port, or possibly

i'l

ax Kahardipur. \\lndi survives in the

modern Delta
this port are

some name With the


a>

.ui>

xiltm- of the Delta, the


i

probably yards

the soft alluvium, and very likely quite


rmerlx

away from

ih-banda

rvuble to men-of-war.

inland to the east of the present main channel of the


I

minx, while a similar fate has overtaken

(
f

.r,

Ken.

and other places.

Since the opening

the Karachi railway mort

abandoned.

of India

Minnagara was dm mj the period


hi

name
!

given temp

several

of the occupation by the Scyths (the Saka


lapse of the Indo-Scythian
their

and Yueh-i
ix

power

tl

icxuined their former

names with

autonoim

166

This Mmnagara may be


expedition
it

identified with the Patala of

Alexander's

the capital of the delta country.

Vincent Smith locates


..f

at

the

Bahmanabad, 25 50' N., 68 50' E., about six miles WC-M modern Mansuriyah. 'I "he site was discovered by M. Bel;..

The Indus delta 1854, and includes extensive prehistoric remains. his growji greatly since our author's time, and the courses of the
tributaries have changed repeatedly. Vincent Smith apex of the delta was probably about forty mi Irs north of He cites numerous that place, approximately 26 40' N., 68 30' E. facts to prove that the coast-line has advanced anywhere from 2<> to

Indus and

all its

s.us that the

The Rann of Cutch l.innon 40 miles since Alexander's time. now a salt marsh, he thinks was a broad open arm of the sea running
(
,

N., with the eastern branch of the Indus emptying into it brought down by the river and formed into great bars \\ashed southward by the violent tides, has now dosed the mouth of the Rann
Silt

The coast-line he thinks almost entirely. from Karachi to the Rann of (Am h.
Reclus
until
(//j/0, III,

may have averaged

25

N.

142-5) says the Rann was probably open sea

about the 4th century,


this

when

a series of violent earthquakes ele-

vated

whole region considerably.

He

reports

rums

at

Nagar

Parkar, at the northeast corner, indicating a lar^e sea-port trade there. These changes may have been one cause of the great migration

from

this

region to Java in the 6th and 7th centuries A.

38.

Parthian princes.
over the

The

reference to the

rule-

of

"Par-

thian princes"

The

first

iterestinu "metropolis of Sc-ythia" horde from Central Asia to overrun the Pamirs was the

Saka, fleeing before the Yueh-chi.


Seistan (Sakastenej,

They

settled in the

Cabul
B.

valley,

and the lower Indus.

By about

1"

C. their

leader

his line

Manes had established a kingdom at Cabul, subject to Parthia; " was known as the "Indo-Parthian, but his rac was, roughly
"Scythian."
Gradually the Yueh-chi pursued the Saka,
Bactria (they are referred to in this text, ^47.
of the Hactrians,

speaking,
as the

<>nquering

Greek

Very warlike nation


I,

"

living in the interior

Their king, Kadphises


his gon,

Kadphises

II,

conquered Cashmere and the upper Indus; who acceded about 85 A. D., after a disa

Kuche by the pursuer of the Yueh-chi, the Chinese directed his armies quering general Pan-Chao about 90 A. I).
defeat at

then reached the upper

southward and rapidly overran the Panjab and the lower Indus, and and interior points like Indore. Both races were called by the Sanscrit "Min" orScyths; the
'

Periplus

shows the

Indo-Parthians

ruling

in

the

"metropolis
the
ir

of

\thia," then at the apex of the Indus delta;

showing

power

iff
in thr

Kabul

valley in

have tx-rn hr.,kcn already by


t>cen

I*

iihtequent complete conquest by the

consummated.
nt described in the Periplus

The

political

tbote that followed the


jab.

were probably Ian powerful Indo.rrrdabouc

This

it

fuppoced
t

t.

SIX

>

After

some yean of anarcby and


under twn
t..
(I..

\\ il

war, the Saia power


tbe

WM

again
tr<"i thr huius

lines of ruler*,

"Northern SaSaimr
, ;

traps"

and (be
li-.il.

"U euern

these dynastic

first

tributary,

and

later

distant southern raiding by tbe Indo-Partbians led to the "Pallava" dynasties along tbe west coast, which after a couple of centuries succer.u-.i in gaining control ,,: much of Southern India.
'

MM

subjn

thought by
i

ubricius to be the ones referred to

S2 as ruling in Call ic
1

iiombay.

mini
i

J linens.-

isM*'".
for

Pliny (VIII.
in

says:
colors,

uas very famous

making embroidery
cloth with

different

and
mull

hnue stuffs of this kind The method of weaving


invented at Alexandria;
\

have obtained the

name

of

more than two


"

these cloths are called permit*,


cqucrs.

\\\4\

ili<

"
C'ubiciil..

Martial's epigram,
th.it

indicates
in a

the

L'

\ptun

tissue

was formed

loom,

like tapestry,

and

that

the

W.IN finl>r..uU-rrl with the needle.

Topaz.

cktynlitkot.

This

stone, according to

IMiny, came from Aethiopia (Abyssinia) and tsbnds in the Red Sea; and he adds that the best sort came from India. Here is a confusion betbe Red Sea gem being the true topaz and kinds of stone
;

thr Indian either chrysolite or yellow sapphire. thr

Romans

The knowledge of was vague, and we are apt to astray by assuming that because we have borrowed the Greek name we have applied it to the same stone. e (hiysolitlioi mentioned in thr trxt was almost certainly our
in

regard to precious stones

topaz, \v hi. h xvas produced in abundance in the Red Sea islands, being an important item in the east-bound exports of Egypt, under the

mrs and Rot


abosays: XVI. ,v, 6) "After Berenice is the island Ophiodea. was cleared of the serpents by the king, on account of the topazes found there. A body of men was appointed and maintained by the of Kgypt to guard and maintain the place where these
It
.
.

upermtetul thr

t<

Election of

them

168

It

is

remarkable that the Penplus doc> not mention emeralds also


in the hills just

as an export

from mines

There was a larur production from Berenice to India. west of our author's home. They nu\

ha\c fetched better prices in

Rome

than in India, where they would

have had to compete with the native beryls.


:

a description of these mines, as well as of the present app


~

ance of the

site

of Berenice, see Bent, Southern Arabia, 291

28 and 49. This was the red coral d which was one of the prim -ip.il assets of Western Mediterranean, I'lim observe! with the l-.ast. trade in its the Roman Kmpire coral was as that (\.\\1I, some surprise 11) highly prized in India

Coral.

Sec also

the-

as

were

pearls at

Rome.

The

Gauls formerly ornamented


it

their

swords, shields

and helmets with


export
\alue

coral, but after the Indian trade was

opened and
with them.

its

increased,

became extremely
found the same conditions

Tavernier (Traveh
in

his time:

"

in India, II, xxiii)

Although
it

coral does not rank

among

precious stones

ope,

is

nevertheless held in high esteem in the other quarters


it

of the globe,

and

is

one of the most

beautiful of nature's produc-

tions, so that there are


Ball, in his notes

some
its

nations

who

prefer

it

to precious stones.

on Tavernier
tints

(II, 136), ascribes the preference

for coral to

"the way

adapt themselves to set off a dark skin,


"

and also look well with a white garment.


It

was

also valued for

its

supposed sacred properties, and the be-

charm continued through the Middle Ages, and lief in its to the even present day in Italy, whre it is worn as a protection
uses as a
against the evil eye.

The

principal red

coral fisheries, then as

now, were

in

SiciK,

Sardinia and Corsica, near Naples, Leghorn and Genoa, in C'atalonia, the Balearic Islands and the coasts of Tunis, Algeria and Men-

Tavernier describes the method of fishing by "swabs" rafters, weighted, and bound with twisted hemp, which were

ci

let

down

and entangled amongst the coral on the rocky bottom, breaking more For a fuller description, see Emcycltpitdia Britannia^ than they caught.
'

art.

"Coral

Red coral is Corallium rubrum, family Gorgonida. There was black coral in abundance in the Red
along the Arabian coast, but these

Sea, and others


so
highly.

were

not

pri/.ed

See

Haeckel, Jrab'ncht Koralltn.


39.

CostUS.
a
tall

This

is

ftiuc t

perennial,

the cut root of Saussurea lappa, order C^mgrowfhg on the open slopes of the vale of
at elevations of X,oo<)

Kashmir, and other high valleys of that region,

149
(,,
i

v'""

''<"

In the

Roman Kmpirr
-

it

was used

also as a

perfume
f<>r

,m

many of

as a culinary the ointments, though

in less quantity than

pepper and cinnamon.


I

The
;,

Revised Version
in place

gives
as

it

as a marginal reading

\,.du-

of

one of the ingredients of the anointing oil >f the Hebrew The root was dug up and cut into small pieces, and shipped to Vincent describe* the root as being the to* both Rome and China,
of a finger;
..

a yellowish

woody

part

within a whitish hark.

The

is brittle,

warm,

bitterish,

and aron

in agreeable smell,

reseniNni'j orris.
1

nntrs that the gifts from Seleucus

allinuus

the Milesians included frank

nyrrh,
I

pounds; cinnamon, 2 pounds; costus,

pound.

Romans
in

costus

distinguished from nard,

was often called simply rW/*, the root, as which was called>/;*m, the leaf The price
-

Rome
id.

is

stated by

Pliny

XII.

J.S

t..

have been S denarii per

In

modern Kashmir the


ports.
is

collection of costus

the product being sent to Calcutta and

Bombay,

and Red Sea


In Kashmir
"IN

In

China

it is

used in

a Slate monopoly, shipment to China perfumes and as incense.


is

for

it

used by shawl merchants to protect their fabrics from


iostHs

>rd

is

from the Sanscrit

kutJitka.

'standing in the

See

Wan,
1

/>.

<//.,

980; Lassen,

/>.

mm.

This was derived from


at elevations

varieties of the barberry

malayas,

of

6,000 to 10,000
B. tit/gam, order

feet.

hcium, also B. aristata,

B. asianta,

From

the roots
fruit

from the stem,

and stems a yellow dye was prepared; while and root-bark was made an astringent medicine,

n ,,f xihu-h is described by Plim XXIV. "7). the branches and roots, which are intensely hitter, are pounded and then the woody parts then refor three days in a copper vessel
:

is

and the dtunction boiled again to the thickness of honey. mixed uith \.irious bitter extracts, and with a murca of olive
1.

It

oil,

is used as an ingredient in and the other part as a face cosmetic, and for the cure of corroding sores, fluxes, and suppurations, for diseases the throat and gums, for coughs, and locally for dressing open " wounds. Many empty lycium potsfcave been found in the nn(See also Watt, ? ulancum and Pompeii.

ox-gall.

The

froth of this decoction

ipositions for the eyes,

170

Nard

(the root, from the lowlands, as distinguished from

spikenard, the leaf or flower, from the mountains, a totally different This is the root of the ginger-grass, Cymbopogon sen species).

order Gramme** native in the Western Panjah, India, Helm histan and Persia, and the allied species, C. /KMRMtttff| native more to It is closely allied to the Ceylon riu>pella, <:. the east and south.
ttut,

nan/us.

From the root of this grass was derived an oil which was used Roman commerce medicinally and as a perfume, and as an astr
in

in

ointments.

This

is

no doubt the nard found by the army of Alexander on

its

homeward march, in the country of the (iedrosians, f which A man 'This desert produces many odoritsays (Anabasis, VI, 22):
which the Phoenicians gathered; but mm h of it was trampled down by the army, and a sweet perfume was diffused far and wide over the land by the trampling; so great was the abundance
roots of nard,

of

it

39.

Turquoise.

same

as Pliny's callama

The text has calUan stone, which seems the (XXXVII, 33), a stone that came from "the
more
definitely,
it

countries lying back of India," or


description of the stone
itself

Khorassan.

II is

identifies

with our turquoise, which


the mines near

occurs abundantly
in that district.

in

volcanic rocks intruding into sedimentary rocks


finest stones

The

came from

Maaden,
30'

about 48 miles north of Nishapur (the Nisaea of Alexander, 30

A natural trade-route from this locality would have N., 58 50' E. ). been down the Kabul river, thence by the Indus to its mouth, where the author of the Periplus found the stones offered for sale.
<-e

also

Heyd, Commerce du Levant au Moyen Age,

II,
i

h53;
\i\:

Ritter,

Erdkunde, 325-330; Yule's


Stones^

Marco

Polo, Cordier's ed.,


in Indni.

Goodchild, Precious
'Turquoise
;

284; Tavernier, Travels


in Persia

II,

is

only found

....

in

two mines, one near

pur, the other five days' journey

from it;" Lansdell, Russian

Cf*tral-Asia t 515.)
39.
natural

Lapis

lazuli.

The word
to

in

the text
this to

is

wpp/n-ims, and a
a

inclination

would be

assume

be the same

sapphire, which is also a product of India; but according to Pliny \\.\VII, 39) the stone known to the Romans as sapphire opaque blue stone with golden spots, which came from Media, that is,
\

in a general

way, from the country


it

we

call Persia.

It

was not
in

suited

for engraving because

was

intersected with hard crystalline particles.

This can be nothing but our lapis la/.uli, which has been from a very early time for ornament and al-

demand
ultra-

buildings.

was so extensively used by the Egyptians m their public sapphire seems to have been rather a product of India and Ceylon, and would hardly have been exported
MII

Our

the Indus val


I

>ionysius Pcriegete

birth (o the
A

hu h thrv

% which gave beauteous tablets of the golden hued and azure sapphire "
.

!<

:n

the par-

which seems
this

i.

.ipis lazuli
.di hilil
st

rather than our sappt


(

Prrenm Stomt,
the

p.

240), also thinks that


I

none was

certainly

sapphire

of

ustus

and other
\rr\

bi-in..:

Mr much
ti\rn
it

says,

"It has been known from

rrrnod

used by the

Egyptians, and to a lesser extent by the


Salami*, says the Tables of the

Assyrians.

Kpiphanius, Bishop of
to
i-

Law
used

Moses were
.is

inscribed

on

lapis lazuli

The Romans
/*t.,
1,

to son

Lassen

is

a material for engraving of the same opinion. Beck man n /////

writing in the 18th century, says that the real lapis lazuli

came from

Bokhara, particularly
to India,

at

and from India


less

Kalab and Badakshan; to Son mope.


1

that

it

was sent thence


through Russia

.d*o
first

via
\\

Orenburg, but
t

than formerly.
it

nh

he-

Periplus. )
Isidori

"I consider

route corresponds as the sapphire of the ancic


,

(The

quoin
5

On/. XVI, 9; Theophrast. dt Lpid.


Dionys.,

| 43;

Dioscorides, V, 157,
xii

OH
)

1105;

Kpiphanius

gemmis,

Marbodeus dt

Lapidibus, 55.

Tavern ier, (Travels


i

India,

in India, II, xxv speaks of a "mountain Kashmir producing lapis,' which Ball (&MMM* G*kfj if U 529) locates near Firgamu in Badakshan, 36 10' N., "1

For a
I

fuller description see

Holdich, Gates of India, 426, 507.

Itramarine

was

rather

was probably not the cteruUum of the Romans, which Their blue glass was rather cobalt. copper ochre.

is

Seric skins. KXXIV, 41 says, "of all the difkuuk of iron, the palm of excellence is awarded to that which made by the Seres, who send it to us with their tissues and skins;
M,

in

qualm,

is

the

Parthian

fa

And
,

again

\ \\

the most valuable products furnished by the

ings of animals are the skins

whu

h the Seres

These passages are


this
s'

sufficient

answer to those
Vincent,
II,

who

have doubled
I,

in

the

Periplus.

S9U; Muller
is

288,

.opposed to
than
in the

whom see
1

Fabricius, p.

151.)

There

no more reason why

fiouKi not h.t\c


>th

hem

sent overland across Asia in the 1st century

to the 19th,

when

the trade

was most important.


in getting

Con-

sider, for instance, the difficulty

e\en t>-da\,

Russian sable*

172

to market,

and how much easier


to tin-

to get

the-

\.m<>us wild aiiim.il skins

from Tibet and Turkestan

Indus mouth!

As
it

to the

"most

excellent iron of the Seres" mentioned In Plinv,

is

open

to question

whether

this

was not Indian

steel,

more

cor-

described in the Periplus as coming from the Gulf of


to the

Camhay

and Egypt It was produced in Haidaral Golconda, and was shipped to the- Panjab and the famous Damascus blades of the I to be made into steel; middle ages being derived mainly from this source. (Tavernu i, See also under Travels, Ball's cd., I, 157. )
Somali coast
short distance north of
39.

Cloth.
If

It

is

uncertain whether this should be connerted

with

the

following item, yarn, both


the latter, as

being

silk,
it

or whether

it

is

separate item.
as mrfed

seems probable,

would be muslin,
a

under

38

the sin^n of the Greeks. long

staple

product

of tne Pan jab and Sind.

\/39. Silk yarn.


found
routes
silk

According

to the IVriplus, the


(i.i:

Roman
lu

traders

at

the mouths of the Indus and


hither
it

Gulf of

Cambay, and in Travancore, u from N. W. China.

had been brought by various

The
countries

principal

highway

for silk, at this time as well as later,

\\.is

through Turkestan and Parthia.

As

the

demand

in

Mediterranean

grew more insistent, the restrictions of the Parthian government became more severe, and quarrels over the silk trade v\ the root of more than one war between Rome and Parthia, or later between the Byzantine Empire and Sassanian Persia. This effort of Constantinople to reach China direct, without dependence on
."\

potamia, led to alliances with Abyssinia, for the sea trade, and with the Turks, for a route north of the Caspian; but no permanent result

was reached

until the 6th century,


in

when

a couple of Christian

monks

under Justinian succeeded


into

bringing back from China the jealouslysilk

guarded silk-worm's eggs, from which the

culture

was introduced

Greece, and imports from the Kast diminished. At the time of the Periplus, Rome and Parthia being at war, the sea-route was the only one open to the Roman silk traders.
See also under
49, 56 and 64.
,

39. Indigo, a dye produced from Indizoftra tinctona. Linn order Lffuminos*; and allied species, of which about 25 exist in \\ em ern India alone, and about 300 in other tropical regions. Concerning

the

modern production see Watt (op. cit., 664). It was valued in Western Asia, Egypt, and the Mediterranean countries as a dye and
Pliny says

a medicine.

(XXXV,

25

uibaunce imported

rum

India, with ihr


if

composite
f

When hrokea small unacquainted. of a black appearance, but when diluted u nhibics a wndrou% There i% another kind t.f if purple and deep a/ure
am
caldn.n>
If

floats in che

thr purple as a

i>e-houe%, and

i*

ihc
' '

scum

of the

purple
for

i\r

ued

m
and iksinaHi

acts at a sedative
sores.

ague and other shivering Marco Polo sa> >

fits

made

of a certain herb
is

whu

it

gathered, and (after the root* have hern removed)

put into great


the

vessels

upon which they pour water and


-imposed.
cml..us
.

luxe

it

until

whole of

c,

thru put thi* liquid in the HIM. so that it hoiU and coagulates, and becomes

They

.is

we

see

it
f>

They

then divide
rted to

it

into piece* of four

ounce*

each, and in that


4ii

our p

The

Ciulf of
Raiin

irinon

is

the strange expanse

Wildrt:iess) of Cutch, the


it

now ki. name comin.


south.

the crescent-shaped rocky island bordering


unit. u in saline plain

on the

about 140 miles long, and reaching 60 mile* from to shore; and in the dry season (of the N. K. monsoon It opens seaward by a dry and firm, 10 to 20 inches above sea-level. narrow channel, and west of Cutch the northern Rann communicates through a second channel with the

with the

l<>\v

-lying coast of the

Rann, which is connected Gulf of Cutch. In the rainy seaton


is

(of the S.

W.

monsoon) the

sea

driven through these channels b>


into
it.

nd, and the rain descending

from the hilb also flows

it

'of stagnant water about 3 feet deep. Hut the ground so level that the Rann is never deep enough to stop the camel cara-

vans,

terrible heat

which cross and

it

at all seasons,

traveling by night
illusions of

the

refraction,
rr the

and the

the mirages
stars

v*

huh

const.
it

Rann.

The

guidance of

and com paw

preferred.

This
as

saline

plain

was

certainly at
salt

<>n<-

tune flooded by the sea,

and by the remains of vessel Old harbor works are ob>< up near the neighboring villages. Within rmnear Nagar Parkar, on the eastern side of the Rann.
the abundance of
:
;

shown by

nncs it was probably the scene of an active sea-trade. e\en modern times the port of Mandavi, on the southern coast of Cutch.
carries
,

on a

direct trade with Zanzibar, in small vessels averaging SO

of less than 10 feet draught

We are here again


Thr
re a

reminded of the ancient Turanian


raised

Accadun-

dian) sea trade, which must have centered in these bays,

was probably

by some great

174

The

upheaval

is

too regular to have occurred by ordinary causes.


it

At

have been open water, although below the Indus delta, ami the ocean into clear with a opening shoal, Now the Indus delta is with a branch of the Indus running into it.
the time of the Periplus

seems

to

pushed very much farther south, and the scour of the tides has carru -d while the its alluvium along the coast, almost hlnckinu up the Rann; branch that watered it no longer flows in that direction. h ami One is led to surmise that the great migration from

dm

Gujarat to Java,

which occurred

in

the 6th and 7th centuries, ami

which
in

led to the establishment of Buddhist

the tremendous temples of Boroboedor and

kingdoms there (survi\m<: Brambanan) may have

been due even more to this cause than to the invasion of hostile Aryan The conversion of a navigable bay into tribes from the upper Indus. a salt desert, and the diversion of the rivers that watered it, must ha\e spelled ruin and starvation to multitudes of its agricultural and seafaring inhabitants, who would have been forced to migrate on a sc -altunusual
in history.

Geological considerations tend to confirm the tradition, otherwise unsupported by historic evidence, that the Indus was formerly deflected by the Rohri Hills directly into the Rann of Cutch, where
it

was joined by the

river

which was supposed

to have

formed

con-

tinuation of the Sutlej and Sarasvati through the


'

now

dried-up Hakra

Wahind)

still

canal. During exceptional floods the waters of the Indus Other overflow into the eastern desert and even into the Rann.
still

channels traversing the desert farther south


ing of the main stream in
let.
its

attest the incessant shift-

search for the most favorable seaward out-

According to Burns, a branch of the Indus known as the Purana, or "Ancient," still flowed in 1672 about 120 miles east of the present

mouth.

The
many

constant shiftings of the river-bed toward the west ha\e


arid,

rendered the eastern regions continually more


river-channels into
salt-pits.

and have changed

inhabitants,

The name
40.

Dera Ghazi Khan, was Kirinon, kinn or Rann

In the year 1909 a city of 25,000 almost annihilated by the Indus.


is

from the Sanscrit

<Y/Y/;/U/

or

irina, a waste or swamp.

The Gulf
the

of Baraca
survives
It

Whether
69
is

name

uncertain.

modern Gulf of Cuteh. 22' V, in the modern Dwarka (22 srcms to be the same as Ba/iltka, which
is

the

associated with Surashtra in the MaJulhhdnita, the

Rdmdyann and

the / Ithnu Purana.


41.

Ariaca.

This word
is

thinks that the

name

I... in the text is \ery uncertain / l^tica the Sanscrit (pronounced properly

m
and included the land on both side* of the ( ,uii An inscription of Asoka mention* Latx*. also gives the name Lanta. urlirst form feems to have been R&ittka or RAtktnka, "beJonct

mu'

t<>

thr

km. -.1.

Prakrit

form of

this

(MaHMthtrti).

word appean abo in Synttttm. The word R&tktra survives alto in the modem Martina Another explanation derive* (Las*en, I, 108.)
,

Ariaca from Apar&ntikft

an old

name

for the western seaboard.

InAan Ant^uMn, Ml, 259-263.) Ac. (Uchu ./.;,;, Ill, InS h..th l\mh and Kithiawir urn oriffaalb bland*. Thi* whole area (Baraca and Syrastr< -nr tunes. The land connecting Kathiawir has been raised in
.igvanlal Indraji, in
'

with the nuii land


i

is

not over SO fret above tea-level and

full

of

marine remains.
lt>

position
$

seaward made
also an asylm:

it

curly a centre of trade,


itsees, political

and a great
religious.

and
*

41.
tlu

Nambanus.
ruler

he text

is

Mamtntr
See undr

i*

probably

same as the Saka


41.
',

a.

Abilia. This is the native Jbhira, which l,auen I, In the account argues must have been the Biblical Ophir.
trade given in
.

of the
li

Ophir

Kings, IX, 26-28;


IX,
1",

Kings, X, 11,

Oiioim-lfs Vlll

ltd

the products mentioned are


silver,

j.-M,

sandalwood(?)

precious stones, ivory,

cocks.
\v

The word

translated ape,

Lassen remarks,

apes and peais bpki, not a

tor
th<

The word word, but derived from the Sanscrit word kapi. 49. The word for peacock, /n>A*Wm, is i\ory is noted under
called in Malabar, tofri. lessen Saiuialwood, thinks, was the iilmug or a/fum, which he the Sanscrit Lassen also refers M from valgu, Malabar va/fum.
:khi,

to the Indian city

Sophir

theSuppara

'

But the location of


Abhira, the
dealing in

is impossible. The land of Ophir modern Gujarat, is and was purely an agricultural country, none of the products mentioned, and is at the northern end

in India

of India's west coast, not the southern,

came.

loiter scholarship

is

sufficiently sure in locating

from which these products ( >phir on the

Arabian coast of the Persian Gulf, hut the Indian names for the prodMentioned proved clearly enough that it was a trading center
dealing with India, even
if

the land

itself

was not

Indian.
Just as

The
.

name, too, has a suggestive similarity.

we

have

Kachh, Khuzistan=Kassites, and "wretched Cush," so Abhira, Apir, Ophir suggest the same Dravidun-Accadian activity be tween India, the Persian Gulf, and Africa, which later gave way

176

H
of thousand
y<
<

ti\ it\

his \\ould

ha\e been

couple

Solomon's day.
-he
Surat,

Syrastrene.The name survives in the modern

41.

modem
>wes

K.uiu.:
its

which

name

to

At the time of the- IVriplus this penmsu Arabic domination. gether with the opposite coast of Cutch and Cambay, \\.is subject
the Saka or
41.
I ndo- Parthian d\nastu -s

to

A fertile
in

country.
and

(in iarat

is

still

one

of

the richest
hll

regions
frincii.
is

India,

its

prosperity being largely dm- to the


to the fertility of
its

seaports

st-lincs

deep black
to

soil,

\\hich
cattle,

particularly adapted to the cultivation of cotton.


in large

Morses,

sheep and grain are exported


parts of India.

numbers

Bombay and

other

41.

Rice.

Oryza, Linn., order Graminea.

The
(

specie!

now

There are various wild most generally cultivated is Oryza sativa. Roxb. or O. /////varieties, one of importance being Oryza ntirctata coida, which was native in the Indus and Ganges valleys, and also Tins wild apparently in Mesopotamia (see Watt, op. at., 823-5
.

variety resembles

wheat and seems


of the

to

have been mistaken for

it

by

Strabo and

some

Greek

writers on India.

Oryza sativa, the cultivated form, is native in India, Burma, It is the principal food of Asia, and doubtless and Southern China.

was so

at the

time of the Periplus,


It

when

it

was exported

to

Arabia

was cultivated in China, according to Stanislas Julien, as early as 2800 B. C., and probably somewhat later in India. \\ att thinks the cultivation began rather in Turkestan, whence spread to China, India and Persia in the 'order named, the changing
and Kast Africa.
it

climate also forcing

its

wild habitat southwards.

He

thinks that coin-

which the Dravidian invaders passed He also cautions until they culminated in the Tamil civilization. against the tempting derivation of the Greek word oryza and the Arabic al-ruzz (from which the modern rice, riso, r/z, arroz, etc. i, from the
cides with the region through

Tamil

arisi,

thinking that they are rather from the old Persian

i-irhizi

(Sanscrit vrihi), indicating an early connection before migrations had


radiated

from Central Asia

41. Sesame Oil, expressed from the seeds of Sesamum //////</////, D. C., order Pedaiinea\ an annual plant cultivated throughout the al and subtropical regions of the globe for the oil obtained from

the seed.

Originally, perhaps,

it

was

a
it it

native of Africa, but

was

regularly cultivated in India long before

reached the Mediterranean


is

countries.

At the time of the

Periplus

safe to

assume

that

177

was an important crop through* nit


traJ

India and the


rl.ar

warmer pan*
r

ot

A
of

shm%
Camhay
to the

(iiilt

to both Arabia

varied from the and Africa, whence doubcle** it was


,

us

thr

Aa>

reshaped

Roman

world
l>\

According

to the statistic* given

utr

./.

thr area

initiation

India in

1904- 5 was

',000 j*r

.00,000 was
In

in the
oil is

Cambay

states.
f-

inoilrrn

India the
in

largely used

purpotr*
It

.iMomtiM-.:

thr

body,

soap manufacture, and as a lamp-oil


of
^//.-

i%

also used as
It

an adulterant

d butter.

is

a \rll...
it

-hout smril. and not liable ro


closely resembles olive
IN

become
i%

ran

oil,
is

and

similarly

used

the olur

..-I

not

d.

It

extracted by simple exthe ancient

pression in milk

Strabo

\\

custom

itmu the body with sesamr


41

Cl.mfiril lluurr.
I

-The

text

is

A>i/*n>/

(see also under


but rather the

'his

is

not

tresh

butter

made
Fabric

Indian gki% an
not

oil

reduced from butter

ms

says that

it

could

have been transported from India to Africa under the tropical sun, ami uould read boimoms, an Indian grain; but ghi stands l-.n^
journeys to-day and might very
1

been

in

demand
oil
is

in the 1st

icntury on the African coast, uhu cocoanut palm. According


i

produced no
.

except from the

478) /Ai

an

oil

ir-

after heating the butter about twelve hours, during


.r! and the residue lasei:;. The butter thus luses .ib..ut 1> p<-:
.

which the

m.is!i
icnt

deposited as a
rut of
it*

bulk

m
G/r.
IN

buffalo's milk rather than cow's.

mentioned

in

some

of the most ancient of the

Hindu
still

If

carefully

enclosed in leather skins or earthen pots, while

hot,
s.ilt

it

may be preserved for many years without requiring the aid


p-

of

or other

'2-81, speaks of tanks of gki

in

the Deccan,

400 years

old, of great value medicinally,

and high

vl

butyron has beei.

all

of

whom
ts

had fresh butter

in

n ended by the commenmind, although I-assen should

:>cen familiar with the durability of clarified butter,

and with the

export from the rich agricultural region of Gujarat. and others, following a mention of tarrrn/ by
h asafu-tida, by

way of

the Sanscrit

Mutan

Rut asafcrtida was a product of Afjhanistan and would haxe been brought to the Indus mouth rather than

178

to Barygaza.

\\hilc Theophrastus
it

may have

referred to

it

the

Romans knew

more

intimately as lastr,

which

is

the
It

word

that

the author of the Periplus would probably have used. Roman medicine as a remedy for fevers ami tropical IMmv, \I\, ders.
1

entered into

di'.-esme disor-

Kabricius

needlessly alters
identify.

the text to read

bosmoros,

gram,

McCrindle suggests wild barley or millet. The following passages from Strabo throw some light on that question He says (X\ n. L3) "My the vapors which ascend from so
which he docs not
:

'.

>thcius states, and by the Etesian winds, India summer rains, and the level country is inundated. During the rainy season, flax and millet, as well assesamum, rue and bosmoros are sown; and in the winter season, wheat, barley, pulse,

many

rivers,

is

watered by the

and other esculents with which we are unacquainted. (XV, ii, 18) "Onesicritus says of bosmoros that
:

"

And
it

again:

is

a smaller

It is gra n than wheat, and is grown in countries between rivers. the men bound oath to and are m>t threshed after roasted out, by being

take

it

away before
'

it

has been roasted, to pre\ent the seed from being

exported.'

The treasuring of
pure, and
(

this bosmoros

portation indicate the native millet,

and the prejudice which was regarded

against

its

ex-

as particularly

)ther grains

was the grain most used for temple-offerin which might suggest themselves,

are the

African

millets, Holcus

sorghum (Hindu juar) or Kaffir corn (see Pliny, XVIII, and 10, for description of its remarkable size and prolific increase Both are imPcnnisttum typhoideum (Hindu, bajra) or spiked millet.

portant crops in

modern

India, but

were probably brought from


in

more

recently than the date of the Periplus, and being native

So

maliland,

would not be probable

articles of

import there.

\\ild barley, suggested by McCrindle, was also name m Kgypt and Somaliland, and therefore not likely to have been imported. Another possible grain is the Indus valley wild rice, Oryza <*///<tata (Hindu, barirdhan}^ which has been confused with wheat. Sec

Watt,

p.

823.
millet,

The common
was
native in

Panicum miliaceum, while grown

in India,

Egypt and the Mediterranean countries. Altogether the bosmoros of Strabo was most probably "Poor man's
Panicum Crus-galli; which
is

millet,'*

extensively cultivated to-d a\


it
\\

in

The native name given China and Japan as well as India. into bosmoros. bura shama be Helleni/,ed might readily gal,
y

According

to

Watt

{op.

'/.,

84 S

'

Panicum Crus-galli, order


Mich as

Gramine

is

a large, coarse plant, preferring wet ground,

Iff

borders of ponds and banks of stream*.


ss a rainy-season crop over most uf India

It

is

extensively cultivated
b*

on the Himalayas
is

feet

thrives

on
in

light

sandy
soil

soils

and

often cultivated

when

the

rains are
yield

over,
fold

on the banks
good

of

ru h
Jt

*ilt

deposited by

river*.

The
millet,

is fifty

the
is

quit ke%t -grow ing

harvested sometimes in six weeks, and


r

consumed

chiefly by

the

classes,

<.

useful because u ripens early

and a/fords

a cheap
41
SjBfMrAr,

arm

Ic of

food before

Hym

and the other


i

millets.

Cotton and
m/*4iW, and
I

the

Indian
of

hitlw.

These were
14.

the

tagm** logins

6 and

The

account

.i\ermer throws

vine

li/h:
t.'ii

cloths

Mr OH the earlier production. come to Renonsmri (near

Urge

"

and Broach, where they have the means of bleaching them in >>< <>( lemons growing in the ,ju.ui!it\
I
.

neighborhood.
10 cubits
I

loths are 21

-uhits

long

when

crude, but

when

blea*. -bed.

There are both broad and narrow

he broad are 1*3 cubit wide, and the piece is 20 cubits oitton i-loihs t. be dyed red, blue, or And au'-i to uncolorcd Agra and Ahmadabad, because ihe*e black, are taken
the place where the indigo is made, uhich is used The cheaper kinds are exported to the coast of Melinde and they constitute the principal trade of the 1'criplus
,

in dyciK.
a

done

.f

Mozambique, who

sells

them

to the Kaffir*

to carry

into the country of the Abyssirts

because these
\i

people,

not

and the kingdom of Saba, ut need UMMJ sa;\ only nnxr


un-

.inslation
is
i

of safmatog.
rrnier,
;>e,

spun i-orton. from (in jar at

support

who

says

'the

unspun cottons
v,

being too bulky and of too small

and they arc onl>

exported to the

and

M
great deal
iu h,
r

aealsoa
Their cotton trees are of very great

H
(

and attaining to an age t>f 20 years. Gtttrptum arbortum.) It is to be observed, howe\er. thut, when the trees are so old as that, the o>tt*>M ^ not good to spin, but only to quilt or stuff
Ixrils

withal.

I'p to the age of 12 years, indeed, the trees give


M, hut

fn>m

that

IMiny alv> the


t:.
i.

Xll. 1\

iHi.'tex
it

age to 20 years the produce is inferior." fr,m Theophrastus a description of


with Mlk.
'trees that bear wool, but

contrasting

of a different nature

from those of the Seres; as in these .it all. and uuieeil mijht very rradily be uken

f<r those of the vine, were it not that they arc >t smaller si/,e. They bear a kind of gourd, about the size of a quince, which when ripe hursts asunder and discloses a ball of down, from which a costly kind

of linen

doth

is

made."
This
.<

41.

Minnagara.

capital

\\as

identified

by Mullcr with
.

to Vincent Smith {op. <it modern Indorc, but may be the ancient town of Madhyamika or Nagarl, one of the ol. in India, of which the ruins still exist, about eleven miles north

the

N., 74 39' and Ktbru ms prefer, but quite conjecturally, to plate Kathiaw^r; hut the text indicates the mainland in ohser\ m<: that from Minnatrara cotton cloth was "brought down," by river pre53'
1

idle

Mir.iably. to Bar\<ja/a.

The name
the

Minna-jara means
for the

Hindu name
41.

"City of the Saka invaders.

Mm,"

which

59'K.
to

).

Barygaza. This is the modern Broach (21 42' N The Greek name is from the Prakrit Bkarukacka supp<
t

\\ho be a corruption of Bhrigukachha^ "the plain of Bhrigu, Here is at least a suggestion of Dravidian connection a local hero.

"

with the Brahui of Gedrosia, their hero Braho and their AV//; place-

nan

The

district

of Barygaza

was an important
is

part of the
at

empire of

.ndragupta Maurya,

who

said
it

to

have resided
into the

Suklatirtha

After the collapse of his dynasty


princes,
41.

fell

hands of the Saka

who were

in

power

at the

time of the Periplus.

Signs of the Expedition of Alexander.

The

ireek
the

army reached Jhelum (32 56' N., 73 47' E. ) on same name. Somewhat above that place, on the opposite
river,

the river of

side of the

Vincent Smith locates the

field

of his battle with Porus.


to

(Early

History of India, 71-8.)

the Sutlej river,


his retreat.

Alexander then penetrated about 50 miles N. E. from Amritsar.


author of the Periplus
is

Gurdaspur, on Here he be
supposing that

The

mistaken

in

Macedonians got beyond the Indus region, and is probably quoin-hat was told him by some trader at Barygaza, who would hardly luxe distinguished Alexander from Asoka. Under the caste s\ stem the traders were not concerned with the religious or political activities of the country, and those concerned with foreign trade were often, now, mere outcasts; while even had they been informed, they would have been quite equal to attributing anything, for the moment, to
the

more

Alexander, out of deference to their Greek customers, who were interested in h's exploits than any Hindu could be.

far

Ill

41

The promontory
\MothiTKuif. Batones i* !'.r.un

of Papica
i*

i%

(kopKai,

uih

n,i%
I

the

u if

..i

iamb*.
mouth
of the

viand

oppose
..

the

SiriuAi

(21
Island,

\
ill

at

shown

uff
i

map
l>\

u'UCie
i>
i,

pont>

V
a

the

sailing^rounc of the

Periptu*,

shown

290.)

i.
i

.1
.
.

t,

Ac-

'"

the Imfxriat

G*ntn-

\\.
is

'

ISO,

it

i*

a reef

..f

rock partly covered by brown sand, and

surrounded by rock\ a depth of 60 to 70 feet To avoid the rising to the surf a* iirrents, chopping sea and sunken reefs, boat% ha%e siill to follow

ward the Narhada, as described

in the

Pen pi us.

42.
int.)

The

great river Mais

is

the

modem

Mahi, empt\
18'

<:

(he head of the gulf, at the city of I'amliay.


1

(22

N
mod-

40*

4:.

The
>r

river NamilKuhls
Ncrbudda.

Hindu, Narmada

is

the

ern

N
4.*.

Hard tO navigate.
././,;,
is

The sketch-map

on the preceding
i<

page, from Rnlus.

\'ol. III.

illustrates the difficult

Hcroiie shoal
gulf,

no doubt the long bar at the eastern side of the and C'ammoni would he at the end of the promontory that lies

to the

\\

of the

mouth

of the Tapti River, the entrance to the


Surat.

prosperous mediaeval port of


the C'amanex of
44.
;i\cs
II.

This

is,

perhaps, the same as

Ptolenu.

Trappaga and Cotymba.


539

The
su'_"jcxts

tirst

\\orl Lassen de-

from

tnifnikii^

a type of Hshini; boat mentioned hy other

travellers to this

region.

The

second

the

modern

bitiii,
/

craft

from these waters found by Burton


408).

in

the Somaliland port!

FootstrfH,

Fishing-lx>ats entering

Bombay

H:irl><>r

44.

Anchorages and

basins.

The

maintenance of
vessels

this

regular service of pilotage, under


at least

which incoming

100 miles from Barygaza, indicates an active

were met and regular com-

The use of "stations" in the merce, such as our author describes. river is still necessary' here, and in other rivers such as those of Burma,
where modern
sailing traffic
is

more

active.

U)
4*

Very great
this

tide*. -The vivid description of the

tidal

and the following paragraph, is certainly the result ol To a merchant familiar with the all but udelet* personal experience. waters >ea, it murt indeed have been a wonder of nature. tir same thing occurs in many pla. c a strong ode u forced
(

of Fund), the

shallow and curving euary. as in Burma, ;l Bay of Panama, and elruhere -.j to the

hnfxnat Cxnuttttr tf India, IX, 297, high spnng tide* in the (ulf of Cambay rise and fall as much a feet, and run at a velocity ol

knots an hour.
knots.

Ordinary

tides reach

The

inevitable

damage
desertion

to shipping,
.f

25 feet, at 4)4 to 6 under such dirBcuhie*,


ports for Surat and,

was the cause of the

the

Cambay

nbay.
I

h<

MM rushing

in

with a hoarse roar.

Along

the midnight edge by thote milk-Mhitc

"Through huanc rur nccr rrmittiaf, combt orecriag. "

Wl
47.

Arattii.

This

is

Prakrit
in

form of the Samcnt


fact the
literature.

who were

a people of the Panjib;


in

name

Aratto

often

synonymous with the Punjab

Hindu

This people occupied the country around the \ 65 4.r K.). McCrindle Ane^mt 27 India* 88) says "Arachosia extended westward beyond the meridian mdahar, and was skirted on the east by the river Imluv On the

Arachosii.

Kandahar (31

north

it

stretched to the western section of the


si.t
I

as
sia

Hindu Rush and on and populous, and traversed by one of the main routes by which
he pro\ince

was

rich

communicated with India added

greatly to

its

important

Gandaraei.
ibul River,
ii

iham.)
above
its

junction with the

This people due Indu; (he


Takikanla,
a large

Peshawar distrut. where their eastern


city, called

In earlier tinu-s thr\ extended east of the


capital

was located
In Taxila.

anil

prosperous

by

tl

MC

also

HoKlich,

(;,.-,v

Smith, hirly History,

M /-/Ww,

W.

114,

\ >tti
)

t*r

h gr*idhara

graph'u ttniifnnt du Gandhara.

trade-route briefly referred to in the

me

and Pushkalavati was that leading to Bactria, whence it branched wenward to the Caspian and the uphr.ite N and eastward through Turke1

stan

the "I

.in.:

..f

This'

Poclais.

(Sanscrit,

Pukka r*wtrf, or /V/UrAtwrf. "abound-

1S4

whence the Ptucelaotn of Arrian. ) Gandhara (cf. Sn.il>>, XV, 26-8; the modem Lassen, 11, 85K Arrian, Anabati^ IV, xxii; lnd*ca \\ Charsadda, 17 miles N. E. of Peshawar, on the Suwai River.
ing in lotuses."
Prakrit, Pukkalaoti^

This was the western

capita] of
%

47.

Bucephalus Alexandria.
Its
p<>

Smith
> 4
'

(*p. <7/.,

This is uicntificd by Vincent modern town of Jhelum. with the 62) (See under marked by an extensive mound west of the
"
and
Its

The mound is known as /'////, "the- town, present settlement. and numerous Gneco-Bactrian ruinsbricks ancient yields large
n at a ferry
rior

gave

it

on the high-road from the west commercial importance. great

to tin- Indian inte-

Warlike nation of the Bactrians.


its

n,,s passage, with

reference to Graeco-Bartnan coins current

in

Baryga/a, presents

view of Indian history which does not appear in any other contempoThe sequence of events in Bactria during the (unrary work.
tunes between Alexander and the Periplus, which
is

fully set forth

by

summarized as follows (op.cit., IX, X) The Empire of Alexander was broken up at his death and the whole Eastern section from Syria to India fell to Seleucus, one of his The Indian conquests were lost immediately, but the intergenerals.
Vincent Smith
is

vening country remained under Greek control for nearly !<>n The two northeastern provinces of Parthia under Antiochus Theos. The and Bactria revolted. Parthians, an Asiatic race akin to the

Turks, setup for themselves, and built up a military power which later The Bactrian country, absorbed the country beyond the Euphrates. which was then populous and productive, remained under the govern-

ment of Greek
208 B. C.
the

princes, and

its

independence was
in

finally recogni/.ed in

The Greek monarchs

Bactria immediately set about

enlarging their domains

an outlet to the sea through Indus Valley. In 190 B. C. Demetrius conquered the wholeIndus Valley and that part of Afghanistan lying around the modern
by striving to gain

Cabul.

During his absence in India a relative, Kucratides, revolted and Demetrius returned home but his name does not reappear. roni
1

160 to 156 there seems to have been anarchy


in

the assassination of Eucratides by his


to have

which ended son Apollodotus, whose


in Bactria

seems

been very

short.

In the years 155-153

brother of Apollodotus,

whose

Greek King Menande,, apparently a capital was Cabul, annexed the entire

tories

Indus Valley, the peninsula of Surashtra (Syrastrene) and other terrion the western coast; occupied Mathura; besieged Madhya-

mika

<

now

Nagari near t'hitur-, and threatened the

capital,

Patali-

us
which
to Bactria
i

the
i%

modern 'am*
I

\
'

had

to retire,

however,

Mr

Mipposed to have
'

Kuddhiwii, and
,,t

has

b<

taJi/ed uiulrr thr

name

Milmda
i%

in a celebrated dia-

logue entitled 1 ht Uutiii..-.. bookt in Buddhist htrruturc


iirii.M

.!/ ..'.;.,

\\huh

one

of thr

m.f
L

iik

to have been fhe

th
I

.it

tin-

Himiu kush Mountains.


ic

his

phase
the 1'eriplus.
jv

history

\pollodotusandMenar
thr nun>il
.r

reHeited by ihe menlion of the "-m " Itarygaza ac

the

The coin* mutt have been over 200 year* n of small silver coin* in commercial use for
ie

understand the \

kr nation
in

..t

the

Itac

'

ruch

our auth>r

mentions

as

living

the interior under their

own

one must go to the history of central Asia. Chinese annals mention that in the year 1-S II. C., a nomadic Turki tribe in northwestern
On!,.
i

and owing allegiance

to the

Chinese emperors, known as the

llionnu This numerous displaced savage trine* tars, turn moved who in and thus the great Asia, westward; waves of migration were begun which inundated Kurope for centime*. u-iinril the Roman Umpire, and long threatened to extinguish
out of their territory hy the

and migrated westward.


i

on
i

in

their

westward movement

ti

4 tribe

knounas the Saka, who had lived between the Chu and Jaxanes These tribes in the years 1 40- SO poured into fiactria, \\helmed the Greek Kingdom there and continued into the country
1
it

as Seistan, then called,

from
in

its

Saka horde settled

Taxi la

conquerors, Sakastcne. Another in the Panjab and Maihura

on the Jumn.1. ulurr >aka BCIBO0I ruled


under the Parthut
originally

These Saka

connected with the Parthians.

more than a century seem to have been Another section of the Salus
for
tribes

at a later date pushed on southward and occupied -he peninsula of This saka dynasty which lasted for i enturiev Suras)

country

is

referred to by the author of the PeripJus in

38 as "subject

hun

constantly driving each other out" princes Sakas of India seem to have been subject to the Parthians,

who were

ami Indo- Parthian princes appear at Cabul and in the Panjah about There is a long line of Parthian prince* recorded as rul120 B. C. -hem Gondophare*. who acceded in 21 A D Cabul;
1

>

and

-ibul
<

gamcprin

and the Panjab mentioned in the

for

t!

Thomas,'

186

which, although not


the proMiiiu -nee with
the time.

omposed
which

until the third

Ins

name was regarded

century A. D., reflects in the history of

Indo-Parthian prunes were gradually driven southward by the ad\aminu Yueh-chi, who had expelled the last of them from the

The

Panjab before the end of the of this work.

first

century A. D.

that

is,

at the

mm
this

The
trouble,

Yueh-chi.

whose
in

westward
la

migration

started

all

had

settled

Bacti

north

of the

Oxus River

about 70

were gradually brought together under a their central power, and wandering habits were changed for agriculso when the Yueh-chi nation was unified that ture and industn who under Kadphiscs 1, began to rule in 45 A. D., it represented a the from different people savages who had overwhelmed the Greek Kingdom of Bactria. Kadphises reigned over Bokhara and Afghanistan for 40 years, and was succeeded by his son Kadphises II, who
The scattered
tribes
;

extended

his conquests into India.

The Chinese emperors


to the

had never abandoned their assertion of

An embassy was sent from China sovereignty over the Yueh-chi. Oxus River in the years 125-115 B. C. to try to persuade the
Yueh-chi to return to China, but the mission was unsuccessful, and subsequent revolutions kept Chinese interest at home between 100
B. C.

and 70 A. D.

Tartar army unHer the Chinese General Pan Chao reasserted all of Central Asia, extending its conquests as far as the Caspian Sea. Thus, with the submission of Khotan and

Chinese supremacy over

Kashgar
tral

to

Chinese armies

in

73 A. D.

the route south of the

Cen-

Asian desert was thrown open to commerce from end to end. \\ith the reduction of Kuche and Kharachar in 94 A. I)., the route
first

north of the desert was also thrown open, and for the

time regular

commerce between
It

East and

West was made


the

possible.

still policed by Chinese Empire, and while communication was opened up immediately, trade was not carried on in large volume until the time of the Roman Emperor

should be borne in mind that this route was

savage tribes only nominally subject to

Marcus

Aurelius, 100 years later.

Kadphises II, ruler of the Yueh-chi, who had in the meantime extended his conquest into India but not yet as far as the Indus delta, sent an army of 70,000 cavalry against the Chinese General Pan Chao,

and was

totally

defeated near Kashgar;

and was obliged

for

some

years to send tribute to China.

117

Ai-

I)

'

!-.u

hi* further

unique*!* of India, and


...

.'.dom reached as far at Henarrt ami (iha/ipur

the

Ganges

rncd up thr

commerce between

India and

Mr
. 1

as

in

(Vntral

Am,

the trade had been

nu uirnial and subject to depredations of numerous savage '.irthians had dune what they could to control and or*
it

gartize

and

i<

lr\\

mhutr <n

the

thr eastward. thr Indus Valley

Roman merchants, but they The existence of unified j>..-

had

the

Ganges

to thr

and Afghanistan made possible a regular trade from The rapid growth of such trade ia Euphrates. ijjr <>f the Yueh-t hi Km-s in India. KadphisesI
.i.i,
.

uhu

wrrc mutated from those of Au-

gustus.

Kadphises

II

imitated thr gold I.HMS of the


ln*ii.t

Roman

Kmpire,

whu-h
India,

n pourinu into
niaur, thr

in a

steady stream.

In Southern

where there was an acme Roman maritime

trade, there

was
con-

Roman

Ix-ing sufficient
its

It

is

probable that the Indian embassy, which offered


in

gratulations

Rome
to

rnperor Trajan,
his

was dispatched by

Kadphises

II,

announce

ouuiuest of Northwestern India.

\U \.inder penetrated to the Ganges.

This

is,

of

course, quite untrue, the P.mjah having been the turning-point of his The great mass of India was entirely unaffected by his expedition.
invasion,
.

it

led to the subsequent centralization of


\
I

power

under Chandra tipO


Bander.

aurya.

Our

author

is

confusing Alexander with

"The

East

bowed low

before the blast

In patient, deep disdain; She let the legions thunder past,

thought again.** -thew Arnolds

48.
I

Ozene.-

n
\l.il\\a.

jja.n,

:r

IT N., 7S

4T

'..,

the-

d
The
is

The

torious."

Prakrit

is

l'jjtni%

form is LJy,. from which the Grerk is dcri\


Sanscrit

one of the seven sacred cities of India, not yield me Ujjain In Hindu legend it was here that the elbow of even to Benares. The river Sipra, Sati fell, on the dismemberment of her body by Siva. The place was important under on \s huh it is K .itr.!. is also sacred. wa. In early times it was known the earliest Aryan settlement .is \\.inti, a kingdom which is described in Buddhist literature as one
1.

of the

four nrrat powers of India.

in Buddhist records, having

As t*jjrni it is very prominent been the birthplace of Kachina, one of

181

Sakyamuni' $ greatest disciples. as the Southern Mount, while

it

Here was a Buddhist monastery known was the principal stage on the route
kingdom
of

from the Deccan to


Kosala.

Sravastl, then the capital of the great


in

younger days Asok.i, later emperor, and the greatest patron of Buddhism, was stationed as viceroy of the This was the custom also western provinces of the Maurya Empire.

Here

also

his

subsequent dynasties, on both sides of the Yindluas, tor the heir-apparent to act as viceroy in the western provinces.
in several

Ujjeni was the tude of


its

Greenwich
By
its

of India, the
location
it

first

meridian of longirenter for


all

geographers.
at

was

a trade

produce imported

Ganges kingdoms.

Barygaza, whence distribution was made to the At the time of the Periplus it was no loiter a

capital, the royal seat

The Maurya empire being at "Minnagara." had broken up, and in the anarchy following the irruptions in tinnorthwest, its western provinces of Surashtra and \lalua had been
raided

bySaka

freebooters,

who

finally established

themselves
!

in

pow er-

as the

"Western

Satraps,"

or Kshatrapa dynasu

u ration

or so before the formal proclamation of the d\ nasty the invaders' After th'eir claims were recgni/.ed they stronghold was their capital.

probably ruled from Ujjeni, which Ptolemy describes as the capital of his time. It reTiastfnos or Chashtana, the Kshatrapa ruler of

mained, apparently,

in

Saka hands

until

when

it

reverted to

Brahman power under

about the 5th century A. the (iupta I.mpirc;

I).,

this

expulsion of the "misbelieving foreigners" giving rise to the tradition of Vikramaditya of Ujjain, the King Arthur of India, at whose court
the "nine gems,*' the brightest geniuses of India, were supposed to

have flourished.
(See Imperial Gavttter, VIII, 279-280 sen, I, 116.)
48.
;

XXIV, L12-114

Spikenard: NanksUukys jatamansi

order lalcnanacetc.

perennial herb of the alpine Himalaya, which extends eastward from "The drug consists Garhwal and ascends to 17,000 feet in Sikkim.
of a portion of the rhizome, about as thick as the little finger, surmounted by a bundle of reddish-brown fibers, the remains of the
radical leaves.
essential
oil.

It is

aromatic and
it

bitter,

and

yields

on

distillation
in

an
the

In India

is

largely used as an aromatic adjunct

preparation of medicinal oils, and is popularly believed to increase the " (Watt, */>. <//. 792. ) growth and blackness of the hair.
,

According
ing to the size;

to Pliny

(XII, 26), "Leaf nard varies

in price

accord-

for that

which

is

known by
sells
at

the

name

of hadrosphse-

rum. consisting of the larger leaves,

40

denarii

per pound.
i.s

When

the leaves are smaller,

it is

called

mesospha?rum, and

119
at

60.

But that which

is

considered the must valuable of

all, i%

known

as microsphjrrum,
sells

and

consists of the very small*

leave*;

at

75 denarii per pound.


it

All

the*
a

varicdes of nard ha
If

agreeable odor, but


old

is

mo*

powerful when fmh.


:.

the nard

is

when
I'liny
'

gathered

that

uhuh

..(

bbck

color

considered the

best."

among
i

observes that leaf nard, or spikenard, held ihr first place in the ointments ..f his day. Compare Mark

M\

trlls

of the
at

''alabaster

box

-f

ointment

%pikrnard very pre288-9.

cious," valued
r

more than 300

dei
1,

24: also, for fun her references, Listen,

48.

Caspapyru.

This
Ahuli

is

the

Greek

the Santera
wirvi

K*tyapapt<

the Kisyapa."
is
::>

The same word

cd pamara

-,

and meaning

the Sanscrit Kii?*p*m*lti >f the Kaxyapa" (one of (he

thai

raphtrs, (Jundhara

According to the dmsi.mof the Greek grog. was the country below Cabul, while Kisyapamata
district

Ming
11.

in

India proper.

(Sec lessen,
that Scylax of

I,

U2,

6M
It

was from
his

town named Caspapyra,


at the
is

Caryanda
refers to
it

began
Darius.

voyage of discovery

command
,

of the Persian km-j

The

story

given by Herodotus (1\

44

Me

the place as being "in the Pactyan land,"


of

and Mecabrus

calls

"a

the Gandanra;
5

It

could not have been far above the


;.

modern Attock (33

Vincent Smith
but

Hntory, 32) doubts the Connection of the while outside the present limits of
>

name with Kashmir;


fact that the

impotable

earlier extension

was wider. Gandhara points in


the
It

The

Penplus

dis-

that direction.

48.

Paropanisus
Hindu Kuxh.

name

given the mountain-ranee

was made the boundary between the of Alexander's Seleucus, empire successor, and that of Chandragupta hv uhich the nrxvlv -estabMaur>a, by a treaty ratified lished Indian empire recei\r<i tin p;o\mces of the Paropamsad*. Arachosia and Gedrosa. I first Indian emperor, more than two thousand years an", thus entc posstssion of 'that
called
ii

now

tic

frontier' sighed
<

for in
t>

held in

\.nn tn his njluh successors, and e\en by the Mogul monarch;, of the loth
I

and 17th cerium


132-4; Strabo,

.\

Hu*
S
;

also
lustin,

\\.

4.

..

Arrian,

,/***.

/W,w.

11

also Holdich,

Gaui *f 1*4*.)

190

48.

The

valley, above the

Cabolitic country is, of course, the modern t'alml Khyber Pass; being within the present limits ot

Afghanistan.
48.

Scythia.

Seeunder41.
weak
1).

subject to the

Parthian princes,

This was the region which wai successors of Gondophares,

whose

reign had

ended about 51 A.
Pliny

49.

Lead.
7).

(XXXIV,
lead

47-50)

(list.

noshes between
latter tr

black

lead and white lead; the former being our lead, the
also

under

White
its

he says came from

l.usitanu

.uul

Galicia, doubting
its

reported

origin in

transportation in "boats

Black lead, he says, scription suggests galena, or sulphide of lead and

made came from Cantabria

"islands of the Atlantic," and of osiers, covered with hides.'


'

in

Spam, and
It

his de-

silver.

came
mil

also

from

Britain,
at

and from Lusitania

where the Santarensian

farmed

an annual rental of 250,000 denarii. in the form of pipes and sheets, and had many medicinal uses, being used in calcined form, made into tablets in the

Lead was used


as

same way
wine.
tion;
in
It

was used

antimony (see under this ), or mixed with greasr and as an astringent and repressive, and for uatn/.ic

the treatment of ulcers, burns, etc., and in eye preparations; while thin plates of lead worn next the body were supposed to have

a cooling and beneficial effect.

As an import

at

Barygaza lead was required largely for the

coii

of the Saka dominions.


49.
Bhils, a

Bright-colored girdles.
Dravidian
hill-tribe,

These were probably


tribe,
still
<

for the

who worked

the carnelian mines then as

now.

The modern

Coorgs, a related
is

wear
Imp.

a distinctive

"girdle-scarf" which

now made
This

at Sirangala.

GV/%

VIII,

101-4; IX, 36.)


49.

Sweet clover.

is

Trifolium mclilvtus,

order /*gu-

minosa, the "melilote" of the Greeks and

Romans, used for making Pliny (XXI, 29) says tinchaplets and perfumes, and medicinally. best sorts were from Campania in Italy, Cape Sunium in Greece
from Chalcidice and Crete
;

native always in rugged and wild localities.

"The name
this plant

which it bears sufficiently proves that was formerly much used in the composition of chaplets.
sertula, garland,
itself is
it

The
the

smell, as well as the flower, closely resembles that of saffron,

though the stem

white; the shorter and more fleshy the leaves,

And again (XXI, 87), "the meliwith the yolk of an egg, or else linseed, effects the cure of diseases of the eyes. It assuages pains, too, in the jaws and head,
more
highly
is

esteemed."

lote applied

191

applied with rose oil;

and employed with

raisin

wine,

it

it

good for
r
.

pains in the car*, and all kinds of swellings or eruptions on the bands. decoction of it in wine, or else the plant itself beaten up
for pains in the stom.

good

Com emm-:
mum
.M\C-M
tlct.uls

the use of chaplets in the


1

Human

world. Pliny gives


'

OOW1 dHpltf MM < >r the MI tors in the sacred games. initially laurel and other liage wsj used; flowers were added by the p...mer Paustas, at
\\1,
-In
1

h-

Sicyon, about 380


.trcissus,

Then came

the

"Kgyptian chaplr

and pomegranate blossoms, and then a durable anicle


horn, and
leaver of ^olti, siUrr. or tinsel, plain

of thin lamina? of

rrsonal prowess in the garnet, or by that Chaple: of slaves or horses entered by the winner, and gave the victor "the
right, for himself

ami

f,.r

his

parents,

after

death,

to be cr

the body was bid out in the house, and on its fail, the tomb. other occasions, chaplets were n-t to being carried mcJlM nm

without

\\hile

On

by law, and

then WM forbid If punishment for the oftV Chaplets were used also in honor of the gods, the Lares, ihsepulchres and the Manes; this custom still surviving in the L\ m-j f

The

use

>f

fhaplets In those

nt

rntitlni tO

Pliny cites several cases of

immortelles on tombs of departed friends.

"Atque aliquis senior Annua contmct<

veterrs vrneratus amortft,


crta dabit turoulo.
'*

-mxillu*.

II. 4

For such uses the


;ic
(1

and various and Pliny notes (hat in there was a demand for chaplets imported from India, made leaves on fabrics, **or else of silk of many colors steeped in
plaited chaplet, the rose chaplet,

ulered by hand,

came

into use,

unguents. has

Such

is
'
'

the piu h to

which the luxuriousness of our

women

at last arrived
It

would seem

as

if

this

sweet clover might also be intended for

the manufacture of chaplets for re-exportation to

Rom<

of arsenic.

is unubnkt. This is the red sulphide from Persia and Carmania, and reached In modern times both realgar liulia from various Persian Gulf ports. and orpiment are produced in Urge quantities in Burma and China, where it is not impossible that production existed at the time of the

49.

Realgar. It was

The

text

principally

Peripluv
Pliny
friable,

(XXX1Y.

SS

says "the redder


its

it

is

the

more pure and


in qualit

and the more powerful

odor the better

it is

1V2

is

detergent, astringent, heating, and corrosive, hut

it

is

most remark-

Dioscorides (V, 122) says it was able for its antiseptic properties." inhaled the smoke and burned with resin through a tube, as a remedy
for coughs, asthma,

or bronchitis.

Theophraxtux

alx.

describes

its

properties.

The Greek word

survives in the
t

modern gum xandarac horn


in

Calfitris quadrivafotSi order Conifer<e rocco; but this was not its meaning

produced

in classical times.

and MoThe word is

of eastern origin, referring apparently to the color, and was c\tend< d from ore to gum because of appearance, reversing the process in the
case of cinnabar
(

30).
(

The wood in this sandarac tree was much \alued In ihe ircekx and Romans for furniture, being, perhaps, the "thjrine wood" of
Revelation XVIII, 12.

Tavernier also
to trade for pepper.

(II, xii

found

vcfmillkm" brought hy the Dutch


This was the sulphide

49.

Antimony.
It

The

text

is

stimnti.

ore, stibnite.

was made

India and Egypt.

The
in

and eye-tinctures, both in ore came from Eastern Arabia and Carmania,
into ointments

and

is

mentioned
II, at

hotep

"

an Egyptian inscription in the tomb of KhnumBenihasan (under Sesostris II, 1900 B C.), being brought
in
. . .

by

Asiatics of the desert."

Pliny

stone

(\\X1II, 33-4) describes it as found made of concrete froth, white and shining
and
refrigerative properties;
its

silver

mines, "a

being possessed

of astringent

principal use, in medi-

cine, being for the eyes."

was valued

as a cure for various eye irritations,

as a cure for burns.

But

its

Pounded with frankincense and gum, it and mixed with grease, main use was for dilating the pupils and
the Lydian queen

for painting the eyebrows.

Omphale,

uho

capti-

vated Hercules,
toilet;

is

represented by the poet Ion as using stimmi in her

Kings, IX, 30, probably used it when she tired her head;" while it is the chief ingreher face and "painted dient in the >fo///used by women in modern Egypt and Persia
Jezebel, in II

and Dioscorides (V, 99) agree in their description of its It was enclosed in dough or cow-dung, burned in a preparation. furnace, quenched with milk or wine, and beaten with rain-water in
Pliny

a mortar.

This being decanted from time to time, the finest powder was allowed to settle, dried under linen, and divided into tahl<
49. Gold and silver coin. The Roman aureus and dcnarim were current throughout Western India, and strongly influenced the Kushan and Kshatrapa coinages. See under 56; also Rapson,

Indian Coins.

hange was dur

to the Mipcrioricy of dbe

Roman
lead),

coma-,
ii/r
*>r

idu,
lra.1
,

whu

h Liter
rie

wat

nll

crude, of bate
tin

f<>r

x\hi

bullion,

'copper,

and

wai imported.
1

^
iAf*AaM
t

aces ice 'Irphant."

Iwuirn,
i

1,

<11-<1

The
used in

oriL'ii
1

thu nine thr

\%,,rd

Kmu'N, X. --.

14.

In
<i>i.

"elephant \ teeth," uhuh the Hebrews rhichbtbe word iited fa AMOS, III, 15; this word ibka became atn whence
t
<

>man and Ktruscan

ek <lrpkai or rather
%

> the ivory and later to (he dfphantoi, applied hr\t animal, was the Arabic .tmrle / and the Sanscrit thhatinnia^ "elephant'*
,

49.

Agate and camel ian.


'

See

al

M under
>

The

tr

mjfcAinf iitkta kai mturrhini.

Accord
I

\Vatt

( Oj>.

fit.,

561), the

murrhme

\A*C\ and <Kher

\slm h

\\.--i-

so highly prized in Mediterranean countries,


of

.tgate,

Cambay, uhu
'

carnelian and the like, and came from the (Julf was the chief market for that Indian industry.

I he stone is from the amygdaloidal Hows of the Deccan trap, The most important place at which chieHy from the State of Rajpipla.

agates are now cut pur and elseu

is

Cambay,
hin

but the industry exists also at Jabhulthe

reach of

Deccan

trap.

They

are

much

used for ornamental and decorative purposes, being mad'


N,

seals, cups, etc.

\\ h

i(

the pebbles the miners divide

them

into

two

asses

those that are not improved by burning, and those

Of the former there arc three onyx, cat's eye, and a that are. All other stones are baked to yellow half-clear pebble called rori. During the hot season, generally in March and bring out their color.
an open Held. Then, in deep by three wide, is dug round the field. The pebbles are gathered into earthen pots, which, with their mouths down and a hole broken in ihnr bottoms, are set in a row in the
April, the stones are spread in the sun in

May,

a trench,

two

feet

trench.

Round

the pots, goat or

cow-dung cakes

are piled, and the

whole kept burning from sunset to sunrise. The pots are then taken About out, the stones examined, and the good ones stowed in bags. he bags are carried to the Narbada and floated to
Broach (Barygaza).
H\
this

tr.atmcnt the light browns brighten into white, and the

< M > el lows, maize becomes rosy, orange deepens into red, and an intermediate shade becomes a pinkish purple.

darker shades into chestnut.

194

marked by

Pebbles in which cloudy browns and yellou> were hist mixed are now The hue of the red carclear bands of white and red.

nelian varies

from the

palest flesh to the deepest blood-red.

The

best

are of a deep, clear, and even red color.


stone, the

more

it

is

esteemed.

and thicker the White carnclians arc M -.in -e, and


larger

The

when

of large

si/.e

and good

quality are

much

esteemed.
in

This burning of agates is fully described by Barboxa It was then, as seems to be of very ancient date.
the
industry of

1517, and
chiefly

n<>\\,

the

Bhlls,

an

ancient Dravidian tribe which


coast,

may

formerly have possessed the


to the hills

Cambay
It
is

but had
in

been

driven

by
*

later invaders.

this

product,

all

probability,
t

'onyx stone" of Genesis II, 1.1, which reached ancient world through the "land of Havilah" on the Persian Gulf

which

is

the

he-

the

Pliny (XXXVII, 7, 8) says that murrhinc was Romans after the conquests of Pompey the Great

first

known
that

to
it

in Asia;

was fabulously dear, T. Petronius having broken one of Nero's basins valued at 300,000 sesterces, while Nero himself paid 1,000,000 sesterces for a single cup.

Pliny attributes the vessels to Parthia and


size only,

Carmania.

They were of moderate

seldom

as large as a

by heat under ground; shining rather than brilliant; having a great variety of colors, with wreathed veins, presenting shades of purple and white,
drinking-cup, supposed to
solidified

be of a moist substance,

with fiery red between. Others were quite opaque. They occasionthat looked like warts. and contained spots ally depressed crystals,

They were

said to

have an agreeable

taste

and smell.
it

While Pliny's description is not very definite, more than any other substance, and the reference to mania rather than to the Gulf of Cambay means that

suggests agate

Parthia

and Car-

until the

Romans

discovered the sea-route to India they were dependent on the Parthian trade-routes for their Eastern treasures, and had only such information,
often misleading, as the Parthians offered them.
49. 49.

Silk cloth.

See under

49 and

64.
b.

Mallow

cloth.

See also under

This was

a coarse

fabric, like the native cloth


is

made by
drill.

imitated by the
Hibiscus

modern blue

the East African negroes, which It was dyed with the flowers
is

Rosa-Sintnsis, order Malvacea, a shrub which India and China. See Watt, p. 629. throughout

of

nati\e

Watt Piper Ionium, Linn., order Piperacea. a perennial shrub, native of the hotter parts of India from Nepal eastward to Assam, the Khasia hills and Ben-al,
49.

Long pepper:
it

(p. 891), says

is

westward to Bombay, and southward

to

The Sanscrit name pippali was

originally given to this plant,

Travancore and Ceylon. and only

19S

within comparatively recent times

wii transferred

to black

Long pepper

is

mentioned by Pl.ny
gathered

Ml,

as

wdl

M the Henplus.

The
die sun.

fruit it

when

The

dried unripe fruit

green, and is preserved by drying in and the root have long been used in

Dachinabtdet.
way toward the south,"
SO.

Prakrit

This the Sanscrh^^MMtf'. ''<*" jakkknAkrika thr modern Deccan.


.

Many populous nations. T. C. Kvans, Grttk and Rma* by


1,

An
l*4<i
t

interesting
in the

account
that

is

1nfk-Jmsrua*
i%

pp.

294.306.

Hit conclusion
of

"the

Greek invader found


differing
at
little

there an

am imt and
modes
1

in its

usages and
,

highly organized society, -\ those whuh exist


of \enf>ing the

the prc
,

and although there arc no means


<

it

is

not unlikely that the population of the peninsula was

as great in that period as in

If this view is correct, Indu was the most populous region of the world at the tune of the Periplus, as it was the most cultivated, the most active industrially and com.illy, the richest in natural resources and production, the most

highly organized socially, the most


,:

wretched

in

the poverty

millions,

and the

least

powerful

political!).

The

great

powers of India were the Kushan

in the far

the Saka in the

Cambay
the

country, the remains of the

Maurya

northwest, in the

Ganges watershed,
and
it

Andhra

in the

Deccan, and the Chera, Pindya


status of the country

Cliol.i in the

South.

The economic

made

impossible that
irate

any one of these should possess political force with its population, resources and industries. It was made up

of ullage
as they in

recognized the military power only so far do so; and they were relativeK unconcerned dynastic changes, except to note the change in their oppressors. For a contemporary account of the nations of India, see Pliny,

communities,

w h ich
to

were compelled

t,

SI

Paethana:

Sanscrit,

PratistJtana.

This

is

the

modern
one

an,

on the Godavcri River (19

28' N., 75

24' K.).
.nth in is

According

to the Imperial Gaxtttttr

of the oldest cities in the Deccan.

(X Asolu

sent missionaries to the

and inscriptions of the 2d century 8.

in the Pitalkhara

caves refer to the king and merchants of Pransthana. dons it as the capital of Pulumayi II, the Andhra kin.
but
it

Ptolemy men-

'AD

was probably the capital of the western provinces, the seat of the Andhra monarchs having been in the eastern pan of the kingdom, myakataka^ the modern Dharanikotta, on the Kistna rirer just naravari(16 34' N., 80 22' K

196

textile industry.

According to the Pcriplus, Paithan was an important center of the To-day it retains a considerable manufacture of cotsilk.

ton and

Almost

all

traces of the ancient city are said to have

disappeared.
51.

Tagara.

The

Sanscrit

name had

the

same form, appearI)


<

ing in several records between the 6th and 10th centuries A. place is identified by Fleet with the modern Ter (Than

The
1X
19'

N., 76

the g and y being being a contraction of It is about 95 miles southeast ot I'anhan, frequently interchanged.
9'

E.

),

and agrees
text.

substantially with

the

distance

and direction given


is

in the

From Broach
miles,

to Paithan the actual distance, by road,


to

about

240

and from Paithan

journey of 12 miles, interesting remains of the ancient

Ter 104 miles, being 20 and 9 days' There are said to be some very respectively.
city.

pointed out by Campbell, the "merchandise from the regions along the sea-coast" was not from the west coast, but from the Hay the tirst starting at of Bengal; and Fleet traces briefly the routes

As

Masulipatam (16 11' N., 81 8' E.), and the second from Vinukonda (\t) 3' N., 79 44' E.), joining about 25 miles southe. Haiclar abaci, and proceeding through Ter, Paithan, and Daulatahad, Here the main difficulties began, to Markinda (in the Ajanta Hills).
through the Western Ghats, over the 100 miles to Broach.
natural terminus
52.

This was the great highway of the Andhra kingdom, and was at Calliena in Bombay Harbor, as suggested

its

in

The

obstruction of that port by the Saka

power

in

Gujarat

forced the tedious overland extension of the route, through the


tains, to Baryga-^a.

moun-

(See
dtty,

J. F. Fleet,

Tagara: Ter,
Sir
;

in

Journal of the Royal Asiatic Soin

1901, pp.

5.17-552;

James Campbell,

Gazetteer of the

Bombay Presidency, xvi, 181 H. Cousens, Archaologhtd Surtvy */' India, Annual Report, 1902-3, p. 195; Imperial Gazetteer, II, 82; xxiii, 284.)
51.

Country without
high mountains,

roads.

Tavernier says of the Decroads being too

can (I, xi) "wheel carriages do not


interrupted by

travel, the

much

tanks,

and

rivers,

and there being

many narrow and difficult passes. It is with the greatest difficulty that I was obliged to take mine to pieces freone takes a small cart There are no wagons, and you quently in order to pass bad places. only sec oxen and pack-horses for the conveyance of men, and for But in default of chariots, the transport of goods and merchandise.
\ou have the convenience of
of India;
for

one

is

carried

much larger palanquins than in the rest much more easily, more quickly, and at

Imeoft"

Iff

SIIIM>.U..

411
capit..!

miles north of

the modern Sopira Bombax li uud


i

O9

25 N

to have bcrn the


;

rtwcrn Sou

i:

>pran

die

MaAMtorau
osxert

as Shurpiraka, as a very holy place


that

Somr
birth,

Gautama Buddha,
/m/>
(;,
,

in a

former

was

Bodhisattva of Sopira.
(

See
i

XXIII.
Kalyana (19
14'
It

.illu-ii.i

-n.Mirn,
>f

N.,

the-

eastern sh..ie

!al port of the


rst coast.
t

coast

Was the Andhra kingdom during the periods when it held According to l.assm, thr name was also applied Co the harbor, roughly between 18 on either suitBombay.
f

thr harbor of

.mil

:o

\
Indu-opleiistrs. in thr 6th century A.
<-f

Cosmas
of tht
K\.I

I).,

found

it

one

km L'>,

marts of Western India, the capital of the pou with a trade in brass, Mark wood logs, and articles of
reminiscent of

Sec Imp. G<rz.,


I

hi-

word kalyana means Ablest," and names on the western shores of tl

is at

least

added

The elder Saraganus; Sandares; which should has Sandann and Mamt NambanuS of 41. (Thr
t<>
:<

be

x:

Here arc three important

references, both for fixing the date of the

IVripIus and for throwinu light on a dark period of Indian history The great empire of the Mauryas went to pines in the 2d cenC., leaving as its strongest successor its Dravidun clement,
'.

ulhra cnuntn- in the

a;

Deccan, which comprised the \alleys of the Telugu peoples, roughly the modern
I

)ra\ idian kingdoms, the retained and their independCheras, nil-speak ing Cholas, Pandyas North of the Yindhyas there was anarchy. The ence
I

Nizam's dominions.
.11

In the south the other

;.

Bengal
..M

states

had resumed

their local
to
the

umbed
tubes

governments, while the XMUIU invaders, the Saka and


the Yindhyas the

The western

coast belou

the Saka

commanders and
at

was a bone Andhra monvarying

u ho maintained the feud for

least

a century, with

h(

pioMiues

warfai

of S.rashtra, Gujarat and Malwa, after years of porated under a stable governmei.t In the \Yestern

Saka Satraps, who subsequent 1\ defeated the Andhras and annexed the Konkan coast. This is thought to have been the origin of the Saka era, dating from 78 A. D. still largely used in India. A half-i i-ntut\ later the Andhras under \ili\avakura II, or Gauttml,

putra

i.

reconquered the coast-land, only to lose

it

to the

198

From the Saka era of 78 A. D. 46 years, there arc coins of a monarch named Nfthapina, by uhnin the line of the Satraps was established. This is thought to bo the same as the Mambarut of 41, whose name should be written Nambanus.
Satraps after another generation.
for

Andhra kings are enumerated in the Puranas, which, tothe coinage, afford almost the only information concernwith gether A dynastic name, borne by many of these monarchs. \\.i them. inn
'I

"be

Satakarni, and tins

is

Arishta Satakarni,
is

who

52 probably supposed to be the &ira&mus of 44-69 about A. while Sandum reigned D.);
'

probably the same as Sundara Satakarni, whose short reign of a year, succeeded by another of six months, is affirmed by at least two The reign of this Sundara (the tex* should be altered of the Purfnas.
to Sandares)
is

fixed

by Vincent Smith and others

at

83-4 A.

).

>m these facts it has been supposed that the Periplus itself must be dated in the same year, 83-4 A. D., but this does not nece follow. Its date is considered in the introduction, pp. 7-15, and

upon ample evidence 60 A. D.


If

Roman, Arabian, and

Parthian

is

fixed

at

shown

41 is the same as Nahapana, it must yet be same as the great satrap whose victories over the Andhras and conquest of the Konkan are cited as one of the numerof
that

Nambanus
he
is

the

). ous events thought to be commemorated by the Saka era of 78 A At least one predecessor, formerly thought to be identical with that
1

Nahapana, has now been distinguished under the name of Hhn and the materials are not yet at hand for affirming, or denyin
possibility of others, in the

so-called Kshaharata line

which preceded

the achievements of the Satraps.

And
is

if

Sandares of

52

is

the

same

as

Sundara Satakarni, there

a great difficulty in the

way

of identifying the Periplus with the

year of his reign. Calliena, his own port, he must be supposed to have closed, in order that its foreign trade might be diverted to Bary-

enemy! He, the Andhra was still "in his The Konkans sion;" not, be it observed, in that of the Satraps. were still nominally, though evidently not effectually, an Andhra degaza, the port of his Saka rival and bitter

monarch, must have done

this, for the port

pendency.

The

inference

is

unmistakable that the Periplus

is

describing a

state of things prior to the recognition of the

annexation of the Andhra coast; prior, that

Kshatrapa power and its is, to the Saka era of 78


port,
still

A
the

I)

It

describes clearly

enough an Andhra

subject to

Andhra kingdom, but

harried and

dominated,

"obstructed" as

Iff
is
it,

by the powerful navy of


struggling to obtain

its

northern enemy, while chat

ny was

still

position.

What, then, of NahapAna and Sundara.'


the shortness of his

The

doubt a* to the

the former has already been tuggeated;

m to

own

reign and those of hi

mi mediate predecessors, and the length of that of Anshia 2S >eai s m.iu utr f.. him a long period of waiting as one of
< '

the royal heirs; which, according to the Andhra custom, was spent, at least in part, as viceroy at the western capital, Pafthin. Here he
scd
Co appear
all

the functions of a monarch, and his


all

would be the name


"Since
ft

on

proclamations issued
the

<>M

(he western coast.

came
"thr

int<>

the possession of
f

Sandares" indicates* therefore, a date to-

reign of Arishta Sitakarni,


it

who

is

referred to as

rliirr

Saraganus," and who,


ian, a

may be

inferred,

had been, as

more powerful

ruler than the youthful Sandares,

now

struggling against greater odds to maintain the

Andhra power on

Between Arishta and Sundara the Viyu and Matsya Purlnas are agreed in placing three other monarchs: Hila (with whose name the
f

Sanscrit as the literary language of Northern India


5

is

so

closely associated), who reigned 5 years; Mandalaka, Then came Sundara, 1 year, and Pimndrasena, 5 years.

years;

Chakora,
five short

6 months, followed by Siva Satakarni, 28


reigns,

years.

These

cession of

coming weak and


like

bet\

>

long ones, seem

to suggest a quick suc-

impractical sons of a strong monarch, followed

in their turn
I

by another long reign of sterner purpose} a succession of the reigns of the sons of Henry II. and Catherine de
uld account for (he condition described to

France.
the author of the Periplus by the old king Saraga mis

some acquaintance
ru
;

at

Barygaza:

"When

Hianyakataka) was viceroy at now that he is on the throne na an active port and his sons have tried their hand at the viceroy's post one after the m the inter \als of their literary and artistic pursuits, and it has U-rn turned <\er to young Sandares, it has been an easy matter " Had for our Saka general to send down his ships and stop its trade. the story been written in S< V D., the informant would have said, "our satrap has annexed that country to his own dominions, and
n..\s

closed

"
its

ports.

The same
M to

explanation

is

perfectly feasible for


in

Nahapina,

who

is

have been go\ernor


sat rap
>f

Surashtra before he
until the

was

satrap at

Hut as-

h\cd

Saka year 4<


I),

A.D.,

probable that OIK-

that

name mo<) A

was

There
alters

are other explanations of these three names.

Fabric

ms
to

both

Mamharus and Sandanes


was a tribe-name, and
is

to Sanabares, supposing

him

have been an

Indo-Parthian successor to

Gondopharcs; \KC

rindle

thinks Sandanes

refers to the Arlake Sadin^n of

Ptolemy.

But neither supposition

com mcing.

The explanation based on the Puranic lists and the coinage has inherent probability, and is confirmed by the description of political
conditions in
the

52 of the Periplus,
Satakarni

if

that be applied to the reign of

Andhra king Arishta

(44-69 A.

1).

>,

through the

medium

of his heir-presumptive Sundara, ruling as viceroy at Paith.

and displaying in the Konkans the only sh>\\ of Andhra authority which would have come under the observation of a Graeco-Roman merchant and shipmaster.
(See

A.-M

Boyer, Nahapiina

ft

fin

{'.aku,

in

Journal Jsiatique,

July- Aut., 1897, pp. 12U-151; an excellent paper, in which the only matter for criticism is that the inscriptions of the Nabafcran Main-has

should be thought
sinian

less

trustworthy than the chronology of the Ah>


later.

s-

Chronicles,

compiled much

C. R. Wilson, Proposed
in the Periplus, in

identification

of the name of an Andhra king of Bengal, June,

Journal of

the Asiatic Society

1904;

with which the foregoing

Vincent Smith, suggestions are in accord, except as to their sequel. Andhra History and Coinage, in Zeitschrift der Dcutschen Morgcnliindischen Gesellschaft, Sept.,

1903.

Pandit Bhagvanlal Indraji,


Society,

'/'///

//"/.. //;;/

Kshatrapas, in Journal of the Royal Asiatic


1 I

1890, pp. 639-662.

Rap son, The

Coinage of the Mahakshatrapas

and Kshatrapus,

J.

A. S., 1899, 357-404; same author, Ancient India, in Nu Col. J. Biddulph, m.smatic Supplement, J. A. S. B., 1904, p. 227. in a note to Mr. Rapson's first article, observes that our knowledge of
R.
is

the Satraps

derived solely from their coins, of which the former are

undated; that each ruler puts his father's


his

name on
and

his coins as well as

own;

that the dates overlap frequently;

that of the

two

titles,

hakshatrapa indicates the monarch, and Kshatrapa the heir-apparent. Vincent Smith, Catalogue of the Coins In the Indian Museum,

p.

Chronology of Andhra Dynasty, in his Early History, Rapson, Coins of the Andhra Dynasty, the //",>/,;// See also Cunningham, Rook of Kshatrapas, etc., British Museum. Indian Eras-, Duff, The Chronology of India from the Earliest Tun
Calcutta;
190. also
K.
J.

the

Beginning of the 16th Century.


is

53. Semylla. This Yuan Chwang, the Saimur

the Symulla of Ptolemy, the Chimolo of

of the early

Mohammedan

travellers;

the

modern Chaul (18 34' V, 72 55' E.), about 25 miles south of Bombay. The ancient Hindu name was Champavati, and was con-

201
hiia
/

in

(jujaiit

(Sec Mit'rmdle.

J*fa

16li

Imp.

GW.
..(
:

\, 184,

Mullei

at

the

mouth

The
IN

pott

cioatd
n<
ill

iluin
:

It

now

a foiling

village of

timr

teak and blackwood, and for thipbyildu^

K wis a great tenter for thr trade \ ,... .ve /./


< ,

Mulln,

I,

2*'S

I'

.,

'
.

Sanscrit \ltm4tru-, -.--.

In

Piiileim thr positions of this

and the following port are reversed.)


is

Pal*patm*.-Thi*
>i\.i.
It

probably the

modern Dibbol (17*

the Sanacrk
is

MMMu*r.
and Rr

or Considerable hinorical

principal port of thr South


it

Konkan.
trailc

From

importance, being the the 14th t the


(
i

haii

an c\tniM\r
IN

uith

the Pcrkun

ulf

pom.

Hi.-

thr uiuicrvfrouiul temple of Chandikibai, dating

from
the

(Imp
'tUcfxitnuc
is

probably tbe
/'...-

Saiw nt
<>f

/'.;':/w/kin<i

whilr
v

was a general term applying to


them.

rstrrn \ uulhya
(

mountains and the coast south


of

(Nundo
%

itoirapkual Dutoxary

Amuntami Mt4t*\*il l*4ut

p. 68. )
at

Mi-h/igaia.
n Jaigarh
M/.C, but
(

This
17
1

is

placed by

MuUer and McCrindJe


I

-ncrly a port of
It
is

possible that
li

it

lu-s at

be the modern Rajapur 16 1*31*1 thr head of a tuial creek, and is the only port on
<

now may

little

more than

a fishing-village.

not im.

Katnagiri coast to
.

size

which Arab boats still trade direct, though cannot approach within thrrr miles of the old atone quay.
'.0.)

This
a

is

the Sifrrus of Pliny

the Mtlnff\nt of Plolcr

The name seems


I

lu-

to suggest the Sanscrit Mataw-gtri, "Malaya name which covered the southern part of the Western Ghats. same name appears in the MaK of Cosmas and our Malabar.

5.v
III.
'.

Byzantium.
assumes
it
t

This i> rvidendy a corruption. ha\r been a colony of Byzanti;

iatrn
v,

but

there

not the slightest e\ ulencc of the existeiu c of such a colony. If probably the moilem \ /.ulrog (Sanscrit, / {/frW*r/a
is
,

iescnbed as being one of the best harbors on the

western coast.
ilc. )

Imp. GV/z.,

\\I\. .UO;
is

so Vincent, Mailer and

rogarum.
:

This

probably the

modem

Devgar"

Bribed as "a safe and beautiful Undl

202

harbor, at

all

18

feet.
'

The

The average depth of water is limes perfectly smooth. entrance, only 3 cables in width, lies close to the fort
t

point
53.

(Imp. G<n.

XI, 275; so Vincent, Miillerand McCrindle.)

Aurannoboas.
It
is

The

text has initial


it

doubt a corruption. 3' N., 73 28' E).


iron ore being
island in the harbor
in the
is

McCrindle places
in

at the

/' instead of A> no modern Malvan

a place of considerable importance, the neighborhood.

good

found

To

the Marathas an
is

Sivaji's

cenotaph, and his image

worshipped
"

chief shrine.

(See Imp. Gaz., XVII, 96.)


'

The name Malvan is a contraction of Maha-lavana,

'salt

marsh,

and the Greek Aurannoboas is perhaps intended for the Sanscrit Aranya-vaha, which would have a similar meaning.
53.

Islands of the Sesecrienae.


53'

These

are probably the

Vcngurla Rocks (15

some

3 miles in

N., 70 27' E.), a group of rocky islets length and 9 miles out from the modern town of

Vengurla, which was a port of considerable importance during the Dutch occupation in the 17th century. (Imp. Gaz. XXIV, 3"
t

Island of the AegidiL This is perhaps the island of 20' N., 74 0' E. ), the present Portuguese possession. It is of historical importance, having been settled by Aryans at an early date, and appearing in the Puranas. (Imp. Gaz., XII, 251; so Miiller
53.

Goa

(15

and McCrindle. )
identify
it

The

with Anjidiv (14

Imperial Gazetteer, following Yule, prefers to 45' N., 74 10' E. ) ; but the location is

less satisfactory unless

we assume

and

to refer to the grouping of this

the order in the text to be wrong, and the following island on either

side of the
53.

Karwar

point.

Island of the Caenitae.


4'

This

is

Rocks (1449'N., 74
facing, the roadstead of
53.

E),

a cluster of

probably the Oyster islands west of, and

Karwar.

Chersonesus.

Greek, "peninsula."

This answers

for

the projecting point at the

from early times a trade


port as late as the

modern Karwar (14 49* N., 74 8' E.), center for the North Kanara, and an active

16th century, exporting fine muslins from Hubli

and elsewhere

in

the interior, also pepper, cardamoms, cassia, and


<

coarse blue dun^an cloth.


!>.<.

Imp.

Gaz.,

XV,

65.)
says of
this

Pirates.

there go forth every year


cruise.

Marco Polo fill, more than


them

xxv),

coast,

a hundred corsair vessels on


their wives
is

These

pirates take with

and children, and

stay out the

whole summer.

Their method

to join in fleets of 20

or 30 of these pirate vessels together, and then they form what they call a sea cordon, that is, they drop off till there is an interval of 5 or 6

IN
miles between ship and ship, to that they cover something like a ilrril miles of sea, and no merchant ship can escape them. For ne corsair sights a vessel a signal is made by nre or smoke, and he whole <>f them make for this, and seize the merchants and
pluiui'

fall

After (hey have plundered them they let them go. along with you and get more gain, and that mayhap will to us also!' Rut ... ^.s the mrr. hams are aware of this, and go so
M*

manned and armed, and with such


fear the corsairs.
Still

great ships, that they don't

same

vicinity,

In (hi* mishaps do befall them at time*" Yule observes, Ibn Batuta fell into the pirates' hands,

and was stripped to the drawers. The northern part of Malabar, Kanara, and the Southern Konkan, were a nest of pirates from a very
t

duic until

well into the 19th century,


the British arms.

when

their occupation

was

dettr

!<> says (III, xxiv) of the kingdom of Ely (near Mangalore), "if any ship enters their estuary and anchors there, other port, they seize her and plunder having been ban ML For they say, 'You were bound for somewhere else, and the cargo.

has sent \..u hither to us, so we have right to all your goods.' And this naughty custom (hey think it is no sin to act thus. prevails all over the provinces of India, to wit, that if a ship be driven by Stress of weather into some other port than that to which it was
'tis

God

And

bound,

it

was sure

to be

originally to the place they receive

But if a ship came bound plundered. it with all honor and give it due

In
lish

ule notes, Sivaji replied to the pleadings of

an Eng-

embassy, that it was "against the laws of Conchon" (Ptolemy's Pirate Coast! ) "to restore any ship or goods that were driven ashore."

Abd-er-Razzak notes the same practices

at Calicut.

White
Island (14
1'

Island.

This

is

probably

the

modern Pigeon
It lies

N., 74

16' E.), also

known

as Nttrin.
is

about

10
It

miles off the coast,

about 300 feet high, and

visible for

25 miles.

(Imp. Gaz.. \\. M6. ) \ 1. the \itriai of I'ii: the as same This 26), the probably the threatened Roman of who the merchants; and stronghold pirates, S< tin- \./' of Ptolerm

abounds

in

white coral and lime.

is

Naura and Tyndis, the


It

first

markers of Damirica.
either side of the

seems

clear that a long stretch of coast

on

modern

wide berth by foreign men runt-ships because of the of its people, and because it produced no cargo of which they were in se.i -,c the following ports, Muziris and Nelcynda, these two have
A. is uixen a

204

The mte: been placed too far north by most of the commentators is that the K<mk.m in the South words few the from ence Peripkii
and Kanara
districts

were those more

particularly infested

by pirates.

These may
tions.

be identified with the Satiya kingdom of Asoka's inscripports, strictly speaking, lay within the region
is

The Tamil

where

the Malayalam language


districts

now

spoken, that

is,

within the

modem

The Tulu, Kanarcsc of Malabar, Cochin, and Travancore. our within author's be to seem districts DacAmakufa and Telugu
These four ports probably lay respectively within the four districts into which the Portuguese and Dutch found
rather than his Damirica.

the Kerala

vancore;

of

kingdom divided Cannanore, Calicut, Cochin and Trawhich the last-named, at the time of the Periplus, mU
:

held by the Pandya kingdom.

The four Tamil


all

states,

Chola, Pandya, Kerala, and Satiya, are

named
115).

in the

2d Rock Edict of Asoka.


History,

(Vincent Smith, Asoka,

that pp. 164, .UO-1 Kerala did not extend north of the Chandragiri river (12 36' N Naura being then in North Malabar, may be identified with the

Mr. Smith thinks (Early

modern Cannanore (11

known

to have

52' N., 75 been an active port

22' E.).

The
the

latter pi.

in the days of

and has yielded one of the most important finds in India of s, of the reigns of Tiberius, Claudius and Nero.
It seems Honavar (14

Roman trade, Roman


modern

clear that the identification of this place with the


17'

N., 74
is

27' E.), while a tempting one,

the similarity of names,

not in accord with the

facts.

which was in Andhra and Saka dynasties, as well as the petty Maurya and Pallava princes; while from similarity of name the modern Cannanore would
rather within the strip of coast

owinu to Honavar lies dispute between the

answer equally

well.

The

location of Tyndis, of the


It is

Chera kingdom, depends on

of Muy.ms.

described as "a village in plain sight on the shore.

that "

and may be identified with the modern Ponnani (10 48' N., 75 56' E. ;. This place lying at the mouth of the river of the same name, which drains a rich section of the western mountains known as the
Hills, would have been a natural terminus for the pepper produced there, as well as for the beryls of the Coimbatore district. This Ponnani river, according to the Imperial Gazetteer (XX, l'>4 unlike nearly all others on the west coast, is navigable for small

Anaimalai

for

some

distance inland.

Dr. Burnell prefers Kadalundi near Beypore (11 11 N., 75 49' E. ) on the north bank of the river of the same name, which is
also navigable to the foot of the

mountains, and carries

down lame

m
trnet of timber.

SOU

stadia

But die (Imp <;<., \ 111, 17.) between Tyndisand Muxirit indicates Ponnim
%

have retained.

Damiricm. The text has Lm,nk< which previ That name does not appear in India, or
it,

Roman
s

accounts of
i

and

it

is

clearly a corruption caused by the

..iifusiiii!
\\\

the

(irrrk

/>

and A.

I"he

name

appear*

correct form

segment of the Pcutingrr Tables, almost contemporary with thr Periplus, and in Ptolemy as Dtmhrtf; and there seems no good reason for perpetuating the mitt..

thr

\llth

Damirka means
ern
larly

'

'

the

'country of the Tamils,

that

it,

the South-

Dravidians as they existed in the first century, including particur .1, Pftndya and Chola kingdoms; known in their own

records as Dr+vufa-Jhtm.

was fixed by Burnefl, which as Kodungalur or Cranga\ 76 1 1' K. ), was an important port in medieval nore (10 times. Their argument was based on the 7000 stadia named in the text as the distance between Barygaza and Damirica.
53.

Muziris.

The

location of this port

CaJdwell and Yule

at Muriri-Jtotta,

Vincent Smit
are the same.

History 340-1

) is

confident that

Mi

Cranganore Satrjn must have adjoined Keralaputra; and since the Chandragtri river has always been regarded as the northern boundary of that province, the
says
Satiyaputra
the

He

"The Kingdom

of

Kingdom

should probably be identified with that portion of

Konkans or lowlands between the Western Chits and the sea where the Tulu language is spoken, and of which Mangalore is the The name of Kerala is still well remembered and there b center. no doubt that the Kingdom so called was equivalent to the Southern Konkans or Malabar coast. The ancient capital was Vanji, also named Karuvur, the Karoura of Ptolemy, situated close to
ore; which represents Mu/.ins, thr port for the pepper trade, boned by Pliny and the author of the Pcriplus at the end of the first " Vanji, according to the Imfrria I Gaxstltrr (XX century A. D. must be placed at the modern Pa'riir or Paravur (10 10' N., 76 15* E.), where the Pcriyar River empties into the Cochin back-waters,

Parur

is still

a busy trading center, as well as the headquarters of the


n.

district

While
tl

Travancore,
.U
It

it

formerly belonged

toCochin,
all

the Jeu
first

-re

comprise almost and the settlement may date from the end
is

said to

of the
ti

century,

when

it

is
I.

known
..f

that there

was a ronsidcrahlt

migration to Southern
earlier idenfihcation
Nil-

The
at

Mu/iris

uu.i

Mangalore and

V.

74

Neicynda placed them 51' K., and 12 16*

conflict, with nearly all that

we know
i*

of the

geography and pol


.

kingdoms, and

entirely iro-

piut, belonged port, a poatib to the Pandyun kingdom, \%hu h rruinl> never Citrndcd to far

The

ochin BM-kraten: fnun Rfrlut, An*.

V|.

III.

The
tea, sea,

text tells us that

500 stadia," and Nelcynda from Muziris,


"
stadia.
1

Muziris was distant from Tyndis, "by river "by n\cr and

500

his

can hardly refer to anything but the Cm-bin

backwaters.
53.

Nelcynda.

This port

is

called

the city

of

the

A
Ravenna.

by Pliny; Mtlkynda by Ptolemy;


.Him by Friar Odoric, and
It

\imvltin by the Peutinger Tables,


of

A^xmnrbj the Geographer

was probably
58' N.,

in

(9

7o

the backwaters, or thoroughfares, behind Cochin 14' E. J, the exact locution being uncertain because
:.ns and islands;
(

of the frequent shifting of river-be. tainly very near the modern Kotta\am
is

but

exactly 500 stadia,

or 50

N., 76 31' E. ), whu-h miles, from Cranganore. Kottayum,


>

Sb'

according to the Imperial Gazetteer (XVI, 7), Syrian Christian community, whose church here
ancient on the west coast.
routes from the Pirmed
It is

is'
is

a center of the

one of the

in

also the natural terminus for the tradeis still

hills,

and

a trade-center of considerable

importance.

The name
fers Mflkyndiiy

AV/vW</, Fabricius thinks (p. 160),

is

the Sanscrit

Nilakantha, "blue neck," a

name

of Siva.

Caldwell, however, pre-

which he

translates

"Western Kingdom."
is

good account of the topography of the coasts of India by J. A. Bains (Mill's International Geography 1907 ed. given
> ,

p.
at

469).
the

"The

coast-line

is

singularly devoid of indentations, except

mouths of the

larger rivers

and toward the northern portion of

tin-

west coast.
a
little

The only harbors

except for light-draft vessels, are found

way up

the deltas of the chief rivers, or where, as at Bomb.,

a group of islands affords adequate shelter from the open sea.


eastern coast, in particular,
is

The

provided with little more than a few roadsteads. The southern portion of the u protected imperfectly

coast

is distinguished by a series of back-waters, or lagoons, parallel with the coast, and affording a safe and convenient waterway for small vessels when the season of high winds makes the ocean unnavigable."

This is a transliteration of Wicraputra or Tamil kingdom, which in its greatest extension reached from Cape Comorin to Karwar Point, nearly 7 degrees of At the time of the Periplus the northern part had separated, latitude. while the southern end had passed to its neighbor, the Pandxan kingdom; leaving Kerala nearly coterminous with modern Malabar and Cochin districts. The capital was at Karur, or Parfir, opposite
54.
ilaputra^ the western

Cerobothra.

Muziris or Cranganore.
(

heraputra

brothers

who

is "son of Chera," .one of the legendary three founded the Dravidian power in South India.

IN

name of a king was mcorm dynamic name or royal < Chera backwaters seem to be referred to by Pliny debated passage on r uith ths

Phm

use ot the

word

as the
also a

applies to the country,

and

is

T own merchant^, who


tell

us that the

u hu h they deposit near tbote brought for sale hr Seres, on the further bank of a river in their country, are by them if the> are s.itiNfird with the exilian,

mum

He
r

as
just as the

meaning
%

C'heru, the Cfi

and

.V

being

changed,
It

neighbor m/
t'hera

hola

kingdom
meant

is

always
'

& m
of

is

ij.ntc-

possible

that

is

also

b) Pliii)

ft

Stm

\ \ \1\
I

41,

who
and

sent the best iron to


r<
.

iaidarabad,
\ilulis.
r

in

i>emg a product 6 of (he Periplus, as shipped from

RMM

See also under Sarapis, p. 146. "silent tra:< lieninC-

J,
'

i%

referred

uler S 65,

ami

and again by Pliny ustes (book II


<

1.

20

',

Pausanus

111,

further:

to

Chera and the other Tamil


at

states

growing

out of the original establishment

Korkai. see Vincent Smith, farfr

His ton; Chap, xvi;


int.
1

Caldwell,

Grammar of tkt

also History
liol

rapi.

Shan

of Tinntvr/Jy; Burnell, Menon, History if Travan&rt ;


J. B.

Drwu&m /*a*f*afrt &*M Indian PaLngt

Franca Day, Tkt

Sir Walter Pandian, Indian Il/Jagf AW*; Elliot, Coins of SoutAtrn India;- Foulkes, Tkt (Mfa*to**ftkt Dtkkn

fofthfPfrmauls-y

dou-n

to

thf 6th ((ntury

B. C.

in Indian

Anttquan, 1879, pp. 1-10;


in
/>-

P.

Padmanabha Mcnon, Notts on Alalakar and in ptac* nmti,


,

m Anttq;
i,

1902;
199;

\\

n Journal of tkt

Daw-son, Tkt

Ck'tras, in J.

R. A.

S.,

1;

Seu
;///

Southfnt India, in

if tkt Dymtititt if F. KCielthe A'oncological &rrtvr, Madras, 1884; of


Inscriptions,

and

Skttfk

of Ckola and Pandya Kings,


e;

in

Epignpki* India, Vok.


II,

Imperial Gin,

Chaps
<

i,

in,

i\,

v,

r.uhU-r,

Indixkt PaUngrapkit, and generally, his Grwtdrui dtr


Pkilobgit undAlttrtumskundti,

DfHUtitt if tkt
tkt

and Bhandarkar, Early HitMry if DtHan. in tens Ixjventhal, of Trnntirlh ; GaisttftroftktBomtayPrtsidtnn; I, ii;
Hult/sch, Soutk Indian
Inscriptions.

Abounds
earl\
i

in

ships.

In these protected thoroughfares

flourished a sea-trade, largely in native Dravidian craft,

which was of

and of great influence

in

(he interchange of ideas as

well as commodities, not only in South India, but in the Persian Gulf,

210

Merchant-ship of the 2d century, from a relief on a sarcophagus in the Lateran Museum.

and the coasts of Arabia and Africa, with which the trade was prinBoth Buddhist and Brahman writings testify to its cipally maintained.

CC

in

the 5th century B. C.

but their evidence

is late,

as they

arc the product of the

Northern Aryans, an inland race, who appeared Better in South India after its activities had been widely developed. evidence is gi\rn by the Dravidian alphabet, supposed t<> he from a
Semitic
(

original, and to date from about 1000 B. C., whereas the Aryan, or KharosthT, alphabet was formuR. Sewell, Hindu Period lated after the conquest, about 500 B. C.

Himyaritic, or Phcrnician

'

of Southern India, in Imp. Gaz., II, 321 "Sent from Arabia and by the Greeks" were the ships found by The text has Ariaca, but the our author in the Chera backwaters.
is ob\ius, as the articles of trade were from foreign, and not "No Aryan language had penetrated into these Hindu, sources. kingdoms, which lived their own life, completely secluded from

error

medium
safety

Northern India, and in touch with the outer world only through the of maritime commerce, which had been conducted with

from very early times. The pearls of the Gulf of Manar, the of Coimbatore, and the pepper of iMalabar were not to be had elsewhere, and were largely sought by foreign merchants, as early as
the 7th or 8th century B.

C."

(Vincent Smith, Early History,

211

Be
account of trade on
iice
is

udcla,

in

thr

12th cenfury, fives the following

(his coast :

seven <U\
m-wor*hipper*.

which

is

the beginning

These
in color.

are the

sons of CuOi.
arc hunrst
distant lands
in

ul... rru.i 'lir

%ur

and art

all

hbck

U
nun
tlir
i

They

hrn merchant*
!

come

to

them from

official

ihr King's secretaries fo names and then bring them before the \\ he -rrupon thr King make* himself retpoiuihle r\cn for their h thr\ lra\e in the open unprotected. There is an who sits in his office, and (he owner of any lint property has

and

harbour, three

nil

rrcurd ihnr

m when
vaiU
in
.ill

he hands
n

it

back.

Tint custom perYear, that


is all

that

count:

Passover to
>ut
is

New

thr
i

summer, no man the hc.it in that cmmtrv


onwai.i
.:ul

of hit house because of the

m(mc,
in
all

and from the third hour

of

(tic
t)

il.iv

>dy remains

hi*

home
at

Then

kimllc lights in

(be mark
night-<

the streets, and then do their


.\<-

work and business


ii.iv

to

turn

night into

in

oMsrt|iiriu r of the great heat of

the sun.
fields,

Pepper IN found there. They plant thr trrrs thereof in the and each man of the city knows hi> own plantation. The trees
is

are small and (be pepper


trtl
it

as white as snow.

And when
it

(hey have
it,

thry plan-

it

in

sauce-pans and pour

boiling water over

so that

it

max become

strong.

Then

they take

out of the water and


id

in tbe sun, and it (urns bL kituU of spices are found in (bis land."

ginger and

many

54.

Pandian kingdom.

and traditionally tbe earliest, of tbe three


iouu
the time of
.c.
tli.

was Pindya, the southernmost, Tamil states. Roughly it the modern districts of Tmnexelly and Maduri; at ded beyound the Ghats and included
'I*hi

The

capital, originally at

Korkai 'the t*Lki'of $ $9,


55

llrrr too. as in

th<
title,

kingdom, the
not as the

\ name

>
is

used for the

country and as a dynastic


55.

name

of

any king.

BacarS.

preferable reading.
at

an

inlet

is perhaps the 120 stadia from Nelcynda. "* 2- N 76 of the sea, can be no other than Porakad , r the distance it transJueratx r whuh is a close

gives

Barb*; which

This

place, distant

from Kottayam is exactly in accord with (he Porakad was once a notable port, but declined with the Alleppev built a few miles farther north after a canal had
,

rise

of

212

through from sea to backwater and harbor works constructed.

(Imp.

\\,
as

188.)
at

The

Portuguese,
It
<

had settlements

Porakad.

is

and subsequently tin- Dutch, mentioned by Varthema L503)

/Vwi,

and by Tavern HI
(Ball, in his
is

1648) as Porca.

The

remains of a
\isihle

Portuguese fort and factory are


at

low water.

covered by the sea, bem^ edition of Tavernier, I, 241


of the

now

Here

also

the

mouth

Achenkoil

river,

which

rises

the

(ihats near the Shencottah pass, the main highway between Tr.i\an-

core and Tinnevelly.


settlements

According to Menon were nearly all

.\

lalalmr <nut

its f>/th< -;/<//;//.),

the

east of the backwaters at the Christian era,

and the present beaches existed only as tide-shoals. During the middle ages there was a period of elevation, \\liirh led to the formahanded the tion of new islands, while floods from the mountains
i

courses of the rivers, and the location of the inlets. At present the tendency is toward subsidence, houses built at Cochin a century ago

being

now under

water.

About 800

B. C., according to local tradi-

tion, the sea reached the hills. on the Megasthenes, in the 4th century B. C., mentioned as sea-coast" the town of Tropina (Tripontari) now on the mainland

side of the backwaters;

Ptolemy's three shore towns between Mu/iris


side.

and Barkart are likewise on the land

56.

Large ships.

The
is

increase in the size of shipping followreferred to also in


10.

ing the discovery of Hippalus

Pliny speaks

>

describing the trade between Malabar and Ceylon. he sa\> VO, 24), "wa formerly mull:

vessels

made

of rushes, rigged in thr

nunnrr
prows

familiar
at

on

the Nile.
id

vessels of recent time* are built with


i

to

dm
if

turning around while tailing in lhe*e


fiarrow.

cttait-

The

tonnage of the

e%%el

rig a*
ti

build and A .,t (he accompanying illustration, wt. Ocean generally. Mast and sail can be reversed at will, w* an be sailed in eithei direiiinn
.uble

(About 3 J tons.) prows Pl.ii> probably mean, aome such


'

'he

Peppt-i

and white.
limber, wild n

Piper

nigntm.

Linn.,
I

order

A
h<(,

perennial

ravancore

Malabar, and

very early times, in the

damp

localities

of Southern India.
th.it
..

Lassen

(1,

278), notes

word/wprrr, latin/>//vr,
not so easily
of
it

simply repeats the Indian name p'tppaH. Ihr antiquity of the trade in pepper
other spices.
is.

if

shown

as

'Ilicrc

IN

ID

main mrntmn
it

In the
the

Hebrew

scriptures

is

the Kg)-ptian unknown, nor has it a


in
f

MJ:
.

"mint and anise and cummin"


hit of fulkl
I

the

MispeJa,

has no

irastus,

in the

4th century H.
uishes

as

medu me. and

indeed, Dioscorides

between black, white and long pepper. The Sanscrit and dyspepsia, used it Aether ginger and long pepper; these were their "three pungent sub"
stances.
.
.

9,

1 ;

see

also

I-csing,
I

R**r4

Buddknt Prm.
'

tury A. had

akakusu's

it

after their

conquests in Asia

for

it.

and Kgypt, and at once provided the greatest market Knvpt knew it, probably, through the sea-trade of the
;

ia

Gulf.

There
r

is

through the caravan-trade to Tyre from the Persian some reason for supposing that pepper wu

especially in
.IN

demand
most

in

Babylonia and the IVr\ur

by sea

that more especially rcacmd demand for it came with the of the Persian empire under Darms The trade was and not overland; Herodotus knows the Dravidians UII t 100) .iving "a complexion closely resemhlmtf the Aethiopianft,"
i

unnamon was
active

that the

Miuatnl \ery far from the Persians, toward the south,


anil
i:

It

may

also

;ui

for

pepper existed

in

China before

be surmised that a steady it arose in Rome, and

214

that this

was one reason


i.

for the sailing of the junks

to

the

Malabar
i'olo's

coast in the 2d century B. C. and probably earlier.

In

day the tonnage of the in baskets of pepper; and he found


r

Jatedaccording to their capacity -ne shiplo.nl of (11, l\\\i


for

that

goes to Alexandria or elsewhere, destined


hau,

Christen!>...

dom, there come a hundred such, aye and mure

too, to this

Zayton" (Ch\\.m-i

ahmc Amoy;.

The

trade in pepper in the time of the


it

Roman l.mpne
;:rtu les

hnu,

the merchants unheard-of profits just as


It

did later the (Jenoesc ami

was one of the most important

of

commerce

between India and Rome, supplying perhaps three-quarters of the total bulk of the average westbound cargo.

The
is

constant use of pepper in the most expensive

Roman

toot

reflected

by

its

price,

quoted by Pliny

ML

14

as

15 denarii, or

about $2.55 per

Ih.

Among
under
St.

the offerings by the emperor Constantine to the church

Silvester,

were

costly vessels

and fragrant gums and spu

rs.

including frankincense, nard, balsam, storax, myrrh, cinnamon, saffron

and pepper.

That
5,000
Ibs.

it

continued

in

high esteem

is

shown by

the terms offered


of

by Alaric for raising the siege of


of gold, of 30,000
pcs. of

Rome: "the immediate payment


of silver, of 4,000
Ibs.
r.

Ibs.

3,000

hue

scarlet cloth,
lull, III,

and of 3,000
271-2.)

weight of pepper."

On,

M, Imcti nd

brought it into "It is quite surprising that the use of pepper so great favor ( XII, 14 has come so much into fashion, seeing that in other substances which
)

Pliny, indeed, expresses surprise at the taste that


:

we

use,

it

is

sometimes

their sweetness,

and sometimes their appearh;.s

ance

that has attracted our notice;

whereas, pepper

nothing
its

in

it

that can plead as a


.">le

recommendation

to either fruit or berry,


it

only
t!iat

quality being a certain


it

pungency; and yet


India!

is

for this

we
trial

import
of
it

all

the

way from
food?

\\ h. v\as the hist to makeI wonder, was the man by hunger only for the satis-

as

an

article of

And who,

that

was not content

to prepare himself

of a greedy appetite?"

In

medieval Kurope the trade was highly organized, the spice

being handled especially by merchants called "pepperers;" and the


prices quoted in Rogers' History of Agriculture <nid Pricts in

En "land

that in the years just prior to the Portuguese discovery of the

Cape
pay

route, a

pound

of

for a carpenter!

pepper brought two shillings, being four Vet the people preferred it above all other

215

pices;

it

was the

first

thing asked for by "Glutton" in


'

/Wi A>*MM

deale, gossib," quod she

"giotown.wiltowa^
'and a pounde of g-

"Hastow

auL'htc in tin purs'

any h<*e spices.'"


qu.Mj.hr

"I haue peper and

p.omV

ferthynirworth

vced' for

"

astyngdayes.

escribes the pepper production of

ibar"

as follows:

"the wood

in

which

it

grows cootaineth

in

tin UK

ri-.:f
i

And
I-

in (he said

wood or

forest there

ahly

;.i).

plant near unto it

landrma, and the uchcr lyncilim" (prub'In the aforesaid wood pepper it had after thi% .i\e* like nut.) pot-herbs, which they -.it trees as we do our vines, and they bring forth

pepp<

UTS, as our vines


:,

do

yield grapes, but being ripe, they

the grains are laid in

and are gathered as we gather grapes, and then the sun t. he dried, and being dried are put n

earthen vessels;
ciul of 'In- sal.
I

and thus
forest*

KandtdM

with

.disc

of

all

At the pepper made and kept. f I'olumbrum, whuh aboundeth kinds." (The proper form would be Polumis
.
.

hum,

the

.itmized version of

Polum

or

Kolum, the modern

{Juilon.

Pand

A ar

interchanged here as in the case of Karur, the

modern
(

Pariir. )

Tavet
er,

.id

pepper sold pruu


fi"in R.u.ipi
Hill's
f..r
:

ipally at

lutuorin und

came

<>n

the Katnagiri coast.


>

'*1*he

Dutch,'

he says

(II. MI

ed
it.

purchase
fur
it

it

from the

Malabarii do not pay


ppcr which
is

in cash

hut

CM iun^e
(

man) kinds of
it

umdise, as cotton, opi


export*

inlmn, and quicksilver, and

is

Svrtt of
gite
in

it

brings

^
of 28

rtaU, DUt

on tnc merchandise which they


i

exchanfe

they gain 100 per


:lt

'tie
:

can get
c

it

f<r the equivalent in


in that

cash, hut
I

it

money way would be much

rosily than the

>uu h method."
I,

He
guese
at
<

mentions aU,

\.

use kept h> the

CWhm,
also

i-.illei

the "1'epper

Ho,

Watt, 896-901;

Fluckiger and

Manbun.
'

'

frafih:

TfxeJia BnturtHun,

an

/per

1':4-SS

desinU -s

.1

propitiation of the serpents guarding the

pepper, similar to those of the frankincense and diamond, -hn Mar... IT in the veruntry
h<

the story

"In

serpents and of other


the country and of the pepper.

\ermm fr the And some men say*

216
that

to

when they will gather the pepper, they make fire, to hum Hut sa\e then make the serpents and the cock nil-ills to flee.
all

ahout

For if they burnt about the trees that hear, the be should burnt, and it would dry up all the virtue, as of am pepper other thine; and then they did themselves much harm, ami they Hut thus they do: they anoint their should never quench the fire.
of
that say so.

hands and their

feet with a juice

made

of snails and of other things

therefor, of the which the serpents and the venomous In-.ists hate and dread the savour; and that maketh them flee before them, because of the smell, and then they gather it surely enough."

made

belief in the guarding of treasure, or of wealth-producing habitation thereof, ly spirits in the form of serpents, has the or trees, noted as attaching to frankincense ( been 29), and will already

This

The supposed necessity appear likewise with the diamond ( 56). of appeasing or else expelling the serpents by the use of other substances
to

was held strongly in Rome itself. Pliny ascribes of kind fennel" "If "a giant (XII, 56). galbanum,
it

this

power

ignited in a
its

pure state

has the property of driving

away

serpents by
it,

smoke."
oil

And
III,

again

(XXIV,
is

13), "the very touch of

mingled with

and

spondylium,

sufficient to kill a serpent."

So also Virgil (Georges, "


;

415):
"(ralhaneoque agitare graves nidore chelydrns.

The
under
56.
late this

.frankincense gatherers depended on

burning storax

see-

29, pp.

Ul-2.
Heeren, Vincent and McCrindle trans-

Malabathrum.

"betel," and thereby accuse the Periplus of a blunder in 63 and 65, where the substance is described as coming from the

Himalaya mountains.
hftit

The

translation

rests

on an assumption

that

the pftros of the text in

65

is

the

same

as the Portuguese betre or

meaning betel. Watt (p. 891) says this latter is rather derived from a Malay word vfttila or vtrn-ila, meaning "leaf," and it is very doubtful if the hebetel of modern times entered into international commerce in
t

Roman period. The word

pftros

is

rather

from the Sanscrit patra, "leaf,"

of

the tamala tree which, as explained under S 10, 13 and 14 The leaf exported from Southern variety of cinnamon or laurel.
India

momum
is

from Cmnamomum men, and possibly from the Cinntiwhich in later times was cultivated in Ceylon and one of the sources of our cinnamon. (See Tavernier, Travel*,

was

also

-zsylanicum

II, xii;.

cipally

The leaf coming from the Himalaya mountains was prinfrom the Cinnamomum tamala, which was native there. Pliny

217

ays

tliut

'ties
t..

mulitknki um wlmh mterrd so prominently into should ha\c a *mell like nard, and ocher Roman writers have confuted it with thr Ganges nard mentionrd in
th-

also

UsMI,

II,

SSS-v
,

HM,

rr f rr%

lt

M follows:

rnard werr the two mart treasured ingres

of thr oiMtinrnts
\

and perfume*
-n
is

of the

Roman empi

MIUS trade
i

suggested by the fact thai the Rothe malahathnim as

mans knew
coast of

mii.mii'M

and

cassia only as

knew
'

Case, the

various parts of India, and \<\ the ..' lr.tr iroin thr s.imr :-,.iVriplus
India, hut in
ui

coming from the Somali coming from nulabathrum wa, in at least one
;

.iluccd a

'ffffimfftl

no place meiitunu the export of cinitamon from $ 56 and 6.{ describes the export of malatatkntm. This !y of \rrv uiu irnt date and thorough iiich the bark .ni\ unit f.r trade purposes to the
fti

\\as

an open an
/

iu

Lindtq
\\hu-h
'

History of
kftOfl this

Dipping and J*ftmt Oummfr*


instance of the secrecy with
uahle portions of their

'\ttikniL'

the

aiuu-nts conducted thr


<

trade/

"could only have obtained hi* mation about cinnamon from the merchants who traded along the
thinks,
ret

uho krpt the sn Carthaginians kept that of British tin


shorcv
CT letter fI

of

its

pr*vrmi*it as the

rake- Brock man, dated lierbera,

April

rihrmation of the absence of th


species

namon

from the Somali peninsula


until thr\
iia

nder

unlikely that thr original inhabitants of this country

knew

anything of

cinnamon

had heard of

its

commercial value

or Arabs,

who
is

ha\e been
'Iliese

known
traders,

to the
if

coastal people

from the

earliest times.
all,

same

they

penetrated into the interior at

which

extremely doubtful, would


d
if

have hunted for anything ot had existed they would ha\e day as they do frank thy of nonce is
that th

cinnamon

mtinued to export it up to the present imrrh and gum arabic. A point have names for all the last three,
|

whereas they have had for cinnamon. Tl


;ch arc imported.
i

to

go
^

to the Arabic language for their

names

o f two

varieties,

4wM(/t/and lr/Sr. both

It

is

hiuhlv probable that both Strabo

and Pliny were led to

J18

believe that the


into the

myrrh, frankincense, cinnamon and spurs


all

kingdom of Acthiopia and upper Fn\pt


Possibly traders in
if

came from
d..

the

same
their

place.

Acthiopia obtained a better pru

myrrh and cinnamon

they stated the difficulties and


in

the countries of the savage they experienced collecting it or their antecedents in the Horn of Africa.

(Jail. is

"There can be no doubt

that the natives of these regions ha\c

The always been greatly feared by their less warlike neighbors. Somalis and their antecedents have always been keen traders, and there can be little doubt that if cinnamon ever existed in these regions,
the practice of collecting
it

would not have been dropped unless

the
lost

species here collected

was

of a very inferior quality and gradually

Marketable value."

Through mens of the


statement
rning

the courtesy of the


various aromatic

same gentleman

in

gathering speci-

gums

of Somaliland, a

more posimc
141-2,

maybe made
the

than was possible under Kgyptian frankincense trade, in

32, pp.

character of the trees depicted on the Punt reliefs

determining the at Deir el Bahri, a

photograph of which was reproduced on page 120.


calls this tree

Professor Breasted in his Ancient Records of Egypt (II, myrrh, and translates it as myrrh wherever the records
it.

refer to

In the publications of the Egypt Exploration


it is

Fund {The
is
1

Tempi* of Deir-fl-Bahrit III, 12),

called frankincense

but

maliland in the neighborhood of Mosyllum, because of the supposed African appearance of the Punt people who appear elsewhere
in

the

reliefs.

Specimens of true myrrh sent from Somaliland show clearly that no sculptor could have intended to depict by the rich foliage on the reliefs, the bare, thorny, trifoliate but almost leafless myrrh tree, nor
yet the almost equally leafless varieties of

Somaliland frankin

This tree is of Dhofar


in

clearly Boswdlia Carteri, the frankincense of the rich plain in Southern Arabia. This is the only place producing frankincense where the trees can be cultivated on a fertile plain by the
.

the midst of green fields and cattle.


*

There
is

is

no

pi

the African coast which meets these conditions.


that the natives are

Naville's objection
really in favor

'not Arabs,"

/.

<.,

not Semitic,

of such a belief; they

were the pre-Semitic, Cushite race whose dominions centered at Dhofar, and who are represented there by the modern ( Jara tribe. There can be no question that the trees in that relief are
Dhofar, the
Shthri luhan.
"Sachalitic

the frankincense of
Periplus, the

frankincense"

of

the

modern

ttt

To the potable objection that the Darror and Nogal valleys, taw southern part of the Somali peninsula, are fertile and might proi,:e than the northern coast, ic may be said thai the
fertility

stops far short of the east coast,

which

absolutely deierti

ras thr irlirU

show

nth snd (mile

plain bordering the sea.

A
Rome
t<>

great quantity of coin.


>>x

The

drain of specie from

thr

Kast has already been referred to under


I'liny.

8 49, and

is

"The

subject." he says (VI, 26

notice, seeing that ID n<> year

does India drain

us of less than $50,000,000

warrv

.ire

sold

among
tlir

us

at

,000,000) giving back her fully 100 times thrir nrtt


.!.!

urMri.iiu.il before

i'enplu*, in

I)

this

the subject of a Inter ittn the emperor Tiberius to the Roman Senate: "If a reform is in timh intended, where must it br

am

to restore the simplicity of


i

am -lent
i

time>

the taste for dress?

-xv

are

How shall we we to deal with the p^mfaf

s of feminine xamt\, and in particular with that rage for jewels and precious trinkets, which lir.uns thr empire of its wealth, and sends, in exchange for baubles, the money of the Commonwealth to foreign MS, and even to the enemies of Ron (Tacitus,

extravagant importation of luxuries from the Mast

adequate production of commodities to offer in exchange, main cause of the success! xe ilcpmution and degradation of the

Roman

currency, leading finally to


>r
1

its

total repudiation.

The

tary standard

ts

established by accumulations of

metal result in

wars.

The
t<>

sack of the

change her coinage from copper to After the destruction of Carthage and Corinth in 146 B. C.,

enabled R- nu

came into general use, and through the wars of Cseav so became plentiful that in 47 B. C. its ratio to silver was a gold I'nder Augustus the ratio was 8.9. lower than c\er before or since. rr 4tnan. I'nder he aurrus being won! about 1 sea-route to India was opened, after which came the m of wastefulness and extravareiu'n of Nrro. marked b>
gold coinage
t

it

gance, during which the Mixer .hnariui fell frm 1-84 to 1-96 pound Under rr, an alloy of 20 per cent copper being added to it
n the
all
1

and under Scpiimius SeveniS

SO per

cent.
R

holly
\x

KUgubaluv 218 A I> (he^sViMnJU had Kxen the golden *rnu and was repudiated copper
mally, under
.

was tampereii
of

ith

xportetl

large quantities to

become the

basis

exchanue

in

India,

the supply at

home was

exhausted.

I'nder

128

Augustus the aurfus weighed 1-40 of a pound of gold, ami under Under Constammc- it Ml to n.m it weighed but 1-60. when the coin was taken only by weight (Sahatier, J t /iyztinks
It

Adams, Law of

Civilization

was

this steady loss of capital, to replace

which no

h \\.is

produced, that led finally to the abandonment of Rome- and to the \ionm-di.i and transfer of the capital at the end of the 3d century soon afterward to Byzantium.
t

Coin of Nero commemorating the opening


In the

of the harbor-works at Ostia.

Madras Government Museum there is nearly a complete the Roman Emperors during the period of A of them excavated in southern India. all with active trade India, breaks in which distinct the two there are is that fact series; notable may of course be supplied by later discovery', but which seem to indicate a cessation of trade due to political turmoil in Rome. The o.ins Ilu of Tiberius, Caligula, Claudius and Nero are numerous.
series of

the coins of

Th few of Vespasian and Titus anywhere in India. then there are Hadrian and frequent; Domitian, Nerva, Trajan This indiof the time Commodus. until break comes another lasting
very
cation, so far as
it

Periplus during the pasian and Titus


I-

has any value, points again to the dating of the reign of Nero rather than during those of \ \ -s-

or a

full

account of

Roman
2,

coins discovered in South India,

Thurston, Catalogue No.


pp.
1

Madras Government Museum,

56.

Crude
Ceylon
crystal."
at the

glass.
in

The

origin of the glass industry in India


Antiquities

is

uncertain.

According

to Mitra,

of Orissa,

I,

101,

it

was

made

in

the 3d century B. C., and Pliny


all

refers to the glass of India as superior to

pounded

Mirrors, with a

foil

66) of "made because others, of lead and tin, were


1

(XXXVI,

used there

time of the Periplus, and Pliny indicate -s

\\.\\

II,

people of India, by coloring cryrtai, have found a " .g various done*, beryls in panicular
.

.u\,

the

M'ukfkkaiatiHi.
(Ins
r?!i
.

K Hr

Mnra,
1
I

re

Uo A

unhridge,
sc

"

or nan
I

mH
not tay
IH..M,

said?

he>

may

IK-

different,

'hough

like.

they nu> he mutations by


>St,

tome

"
different,

skillful artiu.

examine ihrm,
.f

(ir>

ma> IT

thouyi

the

artists if

no doubc very
be div

great,

and

illations of
.

ornaments they hair


.uU tcafcely

manner

that the dit!i

Coppt-i
for tlu

tin

and

lead.

As at Baogra intended
1"

ihiefl)

\\.\l\,

"India IM* neither bran


for th

lead, but exclianues preficius &tine

and pearU

copper

S&***
Lead Wat med
I
< .

\i:h a little
'.litra,

nn

in thin ^beeis,
,

asafil

for iht- in.inutactiire of

nun

c/..

.;/

p.
i

101.)
urscnu-, appear-

Orpiinent.
mi:
in
Ir

the form
of export

.-:

This is i\\< smooth shining


P

scales,

which have long been an


tlie

artu

from the
26)
says,

itdf to In
'

1'liny (\'l,

"Nod
.1

il

luiion

t.f

the

)n and

then the

'

n\er of Carmania, with an excellent


at this

harbor

at its

mouth, and producing uold;


time thr\
ell
i

spot the u nters state

au^ht

siu'ht

of the

(mat
h<
it.

Hear

The
ni^ht,

Star

UN,
,

was not

to

be seen

and

durinu the \viu>le of


.

extended the empire of the Ach.i .nd mint ron, arsenic, and red -t The prim orpnnent uasas.i \ellow pigment
>
1

I'p to this spot and in these districts are Co

<iu

HUHium

making
\\

a d.iraMe miner. .1
r
t

;...mt.

as did realgar

and

lapis lazuli

the sailors.j

M.*:*,.

Polo also notes Hit.

r r>\\s t

n (his

pi

So.

CottOnara.
identities
v

Dr. Burneil

iieri\e> this
.

which he
South
:

with North \I.d.iiu

frm ftWrftg fiisl. uhuh C'annanore and

are the centers.

Ma.
of the Rajas of

Uui hanan prefers Addrfftt m*4i, In rnedi4\.il times the


liish..p C'alduell. in

K**t*M
.

included boch.
the

-widiiin Gramnui'
trans--

name from Mabyilam i^tbt,


district.

e,

and

ffJ/

M
r

:./:*;

./

tyuary,

Aug.

1902;. suggests

kattal,

sea,

or &/*,

222
u, the hill-country back of the sea-coast, would accord with In ar the facts while supporting the transliteration of the text. the term does not seem to have been applied to an exact locahu

56.

Great quantities of fine pearls.

fisheries of the Ciulf of

sold in the I'her.i


trade.

These were from the u and S brought to InManar, mentioned in ports, the meet ing- point of Kastern and Western
,

Silk
jes.

Cloth.

From China,
.49,

by

wax

D<

Tibet

and

the

See under

49 and 64.
See under
>

56.
5b.

Gangetic spikenard.
Transparent Stones.
district,

of the

Coimbatore

for

These were principally the beryls which there was a constant demand in
their principal foreign

Rome, and which always found


Malabar
ports.

market

in the

This

lot ali/.ation

of the

gem

trade continued until


is

after the Portuguese period in India;


(II, x

the reason

stated by

Tavernier

in all

All

was formerly the place where there was the largest trade diamonds, rubies, sapphires, topazes, and other stones. the miners and men-hauls went there to sell the best which they
I

Asia

in

had obtained
whereas,
in

at the

mines, because they had there


country,
if

full

liberty to sell,

their

own

they showed anything to the

kmu s
r

and princes, they were compelled to sell at whatever price they pleased to fix. There was also at Goa a large trade in pearls, both of those which came from the island of Bahrein in the Persian Gulf, and those
fished for in the Straits of

Manar on the coast of

the island of

Ceylon."

India and Ceylon were preeminently the source of production of precious stones of all kinds, which were exported to every part of the
cixiliy.ed
1.

world.

Watt

(p.

556)

classifies the

production as

f<>

The

2.

Beryl group, from the sea-green aquamarine white. (The btry Ilium of Pliny, X X XVII, 20. ) (The adamas of Pliny, XXXVII, 15.) Diamond.
'earl.

to

the

4.
5.

Ruby.

The

carbunculus of Pliny,
in

XXXVII,

25.)
\

Sapphire, occurring

numerous

colors, various blues,

inlet,

Produced mainly on the Southern yellow, green and white. Malabar hills, now rarely found in India but more frequently
in

Ccxlon.

6.

Spinel.
tuli.

(The hyacinthm (Included among the


Watt doubts
its

of

Pliny,

XXX VII, 41
Plim's
,,////////-

12 varieties of

7.

Tnpa/..

production

in

India at any p
that
it

and the Periplus sho\\x <m the contrary

was imported

./!/*.!

Of

I'

\ VII,

>e.

nut; ihr n.irthu

product of Perm, m* occurring in India but rfrrn port* <if trade The rtf/Cmtf of
'

Pl.nx.

\\.\\
'

II,

3.O
MX p4flH.il

India.

Mi.tr of R*)pU-

tana being

>nr
IMi
I

,,f

the 12 varieties, perhap>

tfZ04W/4,

<>f

Jade
sul>
it.-

anil
I

mainly

m
in r

urkestan but aiv

upper

a serpentine \\hile not prodmed


hiie
-.in

,:ham*an

is

often

in.i:
.

Indu. these all find leading market it China


<u
Iju^rljr
in India,

11

apis

l^/.uli,
f
<

or ulininurinr

...

used

of

all

kindt and in

demand

Kgypt and the Mrtiurrranean world from the i-w/S^/Vw of Plmx. \\\\ II
1

earliest tiroes.

.>u4itzose, inrludint;
a.

Rock

crystals,

not seem to hax


tones.
)v

white and colored, which thr Romans do nshrd from more precious
Plmx.

(The.nWof
..!!.
>..

\\\\ll.
(y/i^i/Xri,

AL

F
.

bloodstone, chrysoprasc, jasper, chalopal, etc

cedony, cat's
tiitrtUlu;

murrkt**,

tartia; At/iotnpium; fkrjMpraiur, imtpit,


</9fiyx;

atrtJudmi*; tar.

tyx;

9ftil

Plmx

\ \ \ VII.)
<>li\e

Ttrnmuiin.
green, and white,
India.
i

'hrough red, dark blue,


the red

\uneties being

commonest
ce Ijuuen,

in

(The4frjwof
II.
PI,,,-.

Plmx.

\\\\II.
and
trade,
I,

further discussion of the deposits


I

229-4

imnfer,
>axs

l-

\\\\il.
-.eni

I'he

of a hexagonal form, briausr the


IKIt

<>l..r.

'are produced in India, lupuUnrs cut all beryls xvhu h is deadened by a dull
.

Mirtatc,

is

dux

..<

cur in
I

" I he he crystals are naturally hexaheti most esieemrvi beryls are those whu h in color resemble the pure green of the sea. The people of India are marvelouJy fond of beryls
. . .

heightened by the reflection frm the any other wa>, these stones have no bhl-

of an elongated form,
the -x

and say

that these are the only precious stonti

prefer wearing without the addition of gold.*'


In

the

MnclickkakatHa, an early Sanscrit play, there


>

i*

a scene

xvhuh uu

Uul<

row

of jewelers'

shops,
U.

"where

skillful artists

afe

examining pearls topazes, sapphires, ben

rubies, lapis la/uli, coral

224

and

oilu

me

set rubies in gold;

some work with

gold orlapis

naments on colored thread, some string pearls, some grind the x,.mr pierce shells, and some cut coral." (Mitra, op.
,

p.

UK).)

Diamonds.
diamond.

The
be

text

is

adamas.

notably Dana, have doubted whether the

Some commentators, Romans ever knew the true

Then- can
15'

no

\\.\\ll.
ijuarty.,

includes under adamn>


,

doubt that Pliny in his description other suhstam cs, probably


p<

iron ore, cmcr)


t

etc.,

but he also says that the diamond


the precious stones, but of

thcgreatc

\aiuc, not only

among

all

human

possessions; and as Watt says (p. 556), India source of diamonds known to European nations.

was long the onk


r.astcrn

Garcia de

Orta (1563), mentions various


(

diamond

mines, such astho.se of "Bisnager"

Dcccan).
particulars of
1

Ball, in his translation of


all

Yijayanagar Tavernier's
)

and the "Dec am'


'/'
,;

,rA, gives full


II,

the Indian sources of

diamonds

450-4M
to

was a diamond merchant and the first Kuropran (1676 examine critically the diamonds and court jewels of India.
.ixernier

The principal
1

districts

were,
districts of

Southern

Group:

Kadapa,
;

Bellary,

Karnul.

Kistna, Godaverl, (Golcondft, etc.

Middle Group:

MahanadI

valley,

districts

of

Samhalpur,

Chanda;
Northern Group:
still

Yindhyan conglomerates near Panna

worked

Pliny

CXXXYII,

15) describes the Indian adamas as "found,

not in a stratum of gold, but in a substance of a kindred natui< crystal; which it closely resembles in its transparency and its highly
polished hexangular and hexahedral forms."

(The

true

form of the

diamond

is

octahedral.)

point at either extremity,


of,

turbinated, running to a and closely resembling, marvelous to think


it

"In shape

is

a ha/.cl-nut.

two cones united "

at

the base.

In size, too,

it

is

as large eveti as

The Romans seem


cutting.

to

have had no knowledge of diamondis

Pliny goes
at

on

to say that -"its hardness


it

beyond

all

expi
to

sum, while

the

same time

quite sets fire at defiance;

owing

which indomitable powers it has received the name which it derives from the Greek." (a privative, and daman, "to subdue.")
After his description of the hardness of the diamond, Pliny ob'this indomitable power, which sets at naught the two most serves,
violent agents in nature,
fire,

namely, and iron,

is

made

to yield bet

he-ecu-

blood,

however,

muu

he

lre%f

warm
(

the ttone, too t mutt he well fteepeci

II, v <M quotes a *ory In Indian diamond* obtainable only by fling\\hrrr the 4tami?fnff Could IK* ing pieces of incur on the mountain,

Ball

(Tavc

.<*;,,

nut:

'.out

'

be

"ir number ,,f M-rpento. collrtt. The piece* 4 meat with diamonds sticking to them were then carried to their ne*s by

biriU
I

overed by diamond seekers.


his

myth

is

founded on fhr
t<

\rr>

common

praitur in India

on

mini: of a mine,
.tre

offer

up

cattle to propitiate the evil spirits

supposed to guard tremsurei


sacrifices birds of prey

At such can;" which

these being represented by the assemble to pick up what they


story.

mdation for the remainder of the


striking similarity to the
:

Here we have a

fmerted with
29,

the gathering of frankincense, as outlined under

and pepper

hr

rhusand \igAfs and On*


Sinh.ul thr Sailor,

A'//A/ gives substantially thr


sufficiently iden-

2d voyage), while
found that
its soil

the st'

along the \allry


>ne

was of diamond,

wherewith they pirn


on\
\,

r
is

aiul

for

that

it

jewels and precious stones and pora hard dense stone, whereon neither

irn nor

steel

hath effect, neither ca: he leadst


(III, xix) records
in those

therefrom nor

mountains great serpents are rife to a marvelous degree, besides other xermin, and this owing to the great he*L The serpents are also the most venomous in existence, insomuch that
tie
'.

Marco Polo "Moreover

more

definitely this ancient be

going to that region runs fearful peril; for


by these
evil reptiles.

many have been

"Now among
>,

these mountains there are certain great and deep


is

to the

bottom of which there

no

access.

Wherefore the

men

who go in search of the diamonds take with them pieces of flesh, as they can get, and these they cast into the bottom of a valley.
;i

Now

there are numbers of white eagles that haunt those mountain*

and feed upon the serpents.

When
it.

the eagles see the meat thrown


it

upon
where they begin
i

it

and carry
lli:t

up

to

some rocky hilUop


the watch, and

to

rnul

there are

men on

as soon as they see that the eagles have settled they raise a loud shoutAnd when the eagles are thus frightened ML- to time them away.
the

men

recover the pieces of meat, and find them


'he meat

full

of dia-

monds which ha\r

down

in

the

Kctim

Kr

the

abundance of diamonds down there in the depth of the \alley is astonishing, but nobody can get them; and if one could it would he only to be incontinently devoured by the serpents which arc so rife there."

The
life in

part played by the eagles


profit of

is

that of

other sacred birds, for the

who gave his defence of Sita against the Raksha Ravana, in the A the ibis at Buto who defended Kgypt against the frankincense-serpents.
defence and

man.

Compare

the bird Jatayu,

P.

<-

and the eagles


Pliny.

who

fought the dragons.

Virgil,

.//;/////,

\l.

KSi
in

\.

Connected

\\ith these beliefs

was

that in the efficacy of the diaall


it

mond
still

warding

off

from the wearer


fr,

sorts of evils.

"Sir John
.

\Iaiuie\ill.

XVII), recounts

for

liis

da\

and

it

may

be observed.

"He that beareth the diamond upon him, it giveth him hardiness It giveth and manhood, and it keepeth the limbs of his body whole. him victory of his enemies in plea and in war, if his cause be rightful.
that

And if any cursed witch or enchanter should bewitch him, all sorrow and mischance shall turn to himself through virtue of that And no wild beast dare assail the man that beareth it on him. stone.
And
it

healeth

him

that
if

is

lunatic,

and them that the fiend puisucth


for to sweat.

or travaileth.

And
it

venom

or poison be brought in presence of the

diamond, anon
it

beginneth to

wax moist and


it.

Nat hies

befalleth often time that the

good diamond loseth

his virtue by sin,


it is

and

for incontinence of
it

him

that beareth

And
it is

then
little

needful to

make

to recover his virtue again, or else

of

value."
trans-

56.

Sapphires.

The

text

is

hyakintlios,

which has been

lated as jacinth, ruby

rather than India.


in great quantities

and amethyst. Jacinth is a product of Africa Rubies are from Burma and probably never came
India.

from

Pliny says that the hyacinth resembles

the amethyst, but draws a distinction between them.

had
as

in

mind a

violet sapphire,

and

his

word

really

Pliny probahk might be translated

meaning

all tints

of sapphire from blue to purple.

Dionysius Periegetes refers to the "lovely land of the Indians

where the complexions of the dwellers are dark, their limbs exquisitely >leck and smooth, and the hair of their heads surpassing smooth and
dark blue like
t!ie hyacinth." (McCrindle, Ancient India, p. 18S. ) \V. Goodchild (Precious Stonn.p. 18.*), also thinks that the sapphire was the hyacinthus of Pliny, and says that the principal source

of sapphires in that part of the world was

in the watered graxeU of Southern Ceylon, which were derived from watered crystaline rocks; and at the time of the Periplus the natural market would have been

on the Malabar

coast.

The

ruby,

which

is

practically of the

same

.Mti.,n, lri!..
lie

sapphire in Ceylon, and I'l.m under the <*rkm<l*> \\X\11. JS


(

.rundum group, was found in the wa* probably classified by


.

Boib rubies and tapphtrr*


the

UK! in

nun h Beater

quantities in
re

of

the

IVnplus these dei

Burma and Sum, but at probably unknown to

Tortoise-shell from Chryse.


',

-KbrHiu%4Kcuf
it

ihi

and
\

ai
\

"that found along the cojut;" but


Cf a Correct
fc
s,

tt

prob-

ahle that

vr trade of Kaftfeni

shippn
in

/h Indian ports. VK huh 60 and 63. Marco Polo notes


tu r of

indeed, specincaJly mentioned n the partii ularU the o

Man/i.
id

Kieypt

and says (III, xx\ that the %hipx "are not one t<> (en <>f thcmr that goto
f.i

the eastward; a very notable

To
plus

assume
In-

(tut
t..
u'
(

.iiulitiiiiix

were the same


the

at the

time of the I'm-

u.'uul
1
1

>

l>'-\'ud

exidcmc,
and

yet the records of tbe


..f

I'hmt-M-

irinsc-lxrs point strongly to


.inlv

the exi*teric

an active scaperhaps,

to Malacca,

less frequently,

to India

.md

l>r\<nid.

\\ idi this itnn

ends

the- list

of articles traded

in

by the author of
letter

the I'eripluv

It

is

uiterrstui-j

t>

liimpan-

it

with the

Zamorin
Ciunia
<>n

of Calicut to the
his

King of
ol
I

Portugal, carried by

from the Vasco da


**ln

return from
is

India fourteen centuries later:

m>

then-

dbttndancc
NN'hat

mamon,

cloves, ginger, pepper,


is

and precious stones. coral, and scarlet."


I

seek from thy cnuntry

gold, silver,

opened a new ocean to Roman shipping; but it is probable that Arabian and Dravidian craft had frequented that ocean for many centuries, and inconeix.iMe that they should not have made use of the periodic changes of the monsoons, by far the most notable feature of their climate. \idence of both o>untne> indicates, on the contrary, that they
i

lippalus f irst discovered. The may be placed at about 45 A. I), (see

dis<.

iiippalus,
',

p. 8

steered boldly out of si^ht of land, before records

'ten to

tell

of

it

Mr
Sociftr,
>d

Kennedy

in

an

article

in

the Journal
that the

1898, (pp. 248-287) also thinks


the

f/" tkt Rtyw dtMt monsoons were un-

before the time of Hippalus, but doubts the beginning of any


be-jmrnnv:
of

regular sea-trade before

the

7th century B.

ascribing

all

such trade to the

activities of

ome
China.

Nabonidus, in whose time to Babylon from India and even fmm

Following

this

reign he thinks sca-tradc hctv

Babylon flourished for hut partly Aryan, and leading to the settlement
.1,

<

mainl>
<>t

Dtaxidian

Indian traders in

Hast Africa, Babylonia and China.

He

minimizes the impor-

tance of the early Egyptian trading-voyages, considering them purely early local, while the numerous references t<> articles and routes
.t

trade in

the Hebrew scriptures he passes by with the assertion

that they

are due to the revision following the return

But whatever

may have been

Ezra's revision of the

llehre\\

books, substantially the same articles of trade are dcsc ribed in the records of Egypt at corresponding dates, and they indicate a trade in
articles of

Indian origin to the Somali coast and overland to the Nile,

centuries before K/.ra's day.

(See also under

>.

Ill,

II,

and

1.

>

Such opinions presume


change of cargoes passes from tribe
I'eriplus
at

a continuous trading-journey withon

common
tribe

meeting-points.
port to port.

But primitive tiade

to

and

At the time of the

cargoes changed hands in Malacca, Malabar, Somaliland, The custom is stated in South Arabia, Adulis and Berenice.
in

the Deirel Bahri reliefs describing

Queen

Matshepsut's expedition

of 1500 B. C.,

where Amon-Re

tells

the queen,

one trod the incense-terraces, which the people knew not; they were heard of from mouth to mouth by hearsay of the am The marvels brought thence under thy fathers, the Kings of Louer Egypt, were brought from one to another, and since the time of the anestors of the Kings of Upper Egypt, who were of old, a* <i r,turn
for

"No

many payments,"
It

(Breasted, Ancient Record^

II,

287).

was the

particular

tions that they traced the treasured articles to their source

achievement of the Egyptian Punt expediand freed


'

the land from the heavy charge of those

'many payments

Like-

wise Hippalus must be remembered, not for a discovery new to the world, but for freeing the Roman Empire from Arabian monopoly of
tstern trade

by tracing

it

to

its

source.

Beyond India no

lasting

ery

was made.

Ptolemy, indeed,

knew

of Cattigara through

the account given by Marinus of Tyre; but such voyages were exnal, and the majority of the Chinese ships stopped at Malacca,
It remaim d while the Malay cdandia carried the trade to Malabar. for the Arabs to complete the "through line*' by opening direct <>mc

munication under the Bagdad Caliphate, between the ends of the earth, Lisbon and Canton.
Prof.
Sotifty,

T. \V. Rhys Davids, in the Journal of the Royal Asiatic 1899, p. 432, quotes an interesting Buddhist passage referring
:

to early sea-trade as follows

"In

tlir

)ialo.te

ur> nt the

Huddha it a DftflSagc The Buddlta


,

in fhr

Whrn

tlir

'in to plungr forth ago ocean-going men ham % n board a thip. tukm^ with them a shorn sighting bird. i hip was out of tight of land they would Mt the tbore-

kighdiig hird frrr


TO thr \\rsi rise aloft.
ut
if

And
in
th<

it

w..uld go to the

l_a*t

and

the South

and

and
If M.

and
it

the

intermediate point

<>n
.t

(he hort/on
it

taught
t>ai

igh( of to ihr

Lnd,

ihithrr

it

uould

would tome

Onp

a/j

Ju%l

w.

brodx

smas Indicopleuxtes found this same custom in C'c\l>n m the A I) merchants depending *hore aghimg birds instead of observations of the sun or stars.
'tli

irnturs

There
son*

are similar passages in the oldest of the Veda*

.11.1,

\\lio

knows
-

ihr path of the birds Hying through (he

air, hr, abiding in the

ocean,

knows
i.i\,

also the course of

si.

I'shas

thr

rxcitress of chariotB

which are

harnessed

at IK

.:,

as those

who

are desirous of wealth *cnd

ships to sea."

off

"Do thou, Agni, whose countenance is tumrd t. all sides, *rnd our ad\rrxanr, as if in a ship to the opposite shore. Do thou v us in a ship across the sea for our \\i (A remarkable
>ry

prayer for safe conduct at s< Kalidisa, in (he Sakunta*..


navriddln,

of (he
to

merchant Dha-

king on the former's perishing at sea and leaving no heirs behind him. The HitopaJfta describes a ship as a necessary rrquiMtc for a man
dr\<>l\rd

u hose immense wealth

the

to traverse (he ocean,

and a

story

is

"ulio, after

having been

(\\rl\e years

gi\en of a certain merchant, on his voyage, at bst returned

home
I

wi(h a cargo of precious stoix he Institutes of Mann include rules for the -juidamc of mari-

time

onunrpassages quoted above indicate a wrll-dc\ eloped and The sea-trade was principally of Dravidian develop>th
:ul
-e
.,

pnniitur trade.

the

Vedas and the Buddhst writings are of Aryan


t<>

refer to things nr\\

(heir race but old in the world.

also
II

Buhlrr,

Mgttmku Ar
189$, No.
3,
pi in

kmn.

A
'.
I

Pal**zrap
111,

like,

Indian

J*rtitutn,

\\\.

More

significant

is

the Phtrnu

un ong.n

ot

the Dratidian alpha*

230
bet,
in

long before the Aryan invasion


the

Ramiiyana

suggests the ships of

southern India; while- a passage those \\hom the invaders

contemphis

.illed

"monkeys."
winds
in

When Rama
search of
Sita.
i;

was disp.m
vrai the mali'.-ned

messengers
red her.

to the four

Hanuman who
<

that

across the (Julf of Manar to Ceylon ami discan doubt that the wings he used were sails. the Dravidians ferried across to Ceylon a force of Ar\an laiuls-

flew

Who

men, who

later

turned and crushed them under the


l)t,i:-,Li-u

cm
their
<>t

and

established the dynasties of

Mem

must ha\c been

them to worship one of under the guise of a monkey, and to carry the cult
the subjection that brought

own
monk'

the

god Hanuman in their own ships to are unknown and where it has
-

the vales of
outlived the

Oman, where monmemory of its found<

ers, to the confusion of the

modern

observer.

Gen.

.V

\\.

Miles.

in

Gfographical Journal, VII, 336.)


Significant also
is

the fact that Lieutenant Speke,

when plannm

his

discovery of the source of the Nile, secured his best information

from a
the

map

reconstructed out of the Puranas.


in Asiatic

(Journal, pp.

216; WiJford,
river,

Ruearehts%

III).

It

traced the course of


t

"Great Krishna,'' through Ctttka^Mpa from ga\e the "Country of the Moon," which correct position in relation to the '/an/ibar islands. The name from the nati\e m-ti-mui'zij having the same meaning: and tin- map mentioned another native name, Amara, applied to the discorrectly trict bordering Lake Victoria Nyanza.
the
lake in Chandristhan,
it
I

tayi Speke, "concerning the hydrography of these regions, originated with the ancient Hindus. who told it to the priests of the Nile; and all those bus\ Kgvptian

"All our previous information,'

geographers,

who

disseminated

their

knowledge

with

\ie\\

to

be famous for

their long-sightedness,

in solving the

mystery which

enshrouded the source of their holy river, were so many hvpothc humbugs. The Hindu traders had a firm basis to stand upon through
their intercourse with the Abyssinians."
it

(See

14

must be supposed that the navigation of the Indian Altogether Ocean began from the Persian Gulf and Arabia; that Western India claimed its share at an early date; and that this community of interest long excluded their customers of the Mediterranean world, from whose
standpoint Hippalus was quite as great a discoverer as
if

he had

really

been
"the
first

that ever hurst

Into that silent sea."

57.

Throw

the Ship's head.


meaning
literally

The

text

is

//v/,//,--//*/,///,-.,,

which

is

a wrestlers' term

''throwing by the ret

232

The uord

has led to nuu-h unn<

usion in the translation

of this passage.

Our

auth<

oune uhich
ot

is

The olm.uis by referring to the map. \\ind, from Hisn (ihorah to th<- (iulf
the
I

Carat*? or the mouth of

mltis.

would

<

ssel
i

along the Arabian shore as

that tlie vessel dually rei Fanak, beyond which the A vessel hound would stand out to sea without changing its ciiirse. for the Malabar ports and sailing before the wind, with the t\
-

then

in lite,

\\ould have required steering off her course

tin-

whole tune, thus describing a wide curve before making the Indian Boats were not handled as easily then as now on a beam wind. coast. tent pull on the tiller by the hands The quarter-rudder required
of the steersman.
57.

The Same

COUrse.

Pliny's

account of the

\oyage to

India (VI, 26), which has been cited by most commentators on the It will be seen that v liile it Periplus, is appended for comparison.

agrees with the Periplus in

many
of

points, particularly in

its

description

of Arabia,

its

description

the

Indian

coast

not altogether the

same:

"In

later

times

it

has been considered a well ascertained fact that


ie<

the voyage from Syagrus, the Promontory of Arabia, to Patala,

k-

oned

at thirteen

hundred and

thirty-five miles,

advantageously with the aid of a

can be performed most westerly wind, which is there known


a shorter route,

by the name of Hippalus. "The age that followed pointed out

and

.1

one

to those

who
still

Sigerus, a port in
until at last a
thirst

might happen to sail from the same promont. India; and for a long time this route was followed, shorter cut was discovered by a merchant, and the

for gain brought India


s

even

still

nearer to

us.

At the p

are

made

to India every year;

and companies of archers

are carried on board the \es>els, as those seas are greatly infested with
pirates.

"It will not be amiss too, on the p the whole of the route from Kgypt, which
late,

forth
h.is

been stated to us
be placed, and
is

of

upon information on which


first

reliance

may

here

The subject is one well worthy of our time. no year does India drain our empire of less than five hundred and fifty millions of sesterces, giving back her own wares which are sold among us at fully one hundred times in exchangi
published for the
notice, seeing that in
,

their

prime

cost.

"Two
The

miles distant from

Alexandria

is

the
is

town

of Juliopolis.

distance thence to Coptos, up the

Nile,

three hundred and

eight

miles,
111

the

v..>a^r
.lav
>

!>
I

;>r"
it

;%

hen ihr Kiruait u inds a*B


jiNirncy if trade with the

Moum/,

twelir

Copcot the

aid of camels, stations being arranged at intervals for the supply of stot these stations if called H>drruma ^UT .Mtf-pbce),

and

is

distant

i.

-he-

r, ,.:,,!

iniafe

on a mount.
i

a distance of one day'*

j..uf m--,

from thr

la%i

the third

41

4 tecocul
if

Hydrrunu
is

distant

from Coptos ninn>-rur mile%,


li.it

thr fourth
..f

on a
h.

is

.1

irruma, that
a: | is

Apollo, and
alter
v% hit

distant
is

from Coptos onr hundred


another on
,1
.1

four mile*,

mouiitan.
Mv.lrriiina, distant
t..

thru
(

u:,..thrr

ktalion at a
.

ilu-

Vu
I
:

!r..m

hundred
1

and lhu:\ miles,


the

and next

H thr

||y.

AJ)

un
i

iniard,

uith a caravans.il v (hat affordii l-Kl^m'I

fr

t\*.-

pcrsont.

his last
it

is

ilistant

from
to (hr

t!

rrunu M-\cn
,".

milek.

!ra\ir:.:

"

*.(

|i

lurhoT of
t\\.
is

the

Rrd Sea and


I

distant

from
f

r..j>-,.,

hundred

jtul hfty-teven
i

'he

greater part

this distance

ir<M<*ralI)

ra % riled
at

by
the

IM\>\\\,

ma

of

ih

\vhii h

it

tak-

-rrforni the

whole

;>tos to

I',

"Passengers generally set sail at midsummer, before the rising of the Dog-star, or rU<- munetliately ufter, and in about thirty day* r else at C'ana, in the regmn \\huh bears
frank
it
i

ere
I

is

also a thin! port


In
;

Sy

name;

is

not,

-.isnl

those touch

at

it

who

deal in

:ussage to India, as only intense and the perfumes of Arabia.


'he residence of the king there
is

in thr interior th<

called Sapphar.

and there
are

is

another
for
]

-\

!>v

the

name

of Save.

To

those

who
If

bound

barcation.

the wiiul,

i.illed Ilippalus,

the best place for hapj>ens to he blowing,


s

emit

is

possible to arrive in forty days at the nearest mart in India. Mu/iris by

name.
tion. t>n

irahle place for di^mbarcaThis, howe\er, is a which account of the pirates frequent its \ionity, where the>
c.ilh
^.

occupy a place

nor,

fact,

is

it

very rich in
is

an ides of

mm -hamiise.
pages,

Tx-sitlrs. the roadstead for shipping

a considerable

distance from the sh.>re, and the cargoes have to he conveyed in bout, At the moment that I am xv cither for loading or discharging.

these

the

Another

port,

name of the king of this place is Cclobothras. and a much more convenient one, is that which
Neacymh,
at a

the territory of the people called

liarace by
.ihle

name.

Merc

king Pandion used

dwelling

distance from

the marl in the interior, at a city

known
p.

.is

Modiera.

The

district

from which pepper


of the>c

is

carried

down

to Baracc in boats

hollowed out
as Cotton. na.

of a single tree (see illustration on

212),

is

known
it

names
\\

of

nations, ports,

and

cities arc to

he found

in

any of the former


that the localit
-

liters,

from u huh tin umxtance

\\ould appear
set sail

HIM c

changed
i

their
at

names.

Travellers

from India on

their return to
is

the beginning of the Iv.iyptian


at all

month
sixth

nt

T\his. which

our December, or

events before the

day of the Kgyptian month Mechir, the same- as our Ides of JanuThey ary; if tncv do this they can uo and return in the same year. from India with a south-east wind, and upon entering the Red
i

Sea, catch the south-west or south."


58.

Dark Red Mountain.


it

can be no doubt that


high sandstone and
\ arkkallai
>.

refers to the

The "

text

is

Pyrrhon.

There

Red

Bluffs,"

a series of

laterite

headlands, which abut on the coast at

41' N.), and again

These

are the "Warkalli

below Anjengo (8 40' N., 76 Beds" of the Indian geologists,

communication between

and have recently been pierced by a canal to complete the backwater Tiriir and Trivandrum, nearly 200 miles ( Imperial d^-itfn. XXIV, 300.)

Beyond
did not go.
*

this point

we must assume
his

that the author of the Periplus

The

remainder of

work, usually referred to as the

'sequel,"
at

represents

what he learned by inquiring of acquaintances

Nelcynda or Hacare, and set down in writing toward lightening the darkness of Mediterranean ideas concerning all matters oriental.
58.

Paralia.
is

According to
it

Caldwell
AV//W,

(Drwutia* Grammar,

56), this
This

a translation of the
is

Burnell and Yule,


is

/'wrw/i,

CCMMt;" according to an ancient local name for Travancore.

Tamil

supported by Gundert
translation

in his

Malay a lam

Dictionary,

and by the
still

Malayalam

of

the

Ramayana.

include that of Punt/isan, "Ix>rd of Purali."


untry in general

The Raja's titles The native name

for

was Malayalam, from mala, mountain, and

Piedmont. alam, depth; the land at the foot of the mountains, Paralia, to the author of the Periplus, is the coast-line below the

Travancore backwaters, around Cape Comorin, and as far as Adam's Bridge: comprised within the modern districts of Travancore and
Tinnevelly.
58.

Balita.
43' K.
).

N., 76

This is probably the modern Yarkkallai It was formerly the southern end of the long
(

42'

line of

hackwatcrs, and a place

cutting through a bluff the

considerable commercial importance. ack waters ha\e recently been con


1

By

.(ling as far as

Trivandrum, which

is

now

the chief port

rbrmied trnu
itni
ininrr.il
/"./

by pilgrims from
the

springs in

all pins vuinux make K 4 favorite health


<

CT
I

SH.
..f

Commit-

.norm,
S
S'

tl.r
I

,.,,!hern efttrrmMy
I

ihr

Indian peninsula
(he San

7-

he

name u

the

fiu

was applied

to the

goddess Durga, or Parxati,


still

tlu
Pol,,,
II,

.4

it the monthly bathing lontinued; and according to the Imfxnul (urullftr

si

important place* of pilgrim.*

Southern
In

liuii.i

(lie

tHN-

iirisii.m

ami
first

C'lnn.i

ti.i Koine, 1'urthu, India, T* cf ihe wrll. h the

and

list

were ativam
(

ine,

transformation

>t

the

\\..:I.l's

(he others passing through poliiuraJ religions, the Buddhist, a* Kdmunds


(;*ifx/>,
pi.

has Well said (BmMhiit ,tmi CJirnrian


\s.is

nl

ihr most powerful


<>f

nn thr

Hut

it

u .is

in>

the

Buddhism
l.nip'
in

the

Asoka.
llowed by the

The
ris<-

disintegradoa of
of
(lie

the

\Iaur\u

the norti
Huiidhist,

Indo^H->thun d of the Andhra in the Deccan. Both the Scythian Kanishka in the fl ntur>
neiit

of th.K

faith.
t\\

lut

.f

the

barbarian u

<!

not

-he Hindu, the

iluef Huddhist
kii

powcfB
akuru
lialasii

were

at

war, and in !-'


nu-inonal

>
,

when
'

the

Andhra
the

injucrcd,
a
as,
lex led
.i
!

tuu-rn-mofher

at

K:ui:
. .
.

and Pahbvas

'he Sakas, he "dr properly expended the taxes \\huh he


\

in

aivordanre with the sacred lau


\ :su

and presented the


through Turkestan and
'he lluiu-

of the four castes."


t

mt

Smith, hirfy History, 188.)


--nt

o the north

China had
Mit<>

onl\

;n,

ulule the ;.n-m:

Hurma and lmi-i


n.
(

MK h made of those kingdoms a In not taken place


!

n the

'.dy

for the

aw

of

their

them neighbors and anuent


..posed to
in

rat

ullv a:u!
.

the Southern

d\ nasties

and caste-y>tems
of the

who had

It
'

Hindu

gods.

"the

a
r

Rudra
and
ret
.

of

the /',,w>.

was the

the god of the -ed bv the

.ins.

together with his

"Us,

Mcrijic piinciplc,"

)i,

Hix svmbol was the

coht.i. hers the lion,

hile their

son
k

elephant-headed, the god of learning.) Ami as the southern \\a\ed strong, so their religion \\as pushed lily

displ.t
ti

Buddhism
i

in

its

home-land
until the

as

it

in turn

spread outward over

..ntmcnt of Asia;

Deccan and Bengal returned

to the earlier
liiti-

f.uth,

while of the structure built up by ECanishka the \\


but wreckage.

Huns

had

left

The

religion of India as seen by the author of the IVriplus

at Barygaza under the Saka satraps, a hctem Buddhism had supplanted the Law observed at I'jjeni and Pataliputta uiuler the Mauryas, and preached to the nations of the earth under Asoka in the third century B. C. while the purer form still upheld by the Andhras could not be found at their western port, Call

therefore twofold:

'<

the Sakas had

"obstructed."

In the south the earlier

f;iiih

advancing, and in Nelcynda, where some acquaintance related to our author the things he set down about the eastern half of Inch.

was the great


Miihiibharata

which supplied the information; the the and the Ramayana^ which continued to uphold the vrs" in the use of that visible altar-flame which those
epics
to replace
their lesson

of the north
light," but

had thought

were learning anew


is

by contemplation of the "inner from the Katha I 'panis/.

"that

fire

day by day to be praised by

men who

wake, with the

oblation."

Underlying the formal acceptance of the Brahman


still

faith there

existed the earlier animism, the worship of spirits in the form of

trees

and serpents, with

all

the train of associated beliefs described

in

such works as Fergusson, Tree and Serpent Worship-, Tylor. Prim:. Culture, Frazer, The Gotten Bough\ W. Robertson Smith, The Rel'r The identity fion of the Semites; Ernest Crawley, The Tree of Life.
of belief has been indicated by the legends attached to the most treasured articles of early trade. For international trade began l:ip_ -Iy on
r
<

a religious basis, and was continued as a means of elaborating worship.

And to the activity and persuasiveness of the commercial peoples n be attributed the wide acceptance of their assertions reirardin-j the peculiar efficacy and sanctity of the spirits of their own sacred trees.
There was no reason per se for the Egyptian faith in myrrh as a purifying and cleansing agent beyond the gum of their own trees, or tor the trust of the Babylonians and Greeks in frankincense, or of the Rom in cinnamon, beyond their own pine-resin or the "golden bouuh" of their earlier faith it was the result of the eclectic spirit which accepted that which was told them by strangers. The serpent-cult in Rome
;

;>p*au

"

it>i
'

f pices

burned, was noc mere show,


.1

ft><

intended

cuuritleat array of protect-

he under- world.
-it

the

common

property of

h .ic

*-^

Incorporated by

Brahmanum,

pr/
.

""
i

taste

of those trading by M-a,

li:.ihn..i:.

<

and
.in.l

'

permeates the jfe*t the Background of the Old


addressed to their jmni by
the ends

/ it/

the

i* still

its earliest

.irth

OaChL
\\

-lie

mod
riicst
nr.it
,

f
power
,l>a,

5'
III

Souihrrn

liuii.i,

the legendary pro-

s,

ruleti
it

\t

the tune of the I'enplus

uj% one

of the

chief ports of tin

.idom,

beinu more

accessible to the

the deposit of
<-r

silt

by the Timratimes
the

the sea retired from

Kolkai, and
.

in

mediarva)

another nearby place, Kayul At ptrst-nt the trade of port.


{Imp.
>87;

this

M.rco Polo), became dixtrut passes (hmuuh


.f
i

a good

map

is

given in Yule's

Morn

Pki %

.r

country from

\\hich

Hanuman,

the monkey-god,

his leap

across the sea from the Mahendrauiri mountain 10


-he

Ceyand

.md so helped R
'.|uently a renter
.irried afar
.in,

rescue of his consort Ski from

king of Ceylon, as told in the Ramajamt; .f the worship of llammun.


In (he rich
\\ ai.

by the Dravidian sea-folk.


\

the trade of wliich passed through the port of Kallut


'inn
1

that

Torn which persons embarked for India." hies found a town Sibal, which, he observes, means "moo*
.1

and wasthe;
';nan, but a

"famous pnstiKxi

\\\-

temple

here dedicated (o that image."

tntpkical httmal,

VI

arc
>.ivt,

still

hi*

\\

as also in constant
t

\Mtt-iXttwii
it

According to local tr.iditi>n this and the birthplace of the dynasties ruling
the time of the Penplus

venerated at Surat on the communication with Arabia. was the original capital of />/*in

Southern

This "dominion of the Pin-

238
said to

was the Whether Indian war recounted in the Mtihahhartita. it or whether was attached to the was connection real,
father of the
Pushkalav.it
i

have been established by the descendants of Pandu, who Pandava brothers, the heroes of the North
the dynastic
1cm- ml
like

and Takshasila through

Bharata in the Ramayanti, is less descent of the dynasty in this Dravidian land, and their rigid institution of the caste-system which still prevails here in a completeness long
since

Pushkala and Taksha, sons of important than the oh\ ions Aryan

outgrown

in other parts of India.

Those who would

see in the

northern spread of this dynasty a southern origin for the Dravidian race do not take into account the late origin of the dynasty, probably
the 5th or 4th century B. C.
already settled
.

and

its

alien character

among

people

and developed.

\rrian (Indica, VIII) gives another version of the origin of this

dynasty,

from Pandaea, who, he

says,

Heracles,

among many
ruled,

sons; the land

was "the only daughter of where she was born, and over
after her.

which she

was named Pandaea

"

No

worthy con-

sort appearing,

Heracles

made her

years,

and married her himself,

marriageable at the age of seven that the family horn from him and
'

her might supply kings to the Indians.'

The
that the

Pandxa
of his
**I

not accepted by Arrian in entire faith; he observes by Heracles in hastening the maturity of power more might naturally have been applied to the postponement
story
is

exerted

own

senility;

but, as that
it is

he says

in

another connection
'

'

\\.\I

know, however,

a very difficult task for one


'

who

reads

the ancient tales to prove that they are false.

tified

In Greek literature concerning India, Heracles with Vishnu, and Bacchus with Siva.

is

usually iden-

The dominion
brothers,

of the Pandyas was divided among three reputed Chera, Chola and Pandya, in which form it appears in

Asoka's inscription of the 3d century B. C., and in the Periplus. The capital had been removed, as Pliny states, to Madura (9 55' N., 78 7' E. ), which the Ramtlyana describes as a great city, its
gates being of gold inlaid with gems.

The
original,
59.

the most important being the Chola, the

seceding kingdoms were larger and more powerful than the 'Coast Country"
*

The

dynastic succession of these


in

kingdoms forms

the longest unat

broken chain

Indian

history,

covering a period of

least

two

thousand years.
M-C Imperial Gazetteer,

XVI, 389;
p.

Vincent Smith.

AWv

History,

341-7; and authorities quoted on

209.)

21*

ni of Southern India were active trader* and colonists in

Ceylon, in opposition to the native Sinhalcic, with


i,

whom

they

they had extended rlectually over the north weatern coast of Ceylon, the
n

and

in spite of

whom

of the pearl-fisheries,

59.

PCMI
(

I-

fisheries.
of Manir.

These wr
(See under JU

nthehaJlow

waters of the
i'l

iulf

aftrr

..irr

S4-8) says that pearl* cam. u%e in Rome of Alexandria; but that they tin* began to be ttted
rank, and the very highest portion
.
.

ml

first

among

all

valut%

ables belongs to the pearl.


d of

The most
si

products e of jcarU

the

Taproba;
.:;.

m
its

and production of the


'.

different

the oystr
the
*>

U Mm
.iMiin.il,
it

(he Denial season of the


is

M-S

mtlmiur on
shell,

said that.
i<

\uwmng. as
ant of

js its

and

a kind of
at

ncs impregnated; andth.it


struggles, to the

length

it

give* birth, after

burden of

its

shell, in

the shape of pearls,


If this

which
perfectly pure
state

the quality of the dew.

ha* been in a

when
if

it

flowed into the


but
if
it

duced
wht-n

is

white and
lor also;

brilliant,

shell, then the pearl prwas turbid, then the pearl is of a

it

the sky should happen to have been loitering u.t> generated, the pearl will be of a pallid color, fr

whuh
is

it

ijintr

exidrnt that the quality of the

jx-arl

depends

upon
that
d(
it

a calm state of the heavens than of the sea, and he

contracts a cloudy hue, or a limpid appearance, according to


.

the

ful th.it

It i* wonder..ity of the sky in the morning. the influenced thus should be state of the they pleasurably by the of the sun the action arc turned of that pearls by us, seeing
i

a red

olor,

and

lose

all

their

whiteness

just

like the

human

body.

Hence
1

IN

that those

which keep

their whiteness
.

the deep-

ulmh lie at too great a depth to be r< have seen pearls still adhering to the sheli c used as boxes for ointments.
fish,

the sun's
ich reason

as soon as

it

even

p<

-he hand, shuts


i

its

shell

.em that it up its treasures, being well aware that lit and if it happens to catch the hand it cuts it off with the The greater part of tht*r pearls arc sharp edge of the shell hand, only to be found among rocks and crag*, while, uf in the deep sea are generally accompanied by sea*
vers
. :

dogs.

And

yet, for all this, the

\\omen

will

not banish these

from

their ears!

"Our
or
the rattling
at

ladirs glory
ot

having pearls suspended from their

ti:

two or three
the

them dangling from their ears, delighted e\en with of the pearls as they knock against each other; and now,
day, the
MI:,

present

-ire

even affecting them, as

people are in the hahi;


public
is

that 'a pearl


Pore

worn by a woman
Nay, e\en not only on the
to
\\

in

her."

than

this,

they put them


all

<>n

then

feet,

and
it

that,

lacci

enough but they must tread upon them, and walk with them
of their sandals but

<>\er the

shoes;

is

nor

un<;

well.

an

"1 once saw Lollia Paulina, the wife of the Km; ot at any public festival, or any solemn ceremonial, but only at covered with emeraPds ami ordinary betrothal entertainment

pearls,

which shone

in

alternate layers

upon her head,

in

her hair,

in her \\reaths, in her ears, upon her neck, in her bracelets, and on her fingers, and the value of which amounted in all to 40,

indeed she was prepared at once to prove the fart, by es; Nor were these any pr ng the receipts and acquittances. made by a prodigal potentate, but treasures which had descended to
her from her grandfather, and obtained by the spoliation of the provIt was for this Such are the fruits of plunder and extortion! inces.

was held so infamous all over the Kast for the ts which he extorted from the kings; the result of whirh (81, that he was denied the friendship of Caius Ca-sar, and took poison; and all this was done, I say, that his granddaughter might be seen, by by the glare of lamps, covered all over with jewels to the amount of
i

that

M.

Kollius

millions of sesterces!"

well-known story of Cleopatra's w. with Antony to serve him an entertainment costing ten millions of sesterces, and of her dissolving a great pearl in vinegar and swallowPliny then recounts the

ing

it.

The same

thing had been

done before, he

says,

m Rome,

by

C'lodius, son of the tragic actor Aesopus, each guest was given a pearl to swallow.

who
says

served a meal in which

Of
and
in

the pearl industry',

Marco Polo

111,

xvh

''All

round

this gulf the

water has a depth of not more than 10 or 12 fathoms, some places not more than 2 fathoms. The pearl-fishers

take their vessels, great and small, and proceed into this gulf, where they stop from the beginning of April till the middle of May.
.
.

the produce they have hrst to pay the king, as his royalty, the tenth part. And they must also pay those men who charm the great

Of

thriii

from injuring the


vaier.

.J.\rr

uhiltf eni

on.

a.l

trut
.

/AnfUMt**

Brahmam )

and

thrir

charm holds good


so that the
in IKi

for that day uiti>

%*ojve

arm
the dixers

'41 ihnr will."

Imlr
-:,!
t

tiwastoughtby
^ ule 4*-r\ed
it

viill

in force,

hi* ancestral office being a Christian!


1

In

tlic

case of frank
-.

,ii.iMi..i..i,

the guardian

and were appcated or r rolled by


:>rrn a ftouiles*

iurdv
-

Hut sharks called for chc \uible aid

uf the priests.

\\

..-

11. .1;

and UnimpretMOQablc demon, or else that the indusciy dates from a time ;i!tn the A- .n invasion of Southern India, so thai the pnruly
.

caste

stand aside f.r the benerit

<>f

the ser-

pent

Coast country.
kinudi>ni,
.n
-

-This i-.mntry, different from, and beis

thr

third

of the

Dravidian
it

states,

the

time of the

Penplus, as

state*, the

Urges'

'oast Country" CWa-mJmJeJam, from which uesc derived our modern \vord Ctrtmaiubl. By the Sam lot

prosperous of the th

her

i.
4

.itnir t

not to he

com

^ar;

the meaning being


'

*ferrying-pUice,"

and referring to the


li>
\\

shipping-trade for

and the Far

Hast.

was

called

&//',

\\

hu h name they applied to both Chola and Plndya,

re important. The e\en though tl boundaries were, roughly, from tlir I'enner River on the nonh emptying into the Bay of Bengal at 14 40' N. ), and on the south the

10
thr
mrvii.i-v.il

3'

N.

),

or even the Vaigai (9

20'

taring
its

period the Chola

kingdom conquered and absorbed


still

progenitor, the Pandyan. and they arc

classified together in the

modern "Carnatu

The
i

pe.i

ionizing

to
'

this

kingdom, the product of


<

was

sold only at the capital,

those of the Kalk

north of Adam's Bridge, as distinguished from those of the Ciulf of Manar, whu h belonged to the Pindyan kingdom, ann administered from Madura.
59.
vfir
<

Argaru.This
ib.tat.on
.

is

nearly a correct

tr indite ribon

the ancient capkaJ of the Chola kingdom, I* 49'

part

of

Tmhm,

"8

41

Pi<

this

name
in

hi

,1

t,

take-

into ac-

count the fact tint

it

\sa> inland,

and

dinVmn

country fn>m the

Pindyan kingdom tinThe capital grew up around a fortress built on the summit u Inch rises out of the to a of Rock height Trichmopol) abruptly plain of .<40 feet above the old city, which notles picturesquely at
.t
,

it

\ievv
Little
is

from the fn\\iiin: heights of the rock


left of

is

\ery virand.

now

the old fortifications

Init

the citadel and a pa

like

temple.

A covered
p.

passage

hewn

out of the roek leads to them.

"

(Furncaux, /W/<;,
the capital

4
I)..

After the destruction of Uraiu'ir about ihe 7th century A.

was removed
:.
I

to
,

Malaikurram, the
still
'I

modern Kumbakonam
of
47' N.
,

which N., 79 other after and changes to grandeur;


(10
58'

retail

its

forma
S
I

anjore (10

79

(Sir^
59.

liot,

Coins of Southern India, 130;

Vincent Smith) AW/7v


both Trichi-

Hittory, 164, 342.)

Argaritic muslins.

The

textile industry of

nopoly (or I rai\ur and Tanjore has been famous from early times. There can be little doubt that some of the finest fabrics tl,
the

Roman

world came from


such demand

of India, in the middle ages,

this kingdom of Chola. From th came those gold-threaded embroideries

which were
60.

in

in the

Saracen markets.
that
is,

Ships from the north


Kalidasa,
in

from the

and

Bengal.
India,

the Raghu-rum^^

tells

of a tour of comji;

made by Raghu, the great-grandfather of Rama; star-tinAyodhya the modern Oudh) he went eastward to the"ocean, having
<

conquered the Bangalis,


60.

who

trusted in their ships.

oulkes, in

Indian Antiquary, 1879, pp. 1-10.)

Camara.

Ptolemy mentions a Chabirii cmjwl'.n^

at o:

mouths of the Kaveri River; probably both t'nis and the (Inmaru of the Periplus were nearly, if not quite, identical with the modern
the

KarikalUO
60.

55'

Poduca.

N., 79 50' EJ. This is probably intended

for /W//i//<7//W,
I

"new
Yule,

town," the modern Pondicherry (11 56' N., 79 4 abruius; Bohlen, Ritter, Benfey, Miiller, McCrindle and
1

following Lassen, prefers Pulikat (13


60.

25' N., 80

Sopatma.
(

This

is

may be

identified with the


II,

modern Madras

probably Su-patana, "fair town,'' and ( 13 4' N., 80 15'


I

542) doubts the possibility of identifying either Camara or Sopatma and there is no evidence that Pondicherry exLassen
;

isted at the time of the Periplus.

The

location of

all

three pot

be no more than conjectural.

60.

Ships of the count


f

The

first

were, no

doubt, the era:


as

hollow c
in

... bilk sides ...w a*d outfi

__.

W^W^^H^

are
()>c

Mill
laru<

uwrd

South iiuiu and Ceylon (picturr >anflm 9 were probably made ol two such

canoes

j<

nr ii t-.-niu-t by a deck-platform admitting ol a

',unM/SiA, Atuit
1847,
in

'.says that the

name>a/Jr

it

ml!

wed on

the Malabar

coaat for these double canoes.

\Ulayaiam;

Caldwell itvet the forms rinplaWt jantfla in Tuluj and tamgtMa* in Sanscrr
art
.

..i

India in
j.

Krv

cr
*

the Sanscrit

.'.\..

-MIJ

'trade,"

Emjil+Mu. 307) lessen, howfthtpping.

ever (11, S4

%
,

doubts the application of


iibtr fte /'///
!,

flic

and
to

in,

361) av

,rd

povoblc,
the archipelago.

the type ittclf

with dcck-ftmcturp( of the m9ftm typci an ajaaavai oou use in Smith India, Ceylon, and the Eastern Arehtpelafo.

coast

Tin- comparatively large size of the shipping on the Commandd on which a frequent is indicated also by the Andhra coinage,
is

symbol

two masts apparently of

turn- traffic, to
c

landel
i

which the ship type bears witm numbers <>f Roman o>ms which arc fouiul on the Coast.*' (E. J Rapson, CtUU of the Andhra Dynasty,

KARLY SOUTH INDIAN COINS


Iftri
I,
I

Hot, (Joins

of Southern
Plate II,
fig.

lin.

38

45

Kuruiiihar or

Pallava coin of the

Andhra coin, showing a two- n.


presenting details like th the Gujarati ship at Borol>oedor, and the Persian ship at Ajanta.
sliip

nandcl coast; showing a twoship like the modern coasting


I

vessel or .fJtoni.

The
in the

shipping f the Andhra and Pallava coins doubtless sur\i\ex modern "mnsula boats" at Madras: "The harbor of Madras) can never be a harbor of refuge, and

all

that tin-

works

will

secure

is

immunity

for landing
is

operations from the tremendous surf which

and shipping so general along the


traffic

whole of the Coromandel


shore to the
vcssc-l>
is

coast.

Passenger

from the
or inasulah

carried

on by

jolly-boats

from

tin- pier,

boats from the shore.

These latter are relics of a bygone day, when Madras was an open roadstead and when landing through the surf by rm of jolly-boat was a matter extremely difficult, if not impossible. These masulah boats are flat-bottomed barges constnuud <>t planks sewn together with rope of cocoanut fibre, caulked with oakum, and arc able to withstand better than far more solidly built craft the
shock of being landed on the sandy beach from the crest of a seething
breaker."
(

Furneaux, India, 254.)

nilar

in a general
i

uuv

to thr
i.M

Anulr
the Huddhltl
ICIIIJlIc Ml

ID

tuv-rrlir!

ihr

J.iia

While
il-.ul.lc
f

.LI.II-

from about 60
r of the
Iti
i>

rwd
century, while the
,

was proba
broad
tail

with

\.r.U

uln.)

thuie ol the

ihr ISfh irnlur;

(iuj.ir.iTi

ship

i.f

alxut

6i A

'

this

type were Joubilr<


nrr.-h.uns into

inrludrii

amon^

the tr

Ikrygia.
.t 603 A D being foretold to era, country would decay and go to ru t. He embarked with about $000
.

'In the fear 525 (Sda


.irat

that

his

resolved to send his

&

followers in 6 large and about 100 small vessels, and after a voyage of four months rc.u If.: ..: .i.ul they supposed to be Ju\a; but flndm<j
:

thrins* -l\t -N mistaken,

rr-nnbarked, and

finally settled at
/
.

Matarr

the i>land they

were
t

seeki:

'I"hcprirur

found

that

.ic

were wanting

make

a great and flour

rigly

applied to (tujarit for asMStance,

when

his

father, delighted at
1

kingdom;
other
.

an

<

him a reinforcement of 20UO rom tins period Java was known and celebrated as a nnerce was carried on with Gujarfc and and the bay of Matarem was filled with adventurer*
his success, sent

/<.

11

Colandia: This name seems 91 A no more than ship. means perhaps


60.
is

to be of
.Ith

Ma

v,

origin,

and

pan/ail,

tailing ship,"
re-

the

name

for the fast fishermen entered in

modern Singapore
t

gattas,

(Pritcher
text
is

of Shipping and Crqft 166.


of
to be.*'

The
9ntit
f

kolandlophonta^ generally supposed to be corrupt, the

being the

present

participle
I,

Hut

Rijendrtlila
tlu

Jntiquitirs of Onssa,

115) derives the word from

s'jfantarapota, "ships for going to foreiui

Burmese

laung-zJtt, (without rigging)

a carvel-built vessel on the same

lines

as the dug-out /aung-tf for river use.

Chindwin River, shows This type displays the stern-cabins


the higher-built Chinese junk.

larger type, in general use Chinese influence, although the lines are those of
differently arranged from ti See also Chatterton, Sailing Ships, 7, 31.

The

on the

size,

were of u reat which made the voyage to ( to the Chinese junks or the The sea-trade of the Gulf of laung-Tu'it, kattu or Chindwin traders. Tonkin was of very early date. Chinese annals mention voyages to
colandia
1

The

must have been similar

I'.

century B.
the

Malacca prior to the Christian era, and probably as early as the 12th C. This region, known to the Chinese as r. -, hang idepcndcnt until the extension of the Chinese boundaries under
y

(2d century pointing chariot." wa> known in the


dynasty
1'.
'

Han

The
1

compas-,

or ^south-

1th century B. C., hut, a> indi-

cated by Hirtl

'

used

'

r
' \iM!ii> B

geomancy

until applied Co navigation


ai

w*& probably by Penians and


t

Arabs

China

the 6th

nuhe* A

I)

TheChinese
ing the

themselves steered by the scars and che sun, and by .4*


(he sea-bott*'

Model
ttern-itni.

of an early type of Chinese junk, ihnwtng the


>crupir*l
'

ea

lv

mrrflunt with hit Work of mrrr n of mv


<
'
:

tlir

('..MI;

'

i%eum, Ph

iai.in i!Ccr.ip

ui !iirnlion>
in

inrvr

the

HI

commcm.
,

>'

IViM.m emba.ssy
is

in the e.iri)

"th GCn-

ship

is

shown which,

if

not a junk,
^//.

manifestly intliu-n
ttc \'ll,
li-.

See Torr,
Polo

(Book

III,

Chap.

I) gives a detailed description of

(Yule's edition II, 249-51.) "The ships in which merchants go to and fro amongst the Isles of India, an- of tir timber. They have but one deck, though each of or 60 some 50 them cabins, wherein the merchants abide
the junks of that day:
*

greatly at their ease, every

man

having one to himself.

The
.

ship

hath but one rudder, but

it

hath four masts; and sometimes they have

two

which they ship and unship at pleasure. vessels have some thirteen compartments <r of their larger severances in the interior, made with planking strongly framed, in
additional masts,

"The

case

mayhap

the ship should spring aleak

fastenings are all of good iron nails and the side one plank laid OUT the other, and caulked outside and in ... double, with lime and chopped hemp, kneaded together with wood-oil. .u h of their great ships requires at least 200 mariners, some of them 300. They are indeed of great size, for one ship shall
1

"The

5000 or 6000 baskets


than they are now.
big that to pull

ot

pepper;

and they used formerly to be larger


there
is

And when

them

requires four mariners to each.

no wind they use sweeps, so Every ureat


.

ship has certain large barks or tenders attached to it; these are large enough to carry 1000 baskets of pepper, and carry 50 or 60 manners

apiece;

So Fa-Hie n left Ceylon in "a of which there were more than 2UO on board large merchantman, a which was to and rope, a smaller vessel, as a attached, by men, or the to large one from the penis of injury provision against damage

some

of

them 80 or

the navigation."
in Java-dvipa,

(Trave/s, chap.

xi. )

And

landing from

tin-

another large

where he spent five months, he "again embarked in merchantman, which also had on board more than 200
carried provisions for 50
Polo, II, also,
d.

men.

They

(See Yule's Marco other medieval writers;


building, primitive

252-S, for de>cription of junks,

in

for a full

account of
/>'//////,.,

Burmese
)

ship-

and modern, Ferrars,

H2-8.

60. Imported . . everything. Yule, 333), quotes from the Arab geographer Wassaf

in his
:

Marco

Polo

11,

"Maabar extends
ie

in

length

from Quilon

to Nellore, nearly

300

sea-

coast

ucts of
sailinir

curiosities of Chin and Ivlachin, and the beaut ;.ul prodHind and Sind, laden on large ships which they call Junks, like mountains with the wings of the wind on the surface of

The

the water, are always arriving there.

The

wealth of the U!e> of the

Persian

niir

in partu
in

ubr, and
Irak

tc.tui>

and Khuraian
v*

far a*

and adornment ol Ruin and Europe,


V

in

MaiKar,

*o

limind at to be ihc

*domof Maabar
I

nohlett province in India,

and

when

the-

best pearis are four

.ugdom:
the
K-<
-i

in /!-.

ul

precious nonet, and

ami ihrrr be

the* fairest

uniu>
I

pearU
his
,s

in all the

Palawiimillilll.
i

the

modrrn

cylon.

uord

,im*ma t "abode of
lluddha.

The
RMml wc

is

of

in:

K was called Tapntam),


-he
i

is

the SaiiM
ki

yaita.

The

reached the

uiiihisin uiuirr thr inis^ionary zeal of


t

Aaoka.

Our
new

speaks of
;>,

it

in the time-

.?

its

greatest devotion to the

\\hii

>:.t\i<ii.in

kingdoms of JOmhcfH
2o
160), the
he

.indent Aooording to McCrindle i, or Tamra^arni^ was ui

Imita,

name

the hrvt Indian


tins*

colon.

..tui

applied

t<>

tin

landed.
ca-

tmra-bpti% the
AII at the

mouth

of rhr Cianuc-v

imt*p*mm t
Another Brahmanical
<

appears

name,

.pnon of Asoka at Girnir. Dvipa Ravana, "island of


in
1

demon-kin;
to he the orisjin

napper of Situ in the

Ramajona^

\\

thought by Mmir

Ptolemy n>tt -\
hr>t

that the anaent


uf

name was
>

Simxiuht (mtstakin
'.
:?

the

t\\o

.s\llahU-N

mil

mthoi
5

ITOfd PakesimUl

li:rc-k.

but in his ir.Mi rune


pleustes
call*

miry <f thr Sabr.


A

Cotmas
notes,
is

huh,

as

McOmdle
isl..

>c

for the

i*U
'u*
i

^^,
source
to a
it

of
r

thr

mrn-heror*.
Ian.

may

br

and
J4

Pliny

knows

the

name
t

/';../,..w..;.-.

I.

hut jpphcx

adjoining the harbor

Miuth."

and

calls

most famous
south

city in

the island, thr king's place of residence,

a population of 200,000.

"

But thrrr
to
t

is

no harbor on the

and Pliny seems

harbor with the actual position <.t the island harbor. no\\ lost, at Tape (/.-motm.
In

in

relation to the ancient

the

Kt'jr

tic

Sinhalese are referred to as rakshas and

*/*' demons and


Aryan
irnaders.

spirits,

not

human because
dcsi nh< -s

racially
in

opposed

to

tin-

So Fa-Hien

them
:

an

interesting! p.

relating to their trade (Travel^ chap,

xxxvm

"the counu,
spirits

had no human inhabitants, but was occupied only by uith which meu hauls of \ariouscountries carried on
trafficking
\\.is-

and

a trade.

When

taking place, the spirits did nut slum tliemsel\es. They simply set forth their preen ms things \\ith labels of the price an.
to

them; while the merchants made


and
t.M.k the things

their purchases according to the

away."

And

he found

in the capital city

"many

Yaisxa clans and Sabaean merchants, whose houses

an

stately

and beautiful."
>mas Indicopleustes
<

Christian

Topography, book
I).
;

XI

tell* of

Ceylon and what is said


parison
:

its

trade in the 6th century A.


the
Periplus,

his
is

ai

<>tinr

amplifies
for

in

and a

translation

appended

com-

"This
which
is

is

the great island of the ocean, situated in the Indian

called by the Indians Sielediba,


is

where the hyacinthus stone


country.
ber;
of
ry
It

by the Greeks Taprobanc, found; and it lies beyond the pepper has other small islands scattered around it in great num-

which some have fresh water, and cocoanut palms. They Hut that great island, so its inhabitants close to one another.
I

\\<> 300 leagues in length, and in breadth about 90 miles. kings reign in the island, hostile to each other; of whom one has the region of the hyacinthus, and the other the rest of the island, in which

say,

is

is

the

market-town and

port.

merchants from

far countries.

It is frequented by a great press of In that island is established the Church

of Christ, of the sect of the Persians, and there is a presbyter sent from Persia, and a deacon, and the whole service of the church. Hut
the natives, and the kings, are of other faiths. Many temples are to be seen in this island; on the top of one of them, they say, is a hyacinthus, in full view, sparkling

and very

great, like a great spinning-

top;
itself,

and

it

shines brightly, sending out fiery rays almost like the sun

opia

From all parts of India, Persia and Aethia marvellous sight. come a multitude of ships to this island, which is placed as it were midway between all lands; and it sends ships likewise hither
in all directions.

and thither
other

the inner regions, that arc

is,

from Tzinista and from the

cloth, aloe-wood, clo\es. andalwood, and other products according to the place; and it

market-towns,

brought

silk

d>

them

.irious

in whidl and tetamin wood, kinds " and .t, top, is a great market-town ;c the castor musk if found, and spik *d to
is,

to those

of the outside, thai

to Male,

e brass is found,

>

Persia, t> the


<-ive

lomcrites,
all

other thing* frum


its

thc>c places,

and Aduli*} and in return which it transom* to the

inner reruns, xxith

ovx n

product* likewise.
r
I

Now

Sindu

it

the

mint,

npDes into the Per-

sian Gulf, separates Persia

from
(

India.

These

are the best-known

markc
xx

India
:

huh

has tur

p.>rts

xx

hrhotha, Calliana, Siboc, and Male hu h pepper is brought i Parti, Mangarouth,


Pudapacana.
M

Salopatana,

Nalopatana,
I

And

then,

at

a distance of
is

uiui

nights from (he inamlun.i, out in the ocean,


is

u^uiii, on the mainland, market town, Marallo, shipping c-mu h-fthelU; and there is shipping abhaiulrnuni. und thru thr I..UMI:-. from which
iiu,
th.it

shipped
;N

and thru

/.::,>

M, xvhu h tends

silk
it

cloth;

within which

no

iithrr land, for the

ocean encircles

on the

"And
all.

so this island Sielediba, placed in the midst of India, whidl


s

produces the hy.u mthuv

goods frum

all

markets and ships to

UMMU

jrr.tt

nurkct.

years ago.

pans, took him to the island of Taprobanc, where it happened that a vessel arrived at the same time from Persia, and there landed together those from Aduli*. among whom

of trade one from our

own

And there came thither on matter! named Sopatcr, who died about JS

And

his business

Sopater, and those from

Persia,
so,

amon^ whom was an


custom was, the captains and

of

the

Persians.
r<

And

as the

tax-collectors

thr in, brought

them before the


seated.

king.

And

.1

into the presence of the king, after they

had
trade

the proper homage, he bade


.:oes
it

them be

\\iih
.

your countries, and


ellentlv

And then he how with four


vaid

and commci
f

well,"
is
..

they

Replying,

the

your kinus
Persian

the u'rratrxt

tiout

delay thr

and most powerthe most

hr u the k gi and ful, the creates! and the richest; u was silent he do wills." to lim Sopater he has power haxe to thThen saul Sty?" you nothing IB,

And

to >.i>, when tht* man ich )i Sopater replied, "XN'hut haxr \\ish t<> learn the truth, VIHI ha\-e both kings here
I
i

xvill

see

which

>ne

is

the most magnincent


at this *r

ami

tlus.i.il.

m..st
'

and

But the king powerful." l>oth kn H-\v ha\e


1

wa amazed

d he anv.v

252

both. >ou have the gold coin of the one king, ,r m.iiu-> and the drachma of the other, that is, the milliarense compare the And he, appr<>\ ing images of both, and you will see the truth."
't
;

Now the gold coin was and assenting, bade that both he produced. for thus are the best exported thither; fine, bright, and well-shaped; and the inilliarcnse was of silver and 1 need hardly s.i\, not to be comThe king looked at both obverse and pared with the gold coin. reverse, and then at the other; ami held forth the u <>ld coin with
r

admiration, saying, "Truly the

and u

Romans are magnificent and pouertul And he commanded that Sopater should be treated with
This Sopater told me, with him to that island.

honor; that he should be seated upon an elephant, and led around


the whole city with drums, and acclaimed.

and those also from Adulis,


Anil

who voyaged

when

these things happened, so they say. the Persian was

shamed."

Almost touches Azania.


world
in

Our

author's ideas of the

general are similar to those of Pomponius Mela, with

whom
Inn

he was nearly contemporary;


"

whose map (reproduced on


I

p.

retains the old idea of a balancing southern "continent of the Antich-

thones,

with the eastern end of which he identifies

aprobanc.

The

Periplus does not indicate quite that extent for Ceylon, but ex-

The confusion may have been partly due aggerates its size tenfold. to the grandiloquent descriptions left by the Ceylonese embassy which
visited

the

Emperor Augustus.
II

(See

Bunhury,

History of

indent

Gnzrafihy, Vol.
62.

Masalia.
is

This

is

the Afaisolia of

river Afaiso/os, probably the Kistna.

Ptolemy, wh> \\. In Sanscrit, as McClindle shows,

the

name

Afausa/a t which survives in Machhlipatana, the modern upatam (16 11' N., 81 8' E. ), until the construction of the

Bombay

of the Periplus

At the date railway the chief port of entry for the Deccan. market of the Andhra it was, no doubt, the greatest
Tavernier found
it

kingdom.

(I,

xi)

"the best anchorage

in

the

Bay

of Bengal, and the only place from

which

vessels

sail

for Pegu,
a

Siam, Arakan, Bengal, Cochinchina,


for the islands of Madagascar, Sumatra,

Mecca, and Hormus, " and the Manillas.

The
In
I

text

notes the great quantity of cotton cloth


it
)

made

there.

avcrnier's time

was

especially noted for

its

cilled, chint/.es

MI,

a bn.

He

xii "catted calmendar, that is contrasted these fine hand-painted fabrics with the

painted, or pento say, made with

coarse printed goods from Bengal. equal to the demand.

The supply,

he observes, was never

Sec also Imperial

(r\/z,

'

XVII, 215.

The
under 8
5'

difficulties

,,f

travel

through ihc Andhra


.1

(he

k, ,..,:,

..t

|>A*hma "out
in

of

conn with the- mads; but those who know how to manage uth difficulties u an. to proceed should brine with them money and various s and gi\ iU tend mrn to rtton them These will, at different stages, pas* them over to others, wh n*ti t xxxv. ) allow thnn the shortest rot.
i.

ay and perilous

traverse

There

are difficult ic

62.

Dosarene.

This
of

is

the Sanscrit

Orissa,the "Holy Land

In.;

The name

/tarns*. the modern appears in the/

Purina and the &i*Mfp**r, as a populous and powerful c. Mentions also a river /)o^rdn, the modern Mahinadi :i.'in this II-/I..M has long hern famous. It it mentioned both Makabt. nu as the most acceptable

/W*,

whuh

the

"km!

of the

Odras" could

take to the

Pindu

sovci-

-ru,

.Intiquirit

62.
still

Citrhada?.
as
\

known
I

Uranian

rai r,

This was a Bhotu tnhr, whose descendants, in the Morunu, WCM of Sikkim. They urn m.r. ohan features as described ;
vc

ami were formerly iiuii-pcndcnt and powerful, having provided a dy-

Their location i not on the nasty of considerable duration in Nepal. the in but indicated the as text, \alleys of the HuiuU>u by tea,
need only omit the words *'thc course trending, to make our author's information cormt
.

"

easily

m>cn<

The MtkMklrm*
whose name
to the Tibetan*,

locates

>;ahinaputra.
(I,

Lassen
c-s

441-450

fully describes the

\\\.

in the

and inhabited Lassen names ten different capital was at Mokwanpur


>:

modern Bhutan. much Bengal at


in

The) were
the tune
<>f
<

allieil

the

.\r\an
'I

ration
heir

tribes, on*

Kirata
I

Kastern Nepal.

a warlike.

uncultixated, po|\ ./am. .us race,

whose

na:

fnprr-

.ihman or Buddhist teaching, and w hose neglect of religious ausetl the Brahman Hindus to reduce them to the ra
Sudras.

Hence

the
'

faces as "noseless,

oim-rnptuous dest lMin> cuIU them

their

Mongolian and w>%

"they have merely holes in their heads instead of nostrils and flexible " Ptolemy calb their countn A feet, like the body of a serpent
rkaditi.

The
.

Kirata were under-sized,


In the

called **pigmies."
called
C

iaruda,

\rvan Hindu and Brahman imihology there wa* a b who was a special enemy of the K

254

Lasaen

(II,

65"
i

thinks this story the original of the battle between


1

pigmies and Megasthenes~


Strabo
are

ICM.U!

and other Greek

writers.

relates the st.-iv in

some

tic-tail,

and

is

repnned

In

\\.

;
i.

"he then

deviates into fables, and says that there

men

without nostriK.
I

of five, and even three spans in height, some of ,\ e the;ily two Ire.ithinu ..nines ah,
three spans in height

nioutli.

'h..sr

of

wage war with


\\hic-h

the cranc-s

described
<:

by

Homer) and

with the partruijcs.

arc as

large as

and destroy the eggs of the cnmefl \\hich lay their people else are the eggs or the young cranes to he nowhere and eggs there; crane a escapes from this country with a brazen found; frequently
c-ollect
t

of a

weapon
is

in

its

body,

wounded by

these people."

one of the -ailed the mentioned in first the recounts which combat, ..r/uniya, habharttti^ between Siva in the guise of a Kirat.i, or mountaineer, an.l
Tins tribe
especially referred to in

Arjuna.
62.

Bargysi.

These

are the Bhar^as of the I'lshnu

there mentioned as neighbors of the Kirata, and doubtless of like race .i\lor, Rfmarks on tin- St-r/ufl to the Pcnpln^ in Journal of the
I

mftttntal, Jan. 1847.)


62.

of our author, but

Horse-faces and Long-faces. This is no invention was no doubt told him by some friend at Nekymla,
the Sanscrit writings,
'{'he

who
the

spoke by his book

Aryans pni

intempt for the Tibeto-Burman races at their eastern p:their references to them are full of exaggeration and and frontier, fable. The Vara Sanhita Purana mentions a people "in the mounis,

tains east of India," that

in the hills

on the Assam-Burma

frontier,

called Asvavadana^ "horse-faced.

"
I

(Taylor,
62.

op. at.

so Wilford in Asiatic Researches > VII

and IX.
a
i

Said to be Cannibals.
flesh,

Herodotus

notic-es

such

ustom

among
eat

the "other Indians, living to the east,

who

are

nomads and
'\\

raw

who

are called Padaeans.


is

Ml, 99.)
it

hen any
if
it

one of the community

sick,

whether

be a

woman

or a man,

be a man the men who are his nearest connections put him to death, alleging that if he wasted by disease his flesh would be spoiled; but
if

he denies that he

is

sick, they, not

agreeing with him,


in like

kill an<:

manner the women who And whoever arc most intimate with her do the same as the men. readies old age, they sacrifice and feast upon; but few among them
upon him.

And

if

woman

be

sic k,

attain this state, for before that they put to death

into

any distemper.

"

every one that

falls

IN
'

'

Uimia
',

.mis

Phoebo

tenet

Arva Pa-

dams;" andStnuV
lmii.ui

quoting Megasthenes' account of

mountaineers

"who

eat the bodies of their relatives,"


said
.
i

amc

practices

were

be followed a
hin, a

couple of genBurnuu tnhe m the

Tibetosick

hin Hills

between Aatam and Burma; the


belief that by

and aged
agoi

ied

and eaten became of the


i

such

(he tribe,

and were preferred from the

.iMM.,;: uf.

:,

into (he bodies of animals.

whu

I >

"Padcans" is probably meant for they appear in the I'ara SamJtita

/WvuU*,

under

Ganges.distru
.ilv

nr

i>

applied
ilistrut

m
is

(he

same paragraph

to

By the
the
it,

Hn-hli estuary,
as at present.

meant Bengal} by the but east of Gangi-Sigar


the

isl.uul

ami not
w

\\est of

This, until about the ISth

ccntui), \\a> tlie largest

mouth
.1

of the (ian^e>,

Hug nil

river

and

Sagar

iv.ii..!

nc
,

;.',<

s.ii

places,

and

still

retain their sun.

the Adi Gangi, silted up, and (he river constantly u-iuiing eastward, finally joined its num lutmrl to that of the Brahmainto the M(. h..i cstuur>- as at present Imp. C<rt- t
^

.:

XII, 1.^-4
to the
v

H>

tin-

ami. i -;
I

\\.IN

probably meant Tamra-hpu, 87 56' E.), which gave its name \ in the Pandya kingdom, and to the island of the sca-pon of liengal in the Post-Vedic and
to\\n
,,f
t
,

Buddi

net!

was the
1

"
port of the
Hangilis,

the great epics.

It

who trusted

in their

ships,"

who were

Here it was that conquered by the hero of Kalidasa's Raftiu-umiu. a-ll ned two years, after which he embarked in "a large
merchant
vessel,

and went

floating over the sea to the southwest

to the country of Singhala."

This

identification, \vhiih

preferable to that of

supported by many scholars, seems and Dr. Taylor, uho would pbce Fergusson
is

Tamra-lipti at the modern Sonirgion (23 40* N., 90 Jo' H), the v arnagrima, the chief port of Eastern Bengal under the Gupta
e and in the middle ages.

Near here was Vikramapura,

the

modern Bikrampur, one


Hut
:

its

Chandragupta Vikramiimportance does not seem to date from so early a


of the capitals of

as that of the Periplus;

while

it is

more

likely that the

name
time

tiiges

would have been localized on the sacred, and

at that

rincipal, estuary.

iho has been accused of ignorance for remarking

"

(XV,

i,

tiisi

harges

its

waters by a single mouth."

But

his

256

ion probably reflects the esteem in

which

that

mouth

\\as held,

as well as

its

predominant

size, in his

time
I

Malabuthrum.
the greatest
I

astern Himala This was from the Ptolc -m\ aU<>. noted under 65. as supply,
,

says "the best malahathrum

is

produced

in

the

country

of

the

63.
naril.

Gangetic spikenard.
in

from the Himalayas, noted under


shipped
it

This was probably the true spike49, and valued sufficiently considerable quantity to Nelcynda, where the Romans
from the Ganges (XII, 26) which

found

56).

Pliny describes another kind

condemned, name oztrnittSt and emits a (pp. 451, 462, 792), was a " nard root" of allied to the
together of

as being
fetid

good for nothing; it bears tinodor." This, as \\att remarks


C\rnh',/>wn

variety of

or Andropogon,
na.
all

39; probably Cymttpofttt

species, the lemon-grass, ginger-grass, citronella, etc., aromatic oils, and until recently have been much confused.

These

yield

marks

Pliny confuses this grass also with malabathrum, which, he reXII, 59), "is said to grow in the marshes like the lentil."
(

Pearls.

These were not


>

of the best quality

as Dr.

Taylor

remarks, those of the


irregular,

streams are inferior, being small, often

and usually reddish.

63.

Muslins of the finest


the

are the muslins of


fabrics of

Dacca

sort, called Gangetic. district, the most delicate of


of

These
all

tin-

India, an ancient

test

which was

for the piece to be

Ventut textilis, or nebula, were names drawn through a finger-ring. of them. the knew Romans under which They are mentioned in

the Institutes of

Manu,

in

way

to

show

the organi-^ation of the

has received 10 pa/as of cotton thread industry: to increased eleven, by the rice-water and the like used give them back

"let a weaver

who

in

weaving; he

who

does otherwise

shall

\ernier tells of a Persian ambassador

pay a fine of 10 panas." who took his sovereign,

on returning home,

"a

cocoanut of the size of an ostrich's egg, en-

when it was opened a turban was from it 60 cubits in drawn length, and of a muslin so fine that you would scarcely know that you had it in your hand." The history of cotton spinning in India goes back to mi.
riched with precious stones; and
antiquity, being; associated with the

Vedic gods or goddesses who

are

described and pictured as wearing

such garments, showing great

skill

woven garments. The in both woven and tinted


in

patterns of
design, are

abundantly reproduced from early temples

Mitra (Antiquities cf

2S7
>

whence
..f

it
(

appear* certain that ihr


r,Mtian era

-non

tile

industry at the tune

the

was

far in

advance of

the western countries.

While locum nuy


'.i

p..ssihl>
it

luxe been spun firm

Turke%uu,
;

ti

has always been native in the Indian sula and that the Aryan invaders found the i ul fixation and industry
h..th

well estaM.st.e-d

The
>tdl
i

early /'***, for example,

ci|ully to

woolen

various

kinds,

tome double**
la

of
I

fine

h as are
ial

nude
the

in

Kashmir

the A';/

the

used

in clothing

not specified.

The .\ltkMamta-\i\
hi t> > udhisthira:

SaMa r

umiisjiij

presents

gold, shawls

the former ..f wool and embroidered with skin-., and brocades; the latter marten and weasel; blanket* of \hhiras >f (iuj.ir.it. dodsfMtof COttOO, various manufa
<il,

Cloths and

or of thread spun by
ins,

worms

(stlk?) v or of

Turkharasand Kankas;

h..uMnv:s

fr

e!r
fine

Midiupur and (Ian jam;


Mysore.
c

^ of the Kajctern tribes, lower Bengal, muslin from people of Carnatic and

Ramayana mentions silken, woolen and cotton stuffs of ousseau of Sita consisted of "woolen stuff
.

fine

orn.

>

vestments of divers colors, princely carriages of every kind."


silk,

Hecrcn supposes the woolen stuffs t> have been Cash me re shawls. is a stuff from Nepal.
The change
C
i.f

of

as the
is

Aryans penetrated
in the

into the hot

the (JatJiies \'alle\

shown
1.
:.

I~iws of

Manu, which
kinds were

prohibited
isjdc
in

Brahman! the

i.

btm

the

r-

ii

id]
.

me,

AS

rei

tine fabrics of all

UM-.
\\hi>
is

In

"
ornai

an early
<i

pla\

the

Mn^hckkakatika^ the buffoon inquires:


in silken rai.nent, giittenn/
if

that

gentleman dressed
rolling about
.

as

his

limbs were out of

joint?*

1!
I

here can be
i

little

under MU h names

doubt that the fine muslins of Eastern llengal " as extilc Hrer/e .eninj! 1>
'

or

Run:

Spin in nu and weaxinj, of


starting of mills about

made our^

there before the Ar>an invasion.

both by hand, and although m Manchester and the

Bombay,
In

this superlatively fine

yarn

is still

pro-

quantities.

inext

qua

said

1888 the spinners who supplied the to be reduced to two elderly women in the

258
village of
\\as thought Dhamrai, about 20 miles north <>t D.u a, hut of the demand tor rcvixal with he revived any might
-i

ii

that the industry


c fabric.

An
industry-

incredible

amount
of

of patience
testing

and

skill

were required
of
the
fabric,

in this

One way

the

fineness

often

described by media -\al and earlier travelers, was n. pa^s a whole piece
of 20 yards long and
ing. yard wide through an ordinal t<> si/e and in the was weight proportion by however, number of threads. It is said that 200 years ago a piece of muslin 15 yards long by 1 yard wide could be made so fine as to wei-Ji only
1
\

The

best test,

In 1840 a piece of the 900 grains, or a little over 1-10 of a pound. same dimensions and texture could not be made finer than 1,600 A pece of this muslin 10 yards grains and was valued at about $50. woven in less than li\e months, and not be wide could 1 yard long by the work could only be carried on in the rainy season when the moisture in the air would prevent the thread from breaking. At several places in northwestern India fine muslins were proThese aUo duced, but nowhere of quality equal to those of Bengal.
C

mouth of the Indus and

shipped westward, appearing in the Periplus as exports at the The change from at the Gulf of Cambay.

hand spinning and weaving to power looms and spindles was not gradual as in Kurope, but was due to the direct importation of

European fabrics, so that a few months sufficed to destroy the earlier industry and to lay the way for the modern textile mills of India.
(See Henry Lee, The Vegetable
India:
turcs

Lamb of Tartary.

J. II.

Furneaux,
A!anuJ\ic-

Bombay, 1899; chap.


India.

iii.

T. N. Mukharji, Art

of

Also, The Cotton PJant, published by the


1

IT. S.

Depart-

ment of
6.*.

Agriculture,

896. )

This was probably the gold of the Chota Nagpur plateau, located from 75 to 150 miles west of the Ganges The rivers flowing north and east of these highlands have mouth.

Goldmines.

The river long produced alluvial gold in considerable quantities. Son, which formerly flowed into the Ganges at the site of the ancient
capital

Pataltputra,

the

modern

Patna,

was

called

by the

classical

writers Erannoboa^ from the Sanscrit hiranya-vaha y

"carrying gold."
53.)

(McCrindle, Ancient

India, p.

43 j

cf.

the Aurannoboas of

from Tibet, which produced the famous "ant-gold" mentioned by all the classical writers from Herodotus to Pliny. As Ball pointed out (.Journal of the Rr,\al Irish Acadtmy^ June, 1884), the "ant-gold" was a Sanscrit name for the

There was

also a substantial supply

small fragments of alluvial gold;

this

name was

passed on, being apalso referred to as

plied to the dogs of the Tibetan miners,

which were

2S9

*
pick-axe,

The "horn

of the gold-digging

am." mentioned by

Pliny

as preserved in the temple of Hercules at Krythrar,

bam,
Pl.nv,

wms a gold-fit made of a wild sheep's born mourned on a handle. (Sec 112-5 J Armn, AnatawV, 4-7; Srrabo, X

XI, 36,

McCr
east of the

<**//**,
delta

Si

Gold wms
60 miles

also brought into India

through the Tipperah country


i

washings of

Ganges coming Assam and northern Burma.


III,

chiefly

from the

Tax
silk

-trs

x\i

th.t

it

was of poor

quality, like the

of that country, and that both were sent overland to China


>uge for silver.
In

Assam,

Kail notes,
t*

it

u.is

the
f.-r

custom

for the rulers

to require their suhjei


,

to

wash
A

gold a certain

number of days
Tavermer

while regula

a*hers

were

taxed.

>perah merchants trading "


ill,

l>acca, according to

x^

tool
shells,

low

am

-tie-shell bracelet*,

and others of sea

the size of our 15

W
s

coins,

with numerous round and square pieces of which arc also of the same tortoise-shell

The Assam
crnu
r

washings (HI,

are, h..\s< -\cr, of substantial yield, as


'

lun

India, p. 2.<1,

and the Alamgirnamti of


July,

TavF\mtm* Gmhjj \f Muhammad Kazim O66


il

n Hill,

the

\^
is

The
kalita,

coin calloi

....//.

thought In lienfey to be the Sanscrit


.

"numberr
c/>.

There was,
called kalian.

a South

Indun coin

called kali (Klliot,


>ns
\',

while Vincent, quoting

Su

one of Bengal
mciHii>n> gold
;

Wilford (Atiatu Rttnmkn,

269), preferred the refined gold called <anden.


IMn-.v

on

tin-

Malabar coast (coming from the


(p. 56$), gold has always

mines of Mysore)

but, as

Watt observes
'

mainly an article of import in India.


the There can be link Island 'golden* '). doubt that by this was meant the Malacca peninsula, known to Ptolemy .IN the A una CAtnonum, although the location "just opposite the Imdisposes of a long voyage in rather summary fashion. nold mines of ancient date have been discovered in the Malayan

Chryse

State of Pa hang, north of


<

Malacca, and these are probably the ones


to the peninsula.
It is

name

of "golden"

known

esc records that ships from that country


ilacca as early as the 4th century B.

made

the journey

and perhaps as early as

the 1-th

\\hile the

legend of Buddha

Cambodia

is

at

260

suggestive of the great influence exercised from India over

all

Imlo-

China.

H.
in the

C.

Clifford (Further India,


>

N. Y.
tin-

1<>04, pp. (,-7


<lcas
<>f

excellent account of thch.i/y,


1st

it

vaguely
I

the
)f

Romans
Chi

and 2d

cent,.

.crming

"l

the golden, Pliny has nothing to tell us, and the author of the Periplus He speaks, tells us only that it was situated opposite to the (lan-o.

however, of Thina, the land of


externally/

silk,

situated

'where the seacoast ends

gather that Chryse was conceived by him as an island lying not only to the east of the (Janges, but also to This indicates a distiiu t adthe southward of the Chinese Umpire.

whence we may

vance in knowledge, for the isle of Chryse, albeit still enveloped in a golden ha/e, was to the author of the Periplus a real country, and no Rumors must have reached him concerning mere mythical fairyland.

on which he believed he could rely; and this would tend to prove China via the Straits of Malacca, even though it was not yet in'general use, was no longer unknown to the manners
it,

that the sea-route to

of the east.

We

know

that less than a century later the

sail< r

Alex-

ander, from

whom

Marinus of Tyre derived the knowledge subse-

quently utilized by Ptolemy, himself sailed to the Malay peninsula, and beyond, and it may safely be concluded that the feasibility of this southeastern passage had become known to the seafarers of China

long before an adventurer from the west was enabled to of its existence through the means of an actual voy
illustrating the state of

test

the fact

And
1

as

knowledge in the Roman world in the 1tury, Mr. Clifford aptly cites Josephus (Antiquities of the Jews, VI 1, 2) who recounts the Ophir voyages of Solomon, venturing some curious identifications: "At Ezion-Geber, a bay of Egypt on the Erythraean
Sea, the king constructed a

number

of ships.

The port is now named


King Solomon
;.

Bcrenice(
the
in

'),

and

is

near the city of Elan, formerly deemed to be in

Hebrew

jurisdiction.

King Hiram

greatly assisted

preparing his navy, sending him mariners and pilots, who conducted Solomon' s officers to the land that of old was called Ophir, but

Aurea

Chtrsonesus,

which belongs

to India, to fetch gold."


1 1

It is

uncertain what knowledge Pliny had of Further India

is

account of Eastern Asia (VI, 20) professes to begin with the


that is, the Arctic and after some names of doubtful Ocean, and the nation origin he mentions "the Promontory of Chryse of the Attacori on the gulf of that name, a people protected by their and in the interior the Caseri, sunny hills from all noxious blasts a people of India, who look toward the Scythians, and eat human flesh. Here are also numerous wandering nomad tribes of India."

thian

"

The numerous
ami

migration* from

India into Indo-Chioa,

after the Christian era, give


.nth

plus states,

ample ground for the belief and Ceylon were in truth, u an active trade u art, employing
India

Ltrurr ship*, anil in grcuit-r


jrrut

mim!>rr
:

migration

than those coming from Egypt. urjt Ji%-a in the uth century
i

A
to,

)
.

:i,l

thr resultm..:

and (hnr greatest


s

Hindu kingdoms, have already ber monuments remar he tremendous


1.

Buddhist temples of llorohitedur and


at

ttnbanan.

If

Clifford's belief
let* ditfinc-

Angk
<

tmbodia are no
)f

the%c hr quotes Francois C Jarnier:

"IYriiu;

any
th

pl.u e,

has a

more an and
no

science.
f

more imposing mass If we wonder at


here

of

none

the Kyra-

is

a gigan
:igth

human

strength and patience, then

and

\\liit !e\s

we must add genius!"

64.

A Land called This.


state

This can hardly be other than the


ai

great western

of

China,

IV in,

ailed

I
!

meant,

probably,

as the genitive of This),

was ks

capital,

van;;. later

known
th

as Si-gnan-fu,
1

on the \Vei
the
>

ri\er not far

above

its

the

1. ..in.:

bo,

in

the present province of Shej|-i.

state

of Ts'in

was

f..:

Centuries
i

Chinese

states,

and a constant

the imperial

Chou
lious
s

livnastv.
tribes,

most powerful of the The power found itself


,

harassed in the west by the Tartar


the stales of

and

in the east

by rebel*

Wei, Han, Chun, "IVi and Ch'u


tlic

Very

early in the dynast}-, perhaps in the 8th century B. .C., a portion of


their sovereign rights
sidcrat

were resigned to
naturally profited

prime
re

of Ts'i

idcrtaking the de'


'I

the frontier agaiiut the

Tartars.

than the empire,

and the princes of Ts'in, as the annals put it, "like wolves or tigers to draw all the other princes into their claws, so that they devour them." The power of Ts'in grew until it overbalanced might
>1

Tartar territory was conquered

and the imperial power itself. As was incorporated into the dominions, and finally a IV in prince became F.mpemr >f China in 25S B. C. The greatest of the Ts'in monarchs/lViii Chi Hwangti. who ruled fn.m 2-1 to 209 B. C., is one of the Inchest names in It Chinese was he who began the CJrcat Wall, and who J the Chinese frontier across the Gobi desert, making under the Tian-Shan mountains, his outpost, and thus preparing die >r direct communication uith Bactria. Regular caravan travel China and Bactria is said to have begun in 1 SS
-.^federation of eastern states,
it
1

262

itself
it

But the success of Ts'in had brought its own reaction. It wu couM not control all Onn so much a Tartar state that Hie political importance of the gave way to the Han d\
it

however, by the first Han emperor, KaoN.m, emoveii his capital from Ix>yang in Honan to Him-Yang or Singanfu in Shensi, the aiu ient Ts'in capital, and in order to make- that
vas emphasised,

western location more accessible to the


great high-road

rest of

the empire, built a


still

from Loyang

to Singanfu,

which

is

in use.

Museum,

Buddhist pilgrim in northwestern China: from a 6-ft. panel in the ( ommrn i.il Philadelphia, 1128 times enlarged from a portion of a film t-xposed by

Bailey Willis, Carnegie Institution, Washington.

uasty

tooa

lott

its

made no
25-Sx

cffor
4
1

d
4

outposts beyond the wall, the reign of Kwang \

and

military

power ami
hi

ton.,

by

his

Yuch-i
igti,

^Mcrtcd toverctfttir

began the afffCStm

we* ward

>

the great conquests of the Generil Pan-chao, * and Tartar* as far as the and the
It

who

near
.1

Kh-.tun

^
in thi>

kui^

who Caspian, kadphic%, thru raab-

in

upper India.
1

was

region thai lluddhiun kcerm hrw

lima, rather than through

was always mure or


uith \Vcsirrn Asia.
/7
C,<*f r<tpky

I-

Tibet or Burma, and from in rummunicatiofi >

lfCki*i,

Rkhard, C**>nk<muw
Bocl

if

Douglas, CAmu.

lfCtiiui;.
;

H.

Pa
i

H
silk

Murvr,

^*W
io/
ihe7

>ry

:ntratin oftA* Ck'ttuit

Raw
39,
silk

silk

and
56.

yarn and
is
t>>

silk cloth.

under v

ft

49 and

This

the earliest correct statement of

and of (he routes

which

it

reached the uorid'%

k
niori,

is

(lie

fainih

llombycitJ*,

cocoon-secretion of the mulberry-leaf moth, Btmbj* order Lffudopura native, apparently, and
,

ilmuted, in the \v.irni-ic-nipeniie climate of north

Chinese legends mt

\\

instruments of
*

wood, with

silk

threads,
rig

under
of the

tin

u-h,

J'th

entury

worms and

the inventi.-

arc ascribed to l.n-tsu, k:.'wn as the


i
v

.:h was niperr Huanu-ti 27th centur)' H ^'.k, r:nlv. .::.-, by the empress, and those of the higher .rd skins as wearing apparel Soon other classes were enable
I

:c

discovered, and
t)u*
rir>t

rank

and
app<

position

were*

for

tune indicated by the man's outward


the
<-d

In

the

lih century

appears
k in every

that the L'hinesc uovcrniner.

the produt

in dirTerent

',<

same hiok describes


a trade
the
:..-rth

tiie

provinces of
the

<

'^ modern Hu-naa, had


.

v,

and skins, Yu-i h-u, next Q


r,

and TOC ti-

lilo

traded in bamboos, varnish, ulk and hemp, the northrrnmoNt, l'inL'-< 'hmi the modern Shan-Si) WSS noted
tton
.in..
It
\%

^c

as this

province which

264

mo>t

I:.

with the

nomad tubes

of

CVntr.il Asi.i,

through

whose hands
II irth,

silk first

reached the western nations


<,/

Anaent History

117, 121-2),

The

antiquity of the

silk

industry

in

India
its

is

uncertain, hut the

weight of evidence seems


in the Christian era;

to be in f.uor of
valley,
tin-

importation from China,


I

by way of the Brahmaputra


while
feeding on mulberry leaves
(the
prii

Assam and
.f

.astern Ken^al, carls

cultivation
&////r;//V//-,

name

\aricties,

not

the

including Jnthera-n
laurel
i

f><if>/ud

modern
,

Antheraa assama (feeding on and Attains ricinl feeding on the


tasar silk)
;
(
<

spc

plant

probably all stimulated by the value of the llwnhx silk. / See Watt, pp. 992-1026; Cambritig* AV/////v/////j/-,/

1,

V
soon

The

trade in

silk

yarn and

silk

doth

existed in Northern India

Silk is mentioned sr\nal time after the Aryan invasion. in the from Mak&bk&rata the /\,///^/v</;/r/, and countries, foreign gifts :ied that some trade at the Institutes of Manu; and it ma;. went farther west. The Egyptian records do not mention it prior
t
1

to the Persian conquest,

and
it

it

Darius and Xerxes that

first

was, no doubt, through the empires reached the Mediterranean world.

<>f

the dmeshfk of

The Hebrew scriptures Amos 111, 1.1


silken
fabric;

contain at least two references to

silk:

seems
also

to
in

be the Arabic dinmk*,


K/.ekiel

damask,*

while mcshi

XVI,

In

in

mean a silken gau/.e. Isaiah a manner indicating extreme


It

(XLIX,

12

mentions the Sinim

distance.

has been supposed that the Greeks learned of silk tfrmufyh Alexander* spvppditjnnj but it probably reached them previously through
Persia?

Aristotle {Hist. Anim.,


**It
is

V,

xix, 11

account:
others.

a great
first

worm which
it

reasonably coi has horns and so differs from


caterpillar, tin

At

its

metamorphosis
all

produces a

bombylius, and lastly a chrysalis From this animal six months.

these changes taking place within


separate and reel off
said that this

women
It
is

the

cocoons and afterwards spin them.

was first spun This indiin the island of Cos by Pamphilc, daughter of Plates." cates a steady importation of raw silk on bobbins before An st< The fabric he mentions was the famous Coa vcstis, or ti time. which parent gauze (woven also at Tyre and elsewhere in S\ Ha came into favor in the time of Caesar and Augustus. Pliny mentions Pamphile of Cos, *'who discovered the art of unwinding the silk" (from the bobbins, not from the cocoons) "and spinning a
.

therefrom; indeed, she ought not to be deprived of the gloi having discovered the art of making garments which, while they co\< XI a woman, at the same time reveal her naked charms/'

tie

refers

*ame

fal

i,

JO,

where he speaks of "the


in the.r forests.

so famous for the D|


leaves;
.t

wool

that

is

found

After

m
!d

water, they
-

comb

off a soft

down

that adhere*

and

it females of our part of the world they gtte task of unraveling their textures, and of uratmg the

threads afresh.
I

So man.!. .id u the

labor,

and so dtoant are


< I
.
.

thus ransacked to supply a dress through which our


s

puhlic display their cha;

V
the
skill

L41, Pfbo
t

dent through

Cleopatra, .m fabric, which, wrought in close texture by of the Seres, the needle of r un of the Nile ha*

"her white breast* retplen-

separated,
Silk

ign

and has loosened the warp by stretching out the web." fabrics of this kind were much affected b> men alto during of Augustus, but the fashion uus onsidered effeminate, and
i

IKTIIUS

the

Ronun
'st

Senate enacted a law

"thai

should not defile themselves by wearing garments


(Tacitus, Ann,

an account of the
t

Aureltan
that

was enormously high, from that silk was worth its


.

in gold,

and

he neither used
it,

it

himself nor allowr

possess a garment of

thereby setting an example against the

luxurious tastes that were draining the


Pliny includes
it

in

his

list

of the

empin "most

sources.

valuable productions"

the

most

costly things that are gathered

from

are nard and


Plin.
last to

Scnc

tiss
t

\\l, $) speaks of other use> such a pitch that a chaplet was held

.xury arose at

in

no esteem

at all

if

not consist

/ether with the needle.

More

tly again they have been imported from India, or from nations Hut it is looked upon as the most d the countries of India
all,

to present chaplets

made

of nard leaves, or else of silk

of

many

colors steeped in unguents.

Such

is
'

the pitch to

which the

msness

men
and

has

at last arrived

Among both Greek and


>tton

Rom.,
'

there
'tree
silk
i

his

silk, both being called translation of the Pcriplus, omits


rial,

wool

was some confusion and Fabrictus,


' '
i

altogether,

considering

yarn and doth

alike

to

rstan
is

cotton.

But

although these accounts err in

some

details, Pliny

sufficiently correct

his description of cotton.

He

distinguishes the wool-bearing trees

of the Seres from those of the Indian rub, with


its

d describes the cot-

bearded nut, containing on the which is spun into threads; the tissue mad. unerior to all others in whiteness and softness*'
"fruit resembling a

266

while his account of the silkworm


alt hi

is at least

\\ithm sight of the truth,

muli not so near

it

as Aristotle's:

they assume the appearance of small butteiiiies with but soon after, being unable to endure the o>Kl, the\ naked bodies, throw out bristly hairs, and assume quite a thick coat against the wmie;

"At

hist

by rubbing
rough:

off the
:

down

that covers the

leaves,

by

tin-

aul

of the

heir feet.

with

their
if

claws, and the trees,

Tip* ffcey compress into hall then draw it out and hang it between the
it

making
it

fine by

combing
state

it

out as

it

were

of

all,

they take and roll

round
It

their body, thus


in

forming a nest in

x\huh they are enveloped. after which they are placed


fed

is

this

that they are taken;

in

earthen vessels in a

warm

place,

and

upon

bran.

peculiar sort of

down soon

shoots forth upon the

task.

on being clothed with which they are sent to work upon another The cocoons which they have begun to form are rcmler<

pliable by the aid of water, and are then drawn out into threads of a spindle made of a reed. means Nor, in fact, have tin by even felt ashamed to make use of garments formed of this m in consequence of their extreme lightness in summer; for so have manners degenerated in our own day that so far from wearing a

and

<

cuirass, a

garment even

is

found to be too heavy.


31 7-322;
III,

'

'

(See also Lassen,


tiquorum. )

I,

25;

Yates, Tfxtnnum

ing of

The reeling of silk from the cocoons was down from the leaves, which had also a
"Velleraque ut
foliis

confused into a combbasis of truth, but


Virgil,

was

the cause of the confusion with cotton.


II,

Compare

Georgics,

"

121;

depectant tenuia Seres.


fibers in referring to

Pliny finally distinguishes


*

between the two

Arabian cotton (XII, 21):


nothing "
at all,

'trees that

nature from those of the Seres;

bear wool, but of a different as in these trees the haves produce


readily

and indeed might very

be taken for those of the

vine.

The word "silk'* is from a Mongolian original, sirkek, m< Korean j/r, Chinese u/. Hence the Greek .</.<, Latin it -ru urn. From this word the name Seres was applied to the pcop! whose hands the product came; by which must be understood, not
silk;

the Chinese themselves, but rather the Turkish or Tibetan interim-diThat the word was loosely extended to cover most of I... aries.

Asia

is

Sinim,

undeniable; but Ptolemy distinguishes the Sina, Isaiah the while the Periplus gives nearly the correct form, 77m, for

China proper.
Pliny has a curious mixture of Seres and Cirrhadae in his \-\rita

2*7

VII, 2).

who*
..il.-s

Hai-nowrd Mongolian face*

in

thnr fate*

ins'
4

and

whom

be

people who have no v\ho hxc on the ea> M dia, near the tourtt of the bodies are rough and hairy, and they cover theimrhr* with a
1

the

leave*

.,f

tree*."

Merc he shows SOW*

knowledge

..i

the

silL

trade through Astfam.


.

iiinianus

M.r.r!:.:.,

\\lll,

\i

hat

more knowledge
ythuu,

of

hr

64 -

ul
.1

the

.1

on the oucrrn
I

rin.j <>f

niotinta.ns

whuh

surr....

4,

a country cooaidul

crahlc both for us extent and the

fertility

of

it%

hi* tribe

OO

H>k

tow a
"'I

dc border on the Scythians, <m the north and the ease deserts; toward the south they extend at far
.

as India ami the Changes.


67.
>

themselves
is

lite

quietly,

and

battles;

and as ease

pleasant to

always avoiding arms moderate and quirt men, they


I

gi\e trouble to

none

of

their neighbor*.

heir

climate

is

agreeable

and health

r/rs gentle and delicious.

They

have numbers of shining groves, the trees of which through continued


watering produce a crop like the fleece of a sheep, which the natives make into a delicate wool, and spin into a kind of fine cloth, formerly
*

the use of the nobles, but

now

procurable by the lowest

he people without distinction.


68.

"The names
life,

a peaceful

themselves arc the most frugal of men, and shunning the society of other men.
their cloth, or

culti-

And
the

wtun

strangers cross their river to buy

any other of
settle

merchandise, they interchange no conversation, but

price of the articles wanted by nods and signs; and they are so mode* nexer buy any foreign that, while selling their own pr.ulu

But to the

Gneco-Roman world

the Seres were a

ubiquitous as the subjects of Prester

Ausar and Masira


with them.

in

John in the middle ages. The .dese mouths; sec p. 209), and e\en Southern Arabia (sec p. 140) were identified

Concerning the long struggles of the emperors at with the Sassa.ml m.marchs in Persia, over the e\er-u
.

culminating in the

success of the Christian


to Justinian,

Muceeded in bringing the jealously -guarded eggs hidden in a bamboo cane, thereby laying the foundation
uliculture
oi

of the ulk-

ant,

see Beazley,

Aruw

if

241

Gf6frapA.\\ \ ol. 1}

Heyd,

Histoirt

<

vant au
ft historiqufs snt

.'

ZfjgraphiqufS

/;

v
.

(1768)
.

in
-

.1

'iptions ft

-t>03;

Reinaud, Kf/a/iws pfittiqucs


'

ft
/

<&///;.

mpirt Ronuiir:
;>/<.

>

'

M
rii.ip.

'

pr,miu

de

/*,

Sec also Richlhofen,


Ruins df Khotan ;

C/rimi,

1,

\.

490-511;
/IT//**

Spe
<//^

uttltftSfkl

.....

I.

I.etou;

Mocl, ////'.

Lindsay, History of
.
.

Merc lain t
....
i

Shipping <m</
!'
.

./>;.
'I

//

M,

2S1

Bunhury,

///.>;

//],

I,

565;

II.

1' '>,

658;

Edmunds,

/>W///-.-

cd., introduction.

Through

Bactria to Barygaza.
to

from the Yellow River

Bactra,

first

instituted, possibly,

early in

the 2d century B. C. and then obstructed for nearly two centuries. The earlier, and to the Chinese the most imfollowed two routes. portant because
it

led to the

Khotan jade-held, was the Xnn-lu or


tin-

"southern way," the stages of which may be traced on


folio.

map

as

Lanchowfu, Kanchow, Yumenhsien, Ansicbow, Lop where the routes divided. to Khotan and ^ .u Rixer The \an-Ju followed south of the Tarim kand, thence over the Pamirs and westward to the Oxus ami This was the earliest route opened by the Chinese army under Pan
i-janfu,
!

^iemo (the Asmiraa of the Greeks

second route, the Pci-ln or "northern way,'* followed the same course from Sin anfu to Tsiemo, thence north of the Tarim through Kuche and Aksu to Kashgar, and

Chao, being cleared

in

74 A.

I).

The

cand.
s ,i:th

oxer the tremendous heights of the Terek to the Jaxartcs and SamarThence a route led southward to Bactra, while another led

westward more

directly to Antiochia
in

second route was opened by Pan Chao

Margiana 94 A. I).

'

Merx.

This

\aiiantof the Pci-lu led from Yiimcnhsicn to Hami,


harachar, meeting the above route at

Kuche

this

was

pret-

-1C

respects, being close to the mountains, but

was

suhjc<

ant attacks by the savage Tartar tribes,

Hami

especially being

storm-center in the Chinese annals, and an important outpost for the Another variant led from Turfan through defence of the main route.
the Tian-shan to t'rumLsi and Kuldja, thence by the Hi River and

north of ihr m.iui:

.khara and

Menr
it

Thi

d.d

rnrral topography of thete


paata
Stanislau.
tht
\

urkrun

rHite%

shown by a

kntoritm

<-4/*Wj, in

<t lf t f*u^. h*r*ttl ./iwAf */, Nor

1\

Hi

hounded mi
ami
)',tn{-iu.i't.

thr ra

harriers of

r/N/*-4wnr
But

.nid

u the

w from

tf^"t

'

Pamir %

unf-lint
',

is

the trunk

uhuh
t
-

ihr

great

tnouiitain-raficcf

\\

hu h

nu

|..sr

thr

.l^rri,

a the

nonh
:

%OUlh,
>

and
h

V./n-/* an.1

(he touch
III
>

ulullL'

the ,V.;i-;':,^

k urn-

.mil
15.. di
ll

rh.it

.iL.ni:

(lie

/'/-j^.

called

dn-sc

pr..ximrs
//

lie-

to

(he WMJth

6000

fnm

eatt to west, anil

!<>

.,

from vnjth to

BOfti

and Sungariu had no


silk-tradr in
I

part in thr tran^ontinrnraJ

Ronun
\1
:

tn

'his

CVntral

Asian (radr-rou(r was


iinr

firsf

comprehensively dc-aid

tv\o generation* later than the

to be

based on (he notes of a

Muinioman silk-men

name was Tr
or trading associates whom hr m-t says, began at the Hay of Issus in C
%

x*hu did not perform (he whole

at

Turkestan from hit "agents" thr Pamirs -r, he


sopotamia. As\

atana and the Caspian Pass;

and

\ntiochi.i

Marxian.
route

through Parthu through Arta


.r (.1

the
,

pord

through (he mountainous


,,

and (hrough thr trrr .f those mrrchants

the

who

trade with the

.ishkurghan. in Sankol. on (hr upprr

^ arkar.d
gr-

Ri\rr in (he

C'hinrsc
rises

Pamirs.

t..:ti!ic-d

(nun

built

on

Cfag that

from the Taghdumbash valley, at the convergence of routes from the Oxus, the Indus and the Yarkand Thence to the Casii Kashgar and through the country of the Tha(

until

af(er a

seven-months' Journey from thr


"
;H>|I,

**S

>wer"

the merchants arn\<


of (hr 1'eriplus

the "C*i(> called

Thuur"

H\

to..

l:rr:.il

an application of this "seven- months' journey"


\\i-tr

nix

and I'toU-nn

led into gra\e error us

t,.

thr loflgt-

270

tudinal extension of Asia;

but the evidence of direct trade

between

Rome

and China
first

is

remarkable-.

The

part

of

the route

was minutely described before our

author's time, in the Mansioncs Parthica of Uidorus of Charax Spasini. This route of Macs the Macedonian followed very nearly the

same

direction as the Chinese

A',///-///,

after leaving Bactru.

cmssmu

the Pamirs diagonal!) to Kushgar,

on the /'V-///,

but then

tuminu south-

ward through Yarkand to Khotan, and in passing "Thagura" took a more southerly, and also a more direct route than the Nan-lu itself, which it joined half-way between Lop Nor and the Bulun/ir the east of which all three routes were iden"river of the Hiong-nu")
tical as far as

Singanfu.
p.

(See

map to face
21;
v.

SOU, Vol.

I,

of Richthofcn's China; ---Slider's


.ItLis

Hantt-dtlas %
i:. l.\
,

maps 61-2;
and map.
this

Stanford,

of the Chmttt

/*.////>//>,

plates

19,

Lansdell,
)

C///W

Central ./,/.

Vc.l.

II;

Mem.

op. cit.

chap.

At Hactra

o\erland trade-route branclied

again,

following

westward through the Parthian highlands to the Euphrates, or southward From to Hamian, the Cabul valley, the Khyber Pass and the Indus.
capital at Palibothra, with a

Taxilathe highway of the Maurya dynasty led through the Panjah to the branch from Mathura southward to ( )/ene

and the Deccan.

The

route

down

the Indus to

its

mouth was

less

important owing to the character of the tribes living on the lower This is indicated by the text, which says far more of hereaches.
t

products carried by the overland route to coming to Barbaricum


.

Barygaza than of those

Yet a part of the Chinese trade was, apparently, localized at the mouth of the Indus. While the valuable silk cloth went to Bar. the yarn, or thread, went to Barbarttwnt where it was exchanged for a product always more highly valued in China than in India namely, frankincense; the white incense, or tktkri luban^ which Marco Polo
still

found

in

extensive use in China under the


is

fume."

This

not listed in the Periplus


its

name of "milk peramong the imports at other


the Indus to Peucelaotis
i

Indian ports, and evidently found

way up
s;lk

and Bactra, and thence


Arabia,
fabrics

return, went to \arn, where it was used in making the embroidered and silk-shot for which Arabia and Syria were so famous in the Roman
to China.
i

The

market.

Concerning the frankincense of the I)eir-el-Bahri relicts )rake-Brockman writes again from Bulhar, Sept. 18, 1910,
I

Mr
that

.sTtle

shown

in

those reliefs are not the

humped

cattle peculiar to

SOMI.I.

d likewise
hi.hu

inn

a.

Western

hut the ordinary type,


\

without humps;

which

and Socotra. canle of theftc region% and


rabia

in fait the

h..| r
1

of

Abyvinia are
and
parts, as the
\ti

all

the

humped

variety

jion* and ha\


.iuuhc
?..
if

-he
>trd
in

thr.

thr%c dried-up

hump u
f
it

these cattle what the camel'*


Beiicir
if

hump
in

i%

storehouse.
is

mal>tcl

I.n.l

;:-ier, and

improKablr

thr.

lack pottery

ornamented with figure* of humped mmcrcial Mitttum, Phil

cattle.

;:.-:
i

th.it

the i'unt |ji|>cditioii did

n<>t

make

the Somali coast, hut must have


>f

.ir,

or possibly to the south side <>f Dhofar. Th


dynasty
tale,

Socotra,

gone which was a depen-

to the Plain of

of

the island

/Wv4
of

of the
in

Xlllth

and the

iru

ease-land

/Vwi**

Viril.

:a,

makes
rclic-N

that an interesting possibility;


is

on the

more

strongly suggestive of

but Altogether the Dhofar, the S t


t

sumt

-halitt -s

of the Pcnplus.

Sec also pp. 120, 141-2, and 2'

Sec Ptolemy.
dcs

1,

11-1-,

I,

13;

De

Guignes, Sur
Chinois:
,

Its

liaiso*

Roma ins a-w


.It

Ifs

Tartarcs

ft l<s

in Meni>,

dcs Inscriptions et Belles-Let!',


stir /'
I,
,

Vol. xxxii (179S


/'

3 5 5-69 ;

Rnnus.it, Remarques

F.mpirf C/iinois
(

de Incident (1825);

Lassen,
Stein,

ami

the

If 'ay
ll.ii-j.

Thither;

9-660; Yule, Sand-llur'tnl Ruins of Khotan


1

1S-14,

1,

SI

M. R
tains

Wit Indus Df/ta Country;

Richthofcn,

(lhin<i,

Vol.

1;

X'incent, 11,
;
i

Merzbacher. Tki C.cntral Tmn-Shan J 573-618; !f$ de f Asic Centralc ; Bon n Grandts wit* Manifold,
.

f'loration

and E&nomu Development

in

(Ifntml and
1

II

China (with map) in G&fraphical Journal^ xxiii, 28 -SI 2, Mar. 1904; Tht Gnat //W// of China; Col. ,, Keane, Asia, I, chap. v.

of the Royal Geographical his journey of 1SS~ alonn the entire Central route between Kashgar and Peking.
Bell, in Proceedings
I

IX

'H,

,U--

Asian

trade-

'.4.

To
I

Damirica by
1

way

the

ihetan plateau, starting in the

of the Ganges. same


Lanchowfu;

Tins u a > the


direction as the
hiivj;
'

Turkrstan

routes,

from SiiKjunfu

to

hraiu

Ud

to Siningfu, thence to

K<>ko Nor, and southwestward,

b\

Lhasa

and the Chumbi Vale to Sikkini and the Ganges.


I

The route from

by the lower Brahmaputra was


inhabiting
it.

little

used, owin<: to the savage

as,

for instance, a
.

There were numerous other passages into India, frequented route by the Arun River through Nepal

to the

peak of Kailas

or by following the upper Brahmaputra to the sacred and the source of the Sutlej, or continuing through

Gartok
of

to the

upper Indus.
itself,

But natural conditions, as stated


these
routes through

in

the

Periplus

made

Western

Tibet

almost impracticable for commerce.

This was the route which

later

became

the

t'icat

highway

<>f

i> best It Buddhist pilgrim-travel between Mongolia and Lhasa. bed by one of the few white men who have ever traversed it:

Hue,

Recollections

of a Journey through Tartary, Thibet and China during

The

Chinese Buddhist
in

monk Fa-Hien
is

spent two years


a seaport
.

in

''the

country of Tamalipti, the capital of which

after this

he embarked

sea to the southwest.

a large merchant- vessel, and went float ii It was the beginning of winter and the wind

was

f.

'

fourteen day*, taifinf day and night, (Key

Sintfhala."
4

4p

uutv

'To

4me
1

the eastern ihippioff. according ID (he

he Chera backwaters were a meeting-pou* for the trade M.| of Sues. Our author did not
these vessel*
.

>Ja,

because the

ame monsoon
day

thai brought

thrni xvnuM liuvr taken

him away.
-hi% trade in hit
'

M
r
is

III,

in this

kmud
.ui.l

II

great quantity of pepprr


.if

turhit,

and

MU(% of

India.

They

alto

nianuLuiu
?r.

4tc
I>IIM<J

and beautiful buckram*.


..rfee

The

ships that

mi the east

in

halbut.

They

alto bring hither

of

silk ,-,.! uM.Ul,


.i:i.i

and >endeU;

aUo gold and

ulver. clove*

and

.itlirr

tine spices."
l/r./-rntw.-

Rockhill. 7^/
'///v/
.

-W ^
/./i./itf

M/

/^MM/;

.W
Michusband,
f

Waddell.

M/

Mint

7*4/ G<*traph'ual Rtmht / tk* Tikrt xxv 190S; 7i//W, :raphi(al Crosby, 77/r/ aW -london. /Jbw, U riuiuir.i )as, Joumn ! IJtattt tfW Central Owning of Tib,
1

-Little.!..

/w.

Deasy,
-Sandberir.
7"ir

-Carey,

.Mm turn
Sh erring,
II

inun Report,
-v
/.7w;
'ft if

7'i/itrn/

r^ifir/n.

i/W

///

nt Tikt <nuf tkt Brititk

64.

Few men come from


i

there,
travel

and seldom.

'mil the

subjugation of Turkestan
naturally hazardous.

The

and trade overland were routes through Tibet and upper Burma

sed as those leading through the


acial

IV
for a
little.

and topographical reasons were alike responsible. Tkt Fact if Ckn*>, also, SeeLassen. -Kc.n;
;
:

ac

count of a recent journey along the

tra\elleil

Burmese
and
i

route.

J<h
'Hie

m PfHmg *
.\LinHt

Aiu>ther theon. ..utlined h\


Cltfnortftf,

Kimrsmill
/.'/

*mt

lk<

/V/*7 .-;./

fnntaffrt. in
v

J*nuJ *f tkt
:ul

'hina

llraiu h,

XXXV and

Tcrnrn dr

couperic
the

<

in his

introdu

Burmese form

'.ili|uhoun's Imvtg /*V\4**j >, upper Burma; identifying Thmx- with r :hr >f Hsen-ui. Northern Shans, and with 7*m, ^ unnan. co Polo to the Chinese pr
/,/
..f

(See also Rocher, may be the relation

Pn
PmicnuN

-:*u
.Srnr

* >*0*

But u rutrver

and Cosmas* Tsmtt/Ar to Burma.

274
it

may be

asserted that the


Silk

Thin*

of the Periplus had nothing to do


*

with that repon.


to

was brought thence overland


by the Turkestan route.

'through B.unia

Barygaza," that

is,

Why
a

ignore

the

.UK -lent center of the silk industry, Singanfu, to

hnd

fanned

similarity

of name in a locality never important

in silk

product ion, separated

and Abyssinian types, on pp.

Early Chinese Buddhist 9-storied pagoda: compare illustrations of Hindu From a model exhibited in the- Commercial 64-5.
Philadelphia.

Museum.

Ik-routr h>

and

ly

settled

000 miles of the most dificult travelling in Asia, by Shan tribri until tome centuries beer thin
it

The
With
relatiuni

theory
the

manifestly impfacticihle.

thr risr

,.t

Kuhan

towards thnr f-.nnrr

home

dynasty in the northwe*, and their <>n (he Chinese border, it

naturu!

hy the Turkestan routei should He the m,l l(jry successes of China did not begin until 7

<

AH

tint
1

cse Empcr.
llu.i.ihiMM
i:.

Mi

rd from S8
ivtucion of

two

Sramanas, Kisyapa Matanga and Uharaiu, who arrived in 67 A. I). (Takakusu, Introduction to ln edition of 1 -feint;. P Before such an imitation thrrr must ha\r hern considerable activity
i

.xi

the part

imviionaries, then at

now the

forerunners of

cnmmer
the iourney

Thr
As
nun-

seems to be descrih :amanas in 67 A


trxt
I

Contrasting With thr knowlrd<.:<


:<

v*

huh

the

(Hotting atiounr
rir%e

an

..irlv

thr

<

of almost the same

il.itr

as the

!'

interest.

from Mirth,

(.'hinii

ami
>i

tkt

Roman
1

()

\\ \

\i .N

MAN

)^

\>

<

>j

CHAPTER
"
'/d/i

S8
/
/

**f/oi/-A<iif-/^,

fnirth writisn during tkt 5tk <f*tnr\

embracing the p<ri*l


of thr
thi<

/>
in the

Roman empire ronuinni


|

ClUMW aaiu
nd brine
I).

aroiunt

ilr
r

*>>,

based on the
1

jn.rt

of thr

Amhanador Kan Ying, A.


'in is also called

9*
*

h<hun
I

Li- km

and,

as being situated

on the western

part of the sea, Hai-tti-iL

n part of the sea").


il

(2)

territory

amounts
The de-

thousand

/.

four hundred cities


;

and of dependent
fences of cities are
rs

states there are several times trn

made
all

of stone.

(6)

The
plastr

postal stations
:

and milene
i

on the roads are covered with

and cypress trees and


people arc

much

* he kinds of other trees and plant* bent on agriculture and practice the planting of trees

and thr rearing of silk-worms. (9 ir embroidered clothi


covered with white lanopirs,
<

of their heads,

and drne
*

in small cairiaces

when going in or out they beat he prevr drurcs and hoist Hag*, banners, and pennants. whu h thry h\e measure over a hundred /r in of the walled citirs
\1
1

\-.\

276

circumference.

(14) In the
i

city there are five palaces, ten


the-

//'

distant

from each

oth<

15
ill

In
in

palace buildings they

use-

crystal to

make
king
-.

pillai
:\c

used

taking meals are also made.

(16)
<la\s
In-

The
has

palace a day to hear cases.

After

fi\c

(17) As a rule, they let a man with a ha-, completed Those who have some matter to submit, follow the king's carriage When the- kinu armcs at the throw a petition into the b. IS The he examines into the rights and wrongs of the matter.
his

round.

i.;

'

documents are under the control

of thirty-six

,/////;/

'

gene-

\\ho conjointly discuss government affairs. (19) Their kings are not but of men merit. (20.' When a they appoint rulers, permanent
severe calamity
is

\isits

the country, or untimely rain-storms, the king

deposed and replaced by another.


tall

The one

relieved

from

his duties

submits to his degradation without a murmur.


of that country are

(21

'I

"he inhabitants
like

and well-proportioned, somewhat


(22)

the

Chinese, whence they are called Ta-ts'm.


tains

The

counti
especially
////',

much
rals,

gold,

silver,

and
"

rare

precious

stones,

the

**jewel that shines at night,

the

"moonshine pearl," the


(

amber,

glass, lanz-kun

a kind of coral', chn-t<in 'cinna-

bar?),

green jadestone
cloth.
ui,
(i. c.

(ching-pi\

gold-embroidered rugs and thin


cloth
called
'

silk-cloth of

various colors.

and asbestos
1

25)

They make gold-colored They further have fine cloth,'' also


(23)
of the water-sheep);
it

Shui-yanz-ts
.us

down

is

made from
fr.

the

of wild silk-worms.

They

collect

all

kinds of

substances,
All the rare

the juice of which they boil into su-ho (storax).

gems

of other foreign countries


silver.

come from
./;;-///

there.

They make
one of

coins of gold and

Ten

units of silver are


Part hi a

worth

gold.

(28)

They

traffic

by sea with
is

T ifn-f/iu

(India), the profit of which trade

ten-fold.

(29)

They
(30)

are honest in their transactions and there are no double prices.


\\

a well-filled The budget U Cereals are always cheap. ^1 of countries When the embassies come neighboring treasury. to their frontier, they are driven

by post to the

capital,

and on

arrival,

are presented with golden


to

money.
Parthians) wis!

China, but the An-hsi


(

carry on trade with them in Chinese silks, and it is for this reason that till the .3.3) This lasted they were cut off from communication.

emperor Hua:. A. D. 166) when the king of '/>/-///;/, An-tnn \Iarcus.\urclius Antoninus) sent an embassy who, from the frontier of Jili-nan Anam From that timeoffered ivory, rhinoceros horns, and tortoise shell.

ninth year of the Yen-hsi period during the

(=

dates the (direct)

intercourse with this country.

The

list

of their

zrr

u htch bet throws doubt on the


.

v.mr

that in the
/

we*
,
.

ol this country
>4iuU.

semk water") and the


desert

,,
<

iencc of the
>

H*umg-m*
days,
|fh

"mother
one
it

of the

wMl

MTtS

'M we*, going over 200


;

'?rr

lhr prr%r:.t
//'*-/.

inhales

fr<-

.ill

returned from
4*4
.

thrrr

.t far as

7* /*

fun her sad


\-.u

land-road of .4*-kn

1'anhu

n rttrnt
>untry

round
!!-

at sea

and, taking a northern turn,

the >ca, wl>


is

//

by a tkik

resting-pbn

<.

ked by a f'tif. n<K alarmed by

nes unsafe
\\ill .itt.u

l.

.'en

and

lions

who

k passengers,

and unless these be traveling


be proir.
Military

in caravan

equipment, they

hrnl^c
t.

(40) /...':/</) of several hundred


!>v
'

these beasts.

They
//,

also say there

by which one

may croat
of rare

the-

iiuintrirs

north
.1

The ankles made


.ire

in

this

..nut.--,

sham

curioskies

and

i:cnuiru\ \\hri

mrndoned.
meaning
fu

Under the Lesser Bear


:!u-

i{ini.ti.t\as

;urt of
ith.

China
this

is

actually so far north as to ru\e


it

would require

to be

within ihe

64.
of
tl.

Empt\

into

ilu-

OceaiL

This was the


See
p.

belief of

most

and

Roman

geographers.

100,

where the
*i

h the Arctic
Tanais,

Mela shows the Caspian Ocean, and or Don. Strabo (\\. \\.
r
\

.d by

riului^ from the


as

ocean to the south.


it

A-

vard the extremit\.


sea

it

advances further inward, and widei^ rutcnthenet SajTS


I

that the was known to tl: ( >adusii the the oust the of and Albanians the of along voyage part Comprised 5400 stadia and the part along the country of the Aiu as the mouth o' the n\er Oxus, 4WO
;
I

theme

t.

the Jaxartes,

2400 stadia."

rd,

is

rather an iniluatuin of the strong probability thatthr


ried

the

Amu

ai.

re in truth accessible

together until after the Christian era, to the Greek adven-

278

turcrs

from Colchis,

crossing:

from the
i,

u\me
)
:

Sea.

As to Lake

Maeotis

(the Sea of

Azov) Strabo

says (XI,

"Asia has
river

a kind of peninP.ilus

sular form, surrounded

on the west by the

Tanais and the

\la-otis as far as the Cimmerian Bosphorus, and tiiat part of th< uxine which terminates at Colchis; on the north by the of the
I

in,

as

far as

the

mouth

of the Caspian Sea;

on the

east

by the

same

sea, as far as the


I'hc-NC

confines of Armenia.

were corrected by Ptolemy, but subsequently revived. Sec I'o/.er, Hilton of student Gtofrmpky 345,367; Huntington, 'The The /'/;'// Puht of Asia In GeoMackinder, of I Gngnapkical
errors
t ;

jtraphi(tl Journal, xxiii,

422-4S7, April, 1904;


June, 1904.

Kropotkin, 7 'h,

tatun of Eurasia\

ibid.

In this proup of modern Tibetans may be found all the types mentioned in the closing paragraphs of the Periplus: "the men with flattened noses," the ..I the "1 onu-faccs," of 62, and the "men with short, thick 65. bodirt and hru:id, flat fares" of

65.

Besatae.

to the Cirrhad<e,

These were another Tibeto-Burman tribe, and to the modern Kuki-Chin, Naua and

allied
(

laro

279
tribes.

IV.le my places

them

east

riplus AS to thrir perional


lilies

(Unget, ami corroborate* I aaacin (III, 38) Appearance.


of

the

the

name

with the Sanscrit


-

sa\sr

.s.kkmt

twU4v, "wretchedly ttupid," and Our author locates them 'on the
*

tidicating that
r location of their

.hrt

was then subject

annual

fair

must have been near the


above whnl.fl
I

or the

JrLp

a Pass

lr.i

'ihetan side of ihr ?r.,n-

\\htilt thr

o\rrland

route
riingfu

'Mentioned in

the t.iMr Km,:

and Smgaitfu.
lie
-:

64 Ird Other

Nepal are possible, par


r Iravt

A run River, hut Tom ihr Jirrct


.yangtte
f

(he

a past must be scaled higher by


-eld. Th<

3000

fret

than

Rui>

ft

.Hgrwfi*/ J**n*/9
tn tkt ."

and March, 1904; and Th< Hitknt Mountain


h,

1903;

OH'nnnor,
III,
s
.f

A'

rVudo-C'allisthrurx
leaf.

refer* to the
\cr>'

BiuuU "who
t> climb

gat I"
!

caves

They are a feeWe among the ru k


leaf.

flk,

diminutive Mature, and

mulerstand
..f

how

prn
al

itmutr kiuiulrd^r
gather thr

the country
f

and are thus


\IcCrindlr

Thry
I

are small
straight

men

stunted growth, with big

heads of

ami not

/u&r,

p. 180. )

.ins

Indian Jrtkiuttuft, I, \^ *ay: "The rgusson (History are a fragment of a great primitive population that occu-

he northern ami southern slopes of the Himalayas at


very remote prehistoric tune
serpents;
1

some
and

\\orshippers of trees
<>nt, in

and they, ami


Hurni.i.

their descendants

ami

Bengal,

Sum
I

and China, ha\e been the bulwark of


it

Buddhism.

In Iiulia

tlu-

Kr. ulians resisted Buddhism on the ^uth.


in the

and

anism abolishetl

north

"

festival

and

Feast for several days. m any accounts


I

>(xion of a tribal
>f

other
1

neo-

ig
:is
r

from Herodotus (IV,

beyond the Pillars of Her who inhabit and men they Libya, their unloaded have and merchandise, they I>eople in order on the shore, go on board their ships and make a treat .* n to the the inhabitants, seeing the smui then deposit foUl m ex. han^r lr the in -chandtse, and with*
further say that
\

.it

zso

to

some

distance from the merchandise;


gold,
it

that
the

the Carthaginian!

then, lining for the meivh.imlise, they take


;tficient,

ashore, examine the

and

if

quantity seen
a\vav;

up ami

sail

hut

if

it

is

they go onboard

their ships again

and wait; the natives

)n a

hu.>kct<

modern trade-route through the mountains of Sikkim. and rovers of matting are easily distin^iishahle.

The

shoulder-

ai
ach and dcpont more
nnihrr party
c

gold, until they have


,

the fold

the merchanditr. nor do ibr a h ihr incrv hjfuliM- trf..rr -hr other party ha* taken the

hr

Himalayas}

ems alto to ipcak Ammianut MarceUmu*. in


-i

of the
the

Tathkurgh
!

Stone
ids to

pa%vd
ascribe* u to
it
1

t ustom in Crylon. nagai," the tutelary guardian* of die ptr-

.real

packs and boket.


:il

Ihr ^n.
tfubr burdrt.

JoKes

IN

ii

rd rctcrobUnt
llir tiir
;

fxtrtt, fiber;
u-

'lir

Sans*
'he AfMMM&f leaVCt

)lhcr-

tirsinptiM of

COTTBCt,

ihrouuhiuii In

P!i

Mulabathriiin.
:

./JNMM*J* itfM^r
IIH ipal
.

nativr

tht%

the Hi;
in his

irr.
l,ti
"It contains
is

&>
quarters rivers
.thumlani
is

.uvMunt of
h

and

lakex.

gold-dua

found
-

in

Coral

in

nand

in

this i-nuniry

and

fefi

he* a high
f

chev

KS of
4,

thnr

women and

(heir idols.*'

87, 89, 216-18.

66.

Influence of the gods.


writing's
I

the geography of
l~th cen(ur>,

Brahman
1

uer in (he

who

tuna-

the Rama\a>i<t in his Tnnv/i, M> (his mrrc Kant of Bercn


uler ihr spell of (he great epic* of India, at

he

sojourned

among
n* ihrrr,
' '

Cholas, Chenu, and the Pandyas dwelling by the toutWra tn.

and
u-rr

region beyond Sikkim. "impassable by reason of its fiat ttukuiini: the nnuhiiest peaks of (he Himalayas, was within
<f (he Kurtikifittra of the bier
ic

Hritm***,, and
faith;

ih-

Wahabharata,
all

(he

home-land of (he Brahman


.ss, K

with the

greatest of
.

mouniams. Kxrrrst. is a name of Siva and Durgi;

utrd the name of Gauriwestern curve of the grrji

in (he

peak of Kailas. the ( )|ympus <>f tin- Miiulu <MH!S, the axis of the universe and the way to heaven: while the ending of
chain
is

the IVriplus

is

that of the Sita-quest in the


till

"HmJt not

\mi

rca< h thr i-ountrv \\lirrr thr imrtlirrn Ki.


t-artli,

routines of the wide

homi- of Ci.d

ami

Spirits l>k-st

"
!

214

\K riU.KS

OK TRADE MENTIONED
.

IN

THK

1'KRIPLUS

mtrattd according

to

the ports

Red Sea

Coast.

Horn
AVAI

of Africa (The
ISt).

"far side"

(Export,)
hell

(Imports)
Flint glass, assort
c.
I

I\.r\

ADI

iv

Juice of sour grapes from I)i-

oKi
Undressed cloth from Egypt Robes from Arsinoc
Cloaks of poor quality, dyed Double-fringed linen mantles
Flint glass, in

Dressed cloth, assorted

Wheat Wine
Tin.

M urrhine

many forms (glass imitation made


i

(Exports

partly

to

Occ!

Muza)
Ivory
Tortoise-shell

in Diospolis Brass (for ornament and in cut

pieces as coin)
Shc< >pper (for cooking-utensils, and bracelets
-

Myrrh MALAO.
(Imports)

(bettrr than

aiul anklets)

The
swords
round

things already mentioned.

Iron (for spears)

AJU

;d

Copper drinking-cups, and large


Coin, a
little

Also Tunics Cloaks from Arsinoe, dressed and dyed


Drinking cups
Sheets of soft copper

Wine
Olive

of Laodicea and Italy


oil

Iron

Presents for the king : gold and


silver plate, military cloaks,

Gold and
(Exports)

silver coin.

thin coats of skin

Myrrh
(from
Frankincense (the far-side)

Indian

iron

and

steel

Ariaca) Indian cotton cloth (the broad monadic} , also the sagmatoghtf, perhaps

Cinnamon (the harder) Duaca (var. of frankincense)


Indian copal

raw cotton

Macir (medicinal Kirk from


Malabar) (These exports going to Arabia)
Slaves, rarely.

Girdles

Coats of skin

Mallow-colored cloth Muslins


Lac.

MUNDUS.
(Imports)

(Exports)
Ivory
Tortoise-shell

The The

things already mentic

(Exports)
things already
also

mt

Rh

noce ro s - horn.

its
.

of

MOfYLLVM.
(Im^rtj)

The

thi

Iron, very
(,:,,

l.itle

Wine, a link

WW*. for free


Cinnamon,
Fragrant
in

Irory
jtf

(in

TWM

incwttc
(the

.Mkinmuc

fmr^uk)
.

M%
K
Frankinoctur
the l*et Ur-

Arabte.

MARK

or

Sncn

(Cmpr Guudft-

MVIA.

al

cwms,
Clothing
in

MM
-

Armbiaafylrt,t.itk

(varieties

artfa,

mtgtn,

with gold)

Km
OVOM
The

and JWOAO,
Slaves of the

in great <|iuntity )

Wttcr

..:

Egypt,
bers

in

increasing

num-

Wine and wheat


Present, tn the

(not

much,

Uw

country producing both)


gfMHi
quality,
.

Tortoiie-shell f

King and duel.

in great quati'

(Goods brought
.1%

in
)

liuiu

M^ gold and poltfWd


ing.

ami the
:

receding far-

,H,rt)

copper
tke

\V

(JLr/^ti,

tcJ Imttcr

Mm

Sesame

..,!

M%rrh. the

Ail the

tiling,

Hoi.

the

reed

from

CANA (which
I

has trade with

NN.H.vl

tilll

he far-tide coast, India and the Persian Gulf).

IJIackwood logs
Bbi

<

from India)
tna

to

Whr.it and wine; a

little,

as at

<

)iiin

Um*
ing
ill

the Arabian style,

poor quality

ffrom

Oinin.iii.i

t..

South

Tin
Cora.

Pearls, inferior

t..

tin-

Indian

Purple
Clothing,
aft<
,,n

of

Other things such as go


Presents for the kin^
:

M Muaa
\\rought

the

WlM
D.i!'
i|u.intit\

gold

ami

silver

plate,

horses, images, thin cloth-

Gold
Slaves
(tn

ing of fine quality. (Exports^ the native produce)

Imth

hulia and S.

ibm)

Frankincense

Makran Coast.
r^.

The

things mentioned from the other ports.


rest

of the

\\

DIOSCURI DA ISLAND.
Mrtr)
toise-shcll, various kinds

Wine
Dates
Bdeffium.

Indian

cinnabar

(dragon's

blood).
(Imports^ brought

Indo-Scythia.
BARBARICI M
rivi

by merchants from Muza and by chance


rails

(at

mouth

of

Indus

of

ships

returning

(Imports]

from India)
Rice

Thin clothing, in some spu:


I'igureil linens

large quan. ity,

Wheat
Indian cloth

Toj

Female

slaves, a

few

Coral
Storax
k incense

MOSCHA.
(Imports)

Cloth

Vessels of glass

Wheat

ami gold plate


oil.

(*)
Frankincense.

Sesame

Wine,
tus

little.

SARAIMS ISLAND.
(Exports , to Cana, at regular intervals)

BdelKura
I

cium

Tortoise-shell.

Turquoise
Lapis
lazuli

Persian Gulf. OMMANA AND APOLOGUE.


(Import)

Seric skins

Cotton cloth
Silk yarn

Copper
Sandal wood

Indigo.

India (the kingdom of Namhamtt).

BAEYGAXA.
(lm*~ti)

i.

.-,..-

Corml

T,,,
Thin
I
.

rltithing
.11
'

and

inferior

ton*
'

kinds
.
.

Flint

frfatti

k,.,

Wheat
rr coin
(j

(for

the

atfon.

the

a profit on the exchange) tnrntt, not cortly, a little


Bfl

Coetly
tinging

veswU of river, boys, beautiful

I
,

'

,-

maidens fort he harrm, hue


wines, thin clothing finest weaves, the choicest
tents.

Spikenard from the

GMMMS

Spikenard (coming

through

from Caspapyra, Paropanisus and

Cab.

AaoAtu

(inland)

Costus

Mudins( named
C

inurrhine)

LyciuiM
th ol all kinds
I,.,,

PODtCA AKO Sot


(mus<

fthrre

**
f

"^ '"

and ordinary)
..th

we*

roa

also Irosn the

loth

fwandChnEtrrything made in

Vam
Other things coming from the
variiu*
|-

g
and .4 comes from Egypt.
tries

m.i

Cyk>n.
PAUTSIMUHDU, PORMEftLY CALLED TAFROBANE.
Pearls

(The
Malacca.

place

has

a gold coin

called

CHRYSE ISLAND.
(Export*)
Tortoise-shell, the best of
all.

Transparent Muslins
>ise-hell.

China.
THIN*:.
(Difficult of access; few men (tune from there, ami KldoOl) (AA/or/j, overland through Hactria

(East Coast, faithei north)

MA&ALJA.
(Export*)

Muslins, in great quantity.

to Barygaza,
of the

DOSARENE.
(Exports)
\\'

way

Ganges

mirica)

Raw
delta).

silk

Ganges

Silk yarn
Silk rloth.

GAS

Himalaya mountains.
(Expo**)
M.ilahathrum
Clan^c-tic spikenard
trfa

THI
(Exports)

Malabathrxnn
finest sort, Called

in

three forms,

Muslins of the

the larp--l>all, the incdiiunhall,

and the small-hall.

ARI

It

IK
THE
RBCftl>

HO OUT*

\l

M
1
.

r\ \M>RIA

I'K.IJT

MMO KATTIAN Or TNI ROMAN LAW, XXXIX,

'nw/

iiimt

Diamond (mJmmmi}

M
AUhutcr
i.ni>

arahicw)

Gvnct
Prarls

and pearl thrU ic hrll

(1) I*"-

LM
(4)

Ivor.

FUOM r-

(rock licfcm

frmgrmmm
f*mt
t

mt immtf,

Mud.ru
Cottottdotli

Wool (TibetnM
Capilli lndici(>)

GalUanum
Ginger

yirn
rtcrl

nd

rlotk.

KaxkribAd).

Gum dammar
Cardamom
Cmryophylloo

Cottua

DATE OF
The

THI. 1'KRIPLl

S,

AS Dl

ERMIN1

1)

VARIOUS COMMKNTATORS
dates assigned
fall

into

three

<jn)iips

The

first,

which

dates the Periplus before Pliny, assumes the trade to have been that

which existed under Nero, and includes the possibility that Pliny quoted from or summ.ui/rd the Periplus in his description of Arabia The latest date possible under these suppositions is the end of Felix.
the reign of Malichas,

whose

inscriptions indicate that he ruled be-

tween 40 and 70 A. D.

The
Henry
dates,

second group depends on the identification of Zoscales with


in the

Za Hakale

Abyssinian Chronicle, whose dates were given by

Salt as

76 to 89 A. D.
Salt

The dependence
is
(

placed on these two

himself cast doubt, fact that he antedated two kings in the list
years, to bring

on which

surprising in view of the

more than 100

Kl Ahreha and Kl Atzbeha) them within the reigns of the Roman

emperors Constantine and Constantius, relations with them; and if so great a

who

are

known
to

to have had

liberty

can be taken with the

monarchs of the fourth century, one of the first century may be


order.

it

seems reasonable

suppose that

his proper supposed confirmation of these dates by mention of contemporary Indian rulers points to an earlier date during the period

a score of years out of

The

<>f

their viceroyalties rather than of their reigns.

The

third

group of identifications depends on the reference

in

tne text to the "emperors," assuming this to be a time

when

there
is

were two Roman emperors reigning


entirely

jointly.

This assumption

unnecessary.

IK>I-

.ROUP:
first

"In the middle of the


porary with Pliny."

century after Christ, nearly contem-

Salmasius, Excrcitationcs Pitman* , 835.

"A

little

earlier than Pliny."

Mannert, Geographic dcr Gricchcn und Romtr aus ihrcn

Schrif-

"Soon

Niirnberg, 1799, I, 131. after Claudius; about the tenth year of


ttn dargestellt,

Nero" (which

would be 63 A. D.).
Vincent,
II,

59.
little

"Under

Claudius or a

later."

Ukert, Geographic der Griechcn und Rbmer, I, i, 209.

Weimar, 1816,

m
"60
Benfey,
article
II,

U4u*

m Knch
'"
i%

and (irubrr
1

>

V.,1

l*ipuff.
II,

lm*uk< Alurtk*m*k*mA

S (M

111,

<

"Unquestionably before Pliny's Natural H.aory.'

*anbeck,
**A
little

in

Rkn^<n
IMim
,

\1m.

VII,

earlier than

who teems

to quoir

!nm

it

that

it,

prior to 77

I)

Dillmani
29.

1k<i4 titr

"Neu
..nural History in 77

-hr

A D

Fabriciu*. p. 27.

"5(M)7 A.

Glaser, in A**l**t,

Munchen, 1891, PP
Gtukicktt **4

4S^>.
II,

Sknu 4r
164.

G*r*pku Armani.

Robertson, Di^uitititn
A.

* Ancunt

1*4**.

D
Ctmmsrcial Pr*t*cn find*,
p.

Wan,
\

371,

etc.

D.,asshownbyGIafer

"Before 77 A.

D
A,
Alttrtumt,
I,

Speck, Ha*Alsgft<Au/it,

<S.

III. 2b.

919.

"Dunne
A.
I

the

men
Sfrit

of Malik 111,

King

of the

NakwMna,
p.

40-70
107.

Vogue,

CtntraU:

Inscriptions

Semibques,

(Paris, 1869.)

"During

the reign of Kariba-il

Watar Juhan'im, the Homerice


pp. 37-S.

King, about 40-70


Glaser, />/>

A D
in

Akiunur

ArMtm *mt Afm*.


Jalit,

"During

the reign of
I

lli-azzu

King

of the

Hadramaut,

about 25*65 A.

Glaser, Dit Abfttiwr% etc.

p. 34.

"The
the

author

made

his

voyages

M various times bct*ceu


writ** in the
last

65 and

75 or 80 A. D.
first

The work was

quarter of

century A. D." Haig, Tkt Imfa D*lt* &**try % 28.

292

SECOND GROUP:
"80-89 A. D."
Mullcr,
c-n

Geofraphi Gr*ci Minores, I, xcvi; depending the doubtful dates given 7,a Hakale by Henry Salt, in

his
'

rearrangement of the Abyssinian Chronicle

in

1812.

I)
<if
>

Bunsen,

Azania commentatio

philologica,

Bonn, 18S2.

"80-85 A.

ViMtM de

Saint Martin, Histoire di la Gco^raphi,

,cou-

vtrtesgeozraphiques, 1873; also LeNordde t antiquit'e grecque ft romaine.

r Afriquc

dans

"77-89 A.

I) U ^hown by Miiller." Bunbury, History of Ancient Geography,


,

II,

445;

London,
70 A.
1

1883.

"About 10 years after

Pliny's death"

(which occurred
:

in

>

Tozer, History of Ancient Geography, p. 274

Cambridge,

897.
of

"About 90 A. D."
i

(referring to Nahapana, the

Nambanus

A.-M. Boyer,
pp.

in

Journal Asiatique, Paris, July-Aug.

1897,

120-151.
to Sundara Satakarni,

"83-84 A. D." (referring


of
52).

the Sandarcs

R. Wilson, in Journal of the Asiatic June, 1904.

Society

of Bengal

"Between 77 and 105 A. "Between 80 and 89 A.


McCrindle,
F.
in

D
,

Vincent Smith, Early History of India


'

p.

371,

etc.

I)

Indian Antiquary, VIII, 108-151.

"About 85 A. D."
J.

Fleet, article Epigraphy, in Imperial Gazetteer

of

India,

new

edition, II, 76.

THIRD GROUP. The following

belong to the curiosities of criticism, 2S: based on the "emperors" of

all

being

"In the 2d century A. D., " lius and Lucius Verus.


'

later

than 161, under Marcus Aure85-105.


societatit

Dodwell,

in

Hudson sGeographi* Vetens

Scriptorcs, pp.

Heeren, De

Inaia Romanis cognita, in Commentation**

regia scicntiarum.

Gottingen, 1793, XI, 101.

''Apparently of ihe

l.i,

or

*t

Uir

of the 2d century A.

hip'
H..h

!;
;///

ntury

/W^/i,

m
'He

"A men hunt


cent 11
1

K.Mn^hrru. <f Alrxmndn* wh.


/.m^rr- u*4

24

Ki.lt>,

rUknrkn*
I

B*gr****

lirriin.

IK46.

niiury

>

R Kir
1,

4//

<///

brMttiuU *
.,U,,

W 4^r Emt*<*v*gr*,
iet

lirrlm,

124,

Af^iW/
\

"Of

ihc Uc or, rather, the

Mluwmi'
III.
1

Kr-

rt

.'4rn fuintimf

4f A^nAv,

rtroMMc,

in

\',n\*au

Retttnl

.it

T .1<a<itmit

<i<>

l*unf*9m

Huinhol.lt, krin>>fu>i

'ifffiut^nngrm,

I,

AU*MJ,

II,

458.
Gngntfikt

Handbwkt
karktt,
,

dtr

alttn
i.

am
*

tint

Qmim

I842,

'-247 A.
Reinaud,

I).

under ihc emperor Philip and his


Journal

in

4 ttatujut,

series

\\

vol.

18, Pmhs, 1861.

Kcmuiul, Mtmmrtt di / Attutrmtt <Ut Imicnpttmi


-

<t

kUn
186S.

bttm,

(1864).
t

1'eM-hel.

(.',

...//.-A//^r

ErJk*m* Vlumhen,
combated by

i^'orouJy
'/./,

II.

Jo<

.t

Manm,
,.-:
,

/-r

.Vr/<// /.
p.

,nt tt t+miitm ,

18O<,

197.

Dilliiunn. /*

PP

414-4

294

kULERS MENTIONED
%
5.

IN

nil

IM.RIPLUS

Zoscalcs, king of the people called Axumites.


tcs fixed
his concluby Salt in 1804 as 76-89 A. 1). depending on an arbitrary arrangement of the AbysChronicle, as he said himself, are "not to he de;

sions,
.111

pended upon;"

more probable period


D.)

for

this

i.ldbe 59-72 A.
19.

Malu
1

h.ts,

king of the Nabatzans.


also

Mentioned

by Josephus,

Bell.

Jud.

III, 4,

2.
I

In-

scriptions cited by

Vogue

fix his

dates as 40-70
S.ibaitcs.

23.

Charibael, king of the Homeritcs and


Insc riptionscited

by Glaserfix

his reign

about 40-70

).

The Kmpe:
(Probably Claudius and Nero, 41- 54 and 54-6X respectively.
1

UUt, king of the Frankincense Country. Inscriptions cited by Glaser fix his reign about

25-'>

]) .)

38.

Parthian princes at

war with 'each

other.

Probably within the decade following the death of (Jnndophares, which occurred 51 A. D.)
41.

Nambanus, king of Ariaca. (Perhaps Nahapana, the Saka


that

name

but

///y*;r

or a predecessor of satrap the victories which led to the estab1

lishment of the Saka era of 78 A.


52.

).

The

elder Saraganus,

who had
;

previously governed Calliena.


ruled

bably ArishtaSatakarni, then the

about 44-69 A.
capital,

I).

Andhra king, who whose court was held at his


<

Dhanyakataka, so that to the author of the IVriph

landing on the west coast, he was no more than a nai and the visible authority was vested in the western viceroy.
52.

Sandares,

who possessed Calliena. (Probably Sundara Satakarni who ruled as Andhra king ii but before his accession to the throne, whi 83-4 A. D.
one of the
heirs presumptive he

as

Parthana, toward the

was acting as viceroy end of the reign of Arishta Satakarni,

the "elder Saraganus.

")

INDEX
Utterance* to the text

in

A!M
AbaarnL
See

14*

A
.

hiy^ri,
A."

144.

(Sw
'

161
in

AU1

r% M.. in

101

ilyt>
2$7

Kfypf. 162

V-

*,

*9.
', i.
'.,

106,

M!

109. H4. 115. MI.


I

Mi. 1U,
161,

*, 119, III, 161,

71,

2lt,

106,
.

109,

119,

Ml,

I4J,

Ml,

Arab tb
.\
'.,

161 101

67,

'nfiav, k-4!,,,n ol.

Soutlwfn e
s

acaria, X'.

11),
.'..

HO, Ml

\
'-.

85

Apiti
17, 102, 115, 111. Ill, 160
chat.

mlw, 91 Agm, 229

Aim
.114
5.

Hb|

!,

*'
>.

61, 67

E.

JS7

:6i
tone,
.

aiabandrouti

109, 115.
.

II

UUmis, 2). 61,

MS

61,
161. 114.

M9.
162, 164. 166, 170. ItO.
thr loilof

M
.

10S

Arthiopu,

29.

SS t 59, 62, 66, 69, 159, 167, 211, 250

*ru. 112
Ikaaei, 112

296

Albui, 17 Alleppey, 211 almonds, oil of, 113


aloe*, 33. 129, 119, 141, 14$,

Apollo's Valley, 86 Apologus, 36, 149, 15|, 151


'/

gold (sec Ophir),

l<.o

250

.Miuainarine,

222
14,
16,

*Am
.

Amon,

132
of, 87, SS, 2 JO

Arabia,

4,

25. 28, 2'.

.<0,
:.

31,

Amarm, country
Amarfvati, 19S 2S9, 276

36,

amb<

Amenemhet
amctlnst.

I,

1S7 121

75, 80, 82, 83, 89, 96, 97, 91 103, 1(14, 105, 11*,, 10', 115. 117, 118, 119, 121, 124.

II.

Amhara, 57

Ammianus

amnmum,

Marcellinus, 102, 267, 281 112

130, 141, 157, 176, 230,


first

132,

I?*,,

1H,

iJ4, 142, 147, ISO, 158, 160, L63, L64, 177, 192, 198, 210, 228, 232, 233, 270
-hat
is

HS m,

14(1,

78, 121, 122, 124, 132, 1S8, 228 Amos, Book of, 193, 264 Ajnoy (see Zayton), 214

Amon, Amon-Rc,

Sovem^n'
in,

96, 97
1".

Arabia

l-Vlix,

Amphila, 66
tsar,

the BU-st, 141 Arabia IVtnra, 102

Arabv

180
(Sec Oxus), 277

Arabiai

(Julf, 4, 24,

Amu

Daria.

Anaimalai Hills, 204 90, 263, 276 \t Anariaoi, 277 anchors, anchorage, 25, 26, 27, 3t, 31, 38, 4, 44, 182 anJanif, 70

Alps, 116 caravan trade, 102, geographers, 115 ngiHge, 35, 146 159

KH,

104

Arabian shipping, 89, 97, IIS, 148, 155, 201, 228


ilown coast of
1

Andhra, 19S, 196, 197, 198, 199, 200, 204, 235, 236, 243, 252, 253 riage, 198, 243, 244, 245
p-symbol, 243, 244, 245 Angkor-Wat, 261 An-hsi (see Parthia), 276, 277 animism, 131-2, 236-7, 253 anise, 213 Anjengo, 234 Anjidiv (sec Acgidii), 202 <v Bay, 60, 66

.1,

96

Arabic language, 104


Arabis, Arabs,
161, 162 28, 30, 34, 59, 62, 88, 89, 96, 97, 98, 101, 104, 107, 109, 121, 123, 125, 126, 127, 131, 132, 135, 145, 149, 150, 152, 161, 162, 21'. At infusion with negroes in
rivt-r,
-,,

4,

5,

rica,

98
Ja\.i.

in

Sumatra ami

Annius Plocamus, 8 anointing oil, Hebrew, 111, 113, 169


Ansicho\\, 268 antelope horns, 74 Antichthones, continent of, 252 Antigonus, 102 antimony, 42, 45. 190, 192 Antioch, 65, 76, 77, 149, 275 Amiochia (Charax), 149 erv AntiorhJa Margiana ( 268, 269

historians, 142 of India, 161, Arachosii, 41, 183, 189

Arad-Ka, 135 Arakan, 252


Aral Sra, 277 142 Araina-ans, 102

Aram,

Aramaic language, 104


),

Arattii

Arashtra), 41, 183

Antiochus, 1 1 1 Antiochus Epiphanes, 147, 160 Antiochu-s Hierax, 123 Antiochus Theos, 184 Antiphtli Portus (see Amphila), 66 Antony, Mark, 103, 240 ants, gold-digging (see Tibetan gold),

Arctic Circle, 27 Arctic Ocean, 277 Arcturus, 221 archo, 26, 27


.

\M
(

Arctas (Hareth),

Argaru

see

11, 103 'raivui >, 46,

241

Aria, 189, 269 Ariaca, 24, 27, 39, 70, 87, 174, 175,

An-tun

Marcus Aurelius Antoniua),

210
Arib, 109 Arishta Satakanii, 189, 199, 200 Aris-otlc, 264, 266 Arjuna, 254 Armenia, 14, 150, 278 Arnold, Matthew, 187

586

Aparantika, 175 175 apes, 61, 113, 121, Apirus river (see Ophir), 160, 175 ApoH", 123, 132, 138 Apollodotus, 42, 184, 185

29-

Arphamad, 107

M
,

Arran,

7.

IS,

144,

!?,
A.,r

259.244
,
.

Amdd dywuty,
An.
1
1

114,

259
6). 6t, i.", 161

.-

Anaal, Aiaaaa, AIM*

94,

IIS.
S

loru., 66, 114

1^74.
.

f4,

94^11

109, 119. 114. Iff

HI
-.

a^diy

Arya;

<il iKc, 23. 51. 59.41 24. 2*. 31. 6S. '), *.

U4

ikiiMi.

2S

Arymimm

<

Brahmaniam
34. 1"|,

).

27f

Abon,

Aob,.

M\ Ml

Amm.

5, 9, 10. 59. 41. 42. 41. 44. 45. t,\ S9, 119. 124. Ill, 141
<:.

aamftrtub, 177

A wit*

ii. 92,

ec

sirh

) ,

45

<*ME-ftoehr). 110

Aa,
IS*. It6,

171.

couno of, 27. 92 A.UV, Sea of (*e Mawcfa), 271


114

216, 260,

194, 222, 270, 27$,

27S

Ana

Minor,

5, SI, 76.

121, 21)

the dewrt.

6 A 9'

14). 147,

HbflHiSw
irxra

S. II

159.144,

(see Tiiemo), 261


2<
.

145,

Aw>lu, P<, ISO, MS, 19S, 249

uprmbiliu-.. S4, 194, 2S4, 255, 259, 264,

A*m.

Babylonian rreatm-ory. MS bbylonian iMrrijUiuM, 149 Banrf, 44.44.211.

267

MKS,

61

Bactra, 261.
Bactria, 9, 11.41. 1)2. 144, 144. IS). 1S5. 1S6. 261. 26S. 269, 41. 1S4, 1S5
).
I-

57, 61 il 5S US, 123. 160, 171,269 Attymn bucripttons, 74, 9:, 121, 128, 149, 160

Auuan,

Avym,

1S1

Astabon
Astaphui Ait ol.
,

river, 59

221
Bahardipur (tee

Amcmmpra,

39, 4t

AtrArMM), US

river, 59

BaUikadeeBanca),
Bahrein lafcmb, SI. 10. 91, 151. 1S4,

astrobolu*

rr rat* i

<

Arravadaiu (see Hone-fac

babma.
utmbori), 56, 57, 6)

oil of,

112

Athenarm,
Atla.r

1>
1. 10, SI. 190 <ee Ctoununotitri, 1J4

.mis 16S
116
.,..u,
.

4*.

4.

16S.

.'60

Atiana, 150 1S9


.
.

Aujcustut, 5, 6), 111,


Attlu

HO,

140.

26S

Al

\I

'AhftaaVtl

KU
.

Armnya-vahaP

),

43,

eeM

),

SI

25S

Bandar Ululah, 85 BXnkot (see Mandagora), 201 Bantu migrations, 98


Baraca,

beryllium,
18,

222, 22J 278, 279


,

M,
,

39, 174, 17$ 37. 39, 128, 165, 270

216

Bethlehem, Barhary States,


barberry (see lycium), 169 Barbosa, 194 Barffyti, Bhargas, 47, 2S4 barley. 178 Barrel Ajam, Ajjan, 75, 92
larkar,

<;.,

209

Bhurana, 275 Bharata, 235

Blurukacha, 65, 180 Bhils, the. ISMI, 194 Bhota, 253


Bhrigu, 180

Barygaza, 27, 30, 32, 34, 35, 36, 38,


JO, 41.

42,43,45,48,128,

Bhuinaka (see Nahapana) 198


Bhutan, 151, 253 Biddulph, Col. J., 200

151, 151, 178, 180, 182, 184, 185, 188, 190, 193, 196, 198, 199, 205, 221, 236, 245, 268,

Bikrampur
Bilbilis,

see

Vikramapura), 255

270, 274
Basilis,

70

15

Bion, 62
Bir All, 116 Bir Barhut, 119, 1U birds, sacred (see serpents), 226, 241 Birdwood, 120 Bit-Vakin, I-iml of, 149, U,o

baskets, wicker, for fishing, 28, 94, 95 1, for shoulder-burdens, 48, 280, 281 Bassora, 80, 91, 179, 247

bathing 46 eh coast, 151 Batrasave, 150


bdellium, 3, 37, 38, 42, Beach, small and great, Beazlcy, C. R., 267 Beckmnm, 69, 79, 111, Bcduins, 104, 105, 119, 123 Bel, 123 Bell, Col. M. S., 272
,

120, 163-5

Black Sea, 77 l.lackuno.l, 36, 152, 153, 197, Blancaril, 18, 19 Jilaiuli, 18
blankets, 31, 257 Blest, Island of the, 131, 139, 163, 197 mountain of the, 148
134, 135,

27
171 141

"blood

of

txv.i

brothers," 138

Bellasis,

224 166

blood.stone, 223 mall, 22, 25, 32, 41 red, 28, 36, 151, 154, 244

Beluchistan, 8, 16, 147, 164, 170 Brlus, 68 Bcnadir, 92 Benares, 187 Benfey, 242, 243, 259 Bengal, 178, 194, 197, 236, 242, 252, 253, 255, 257, 258, 259, 264,

\errd %N ith hidholloufil from logs, 234, 243

Bodh-CJaya, 64
Bodhisattva, 197

Boh en, 242 Bokhara, 171, 186, 269


I

Bombay,

279
of, 196, 241, 252 muslins, 258 Btngucla, 75 Benihasan, 192

80, 91, 118, 138, 143, 152, 155, 156, 167, 169, 176, 182, 183, 194, 196, 197,

Bay

257 Bonin, 272 Book of the DeaJ, 237 Borhcck, 18

Bent,

Benjamvi of Tudela, 164, 211 J. Theodore, 60, 97, 117, 119,

Boroboedor, 174, 244, 245, 261


kosmoros,
177, 178 Boulger, D. C., 263 boutyron( see clarified butter), 89, 1'7
ti

127, 129, 130, 138, 139, 140, 141, 142, 145, 156, 168, 237 benzoin, 120, 128 Berber, 56, 60 Berbera, 56, 66, 74, 75, 79, 80, 81, 87, 89, 116, 217 fair of, 80, 91 Berbers ( Barbari ), 22, 23, 24, 25, 26,
.*!.

boutyros (see asaf<i

178

Boyer, A.-M., 200


dets, 75

Brahma, 138
BrahmaniMii, 138, 139, 188, 236,237, 241, 253, 257, 281 Brahman writings, 210, 281, 282 Brahmanas, 281

56, 59, 63, 74, 114


of,

meaning

56

Berenice, 16, 22, 29, 30, 52, 55, 68, 101, 104, 106, 121, 132, 167, 168, 228, 233, 260

Brahmaputra

river,

165,

253,

255,

264, 272 Braho, 162, 180

162, II"

M.\ 149

4iian,

174, 261 69. 19'


>

2*.

M,

f, ttt,
;;
;

-'4,

M
. .

69
!

Brwwtr.1,
H

II

'I.

Ill,

t.

22S

Bctt.
191, 19*

1?9,

110,

191
;i

1M

mmMtthii, 14. 41,


.

41

Ml, US, 117,


,

4.,

ll.
lava, 174

(5uM

ol. 4i, -o, is,

111. 191, 1*4.

19

229, 2S9

Monastery,
ill

241

*t~ml //<;/o

14,

17,

pagoda*. 64, 6S, 274

Ml, 244
272

me,
i,

197, 210, 221,


flesh,

bufl..

177

74
112

Buhlr:.

Ml
5i Kwlun/ir. 270
.

190

<*. 194

Huntmn,
Burma,

UK,, ;$:. 261


151,
l,
I

Ji7*k
140

45, 115, ::9, 119,

114,

81. 2, 14, 90, 1S2, 176, 112, 183, 191,


-.

canal brtwrrn the Nile and


II

!Ud

Bumcll.

I'

2J4
59
c

Maiul, 3t. 106


i

Cioal, SI

Naura), 204, 221

79, 10, 19, 91, 112


huttrr, 177

ol
7,

aincle lac*. 2*. fl,

2M,

Byzantine rmpcron,

59, 172

24

Cabolitir. 42. 190

Cahul, 16'
119, cactus, 141
i

Ill, 114,

US,

Cape of Spier. (Goaniafui).


.

12, IS

19, 270
obothra), 2S1 202
;

>c,

114
.
;

^.^-.
(at

51,

fraaumtoBKtrfc.241

Carsar,

US

Jl', 264

M*r),
124

221

W,
cakr.
viltc.i

^. 61, 147
calauui>. 111, 112

144, 141.

Ifl.

300

71 73
i

Clwiui
Clun.l10$, 109
.

(<re

Kama)
(

'

I,

187, 186

assanite*, Cat

ClMiulniirupta Vikram.ltlitx.i.
Iristhan,

230
J65

257

Carnegie

Institution.

Washington,
-. 194, 223

U H
Carreri, (temelh.

Char.ix Spasini, 36, 6^, 149, 1-d Charii M-,|, 11, .^1. .<2. 115
i

f.,

142,

M;
101. 217, 279, 280

Carthage. 147, 219


.iginians, 78,

184 l.i, Chashtana, 188


1. 1.

Ch.itrainot!
.Iran

Kititis Csc<-

116,

11 V.

nerc, 166, 257

Kashgar), 269
beta, 44
IM,

139, 140, 145 Chattel-ton, 246 Chaul, (SIT

Jim

Casptpyrene, Caspapxra. 42, 189


172, 183, 186, 263,

Cl.au, 261

ChPra, 195, IV,


281

277
.

Jn-4, 2d5, 2<i8, 209, 210, 222, 237, 238, 267, 273,

269
r.

cassia, 82, 83 t 84,


,

H.

86

Ch'irn-Jtan-sJiUy the, 277

caste svstein, in the Hadramaut, 118,

M5, 146
in India,

Chin, 248 China, 9,

180, 230, 235, 238

castor musk, 251 castor oil, 264 168


:<

14, 82, 84, 90, 152, 169, 172, 176, 183, 185, 186, 191, 194,

11,

118,

178,

Mcdiri, 199

222, 223, 227, 228, 235, 247, 259, 262, 263, 266, 269, 270, 273, 275, 276,

193, 223

277,279.
sea-trade to IVrsia,

::is.)

228
39, 121, 139, 218, 225, 270, 271 humped, 270, 271 30,

M,
,

149, 176,
great wall of, 261,

260

273
.

china, Nankin, 97

cedar, 78

(cut nil Arabia, 108 Central Asia, 166, 176, 177, 187, 264 Central Asian trade-route, 186, 269,
renturion, 29, 104
ithr.i.

Chin Hills, 255 Chindwin river, 246 trailer, 246


Chinese, 76, 227, 247, 263, 266, 268, 276 account of Roman Syria, 275-7
annals, 128, 185, 246, 247, 259, 261, 268, 275, 276, 277

Kingdom
52,

of (seeChera),

U. 208
M,

84, 148, 152, 163, 170, 171, 194, 209, 213, 216,
8,

220, 235, 249, 279,

222, 226, 227, 229, 230, 237, 239, 241, 243, 248, 250, 251. 252, 255, 261, 281
'

259 276 Chishull, 169 Chitr.r, 180, 184 Chna, 160 Chola, Chr.la-mandalam (see ( mandel), 195, 197, 204. 205,
ships, 227, 228,
silks,

embassy from, t> Augustus, 252 ris cmporion sec Camara), 242 Chahbar, Bay of, 151 Chakora, 199 Chalcedony, 223
Chalridicc, 190 Chaldara, Chaldarans, 107, 123, 142, 159, 160, Chllukya kings, 197

237, 238, 241, 242, 249, 281 279 Cho-La, Chob-l.us, Kula'ib, 30, 107, 116
.

Nagpur,258
261

Chou-li, 263
Christ, 9, 10, 67, 155 Christianity, 64, 65, 67, 135, 162 Christians, Syrian, 206
in

Cham, 163
;

.avail

(see Senv'lla), 200

Ceylon, 250

Chanda, 224

Chronicles,

Book

of, 122, 124,

175

101

Idnd, 45. 44, 47, 246, 2*9-61


chrysolite, 167

O.

227,

'

:'

.st

CoMsrtorv, 204.
ehrysopnue, rhrytopmiia, 221
ll<

210. 222 4J. 219. 22*.

|4.

190.

:79

Cokfci, 44, 211.


c
.

Chiue ur
>

:61

.M
.,

,
.

:69
I

..:.-..

.
,

"
i.

Oota
cinnabar,
!

...

Ill

'.

:?

iticfcl

Mu~um. P
70,

11, 23, 24. 27, 77,


>

22f
,

SO, 12-4, 16,

,11),
.

,rc

169,

...

211

JS6
.ha

2$l

Un kMu.
:

clarified butter,

Urica, Ao{rrv, 27, 39, 74,


r.

91

19, 99,

6, 7, 6). 76, 172,

24?

CUu..
,

219, 220

us

240, 264 261


.

Cborgm. 190
1

I'ndL, 23, COpfK


,

M
Ml,

dretsed,

7f, 111, 169, 191. 219,

asbestos, 276

Egyptian, 6S

276
Tnduin, 34, J*, 39, 42, 4
^

in sheet*,

Copt.

M, 25. 70 <S,6I. 10). 121.112.

undrew
dottu, 4, 251,
evict, 214
121,

274. 2S1
170,

doth:

s 34,

37.

Arabian
plain,

ctyle, with

lrc\

99, 164 .19

cinbr.M.N-

\epot, 1$7
gold, 31
c

oak).

i$$,

striped. 149

Clover,

;:,

190, 191
ftilk

n$
Cornea. 161
'

lurcnt 21'. coats of kin, 24, 70


cobalt, 69,

pauie, 264

Cos,

COM UliklllllMlll. Mhor


:
L4I
4,

ol

cobra. 236
,

204, 201, 212, 21$ 20$, 207, 209, 212


,

m,

i^

Cochinduna, 2S2
7J

257, 26$, 244 4S, 2:i. 2)4

-';
.

i.un,

94
',

179, 25.
ntzcs,

7,

M,

!.:>,

1SV,

252

264
219
..

pinning, 256 thread, 256


.p/,m.'
Hi.
.

245

Dasarna (see
\1

1>
,

M
I,

196 70

$8,

\^)

158

mi

hber, 156
(

.:

kodiingalur

MT Mu/i-

jyagri, 158 uinc, 1J7, I>S,

1<V

Daulatabad, 196
(

r.iwi
.

Daxi.l

105, 190 n, 73
28, 34
19,
''1,
1
,

Drnwioo, 209
'

.liii-N,
j

Dead
16. 142,

Sea,

KH
L$7

273

,273
Klollr, 76,
..n,

('ruttrndr 145
.

177, iss, 193, 19!

224, 235, 236, 252,


MiU-r,

is,

70
,

234

127

uni min, 99, 213


(

unmngham, 200
.

Dr.lan, 153, 159, 162 Drir cl Bahri, 120, 121. 218, 228, 270, 271
Dc-lgado, Cape, 94, 97 Dclit/sch, 128
IMI. 16.
.

24
!

>rd,

14",

5,

58, 61, 159,

211
CiiNhites, 64, 141, 142,

Delphi, 138 Demetrius, 184 Dera Gha/i Khan, l~4


di-signatt-il ports,

146,

161,218

22, SI -2
.

Africa .similar to the .hair, 134 "ushitc Klamite migration, throrv concerning, 51, 58, 1?4 age
in
,

Devgarh

src

To^aniin

Dhamari, 258
Dhanavriddhi, 229 Dhilnyakataka, Dha'anikotta. !'>5, 199 Dhofar, 107, 109, 118, 126, 129, 140, 143, 218, 237, 271, 272 Dholbanta, 87

4, 70, 160, 173, 174, 175, 176


of, 135, 166,
2

Rann
<

173

\rnrnm,

\dcvnda), 215
ephali, watering-place of, 86 Wail .isir? ri\rr
:

diamonds, 45,
),

215,

216,

149, 150
.

\pinix.

12

12

69
1,

225, 226, 241 Dillmann, 66 Dio Cassius, 103 Diorlctian, 220 DioJanis island, 23, 31, 114 Diodorus Siculus, 160, 162 Dionysos, 76, 132 Dioir. 131
,

Dabhnl (sre I*al*patm.

201

Dionysius

I'

226
171,

rida, 33,':
1)<

uubadcs (sec
204

lv

oridrs,

80,

82,

1S7,

192,

213

Dagaan, 85
....:
r
.

Diospolis 24, 68
Dirbat,
1

2*
>t

Dahalak, 66
Islands, 147
1

HI, H2 Mand, 106


63

Din, 181

Dakshina (see

252

trot,

blades, 172

damask, 264
Damirica, 34, 35, 41, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 203, 204, 205, 27 dammar gum, 80 Dana, 224 D'Anville, 268 86

Djesair, El, 92 Do.lui-ll, 18 dogs, 113, 121

Dome

125, 233 Island (Trullas), 32

Di.initian, 66,
ireiic,

220

47, 253 n-

Malunadi

j,

253

Doughty, 104

K K
1
1
.

Eii)fciiii.

in
..

23*

:)l

BSS:,
****u*.
Elk, 71
I

01,

ir.

i.

dragon's blood, 117, 1JI, 1JV,

Ifemirin

N*hr,.:o9.
'

174.

110, 190, 194, 197.

J,.l
drill
l-Iur

rade, 209 75 494.

202
Finland, Karfi**.. 4*. 94,
119,

l.^irr
111
i '

121

jjovermnci
:>,

the, "4

H
2SI
54,
.i*.

...

1..1.

|i

<-,

<x,

M. in,

1:1.

ma,

269

59

rwaScm.7,

15, 22, 29.

40, 62, 101, 197, 240

1)6.

m$*-2
:90

S, 59, 61, 61, 64, 6S, 68, 69, 71, 75, 76, 71, 10, IJ, 83, 19, 96, 101, 102, 10131, 111, 118, 158, 1S9, 160, 162, 167, 172, 171, 192, 193, 213, 21X, 246, 260, .iul, 21 S 167
.

ol name, $0-1 thns Kin, Irgrnd mnrrr.i^:. $0-1. 87 $8

K-Uichr-K^iT-.

an, 193
184. 185
-

mon Arabia, .,"< 1,111


.

12. 12, 45.

MS

:?o
,

165,

181.

IS4.

||-

in.

n:
.

IM.

156, 161.

231
.

19,

.v

-,

v-..

236
.

Rvod
I'-*

111. 11).

144, 169

159
.

2S1
149

Kbgabalu*, 219

J60
.'

clrctmtn, 78

H,

*5, 16

19,

IS, 19, 20. 51, 72, 80, 10S, 106, 114, 11$, 116, 147, 148, 151, 152, 163, 167, 171, 177, 178, 180, 199, 208,
11,

fruit, 34, 122,


.

124, 158

177
183

fair,

227, 242, 265 .09, 248, 250, 253, 272, 281 annual, of the Besatiri rf. Gora,

263
J.

lurmaux,
furs,
I

H., 242, 244.


,

171, 257 urthrr In.t


.Mi,
ilia,

260

Farsan Island*, 106

and era
>.

277
156
122,
19(i

.<!.

H
75
(

139
iiitrv,

^alau^al, 112 g.illMiium. 112,


a,
('.alii.-.

77, 78,

i-Mllfl,

216

.112
James, 133, 2Frrran, 248
vion,
I

Dallas,

(i.iinl.lr,
t:aiii<

218, 271 1*2


I'M

festival,

riKal,

141,

142,

('.an,

1.

1X4,

280, 281

Fenan, 98
ng, 80
mil, 171
fish,
(

74, 15''.
oil,

154, 155
ithyophafl
14^.,

Janga-Sa^-ir, 255 <>. 41, 4.1, 4", 46, 47, 48, U,o, K>S U,^,, 172, 1^-, 187, 188, 195, 217, 222, 242, 249,

K,2

fishing, 28 HatU-m-.l Mosrs,

mrn

with, 47, 278

255, 256, 257, 258, 267, 272, 279 spikniard, 47, muslins, 256-8
tiY
.

S
I

72, 178 196, 209


I

flour,

13
itfcr

256 279 (lanjani, 257


pearls,
,

and Hanbury, 84, 113, 128,

Ciara, 140, 141, 142, 218


( iaramantes, 98 Garcia de Orta, 84,

215
r,

74, 114, 116, 133, 143

her, 183 Foulahs, 89

Foulke, 229

Foulkrs 209, 242


mirth Cataract, 58 France, 199
I-

CJarhwal, 151, 188 garlands, 190 garnet, 223 Garnier, Francois,


(Jaro, 278

.Y.I

garrison, 29
k, 272 (Jaruila, bird
f

frankincense, 4, 13, 25, 26, 32, 33, 35, 36, 37, 57,60, 62, 80, 81, 85, 86,102,105,113,115, 116, 117, 118, 120, 122, 123, 124, 125, 126, 127, 128, 130, 131, 139, 141, 143, 144, 145, 164, 169, 192, 214, 215, 216, 217, 218, 225, 233, 236, 241,

X'ishuu, 253

Gaul, 68, 76, 77, 167, K,8 281 Gfturaankaf M-<- Evei CJautaina Kucidha, 197, 249
(

GautamTputra Satakarni
\akura), 197, 235 Ga/a, 123 nhct, ni7, 126
36, 161, 183, 189 Grrx, 63, 146 Gril, 272 (Jrlrnius, 17, 18
(H-dn.sia,

271

customs
i:$

affecting gathering
:

of,

163,

170,

ISO,

dangers of gathering, 1 far-side, 80 t of the tree, 131-2 trade in, 125-6 Frankincense Country, 5, 11, 14, 16
32, 33, 34, 62, 115, 117, 139, 140

^ms,
t

6, 222, 238, 240,

276

l>a,

Beni

CJt-u al>

119,

143, 144, 145, 146, K,2 .-(Jc-naha, '/niohian

122,

Franks, 75
Frazer, J. G., 131, 132, 133, 146, 237 lUrtlc, 155, 157
139,

144
>is,

Book of, 74, 105, 107, 115, 121, 149, 159, 160, 161, 164, 194

* *

r,.

111

101. IM. 160. IT;, ito. 1*1. ItS. 210,

111. 111.

|i;.

|9,

Tl. IIS. 191.

*4,

9
-'14

lit. 2T7

.,r,- .,,..,
.

107
'jf.<.4J
:

|.

2*t

90

(.-,*,

ii-,

10|

full of.
101. i:x.

99
179. 19*.

H9.

114.

l|9.

ns.
1<1.

19% 2:

M76,

ffumanhu.
K bM. 24, 18,

10. 217

M,

43, 66,61,**.

1*4,

I9Z

216
c

UmAotfion

ol,

1*4

Cfundrn. 214

181
9. *:. 6i.

in. iu.
*4, If*. 117, ||9.
107. 116,

J9S. 19*.

14*
I

*). It*. 111. 119.


'".

|9.

48,
99,

42. 71.
<

IMCU^T.

104

mm
141

II

161

191, .M4, 21V.


.

251. 259, 280, 2Si

196,

20t

HAU.
ugh"
.

miitlcior

41

US.

190. 200

199 Halrvv. 119

'. the, 213

and Nad. 97

26S
>

Ul
mU). 161. 2tt

Bactrian mint. 114. IIS 91

H
'S
15'

H.
v.

RTK.
.

d,.^-x. :-', Ml,

4, S

K-

106
nil'.,

the
75

in. .nk
11
.
!

26

.,

119

-.

Hirth, l\, 1J8, 247, 263, 264, 275

IU1
hutch.

HitofiaJftai 229
.

261
119,

H.itshepM.t. <Ju.

,118,

HIV,

139,

14

148

Hauakil Bav, 66
!

llnldirh.
i.

Sir

Tliomas

Hun^.
171,

151,

160, 161,

163,

lh,

land of, 194


<
>

16(,

161.

189, 273

Hazaniu
. .

l"~, 119

holm-oak, 73 H.Mnrr, <,'), 157, 159, 254


HMIIII

Kl,

92
-6, 122, 163, 164, 193, 260

62
.

116, M9, 14(1, 251 Hniiirritr Kiu^diun, 6, K),


51.
.

213, 228, 264 Hrrata-us 92, 160, 189

94,

US
51,

104, 119

105,

106.

Hrdin, Svcn, 273 :,if<l, 112


n,

Himimr],
.

107, 108, 130, 134, 14?

216,
.

24v

H"im.a, 150 Ho-nan, 262

129 185

heliotropium (<< Whemp, 248, 263 llrury II, 199 238 ilancum, 169
lies,

H<n;n 204 honey, 70, 74, 76, 81. 112, 217


.
i

H.irmu.s,

Straits

of,

l!n,

151.

1>S

125, 192, 259

hum, Horn H

163, 179, 252 191 of Africa, 87, 218


>,

47, 254, 278


19;

Pillars of,

279

13, 31, 33, 176,

Hcrdman,
1

Prof., 148
1

Horns, 136
llnn-han-ihti, Cliiiu-sc annals

Hrrod, 103
Antipas,
1 1
1

onitrm-

Herodias

60, 62, 71, 8>, 84, 101, 118, 123, 131, 134, 145, 153, 162, 189, 213, 217, 254, 258, 259, 279 Hcronc, 39, 182
'-.ins,
:

porary with wi, 273 Hsi-'-wang-mn, 277


Hsi-yu, 269 Hnanjr-ti, 263, 276 Huhli, 202 Hue, Al>be, 272

tlu-

IVriplus, 275

...I

itr

(iulf,

68

253
,

Hud, 142 Hudson, 18


Hntfhli river, 255 Hult/seh, 209

170, 268

is,

73

hides, 74

Hien-yang (-c Singanfu), 261, 26 J Hilpm-ht, Hrrmann V., 109, 130


81, 84, 188, 216, 277, 279, 281 ar, 63, 94, 105, 114, 119, 142 Hitnvaritic language,
179,
ayas,

151, 160, 169, 235, 253, 256, 106, 104,


107,

Hu-nan, 263 Huns, 9 White, 236 Huntin^ton, Kllsworth, 278


hvaeinthus, 222, 226, 250 iiiis river, 221

109,

Hydreuma, 233
,

43
.

146,

148
mia,' 269,

58

210
inscription*, 116 Him!, Sind ami Zinj, 92, 248, 249 HIM. lu Kush mountains, 164, 183, 185. 189 Hindu trader*, 65, 88, 230 253 nu, 185, 270
,

277
223
t

taspis (see jasper ),

protector
cense-spirits in .serpent 131, 132
I

in-

dui, 6, 8, 13, 45, 53, 212, 227, 22X, 229, 230, 232, 233

Ihn Rituta, 74, 141, 203 Ihn Khaldun, 116, 129, 142 Ihn Mojj.iwir, ](r Ili river, 268 Ili-az/u Jalit, 117

JO'

111,

...

'-

111,

141. 14S

n
<ct,

US
?:
I

111,

:i. 2$. J4, 69. 7t,

/A*

164

;/"
I,

11?. III. II*.


.

MS,
umarlrtr*. |uj.
luS.

IM,

I.

M. H.
Of ilMffet

19,

OpfcftttM,

ft

I,

1*O,

M. M,

IK.

III.

'

ItUm.

106.

14*.

16
161.
111.
186,
'

164
IS', 181,

119,

114, 111,

IK,
1

69
168. 19f
I
.

194,
.

:S9 248, 249, 256, 257, 251, 2S9, 26$, 267, 281
.

-. H.
29.
i

at,

88, 111. 195.

ca

.99

artirln

nude

of,

cinlu>M.
lajrc,

191,

abbdpur. 19S
221. 268,

189

MrlokM
ihippi"k'.
<- ;
,

*~. *

x
-

9 ",

US,
161

traveller*, 115

265 173

Aryans, 70
>,

OviHWi IIIMUIRMMB
166, 167, 176,

HII*

US,

186,

261 ntrr.

IK.

>

166,

180
4.
.

I,

9, 146, 165 t 166,

rUI K
.

167.

I*

.than. 144

30S

rM eM
crul..

Sihi. 148 Tair, 106

amki.ssador t>
inpire, 275

-62
M.I|, 118 107, 108 107
^

.-hi.

16S,

88

Tim. 107
Karil>a-il
,.ll,
i

crujalcm, 11, 67, 102, HH, 122 277 219, 22 v


.
.

o'j

242
.

107

heliim, Jihlam, 180, 184


Xn.iui
,

276

Karnak. 68 Kan.ul, 224


Karteia,

/;**/,

Ill, 132, 133, 141, 237 .niigal, 75


'

147

Karun

river,

149

of.

104,
1

116
14

Karuvf.r,
Kashirar,
',

Kan.ura, 205, 208, 215


186,

ok,l>. ibn, (tospel of,


|,.!,,,xt,m.

Kaxhi..
|

loktan.

Joktani:,

108, 109,

Ka.-iil..
..nir,

IH

115, 132, 159, 160,


|..xiphiix,

142, 145, 161


102,

148,
101,

149,
1<V,

Kaslita.

168, 169, 171, 189, 162

11, 59, 71,

H. 175
fim)

260 Jo -thai, 277


Juki
II,

149,

Kin^r of Maiirrtania, 10, 86, 150 108


.f,

\latanga, 275 Katalun, 63, 94, 96, 106. Katan, I'.l, 107, ISo, IS]
i

[udun
Indies.

Hook
IT
I

102..

HI
ompharium
,

Katar, Kl, ISO, 162, 16? Kathia\\ar. 10. 70, 167, 175, 176, 1X0 Kfiveri rivi-r. J42 i. Kiriitarjuniya, 254

^rapi-s

Kay,

116,

129,

14.:

75

Kayal, Cofl
176, 269

ulicn, Stanislaus,
uliopolis. J^J ulius ( '.rsar, 103

ulius M.tti-rnus, 98
ul\, 27 uinna river, 167, 185 junks, 214, 246, 247, 248

Keane, A. H., 272 Kej, 162 Met, 126 Kemp, 273 Kennedy, 227 Kenrick, 70
Kerala, Krralaputra 20s, KrMiian, 70
'

see Chera), 204,

Jupiter
juxtin,

Amnion,

159, 189 Justinian, 172,

kennes-ben
',

Kaber

'

('hal>fris rinjior'nm

251

Keti, 165

Ka.-hana. 187
.trhl,
'

KevaJJha
160, 175, 180

Ka.laliindi

J04

Sutta of Diif/ia, 229 Khararhar, 186, 268 Kharosthi alphaht-;, 210


Klvirtuni, 57, 59 Klrisia Hills, 194

Kadapa, 224
Kadphiscs, 9, 166, 186, 187, 263 Kahtan, 107, 142 sacred peak of, 2'2, 282
147 Kallnt, 147, 237 KJ-lidSsa, 229, 242, 25 S liena, 197 Kalyii 130 157 204 Kana.
,

Khen/er, 158 wood, 111

Khnumhotep

II,

192
1

Khoraxsan. ro, 249 Khor ed Duaii, so Khor Reiri, 140

Kh

,tan, 9, 186, 261, 268, 270 Kliu/istan, 175 Khyl.i-r I'ass, 190, 270

Kielhorn.
183
riKfmnorii 116

.,

209

Kilwa, 94 Kimberley, 118

Kanishka, 215. 236

Kin^-fhou
pal
i,

kanknmtn
Kankas, 257

80

Flu-nan ., 263 k of, 102, 123, 131, 160, 161, 175, 192, 193
(set-

254

77

r,

m,

197, >.4. J*7

Lanra. 174, UMaTM^pPMre, J6, I'

',41
141

192
.

H4.
279
191,
191.

Koi.k

200,

201,

201,

Ml

lemon*. 179

K<aJa. Ill

LHM
I9S

Br.4l

^ty,
.ij:r,

IIS,

197,

191,

\-./. 101. 101 Levant, the, 267

19J

269
271
.

29, 61. 69, 279


.

27$

261
I

Kulln. IS

KumbaJuN
.

Ill,
14'.

119,
l.iim

141

144.

14<,

14r,,

2*5
261

Kuril*

212

Kunin

15,61

1*2.

kingdom,

I,

9,

HI,

167,

Hffurrtl.

194.

Luurhoim. 14
I,

190
16

-63
111

lion.

Lisbon, 221
tar. 24. 7),

10
Lin
en de, 273
hm-.k.*.
-

14, 16

l.ulumim.
.

.'

II, 91

lanrhowfu. 268,
'

loiwdcll. Hrnrv, 1"'.


170,
191
juc.

221,

:i:

U9
'I,

l^>rrntlul. 209

fajrr, 171

sioapafu, 26J
1S2.

99.
119.

163,
.

II, 14, 19, 164, 16S.

Luoan.
I

M.
.

112,

114,

111,

,,-,

190
rimliftr*.

310

M
1

l.

169
9:

Manfir, Gulf of, 148, 156, 210, 222. 230, 239, 241

Manchester, 257 Manchuria, 118 Mandagnra, 43, 2(H


180

Maudani-piri (see Manda^ora


Maiulax., 91,

J01

:.m.
I

24g
Mt, 81

"Mandexi!
M.I Randall.

::n."
VI

1S^.

9"

1^,6,

M...

k,

',252,271
''

Man^.ilurc, 2d<, 205 68


.

Man.
Manifold, 272
.

M.in^.ii.

Madlna.Mika. 180, 184

Museum,
Madura. Modi.
\l

Roin.u,

.MI.--

ii

in:rina,

Manillas, tin-. 252 164

If,

241

Mansuriyah,

16^>

lake, 48, 277, 278


...nian

.silk-merchant,

269.

mantles, linen, douMc-frin^cd. 24 Mam.. 257, 264


,

ma^i,
236, 257, 264, 281 rivei, 152.
174,

197,

238,

Man/i, 227 Ma' Maphaiiii


,

ifif,

2M, 30, 34.

!I6.

|0

LOT iCaiiiara

|,
',
1

251

213 Mahendragiri, 2^7


,

MarasiJ-a/- Ittila

44

\]

Mais
r>9,

J02 Marbodc-us, 171


142, 146, 148

Marcus

AurrliijN, 70, 186

maiilrns
ilia,

f..r
.

the harem, 42
.V).

Mardi, 277

182

Marduk, 138
Mariaha, Marih,
4.
1(1,

117
144, 142,
6,

9",

lOv

Makran.
-.ir,

!),
14',

151.

162,

161

HIS, KI9, 119

marigold,
84, 88,
.

81,

155, 2UX.

175, 210,
222,

Marinus of

'l\r,

marjorani, 112

212, 213. 214,

217,

221,

259.

Mark, (Iospt-1 nf, 114, 189 Markinda, 196 mirti-n, 257


inaruin,

malahathrum,

6, 44, 45, 47, 84, 89, 281 112. 216, 217. method of preparation ami sale,
.

Martial, 167 112

Masala, H6, 114,


.1

US
Ma..
\,

48-9

Maisolia,

Mab.
x,

252-3
Maslionaland, 90

84

Mashu, land
Masi;
i

of,

114
(<2,
1

79, 80, 81, 83


isula, 26(1

\I

126,

Malaya-iriri (sec Melizigarai, 201 204, 234 ;s (Malik 11, 103 I,


.
.

Ma

p. ro,

,14, 146, 147, 154. '-, 146

19,

Massilia, 78
a.
r,o,

99
i,

251

tnastich, 112

Male and Female


\1
k,

Islands, 144-6 Malicha-s. 11, 29, 103, 200

247

masu
244
Ma.ulipataiii.

i-c

Andhra

coil

109
'

Malimli

Mrlindn. 88
24, 42, 43, 73, 194

196, 252
(

Maiarein. 245

malKm -doth,

Mdfb'

sec z; until-:.

baptismal

L39

Mai van, Maha-lavana


.

(see

Aur

Mathura, 1X4. 270

Matthew, (Joxprl
167, 117, 188, 197

of,

12

>

matting, 280
197,

Maintain*

^ee

NambanuN).

Mauch,

C'arl,

96

198, 200

ice,

139

HI
141

Maua,

106

MMM,

SI.

!?,

199.

1M.

lit.

MIMMM,
151,

1*4. Its. Iti


4

I. J7. It.
' :

'

>

It*
.

>

.*.

101,

IM, HI.

M
inrliliilr.

190 179

M
Mm.
i'

faut.94
.

~.

:i
-<

1*4,

IK, U"

72. 1-9
,

"V

'-.

147,

raoakrr*, 111, 121, 2Jo.

nuuwhha.

Men?
--.

94

Minur.
18
.

C ape, 161

..

MoiMttiM

of. S7,

IS

omniry
1*1

.W. tS.
l

Baladan,
*T.

Wanyamuc
19:

IH

M&nnana
261, 269

M
\ 140, 141. |46

Mm? Hum.
Mruahiin, 114
IllCtn;
I

10.

Jt,

Uuml, 60

uin IU
.

IS

HI
.

uiitry.

87

"
MI,
N!

4MJAl
\lukal.

iKc

MiliiuLi,
inilila:\
.

<^>

\ 11$

l<Mk>, 24

MukKar
nuJhcr

milk, Millhurn. millets PS, 179

Mulb
19.67. 70. 1 1.14,14. 106.

Mullcr,

i:.,

contii;

151, 161, 171, 180,


.

181.

N.iinlunus (see 197, 198


\.tiniii.i.li.

Nalup

.:

3'. 3H.

242
II.,

Mun.lus
inurrhinr

97, 109 25, 26, 81


(glass).

182 .\V///-/, or "Nortlu-rn \\


.stan, 268, 269,
.

(Sec agate.
J69
88,
9
.

ncli

Muscat (Maskat), 80,

58, 59, 78

139, 14:, 143, 147, 1<1 :l instruments, with silktlr

muslins.

;.

24.

31,

42, 43, 47,

161,

172, 202 Argaritic, 46, 242


I

river (sec NainmadusK 1SJ, 193 'n, 188, nard, 38, 111, 112, \<S>, 189, 191, 214, 217,

Narhada

naturr-\\'r.sliip,

138

J56-8

U. 203, 2H4
,

Mussel Harhor (My.


29, 52, 101, 103

H
,

22

i-rrtr, 55 Naville, 120, 218

Mmir.
(i.

'

205
94,

104, 106, 109, 114, 115, 116, 233

33.

34,

Nebuchaorenar,
.

102 7

Mu,

,208,
.

IMiaraoh,

HU

233 xozarus, 50
4, 25, 26, 31, 57, 62, 77, 78, 80, 86, 87, 102, 105, 112, IP, 114, 116, 120, 122, 123, 132, 139, 145, 164, 165, 169, 214,
.

negroes, 97, 98, 194


-.-laiul,"

Nehemiah, Bonk
rmrth,
Nejran, 117

153, 158 of, 122


.

M.di, Mrlkyn.L. 2ux, 211, 2'4, 236, 237, 254,


.

II.

218, 236 aromatic, 113 Ausaritic, 113 114 >1 kit it ia, 113 cultivated, 113 Dianitic, 113 113 mite, 113 Min.-ran, 113
.

Ni-llorc,

273 248
19-J.

Nepal, 151, 281 Nerjral, 134


12,
.

14, 59,

109, 194, 204, 219,

237

220

odoraria, 11 > ran, 113

Nir"im-dia, 220 Nicon, 27, 92

Niclmhr,
Nile,

arstci

Samhraccnian, 113
stacte, 113, rn.^l.ulytic,

3, 4,

113

white, 113

51, 52, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 68, 75, 98, 99, 103, 117, 118, 120, 146, 158, 213, 228, 230, 232,
i

IS 16,23,47,

myrrh-conn
inyrtlr, 112
.

lian

knowledge

of,

2^0

152, 257, 259


.

Nlleshwar, 205 Nimr..d. 134, 163

myt<
Nabaurans,

132

Nimrud
.

Inscription, 123,

149

Nineveh, 127
an Trotflodytar, 80
11, 29,

170

51, 60,

80,

102,

Nishapur, 170

103, 104, 109, 200 their import duty, 29, 104 Nabatu, 60, in:

Niton
Nitran.
nitre,

158
N;-\\'hitc

Nitrias,

mil, 203, 233


68

Nabonidus, 152, 227

Naga,278
Parkar, 166, 173 Nagari, 180, 184 nagas (vec serpents), 250, 281 Nahapana Nambanus), 175, 198,
i <

Nizam's dominions, 197 Noah, 76, 163

No-Amon,
Noel, 268
:!

69

199, 200

Nahum,

58, 69

North

nails, 155.

Valley, 219 29, 30, 32 India, 152, 163, 187, 195, 197, 199, 210, 235, 2>K.

Nalopatana (Nelcyndai, 2>1

264

Ill

Nubia.
61,
\uiiil..

56.

57,

SI.

5*.

60.

UJ.

164

Ormal-

I
'

II,

99

Nyua, Ukr,

It. 99

04*,

76,
'

144 1*W

1M,
114,

.'

IK,

14",

101
110,
,

111,

Ltl

in, IM.

ir>.

177

point,

Kiihln. I9S, 196.


i

1-.

ISO

71. I"

314

Pano, 27, 87, tanthcr, 61

n<

114,
8,

115
1

Pcriplu.s of tlu9,

3,

7,

,unthcr skins, 57, 111, 121


123 I'.,;-!...,. Pfcpicm, 39, 44, 181

10,

11,

12,

14,

IS,

62,

lupvrm,

111
'<

hi
Paralia, 46, 47,

"4, 65, 67, 68, 70, 71, 73, 74, 76, 77, 78, 79, 8?. 89, 92, 94, 96, 97, lol. 114, US, 105,

234
-01

Plripttana (see Pal.\l ungo, 89, 90 M 263


I

ParopanUene, Paropanisus (see


<-

Hindu

Parses.

127

Parsid*, 36, Parsis, 163


.

1M
14,

Parthia, 5, 6, 8, 117, 146, 147, 166, 171, 194, 198,

16,

184, 185, 187, 215, 269, 270. 276,

119, 149, 172,

63, 65, 70, 127, 139, 140, 150, 151, 161,

188, 189, 191, 197, 198, 204, 205, 207, 208, 209, 216, 217, 218, 219, 220, 226, 227, 228, 231, 232, 234, 236, 237, 238, 241, 242, 250, 252, 255, 258, 260, 261, 265, 266, 269, 270, 272, 274,

116, 117, 129, no, 141, 144, 152, 153, 165, 166, 172, 174, 181, 184, 194, 196,

119,

121,
135,

124, 138,

128, I4o,
IS,,,

nj,
14ft,

147,
168,

149,
170,

154, 156,
167,
171,

176, 185,

178,

179,
,

277
t Parthian kings, chronological 1> 8 * 110 J7, 166, 167, 185, Parthian pri!.190 kings. 112 Parti, 251 Pariir, Paravur (sec Karuviir, Mu/i205, 208, 215 Pasargada?, 50-1 Patala, 166, 232 236, Pataliputra (Patna), 184, 185
.
.

278, 279, 282 Pcriplus, date and authorship of, 7-36,

197-200, 290-3
articles

of

trade

mentioned

in,

284-8
bibliography of, 17-21 distances in, 54-5 meaning of, 50
rulers

mentioned

in,

J94

text of, 22-49

Periyar river, 205


Persia, 14, 16, 32, 35, 37, 59, 70, 84, 96, 118, 123, 127, 147, 153, 160, 161, 170, 172, 176, 183, 189, 191, 192, 223,

258
Patrar, 71
,

Manila and Lamu, 94 209

Pausanias, 62, 71, 132, 143, 145, 146,


Pausias, 191 Pauthier, 144 peacocks, 61, 175
pearls, 6, 13, 36, 45, 46, 47, 74, 123,

251, 256, 264, 267 Persian Kinpire, 123, 213 embassy to the Deccan, J4S sea-trade from China, 84 Persian Gulf, 3, 4, 14, 16, 35.
50, 58,

168, 210, 221, 222, 223, 224, 239, 240, 256 241, 249, 148, 151, 156, 164,

pearl-mussel, 148 -fisheries, 239, 240, 241

107, 151, 162, 201, 249,


MS,

71, 74, 77, 136, 140, 148, 152, 153, 155, 163, 164, 175, 209, 213, 221,

87, 149,

lol, ISO, 194,

159, 191,

222, 230,
116,

251
251, 252,

Pegu, 252
.

268, 269, 270

51, 63, 70, 112, 162, 213, 247, 250,

Piri-shan (see
t,

Tian-shan

),

269

264
Perthes, Justus, 206 PeshSwar, 183, 184 Petenikas, 195 Petra, 4, 6, 29, 101, 128
in

269 Peking, 272 Pemba, 94 Penner river, 241


Pcpi II, 121 pepper, 6, 44, 45, 169, 192, 195, 202, 204, 205, 210, 211, 213, 214, 215, 216, 225, 227, 234, 241, 248, 250, 251, 251, 273 long, 42, 142, 194, 195, 213
peratikos, 75 perfume, 110,

102,

103,

109,

Chinese annals, 128


at,

Romans

102

111, 113, 114, 122, 124, 143, 169, 170, 190, 217, 270 233,

petri ("fibers," should be />atra, 48, 281 Petrie, Flinders, 102 Petronius, 12, 15, 59, 77, 194 Peucelaotis (see Poclais), 184, 270 Peutinger Tables, 204, 206, 208

pewter, 78

IIS

;42

H
1 -

*
i

'

tuu
,

49
ri.ll,

'

160

Fb*t ftudM, 40

I**.

101. 202.

Airing 101
:SS

49. 110

94

Mini
.

Monr*.

I.

4.

II

1OS, 122,

/'/MI***,

"MU,
274
tradr.

*,

10, 111
111

277 olw. 24?


.

SI.

244

H
ffejm-Lli_
.

BMM& DOM

.J > I 1
I',

I'

1..

:'

66, 6f, r 81, 12, H, 14, * 101, 111,


.

PlolcnMM
.

g^rT^
ol

the

HUM*
40

Tk*
112,
111,
Ptolr.

?.

41.

61. 14. 19. 102. 10!. 101

Ml.
14'.
14'J,

1*4,

KM.

l$I,

Plolcmy Eurnrrtriu 40, 4


J

* .

.'--,'.'*
f

161, 169. 18*. 119, 190, 194.


.

Ovofli^r ^ Vvw

W&tjputpiHd I*

**
.

^^
114,

191.
.

201.

HI,
1SU,

HI.

281
Pint,
II
-

146, 119
Ill

Pukkabou (K

Pbrbttt, 114

\k

/W,
Pollux

62, 1<9,
>.

MM,
91
.

Pulurolyi II, 19)


p-,
s

-.,

I'

r.

**,

aifkw, $2, ic.


Puni.
22f. 24S. 1-uwl ol. 41.
16.

MI. HO.

US,
144, 14<.
|4#,.

in.

121.

211

120. pwflc. 62.


V>

l'..hmttmm Urc

Pmnla,

Tkmror*

2M
2W.

Av*u.
194

10S, 161 191. 199. 200.2*2, 2 10.


-.

up

of
'.

the 211
:

2S4. 2SS
....

205

Pout;

199

316
'

;:

U
I

145
1

nrhanli,
..,

tlu-ir

\:

88

INiOiLil.it

Rei-l.i

218 Put, 69
-'\

Kr.l

HI.,:!

WC

1'vr.h..:,.

Y;,rUallai.,

94
rr.l
I,
.

J61

M
Drills,

86
.

Kr.l

224
167.

-,

88

quids
tfuilon, 211,
.

83

RaaiRaffles, Sir

162

:68

Rekem,
religions of Indi.i at
i'lus
R.-in'.

the

Rafi/ah sec
rafts, 25,

235

32, SO, 126, 127

Rcnonsari, 179

Raidan, 109, 119


.:<!,

215

Rrtrnu, 61
.ition,

Book

of,

>.

Rajput
Rajpi.-

pil"'

Rhailaina-ans, KlS

223 J49

RlKulainaMtlni'i,

Rhamlucia, 37,
Rlian

L05,

163
23, 7

iiuja,

257
,

Rhapta, 28, 94, 97


rhiiicic-iTos,

Ramavann,

174. 234, 236, 237, 238, 249, 250, 253, 257, 281, 282 i:: ill, 58, 61, 78, 122, 158
.

Ramu
Rann
Ras Ras As^ad, 92 Ras Biima, 86 Ras Chcnarif, 86 Ras el Fil, or Filuk, 85, 86 Rascl Hadd, 11', 118, 127, 147 Ras el Kclb, 129 Ras el Khvina, 91
92 Salr, 115
,

of Cutch, 135, 166, 173, 174 J., 192, 200, 244 Asir, 85
.

rhinoceros-horn, 24, 2'), Rhinocoiura, HI? Rho.lrs, 111 Rlio,| t -.sia. 96, 97, 98 Rhone, 78 rhubarb, 157
27,
.VI, .^7,
.V),

7^

76,

104.

178, 221, 256

Richard, 263 Rirhthofon, F.

von.

272
rift-vallcv, in K. Africa, 98,
Ritti-r,

99

106, 107, 116, 148, 170,


,

196, 253

Ro.-lu-r,

273
I

Rockhiii, W.ilia.n W.-oilvillc,


F'liorold,

Ras Ras Ras Ras Ras Ras Ras Ras Ras Ras Ras

Fartak, 117, 129, 133, 140, 232 Hadadch, 85

J14
list

Rohri

Hills,

174

Hafun, 87
Hantara, 81, 82, 85 Hasik, i:9, HII, 146

Roman

I'-iiiju-rors,

chronological
.

of, 111); coins of, C'hiiu-se account of,

275-7

Kham/ir, 81, 85
Mirlut, 140

roinau'r,
in

192, 193, in India, 219, 220, 234


.

Musaiulum, 148, 150 Nuh, 161 Ormara, 161

Ceylon,

compared

with

Persian, 252
U) China,

Risut, 140 Rishtrika, 175 Ratna*m coast, 201,215 Raven Castle, 116

Empire,

12,

76,

77,

108,
191,

168, 169, 185, 187, 217, 228, 275 geographers, 150, 277

151, 214,

Ravenna, (ico^raphrr Rawiinson, 14

of,

208

republic, 77 senate, 103, 219, 265

117
.

'

11

IH.

199,

227

Safe.
191, 192
I. 43.
9'
.

197, 191. 199.

2*

'.8,

71,

116,

117, 119.

Want Ar^ttbiafi tin

tviif^

14A
lor.

Saphv, /*tu. 5pp^,M, MA, 119, 140, Ml,


1^

|9,

1IA.

11 V,

'

96

'.

76, 94,

101.

149,

161,

19t, 199

nhlet, Russian, 1"!

,126

160, 161, 209

161
...

Sanr

146
119,

v.-

,..-,..,

Sarhai
is

rfRowrr,

1 1 1

MfHHM).
111,

I9S

214

s..

in
v,

Eg*

Ju;.ir isUml.

IS!

167

utfmaf9gfnf t 24, 27, 72, 179 S^hurc, 11 ;.

167,

lit,

197,

191,

318
Sana, Sal), Save, Naukiru May, 133

*,

sesamum, 178
i

k,

115

74
tiin,

189

Sluli

1'

1^5

Sii. tins,

tlir Sal>;i-aii

sun pnl,

U
166,
.

257, 260, 267 .!45-7, 259, 261

sharks, H5, 241 cha:


i

J4

Seha, 162

Shatt-i-l-Arah river, 169, 257


,

14'),

mouth, 68
.

Slu-lu. Shrl.a.
slircp,

i:i

OiKM-n

off,

77
.

13, 30, 71, 14V, 156, 17r.

166, 185
Shc-hr.

267
129,
I'-"
.'//A////,

Sela, 102

Sclcueithr, 149 Seleucus, 184, 189 Seleurus Callinirus,


.

21K

169

Sheikh Sa'id, lib shells, 224, 259


shell;..
.

Semele.
nnis mountain, 36, 148 .76

Shem,

107, 16". Sheiirottah I' Shen-si, 26!.

Semvlla, 43, 200


Senegal, 89, 157 mbcr, 31 Scptimius S vei, 146
:

Sherring, 27?
* 58 a Shiha.n, 117, 119 Shinar, Chief of, 122 2.-. 2<,. 27, 28, 30, 35.
I ,

40,
21(1,

11.

H. IV

I'

Sera, island, 163

212, 211.
28, 44, L06,
!..
7,

Sera Metropolis, 269 Serandip, Scremlib, 163, 249 Seres, 70, 76, 146, 171, 172, 265, 266, 267, 269 Sena, 146 Serica (see also Sarikol), 267 ..iiuin, 112 Seric skins, 38, 171 tissues, 265
.

Andhra, 243-5
iian.

179,

Carthaginian, 27V,
Dravidiai:.

273
1'

Kgyptian, 51, from the north 255, 272


k,

Bengal),

43

serpentine. serpents, 37, 38, 43, 44, 131-3, 138, 145, 165, 236 12 guardians of cinnamon, of diamonds, 225, 226 of fratU. :S, 131-2
1

(iujarati, 244-5

Hebrew, 260
Hindu, 27, 107, 115, 229 Malabar, 227, 243-5 Hurmese and 246-7
,
1

12.v.

>f

medi<

132

Chinese,

"Pper, 215, 216 (Turns, 132 in the Indian Ocean (tee gra<r) t 44, 165 progenitor of Abyssinian dynasty,
.

.-..

:44
154-6, 227
^0-1
-"),

in C.ulf, Roman, 71
!'

shi|
shi;

38, 41
.tln.r of

serpent-worship, 131, 236, 237, 241, 279 souls of the dead, 131
tree-spirits,

tvpr 52-3
'

Ml

winged, 131

esame

<..!,

27, 35, 39, 176, 177

Shoa, 75 Siam, 227, 252, 279 Sibal, 237 Sibor, 251

161

44

M9,
-72

|4.

'

m. ito.
191

'

s
.

ifi.

'

*.

4*

270
,

191,

14

51,

'

7, 94. 97,

106.
41,

SbbMl

:n.
Sinjpin t:.
11,

261,

270,

J67
Spain. 61, 70. 77. 71, |9t Ill

16S

sputum.

Spaunui. 149
IT, 9*.

:io

2ii,

XM.
M ,,kri
1U.
If,

itaLmu, 199

bYCv

:>.'-;<
>S, 91, 96.

h.

SI,

161, 191 166, 110,

It),

114, 1S9, 198.

105, 107, 114, 116,

Smitl

Ill

I2
;

1.

112,

Syagrus dates, 158 239


Syinullu (sec Scmylla), 200 MUN, 159 :76 H m
.

us units in
luivalrnts in
icnt, 54-5 in Prrxi.in scti

Roman

ute,

modern mca-

277
.

5,

66
'",

M
247

71, 172, 225


,

58, 61, 71, 76, 77, 87, 1 02, US, Hi, 108, 111. 138, 149, 158, 184, 213, 264,
.

232,
'

275
,

208

.:70,

272
14S
,

X
"ii
,

27, 86 fr.mki

iuTcrs), 145

Snrlcr, 270
\\
,

219, 265

1S5

lurrnt, 45, 47, 222 i-r, the (secTashkurphan),


12,
.

,mi!>.ish vallry,

269

Tahaii
.

107

112,127,128,214,

140
-usu, 213, 275
i.a,

276
16, 52, 55, 68, 69, 77, 78,

.,

7,

238
I

83,86, 101,102, 103, 105, 108,


114, 116, 118, 145, 146, 149, 157, 159, 161, 162, 167, 176, 177, 178, 184, 189, 217, 249,
.

uasila (see Taxila., S3, tufnn/a ttt inalal)atliruiii, riiinainon

),

216, 279, 281 Tamalipti ( To-mo-li-ri} (see


liptii,

'I'..

255, 259, 277, 278 -Mandeb), 52 !27

272
176, 19".
.

tamuitk,

Tamil ftee Damirica),


Tainra-lipti
.

Streubel, 19

211

-.jf,-i,

12

66
56, 60, 61, 74, 99

249, 255 Tainraparni river (sec Tapril>ane, rainlupanni*, 237, 249, 255 Tana River, 98 Tanais river (Don), 277, 278
),

Tamluk

253 78 52, 68
,
.

Tanganyika, 88, 99 Tanjore, 242


tannin, 80

C.iilf

of,

273

iugar, 90 ni-ho (see storax), 128, 276

Tanutamon, stela of, 78 Taprohane Tamra-parnT,


i

I)i~t/i-Rr/-

17, 239, 249, 25<'.

Suklatinha, 180
138, 252 i'ter-mules, 31 Smnlara Satakanii see Satuiares
(

252
river,

182

Tarentum, 219
),

198,

Tariin river, 268


Tartars, J85, 186, 261, 26

199, 200
iria,

269
C'apc, 190 162, 163, 211 (Sliurparaka., 43, 175, 197
,

Ta-.hkend, 269

.in,

Tnhkurghan,
Ta-ts'in

269, 281 U'hinrsc name

f.r

Kmiiaii

.1

Sur, 91,

147
176,

Syria , 128, 275, 276, 277 routes to, 276, 2~7

i.tra,

174, 197, 199

184, 185,

188,

Tavernier,

Surat, 176, 179, 182, 183, 237


river (Satlaji,
river,
ili

168, 170, 171, 172, 179, 192, 196, 212, 21 S 216, 222, 223, 224, 225, 252, 256, 259,

174, 180, 272


I

281

184
in
Afrii-a,

language, 129
:. 1

98,

31,

11,

112

ilers,

7ft

words Syagnw

24, 70 (tee Ras Fartakl, 133, 139, 232

Taxila, 69, 135, 270 Taylor, Dr., 243, 254, 255, 256 teakwood, 36, KJ, 2oi Tehama, 107 Tehcnu, 61 Tell-el-Amarna tablets, 78 Tellicherry, 221

33,

34,

Telu^u, 197, 204 Thair) (seeTa^arai, 196


1

121

149
J
.

H
....
.

;
.

' I

s*

kirtor,
:.
.

;i

H M

.-

'
.

!''; lUM

..'.:.

':.
i

'

/r*/^,
I94 t
'

JM.
I
.

4,
III.

ill.

164

Kl
amJ Om, \,K At,
J20
II

m,
fir,

Itl

T>*J

wort

Thu;

Ml
.

TUM

261, 269

ffodfe), 1

Uashtana), 111
',26$
,

261-1 ttwangti, 261

279, 211

261

J79 271
Nl-9
tradi

Ttu*K -//irf

(wr ramin>, 269

Titnillus, 191, 2SS


10.

204, 205
.

41, 113
'

2S
161
>an tradr,

Tir*-(hK (**C

Turanian.Hamitic .ytrm, 161


277

1,123,149.
160
r,

149 20S

Turfa. ^v.. 70
rtan, I.
I!

>.

107
.

1S6,

190,
trade-route

Turkharx..
rah,

2S9
J69

tuniif

SO

!.

17t. 221

J17
tobarro, 10S

Tyior, E., 216


I

TOR..-

:oi
a,

*T* \ .
'

l'
.

i.

AA fi. 9At

>AA *nl HM .'....


.
.

Tokar, 60
14, IS

Tyre, 1^.
46
271

159,

322

Ubulu (Obolbh,
tiuni

By/un-

Uganda, 57 mi. Ujjayinf (tee O/


10, 65, 187, 188, 199, 236
I

11)3

Vonurnus, 68
'in^s,

66

Ami

rivrr,

149
?58

vnltur<

ultnmarinr, 1*0, 171,


Icll,

273
411
.

></.
236
.\

NN'.uli
.

14V,

1), 160

lu|

\\'.i.li

cr K\iinm:i,

\M
1

\V;i,li

Ha.liamaut,

U,,

117,

119

Waili Maif.i, IK,


.'68

Ushas, 229

W.i.i

119

Osiris, 132

Ual, 115
Vaigai river, 241
,

217 Wa.li ^:l^.il^ 150, 160 Walnml <-anal, 174 48

.111
Death, 135
.

2SO
I

73, 76, 148, 151.


172,

80,

81,

83,

n Ben:,

\V

176, 177,

178,

84, 99, K,9, 188, 19;,


,

145
Ralita, I'yrrh-.n

194, 215, 222,

224, 256, 259,

2H,

it,

57, 121
108,

\vrasrl,

257
109,

varnish, 263

\\Yl.cr,
\\
,

119

Vanma.
.

227

261 \\Yllhausni, 143


,

Wc-llsti-d,
.

119,

137,

139,

143,

MS,

229, 235, 257, 281


etians, 70,
.

148, 162
rn (JlifltN,

196

214

tern

India,
155,

123
73, 192, 215
:

197, 230, 271


whalc-tislu-ry,
wlu-at,
i

.ili.m,

Vespasian,
;
,

55
.<!.

13, 27, 28, 31. 39, 45, 76, 12

.VA

Hi4, 214
.1,

87, 88, 230

White White

Islam!, 44.
Vi!

Vignoli, 2i5
,

101

249

Whitman, Walt, 183


Wi'.ci
:

...

22.

56

VJknunaditva
i

>f

t'jjain,

:>ikraiiipur,

188 255

Wi

69

II, 197,

235
181,

Wilfc.nl. I.irut., 8X, Willis, Hailcv,

nt, 8,

18, 19, 84, 94, 104, 108,


.

Wilmot, A., 97
\\

144, 148, 169,

Vimlhya

171, 179, 216, 259, 272 mountain-, 188, 197,

iboo, 209
s.

Wil
201,

JdO

\viiuls,

Indian Fu-sian, 38, 45


vine, 34, 75, 76, 77 jar, 111, 240
!Ii|ipalus,

45
2s.
.*!.

wine,
125,
.

13, 24.

33, 36,

I,

271 Vishnu, 138, 235, 238, 253 .lius 78 Vivien cir S..inT. Martin, 81

76, 87, 2K-.

121,

135,

153,

42, 45, 77, 111, 11 151, 157, 158, 164, 190, 191,

192 Arabian, 42, 77 nian, 77 Falernian, 77

}.

<