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Hc vin CNBC Vin Thng C s pha Nam

B mn : Truyn dn s Gvhd: Th.s Tn Tht Nghim

ti: iu ch s theo tn s tn hiu FSK (Frequency Shift Keying)

1.iu ch: a) Khi nim: FSK ( Frequency Shift Keying ), c ngha l iu ch s theo tn s tn hiu. Tn hiu FSK c dng sng dao ng vi tn s khc nhau, mi bit c c trng bi tn s khc nhau ny ca tn hiu. FSK c th xem nh tn hiu trc giao. Cc s tn hiu ch yu u s dng cho truyn s liu s tc thp, l do dng rng ri cc Modem s liu l tng i d dng to tn hiu v dng gii iu ch khng kt hp. Nh tn gi, tin tc s c truyn i mt cch n gin bng cch dch tn s sng mang i mt lng nht nh tng ng vi mc nh phn 1 v 0. b) Nguyn tc iu ch FSK: Gi s c sng mang: x(t) = a.cos[ct +(t)] = a.cos[(t)] Ta gi nguyn bin, pha v ch thayi tn s: vi (t) =ct+(t)

Hc vin CNBC Vin Thng C s pha Nam

B mn : Truyn dn s Gvhd: Th.s Tn Tht Nghim

Trong : i l tn s tc thi l s thayi tn s vi tn s sng mang. Ta gi l iu tn khi

s(t) l tn hiu sin l h s iu tn Suy ra: Suy ra: y(t)= a.cos[

Trong trng hp iu ch s FSK th s(t)={ Khi y(t) = a.cos( Tn s ng vi mt bit no : -i vi bt 0 tn s sng mang l , ta c = a.cos(

-i vi bt 1 tn s sng mang l , ta c
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Hc vin CNBC Vin Thng C s pha Nam

B mn : Truyn dn s Gvhd: Th.s Tn Tht Nghim

rng bng tn khi iu ch FSK c tnh l: ( Trong : ) ( ) ( )

l rng bng tn. l rng xung

rng bng tn khi iu ch FSK ph thuc vo dch tn hai tn s v v rng bit s liu

, tc l khong cch gia

c) FSK- mt dng FM, ch s iu ch ( ch s bin iu): Trong k thut FSK ngi ta nh ngha h s h: | |

Ta c th thy h s h chnh l ch s bin iu (modulation index) mf trong k thut FM c in.

l di tn cc i; p dng vo trng hp FSK:

l tn s tn hiu iu ch
| |

Vy:

Hc vin CNBC Vin Thng C s pha Nam

B mn : Truyn dn s Gvhd: Th.s Tn Tht Nghim

Nhc li, ph tn ca tn hiu iu ch FM ty thuc vo h s Bessel, tc ty thuc vo ch s bin iu. Mt cch tng qut, h cng ln th xut hin cng nhiu h s Bessel, ph tn cha cng nhiu ha tn, nhng iu ny xy ra khi br nh, tc tn s c bn nh, nh vy cc ha tn s nm st li vi nhau nn bng thng ca tn hiu khng nhng khng tng m cn c th gim. Tuy nhin t c hiu qu cao ngi ta thng chn h<1. d) Bng thng FSK:

Trong : br l tc bit l thi gian ca mt bit ca tn hiu truyn (di nn). Tn s ln nht ca tn hiu, tng ng vi bin i lin tc gia bit 1 v bit 0, l:

Vy tn s c bn ln nht ca tn hiu di nn bng tc truyn bit. Tn hiu FSK tc thi c th vit: Trong c trng cho tn hiu hnh vung c tn s c bn bin 0 hoc 1 ty

thuc trng thi d liu iu ch.

Hc vin CNBC Vin Thng C s pha Nam

B mn : Truyn dn s Gvhd: Th.s Tn Tht Nghim

Ph tn ca tn hiu FSK Ngi ta thng chn bng thng FSK nh sau: ( ) ( )

Ngoi ra thit k b gii iu ch c li v mt kinh t ngi ta chn tn s trung tm ca FSK v khong cch cu hai tn s v nh sau:

| e) S iu ch:

FSK- trng hp ring ca FM. Tn hiu FSK c dng: [( vi - l tn s sng mang trung tm. - l di tn, t l vi bin v cc tnh tn hiu nh phn ng vo. V d bit 1 l +1V, bit 0 l -1V, to nn di tn tng ng + v . ) ]

Hc vin CNBC Vin Thng C s pha Nam

B mn : Truyn dn s Gvhd: Th.s Tn Tht Nghim

Tc dch tn sng mang bng tc bit vo (bps). (tn s ) ng vi logic 1 nh hn ( ) ng vi logic 0.

Tc thay i tn s ra gi l baud. Trong FSK tn s bit vo bng tc baud ra.

Dng sng FSK

Hc vin CNBC Vin Thng C s pha Nam

B mn : Truyn dn s Gvhd: Th.s Tn Tht Nghim

Phng php iu ch FSK.

Phng php iu ch FSK cho php to tn hiu FSK dng sin vi hai tn s: -Khi Data bit = 1, iu khin kho K v tr ni sng mang tn s -Khi Data bit = 0, iu khin kho K v tr ni sng mang tn s vi li ra FSK. vi li ra FSK.

Hc vin CNBC Vin Thng C s pha Nam

B mn : Truyn dn s Gvhd: Th.s Tn Tht Nghim

=> S :

iu ch FSK.

s iu ch FSK kiu, s dng my pht iu khin bng th VCO (Voltage Control Oscillator). ng dng trng thi 0 hoc 1 ca ti liu, VCO s pht hai tn s tng ng. -Trn hnh l s iu ch s dng cc b chia vi cc h s chia khc nhau: N v: M. Data bit s dng iu khin chn h s chia. V d, khi Data bit = 1, b chia c h s chia N, to chui xung ra c tn s chia M, to chui xung ra c tn s -Gin tn hiu FSK cho trn hnh . cn khi Data bit = 0, b chia c h s . v

Hc vin CNBC Vin Thng C s pha Nam

B mn : Truyn dn s Gvhd: Th.s Tn Tht Nghim

2. Gii iu ch: Mch ph bin nht ca b gii iu ch cc tn hiu FSK l vng kho pha (PLL). Tn hiu FSK li vo ca vng kho pha ly hai gi tr tn s. in th lch mt chiu li ra ca b so pha theo di nhng s dch chuyn tn s ny v cho ta hai mc (mc cao v mc thp) ca tn hiu li vo FSK. Tng qut, b PLL l mt h thng hi tip gm 3 b phn chnh: mt mch so pha, mt lc h thng v mt VCO. PLL l mt vng kn, tn hiu ra t VCO t ngh kha bi tn hiu vo. Bng cch so snh pha ca tn hiu ra t mch VCO v tn hiu vo, s sai pha s c bin i thnh i th mt chiu, in th ny s iu khin VCO to mt tn hiu ra lun lun c pha v tn s ca tn hiu vo. B gii iu ch PLL c km theo mt mch lc thng thp ly i nhng thnh phn cn d ca sng mang v mt mch to li dng xung khi phc dng xung chnh xc nht cho tn hiu iu ch. Gii iu ch FSK c th thc hin trn c s hnh 2. Tn hiu FSK cha hai thnh phn tn s c gii iu ch bng s vng gi pha (PLL).

Phng php gii iu ch FSK.

Hc vin CNBC Vin Thng C s pha Nam

B mn : Truyn dn s Gvhd: Th.s Tn Tht Nghim

S chung ca iu ch v gii iu ch FSK

FSK c dng rng ri trong truyn s liu. Trong FSK bit 1 c truyn i bi tn s fm v bit 0 bi tn s fs v d, trong h thng truyn s dng tiu chun ca hng Bell bit 1 c truyn bi tn s 1070 Hz (fm) v bit 0 bi tn s 1270 Hz(fs).

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Hc vin CNBC Vin Thng C s pha Nam

B mn : Truyn dn s Gvhd: Th.s Tn Tht Nghim

3. u im, nhc im ca iu ch, gii iu ch FSK: a) u im: - Dng nhiu hn hai tn s. - c s dng truyn d liu tc 1200bps hay thp hn trn mng in thoi - Bng thng c dng hiu qu hn. - t li hn so vi ASK. - C th dng tn s cao (3-30MHz) truyn trn sng radio hoc cp ng trc. - Mi phn t tn hiu c biu din nhiu hn 1 bt d liu. - Ch yu dng trong modem truyn d liu v trong truyn v tuyn s. - i hi phc tp ca mch mc trung bnh. b) Nhc im: - Truyn s liu tc thp. - Tin tc s liu c truyn i n gin bng cc dch tn s song mang mt lng nht nh tng ng vi mc nh phn 1 v 0 - Cng ngh ch to phc tp hn ASK. - Hiu qu ph thp. - Kh nng p ng tn s ca mi trng l mt mt hn ch ln ca FSK. - Tn s tn hiu tng i cao, iu ny mt mt dn n kh nng gy nhiu mnh i vi bn ngoi, mt khc hn ch vic tng tc truyn. 4. Sa li trong iu ch FSK

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Hc vin CNBC Vin Thng C s pha Nam

B mn : Truyn dn s Gvhd: Th.s Tn Tht Nghim

Chn hm c s: schmit ) Chn Gin sao: i= 1, 2 ( tha th tc gram

Trong

l nng lng ht

Vi gin sao nh hnh v trn ta c th t ra vn sa li sau nu im quan st tha iu kin x1 > x2 th u pht pht bit 1. Nu im quan st tha x1 < x2 th u pht pht bit 0

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