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- Remote Detection of illegal usage of Electricity
Sujit Kr. Nayak M.Tech ELDT Roll : ELD09006
Plan of the Talk…
Introduction to PLC Idea about AMR Methods of illegal usage of Electricity The detection system System Review Conclusion References
14 November 2009
Presented By: Sujit K. Nayak M.Tech ELDT
Nayak M. Automatic Meter Reading (AMR) is an important among all. It has a wide range of application possibilities. 14 November 2009 Presented By: Sujit K. In this technique.Introduction to PLC Power Line Communication (PLC) is the technique in which the communication is takes place over the same line that deliver electricity.Tech ELDT 3 . The data to be sent is modulated with the injected carrier. a high frequency carrier is injected onto the power line.
This provides remote recording of usage of electricity of an user. 14 November 2009 Presented By: Sujit K. The reading of the Meter is translated into digital form in order to send the metering data from the user to a Base station.Tech ELDT 4 .Automatic Meter Reading (AMR) AMR a very useful application of PLC. Nayak M.
Tech ELDT 5 . Nayak M.Contd…(AMR) Rotating Disc in Meter Housing Incident Ray Reflected Ray Optical Sensor Marker Digital Signal Output Fig: Electromechanical movements to Digital signal Converter 14 November 2009 Presented By: Sujit K.
Data Concentrators. The Base station unit consists of Modems. Receivers. Nayak M. Controller.Contd…(AMR) The Digital metering data is send to the Base station using PLC modems.Tech ELDT 6 . Host upload link. 14 November 2009 Presented By: Sujit K. and Host Computer.
AMR system setup… BASE STATION MODEM MODEM METER MODEM METER Fig: AMR communication setup Presented By: Sujit K.Tech ELDT 14 November 2009 7 . Nayak M.
Methods of illegal usage of electricity Using Mechanical Objects Using a fixed Magnet Using external phase before the meter Switching the energy cable at meter connector box 14 November 2009 Presented By: Sujit K. Nayak M.Tech ELDT 8 .
Nayak M.The Detection & Control System… Subscriber 1 kWh PLC Subscriber 2 kWh PLC PLC Energy Meter PLC Energy Meter Distribution Transformer 220v AC PLC Energy Meter Host PLC PLC kWh To Control Center Subscriber N Fig: Schematic illustration of detection system of illegal electricity usage 14 November 2009 Presented By: Sujit K.Tech ELDT 9 .
On the other hand. Nayak M.Tech ELDT 10 . energy meter chips reads the energy in kilowatt-hours and also send the data to host PLC unit.The Detection & Control System… In order to detect illegal usage of electricity. The recorded data in kilowatt-hour meters for every subscriber are sent to host PLC modem via PLC modems. which is placed in subscriber’s locations. 14 November 2009 Presented By: Sujit K. The detector PLC s and energy meters is placed at the connection point between distribution main lines and subscriber’s line. a PLC modem and an energy meter chip for every subscriber are added to an existing AMR system.
The Detection & Control System… Hence. an error signal is generated (i.Tech ELDT 11 . one. There is an illegal usage ). Nayak M. 14 November 2009 Presented By: Sujit K. and the other. there are two recorded energy data in host PLC unit. Then the subscriber address and error signal are combined and sent to the central control unit.e. which comes from the PLC modem at the connection points. These two recorded energy data are compared in the host PLC. If there is any difference between two readings. which comes from the AMR-PLC.
Nayak M.The Detection & Control System… Connector Box for X Subscriber PLC Modem Energy meter chip X Subscriber Main power line 220 V AC PLC Modem kWh Meter Fig: Illegal detector system for one subscriber Host PLC unit Host PLC Modem uP Logic To control center Presented By: Sujit K.Tech ELDT 14 November 2009 12 .
Tech ELDT 14 November 2009 13 . Nayak M.Working of the System… PLC Energy Meter KWh Meter Power Line L HOST PLC MODEM S PLC Optical Sensor Disk I.L Fig: Modeling of the detection system Presented By: Sujit K.
two meters are accorded each other to compensate for any error readings. While only for a legal load in the system. Nayak M.Working of the System… The energy value at the electromechanical kilowatthour meter is converted to digital data using by optical reflector sensor.Tech ELDT 14 . 14 November 2009 Presented By: Sujit K. The host PLC unit reads two recorded data coming from metering PLC units. An illegal load may be connected to the power line before the kilowatt-hour meter via an S switch.
and therefore two recorded energy values are different from each other. The host PLC unit generate a error signal when it received two different records from the same subscriber. the illegal load is connected to the system.Tech ELDT 14 November 2009 15 . This is the detection of the illegal usage of that user. Nayak M. Presented By: Sujit K.Working of the System… If the S switch is closed.
Tech ELDT 16 . energy value data. address.Working of the System… Data signaling between PLC modems has a protocol. and other serial communication bits such as parity and stop bits. error correction bits. Nayak M. The protocol may also be changed according to the properties of the required system 14 November 2009 Presented By: Sujit K. which includes a header.
Parameters on which the system depends The relations between frequency. Nayak M.Tech ELDT 17 . Fig: Effect of frequency on Bit Error rate Fig: Effect of line length (meters) on Bit-error probability 14 November 2009 Presented By: Sujit K. length. and bit-error probability are given in these figures shown.
Nayak M. The discussed system is for only one distributed power network and it should be repeated for all distribution power networks. All host units in each distribution transformer may be connected to only one main center station via phone lines. if these two values are different. 14 November 2009 Presented By: Sujit K. one is for AMR and the other is used to send the data from energy meter chip to host PLC modem. The energy meter must be installed in the connection box between a home line and main power lines. fiber-optic cable. the user is an illegal one. The host PLC unit must be placed after the distribution transformer. billing address etc). Operating software must be designed for the information of every subscriber in every sub power network (subscriber identification number. or RF links. The system has two values of the energy consumption for every user.System Review… Every user has two PLC modems.Tech ELDT 18 .
Tech ELDT 19 .System Limitations…. It can not be used at high voltage power lines. Nayak M. 14 November 2009 Presented By: Sujit K. It is unable to detect any illegal load connected in between the distribution transformer and the energy meter.
Nayak M.Conclusion… If AMR and detector system are used together illegal usage of electricity might be detected. Once this proposed detection systems are implemented in real power lines. 14 November 2009 Presented By: Sujit K.Tech ELDT 20 . the distribution losses in India can be reduced effectively.
pp. No. N. “A Solution to Remote Detection of Illegal Electricity Usage via Power Line Communications”.References… I. and M. IEEE Trans. “Performance analysis of FSK power line communications systems over the time-varying channels: Measurements and modeling”. Power Delivery. H. IEEE Transactions On Power Delivery. Nayak M. Alex Vallejo. 24. Narita. Vol. April 2009. 2. Vol. H. Miura. 14 November 2009 Presented By: Sujit K.Tech ELDT 21 . Marta Majoral. I . 2004. January 1990. October 2004. 4. 19. 19. 111–117. Cavdar. IEE Proceedings. Cavdar. vol. I. C. Agustín Zaballos. Sato. Jan. Selga. “Survey and Performance Comparison of AMR Over PLC Standards”. H. No. and Josep M. No. Vol. Takaki. H. Pt. “Automatic meter reading system by power line carrier communications”. IEEE Transactions On Power Delivery. 137.
Tech ELDT 22 . Nayak M.Thank U… 14 November 2009 Presented By: Sujit K.