ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE (Anova) PROCEDURES A. Install Toolpak 1. Go to excel and hit button in far upper left corner 2.

Select excel options at bottom middle of screen 3. Select Add ins from list on left side of screen 4. Select Analysis Toolpak at top of screen 5. Hit go, then check Analysis ToolPak at top of screen, then ok 6.Go back to excel home, select data option and data analysis should appear at far top right of screen. B. Calculation of ANOVAs 1. Enter values of percent cover of moss/lichens (see below) to be compared against each other in separate columns with a label at top of column:

Tree number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

North upper 44 33 41 27 55 54 53 45

South upper 22 23 16 36 15 22 22 23

North lower 44 55 54 46 51 51 47 48

South lower 22 17 32 25 25 21 24 19

2. Select data analysis and then select Anova: Single factor, then ok(the order you do this is important) 3. Click and drag to enclose data to be analyzed, include the 4 columns of numbers plus headings, but not the tree number column 4. On the anova screen, check labels in first row choice, then hit ok at upper right 5. The Anova results should appear on the screen. Interpreting the ANOVA table: - Groups refer to the experimental (treatment) and control groups - Count is the number of replications - Sum is the total of all counts - Average is the average or mean of the replicated values - Variance is a value which indicates how variable the counts in a group are, The higher the number, the greater the values vary - P value is the probability value, it indicates the significances of the average values; if the p value is less than .05, we can accept that the averages are significantly different, and that the differences are not due to chance (but a result of treatment effects). The p value does not tell you what means are different from each other, only that the 4 means are significantly different. - You may disregard the other values in the ANOVA table

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