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Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 7: Electricity

CHAPTER 7: ELECTRICITY

7.1 CHARGE AND ELECTRIC CURRENT Van de Graaf 1. What is a Van de Graaff generator? Fill in each of the boxes the name of the part shown. A device that ……………….. and ………………….. at high voltage on its dome

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dome

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JPN Pahang Student’s Copy

Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 7: Electricity

2. How are electrical charges produced by a Van de Graaff generator? And what type of charges is usually produced on the dome of the generator? When the motor of the Van de Graaff generator is switched on, it drives the ……………………….. This causes the rubber belt to against the …….……… and hence becomes …..……… The charge is then carried by the moving belt up to the …………… where it is collected. A large amount of ……………. is built up on the dome ……………………. charges are usually produced on the dome of the generator. ……….

3. What will happen if the charged dome of the Van de Graaff is connected to the earth via a micrometer? Explain. There is a …………………….. of the pointer of the microammeter. This indicates an electric current …………………….

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Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 7: Electricity

**4. Predict what will happen if a discharging metal sphere to the charged dome.
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When the discharging metal sphere is brought near the charged …………………………… occurs. An electric current ……………

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Predict what will happen if hair of a student is brought near to the charged dome. Give reasons for your answer. The metal dome …………. the hair and the hair stand ……………….. This is because of each strand of hair receives ……………….. charges and …………………….. each other.

6. The flow of electrical charges produces ………………….

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In a metal wire. 6. ……………. 2. (i) The SI unit of charge is (Ampere / Coulomb / Volt) (ii) The SI unit of time is (minute / second / hour) (iii)The SI unit of current is (Ampere / Coulomb / Volt) is equivalent to (Cs // C-1s // Cs-1) I (iv) By rearranging the above formula. the ……………… is the current. it is given as: where I = ……………………. One ampere is one coulomb per second... 15 amperes means in ………………second..... If one coulomb of charge flows past in one second.. 15 coulombs of charge cross the plane.. the charges are carried by…………………... 5.... 3.. 4. The current is I = 15 amperes....JPN Pahang Student’s Copy Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 7: Electricity Electric Current 1.… I= Q = ……………………..… t = ………….. Q = ( It / t / I t ) 4. 7. The more charges that flow through a cross section within a given time... 8.. -4- . ampere. coulomb of charge through a cross section of a conductor. In symbols. then the current is …………………. 1 C of charge is……………………………... Each second. Each electron carries a charge of ……………………….. Electric current consists of a flow of …………... Electric current is defined as the rate of flow of …………………………..

charged object to a ………………. Draw the pattern of the electric field lines. and ……………….T) power supply (0 – 5 kV). Set up the apparatus as shown in the above figure 2. (ii) electric field lines are ………………. electric field.H. Demo: To study the electric field and the effects of an electric field.... Switch on the E. petri dish. power supply and adjust the voltage to 4 kV 3. polystyrene ball coated with conducting paint.. in a ………………….JPN Pahang Student’s Copy Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 7: Electricity Electric Field a) An electric field is a ……………….-charged object (ii) electric field lines never …………………..H. -5- . of the field c) The principles involved in drawing electric field lines are : (i) electric field lines always extend from a ……………… . cooking oil. 4. talcum powder.T. Apparatus & materials Extra high tension (E. two metal plates. b) An electric field can be represented by a number of lines indicate both the……………. in which an……………… experiences a…………. Method DEMO A) 1. Observed the pattern formed by the talcum powder for different types of electrodes. each other. electrodes with different shapes (pointed electrode and plane electrode).. thread and candle.

JPN Pahang Student’s Copy Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 7: Electricity → Draw the pattern of the electric field lines. ELECTRIC FIELD AROUND A POSITIVE CHARGE ELECTRIC FIELD AROUND A NEGATIVE CHARGE ELECTRIC FIELD AROUND A POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE CHARGE ELECTRIC FIELD AROUND TWO NEGATIVE CHARGES -6- .

JPN Pahang Student’s Copy Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 7: Electricity ELECTRIC FIELD AROUND TWO POSITIVE CHARGES ELECTRIC FIELD AROUND A NEGATIVE CHARGE AND A POSITIVELY CHARGED PLATE ELECTRIC FIELD AROUND A POSITIVE CHARGE AND A NEGATIVELY CHARGED PLATE ELECTRIC FIELD BETWEEN TWO CHARGED PARALLEL PLATES -7- .

the ball loses some of its negative charges to the plate and becomes positively charged. Place the polystyrene ball between the two metal plates. When the ball touches the plate. It then experiences a repulsive force.T and displace the polystyrene ball slightly so that it touches one of the metal plates and experiences a repulsive force. The ball will then move to the positively charged plate. Switch on the E. the ball receives negative charges from the plate 1. touching one plate after another. 2. Explanation: When the polystyrene ball touches the negatively charged plate. -8- .JPN Pahang Student’s Copy Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 7: Electricity EFFECT OF AN ELECTRIC FIELD ON A POLYSTYRENE BALL Observation: The polystyrene ball oscillated between the two plates.H. This process continues.

Conclusion 1.H. The flame is dispersed in two opposite directions but more to the negative plate. is switched on. 2) Sketch the flame observed when the E.JPN Pahang Student’s Copy Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 7: Electricity EFFECT OF AN ELECTRIC FIELD ON A CANDLE FLAME C) Observation: The candle flame splits into two portions in opposite direction. Electric field is a ……………………………………………………………………….. each other but opposite charges …………… each other.T and replace the polystyrene ball with a lighted candle. The direction of the field lines is from ……………………. to ………………………… -9- .T.H. 2. This causes the uneven dispersion of the flame. The positive charges are attracted to the negative plate while the negative charges are attracted to the positive plate. The heat of the flame ionizes the air molecules to become positive and negative charges. 3. Explanation: 1) Switch of the E.. The portion that is attracted to the negative plate is very much larger than the portion of the flame that is attracted to the positive plate. The positive charges are heavier than the negative charges. Electric field lines are ……………………in an electric field. Like charges ……………….

6 x 10-19 C) An electric current of 200 mA flows through a resistor for 3 seconds.8 A flows in a wire.2 A. 4. what is the (a) (b) electric charge the number of electrons which flow through the resistor? . A charge of 300 C flow through a bulb in every 2 minutes. Calculate the amount of electric charge that passes through the lamp in 1 hour.10 - . What is the current in the wire? 2. If a current of 0.1 1. how many electrons pass through the wire in one minute? (Given: The charge on an electron is 1. 5 C of charge flows through a wire in 10 s. The current in a lamp is 0.JPN Pahang Student’s Copy Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 7: Electricity Exercise 7. What is the electric current in the bulb? 3.

work is done when electrical energy is transformed to …………. The apple will fall from …… to …… when the apple is released. than the electric Bulb B W Work V = Quantityofch arg e = Q where W is …………………………. Electric current flows from A to B. Q is …………………………. This is due to the electric ……………….. ………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………… The potential difference.JPN Pahang Student’s Copy Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 7: Electricity Ideas of Potential Difference (a) (b) X water Y P Q ⇒ Pressure at point P is ……………… than the pressure at point Q Water will flow from ……to …… when the valve is opened. (c) Similarly. in the pressure of water Gravitational potential energy at X is …………… than the gravitational potential energy at Y. the bulb.. This due to the ……………………. . terminal Electric potential at A is potential at B.. passing the bulb in the circuit and ………………. between the two terminals.V between the two points will be given by: A ……………..11 - . in the gravitational potential energy. Point A is connected to…………………. As the charges flow from A to B. V between two points in a circuit is defined as ……………………………………………………. This due to the ………………. terminal Point B is connected to …………………..and …………… energy. The potential difference.

JPN Pahang Student’s Copy Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 7: Electricity Device and symbol ammeter voltmeter connecting wire Cells Switch Constantan wire // eureka wire bulb resistance rheostat Measuring Current and Potential Difference/Voltage Measurement of electricity Measurement of potential difference/voltage (a) Electrical circuit (a) Electrical circuit (b) Circuit diagram (b) Circuit diagram Turn to next page→ .12 - .

1. (a) What is the SI unit for potential difference? (b) What is the symbol for the unit of current? (b) What is the symbol for the unit of potential difference? 3.13 - . Name the device used to measure potential difference. How is an ammeter connected in an electrical circuit? 3. (a) What is the SI unit for current? 2. How is an voltmeter connected in an electrical circuit? 4. 2. The positive terminal of an ammeter is connected to which terminal of the dry cell? 4.JPN Pahang Student’s Copy Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 7: Electricity 1. What will happen if the positive terminal of the ammeter is connected to the negative terminal of the dry cell? . Name the device used to measure electrical current. The positive terminal of a voltmeter is connected to which terminal of the dry cell? 5.

JPN Pahang Student’s Copy Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 7: Electricity Experiment: To investigate the relationship between current and potential difference for an ohmic conductor. (i) Make one suitable inference. (i) manipulated variable : : : (d) Variables (ii) responding variable (iii) fixed variable Apparatus / materials . Why do the ammeters show different The current flowing through the bulb is influenced by the potential difference across it. (a) Inference (b) Hypothesis (c) Aim (b) Figure (a) and figure (b) show two electrical circuits. To determine the relationship between current and potential difference for a constantan wire.14 - . (ii) State one appropriate hypothesis that could be investigated. (iii) Design an experiment to investigate the hypothesis. (a) readings? Why do the bulbs light up with different intensity? Referring to the figure (a) and (b).

1.15 - .0 1.JPN Pahang Student’s Copy Method : 1.6 A and 0.2 0. Determine the value of R. V across the wire. What is the function of the rheostat in the circuit? It is to control the current flow in the circuit Conclusion : The potential difference.0 2.4 0. V/V 1.3 0.4 A. From the graph plotted.5 0.5 A. (a) What is the shape of the V-I graph? Volt.5 3. V I is a constant as current increases. V across a conductor increases when the current. The resistance. R.7 Analysis of data Discussion : : Draw a graph of V against I . Read and record the potential difference. Tabulation of data : Current. I passing through it increases as long as the conductor is kept at constant temperature. 3. 4. Repeat steps 2 and 3 for I = 0. of the wire used in the experiment is equal to the gradient of the V-I graph. (c) Does the gradient change as the current increases? The gradient ≡ the ratio of 2. 2. .2 A. The graph of V against I is a straight line that passes through origin (b) What is the relationship between V and I? This shows that the potential difference.I/A 0.6 0. 0. V is directly proportional to the current. 0.3 A.7 A. Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 7: Electricity Turn on the switch and adjust the rheostat so that the ammeter reads the current. 3. I= 0.5 2. I.0 3.5 Set up the apparatus as shown in the figure. 0.

16 - .JPN Pahang Student’s Copy Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 7: Electricity .

JPN Pahang Student’s Copy

Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 7: Electricity

Ohm’s Law (a) Ohm’s law states that the electric current, I flowing through a conductor is directly proportional to the potential difference across the ends of the conductor, if temperature and other physical conditions remain constant (b) By Ohm’s law: V I

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= constant × I or

V = constant I

(c) The constant is known as ………………………………. of the conductor. (d) The resistance, R is a term that describes …………………………………………….. ………………………………………………………………………………………….. It is also defined as the ratio……………………………………………………………. ………………………………………………………………………………………….. That is R= and V=

(e) The unit of resistance is ………………………………… (f) An ……………………….. is one which obeys Ohm’s law, while a conductor which does not obey Ohm’s law is known as a ……………………….conductor

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JPN Pahang Student’s Copy

Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 7: Electricity

Factors Affecting Resistance 1. The resistance of a conductor is a measure of the ability of the conductor to (resist / allow) the flow of an electric current through it. 2. From the formula V = IR, the current I is (directly / inversely) proportional to the resistance, R. 3. When the value of the resistance, R is large, the current, I flowing in the conductor is (small / large) 4. What are the factors affecting the resistance of a conductor? a) ……………………………………………………………. b) ……………………………………………………………. c) ……………………………………………………………. d) ……………………………………………………………. 5. Write down the relevant hypothesis for the factors affecting the resistance in the table below.

Factors Diagram Hypothesis The …………… the conductor, the …………….. its resistance Resistance is …………………. proportional to the length of a conductor The ……………….….. the cross sectional area, the …….………… the its resistance Resistance is ……………...…….. proportional to the cross-sectional area of a conductor Different conductors with the same physical conditions have ……………………. resistance Graph

The type of the material of the conductor

The cross-sectional area of the conductor, A

Length of the conductor, l

The temperature of the conductor

The …………………. The temperature of a conductor, the …………………... the resistance

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JPN Pahang Student’s Copy

Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 7: Electricity

6. From, the following can be stated: Resistance of a conductor, Resistance of a conductor, R R ∝ ∝ length 1 cross-sectional area Hence, resistance of a conductor, R ∝ length cross-sectional area Or R∝ l A or R= ρ l A where ρ = resistivity of the substance

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What is the potential difference across the bulb? W 20 V = = = QV 6 (V) 3. Q = ( It / t I / ) t I V Q / ) Q V W = (QV / iii) Base on your answer in 2(i) and (ii) derive the work done. V The potential difference between two points is 1 volt if 1 joule (c) of work is required to move a charge of 1 coulomb from one point to another.5 J. (d) 2 volt is two joules of work done to move 2 coulomb of charge from one to another in an electric field. ii) Work done. 5 C of charges passed through it and 25 J of electrical energy is converted to light and heat energy.0 (V) 0.0 C flows through a wire and the amount of electrical energy converted into heat is 2. W = = QV ItV 3.5 V 4. A light bulb is switched on for a period of time. If a charge of 5.JPN Pahang Student’s Copy Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 7: Electricity Exercise 7. Tick (√) the correct answers True (a) Unit of potential difference is J C-1 (b) J C-1 ≡ volt. Calculate the potential differences across the ends of the wire.20 - .5 V = = = QV 5. V and t. In that period of time.33 V . False (e) Potential difference ≡ Voltage 2. i) Electric charge. W in terms of I. W 2.2 1.

How much work is done in moving 3 C of electric charge through the motor? W = = = QV 3 (10) 30 J Bulb 6.5 A? V = = = IR 0.0 V applied across a resistor of resistance R drives a current of 2. What is the potential difference across a light bulb of resistance 5 Ω when the current that passes through it is 0.5 Ω 9. How much work done to transform electrical energy to light and heat energy in 50 s? W = = = VIt 20 (3) (50) 3000 J 3A 20 V 7. When the potential difference across a bulb is 20 V.5 (5) 2. V 3.0 R = = = IR 2. A potential difference of 3. Calculate R. if the dry cells supply 2.JPN Pahang Student’s Copy Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 7: Electricity 5.5 V 8.0 R = = = IR 0.5 (R) 4Ω .0 (R) 1. the current flow is 3 A.5 A? V 2.21 - .0 V and the ammeter reading is 0.0 A through it. What is the value of the resistor in the figure. The potential difference of 10 V is used to operate an electric motor.

The resistance of the wire is From V-I graph.0 R = = = IR 6 (R) 0. resistance = gradient = = 2. If the bulb in the figure has a resistance of 6 Ω.0 x 10-3Ω 5 I/A . What is the resistance of the resistor? From V-I graph.5 Ω 12. calculate the voltage supplied by the dry cells? V R = = = IR 0.5 A flows through the resistor of 3 Ω in the figure.22 - . if the dry cells supply 3 V? V 3. I flowing through a constantan wire when the potential difference V across it was varied. what is the reading shown on the ammeter.4Ω V/V 1. If a current of 0.JPN Pahang Student’s Copy Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 7: Electricity 10. The graph shows the results of the experiment.2 0 13. An experiment was conducted to measure the current. resistance = gradient = = 2. The graph shows the result of an experiment to determine the resistance of a wire.5 (3) 1.5 Ω 11.

4)(30) = 864 C 15.3 A when the bulb is at its normal brightness.JPN Pahang Student’s Copy Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 7: Electricity 14.23 - . R and S made of the same substance. The two dry cells are able to provide a current of 0. calculate (a) The current flowing through the resistor. V 12 I = = = IR I (5) 2.4 A I 5Ω 12 V (b) The amount of electric charge that passes through the resistor in 30 s Q = = = It 2.5 V - + 1. The diagram shows four metal rods of P.0 I = = = IR 0.3(R) 10Ω + 1.5 V dry cells. Figure shows a torchlight that uses two 1. W = = = QV 72 (12) 864 C or W = VIt = 12(2. a) Which of the rod has the most resistance? P b) Which of the rod has the least resistance? S .4 (30) 72 C (c) The amount of work done to transform the electric energy to the heat energy in 30 s.5 V - 16. Q. Referring to the diagram on the right. What is the resistance of the filament? V 3.

a) Calculate the resistance of conductor X. 18. V and current. i) Compare the resistance of conductor P. From V-I graph. The graph shows the relationship between the potential difference. calculate its resistivity. resistance = gradient = = 4Ω I/A b) Calculate the resistance of conductor Y.0 x 10-6 m2. X and Y. and the length of X is 1. The graph shows a graph of I against V for three conductors.24 - . Q and R. P. Q and R.2 m. the greater the resistance Gradient of P > Gradient of Q > Gradient of R V/V . Q I/A P Q R ii) Explain your answer in (a) From V-I graph. From V-I graph.JPN Pahang Student’s Copy Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 7: Electricity V/V X 8 Y 2 0 0 2 17. resistance = gradient = = 1Ω c) If the cross sectional area of X is 5. resistance = gradient The greater the gradient. I flowing through two conductors.

What is the reading on the ammeter when the jockey is at X? Resistance in the wire R is directly proportional to l 100 cm R = 10 Ω (10) = 2Ω Hence. A and a resistance. Figure shows a wire P of length. a 2 Ω resistor and a 3 V battery. What is resistance of Q in terms of R? Conductor P Conductor Q R R’ = = = (notes: P and R have the same resistivity. is a piece of uniform wire of length 1 m with a resistance of 10Ω. PQ. Another wire. Q is a conductor of the same material with a length of 3l and twice the cross-sectional area of P.75 A . Q is connected to an ammeter. ρ) = R 20. l with a crosssectional area. I = = = 0.JPN Pahang Student’s Copy Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 7: Electricity 19. 20 cm = Total resistance 2Ω + 2Ω = 4Ω Current. R.25 - .

gradient ↓ // the resistance decreases. hence the gradient increases ii) a constantan wire of a smaller cross-sectional area is used R ↑. gradient ↑ // the resistance increases. V and current. (a) What quantities are kept constant in this experiment? Length // cross-sectional area // type of material // temperature of the wire (b) State the changes in the gradient of the graph. I for a piece of constantan wire. hence the gradient increases iii) a shorter constantan wire is used R ↓. The graph of V against I from the experiment is as shown in the figure below. if i) the constantan wire is heated R ↑.JPN Pahang Student’s Copy Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 7: Electricity 21. hence the gradient decreases . Figure shows the circuit used to investigate the relationship between potential difference.26 - . gradient ↑ // the resistance increases.

The current in the circuit equals to the sum of the currents passing through the bulbs / resistors in its parallel branches. we get : V = V1 + V2 + V3 IR = IR1 + IR2 + IR3 If each term in the equation is divided by I.3 SERIES AND PARALLEL CIRCUITS Current Flow and Potential Difference in Series and Parallel Circuit SERIES CIRCUIT I PARALLEL CIRCUIT V 1 the current flows through each bulb/resistor is the same. we get the effective resistance R = R1 + R2 + + R3 3 If Ohm’s law is applied separately to each bulb / resistor.JPN Pahang Student’s Copy Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 7: Electricity 7. we get : I = I1 + I2 + I3 V V V V R = R1 + R2 + R3 If each term in the equation is divided by V.27 - . we get the effective resistance 1 1 1 R = R1 + R2 + 1 R3 . I = I1 + I2 + I3 where I is the total current from the battery 3 If Ohm’s law is applied separately to each bulb / resistor. I = I1 = I2 = I3 1 the potential difference is the same across each bulb/resistor V = V1 = V2 = V3 2 the potential difference across each bulb / resistor depends directly on its …………………. V = V1 + V2 + V3 where V is the potential difference across the battery 2 the current passing through each bulb / resistor is inversely proportional to the resistance of the resistor. The potential difference supplied by the dry cells is shared by all the bulbs / resistors.

28 - .JPN Pahang Student’s Copy Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 7: Electricity Identify series circuit or parallel circuit (a) (b) (c) (d) Ammeter reading ≡ Current Voltmeter reading ≡ Potential difference ≡ Voltage .

29 - .JPN Pahang Student’s Copy Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 7: Electricity Effective resistance. R (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h) (i) (j) .

5 V There are two resistors in the circuit shown. (c) the potential difference across each bulb. V = IR 3=0.30 - .5(1+R2) R2 = 5Ω .5 V. If a 3V voltage causes a current of 0.5 =I(5) = 0. Resistor R1 has a resistance of 1Ω. 2Ω: V = IR = (0. If the voltage of the dry cell is 2.3 1.5A to flow through the circuit. I in the circuit V = IR 2.JPN Pahang Student’s Copy Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 7: Electricity Solve problems using V = IR Exercise 7.5 A 2. The two bulbs in the figure have a resistance of 2Ω and 3Ω respectively. R of the circuit Effective R = 2 + 3 = 5 Ω (b) the main current.5)(3) = 1. calculate the resistance of R2.5)(2) = 1V 3Ω: V = IR = (0. calculate (a) the effective resistance.

is 5 A.75 A 5.JPN Pahang Student’s Copy 3. R1 and R2 have a resistance of 5Ω and 20Ω. Calculate the voltage supplied. Determine the voltmeter reading. I in the circuit V = IR 3 =I(4) = 0. I1 and I2.6 A 20 Ω: V = IR 3 =I(20) I = 0. In the circuit shown. Calculate (a) the potential difference across each resistor 3 V (parallel circuit) (b) the effective resistance. (a) (b) is closed? Effective R = 4 Ω V = IR 12 =I(4) I=3A Determine the ammeter reading. (a) (d) the current passing through each resistor 5Ω: V = IR 3 =I(5) I = 0. Both bulbs have the same resistance.V =V1=V2 = IR1 or = IR2 = 5(2) = 10 V 4. what is the reading on the ammeter when switch.15 A (b) . R of the circuit 1/R = 1/5 + 1/20 =1/4 R=4Ω (c) the main current. which is 2Ω. Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 7: Electricity The electrical current flowing through each branch.31 - . S (a) is open? Effective R = 6 Ω V = IR 12 =I(6) I=2A 6. The voltage supplied to the parallel is 3 V. Parallelcircuit.

I=2A (d) (i) The potential difference across 8Ω resistor.5Ω resistors.32 - .JPN Pahang Student’s Copy 7. V = IR = 2(8) = 16 V (ii) The potential difference across 2. V = IR = 2(2. R R = 12 Ω (b) The main current.5Ω resistor. I I=2A (c) The current passing through 8Ω and 2.5 A . V = V8 + V2. Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 7: Electricity Calculate (a) The effective resistance.5 +Vparallel 24 = 16 + 5 + Vparallel Vparallel = 3V V = IR 3 = I(6) I = 0.5) = 5 V (e) The current passing through 6 Ω resistor.

Describe how the circuit works.JPN Pahang Student’s Copy Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 7: Electricity 8. B and C When switch A is switched on. The above figure shows a hair dryer which has components connected in series and parallel. the dryer will only blow air at ordinary room temperature When switches A and B are both switched on. The electrical components in our household appliances are connected in a combination of series and parallel circuits. the heating element will not be switched on if the fan is not switched on The hair dryer has an energy saving feature.33 - . As a safety feature to prevent overheating. the dryer will blow hot air. The hair dryer has three switches A. Switch C will switch on the dryer only when it is held by the hand of user The body of the hair dryer must be safe to hold and does not get hot easily .

5 J / 3.f.JPN Pahang Student’s Copy Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 7: Electricity 7. e.5 V) e) The potential difference across the cell in open circuit is (0 V / 1..4 ELECTROMOTIVE FORCE AND INTERNAL RESISTANCE Electromotive force Figure (a) Figure (b) Voltmeter reading.5 V) f) It means. potential difference.f.m. E. E is (0 V / 1.34 - .5 V / Less than 1.5 V). .m. e. a) Figure (a) is (an open circuit / a closed circuit) b) There is (current flowing / no current flowing) in the circuit. An electrical circuit is set up as shown in figure (a). the electromotive force. The bulb (does not light up / lights up) c) The voltmeter reading shows the (amount of current flow across the dry cell / potential difference across the dry cell) d) The voltmeter reading is (0 V / 1. Voltmeter reading. A high resistance voltmeter is connected across a dry cell which labeled 1. (0 J / less than 1.f.0 J) of electrical energy is required to move 1 C charge across the cell or around a complete circuit.5 V / Less than 1.5 V / Less than 1.m. Hence.5 V.5 J / 1.r R No current flow Current flowing 1.. V < e.

35 - . e.3 J / 1. r of the dry cell is (0. R = VR + Vr = IR + Ir due to internal resistance. The bulb (does not light up / lights up) c) The voltmeter reading is the (potential difference across the dry cell / potential difference across the bulb / electromotive force).m.2 V/ 1. Vr.. VR and drop in potential difference due to internal resistance.f . d) The reading of the voltmeter when the switch is closed is (lower than/ the same as / higher than) when the switch is open. a) Figure (b) is (an open circuit / a closed circuit) b) There is (current flowing / no current flowing) in the circuit.2 V/ 1. The switch is then closed as shown in figure (b).r where VR = IR and Vr = Ir = I (R + r) . E . the potential difference lost across the internal resistance.JPN Pahang Student’s Copy Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 7: Electricity 2. E = Potential Difference + Drop in Potential Difference across resistor.5 J) f) The potential difference drops by (0.f. g) State the relationship between e. the electrical energy dissipated by 1C of charge after passing through the bulb is (0.2 J / 1. potential difference across the bulb.m. It means.3 V / 1. Electromotive force.3 V / 1. it means.3 V.5 V).5 V). e) If the voltmeter reading in figure (b) is 1.

5 = r = 1. i.2 .5 r Therefore.8 Ω iii.1 + 0.5 R 2.m. Determine the value of the internal resistance.f. Why is the potential difference across the resistor not the same as the e. of the battery? The potential drops as much as 0.36 - .1 = R = 0.JPN Pahang Student’s Copy Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 7: Electricity 3. Since E = V + Ir 1.8 Ω 0. the value of the internal resistance is 0.2 Ω Ω Therefore. Determine the value of the external resistor. the value of the external resistance is 2.4 V across the internal resistance ii. Since V = IR 1.

6 A.5 V dry cell. rheostat (0 – 15 Ω). 0.2 A. I. a) Set up the circuit as shown in the figure.) and the internal resistance. r of the cell Voltmeter V Internal resistance + Ammeter Dry cell Switch Rheostat Aim Apparatus / materials Method : To determine the values of the electromotive force (e. connecting wires.5 .9 d) Adjust the rheostat to produce four more sets of readings.JPN Pahang Student’s Copy Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 7: Electricity Activity : To determine the values of the electromotive force (e.f. ammeter.m.f.5 2. Tabulation of data : Current.4 A.) and the internal resistance.I/A 0.m. voltmeter(0 – 5 V). ammeter (0 – 1 A). 0.7 Volt. and adjust the rheostat to give a small reading of the c) Read and record the readings of ammeter and voltmeter respectively A and 0.0 1. switch.5 0.2 2. 0.3 0. V/V 2.4 2.2 0. I = 0.37 - .3 A. r of the cell Dry cells holder.6 0. b) Turn on the switch.6 2.4 0. and 2 pieces of 1.

When the current flowing through the circuit increases. 2. Because of this. V = -rI + E (b) explain how can you determine the values of E and r from the graph plotted in this experiment.gradient = 1.38 - . state the relationship between the potential difference. E = the vertical intercept of the V – I graph R = the gradient of the V – I graph (c) determine the values of E and r from the graph. A cell has an internal resistance. Hence. there was a bigger drop in potential difference measured by the voltmeter. V across the cell and the current flow. I and r. With the help of the figure. draw a graph of V against I : Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 7: Electricity Discussion : 1. This is the resistance against the movement of the charge due to the electrolyte in the cell. I? The potential difference. r. V across the cell decreases as the current flow increases.4 Ω . From the graph plotted. 3. explain the result obtained in this experiment.JPN Pahang Student’s Copy Analysis of data Based on the above data. By extrapolating the graph until it cuts the vertical axis.9 V r = . By using the equation E = V + Ir (a) write down V in terms of E. more energy was lost in moving a larger amount of charge across the electrolyte. E = 2. the quantity of charge flowing per unit time increased.

35 + 0. If the external resistor has a value of 10.35 V when a bulb is connected to the battery and the ammeter reading is 0.0 V. E = 3.4 V V = IR 11.f.5) R = 4. Calculate (a) the voltmeter reading in open circuit The voltmeter reading = e.35 V. E = 3.5 V.0 Ω 3 A simple circuit consisting of a 2 V dry cell with an internal resistance of 0.0 V. R of the resistor.f 3. When the switch is closed. V = 2. R E = I(R + r) 2 = 0.5) = 1.3 A.0 V and internal resistance.5 (1.4(R + 0. r.m.5 (R) R = 22. I in the circuit and the internal resistance. R = 10 Ω. r.4 A.f. find the value of the current.0 Ω and the potential difference across it is 2. the ammeter reading is 0.JPN Pahang Student’s Copy Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 7: Electricity Exercise 7.5 Ω (c) the voltmeter reading in closed circuit V = IR = 0.5 V Calculate current : V = IR Calculate internal resistance : E = I(R + r) r = 2.4 1 A voltmeter connected directly across a battery gives a reading of 1. E = V + Ir e.8 Ω 4 .m.5 Ω 2. The voltmeter reading drops to 1. 12 = V + 0.2) V = 11.5 = 1. V = 1. A circuit contains a cell of e.5Ω.4 = 0.8 V Find the voltmeter reading and the resistance.m.4 (4.3 A Substitute in : E = V + Ir 1. = 2 V (b) the resistance.5 V. Find the internal resistance of the battery. I = 0.3(r) r = 0.39 - .

= gradient = 3 V . Hence.0. V are recorded for different resistance.f.f.r. from V – I graph : E = c = intercept of V-axis 6 The graph V against I shown was obtained from an experiment.2) = 0. From the graph. of the battery E = c = intercept of V-axis = 1. r = -gradient = -(-0.5 5 1/A b) From the graph.26Ω ii) the e. The ammeter reading.5 V A graph of R against 1/I shown in figure was obtained from an experiment to determine the electromotive force. of the cell e..JPN Pahang Student’s Copy Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 7: Electricity 5 A cell of e.Ir : y = mx + c =2Ω =6V 6 2 /V 2 b) the internal resistor. r is connected to a rheostat.40 - . R of the rheostat. The graph of V against I is as shown.gradient = .m. determine i) the internal resistance of the battery r = -gradient = 0. I and the voltmeter reading.f.m.. E and internal resistor.(6 .3 the internal resistance of the cell :R= E = I(R + r) 0.m. determine a) -1 7 R/Ω 1. e.2 V/V 1. determine a) the electromotive force. E and internal resistance.2) 2 /A Hence.5 .m. E E = V + Ir Rearrange Equivalent :V = E . r of a cell. e.2Ω b) the e.f.. r of the cell r = .2 1 (A ) Rearrange I . From the graph. a) Sketch a circuit diagram for the experiment 0.f.m.f.m.

............................. energy supplied by the source is .............................................................................................................41 - ........................................................................ When an electrical appliance is switched on........................... we can define electrical energy as : .......................................... to other forms of energy. (a) Energy Conversion battery (chemical energy) (b) battery (chemical energy) current current current current Light and heat Energy Conversion: Electrical energy → Light energy + Heat energy Energy Conversion: Electrical energy → Kinetic energy 2............. ................. .......... 3...................JPN Pahang Student’s Copy Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 7: Electricity 7............ the flows and the ...................... Therefore..... ................................................................................................................5 ELECTRICAL ENERGY AND POWER Electrical Energy 1................

... where I = V R 2 P= I R t Hence. where V = IR P = VI Hence. Therefore..42 - . Q that moves across the two points. E = I2R V2 t R ..JPN Pahang Student’s Copy Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 7: Electricity Electrical Energy and Electrical Power 1. Hence. dissipated or transferred by a coulomb of charge... t Electrical Energy.... Potential difference.. where Q = It P = VQ t Hence... Hence. Power... 2. P Power is the rate of transfer of electrical energy. V = VQ P = VQ t Electrical energy converted. Power is defined as the rate of energy dissipated or transferred. E From the definition of potential difference.. P = Energy dissipated. E = VQ 4.. Potential difference.... V Electrical Power. E time... 5.. V = Electrical energy dissipated.. V across two points is the . E Charge.. Q 3.. E = VI t .. E= P = I2 R SI unit : Joule (J) SI unit : Joule per second // J s // Watt(W) -1 . E E = VQ .

hour 4. I=0. The unit of measurement used for electrical energy consumption is the ……………………………………….. P=? P = I2(V/I) = IV = (0. ……………… and …………………. P=? P = I2R = (0. V=50 W..JPN Pahang Student’s Copy Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 7: Electricity Power Rating and Energy Consumption of Various Electrical Appliances 1.. Power dissipated in a resistor..6 x 106 J 1 unit 3.50)50 = 25 watts . The energy consumption of an electrical appliance depends on the ……………… and the………………………. kW device in ……. .43 - .. One kilowatt-hour is the electrical energy dissipated or transferred by a …. t is in seconds 2. P=? P = (V/R)2 R = V2/R = (50)2 /100 = 2500/100 = 25 watts V=50 V. Household electrical appliances that work on the heating effect of current are usually marked with. E is in Joules power.5 A.5)2 100 = 25 watts R= 100Ω. The amount of electrical energy consumed in a given period of time can be calculated by Energy consumed E = = Power rating x Pt where Time energy.5 A. three ways to calculate: R= 100Ω.. I=0. E = Pt 6. 5. P is in watts time.. 1 kWh = = = 1000 x 3600 J 3.

0) = 16.6 + 4....48 + 9. E = (0....64 Comparing Various Electrical Appliances in Terms of Efficient Use of Energy 1.......energy 2.......... energy and unwanted .to useful ...... a) Efficiency of a filament lamp : Efficiency = = = Output power x 100 Input power 3 x 100 60 5% b) Efficiency of a fluorescent lamp and an ‘energy saving lamp’ Efficiency = = Output power x 100 Input power 3 x 100 12 ......28 per kWh Total energy consumed......JPN Pahang Student’s Copy Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 7: Electricity Cost of energy Appliance Quantity Power / W Power / kW Time Energy Consumed (kWh) Bulb Refrigerator Kettle Iron 5 1 1 1 60 400 1500 1000 8 hours 24 hours 3 hours 2 hours Electricity cost: RM 0...5 + 2.. A tungsten filament lamp changes .....44 - .....28 = RM 4......58 kWh Cost = 16. A fluorescent lamp or an ‘energy saving lamp’ produces less heat than a filament lamp for the same amount of light produced....58 kWh x RM 0.... 3...

V= 15V I R1=2Ω R2=4Ω R3=4Ω Calculate (a) the current. How much power dissipated in the bulb? (a) R = 10Ω 5V (b) R = 10Ω R = 10Ω 5V 2. . I in the circuit (b) the energy released in R 1 in 10 s.5 1.JPN Pahang Student’s Copy Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 7: Electricity Exercise 7. (b) the electrical energy supplied by the battery in 10 s.45 - .

An electric kettle operates at 240 V and carries current of 1.JPN Pahang Student’s Copy Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 7: Electricity 2. A current of 5A flows through an electric heater when it is connected to the 24 V mains supply. 24 W”. Calculate the resistance of its heating element and the current at normal usage. An electric kettle is rated 240 V 2 kW. 5.5 A. (a) How much charge will flow through the heating coil in 2 minutes.46 - . How much heat is released after 2 minutes? 4. A lamp is marked “12 V. How many joules of electrical energy does it consume in an hour? 3. (b) How much energy will be transferred to the water in the kettle in 2 minutes? (c) What is the power dissipated in the kettle? .

2 x 6 = 1. An electric kettle is labeled 3 kW. Table below shows the power rating and energy consumption of some electrical appliances when connected to the 240 V mains supply.218 per kWh Calculate (a) Energy consumed in 1 day Energy consumed Kettle jug. Appliance Kettle jug Refrigerator Television Lamp Quantity 1 1 1 5 Power rating / W 2000 400 200 60 Time used per day 1 hour 24 hours 6 hours 8 hours Electricity cost: RM 0. 240 V. Refrigerator Television Lamp = Quantity x Power rating (kW) x Time used =1x2x1 = 1 x 0.2 kWh = 2 kWh = 1 x 0.JPN Pahang Student’s Copy Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 7: Electricity 6. (a) What is meant by the label 3 kW.47 - .06 x 8 = 2. 7. 12 A (d) Determine the resistance of the heating elements in the kettle.6 kWh . 240 V? The electric kettle dissipates electrical power 3 kW if it operates at 240 V (b) What is the current flow through the kettle? (c) Determine the suitable fuse to be used in the kettle.4 x 24 = 9.2 kWh = 5 x 0.4 kWh Total energy consumed = 15.

218 = RM 108. An electric motor is used to lift a load of mass 2 kg to a height 5 m in 2.5 s. calculate (a) Energy input to the motor (b) Useful energy output of the motor (c) Efficiency of the motor .43 8. What is the efficiency of the vacuum cleaner? 9.JPN Pahang Student’s Copy Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 7: Electricity (b) How much would it cost to operate the appliances for 1 month? Cost = 16. A vacuum cleaner consumes 1 kW of power but only delivers 400 J of useful work per second. If the supply voltage is 12 V and the flow of current in the motor is 5.58 kWh x 30 x RM 0.0 A.48 - .

V and current. What is the unit of electric charge? A. V 2.JPN Pahang Student’s Copy Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 7: Electricity Reinforcement Exercise Chapter 7 Part A: Objective Questions 1.K C. Which of the following graphs shows the correct relationship between the potential difference. 3. C D. C. B. . Ampere. A B. D. I for an ohmic conductor? A. C. Which of the following diagrams shows the correct electric field? A.49 - . Volt. B. kelvin. Coulomb.

6 x 10-3 C E.JPN Pahang Student’s Copy Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 7: Electricity 4. 1. To increase the current and produce more energy. 120 J C. A. A small heater operates at 12 V. To decrease the current and produce a higher potential difference 8. 2A. 6.5 x 10-7 C B. cross-sectional area D. D.0 x 10-5 C D. What is the quantity of charge that flows in 2 hours? A. The electric current supplied by a battery in a digital watch is 3. How much energy will it use when it is run for 5 minutes? A. temperature B. B. 3. wire. 90 J B. 7200 J C. 2.5 x 10-5 C C. 1800 J D. 2. current flow through the wire . 7. length C.50 - . To increase the length and produce a higher resistance. C.0 x 10-5 A. To decrease the resistance and produce higher current D. 5. Why is the filament made in the shape of a coil? A. Which of the following will not affect the resistance of a conducting B. Which of the following circuits can be used to determine the resistance of the bulb? A.2 x 10-1 C 6.

200 W B. the force supplied to 1 C of charge B.5 A C.m. 2000 W C. the energy supplied to 1 C of charge D. 4800 W 13. of a battery is defined as A. 3600 W E. the rate of energy dissipation in moving one coulomb of charge from one point to another C.0 A E. 1.51 - .f.0 A D. P and Q 10. the pressure exerted on 1 C of charge ammeter reading when the switch S is turned on? A. the rate of flow of the charge from one point to another B.0 A B.JPN Pahang Student’s Copy Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 7: Electricity 9. R and S E. what is the 11. Which two resistor combinations have the same resistance between X and Y? A.0 A B. P and S C. Q and R D. . The potential difference between two points in a circuit is A. What is the power of the kettle? A. the power supplied to 1 C of charge C. 10. 9. the work done per unit current flowing from one point to another 12. In the circuit above. the work done in moving one coulomb of charge from one point to another D. 1. 2400 W D. An electric kettle connected to the 240 V main supply draws a current of 10 A. An e. 2.

B. C and D is the brightest? . The kilowatt-hour (kWh) is a unit of measurement of A. 2. 1. Which circuit has the smallest effective resistance? A. 60 s D. 80 s E. Power B. 40 s C.52 - . An electric motor lifts a load with a potential difference 12 V and fixed current 2. Electrical energy C. 6 6 16. C.2 x 10 J B.8 x 10 J C. All bulbs in the circuits below are identical.6 x 106 J E. How much energy is supplied by the heater to the water in this period of time? A.8 x 106 J 15. A 2 kW heater takes 20 minutes to heat a pail of water. 4. The circuit above shows four identical bulbs to a cell 6 V. 100 s 17. how long does it take to lift a load of 600 N through a vertical height of 4 m A. If the efficiency of the motor is 80%.5 A. 1. D. Electromotive force B.4 x 106 J D. 3. 20 s B. Which bulb labeled A. 18.JPN Pahang Student’s Copy Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 7: Electricity 14.

0 W 20.5 W B.JPN Pahang Student’s Copy Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 7: Electricity 19. Calculate the power dissipated in the resistor. Resistance B. Electric current . Which of the following quantities can be measured in units of JC-1 A. 8.0 W C. Potential difference C.0 W D. 4. A 24 Ω resistor is connected across the terminals of a 12 V battery. 0. A. 6.53 - . 2.0 W E.

which conductor obeys Ohm’s law? Conductor Y (b) State Ohm’s law. the gradient decreases. (c) Resistance. 1/gradient 1 = 0.11 = 9. Y and Z. From the graph I against V.JPN Pahang Student’s Copy Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 7: Electricity Part B: Structured Questions 1. which is a bulb? Explain your answer. because as I increases. the resistance X increases as I increases which is a characteristic of a bulb. The figure above shows a graph of electric current against potential difference for three different conductors X. R is given by the formula R = V/I. (a) Among the three conductors. Y and Z.4 A? Show clearly on the graph how is the answer obtained. Hence. What is the resistance of X when the current flowing through it is 0. if the temperature and other physical quantities are kept constant. resistance. R = reciprocal of gradient. X. .54 - . The potential difference across a conductor is directly proportional to the current that flows through it.09 Ω (d) Among X.

i.00 1.55 - . The kettle is rated “240 V. 2500 W”. Explain why it is dangerous to use a wire thinner than the one selected in b(i) As resistance is inversely proportional to cross-sectional area. diameter of wire / mm 0.80 1.JPN Pahang Student’s Copy Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 7: Electricity 2. This could probably cause a fire to break out.20 1. a thinner wire will have a higher resistance thus the wire will become very hot. .40 maximum current / A 8 10 13 15 (a) What is the current flowing through the cable when the kettle is switched on? P = IV I = P/V = 2500 / 240 = 10. What is the smallest diameter wire that can be safely used for this kettle? 1.4 A (b) Referring to the table above. The figure below shows an electric kettle connected to a 240 V power supply by a flexible cable.20 mm ii. The table below shows the maximum electric current that is able to flow through wires of various diameters.

Short circuit might occur if the insulating materials of the wires in the cable are damaged. (d) Mention one fault that might happen in the cable that will cause the fuse in the plug to melt. .JPN Pahang Student’s Copy Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 7: Electricity (c) State one precautionary measure that should be taken to ensure safe usage of the kettle. Do not operate kettle with wet hands.56 - .

(c) Draw a suitable simple electric circuit and a suitable graph.m. (d) The figure above shows a dry cell operated torchlight with metal casing (i) (ii) (iii) What is the purpose of the spring in the torchlight? Why it is safe to use the torchlight although the casing is made of metal? What is the purpose of having a concave reflector in the torchlight? . State a reason for the observation on the readings of the voltmeter.) of a battery? (b) Referring to figure (a) and figure (b). and the quantity in your reason in (b) can be obtained. Figure 1 shows the reading of the voltmeter in a simple electric circuit Figure 2 shows the reading of the same voltmeter (a) What is meant by electromotive force (e. and the readings of the voltmeter.f.f. briefly explain how the e.JPN Pahang Student’s Copy Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 7: Electricity Part C: Essay Questions 1. compare the state of the switch.m.57 - . S.

58 - . .f = intercept on the v-axis internal resistance = -(gradient of the graph) (d) (i) (ii) (iii) To improve the contact between the dry cells and the terminals of the torchlight Current flowing through the torchlight is very small.JPN Pahang Student’s Copy Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 7: Electricity Answer 1.Switch in figure 2 in turned on . (a) The work done by a battery to move a unit charge around a complete circuit. will not cause electric shock To converge the light rays to obtain increase the intensity of the light rays projected by the torchlight. (b) .Reading of voltmeter in figure 1 is higher than in figure 2 .m.Switch in figure 1 is turned off .This is due to the presence of an internal resistance in the battery (c) e.

C and D.JPN Pahang Student’s Copy Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 7: Electricity 2. (i) Calculate how long would it take to boil 1.5 kg of water from an initial temperature of 280 C.085 Maximum load before breaking/ N 500 300 400 200 Density / kgm-3 2800 3200 5600 3800 Rate of expansion Low Low Medium High Base on the above table: (i) (ii) Explain the suitability of each characteristic of the table to be used for a long distance electricity transmission Determine the most suitable wire and state the reason (c) Suggest how three similar bulbs are arranged effectively in a domestic circuit. Draw a diagram to explain your answer. (d) An electric kettle is rated 2. [specific heat capacity of water = 4200 J kg-1 0C-1] (ii) What is the assumption made in the calculations above? . B.020 0. Four different cables and their characteristic of the cables were given. Resistivity / Ωm A B C D 0. The length and diameter of all the cables are similar.056 0.59 - . Give two reasons for the arrangement. A. (a) Define the resistance of a conductor.0 kW.031 0. A group of engineers were entrusted to choose a suitable cable to be used as the transmitting cable for a long distance electrical transmission through National Grid Network. (b) The table below shows the characteristic of the four cables.

(c) (i) If one bulb is burnt the others is still be lighted up (ii) Each bulb can be switch on and off independently (d) (i) Pt = mcθ (2000)(t) t (ii) = = (1.JPN Pahang Student’s Copy Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 7: Electricity Answer 2. (b) Characteristics A low resistivity Max load before braking is high A low density Explanations Energy loss during transmission is reduced Mass or weight reduced.60 - .8 s No heat is lost to the surroundings and absorbed by the kettle END OF MODULE . low density and low expansion rate. Can be supported by transmission tower Cable will not slag when it heated during transmission Cable A is chosen because it has low resistivity. high max load before breaking.(a) Resistance is the ratio of potential difference to current flowing in an ohmic conductor.5)(4200)(100-28) 226.

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- MPHG2009-Chapter 8 Electromagnetism
- MPHG2009-Chapter 9 Electronics
- MPHG2009-Chapter 6 Waves
- MPHG2009-Chapter 10 Radioactivity
- 12405942 Chapter 7 Electricity Teachers Guide 2009
- Chapter 4 Teacher's Guide 2009
- Chapter 3 Force & Teacher) 2009
- Chapter 10 Radioactivity Student's Copy
- Chapter 9 s 2009
- Introduction to Physics Teacher Guide 2009
- 12405790 Chapter 6 Waves Teachers Guide 2009
- Chapter 7 - Electricity(Teacher's Guide)
- Chapter 8- Teacher)
- Chapter 5 s 2009
- Chapter 10 Radioactivity Teacher Guide 2009
- 12405951 Chapter 8 Electromagnet Teachers Guide 2009
- Chapter 10 Radioactivity Teacher Guide1
- Teacher's Guide
- Chapter 9-Electronics(Teacher's Guide)
- Chapter 6 Waves (Teacher's Guide)
- Chapter 4 Heat Teacher's Guide
- Chapter 2 - Electricity (Form 5)
- Chapter 5 Light Teacher's Guide
- Chapter 4 Heat Teacher's Guide
- Chapter 5 Light Teacher's Guide
- Chapter 1 Introduction to Physics (Teacher' Guide)
- Chapter 3 Forces & Pressure Student Copy
- Chapter 3 Forces & Pressure Teachers Guide
- Chapter 2 Force and Motion STUDENTS MODULE
- MPHG2009-Chapter 1 Introduction to Physics
- MPHG2009-Chapter 7 Electricity