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MO1

Identify basic mathematical concepts, skills and mathematical

techniques for algebra, calculus and data handling.

MO2

Apply the mathematical calculations, formulas, statistical methods and

calculus techniques for problem solving in industry.

MO3 Analyse calculus and statistical problems in industry.

LEARNING OUTCOMES

At the end of this topic, student should be able to :

calculate and interpret the mean, median and mode

for ungrouped and grouped data.

describe the symmetry and skewness for a data

distribution.

compute and interpret range, variance and standard

deviation for ungrouped and grouped data.

explain the characteristics and uses of each

measure of dispersion

Topic 5

Measures

of central

tendency

Ungrouped

data

Grouped

data

Measures

of

dispersion

Ungrouped

data

Grouped

data

MEASURES OF CENTRAL TENDENCY

The measures of central tendency is usually called

the average.

Central tendency is a single value situated at the

centre of a data and can be taken as a summary

value for the data set.

Three types of measure of central tendency:

Mean

Median

Mode

Measures of central

tendency

Ungrouped

data

Mean Median Mode

Grouped

data

With class interval /

without class interval

Mean Median Mode

Skewness

Skewed

to the left

/ -ve

skewness

Normal

skewness

Skewed

to the

right /

+ve

skewnes

s

MEAN

Definition of mean:

a measure of central tendency that is computed by

taking the sum of all data values and then dividing it by

the number of data.

Mean value can be calculated for:

Ungrouped data:

Grouped data:

=

** : sum of all values
**

: number of data

=

** : frequency for the class
**

: midpoint for the class

EXAMPLE FOR UNGROUPED DATA

Example :

Find the mean of the set of data below.

2, 4, 7, 10, 13, 16, and 18

Solution :

7

18 16 13 10 7 4 2 + + + + + +

= X

7

70

= X

10 = X

EXAMPLE FOR GROUPED DATA

Table shows the length of the fish in a pond.

Find mean.

Length (cm) Number of fish

5 - 9 8

10 – 14 17

15 – 19 20

20 – 24 10

25 – 29 18

30 – 34 11

35 - 39 6

Solution :

Length

(cm)

Number of

fish

Midpoint

5 - 9 8 7 56

10 – 14 17 12 204

15 – 19 20 17 340

20 – 24 10 22 220

25 – 29 18 27 486

30 – 34 11 32 352

35 - 39 6 37 222

) (x

) ( f

f x

90 = Ef 1880 = Efx

90

1880

=

E

E

=

f

fx

X

89 . 20 = X

MEDIAN

Definition of median:

When all observations are arranged in ascending (or maybe descending)

order, then median is defined as the observation at the middle position

(for odd number observation), or it is the average of two

observations at the middle (for even number observations).

Median can calculated for:

Ungrouped data

Grouped data

Step 1: Arrange the given data in ascending order

Step 2: Get the position of the median

Step 3: Identify the median, or calculate the average of two middle

observations (even number)

=

+

2

−

×

2

: determination of the median class

**: lower boundary of the median class
**

: Cumulative before the median class

: Frequency of the median class

C : Class size

EXAMPLE FOR UNGROUPED DATA

Find the median of the set of data below.

(a) 2, 16, 7, 18, 13, 4 and 10

(b) 2, 16, 7, 18, 13 and 10

Solution :

(a) 2, 4, 7, 10, 13, 16, 18 (Odd Data)

Median = 10

(b) 2, 7, 10,13,16,18 (Even Data)

Median =

=

2

13 10+

5 . 11

Example :

Table shows the length of the fish in a pond.

Find median.

Length (cm) Number of fish

5 - 9 8

10 – 14 17

15 – 19 20

20 – 24 10

25 – 29 18

30 – 34 11

35 - 39 6

Median Class = observation

= observation

= 45.5 th observation

Median =

=

= 19.75

c

f

F

f

L

m

(

(

(

(

¸

(

¸

÷

+ E

+

2

1

2

1 + Ef

2

1 90+

15

10

45 5 . 45

5 . 19

(

¸

(

¸

÷

+

Solution :

Length

(cm)

Class Boundary

Length (cm)

Number of fish Cumulative

Frequency

5 - 9 4.5 – 9.5 8 8

10 – 14 9.5 – 14.5 17 25

15 – 19 14.5 – 19.5 20 45

20 – 24 19.5 – 24.5 10 55

25 – 29 24.5 – 29.5 18 73

30 – 34 29.5 – 34.5 11 84

35 - 39 34.5 – 39.5 6 90

) ( f

MODE

Definition of mode:

The observation (or the number) which has the largest

frequency or most frequently.

Set of data having only one mode is called unimodal

data.

A set of data may have two modes and the set is called

bimodal data.

In the case of more than two modes the set will be

called multimodal data.

MODE

Mode can calculated for:

Ungrouped data

Grouped data

The data should first arranged in

ascending or descending order.

=

+

∆

1

∆

1

+ ∆

2

×

**: Lower boundary of the mode class
**

∆

1

= (frequency class mode) – (frequency before class mode)

∆

2

= (frequency class mode) – (frequency after class mode)

: class size

EXAMPLE FOR UNGROUPED DATA

Find the mode of the set of data below.

(a) 2, 4, 7, 16, 13, 4 and 10

(b) 2, 16, 7, 16, 13 and 13

(c) 2, 4, 7, 10, 13 and 16

Solution :

(a) Mode = 4

(b) Mode = 13 and 16 (Dual Mode)

(c) No mode

Exercises :

1. Find mean, median and mode for the following data :

(a) 15, 18, 21, 25, 20, 18

(b) 3, 11, 9, 6, 17

(c) 0, 1, 2, 7, 3, 2, 1, 1, 2, 1, 2

2. A number of x is added to the set of data of 2, 4, 7, 10, 13,

16, and 18 the mean becomes 9.5. Find the value of x.

EXAMPLE FOR GROUPED DATA

Table shows the length of the fish in a pond.

Find mode.

Length (cm) Number of fish

5 - 9 8

10 – 14 17

15 – 19 20

20 – 24 10

25 – 29 18

30 – 34 11

35 - 39 6

Solution :

Mode =

Mode =

Length

(cm)

Class

Boundary

Length (cm)

Number of

fish

5 - 9 4.5 – 9.5 8

10 – 14 9.5 – 14.5 17

15 – 19 14.5 – 19.5 20

20 – 24 19.5 – 24.5 10

25 – 29 24.5 – 29.5 18

30 – 34 29.5 – 34.5 11

35 - 39 34.5 – 39.5 6

) ( f

65 . 15 5

10 3

3

5 . 14 =

(

¸

(

¸

+

+

c L

(

¸

(

¸

A + A

A

+

2 1

1

Exercises :

1. You are given the following table :

Find mean, median and mode.

Daily Salary ( RM) Number of Workers

10 - 14 25

15 – 19 40

20 - 24 15

25 – 29 12

30 - 34 8

Measuring Central Tendency

Of Grouped Data (Without Class Interval)

Mean

Formula

= mid point of the class

= frequency

f

fx

X

E

E

=

x

f

Median

1. Find Median Class

Median Class =

2. Find Cumulative Frequency

3. Write down median

2

1 + Ef

Mode

1. Find Class Mode

Class Mode = the most frequent

occurred

2. Write down mode

Example :

The table shows the number of magazines read by

students in a month.

Find mean, median and mode.

Magazines 1 2 3 4 5

Frequency 8 11 9 7 5

Solution :

Magazines Frequency Cumulative

frequency

1 8 8 8

2 11 22 19

3 9 27 28

4 7 28 35

5 5 25 40

40 = Ef

) ( f ) (x

f x

110 = Efx

40

110

=

E

E

=

f

fx

X

75 . 2 = X

Solution :

Median Class = observation

= observation

= th observation

Median = 3

Class Mode = 11

Mode = 2

2

1 + Ef

2

1 40+

5 . 20

SKEWNESS

Skewness measures the lack of symmetry in a data

distribution.

The skewed portion is the long and thin part of the

curve.

A skewed distribution means the data are sparse at

one end of the distribution but piled up at the other

end.

SKEWNESS IN RELATION TO MEAN, MEDIAN

AND MODE

The concept of skewness helps to understand the

relationship between the measures: mean, median

and mode.

Mode is the highest point of the curve and the

median is the middle value.

The mean is usually located somewhere towards

the tail of the distribution because the mean

affected by all values.

A bell-shaped or normal distribution has no

skewness.

THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MEAN, MEDIAN

AND MODE

Mode < Median < Mean

The distribution is positively-skewed or skewed to the

right.

Mean = Median = Mode

The distribution is symmetrical or has normal-skewness

which means the data is evenly distributed.

Mean < Median < Mode

The distribution is negatively-skewed or is skewed to

the left.

SKEWNESS

Mean = median = mode Mode < median < mode Mode < median <mean

MEASURES OF DISPERSION

Measures of dispersion help to understand the

spread or variability of a set of data.

Give additional information to judge the reliability of

the measures of central tendency and helps in

comparing dispersion that is present in various

samples.

Common measures of dispersion:

Range

Variance

Standard deviation

DEFINITION OF COMMON MEASURES OF

DISPERSION

Range Difference between the largest and the

smallest observations in a set of data

Variance The average of squared distance of each

score (or observation) from the mean.

Used to measure the spreading of data

Standard deviation Square root of the variance

Measures of dispersion

Ungrouped data

Sample &

Population

Range,

Variance,

Standard

deviation

Grouped data

(with class intervals / without

class intervals)

Sample

Range,

Variance,

Standard

deviation

Population

Range,

Variance,

Standard

deviation

MEASURING DISPERSION

OF UNGROUPED DATA (SAMPLE & POPULATION)

Example : Find the range for the following data

2, 14, 7, 1, 13, 16, 8

Solution : Range = max value – min value

= 16 – 1 = 15

Range

(Distance

measures of

dispersion)

Formula

Range = Maximum value – Minimum value

Variance

Formula

Variance Population

Variance Sample

N / n: number of data

( )

(

¸

(

¸

E

÷ E =

N

x

x

N

2

2 2

1

o

( )

(

¸

(

¸

E

÷ E

÷

=

n

x

x

n

s

2

2 2

1

1

Standard

Deviation

Formula

Standard Deviation Population

OR

Standard Deviation Sample

OR

iance var = o

( )

(

¸

(

¸

E

÷ E =

N

x

x

N

2

2

1

o

iance s var =

( )

(

¸

(

¸

E

÷ E

÷

=

n

x

x

n

s

2

2

1

1

Example :

Find the variance and standard deviation for population of

the data below:

15, 17, 21, 24 and 31

Solution :

Variance =

Std Deviation =

108 = Ex

2492 961 576 441 289 225

2

= + + + + = Ex

5 = n

( )

(

¸

(

¸

÷ =

5

108

2492

5

1

2

2

s

| | 8 . 2332 2492

5

1

2

÷ = s

84 . 31

2

= s

= = 84 . 31 s

MEASURING DISPERSION

OF GROUPED DATA (WITH CLASS INTERVAL)

Range

Formula

Range = Highest Class Boundary – Lowest

Class Boundary

Variance

Formula

Variance Population

Variance Sample

= mid-point

= frequency

( )

(

¸

(

¸

E

E

÷ E

E

=

f

f x

f x

f

2

2 2

1

o

( )

(

¸

(

¸

E

E

÷ E

÷ E

=

f

f x

f x

f

s

2

2 2

1

1

x

f

Standard

Deviation

Formula

Standard Deviation Population

OR

Standard Deviation Sample

OR

= mid-point

= frequency

x

f

iance var = o

( )

(

¸

(

¸

E

E

÷ E

E

=

f

fx

fx

f

2

2

1

o

iance s var =

( )

(

¸

(

¸

E

E

÷ E

÷ E

=

f

fx

fx

f

s

2

2

1

1

Example :

Table shows the length of the fish in a pond.

Find range, variance and standard deviation.

Length (cm) Number of fish

5 - 9 8

10 – 14 17

15 – 19 20

20 – 24 10

25 – 29 18

30 – 34 11

35 - 39 6

Solution :

Range = 39.5 – 4.5 = 35

Length (cm) Class

Boundary

Length (cm)

Number of

fish

5 - 9 4.5 – 9.5 8

10 – 14 9.5 – 14.5 17

15 – 19 14.5 – 19.5 20

20 – 24 19.5 – 24.5 10

25 – 29 24.5 – 29.5 18

30 – 34 29.5 – 34.5 11

35 - 39 34.5 – 39.5 6

Example :

You are given the following table :

Find variance and standard deviation.

Daily Salary ( RM) Number of Workers

10 - 14 40

15 – 19 25

20 - 24 15

25 – 29 12

30 - 34 8

Solution :

Variance =

Daily

Salary

( RM)

Number of

Workers

Midpoint

10 - 14 40

15 – 19 25

20 - 24 15

25 – 29 12

30 - 34 8

) (x

) ( f

2

x

f x 2

fx

= Ef = Ef x

= E

2

fx

Measuring Dispersion

Of Grouped Data (Without Class Interval)

Range

Range = Maximum value – Minimum value

Variance

Formula as per grouped data (with class

interval)

Standard Deviation

Formula as per grouped data (with class

interval)

Example :

You are given the following table :

Find range, variance and standard deviation.

No. of days 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Frequency 6 8 5 3 3 3 2

EXERCISE:

One of the events in the Winter Olympics is the Men’s 500

meter Speed Skating. The times for this event are show to

the right. Find the mean, median, and mode times.

Year Time Year Time

1928 43.4 1964 40.1

1932 43.4 1968 40.3

1936 43.4 1972 39.44

1948 43.1 1976 39.17

1952 43.2 1980 38.03

1956 40.2 1984 38.03

1960 40.2 1988 36.45

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