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SM1/MM1 REVISION - For solutions, see Sheikh or Aaron LINEAR and QUADRATIC FUNCTIONS:

1. Find the slopes and the x- and y-intercepts of the following lines. a. y + 3 = -2 (x - 5) b. y = 1.2 x - 7 c. 3 x - 5 y = 20 2. In economics the demand function relates the price per unit of an item to the number of units that consumers will buy at that price. The demand, q, is considered to be the independent variable, while the price, p, is considered to be the dependent variable. Suppose that in a certain market, the demand function for widgets is a linear function p = -0.75q + 54, where p is the price in dollars and q is the number of units (hundreds of widgets in this case). a. What is the slope of this function? Explain the meaning of the sign of the slope in practical terms. b. Find the p- and q- intercepts for this function. What is the significance of these intercepts in the context of the problem?

3. State whether the following pairs of lines are parallel, perpendicular or neither: a. b. c. d. y = (3/2)x -7 and 3x - 2y = 4 5x - 3y = 12 and 3x + 5y = 10 x - y = 10 and x + y = -1 x - 2y = 1 and 2x - y = 5

4. Find the equation of each of the following lines: a. b. c. d. The line with slope -1/2 and passing through the point (0, 3). The line with slope -2/3 and containing the point (6, -1). The line passing through the points (7, -1) and (4, 5). The line with slope 6 and passing through the graph of f(x) = x2 where x = 3.

5. A small college has 2546 students in 1994 and 2702 students in 1996. Assume that the enrollment follows a linear growth pattern. Let t = 0 correspond to 1990 and let y(t) represent the enrollment in year t. a. Assume that y(t) is linear. Using the data given, find the slope of y(t). b. What does the slope of y(t) signify in terms of enrollment growth? c. Find an equation for y(t) and use it predict the enrollment of the college in 1999. 6. Find the point(s) of intersection of each of the following pairs of lines. a. 2 x - y = 10 and x + y = -1 b. y = 2 x + 5 and y - 1 = 2 (x -3) c. y = (2/3) x + 5 and 2 x - 3 y = -15

d. 3 x + 3 y = 180 and 3.6 x - 3.6 y = 180 7. Graph the following piecewise functions and evaluate for the given values of x. Note: " Evaluate the function f for x = a" means the same as "find f(a)".

f(x) =

-x2 + 2for x < -2 2x + 1 for -2 x < 0 x 2 + 2 for x 0

8. What is the area, (in square units) of the triangle formed by the three lines whose equations are: yx=6, x2y=3 and x+y=6?
to have an enclosed area of 75 ft2. We also know that we want the width of the field to be 3 feet longer than the length of the field. What are the dimensions of the field?

9. We are going to fence in a rectangular field and we know that for some reason we want the field

10. Two cars start out at the same point. One car starts out driving north at 25 mph. Two hours later the second car starts driving east at 20 mph. How long after the first car starts traveling does it take for the two cars to be 300 miles apart? 11. Using the discriminant determine which solution set we get for each of the following

quadratic equations. Find the solutions and graph the functions. (a) + =

(c) + + = 12. The profit f (x) that a company makes depends on the amount x the company 1 spends on advertising according to the model () = 3 2 + 2 + 52. What is the value x for advertising that will yield maximum profit? 13.Express each quadratic function in standard vertex form using the method of completing the square and write the coordinates of the vertex: 1 () = 22 + 14 7 () = 2 + 5 + 6 2 14. Melanie was playing with a remote-controlled toy airplane. The plane took off from a balcony and landed on the ground 8 minutes later. Three minutes after taking off, the plane reached a maximum altitude of 10 metres. In the graph below, the plane's altitude as a function of time is represented by a portion of a parabola.

(b) + =

How high off the ground is the balcony located?

15. The entrance of a mining shaft has the shape of a parabolic arch as shown to the right. The zeros of the quadratic function defining the arch are the following numbers : 5 + 32 and 5 32. The computer of the company in charge of the entire shaft shows that there is a crack at the top of the arch at point (5, 36).

Find the rule that describes the shape of the parabolic arch? 16. Find the value of x in the following diagram:

18. The general form of a line through the intersection of M of 2 + 5 = 0 + + 2 = 0 is with the equation ( 2 + 5) + ( + + 2) = 0 . Show that the gradient 1+ of is 2 19. Which one of the following functions is even?

17. State the domain and range of the following functions: +2 1 a. () = 9 2 b. () = +1 c. () = 2 5+6

A B C

f(x) = x4 + x3 g(x) = x4 + x2 h(x) = x5 + x3

k(x) = x3 + x

20. Which one of the following functions is odd?

A f(x) = 3x4 - 4x3 B g(x) = 5x4 + 3x2 C h(x) = 6x5 - x3 D k(x) = x6 + 8x2
f(x) = x2 + 1 g(x) = x3 - 3x h(x) = x4 - 4x2 Which of the following products is even?
21.

A f(x)g(x) i.e. () () B g(x)h(x) C f(x)h(x) D f(x)g(x)h(x)


22. Solve the following equations: a. 2 1 = 0 b. 2 6 + 2 = 0 c. 2 2 + 3 = 1 d. 4 2 = 2 + 1 e. 5 2 + 13 6 = 0 f. 2 = + 6 g. 2 + 20 = 44

() ()

23. Find the vertex and y-intercepts for quadratic equations in 22 (above) and graph. 24. If 2 2 1 = ( )( ) for all real values of , find , .

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SOLUTIONS:

1. Find the slopes and the x- and y-intercepts of the following lines. a. Question: y + 3 = -2 (x - 5) Answer: Slope = -2; intercepts: (7/2, 0) and (0, 7) b. Question: y = 1.2 x - 7 Answer: Slope = 1.2, intercepts: (35/6, 0) and (0, -7).

c. Question: 3 x - 5 y = 20 Answer: Slope = 3/5, intercepts: (20/3, 0) and (0, -4). d. Question: y - c = 2 x + c/2 Answer: Slope = 2, intercepts: (-3c/4, 0) and (0, 3c/2). 2. In economics the demand function relates the price per unit of an item to the number of units that consumers will buy at that price. The demand, q, is considered to be the independent variable, while the price, p, is considered to be the dependent variable. Suppose that in a certain market, the demand function for widgets is a linear function p = -0.75q + 54, where p is the price in dollars and q is the number of units (hundreds widgets in this case). a. Question: What is the slope of this function? Explain the meaning of the sign of the slope in practical terms. Answer: The slope is -0.75. Since the slope is negative, the price decreases as the number of items bought by consumers increases. You could also say that the cheaper the item, the greater the demand. b. Question: Find the p- and q- intercepts for this function. What is the significance of these intercepts in the context of the problem? Answer: (0, 54); Since q = 0, consumers will buy no widgets when the price is $54. (72, 0); Since the price is zero, we can see that 7200 widgets could be given away for free! 3. State whether the following pairs of lines are parallel, perpendicular or neither: a. Question: y = (3/2)x -7 and 3x - 2y = 4 Answer: parallel; both have slopes 3/2 b. Question: 5x - 3y = 12 and 3x + 5y = 10 Answer: perpendicular; slopes are 5/3 and -3/5. c. Question: x - y = 10 and x + y = -1 Answer: perpendicular; slopes are 1 and -1 d. Question: x - 2y = 1 and 2x - y = 5 Answer: neither; slopes are 1/2 and 2 e. Question: x - 3y = 5 and -2x + 6y = 8

Answer: parallel; slopes are both 1/3 f. Question: 3x + 7y = 9 and -6x + 14y = 21 Answer: neither, slopes are -3/7 and 3/7 g. Question: y = (2/5)x + 2 and 5x - 2y = -4 Answer: neither; slopes are 2/5 and 5/2 h. Question: x = 10 and y - 10 = 0 Answer: perpendicular; x = 10 is vertical, y = 10 is horizontal. 4. Find the equation of each of the following lines: a. Question: The line with slope -1/2 and passing through the point (0, 3). Answer: y = (-1/2) x + 3 b. Question: The line with slope -2/3 and containing the point (6, -1). Answer: y + 1 = (-2/3)(x - 6) or y = (-2/3)x + 3 c. Question: The line passing through the points (7, -1) and (4, 5). Answer: y + 1 = -2(x - 7) or y - 5 = -2(x - 4) or y = -2x + 13 d. Question: The line with slope 6 and passing through the graph of f(x) = x2 where x = 3. Answer: y - 9 = 6(x - 3) or y = 6x - 9 e. Question: The line passing through (4,0) and the graph of f(x) = x2/3 where x = -8. Answer: y - 0 = (-1/3)(x - 4) or y = (-1/3)x + 4/3 f. Question: The line perpendicular to 3x + y = 17 and passing through (15, 2.5). Answer: y - 2.5 = (1/3) (x - 15) or y = (1/3)x - 2.5 5. A small college has 2546 students in 1994 and 2702 students in 1996. Assume that the enrollment follows a linear growth pattern. Let t = 0 correspond to 1990 and let y(t) represent the enrollment in year t. a. Question: Assume that y(t) is linear. Using the data given, find the slope of y(t). Answer: Slope = 78. b. Question: What does the slope of y(t) signify in terms of enrollment growth?

Answer: This means that the enrollment of the college is increasing by about 78 students per year. c. Question: Find an equation for y(t) and use it predict the enrollment of the college in 1999. Answer: y = 78t + 2234. In 1999 there will be about 2936 students at the college, provided this linear trend continues. 6. Find the point(s) of intersection of each of the following pairs of lines. e. Question: 2 x - y = 10 and x + y = -1 Answer: (3, -4) f. Question: y = 2 x + 5 and y - 1 = 2 (x -3) Answer: No solution; parallel lines. g. Question: y = (2/3) x + 5 and 2 x - 3 y = -15 Answer: Infinitely many solutions: {(c, (2/3)c + 5) | c is any real number} h. Question: 3 x + 3 y = 180 and 3.6 x - 3.6 y = 180 Answer: (55, 5) 7. Question: Graph the following piecewise function and evaluate for the given values of x.

f(x) =

-x2 + 2for x < -2 2x + 1 for -2 x < 0 x 2 + 2 for x 0

Answer: f(5) = 27 (Use the third piece formula.) f(-2) = -3 (Use the second formula.) f(-4) = -14

8. The equations of the three lines must be considered in pairs to find the coordinates of their points of intersection, i.e. the coordinates of the vertices of the triangle. By solving each pair of simultaneous equations, you should find that the coordinates are(15,9), (0,6) and (5,1). The area of the triangle may now be found by enclosing the triangle in a rectangle and subtracting the areas of the three surrounding triangles from the area of the rectangle. This gives

300(112+12+100)=75.

9. Now, this is a quadratic equation so lets first write it in standard form.

Using the quadratic formula gives,

the length of the field is 7.2892 feet. The width is 3 feet longer than this and so is 10.2892 feet. 10.

At this point a quick sketch of the situation is probably in order so we can see just what is going on. In the sketch we will assume that the two cars have traveled long enough so that they are 300 miles apart.

So, we have a right triangle here. That means that we can use the Pythagorean Theorem to say, This is a quadratic equation, but it is going to need some fairly heavy simplification before we can solve it so lets do that.

Now, the coefficients here are quite large, but that is just something that will happen fairly often with these problems so dont worry about that. Using the quadratic formula (and simplifying that answer) gives,

Again, we have two solutions and were going to need to determine which one is the correct one, so lets convert them to decimals.

As with the previous example the negative answer just doesnt make any sense. So, it looks like the car A traveled for 10.09998 hours when they were finally 300 miles apart. 11. a. No real solutions

b. Two distinct irrational solutions

c. Two identical rational roots 12. x=$3. 13. (-7/2, -63/2) and (5, 37/2) 14. 15. 16. x=15 cm 24. a=2, b=1, c= -1/2