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EXCEL FORMULAE

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Sunday, June 16, 2013

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Age Calculation ABS AND AutoSum shortcut key AVERAGE BIN2DEC Brackets in Formula CEILING CELL CHAR CHOOSE CLEAN CODE COMBIN CONCATENATE CONVERT CORREL COUNT COUNTA COUNTBLANK

COUNTBLANK COUNTIF DATE DATEDIF DATEVALUE DAVERAGE DAY DAYS360 DB DCOUNT DCOUNTA DEC2BIN DEC2HEX DELTA DGET DMAX DMIN DOLLAR DSUM EDATE EOMONTH ERROR.TYPE EVEN

EXACT FACT Filename Formula FIND FIXED FLOOR FORECAST FREQUENCY GCD GESTEP HEX2DEC HLOOKUP HOUR IF INDEX INDIRECT INFO Instant Charts INT ISBLANK ISERR .

ISERROR ISEVEN ISLOGICAL ISNA ISNONTEXT ISNUMBER ISODD ISREF ISTEXT LARGE LCM LEFT LEN LOOKUP(Array) LOOKUP(vector) LOWER MATCH MAX MEDIAN MID MIN MINUTE .

MINUTE MMULT MOD MODE MONTH MROUND N NA NETWORKDAYS NOT NOW ODD OR Ordering Stock Percentages PERMUT PI POWER PRODUCT PROPER QUARTILE .

QUARTILE QUOTIENT RAND RANDBETWEEN RANK REPLACE REPT RIGHT ROMAN ROUND ROUNDDOWN ROUNDUP SECOND Show All Formula SIGN SLN SMALL Split Forename Surname STDEV STDEVP SUBSTITUTE .

SUM SUM as Running Total SUM using names SUM with OFFSET SUMIF SUMPRODUCT SYD T TEXT TIME TIME Calculation TIMEVALUE TODAY TRANSPOSE TREND TRIM TRUNC UPPER VALUE .

VALUE VAR VARP VLOOKUP WEEKDAY WORKDAY YEAR YEARFRAC OMs .

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Start 1-Jan-98 1-Jan-98 1-Jan-98 End Pro Rata Salary Actual Salary 31-Dec-98 £12.000 =YEARFRAC(B34. but not including.C34+1. 1 : 29 or 30 or 31 days per month divided by 365. The Start and End dates of the contract are entered. The =YEARFRAC() function is used to calculate Actual Salary for the portion of the year. 0 : or omitted USA style 30 days per month divided by 360.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .C32+1.000 £3.000 £6.4)*D34 Note The extra 1 has been added to the End date to compensate for the fact that the =YEARFRAC() function calculates from the Start date up to. 4 : European 29 or 30 or 31 days divided by 360.000 £12.4)*D33 30-Jun-98 £12. the End date.4)*D32 31-Mar-98 £12.D6) What Does It Do? This function calculates the difference between two dates and expresses the result as a decimal fraction.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H YEARFRAC Page 34 of 223 I 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 Start Date 1-Jan-98 1-Jan-98 1-Jan-98 End Date 1-Apr-98 31-Dec-98 1-Apr-98 Fraction 0.D5) =YEARFRAC(C6.D4) =YEARFRAC(C5.EndData. Formatting The result will be shown as a decimal fraction. Example The following table was used by a company which hired people on short term contracts for a part of the year.C33+1. The Pro Rata Salary which represents the annual salary is entered. 2 : 29 or 30 or 31 days per month divided by 360. . but can be formatted as a percent.000 =YEARFRAC(B33. 3 : 29 or 30 0r 31 days per month divided by 365.25 1 25% =YEARFRAC(C4. Syntax =YEARFRAC(StartDate.Basis) Basis : Defines the calendar system to be used in the function.000 =YEARFRAC(B32.

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I J YEAR Page 35 of 223 K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Date 25-Dec-98 Year 1998 =YEAR(C4) What Does It Do? This function extracts the year number from a date. Syntax =YEAR(Date) Formatting The result is shown as a number. .

D28:D32) Bank Holiday Xmas New Year New Year New Year .E25.Date.Cells.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H WORKDAY Page 36 of 223 I 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 StartDate 1-Jan-98 1-Jan-98 Days 28 28 Result 35836 10-Feb-98 =WORKDAY(D4.Days.E4) =WORKDAY(D5. The function excludes weekends and holidays and can therefore be used to calculate delivery dates or invoice dates.E5) What Does It Do? Use this function to calculate a past or future date based on a starting date and a specified number of days.Number.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .Holidays) Formatting The result will normally be shown as a number which can be formatted to a normal date by using Format. Order Date Mon 02-Feb-98 Tue 15-Dec-98 Holidays Fri 01-May-98 Fri 25-Dec-98 Wed 01-Jan-97 Thu 01-Jan-98 Fri 01-Jan-99 Delivery Days 2 28 Delivery Date Wed 04-Feb-98 Tue 26-Jan-99 =WORKDAY(D25. Example The following example shows how the function can be used to calculate delivery dates based upon an initial Order Date and estimated Delivery Days. Syntax =WORKDAY(StartDate.

1 : will set Sunday as 1 through to Saturday as 7 2 : will set Monday as 1 through to Sunday as 7. The Booking Date is entered.Type) Type : This is used to indicate the week day numbering system. Booking Date Actual Day Booking Cost 7-Jan-98 Wednesday £ 30.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H WEEKDAY Page 37 of 223 I 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 Date Thu 01-Jan-98 Thu 01-Jan-98 Thu 01-Jan-98 Thu 01-Jan-98 Thu 01-Jan-98 Weekday 5 5 5 4 3 =WEEKDAY(C4) =WEEKDAY(C5) =WEEKDAY(C6. 3 : will set Monday as 0 through to Sunday as 6. Formatting The result will be shown as a normal number. Custom and set the Type to ddd or dddd. To show the result as the name of the day. The Booking Cost is picked from a list of rates using the =LOOKUP() function. The Actual Day is calculated. The hotel charged different rates depending upon which day of the week the booking was for. Excel will use 1.00 =LOOKUP(WEEKDAY(C34). use Format. Cells. Syntax =WEEKDAY(Date. Example The following table was used by a hotel which rented a function room.2) =WEEKDAY(C8.1) =WEEKDAY(C7.C39:D45) Booking Rates Day Of Week Cost 1 £50 2 £25 3 £25 4 £30 5 £40 6 £50 7 £100 .3) What Does It Do? This function shows the day of the week from a date. If no number is specified.

Formatting No special formatting is needed. When the item is found. The Sorted/Unsorted is whether the column headings are sorted. they are part of the illustration.FALSE) What Does It Do ? This function scans down the row headings at the side of a table to find a specified item. it then scans across to pick a cell entry.RangeToLookIn. because the list of months is not as wide as the lookup range. Example 1 This table is used to find a value based on a specified name and month. It then calculates the position of the month in the list. TRUE for yes. the =MATCH() number is 1 less than we require. so and extra 1 is added to compensate. The =VLOOKUP() uses FALSE at the end of the function to indicate to Excel that the row headings are not sorted. FALSE for no. Syntax =VLOOKUP(ItemToFind.G12.ColumnToPickFrom. Bob Eric Alan Jan 10 20 30 Feb 80 90 100 Mar 97 69 45 .C6:H8. The =VLOOKUP() is used to scan down to find the name. The ColumnToPickFrom is how far across the table the function should look to pick from.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I J VLOOKUP Page 38 of 223 K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 The column numbers are not needed. The =VLOOKUP() now uses this =MATCH() number to look across the columns and picks out the correct cell entry. The problem arises when we need to scan across to find the month column. The =MATCH() looks through the list of names to find the month we require.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . The RangeToLookIn is the range of data with the row headings at the left hand side. Unfortunately.SortedOrUnsorted) The ItemToFind is a single item specified by the user. col 1 col 2 col 3 col 4 col 5 col 6 Jan Feb Mar 10 80 97 20 90 69 30 100 45 40 110 51 50 120 77 Type a month to look for : Which column needs to be picked out : The result is : Feb 4 100 =VLOOKUP(G11. To solve the problem the =MATCH() function is used.

C50:F54.2. the function will produce an error. =VLOOKUP(C126. The functions use the absolute ranges indicated by the dollar symbol . The =VLOOKUP() scans down row headings in column F for the spare part entered in column C.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . If the Quantity Ordered does .C114:D116. Using TRUE will allow the function to make an approximate match. the =VLOOKUP() then scans across to find the price.FALSE) Example 2 This example shows how the =VLOOKUP() is used to pick the cost of a spare part for different makes of cars.200 =VLOOKUP(C81. Using the FALSE option forces the function to search for an exact match. The Discount Table holds the various discounts for different quantities of each product. The Orders Table is used to enter the orders and calculate the Total. All the calculations take place in the Orders Table. Maker Vauxhall VW Ford VW Ford Ford Vauxhall Ford Spare Ignition GearBox Engine Steering Ignition CYHead GearBox Engine Cost Lookup Table £50 Vauxhall Ford VW £600 GearBox 500 450 600 £1. If a match is not found.200 Engine 1000 1200 800 £275 Steering 250 350 275 £70 Ignition 50 70 45 £290 CYHead 300 290 310 £500 £1. The Unit Cost of the item is then looked up in the Unit Cost Table.G74:I74.FALSE) Example 3 In the following example a builders merchant is offering discount on large orders. This ensures that when the formula is copied to more cells. Wood and Glass. the ranges for =VLOOKUP() and =MATCH() do not change. The TRUE option has been used at the end of the function to indicate that the values down the side of the Discount Table are sorted.0)+1.MATCH(B81.MATCH(F57. The name of the Item is typed in column C of the Orders Table.D49:F49.0)+1. When the make is found.2000 Peter Noneley A 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 B C Carol David D 40 50 E 110 120 F 51 77 eric mar G H I J VLOOKUP Page 39 of 223 K Type a name to look for : Type a month to look for : The result is : 69 =VLOOKUP(F56. The FALSE option has been used at the end of the function to indicate that the product names down the side of the Unit Cost Table are not sorted. The Unit Cost Table holds the cost of 1 unit of Brick.FALSE) The discount is then looked up in the Discount Table If the Quantity Ordered matches a value at the side of the Discount Table the =VLOOKUP will look across to find the correct discount. using the result of the =MATCH() function to find the position of the make of car.F75:I79.

Trying to match an order of 125 will drop down to 100.G113:I113.C114:D116. and the discount from the 100 row is used. =VLOOKUP(D126.2.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .275 Formula for : Unit Cost =VLOOKUP(C126.2000 Peter Noneley A 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 B C D E F G H I not match a value at the side of the Discount Table.FALSE) Discount =VLOOKUP(D126.MATCH(C126.TRUE) Total =(D126*E126)-(D126*E126*F126) .0)+1.TRUE) Discount Table Wood Glass 0% 0% 0% 6% 3% 12% 8% 5% 15% J VLOOKUP Page 40 of 223 K Unit Cost Table Brick £2 Wood £1 Glass £3 Brick 1 100 300 Item Brick Wood Glass Brick Wood Glass Units 100 200 150 225 50 500 Orders Table Unit Cost Discount £2 6% £1 3% £3 12% £2 6% £1 0% £3 15% Total £188 £194 £396 £423 £50 £1.F114:I116. the next lowest value is used.F114:I116.MATCH(C126.G113:I113.0)+1.

5 0.5 1. Syntax =VARP(Range1. =(MIN(H32:H34) This finds the position of the lowest value.MATCH(MIN(H32:H34).0019 1. Example The table below was used by a company interested in buying a new machine to pack washing powder. Soap Powder Box Filling Machine Test Results Test 1 Test 2 Test 3 Test 4 Variance 1.0)) find the machine name.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .0125 The smallest variance is : 0.0) This looks down the Machine column to =INDEX(C32:C34.H32:H34. .6 1.MATCH(MIN(H32:H34).Range2.5 1.4 1.Range3 through to Range30) Formatting No special formatting is needed.8 0. A trial run a just four boxes per machine were produced.5 0.0050 1.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I J VARP Page 41 of 223 K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 Values 10 10 9 10 0.25 =VARP(G4:G7) What Does It Do ? This function calculates the variance of a list of values. The variance is calculated on the basis that the values represent the entire population.5 1. The boxes were weighed and the =VARP() function used as these boxes represented the entire test run.7 1.5 1.0)) Explanation of formula: This finds the lowest value. =MATCH(MIN(H32:H34).1875 =VARP(C4:C7) Values 10 10 11 10 0.H32:H34.4 1.H32:H34.1875 =VARP(E4:E7) Values 10 11 9 12 1.6 1. The machine with the smallest variance was the most consistent.0019 Machine 1 Machine 2 Machine 3 =VARP(D32:G32) =VARP(D33:G33) =VARP(D34:G34) =MIN(H32:H34) The machine with the smallest variance is : Machine 2 =INDEX(C32:C34.

MATCH(MIN(H34:H36).H34:H36. Soap Powder Box Filling Machine Test Results Test 1 Test 2 Test 3 Test 4 Variance 1.MATCH(MIN(H34:H36).5 1. =MIN(H34:H36) This finds the position of the lowest value. A sample population is used when the list of values represents a sample of a population.Range2. The boxes were weighed and the =VAR() function used as these boxes only represented a sample of the complete days production. Syntax =VAR(Range1.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I J VAR Page 42 of 223 K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 Values 10 10 9 10 0.0)) find the machine name.H34:H36.0167 The smallest variance is : 0.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .0025 Machine 1 Machine 2 Machine 3 =VAR(D34:G34) =VAR(D35:G35) =VAR(D36:G36) =MIN(H34:H36) The machine with the smallest variance is : Machine 2 =INDEX(C34:C36.5 1.6 1.7 1.Range3 through to Range30) Formatting No special formatting is needed.8 0.0067 1.0)) Explanation of formula: This finds the lowest value. . The machine with the smallest variance was the most consistent.H34:H36.25 =VAR(C4:C7) Values 10 10 11 10 0. =MATCH(MIN(H34:H36).4 1. At the end of the day four boxes of soap powder were picked at random from the production of each machine.6666667 =VAR(G4:G7) What Does It Do ? This function calculates the sample population variance of a list of values.5 0. Three machines were short listed and allow to run for a day.5 1.0) This looks down the Machine column to =INDEX(C34:C36.5 0.25 =VAR(E4:E7) Values 10 11 9 12 1.5 1.6 1.4 1. Example The table below was used by a company interested in buying a new machine to pack washing powder.0025 1.

Syntax =VALUE(TextToConvert) Formatting No special formatting is needed." ". Explanation of formula shown above. 0. =SUBSTITUTE. If the extraction assumes the maximum length of three digits and the % sign. 0. The result will be shown as a value. 100% * See explanation below. errors will occur when the percentage is only one digit long. it can be either one.SEARCH("??:??".SEARCH("??:??". The winning time was 1:30 seconds. 1 Only a 2% increase in sales.5)) What Does It Do ? This function converts a piece of text which resembles a number into an actual value." ".C17).5 A 100% increase was achieved. based upon the original text. To extract the values from the following text is complicated! The actual percentage value is of variable length. =VALUE(MID(SUBSTITUTE(C11. The only way to identify the value is the fact it always ends with the % sign.0625 1:30 10:30 0:30 ")). as alphabetic characters will be included.C15). If the % sign is included in the text. Now when the extraction takes place any unnecessary characters will be spaces which are ignored by the =VALUE() function.5)) =VALUE(MID(C17. 0. If the £ sign is included in the text it will be ignored.99)) There was a 2% increase in sales. other than it is preceded by a space. There was a 2% increase in sales. There was a 100% increase in sales.SEARCH("£". 2% Approx 50% increase in sales. =MID().02 There was a 50% increase in sales.4)) =VALUE(MID(C14.5)) =VALUE(MID(C15. The winning time was 0:30 seconds.C16).SEARCH("??:??". There is no way to identify the beginning of the value. To get around the problem the =SUBSTITUTE() function was used to increase the size of the spaces in the text. two or three digits long." ").C4).5)) =VALUE(MID(C16.SUBSTITUTE(C11. 50% There was a 100% increase in sales. If the number in the middle of a long piece of text it will have to be extracted using other text functions such as =SEARCH().C14). 0. The same will be true for other recognised formats.02 0.5 1 . The main problem is calculating the length of the value to extract.SEARCH("??:??". the result will be a decimal fraction which can then be formatted as a percentage.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 ." The winning time was 1:30 seconds. There was a 50% increase in sales.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H VALUE Page 43 of 224 I 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 Text Containing A Number Annual turnover was £5000 Value #VALUE! =VALUE(MID(C4. If the original text format appears as a time hh:mm the result will be a time.SEARCH("???%". The winning time was 10:30 seconds. =FIND(). =LEFT() or =RIGHT().

4)) VALUE Page 44 of 224 I ")." D E F G H ")).SUBSTITUTE(C52." ".SEARCH("???%"." .2000 Peter Noneley A B 53 54 C =VALUE(MID(SUBSTITUTE(C52." ".Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .

Syntax =UPPER(TextToConvert) Formatting No special formatting is needed.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H UPPER Page 45 of 223 I 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Original Text alan jones bob smith carOl wiLLiamS cardiff abc123 Upper Case ALAN JONES BOB SMITH CAROL WILLIAMS CARDIFF ABC123 =UPPER(C4) =UPPER(C5) =UPPER(C6) =UPPER(C7) =UPPER(C8) What Does It Do ? This function converts all characters in a piece of text to upper case. Example See the example for FREQUENCY. .

47589 1.D7) 2 -1.47589 1.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I J TRUNC Page 46 of 223 K 1 2 Precision For Truncated Truncation Number 0 1 =TRUNC(C4.Precision) Formatting No special formatting is needed. .47589 -1.D6) 1 -1.48 13643.47589 -1.47 =TRUNC(C8. it does not actually round the number.48 13643.47 =TRUNC(C6.D10) -3 13000 =TRUNC(C11.D5) 2 1.4 =TRUNC(C7.D8) -1 13640 =TRUNC(C9.4 =TRUNC(C5.D9) -2 13600 =TRUNC(C10.48 What Does It Do ? This function removes the decimal part of a number.D4) 1 1.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .47589 13643. Syntax =TRUNC(NumberToTuncate.D11) 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Number 1.

.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I TRIM Page 47 of 223 J 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Original Text ABCD A B C D Alan Jones ABCD Trimmed Text ABCD ABCD Alan Jones ABCD =TRIM(C4) =TRIM(C5) =TRIM(C6) =TRIM(C7) What Does It Do ? This function removes unwanted spaces from a piece of text. Multiple spaces within the text will be trimmed to a single space Syntax =TRIM(TextToTrim) Formatting No special formatting is needed.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . The spaces before and after the text will be removed completely.

The prediction is based upon the Linear Trend of the original values. 13 to 24.997 {=TREND(C8:C13.000 8 -£3.B5:B10.B5:B10. To prove to the bank that. the =TREND() function was used.800 9 -£3.800 Predicted Values Month Profit 13 -£2.RequiredXs.800 3 -£4. such as Months.E5:E10)} What Does It Do ? This function predicts values based upon three sets of related values.000 3 £2.KnownXs. Historical Data Month Profit 1 -£5. Formatting No special formatting is needed.000 2 £2. The function is an array function and must be entered using Ctrl+Shift+Enter.E5:E10)} {=TREND(C5:C10.E41:E52)} The same function used in all cells as an array formula .709 16 -£1.774 11 £7. Their bank manager had told the company that unless they could show a profit by the end of the next year. such as Sales Figures. The months to predict were entered.B5:B10.300 10 -£2. The RequiredXs is the range for which you want to make the prediction. Example The following tables were used by a company to predict when they would start to make a profit.940 8 £5.551 9 £6.500 4 £3.800 6 -£4.750 5 -£4.B41:B52.800 6 £4. The =TREND() function shows that it will be month 22 before the company make a profit.B5:B10.226 14 -£1. based upon the past years performance.Constant) The KnownYs is the range of values.500 5 £3. such as Months.B5:B10. Syntax =TREND(KnownYs.968 15 -£1.163 10 £6.E8:E13)} {=TREND(C5:C10.500 7 -£4.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . the company would start to make a profit at the end of the next year.500 12 -£2. The historical data for the past year was entered. the bank would no longer provide an overdraft facility.193 18 -£935 19 -£676 20 -£418 21 -£160 22 £98 23 £356 24 £615 {=TREND(C41:C52.E5:E10)} {=TREND(C5:C10.000 Predicted Values Month Sales 7 £4.E5:E10)} {=TREND(C5:C10.600 4 -£4.000 2 -£4. months 1 to 12.B8:B13. The KnownXs is the intervals used when collecting the data.E5:E10)} {=TREND(C5:C10.000 11 -£2.386 12 £7.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I J TREND Page 48 of 224 K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 Historical Data Month Sales 1 £1.451 17 -£1.

E41:E52).2000 Peter Noneley A 53 54 55 56 57 58 B C D E F G H I J TREND Page 49 of 224 K How To Enter An Array Formula Select all the cells where the array is required.B41:B52. Type the formula such as =TREND(C41:C52. such as F41 to F52. but do not press Enter. .Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Hold the Ctrl+Shift keys down. Press Enter to enter the formula as an array.

The function needs to be entered as an array formula. Syntax =TRANSPOSE(Range) Formatting No special formatting is needed. such as =TRANSPOSE(A1:A5). The transpose range must be the same size as the original range.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . . and the data originally in rows is in columns.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I J TRANSPOSE Page 50 of 223 K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 Alan Bob Carol Total 0 Jan Feb Jan 10 40 70 120 Alan 10 30 Feb 30 50 80 160 Bob 40 50 Carol 70 80 Total 120 160 {=TRANSPOSE(C3:E7)} As an array formula in all these cells What Does It Do ? This function copies data from a range. Finally press Ctrl+Shift+Enter to confirm it. turning it so that the data originally in columns is now in rows. If changes need to be made to the formula. To enter an array formula you must first highlight all the cells where the formula is required. Next type the formula. the entire array has to be highlighted. and places in it in a new range. the edits can then be made and the Ctrl+Shift+Enter used to confirm it.

Syntax =TODAY() Formatting The result will normally be displayed using the DD-MMM-YY format. Date 1-Jan-97 10-Aug-97 Days Since 6011 5790 =TODAY()-C28+1 =TODAY()-C29+1 Example The following example shows the number of days from today until the year 2000. Year 2000 ########## Days Until -4915 =C36-TODAY() . Date 1-Jan-97 10-Aug-97 Days Since 6010 5789 =TODAY()-C20 =TODAY()-C21 Note that the result is actually the number of days before todays date.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G TODAY Page 51 of 223 H 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 Today Is 16-Jun-13 =TODAY() What Does It Do? Use this to show the current date. To calculate a result which includes the current date an extra 1 will need to be added. Example The following example shows how the Today function is used to calculate the number of days since a particular day.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .

2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G TIMEVALUE Page 52 of 223 H I 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Text 14:30:59 14:30:59 14:30:59 Time 0. . It is useful when data is imported from other applications.604849537 14:30:59 2:30:59 PM =TIMEVALUE(C4) =TIMEVALUE(C5) =TIMEVALUE(C6) What Does It Do? This function will show an actual time based on a piece of text which looks like a time. which convert all values to text.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Formatting can be applied for either the 12 or 24 hour clock system. such as from mainframe computers. Syntax =TIMEVALUE(Text) Formatting The result will be shown as a number representing the time a fraction of the day.

E6) What Does It Do? This function will convert three separate numbers to an actual time.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I TIME Page 53 of 223 J 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 Hour 14 14 14 Minute 30 30 30 Second 59 59 59 Time 14:30:59 2:30:59 PM 0.E5) =TIME(C6. If a normal number format is applied a decimal fraction is shown which represents the time as a fraction of the day. Syntax =TIME(Hour. .60485 =TIME(C4.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .D4.E4) =TIME(C5.Second) Formatting The result will be shown as a time which can be formatted either as 12 or 24 hour style.Minute.D5.D6.

"0") =TEXT(C7.0") What Does It Do ? This function converts a number to a piece of text. The formatting for the text needs to be specified in the function.00") =TEXT(C5."£0."0.FormatForConversion) Formatting No special formatting is required."0."£0") =TEXT(C8.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .25 Converted To Text 10.00 10 £10 10. . Syntax =TEXT(NumberToConvert."£0.25 10.3 £10.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I TEXT Page 54 of 223 J K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 Original Number 10 10 10 10 10.3 =TEXT(C4.00 £10.00") =TEXT(C6.0") =TEXT(C9.

the result is a blank. Syntax =T(CellToTest) Formatting No special formatting is needed. The function is not specifically needed by Excel. If the value is text.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I J T Page 55 of 223 K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Cell To Test Hello 10 1-Jan-98 Result Hello =T(D4) =T(D5) =T(D6) =T(D7) What Does It Do ? This function examines an entry to determine whether it is text or not. then the text is the result of the function If the value is not text. but is included for compatibility with other spreadsheet programs. .

3) =SYD(F3.000 £8. 1.000 £1.E40.F5.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .F4.333333 0. 17% being £1500. year 1 is 17% 6. Year 3 is 50% of 6.F4. A depreciation of £9000 is allocated as 50% being £4500.3) As % Of Total Depreciation 0.714 £1.500 ===> =SYD(E39.1 by £1500 to get £4500. £9.F5.2.000 3 £4.1) =SYD(F3.2) =SYD(F3. using the sum of the years digits.429 £2. Invert the year digits.F4. Multiply 3.2.000 =SUM(F7:F12) What Does It Do ? This function calculates the depreciation of an item throughout its life. Add together the digits of the Life to get the SumOfTheYearsDigits.F4.500 £3. year 2 is 33% of 6. these values are the depreciation . A life of 3 years has a sum of 1+2+3 equalling 6. Divide the Total Deprectation by the SumOfTheYearsDigits.143 £571 =SYD(F3. £9000/6=£1500.1. 4. Each of the years is then calculated as a percentage of the sum of the years.000 £1.3 becomes 3.5 0. £3000.F4.166667 1. £1500.500 ===> £3.6) £12.286 £1. What is the Sum Of The Years Digits ? The sum of the years digits adds together the each of the years of the life. year 2 is £3000 and year 1 is £1500.857 £2. year 1 is $4500. Example 1 Purchase Price Of A Car : Salvage Value : Expected Life in Years : Depreciation in Year 1 : Depreciation in Year 2 : Depreciation in Year 3 : £10.F5. The total depreciation of the item is then allocated on the basis of these percentages. 5. £10000-£1000=£9000.F5. 3.4) =SYD(F3.500 1 2 3 17% 33% 50% As the greater part of the depreciation is allocated to the earliest years the values are inverted.F4. The depreciation is greatest in the earlier part of the items life.2.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I SYD Page 56 of 223 J 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 Purchase Value Of A New Car Second Hand Value Number Of Years Ownership Deprecation in year 1 Deprecation in year 2 Deprecation in year 3 Deprecation in year 4 Deprecation in year 5 Deprecation in year 6 Total Depreciation : £20.E41. 1+2+3=6.5) =SYD(F3. 33% being £3000.F5. Subtract the Salvage from the Purchase Price to get Total Deprectation. 2.000 £4.000 ===> £1.F5.000 6 £3.

800 £900 £9.2 0.286 £964 £643 £321 As % Of Total Depriciation 25% 21% 18% 14% 11% 7% 4% £9.700 £1.1 100% G H I SYD Page 57 of 223 J Example 3 This example will adjust itself to accommodate any number of years between 1 and 10.929 £1. Purchase Price Of A Car : Salvage Value : Expected Life in Years (1 to 10) : Year Year Year Year Year Year Year Year Year Year 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 £10.2000 Peter Noneley A 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 B C D E F values for each of the three years in the life of the item.000 4 £3.250 £1.Life. 100% .000 £1.SalvageValue. Example 2 The same example using 4 years.000 £1.000 As % Of Total Depriciation 0.607 £1.4 0. Purchase Price Of A Car : Salvage Value : Expected Life in Years : Depreciation in Year 1 : Depreciation in Year 2 : Depreciation in Year 3 : Depreciation in Year 4 : Total Depreciation : £10.3 0.PeriodToCalculate) Formatting No special formatting is needed.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .600 £2.000 Syntax =SYD(OriginalCost.000 7 £2.

Range. The total of all the values is the result of the calculation. The =SUMPRODUCT() function is used to multiply the Cases In Stock with the Bottles In Case and the Bottle Setting Price. and the potential value of the stock when it is sold.50 25% =D39/E39 Bottle Selling Price £15.00 20% £2. Range3 through to Range30) Formatting No special formatting is needed.25 £60.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I SUMPRODUCT Page 58 of 223 J 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 Item Tyres Filters Bulbs Sold 5 2 3 price 100 10 2 526 =SUMPRODUCT(D4:D6. The =SUMPRODUCT() function is used to multiply the Cases In Stock with the Case Price to calculate what the merchant spent in buying the stock.350 =E44-E43 . The merchant needed to know the total purchase value of the stock. Syntax =SUMPRODUCT(Range1.13 =F39+F39*G39 Total Value Of Stock : Total Selling Price Of Stock : Profit : £7.00 25% £33.E35:E39.00 £16. Example The following table was used by a drinks merchant to keep track of stock. The values in the first column are multipled with the corresponding value in the second column.00 25% £13.E4:E6) Total Sales Value : What Does It Do ? This function uses at least two columns of values. to calculate the potential value of the stock if it is all sold.00 £2.33 80% £2. Product Red Wine White Wine Champagne Beer Lager Cases In Stock 10 8 5 50 100 Case Price £120 £130 £200 £24 £30 Bottles In Case 10 10 6 12 12 Bottle Cost Markup £12.440 =SUMPRODUCT(C35:C39.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . takinging into account the markup percentage.D35:D39) £9.40 £3.H35:H39) £2.790 =SUMPRODUCT(C35:C39.

E18. What Does It Do ? This function adds the value of items which match criteria set by the user."Brakes".E4:E12) This examines the names of products in C4:C12. If the value is >=100 the value is added to the total. Total of items costing £100 or above. It then totals the respective figures in E4:E12 This examines the values in E4:E12.">=100") Formatting No special formatting is needed. It then identifies the entries for Brakes. =SUMIF(E4:E12.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 ."Tyres".RangeOfValuesToTotal) =SUMIF(C4:C12.E4:E12) Total cost of all Brakes bought. Total cost of all Tyres bought. Syntax =SUMIF(RangeOfThingsToBeExamined.">=100") =SUMIF(C4:C12. .E4:E12) =SUMIF(E4:E12.E4:E12) =SUMIF(C4:C12. Total of item typed in following cell.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I SUMIF Page 59 of 223 J 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 Item Brakes Tyres Brakes Service Service Window Tyres Tyres Clutch Date 1-Jan-98 10-May-98 1-Feb-98 1-Mar-98 5-Jan-98 1-Jun-98 1-Apr-98 1-Mar-98 1-May-98 Cost 80 25 80 150 300 50 200 100 250 160 325 1000 service 450 =SUMIF(C4:C12.CriteriaToBeMatched."Brakes".

A cell address to use as the fixed point from where it should base the offset.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . but this would be time consuming and open to human error.0.2)) The cell E51 has been used as the starting point of both offsets. the first offset is offset by 1 column.1):OFFSET(E45. such as the last 3 months in relation to the current date. the second by 2 columns.0.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I J SUM_with_OFFSET Page 60 of 223 K L 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 Sometimes it is necessary to base a calculation on a set of cells in different locations. we can then indicate how far away the end cell should be and the =OFFSET() will give us the address of cell which will be the end of the range to be totalled. 2. 1. Total Jan Feb Mar Apr May 10 10 400 500 600 700 =SUM(E24:OFFSET(E24. 910 10 400 500 600 700 =SUM(E34:OFFSET(E34. The =OFFSET() picks out a cell a certain number of cells away from another cell.2)) This example uses E34 as the starting point and offsets 2 cols to pick out cell G34 resulting in a the range E34:G34 being summed.0. The result is that just cell F45 is used as the range F45:F45 for the sum function to calculate. An example would be when a total is required from certain months of the year. Using =OFFSET() Twice In A Formula The following examples use =OFFSET() to pick both the start and end of the range which needs to be totalled. A better way is to indicate the start and end point of the range to be calculated by using the =OFFSET() function. 3. Total Jan Feb Mar Apr May 400 10 400 500 600 700 =SUM(OFFSET(E45. One solution would be to retype the calculation each time new data is entered.0)) This example uses E24 as the starting point and offsets no rows or columns which results in the range being summed as E24:E24. The result is the range F51:G51 which is then totalled.1)) The cell E45 has been used as the starting point for both offsets and each has been offset by just 1 column.0. How many columns it should look left or right from the starting point. 1500 10 400 500 600 700 . 900 10 400 500 600 700 =SUM(OFFSET(E51. 410 10 400 500 600 700 =SUM(E29:OFFSET(E29.1)) This example uses E29 as the starting point and offsets 1 col to pick out cell F29 resulting in a the range E29:F29 being summed.0.0. By giving the =OFFSET() the address of the first cell in the range which needs to be totalled. How many rows it should look up or down from the starting point. The =OFFSET() needs to know three things.1):OFFSET(E51.0.

Type in the Start month.0. The Start and End dates entered in cells F71 and F72 are used as the offset to produce a range which can be totalled.MONTH(3)) ) This shows how the =MONTH function calculates the month number.0.3)) The cell E57 has been used as the starting point for both offsets.0. Formula 2 =SUM( OFFSET(D79. The result is the range F57:H57 which is then totalled.2000 Peter Noneley A 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 B C D E F G H I =SUM(OFFSET(E57.MONTH(F71)) : OFFSET(D79.MONTH(F72)) ) This is the actual formula entered by the user. In this example the values of the months are 2 and 3 for Feb and Mar. Total 900 1020 Jan-98 10 15 Feb-98 Mar-98 Feb-98 400 20 Mar-98 500 1000 Apr-98 600 2000 May-98 700 3000 13 5 3 10 800 900 =SUM(OFFSET(D79.MONTH(F72))) Explanation The following formula represent a breakdown of what the =OFFSET function does. Formula 3 =SUM( OFFSET(D79.3) ) This shows where the month numbers are used in the =OFFSET function.2) : OFFSET(D79.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . To calculate the total of a specific group of months the =OFFSET() function has been used.0. . Formula 1 =SUM( OFFSET(D79.0.MONTH(2)) : OFFSET(D79.1):OFFSET(E57. the first offset is offset by 1 column. but they will update as you enter dates into cells F71 and F72.0. These values are the 'offsets' relative to cell D79. The formula displayed below are only dummies. the second by 3 columns.MONTH(F71)):OFFSET(D79. Type in the End month.0. J SUM_with_OFFSET Page 61 of 223 K L Example The following table shows five months of data.0. Formula 4 =SUM( F79:G79 ) This shows how the =OFFSET eventually equates to cell addresses to be used as a range for the =SUM function.0.0.

Each occurrence of the =SUM() then adds all the numbers from the first cell down. It works because the first reference uses dollar symbols $ to keep $D$7 static as the formula is copied down. Running Total 10 60 90 110 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Sales 10 50 30 20 =SUM(IF(D7.$D$7:D8.0)) =SUM(IF(D8.0)) =SUM(IF(D12.$D$7:D9.0)) =SUM(IF(D9.$D$7:D11. Otherwise the value 0 zero is entered.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I SUM_as_Running_Total Page 62 of 223 J K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 Using =SUM() For A Running Total Running Total 10 60 90 110 110 110 110 110 110 110 110 110 Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Sales 10 50 30 20 =SUM($D$7:D7) =SUM($D$7:D8) =SUM($D$7:D9) =SUM($D$7:D10) =SUM($D$7:D11) =SUM($D$7:D12) =SUM($D$7:D13) =SUM($D$7:D14) =SUM($D$7:D15) =SUM($D$7:D16) =SUM($D$7:D17) =SUM($D$7:D18) Type the formula =SUM($D$7:D7) in cell E7 and then copy down the table.0)) =SUM(IF(D11. The function can be tidied up to show 0 zero when there is no adjacent value by using the =IF() function.$D$7:D10.$D$7:D7.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .0)) The =SUM() only takes place when there is data in column D. .0)) =SUM(IF(D10.$D$7:D12.

This example shows how the SUM has been combined with plus + symbols. Note Many people use the =SUM() function incorrectly.Range3.D14. The formula is actually doing more work than needed. through to Range30).Range2. 100 200 300 600 =SUM(C48+C49+C50) =SUM(C48:C50) Wrong! Correct . ranges are from other functions. It can be used either horizontally or vertically.E13) 400 500 600 4800 Functions =SUM(C17:C19. Syntax =SUM(Range1. It should have been entered as either =C48+C49+C50 or =SUM(C48:C50)...MAX(E23:E25)) What Does It Do ? This function creates a total from a list of numbers. The numbers can be in single cells.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I J SUM Page 63 of 224 K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 Horizontal 100 Vertical 100 200 300 600 200 300 600 =SUM(C4:E4) =SUM(C7:C9) Single Cells 100 200 Multiple Ranges 100 200 3000 300 600 =SUM(C13.E17:E19) 100 200 300 400 500 600 800 =SUM(AVERAGE(C23:C25).Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Formatting No special formatting is needed.

2000 Peter Noneley A 53 B C D E =C48+C49+C50 F G Correct H I J SUM Page 64 of 224 K .Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .

Table 1 Original Text Northern Region Northern region Northern Region Northern Region Northern Region Old Text New Text To Remove To Insert Updated Text Region Area Northern Area Region Area Northern region region Area Northern Region Region area Northern area region area Northern Region =SUBSTITUTE(B39.D39) Table 2 shows how the =PROPER() function has been used to take account of the mixed cases.C4.C6. The function is case sensitive.C11.C10. Formatting No special formatting is needed.TextToRemove.D4) =SUBSTITUTE(B5. Syntax =SUBSTITUTE(OriginalText. =LOWER() or =PROPER() to ensure that the substitution will take place.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H SUBSTITUTE Page 65 of 224 I 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 Old Text New Text To Remove To Insert Original Text ABCDEF CD hello ABCDABCD CD hello Northern Region Region Area Sand and Cement and & Old Text New Text To Remove To Insert Original Text ABCABCABC ABC hello Sand and Cement and & Updated Text ABhelloEF ABhelloABhello Northern Area S& & Cement Instance To Be Replaced 3 2 =SUBSTITUTE(B4.D11. or a specific instance.D5) =SUBSTITUTE(B6. if it is omitted all instances will be substituted. Table 2 Original Text Northern Region Northern region Old Text New Text To Remove To Insert Region Area Region Area Updated Text Northern Area Northern Area .D6) =SUBSTITUTE(B7.D7) Updated Text ABCABChello Sand & Cement =SUBSTITUTE(B10. Table 1 shows how differing text cases alter the result of the substitution.D10.C7.C39.E10) =SUBSTITUTE(B11. Note To cope with upper or lower case in the substitution you can use other text functions such as =UPPER().Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .TextToInsert. It can either replace all occurrences of the text.InstanceToUse) The InstanceToUse is optional.C5.E11) What Does It Do ? This function replaces a specified piece of text with a different piece of text.

PROPER(C50).Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .PROPER(D50)) H SUBSTITUTE Page 66 of 224 I .2000 Peter Noneley A 48 49 50 51 B Northern Region Northern Region Northern Region C D E F G region Area Northern Area Region area Northern Area region area Northern Area =SUBSTITUTE(PROPER(B50).

5 1.433013 =STDEVP(E4:E7) Values 10 11 9 12 1.1118 The smallest variance is : 0.H32:H34.4 1.H32:H34.5 0.433013 =STDEVP(C4:C7) Values 10 10 11 10 0.0707 1. =MATCH(MIN(H32:H34).4 1.6 1.118034 =STDEVP(G4:G7) What Does It Do ? This function calculates the standard deviation of a list of values.MATCH(MIN(H32:H34).5 1.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . A trial run of just four boxes per machine were produced. ???????????????????? Soap Powder Box Filling Machine Test Results Test 1 Test 2 Test 3 Test 4 Variance 1.5 0. Example The table below was used by a company interested in buying a new machine to pack washing powder.MATCH(MIN(H32:H34).6 1.Range2.0433 1. =(MIN(H32:H34) This finds the position of the lowest value.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I J STDEVP Page 67 of 223 K L 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 Values 10 10 9 10 0. The result is calculated on the basis that the values represent the entire population.0) This looks down the Machine column to =INDEX(C32:C34.5 1. Syntax =STDEVP(Range1.0)) Explanation of formula: This finds the lowest value.Range3 through to Range30) Formatting No special formatting is needed.5 1.0433 Machine 1 Machine 2 Machine 3 =STDEVP(D32:G32) =STDEVP(D33:G33) =STDEVP(D34:G34) =MIN(H32:H34) The machine with the smallest variance is : Machine 2 =INDEX(C32:C34. . The machine with the smallest variance was the most consistent.8 0.7 1.0)) find the machine name. The boxes were weighed and the =STDEVP() function used as these boxes represented the entire test run.H32:H34.

A sample population is used when the list of values represents a sample of a population.5 1. .H34:H36.6 1.5 1.H34:H36. Example The table below was used by a company interested in buying a new machine to pack washing powder.5 =STDEV(E4:E7) Values 10 11 9 12 1. =MATCH(MIN(H34:H36).H34:H36.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I J STDEV Page 68 of 223 K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 Values 10 10 9 10 0.0816 1.4 1.0) This looks down the Machine column to =INDEX(C34:C36.0)) Explanation of formula: This finds the lowest value. The machine with the smallest deviation was the most consistent.0500 Machine 1 Machine 2 Machine 3 =STDEV(D34:G34) =STDEV(D35:G35) =STDEV(D36:G36) =MIN(H34:H36) The machine with the smallest deviation is : Machine 2 =INDEX(C34:C36. At the end of the day four boxes of soap powder were picked at random from the production of each machine.7 1.8 0.5 0. =MIN(H34:H36) This finds the position of the lowest value.MATCH(MIN(H34:H36).0)) find the machine name. Syntax =STDEV(Range1.6 1.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .5 1.5 1. Three machines were short listed and allow to run for a day.4 1. The boxes were weighed and the =STDEV() function used as these boxes only represented a sample of the complete days production.0500 1.Range2.Range3 through to Range30) Formatting No special formatting is needed. Soap Powder Box Filling Machine Test Results Test 1 Test 2 Test 3 Test 4 Variance 1.5 =STDEV(C4:C7) Values 10 10 11 10 0.5 0.1291 The smallest deviation is : 0.2909944 =STDEV(G4:G7) What Does It Do ? This function calculates the sample population standard deviation of a list of values.MATCH(MIN(H34:H36).

2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I SMALL Page 69 of 223 J 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 Values 120 800 100 120 250 Lowest Value 2nd Lowest Value 3rd Lowest Value 4th Lowest Value 5th Lowest Value 100 120 120 250 800 =SMALL(C4:C8. Highest Lowest £12.000 £2.000 £3.4) =SMALL(C4:C8. Feb and Mar.500 £3.2) =SMALL(C4:C8.000 =SMALL(D24:F27.2) =SMALL(D24:F27.000 Feb £6.500 Mar £4.000 £10. Syntax =SMALL(ListOfNumbersToExamine.1) =SMALL(C4:C8.000 =MAX(D24:F27) =MIN(D24:F27) .000 £2.000 £6.PositionToPickFrom) Formatting No special formatting is needed.000 £7.000 £2. Example The following table was used to calculate the bottom 3 sales figures between Jan.5) What Does It Do ? This function examines a list of values and picks the value at a user specified position in the list.3) Lowest Value 2nd Lowest Value 3rd Lowest Value Note Another way to find the Highest and Lowest values would have been to use the =MAX() and =MIN() functions.000 £5. Sales North South East West Jan £5.000 £3.3) =SMALL(C4:C8.000 £4.500 £12.1) =SMALL(D24:F27.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .800 £3.

000.LengthOfOwnership) The LengthOfOwnership can be any time period.F11) What Does It Do ? This function calculates the Straight Line Depreciation of an item.F10. An example would be if you bought a new car for £20.000 =SLN(F9. the SLN is calculated as £12. .F5) Purchase Value Of A New Car Second Hand Value Number Of Years Ownership Annual Straight Line Depreciation £20. At the end of your ownership you sell the car for £8.000. Formatting No special formatting is needed. However.000 £8.£8. the SLN which is calculated will.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . days.000. be for that time. The difference between the original and the trade in price is £20.F4. The Straight Line Depreciation is how much the value of an item reduced during a specific period of time. Syntax =SLN(OriginalCost.000 which is £12. The result is a uniform depreciation value.000 £2.000 4 £2. Because you owned the car for 6 years.000. specifying 2 years ownership as 24 months will give an SLN per month.000 .000 / 6 which is £2. (Also known as Fixed Instalment method).500 =SLN(F3. months or years.000 6 £2.SellingPrice. then kept it for 6 years.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I SLN Page 70 of 223 J 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 Cost Salvage Life Straight Line Depreciation £12.

If the value is positive the result is 1. Syntax =SIGN(CellToTest) The CellToTest can be a cell or a calculation. .2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I J SIGN Page 71 of 223 K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 Value 10 20 0 -10 -20 Positive or Negative 1 1 0 -1 -1 =SIGN(C4) =SIGN(C5) =SIGN(C6) =SIGN(C7) =SIGN(C8) What Does It Do ? This function tests a value to determine whether it is positive or negative. If the value is zero 0 the result is 0.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Formatting No special formatting is needed. If the value is negative the result is -1.

2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H SECOND Page 72 of 223 I 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 Number 16/Jun/13 06:01:08 12:00:00 PM 0. The Duration of the call is entered. The =SECOND() function calculates the total number of seconds.25 1 50 £1.51 1. The =CEILING() function rounds the seconds up to the nearest muliple of 5.50 0.51 Second 8 0 0 24 24 =SECOND(C4) =SECOND(C5) =SECOND(C6) =SECOND(C7) =SECOND(C8) What Does It Do? The function will show the second of the minute based upon a time or a number. The telephone company only deals in seconds which are a multiple of 5.70 2 5 £1.5) . The seconds in a call are rounded up to the nearest multiple of 5 before the bill is calculated.01 Duration 0:01:08 0:02:03 0:01:47 Billed Duration Minutes Seconds Cost 1 10 £0. Cost Per Second : £0. The =MINUTES() function calculates the total number of minutes. Example The following table was used by a telephone compnay to calculate the cost of a call.10 =CEILING(SECOND(C36).Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . The Cost of the call is then calculated. Syntax =SECOND(Number) Formatting The result will be shown as a normal number between 0 and 59. Only the fraction part of the number is used as it is this which relates to time of day.

48 13643.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .48 13643.48 What Does It Do ? This function rounds a number up to a specified amount of decimal places. Syntax =ROUNDUPNumberToRound. If a negative amount of rounding is used the figures to the left of the decimal point are rounded.D4) 1 1.47589 1.5 =ROUNDUP(C5.D6) -1 13650 =ROUNDUP(C7.47589 13643.D8) -3 14000 =ROUNDUP(C9. If 0 is used the number is rounded up to the nearest whole number. .D5) 2 1.48 =ROUNDUP(C6.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I J ROUNDUP Page 73 of 223 K 1 2 Places To Rounded Round Up 0 2 =ROUNDUP(C4.DecimalPlacesToUse) Formatting No special formatting is needed.D7) -2 13700 =ROUNDUP(C8.D9) 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Number 1.47589 1.

D7) -2 13600 =ROUNDDOWN(C8.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I J ROUNDDOWN Page 74 of 223 K 1 2 Places To Rounded Round Down 0 1 =ROUNDDOWN(C4.D9) 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Number 1.D6) -1 13640 =ROUNDDOWN(C7.47589 1.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .D5) 2 1.D8) -3 13000 =ROUNDDOWN(C9.48 13643.48 13643.47 =ROUNDDOWN(C6.48 What Does It Do ? This function rounds a number down to a specified amount of decimal places.DecimalPlacesToUse) Formatting No special formatting is needed. If 0 is used the number is rounded down to the nearest whole number. If a negative amount of rounding is used the figures to the left of the decimal point are rounded.D4) 1 1.47589 1.4 =ROUNDDOWN(C5.47589 13643. . Syntax =ROUNDDOWN(NumberToRound.

47589 13643.48 =ROUND(C6.47589 1.47589 1.47589 13643. If a negative amount of rounding is used the figures to the left of the decimal point are rounded.D7) -2 13600 =ROUND(C8. . If 0 is used the number is rounded to the nearest whole number.47589 What Does It Do ? This function rounds a number to a specified amount od decimal places.D8) -3 14000 =ROUND(C9. Syntax =ROUND(NumberToRound.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .5 =ROUND(C5.47589 13643.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I ROUND Page 75 of 223 J 1 2 Places To Rounded Round Number 0 1 =ROUND(C4.DecimalPlacesToUse) Formatting No special formatting is needed.D9) 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Number 1.D5) 2 1.D4) 1 1.D6) -1 13640 =ROUND(C7.

4 is Simplified.3) =ROMAN(C14. This is used if no format is specified.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .FALSE) What Does It Do ? This function produces a number shown as Roman numerals in various formats. TRUE is Classic FALSE is Simplified Formatting No special formatting is needed. Syntax =ROMAN(NormalNumber.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I ROMAN Page 76 of 223 J 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 Number 1 2 3 5 10 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 Roman I II III V X MCMXCVIII MCMXCVIII MLMVLIII MXMVIII MVMIII MVMIII MCMXCVIII MVMIII =ROMAN(C4) =ROMAN(C5) =ROMAN(C6) =ROMAN(C7) =ROMAN(C8) =ROMAN(C9) =ROMAN(C10. 2 is even more Concise. 0 is Classic. .TRUE) =ROMAN(C16. 3 is even more Concise still.4) =ROMAN(C15.RomanNumberFormat) The RomanNumberFormat can be any of the following. Note There is no function to do the opposite calculation of Roman to normal. 1 is more Concise.0) =ROMAN(C11.2) =ROMAN(C13.1) =ROMAN(C12.

LEN(C29)-FIND(" ".D5) =RIGHT(C6.LEN(C30)-FIND(" ".2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I RIGHT Page 77 of 223 J 1 2 Original Text Alan Jones Alan Jones Alan Jones Cardiff ABC123 Number Of Characters Required 1 2 3 6 4 Right String s es nes ardiff C123 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 =RIGHT(C4.C29)) Carol Williams Williams =RIGHT(C30. The =RIGHT() function can then extract the second name.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .C28)) Bob Smith Smith =RIGHT(C29.LEN(C28)-FIND(" ".D8) What Does It Do ? This function displays a specified number of characters from the right hand side of a piece of text. The length of the second name is calculated by subtracting the position of the space from the overall length of the full name. Syntax =RIGHT(OriginalText.C30)) . Example The following table was used to extract the second name of a person from their full name. Full Name Second Name Alan Jones Jones =RIGHT(C28. The =FIND() function locates the position of the space between the first and second name.D7) =RIGHT(C8.NumberOfCharactersRequired) Formatting No special formatting is needed.D4) =RIGHT(C5.D6) =RIGHT(C7.

The =REPT() function uses the value of Sales.D4) =REPT(C5."00") .000 £2.SECOND(NOW()))&" "&TEXT(SECOND(NOW()). To update the clock press the function key F9. Syntax =REPT(TextToRepeat.HOUR(NOW()))&" "&TEXT(HOUR(NOW()). Formatting No special formatting is needed.D29/100) Example 2 The =REPT() function has been used to make a digital display for the current time."00") =REPT("|".Repetitions) The maximum number of repetitions is 200. Clock Hour |||||| 06 Minute | 01 Second |||||||| 08 =REPT("|".MINUTE(NOW()))&" "&TEXT(MINUTE(NOW()).D7) What Does It Do ? This function repeats a piece of text a specified number of times.000 |||||||||||||||||||| |||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||| |||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||| |||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||| =REPT("||".000 £5.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I REPT Page 78 of 223 J 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 Text To Number Of Repeat Repeats A 3 AB 3 10 | 10 Repeated Text AAA ABABAB ---------|||||||||| =REPT(C4. =MINUTE() and =SECOND() have been used in conjunction with the =NOW() as the basis for the number of repeats.000 £3."00") =REPT("|".Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .D5) =REPT(C6. Month Jan Feb Mar Apr Sales £1. Example 1 The following table was used to display a simple histogram of sales figures. The time functions of =HOUR(). but this is divided by 100 to scale down the number of repetitions to below the maximum of 200. You need to specify the text to be repeated and how many times to repeat it.D6) =REPT(C7.

StartPosition. 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 .D5.E6.F4) ABCDEFGH 2 5 x AxGH =REPLACE(C5.F7) What Does It Do ? This function replaces a portion of text with a new piece of text.F5) ABCDEFGH 2 1 hello AhelloCDEFGH =REPLACE(C6. how many characters to remove and what the new replacement text should be.NewText) Formatting No special formatting is needed.E5.D7.NumberOfCharactersToReplace.D6. You need to specify where the replacement should start. Syntax =REPLACE(OriginalText.E4.E7.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I REPLACE Page 79 of 223 J 1 2 Start Characters New Modified Text Original Text Position To Replace Character ABCDEFGH 2 1 x AxCDEFGH =REPLACE(C4.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .D4.F6) ABCDEFGH 2 5 hello AhelloGH =REPLACE(C7.

C11:C15.C18:C22) =RANK(C20.C4:C8) =RANK(C6.ListOfNumbers.1) =RANK(C15.1) =RANK(C12. 20.C4:C8) =RANK(C8. .Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . but would take into account the fact that there were duplicates.C18:C22) =RANK(C22.C11:C15.1) 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 Values 10 30 20 30 40 Ranking Position High to Low 5 2 4 2 1 =RANK(C18. Using 1 will rank small numbers at the top.1) =RANK(C13. 20 and 10 were ranked.C4:C8) =RANK(C5. Using 0 will rank larger numbers at the top. both 20's are ranked as 2.B34:B37) =RANK(B37.C11:C15. leaving it out has the same effect). (This is optional.1) =RANK(C14.B34:B37) Syntax =RANK(NumberToRank. If the numbers 30.C4:C8) 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Values 7 4 25 8 16 Ranking Position Low to High 2 1 5 3 4 =RANK(C11.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I RANK Page 80 of 223 J 1 2 Ranking Position High to Low 4 5 1 3 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Values 7 4 25 8 16 =RANK(C4. Value 30 20 20 10 Rank 1 2 2 4 =RANK(B34. 30 is ranked as 1. A typical usage would be to rank the times of athletes in a race to find the winner. Formatting No special formatting is needed.B34:B37) =RANK(B35. they will be assigned the same rank.C18:C22) =RANK(C19.B34:B37) =RANK(B36.C4:C8) =RANK(C7. If there are duplicate values in the list.C11:C15.C18:C22) What Does It Do ? This function calculates the position of a value in a list relative to the other values in the list.RankOrder) The RankOrder can be 0 zero or 1. and the 10 would be ranked as 4.C18:C22) =RANK(C21.C11:C15. The ranking can be done on an ascending (low to high) or descending (high to low) basis. Subsequent ranks would not follow on sequentially.

1) =RANK(C57.2000 Peter Noneley A 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 B C D E F G H I RANK Page 81 of 223 J Example The following table was used to record the times for athletes competing in a race.C53:C58. The =RANK() function was then used to find their race positions based upon the finishing times.C53:C58.1) =RANK(C56.1) =RANK(C55.C53:C58.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .C53:C58.1) . Athlete John Alan David Brian Sue Alex Time 1:30 1:45 1:02 1:36 1:27 1:03 Race Position 4 6 1 5 3 2 =RANK(C53.1) =RANK(C54.C53:C58.1) =RANK(C58.C53:C58.

$D$24) =RANDBETWEEN($C$24. The random number will change each time the spreadsheet is recalculated or F9 is pressed. The Winning Ticket! 47 23 2 10 39 14 33 Lottery Numbers 1 49 Press function Key F9 to recalculate.$D$24) =RANDBETWEEN($C$24.$D$24) =RANDBETWEEN($C$24."All OK")} This formula is used to determine whether all the numbers are different.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I RANDBETWEEN Page 82 of 223 J 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 Low 5 1 High 10 49 Random 7 16 =RANDBETWEEN(C4. It is entered as an array using Ctrl+Shift+Enter.$D$24) =RANDBETWEEN($C$24. =RANDBETWEEN($C$24. the same number could be generated twice or more.E24:E30))<>7. .$D$24) =RANDBETWEEN($C$24.$D$24) Number 1 Number 2 Number 3 Number 4 Number 5 Number 6 Bonus ball All OK {=IF(SUM(1/COUNTIF(E24:E30.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 ."Duplicates! Spin again".D4) =RANDBETWEEN(C5.$D$24) =RANDBETWEEN($C$24.D5) What Does It Do ? This function produces a random whole number between two specified numbers. Example The following table shows how the =RANDBETWEEN() has been used to generate six numbers to use for the National Lottery. Note that the function does not check to ensure all numbers are unique. Syntax =RANDOMBETWEEN(LowLimit.HighLimit) Formatting No special formatting is needed.

540310494 0.885142 0.87999974 0.451846904 0.629549346 0.515793053 0.084633 0.253972 0.49901519 0.752791233 0.89302 0.903825887 0. By clicking inside the random numbers and then using Data.161418501 =RAND() Random greater than or equal to 0 but less than 10 5. Card Clubs 8 Clubs 6 Diamond 9 Spades 13 Clubs 9 Diamond 7 Diamond 4 Clubs 10 Spades 3 Hearts 6 Hearts 4 Diamond 8 Hearts 11 Clubs 3 Clubs 13 Spades 5 Diamond 3 Spades 2 Diamond 6 Random 0.421583 0.838025778 0.047385445 0. and =RAND() in column D. The number will change each time the worksheet recalculates.447363 Lottery 29 34 30 41 40 37 26 32 21 19 7 10 16 8 48 43 44 4 3 Random 0.502294 0.341454705 0. Examples The following examples show how the =RAND() function has been used to randomly sort list of information.16359076 0.433562129 0.862057332 =RAND()*10 Random between 5 and 10.06335 0. 7.943812688 0.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I RAND Page 83 of 223 J 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 Random greater than or equal to 0 but less than 1.816429 0. A list of cards has been entered in column C.463867 0. Sort or the Sort button the cards will be shuffled. 0.047331 0.721893 0.601474925 .511249 0.047146 0.481324 0. Syntax =RAND() Formatting No special formatting is needed.924109 0. The same technique has been used to generate a list of six winning lottery numbers.43385 0.232232 0.761685018 0.93683561 0.42656294 0.545025105 0.375800588 =RAND()*(10-5)+5 What Does It Do ? This function creates a random number >=0 but <1.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . or when F9 is pressed.41869 0.

2000 Peter Noneley A 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 B C Clubs 5 Spades 1 Clubs 12 Hearts 10 Hearts 13 Spades 7 Spades 6 Diamond 12 Hearts 3 Hearts 5 Hearts 8 Hearts 1 Diamond 13 Hearts 9 Clubs 4 Diamond 5 Spades 4 Clubs 1 Spades 8 Hearts 7 Diamond 1 Clubs 2 Hearts 2 Diamond 11 Clubs 7 Spades 12 Spades 10 Clubs 11 Diamond 2 Diamond 10 Spades 9 Spades 11 Hearts 12 D 0.501106 0.218082066 0.533933 0.59809 0.262773775 0.380286326 0.966197 0.312606 0.284089544 0.45631707 0.222865 0.53061306 0.56767 0.010523457 0.256528 0.513179077 0.154033 0.126585219 0.711467713 0.361042 0.52747 0.478434 E F 45 47 49 35 27 1 13 31 5 18 39 23 12 11 20 33 42 24 2 14 25 9 38 15 28 17 6 22 46 36 G 0.578227 0.819793048 0.340701 0.240923 0.015471 0.059405 0.624183402 0.152231214 H I RAND Page 84 of 223 J .326109348 0.464051284 0.361135619 0.749133524 0.278271036 0.583450503 0.79005 0.507245 0.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .248101926 0.261408813 0.138608 0.049771 0.096353 0.119613406 0.284616938 0.666006 0.084595 0.866224729 0.624584 0.809265919 0.342332 0.01432 0.749507 0.512998915 0.209247171 0.727353995 0.476471361 0.158718 0.045112 0.585139 0.438158 0.939751946 0.934351 0.

Table 2 Bottles To Pack Item Wine 126 Champagne 200 Rum 15 Beer 250 Bottles Per Crate 12 8 6 20 Crates Needed 10 25 2 12 =QUOTIENT(D39.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G QUOTIENT Page 85 of 223 H 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 Number 12 20 46 Divisor 5 3 15 Result 2 6 3 =QUOTIENT(C4. only showing the whole number. Syntax =QUOTIENT(NumberToBeDivided.Divisor) Formatting No special formatting is needed. Example The following example was used by a drinks merchant to calculate the number of crates which could be packed using bottles in stock. Table 1 calculates the crates by simple division.D4) =QUOTIENT(C5.E39) . Table 1 Bottles To Pack Item Wine 126 Champagne 200 Rum 15 Beer 250 Bottles Per Crate 12 8 4 20 Crates Needed 10. The merchant can only sell full crates.5 =D28/E28 Table 2 uses the =QUOTIENT() function to remove the decimal fraction to give the correct result.75 12.5 25 3. It ignores any remainder.D5) =QUOTIENT(C6.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .D6) What Does It Do ? This function calculates the number of times a number can be divided by another number. This however shows decimal fractions which are not needed.

QuartileValue) The QuartileValue can only be 0.E4) 1 25 =QUARTILE(C4:C8.E8) Values 817 748 372 487 140 104 756 993 384 607 640 369 294 185 894 767 703 261 491 182 Quarter No. The Quartile of 4 is actually highest value.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I J K QUARTILE Page 86 of 223 L 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 Values 1 25 50 75 100 Quarter No.H16) What Does It Do ? This function examines a group of values and then shows the values which are of the upper limits of the 1st.75 =QUARTILE(C12:F16.E7) 4 100 =QUARTILE(C4:C8. The Quartile of 0 (zero) is actually lowest value. Formatting No special formatting is needed.H12) 1 285. . Quartile 0 104 =QUARTILE(C12:F16. which can be obtained using the =MAX() function.1.H14) 3 750 =QUARTILE(C12:F16. 2nd. which can be obtained using the =MIN() function.E5) 2 50 =QUARTILE(C4:C8.E6) 3 75 =QUARTILE(C4:C8.H15) 4 993 =QUARTILE(C12:F16.3 or 4.H13) 2 489 =QUARTILE(C12:F16. 3rd and 4th quarters of the data.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .2. Quartile 0 1 =QUARTILE(C4:C8. Syntax =QUARTILE(RangeToBeExamined.

2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I PROPER Page 87 of 223 J 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Original Text alan jones bob smith caRol wILLIAMS cardiff ABC123 Proper Alan Jones Bob Smith Carol Williams Cardiff Abc123 =PROPER(C4) =PROPER(C5) =PROPER(C6) =PROPER(C7) =PROPER(C8) What Does It Do ? This function converts the first letter of each word to uppercase.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . and all subsequent letters are converted to lower case. Syntax =PROPER(TextToConvert) Formatting No special formatting is needed. .

Syntax =PRODUCT(Number1.Number3..Number2. It is the same as using 2*3*5*10*3*7.Range. .Number2. which results in 6300...2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I PRODUCT Page 88 of 223 J 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 Numbers 2 5 3 3 10 7 Product 6 50 210 6300 =PRODUCT(C4..Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . through to Number30) or =PRODUCT(RangeOfNumbers) or =PRODUCT(Number1.D4) =PRODUCT(C5:D5) =PRODUCT(C6:D6.10) =PRODUCT(C4:D6) What Does It Do ? This function multiples a group of numbers together.) Formatting No special formatting is needed.

2) . Radius 5 25 Area 78.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .Power) Formatting No special formatting is needed.50 =PI()*POWER(C22. Syntax =POWER(NumberToBeRaised.D7) What Does It Do ? This function raises a number to a user specified power. It is the same as using the ^ operator. Example To calculate the area of a circle.D5) =POWER(C6.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I POWER Page 89 of 223 J 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Number 3 3 5 5 Power 2 4 2 4 Result 9 81 25 625 =POWER(C4.54 1963. which result is 81. Both the POWER() function and the ^ operator are the same as using 3*3*3*3. such as 3^4.D4) =POWER(C5.D6) =POWER(C7.

Example To calculate the area of a circle.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I PI Page 90 of 223 J 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 p 3.54 1963. It does not need any input.14159265358979 =PI() What Does It Do ? This function is equal to the value of Pi. It is correct to 15 decimal places. Radius 5 25 Area 78. it is a self contained function. Syntax =PI() Formatting No special formatting is needed.50 =PI()*(C21^2) .

600 =PERMUT(C4. It could be used to calculate the possible number of 4 digit passwords from the digits 0 to 9.000 In the case of a two letter password made from the letter A.928.765.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H PERMUT Page 91 of 223 I 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 Pool Of Items 4 4 10 26 Items In A Group 2 3 4 6 Permutations 12 24 5040 165.ItemsInAGroup) Formatting No special formatting is needed. Syntax =PERMUT(PoolToPickFrom.D4) =PERMUT(C5. B.D6) =PERMUT(C7.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . The internal order is significant.990. Example The following table was used to calculate the total number of 8 letter passwords which can be created by using all 26 letters of the alphabet. the following twelve permutations would be possible. so AB and BA will be considered as two possible permutations. C and D. Letter In Alphabet 26 Password Size 8 Permutations 62. ABCD Password 1 Password 2 Password 3 Password 4 Password 5 Password 6 AB AC AD BC BD CD Password 7 Password 8 Password 9 Password 10 Password 11 Password 12 BA CA DA CB DB DC .D7) What Does It Do ? This function calculates the maximum number of permutations given a fixed number of items.D5) =PERMUT(C6.

260 £ 1.170 £ 1.350 1.620 £ 1. Scenario A garage fits exhaust systems.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I Ordering Stock Page 92 of 223 J 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 This is an example of a spreadsheet to calculate the best time interval to order stock.000 7.125 183 £ 4.305 1.500 27.500 15. The manager orders the exhausts on a regular basis.170 4.440 £ 1.795 1.480 1.575 92 £ 2. (As a % of the stock value) : Quantity of Exhausts used per day : Admin cost each time new Exhausts are ordered : Average quantity of Exhausts in stock (As % of ordered quantity) : Ordering Intervals to evaluate.295 1.000 13.500 9. (Expressed in Days) : Suppliers first Price Break and Discount% offered : Suppliers second Price Break and Discount% offered : Output Ordering Interval In Days 1 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 Annual Orders Admin Per Year Cost 365 £ 9.000 22.300 61 £ 1. The supplier of the Exhausts gives a discount on large orders.000 28.665 2. Objective Find the time interval to order stock which will result in the lowest Admin and Warehouse costs.500 30. The exhausts are kept in stock until needed.510 1.500 18.525 46 £ 1.800 The Best Ordering Interval Best £75 12% 10 £25 0.315 1.000 10.550 1.375 1. Input Data Cost of a single Exhaust system : Cost of keeping Exhaust in stock.150 37 £ 925 31 £ 775 27 £ 675 23 £ 575 21 £ 525 19 £ 475 17 £ 425 16 £ 400 15 £ 375 14 £ 350 13 £ 325 12 £ 300 11 £ 275 11 £ 275 10 £ 250 10 £ 250 Annual Ware house Costs £ 45 £ 90 £ 180 £ 270 £ 360 £ 450 £ 540 £ 630 £ 720 £ 810 £ 900 £ 990 £ 1.530 £ 1.080 £ 1.335 1.300 1.450 1. there is a fixed administrative cost.000 Order Discount £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ 150 £ 165 £ 180 £ 195 £ 210 £ 225 £ 240 £ 255 £ 270 £ 285 £ 300 £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ Annual Total 9.000 16. Keeping the exhausts in stock incurs a cost due to capital tied up and warehouse costs. Each time an order is made for new stock.500 1.000 19.350 £ 1.625 1.500 24.750 .500 12.675 1.710 £ 1.250 1.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .400 1.000 4.500 3.225 1.500 21.5 2 200 750 1% 5% 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 Quantity Per Order 10 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ Order Value 750 1.000 25.500 6.

890 1. Change the Ordering Interval to 1 or 30.425 I - Ordering Stock Page 93 of 223 J 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ Things To Try Change the Discount % to 0% and 0%. Change the Quantity used per day to a larger or smaller number.B29<$G$25). then the first Price Break discount is used.700 H 1.$H$25.2000 Peter Noneley A 42 44 46 48 50 52 54 56 58 60 B 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 580 600 C 31. Calculation : OrderValue * SupplierDiscount The supplier discount is calculated using the =IF() and the =AND() functions. =C29*IF(AND(B29>=$G$24.340 2. The third and subsequent cells add the ordering interval to the previous cell to create a list of values of the same interval. Explanation Column A Ordering Interval In Days The first of these cells has the value 1 entered in it. This is the smallest ordering period. 0)) . which would require stock to be ordered every day.520 2.000 40.$H$24.075 2.B29<$G$25).875 1.925 2.$H$25. =C29*IF(AND(B29>=$G$24.B29<$G$25). Change the Cost of the Exhaust making it cheaper or more expensive.160 2. The second cell picks the ordering interval from the Input Data table.IF(B29>=$G$25.000 43.$H$25.610 2.200 2.500 39.800 1.000 2.350 2. If the OrderQuantity is equal to or above the first Price Break.000 D 315 330 345 360 375 390 405 420 435 450 E 9 9 8 8 8 8 7 7 7 7 F £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ 225 225 200 200 200 200 175 175 175 175 £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ G 1. the second Price Break discount is used. zero discount is used.000 34.500 42.500 36. =C29*IF(AND(B29>=$G$24.430 2.980 2.0)) If the OrderQuantity is equal to or above the second Price Break.000 37. Column B Quantity Per Order This is the number of Exhausts which will need to be ordered. but below the second Price Break.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Calculation : OrderingInterval * QuantityUsedPerDay Column C Order Value This is the value of the Order before any discount.500 33.150 2. The discount is only given on orders which are equal to or greater than the Price Break values set by the supplier.500 45. Calculation : QuantityOrdered * CostOfExhaust Column D Order Discount The discount which can be subtracted from the order value.070 2.250 2.275 2.$H$24.IF(B29>=$G$25.IF(B29>=$G$25.$H$24.0)) If the OrderQuantity does not qualify for a discount.

=IF(H29=MIN($H$29:$H$59). However. With an interval of 1.OrderDiscount =F29+G29-D29 Column I The Best Ordering Interval This shows the Best ordering interval. as the manager only wants to know what the lowest values for the overheads associated with ordering and storing the exhaust systems."Best". Calculation : QuantityOrdered * AverageStockLevel) * ExhaustCost * WarehousingCost =(B29*$G$21)*$G$17*$G$18 Column H Annual Total This is the full yearly cost of ordering the Exhausts.1) Column F Annual Admin Costs This is the administration costs involved in making the orders. It does not take in to account the actual costs of the Exhausts. such as 2.3 This decimal will cause problems. otherwise a dash is shown."-") I Ordering Stock Page 94 of 223 J 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 . It compares the value in column H against the minimum value for all of column H. =CEILING(365/A29. the Discount figure is taken into account as this can be used to offset some of the overheads. giving the lowest annual overheads. If the two values match the word Best is shown. Calculation : 365/OrderingInterval This calculation may give results which are decimal. The =CEILING() function has been used to 'round up' any decimals to the next highest whole number.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H Column E Orders Per Year This is how many orders will need to be made based upon the ordering interval. due to the fact that the number of orders must always be a whole number. Calculation : OrdersPerYear * AdminCost =E29*$G$20 Column G Annual Warehouse Costs This is the cost of keeping the stock in the warehouse. there will have to be 365 orders. It is based on the managers knowledge that on average the stock level is 50% of the quantity ordered. based upon how frequently the orders are made. Calculation : AnnualAdminCosts + AnnualWarehouseCosts .Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .

Test2) Note that there can be up to 30 possible tests. It can be used to test that at least one of a series of numbers meets certain conditions.5. Normally the OR() function would be used in conjunction with a function such as =IF().E5="Delta").0) =IF(OR(E6="Visa".5.0) =IF(OR(E5="Visa". Example The following table shows a list of orders taken by a company.5.0) =IF(OR(E7="Visa".0) What Does It Do? This function tests two or more conditions to see if any of them are true.E4="Delta"). AB001 AB002 AB003 AB004 Cost 1000 1000 2000 5000 . The =OR() function has been used to determine whether the charge needs to be applied.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .E27="Delta").0) £ 5 £ £ 5 Order No.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I J OR Page 95 of 223 K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 Order No. Payment Type Cash Visa Cheque Delta Handling Charge £ =IF(OR(E27="Visa".5.5. Formatting When used by itself it will show TRUE or FALSE.E6="Delta"). AB001 AB002 AB003 AB004 Cost 1000 1000 2000 5000 Payment Type Cash Visa Cheque Delta Handling Charge £ £ 5 £ £ 5 =IF(OR(E4="Visa". Syntax =OR(Test1. A handling charge of £5 is made on all orders paid by Visa or Delta cards.E7="Delta").

.4 3.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Syntax =ODD(NumberToBeRounded) Formatting No special formatting is needed.4 2.9 3 3.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I ODD Page 96 of 223 J 1 2 Rounded To Next Odd 3 3 3 3 5 5 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Number 2 2.9 =ODD(C4) =ODD(C5) =ODD(C6) =ODD(C7) =ODD(C8) =ODD(C9) What Does It Do ? This function rounds a number up to the next highest whole odd number.

If it is formatted to show as a number the integer part is used for the date and the decimal portion represent the time. The result will be updated each time the worksheet is opened and every time an entry is made anywhere on the worksheet. Syntax =NOW() Formatting The result will be shown as a date and time.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . .25079 =NOW() What Does It Do? This function shows the current date and time.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H NOW Page 97 of 223 I 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 The current Date and Time 6/16/2013 6:01 =NOW() 41441.

Formatting No special formatting is needed."OK") =IF(NOT(D34<=B34+C34). (A type of reverse logic). otherwise OK is shown. The period of the Loan is entered. The date the book was returned is entered.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . by adding the Loan value to the Taken date. The =NOT() function has been used to calculate whether the book was returned within the correct time. Syntax =NOT(TestToPerform) The TestToPerform can be reference to cells or another calculation. Example The following table was used by a library to track books borrowed."OK") =IF(NOT(D35<=B35+C35). Taken 1-Jan-98 1-Jan-98 1-Jan-98 Loan 14 14 14 Returned Status 5-Jan-98 OK 15-Jan-98 OK 20-Jan-98 Overdue =IF(NOT(D33<=B33+C33)."Overdue"."Overdue". then the result is FALSE."Overdue". the result is TRUE.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I J NOT Page 98 of 223 K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 Cells To Test 10 20 10 20 10 20 1-Jan-98 1-Feb-98 Hello Goodbye Hello Hello Result TRUE TRUE FALSE TRUE TRUE FALSE =NOT(C4>D4) =NOT(C5=D5) =NOT(C6<D6) =NOT(C7>D7) =NOT(C8=D8) =NOT(C9=D9) What Does It Do ? This function performs a test to see if the test fails. If the test fails. The date the book was Taken out is entered. If the book was not returned on time the result Overdue is shown. If the test is met."OK") .

Start Date Mon 02-Mar-98 Mon 02-Mar-98 Mon 27-Apr-98 End Date Fri 06-Mar-98 Fri 13-Mar-98 Fri 01-May-98 Holidays 1-May-98 25-Dec-98 1-Jan-97 1-Jan-98 1-Jan-99 Work Days 5 10 4 =NETWORKDAYS(B28.C29.D6) What Does It Do? This function will calculate the number of working days between two dates. It will exclude weekends and any holidays. Note The calculation does not include the last day.EndDate. Syntax =NETWORKDAYS(StartDate.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .C33:C37) =NETWORKDAYS(B29. Formatting The result will be shown as a number.D4) =NETWORKDAYS(C5.C33:C37) =NETWORKDAYS(B30. such as Xmas and Bank holidays.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F NETWORKDAYS Page 99 of 223 G 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 Start Date 1-Mar-98 25-Apr-98 24-Dec-98 End Date 7-Mar-98 30-Jul-98 5-Jan-99 Work Days 5 69 9 =NETWORKDAYS(C4. The result of using 1-Jan-98 and 5-Jan-98 will give a result of 4. =NETWORKDAYS(Start. To correct this add 1 to the result.End.D5) =NETWORKDAYS(C6.C33:C37) Bank Holiday Xmas New Year New Year New Year .Holidays) Holidays : This is a list of dates which will be excluded from the calculation.C28.C30.Holidays)+1 Example The following example shows how a list of Holidays can be created.

NA(). Table 2 Alan Bob Carol Salary 1000 1000 1000 Tax % 25% #N/A 20% Pay 750 #N/A 800 =C49-C49*D49 =C50-C50*D50 =C51-C51*D51 .Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . The Tax is then deducted from the Salary to calculate the Wage. Syntax =NA() Formatting No special formatting is required. Table 1 Alan Bob Carol Salary 1000 1000 1000 Tax % 25% 20% Pay 750 1000 800 =C39-C39*D39 =C40-C40*D40 =C41-C41*D41 Table 2 shows how the =NA() has been inserted in the unknown Tax to act as a reminder that the Tax still needs to be entered. The Salary and Tax percentage are entered. any calculations which depend upon the cell will also show #NA. On a large spreadsheet this may go unnoticed and the wrong Wage paid. Table 1 shows that when the Tax is not entered. Example The following table was used by a company to calculate the monthly Wage of an employee.C6+1) =IF(ISBLANK(C7).NA().C7+1) =IF(ISBLANK(C8). When the =NA() is used.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I J NA Page 100 of 223 K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 #N/A Value 10 30 Test 11 #N/A 31 Sales 100 #N/A #N/A 200 #N/A =NA() =IF(ISBLANK(C6).NA(). the Wage is still calculated.C8+1) North South East West Total =NA() =NA() =SUM(D11:D14) What Does It Do ? This function is a place marker used to indicate that required information is Not Available. It can be type directly in to a cell as =NA() or it can be used as part of a calculation. It is used to indicate that all the data has not yet been entered in to the spreadsheet.

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .035 =N(C7) 25-Dec-98 36154 =N(C8) TRUE 1 =N(C9) FALSE 0 =N(C10) Hello 0 =N(C11) 0 =N(C12) What Does It Do ? This function converts a numeric entry to its mathematical value.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I N Page 101 of 223 J K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 Original Converted 1 1 =N(C4) 3 1/2 3. Excel does not really need this function. Syntax =N(NumericEntry) Formatting No special formatting is needed.50% 0.5 =N(C6) 3.5 3. The function is included for compatibility with other spreadsheet programs. due to the fact that Excel calculates in this way naturally. Anything which will not convert is shown as 0 zero. .5 =N(C5) 3.

Syntax =MROUND(NumberToRound.D4) =MROUND(C5.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .D7) =MROUND(C8.D8) What Does It Do ? This function rounds a number up or down to the nearest multiple specified by the user. .MultipleToUse) Formatting No special formatting is needed.D6) =MROUND(C7.D5) =MROUND(C6.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I J MROUND Page 102 of 223 K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 Number 110 120 150 160 170 Multiple 50 50 50 50 50 Rounded Value 100 100 150 150 150 =MROUND(C4.

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . but this can be formatted to show the actual month by using Format. Syntax =MONTH(Date) Formatting Normally the result will be a number.Cells.Number. Please enter your date of birth in the format dd/mm/yy You were born in 3/25/1962 January =MONTH(F20) .2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G MONTH Page 103 of 223 H 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 Original Date 1-Jan-98 1-Jan-98 Month 1 January =MONTH(C4) =MONTH(C5) What Does It Do? This function extracts the month from a complete date.Custom and using the code mmm or mmmm. Example The =MONTH function has been used to calculate the name of the month for your birthday.

Order 001 002 003 004 005 006 007 008 009 010 011 012 013 014 015 016 017 018 019 020 Garmet Blouse Skirt Shirt Blouse Skirt Dress Shirt Blouse Dress Shirt Dress Skirt Skirt Shirt Dress Shirt Blouse Blouse Dress Skirt Size 10 10 8 10 12 8 10 10 8 10 12 12 10 10 8 10 10 8 10 8 Most frequently ordered size : 10 =MODE(D33:D52) Count of size 8 : 6 =COUNTIF(D33:D52.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I J MODE Page 104 of 224 K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 Value1 20 40 10 20 10 10 Value2 50 20 10 20 20 20 Value3 10 40 99 99 20 30 Value4 10 10 20 10 99 40 Value5 40 40 20 10 10 50 Mode 10 40 10 20 10 #N/A =MODE(C4:G4) =MODE(C6:G6) =MODE(C8:G8) =MODE(C9:G9) =MODE(C10:G10) =MODE(C12:G12) What Does It Do ? This function displays the most frequently occurring number in a group of numbers. (Which is not really an accurate answer!) Syntax =MODE(Range1. the number closest to the beginning of the group will be used.Range2.Range3. The shopkeeper wants to keep track of the most commonly sold size."8") 11 =COUNTIF(D33:D52. If all the values in the group are unique the function shows the error #N/A.."12") Count of size 10 : Count of size 12 : . Example The following table shows garments sold in a clothes shop."10") 3 =COUNTIF(D33:D52. For it to work correctly there must be at least two numbers which are the same.. The =MODE() function has been used to calulate this. through to Range30) Formatting No special formatting is needed.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . When there is more than one set of duplicates.

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .2000 Peter Noneley A 53 54 55 56 B C D E F G H I J MODE Page 105 of 224 K Note If the =AVERAGE() function had been used the answer would have been : This figure is of no benefit to the shopkeeper as there are no garmets of this size! 9.7 .

D5) =MOD(C6.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I MOD Page 106 of 223 J 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 Number 12 20 18 9 24 Divisor 5 7 3 2 7 Remainder 2 6 0 1 3 =MOD(C4.D8) What Does It Do ? This function calculates the remainder after a number has been divided by another number.D4) =MOD(C5. .Divisor) Formatting No special formatting is needed.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .D7) =MOD(C8.D6) =MOD(C7. Syntax =MOD(Number.

The number of rows in the Result should be equal to the rows in Range1. The formula then showed the correct result. The types of chocolate produced were Milk.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .500 {=MMULT(C32:E32. The company boxed the chocolates in three differing mixtures of Milk. Example The following tables were used by a company producing boxes of chocolates.C26:E28) was typed. Dark and White.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I MMULT Page 107 of 223 J K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 What Does It Do ? This function multiplies one range of values with another range of values.C26:E28)} In all three cells How It Was Done Cells C36 to E36 were selected. It is an Array function and must be entered using the Ctrl+Shift+Enter combination.000 25.Range2) Formatting No special formatting is needed. Chocolates in the box Milk Dark White 50 50 50 30 20 10 20 5 5 Customers Orders Giant Standard Economy 300 400 500 Quantity To Produce Milk Dark White 37. The result of the =MMULT() is the total number of each type of chocolate to produce. The formula =MMULT(C32:E32. In the run up to Christmas customers ordered various quantities of each box. The chocolate company now needed to know what quantity of each type of chocolate to produce. Example 2 Size Giant Standard Economy . The ranges do not have to be of equal size. The dimensions of the result range is in direct proportion to dimensions of the two input ranges. The keys Ctrl+Shift+Enter were pressed to confirm the entry as an array. The number of columns in the Result should be equal to the columns in Range2. Dark and White. Syntax =MMULT(Range1. Getting The Dimensions Correct The dimensions of the Result range are directly related to the two input ranges. (but not yet entered). The =MMULT() function was used to multiply the contents of boxes by the customer orders.500 21.

I MMULT Page 108 of 223 J K The company has four factories. set all values in Range1 and Range2 to zero 0.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . and the width of the Result is the same as the width of Range 2. Eggs and Sugar to ensure they can meet production targets. Eggs and Sugar needed to make 1 unit of Milk or Plain. then change a single value in each. .2000 Peter Noneley A 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 B C D E F G H The following tables were used by the chocolate company to calculate the amount of ingredients needed to produce batches of chocolate. Range 1 Milk Dark 20 0 20 1 10 5 20 10 Result Eggs 60 62 40 80 Range 2 Eggs 3 2 Production Factory 1 Factory 2 Factory 3 Factory 4 Ingredients Milk Dark Butter 1 2 Sugar 10 5 Ingredients To Order Factory 1 Factory 2 Factory 3 Factory 4 Butter 20 22 20 40 Sugar 200 205 125 250 {=MMULT(C69:D72. The Result range shows the quantities of each ingredient that will have to be ordered to meet the production target.G69:I70)} In all cells Hint To get a feel for how the =MMULT() function operates. Note the depth of the Result is the same as the depth of Range 1. Range 2 contains the amount Butter. Range 1 contains the planned production of Milk and Dark chocolate for each factory. each of which has to order enough Butter.

=MINUTE() and =SECOND() have been used in conjunction with the =NOW() as the basis for the number of repeats."00") =REPT("|". Only the fraction part of the number is used as it is this which relates to time of day.75 2 0.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H MINUTE Page 109 of 224 I J 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 Number 6/16/2013 6:01 9:15:00 PM 0. Syntax =MINUTE(Number) Formatting The result will be shown as a normal number between 0 and 59.02 0. Enter a time in hh:mm format : The same time converted to a decimal : To extract the hours as a decimal : To extract the minutes as a decimal : 2:45 2.52 Minute 1 15 28 28 28 =MINUTE(D4) =MINUTE(D5) =MINUTE(D6) =MINUTE(D7) =MINUTE(D8) What Does It Do? The function will show the minute of the hour based upon a time or a number."00") =REPT("|".Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . To update the clock press the function key F9. The time functions of =HOUR().75 3:45 3:00 =F49/24 =INT(F49)/24 . Enter a time in decimal format : The same time converted to hh:mm format is : To extract the hours in hh:mm format : 3.1) To convert a time in decimal format to hh:mm format. Example The =REPT() function has been used to make a digital display for the current time. Clock Hour |||||| 06 Minute | 01 Second |||||||| 08 =REPT("|".75 =F38*24 =INT(F38*24) =MOD(F38*24."00") Related Information To convert a time in hh:mm format to decimal format.MINUTE(NOW()))&" "&TEXT(MINUTE(NOW()).52 1.HOUR(NOW()))&" "&TEXT(HOUR(NOW()).SECOND(NOW()))&" "&TEXT(SECOND(NOW()).

Time command. .Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .2000 Peter Noneley A 55 56 57 58 B C D E To extract the minutes in hh:mm format : F 0:45 G H =MOD(F49. Number. Cells.1)/24 MINUTE Page 110 of 224 I J The three formula above have also been formatted as hh:mm using the Format.

through to Range30) Formatting No special formatting is needed.500 Feb £6.000 £3. 4-Jul-98 =MIN(C7:G7) Example In the following example the =MIN() function has been used to find the lowest value for each region.Range3.000 £6.000 £2.000 £2.000 Overall MIN £2. Syntax =MIN(Range1.000 £4.000 £7. month and overall.000 £4.000 £5.000 £10.000 £3.800 £3.500 £12.500 £3. Sales North South East West Month MIN Jan £5.000 Mar £4.500 =MIN(C23:E23) £3.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I MIN Page 111 of 223 J 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 Values 120 800 100 120 250 Minimum 100 Maximum 1-Jan-98 =MIN(C4:G4) Dates 1-Jan-98 25-Dec-98 31-Mar-98 27-Dec-98 What Does It Do ? This function picks the lowest value from a list of data.000 £2.Range2.000 =MIN(C23:E26) ..Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 ..000 =MIN(E23:E26) Region Min £4.

NumberOfCharactersToPick) Formatting No special formatting is needed.D6. Example 1 The following table uses the =MID() function to extract a post code from a branch ID used by a company.5.5.2) NP =MID(C37.2) Example 2 This example shows how to extract an item which is of variable length.C50.E6) =MID(C8. other than the required text is always between two slash / symbols. only the available characters will be picked.5. Full Branch Code Postal Region DRS/STC/872 STC HDRS/FC/111 FC S/NORTH/874 NORTH HQ/K/875 K SPECIAL/UK & FR/876 UK & FR =MID(C50.12.C50)-1) .99) =MID(C13.E5) 2 ED =MID(C6.3) =MID(C9.PositionToStartPicking. If the number of characters to pick exceeds what is available.12.C50)+1.D4. The function needs to know at what point it should start.FIND("/".5.99) =MID(C14.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . It is assumed that all branch ID's follow the same format with the letters identifying the postal region being in the 5th and 6th positions.5.3) =MID(C10. Syntax =MID(OriginalText.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H MID Page 112 of 224 I 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 Text ABCDEDF ABCDEDF ABCDEDF ABC-100-DEF ABC-200-DEF ABC-300-DEF Item Size: Large Item Size: Medium Item Size: Small Start Position 1 2 5 100 200 300 Large Medium Small How Many Characters Mid String 3 ABC =MID(C4.FIND("/".FIND("/".5. and how many characters to pick.E4) 3 BCD =MID(C5. which is inside a piece of text which has no standard format.D5.2) WA =MID(C36.C50)+1)-FIND("/". Branch ID DRS-CF-476 DRS-WA-842 HLT-NP-190 Postal Region CF =MID(C35.3) =MID(C12.99) What Does It Do ? This function picks out a piece of text from the middle of a text entry.12.

by subtracting the position of the first / from the position of the second / . occurring after the first / Calculate the length of the text to extract.2000 Peter Noneley A 52 53 54 55 56 B C D E F G H MID Page 113 of 224 I Find the first /.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . plus 1 for the Start of the code. Find the second /.

it is the half way point where half the numbers in the group are larger than it and half the numbers are less than it. . the two nearest the half way point are added and their average is used as the median. through to Range30) Formatting No special formatting is needed..2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I J MEDIAN Page 114 of 223 K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 Value1 20 2000 10 Value1 20 20 Value2 50 1000 20 Value2 40 20 Value3 10 10 40 Value3 30 40 Value4 30 20 40 Value4 10 20 Value5 40 8000 40 Median 30 1000 40 Median 25 20 =MEDIAN(C4:G4) =MEDIAN(C6:G6) =MEDIAN(C8:G8) =MEDIAN(C11:F11) =MEDIAN(C13:F13) What Does It Do ? This function finds the median value of a group of values.Range3.Range2. Syntax =MEDIAN(Range1. If there is no exact median number in the group. The median is not the average..Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .

000 Month Max £12.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I MAX Page 115 of 223 J K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 Values 120 800 100 120 250 Maximum 800 =MAX(C4:G4) Dates 1-Jan-98 25-Dec-98 31-Mar-98 27-Dec-98 What Does It Do ? This function picks the highest value from a list of data..000 £7. Sales North South East West Jan £5.000 Feb £6.000 =MAX(C23:E26) .000 £7.000 £2.000 =MAX(E23:E26) Region Max £6.500 £3.000 £12.000 £10.000 Overall Max £12. month and overall..000 £10.000 £4.000 £10.000 =MAX(C23:E23) £7. 4-Jul-98 Maximum 27-Dec-98 =MAX(C7:G7) Example In the following example the =MAX() function has been used to find the highest value for each region.800 £3.Range2.000 Mar £4. through to Range30) Formatting No special formatting is needed.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .Range3.000 £5.500 £12. Syntax =MAX(Range1.000 £6.

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 - 2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I

MATCH Page 116 of 224 J K

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52

Names Bob Alan David Carol Type a name to look for : Alan Type a value :

Values 250 600 1000 4000 1000

The position of Alan is : 2 =MATCH(E9,E4:E7,0) What Does It Do ? This function looks for an item in a list and shows its position. It can be used with text and numbers. It can look for an exact match or an approximate match. Syntax =MATCH(WhatToLookFor,WhereToLook,TypeOfMatch) The TypeOfMatch either 0, 1 or -1.

Value position : 3 =MATCH(I9,I4:I7,1)

Using 0 will look for an exact match. If no match is found the #NA error will be shown. Using 1 will look for an exact match, or the next lowest number if no exact match exists. If there is no match or next lowest number the error #NA is shown. The list of values being examined must be sorted for this to work correctly. Using -1 will look for an exact match, or the next highest number if no exact match exists. If there is no exact match or next highest number the error #NA is shown. The list must be sorted for this to work properly. Examples 1 Using the 0 option suitable for an exact match. The Ascending list gives the exact match. The Descending list gives the exact match. The Wrong Value list cannot find an exact match, so the #NA is shown. Ascending 10 20 30 40 20 2 Descending 40 30 20 10 20 3 =MATCH(G45,G40:G43,0) Wrong Value 10 20 30 40 25 #N/A

Example 2 Using the 1 option suitable for a ascending list to find an exact or next lowest match. The Ascending list gives the exact match.

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 - 2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F The Descending list gives the #NA error. The Wrong Value list finds the next lowest number.. Ascending 10 20 30 40 20 2 Descending 40 30 20 10 20 #N/A G H I

MATCH Page 117 of 224 J K

53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106

Wrong Value 10 20 30 40 25 2 =MATCH(G62,G57:G60,1)

Example 3 Using the -1 option suitable for a descending list to find an exact or next highest match. The Ascending list gives the #NA error. The Descending list gives the exact match. The Wrong Value list finds the next highest number. Ascending 10 20 30 40 20 #N/A Descending 40 30 20 10 20 3 Wrong Value 40 30 20 10 25 2 =MATCH(G79,G74:G77,-1)

Example 4 The tables below were used to by a bus company taking booking for bus tours. They need to allocate a bus with enough seats for the all the passengers. The list of bus sizes has been entered in a list. The number of passengers on the tour is then entered. The =MATCH() function looks down the list to find the bus with enough seats. If the number of passengers is not an exact match, the next biggest bus will be picked. After the =MATCH() function has found the bus, the =INDEX() function has been used to look down the list again and pick out the actual bus size required. Bus Size 54 50 22 15 6 Passengers on the tour : 23 Bus size needed : 50 =INDEX(D95:D99,MATCH(H94,D95:D99,-1),0)

Bus 1 Bus 2 Bus 3 Bus 4 Bus 5

Example 5 The tables below were used by a school to calculate the exam grades for pupils. The list of grade breakpoints was entered in a list. The pupils scores were entered in another list. The pupils scores are compared against the breakpoints.

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 - 2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G If an exact match is not found, the next lowest breakpoint is used. The =INDEX() function then looks down the Grade list to find the grade. Exam Score Grade 0 Fail 50 Pass 90 Merit 95 Distinction H I

MATCH Page 118 of 224 J K

107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115

Pupil Score Grade Alan 60 Pass Bob 6 Fail Carol 97 Distinction David 89 Pass =INDEX(D111:D114,MATCH(G114,C111:C114,1),0)

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 - 2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H

LOWER Page 119 of 223 I

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17

Upper Case Text ALAN JONES BOB SMITH CAROL WILLIAMS CARDIFF ABC123

Lower Case alan jones bob smith carol williams cardiff abc123

=LOWER(C4) =LOWER(C5) =LOWER(C6) =LOWER(C7) =LOWER(C8)

What Does It Do ? This function converts all characters in a piece of text to lower case. Syntax =LOWER(TextToConvert) Formatting No special formatting is needed.

The RangeToPickFrom must have the same number of cells in it as the RangeToLookin.D4:G10.C38:C43.F4:F10) What Does It Do ? This function looks for a piece of information in a list. Be careful not to include unnecessary heading in the ranges as these will cause errors.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I LOOKUP (Vector) Page 120 of 223 J K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 Name Alan Bob Carol David Eric Francis Gail Jan 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Feb 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 Eric 120 Mar 97 69 45 51 77 28 73 Type a Name in this cell : The Feb value for this person is : =LOOKUP(F12. .E38:J38) Problems The list of information to be looked through must be sorted in ascending order. and then the function picks the third cell from the list of values. the match is made in the third cell of the list of names. RangeToLookIn Alan Bob Carol David Eric Fred RangeToPickFrom 15 20 5 10 25 30 Type a name : Value : Carol 15 =LOOKUP(G41. Example The following example shows how the =LOOKUP() function was used to match a name typed in cell G41 against the list of names in C38:C43. either as #N/A or incorrect results. When a match is found the =LOOKUP() then picks from the second range E38:J38.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . and then picks an item from a second range of cells. Formatting No special formatting is needed. The RangeToLook in can be either horizontal or vertical. If the name Carol is used. Syntax =LOOKUP(WhatToLookFor.RangeToLookIn. otherwise errors will occur.RangeToPickFrom) The WhatToLookFor should be a single item.

the function will look across to the right most column to pick the last entry on the row. If the table has the same amount of rows and columns : the function will look down the left most column and work in just the same way as if the table had more rows than columns. (use VLOOKUP or HLOOKUP). It always picks the data from the end of the row or column.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I J LOOKUP (Array) Page 121 of 223 K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 Name Alan Bob Carol David Eric Francis Gail Jan 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Feb 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 Eric 77 Mar 97 69 45 51 77 28 73 Type a Name in this cell : The March value for this person is : =LOOKUP(F12.RangeToLookIn) The WhatToLookFor should be a single item.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Syntax =LOOKUP(WhatToLookFor. the function will then look down to the bottom cell of the column to pick the last entry of the column. When a match is found. If the table has more columns than rows : the function will look across the top row trying to find a match for the piece of information you have asked it to look for. and then picks an item from the last cell in the adjacent row or column. Be careful not to include unnecessary heading in the range as these will cause errors. If the table has more rows than columns : the function will look down the left most column trying to find a match for the piece of information you asked it to look for. Example 1 Example 2 . as in the description above. so it is no good if you need to pick data from part way across a list. The RangeToLook in can be either horizontal or vertical. When a match is found. The way in which the function decides whether to pick from the row or column is based on the size of the table.D4:G10) What Does It Do ? This function looks for a piece of information in a list.

Problems The list of information to be looked through must be sorted in ascending order. Alan 100 Bob 100 Carol 100 LOOKUP (Array) Page 122 of 223 K Jan David 100 Jan 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Eric Feb 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 Mar 97 69 45 51 77 28 73 Jan 40 50 10 20 30 60 70 Eric Feb 110 120 80 90 100 130 140 Mar 51 77 97 69 45 28 73 77 =LOOKUP(C88. the results of using =LOOKUP() will be correct. Table 2 shows the same data. Sometimes the results will be correct. but not sorted.G80:J86) . so the column heading of Jan is not included in the lookup range. either as #N/A or incorrect results. so the row heading of Jan is not included in the lookup range. Table 1 Name Alan Bob Carol David Eric Francis Gail Name : Value : Table 2 Name David Eric Alan Bob Carol Francis Gail Name : Value : E F G H I J In this table there are more columns than rows. Table 1 shows the Name column sorted alphabetically. otherwise errors will occur.B80:E86) 45 =LOOKUP(H88.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . but other times the result will be an #N/A error or incorrect figure.2000 Peter Noneley A 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 B C D In this table there are more rows than columns. Jan Alan 100 Bob 100 Carol 100 David 100 Eric 100 Fred 100 Formatting No special formatting is needed.

Carol Williams 8 . Calculated by taking the overall length of the complete name and subtracting the position of the space.C24)) This is just the second name.LEN(C24)-FIND(" ".C24) This is the position of the space.C24) This is the length of the second name. Calculated by using the =RIGHT() function to extract the rightmost characters up to the length of the second name.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . in a piece of text. Example This example shows how the =LEN() function is used in a formula which extracts the second name from a text entry containing both first and second names. =RIGHT(C24. Original Text Carol Williams 6 =FIND(" ". including spaces and numbers. =LEN(C24)-FIND(" ". Syntax =LEN(Text) Formatting No Special formatting is needed.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I LEN Page 123 of 223 J 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 Text Alan Jones Bob Smith Carol Williams Cardiff ABC123 Length 10 9 14 7 6 =LEN(C4) =LEN(C5) =LEN(C6) =LEN(C7) =LEN(C8) What Does It Do ? This function counts the number of characters.

FIND(" ".C29)-1) . Syntax =LEFT(OriginalText.D5) =LEFT(C6.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I LEFT Page 124 of 223 J 1 2 Number Of Characters Required Left String 1 A 2 Al 3 Ala 6 Cardif 4 ABC1 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 Text Alan Jones Alan Jones Alan Jones Cardiff ABC123 =LEFT(C4. The =FIND() function was used to locate position of the space between the first and second name.D6) =LEFT(C7. The =LEFT() function can now extract the first name based on the position of the space.NumberOfCharactersRequired) Formatting No special formatting is needed.FIND(" ".D8) What Does It Do ? This function displays a specified number of characters from the left hand side of a piece of text. Full Name First Name Alan Jones Alan Bob Smith Bob Carol Williams Carol =LEFT(C27.FIND(" ".C28)-1) =LEFT(C29.C27)-1) =LEFT(C28.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .D4) =LEFT(C5.D7) =LEFT(C8. The length of the first name is therefore the position of the space minus one character. Example The following table was used to extract the first name of a person from their full name.

.Number2..D6) What Does It Do ? This function calculate the Least Common Multiple. through to Number29) Formatting No special formatting is needed..2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I LCM Page 125 of 223 J 1 2 Least Common Multiple 60 36 1632 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Numbers 6 20 12 18 34 96 =LCM(C4.D5) =LCM(C6. Syntax =LCM(Number1.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .D4) =LCM(C5. which is the smallest number that can be divided by each of the given numbers.Number3.

000 £7.3) Highest Value 2nd Highest Value 3rd Highest Value Note Another way to find the Highest and Lowest values would have been to use the =MAX() and =MIN() functions.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .2) =LARGE(C4:C8.000 =LARGE(D24:F27.500 £3. Feb and Mar. Example The following table was used to calculate the top 3 sales figures between Jan.000 £4. Syntax =LARGE(ListOfNumbersToExamine.1) =LARGE(C4:C8.000 £2.000 £2.000 £7.000 £10. Highest Lowest £12.PositionToPickFrom) Formatting No special formatting is needed.800 £3.000 £6.000 £12.500 £12.1) =LARGE(D24:F27.000 =MAX(D24:F27) =MIN(D24:F27) .000 £5.000 £10.000 Feb £6.4) =LARGE(C4:C8.000 Mar £4.2) =LARGE(D24:F27.3) =LARGE(C4:C8. Sales North South East West Jan £5.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I LARGE Page 126 of 223 J 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 Values 120 800 100 120 250 Highest Value 2nd Highest Value 3rd Highest Value 4th Highest Value 5th Highest Value 800 250 120 120 100 =LARGE(C4:C8.5) What Does It Do ? This function examines a list of values and picks the value at a user specified position in the list.

D27:E31.000 £15.000 £12.000 £12.FALSE).000 £8.000 Type Employee Name or ID : 3 The Salary is : £ 8. If the entry is text is shows TRUE.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . and then the =IF() decides which VLOOKUP to perform.C27:E31. The employee can be entered as a Name or as a Numeric value. The =ISTEXT() function has been used to identify the type of entry made. If the entry is any other type it shows FALSE. Example The following table was used by a personnel department to lookup the salary of an employee.2. ID No. 1 2 3 4 5 Name Alan Eric Carol Bob David Salary £10.FALSE)) .VLOOKUP(E33.3.000 =IF(ISTEXT(E33). Syntax =ISTEXT(CellToTest) Formatting No special formatting is needed.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I ISTEXT Page 127 of 223 J 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 Cell To Test Hello 1 25-Dec-98 Result TRUE FALSE FALSE FALSE =ISTEXT(D4) =ISTEXT(D5) =ISTEXT(D6) =ISTEXT(D7) What Does It Do ? This functions tests an entry to determine whether it is text.VLOOKUP(E33.

Syntax =ISREF(ValueToTest) The ValueToTest can be any type of data. or FALSE for any other type of value.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . it cannot be a reference to the contents of another cell. Formatting No special formatting is needed.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H ISREF Page 128 of 223 I J 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 TRUE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE =ISREF(A1) =ISREF(B99) =ISREF(Hello) =ISREF(10) =ISREF(NOW()) =ISREF("A1") =ISREF(XX99) What Does It Do ? This function shows TRUE if given a cell address. . Its a bit of an odd one. but when used on the worksheet. and is normally used in macros rather than on the worksheet. as the reference will itself be evaluated by the function.

Note that decimal fractions are ignored.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H ISODD Page 129 of 223 I J 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 Number 1 2 2.6 3.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .5 3. An odd number is shown as TRUE an even number is shown as FALSE. Note that text entries result in the #VALUE! error.6 Hello 1-Feb-98 1-Feb-96 Is it Odd TRUE FALSE FALSE FALSE TRUE TRUE #VALUE! TRUE FALSE =ISODD(C4) =ISODD(C5) =ISODD(C6) =ISODD(C7) =ISODD(C8) =ISODD(C9) =ISODD(C10) =ISODD(C11) =ISODD(C12) What Does It Do ? This function tests a number to determine whether it is odd. . Syntax =ISODD(CellToTest) Formatting No special formatting is required. Note that dates can be odd or even.5 2.

the result FALSE is shown. The employee can be entered as a Name or as a Numeric value. Example The following table was used by a personnel department to lookup the salary of an employee.000 £8. Syntax =ISNUMBER(CellToTest) The cell to test can be a cell reference or a calculation.VLOOKUP(E35.3.D29:E33.FALSE). Formatting No special formatting is needed.000 Type Employee Name or ID : eric The Salary is : £ 12. or is blank. 1 2 3 4 5 Name Alan Eric Carol Bob David Salary £10.000 £12.FALSE)) . ID No.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I ISNUMBER Page 130 of 223 J K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 Cell Entry 1 1-Jan-98 #DIV/0! Hello Result TRUE TRUE FALSE FALSE FALSE =ISNUMBER(D4) =ISNUMBER(D5) =ISNUMBER(D6) =ISNUMBER(D7) =ISNUMBER(D8) What Does It Do ? This function examines a cell or calculation to determine whether it is a numeric value.000 =IF(ISNUMBER(E35). If the cell or calculation is not numeric. If the cell or calculation is a numeric value the result TRUE is shown. The =ISNUMBER() function has been used to identify the type of entry made.000 £12.C29:E33.000 £15.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .2.VLOOKUP(E35. and then the =IF() decides which VLOOKUP to perform.

Table 1 shows the #VALUE! error generated when a number. Syntax =ISNONTEXT(CellToTest) Formatting No special formatting. rather than text.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G ISNONTEXT Page 131 of 223 H 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 Item To Test 10 Hello 1-Jan-98 1OO Is It A Number? TRUE FALSE TRUE TRUE FALSE =ISNONTEXT(C4) =ISNONTEXT(C5) =ISNONTEXT(C6) =ISNONTEXT(C7) =ISNONTEXT(C8) What Does It Do? This functions tests an entry to determine whether it is a number. 300.D40*E40. The function is normally used with other function such as the =IF() function. Table 1 Item Radio TV Video Buying Price 400 800 3OO Mark-up 150% 200% 150% Profit 600 1600 #VALUE! =D32*E32 Table 2 shows how the error is trapped using the =ISNONTEXT function and the =IF() function in the calculation."Retype the Price") . such as typing the letter O instead of zero 0. Examples The following table is used by an electrical retailer to calculate the selling price of an item based on the buying price and the shop mark-up.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . rather than text which looks like a number. is entered using the letter O instead of the zero 0. It would be used to ensure that only numeric entries are used in calculations. Table 2 Item Radio TV Video Buying Price Mark-up Profit 400 150% 600 800 200% 1600 3OO 150% Retype the Price =IF(ISNONTEXT(D40).

.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I J ISNA Page 132 of 223 K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 Number 1 Hello 1-Jan-98 #N/A Result FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE TRUE =ISNA(C4) =ISNA(C5) =ISNA(C6) =ISNA(C7) =ISNA(C8) What Does It Do? This function tests a cell to determine whether it contains the Not Available error #N/A. The function is normally used with other functions such as the =IF() function. The #N/A is generated when a function cannot work properly because of missing data. Syntax =ISNA(CellToTest) Formatting No special formatting is needed.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . The #N/A can also be typed in to a cell by the user to indicate the cell is currently empty. but will be used for data entry in the future.

the result FALSE is shown. If the cell does not contain a logical value. the result TRUE is shown.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . The logical values can only be TRUE or FALSE.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I ISLOGICAL Page 133 of 223 J 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 Cell To Test FALSE TRUE 20 1-Jan-98 Hello #DIV/0! Result TRUE TRUE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE =ISLOGICAL(D4) =ISLOGICAL(D5) =ISLOGICAL(D6) =ISLOGICAL(D7) =ISLOGICAL(D8) =ISLOGICAL(D9) =ISLOGICAL(D10) What Does It Do ? This function tests a cell to determine whether the cell contents are logical. Syntax =ISLOGICAL(CellToTest) Formatting No special formatting is needed. If the cell does contain a logical value. .

5 3. Note that dates can be even or odd. . Note that text entries result in the #VALUE! error.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H ISEVEN Page 134 of 223 I 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 Number 1 2 2.6 3. An even number is shown as TRUE an odd number is shown as FALSE. Syntax =ISEVEN(CellToTest) Formatting No special formatting is required.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Note that decimal fractions are ignored.6 Hello 1-Feb-98 1-Feb-96 Is it Even FALSE TRUE TRUE TRUE FALSE FALSE #VALUE! FALSE TRUE =ISEVEN(C4) =ISEVEN(C5) =ISEVEN(C6) =ISEVEN(C7) =ISEVEN(C8) =ISEVEN(C9) =ISEVEN(C10) =ISEVEN(C11) =ISEVEN(C12) What Does It Do ? This function tests a number to determine whether it is even.5 2.

2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H ISERROR Page 135 of 223 I 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 Cell to test 3 #DIV/0! #NAME? #REF! #VALUE! #N/A #N/A Result FALSE TRUE TRUE TRUE TRUE TRUE TRUE =ISERROR(D4) =ISERROR(D5) =ISERROR(D6) =ISERROR(D7) =ISERROR(D8) =ISERROR(D9) =ISERROR(D10) What Does It Do ? This function tests a cell or calculation to determine whether an error has been generated. Example The following tables was used to calculate the difference between two dates. It will show TRUE for any type of error and FALSE if no error is found."Error in data entry".D40-D39) . Table 1 Start date : Jan 01 98 End date : 5-Jan-98 Difference : #VALUE! =D31-D30 Table 2 shows how the =ISERROR() function has been used to trap the error and inform the user that there has been an error in the data entry. Table 1 shows an error due to the fact that the first entry was entered using an inappropriate date format.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Formatting No special formatting is needed. Table 2 Start date : Jan 01 98 End date : 5-Jan-98 Difference : Error in data entry =IF(ISERROR(D40-D39). Syntax =ISERROR(CellToTest) The CellToTest can be a cell reference or a formula.

by dividing the cost of the crate by the quantity of bottles in the crate. Table 1 Cost Of Crate : Bottles In Crate : Cost of single bottle : £24 0 #DIV/0! =E32/E33 Table 2 shows how this error can be trapped by using the =ISERR() function. Table 2 Cost Of Crate : Bottles In Crate : Cost of single bottle : £24 0 Try again! =IF(ISERR(E40/E41). The #DIV/0 indicates that an attempt was made to divide by zero 0. Syntax =ISERR(CellToTest) The CellToTest can be a cell reference or a calculation.E40/E41) . Example The following tables were used by a publican to calculate the cost of a single bottle of champagne."Try again!". which Excel does not do. It will show FALSE if the contents of the cell calculate without an error.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I ISERR Page 136 of 223 J 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 Cell to test 3 #DIV/0! #NAME? #REF! #VALUE! #N/A #N/A Result FALSE TRUE TRUE TRUE TRUE FALSE FALSE =ISERR(D4) =ISERR(D5) =ISERR(D6) =ISERR(D7) =ISERR(D8) =ISERR(D9) =ISERR(D10) What Does It Do ? This function tests a cell and shows TRUE if there is an error value in the cell.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . or if the error is the #NA message. Table 1 shows what happens when the value zero 0 is entered as the number of bottles. Formatting No special formatting is needed.

When the cheque is cleared the date is entered. Cheques Received Num From chq1 ABC Ltd chq2 CJ Design chq3 J Smith chq4 Travel Co. It can be used when a spreadsheet has blank cells which may cause errors. Example The following example shows a list of cheques received by a company.0) Totals 550 1050 . The =ISBLANK() function is used to determine whether the Cleared column is empty or not.E36. Usually the function is used in conjunction with the =IF() function which can test the result of the =ISBLANK() Syntax =ISBLANK(CellToTest) Formatting Used by itself the result will be shown as TRUE or FALSE. but which will be filled later as the data is received by the user.0.000 £250 Banked Outstanding 100 0 200 0 0 50 0 1000 6-Jan-98 250 0 =IF(ISBLANK(F36). Until the Cleared date is entered the Cleared column is blank. While the Cleared column is blank the cheque will still be Outstanding.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H ISBLANK Page 137 of 223 I 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 Is The Cell Blank FALSE FALSE TRUE 25-Dec-98 FALSE Data 1 Hello =ISBLANK(C4) =ISBLANK(C5) =ISBLANK(C6) =ISBLANK(C7) What Does It Do? This function will determine if there is an entry in a particular cell. chq5 J Smith Date Received 1-Jan-98 1-Jan-98 2-Jan-98 3-Jan-98 4-Jan-98 Date Cleared 2-Jan-98 7-Jan-98 Amount £100 £200 £50 £1.E36) =IF(ISBLANK(F36). When the Cleared date is entered the cheque will be shown as Banked.

8678987 7.25 Table 3 shows the age of the child with the Age calculated using the =INT() function to remove the decimal part of the number to give the correct age.25) .25 7. A child can only be admitted to school if they are over 8 years old. Table 2 Birth Date 1-Jan-80 5-Feb-81 20-Oct-79 1-Mar-81 Term Start 1-Sep-88 1-Sep-88 1-Sep-88 1-Sep-88 Age 9 8 9 8 =(D38-C38)/365.47589 Integer 1 2 10 -2 =INT(C4) =INT(C5) =INT(C6) =INT(C7) What Does It Do ? This function rounds a number down to the nearest whole number. Table 3 Birth Date 1-Jan-80 5-Feb-81 20-Oct-79 Term Start 1-Sep-88 1-Sep-88 1-Sep-88 Age 8 7 8 =INT((D49-C49)/365.5 2. Syntax =INT(Number) Formatting No special formatting is needed. Table 1 shows the age of the child with decimal places Table 1 Birth Date 1-Jan-80 5-Feb-81 20-Oct-79 1-Mar-81 Term Start 1-Sep-88 1-Sep-88 1-Sep-88 1-Sep-88 Age 8. This has the effect of increasing the child age.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I INT Page 138 of 223 J 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 Number 1.570157426 8. Example The following table was used by a school to calculate the age a child when the school year started.504449008 Table 2 shows the age of the child with the Age formatted with no decimal places.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .668035592 =(D27-C27)/365.75 -1.3 10. The Birth Date and the Term Start date are entered and the age calculated.

2000 Peter Noneley A 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 B C 1-Mar-81 D 1-Sep-88 E 7 F G H I INT Page 139 of 223 J Note The age is calculated by subtracting the Birth Date from the Term Start to find the age of the child in days.25 is to take account of the leap years. The number of days is then divided by 365.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .25 The reason for using 365. .

(PC or Mac) System Information C:\Users\user\Documents\ #N/A #N/A #N/A 156 $A:$A$1 Windows (32-bit) NT 6.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E INFO Page 140 of 223 F 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 Current directory Available bytes of memory Memory in use Total bytes of memory Number of active worksheets Cell currently in the top left of the window Operating system Recalculation mode Excel version Name of system. . Syntax =INFO(text) text : This is the name of the item you require information about. Formatting The results will be shown as text or a number depending upon what was requested.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .0 pcdos =INFO("directory") =INFO("memavail") =INFO("memused") =INFO("totmem") =INFO("numfile") =INFO("origin") =INFO("osversion") =INFO("recalc") =INFO("release") =INFO("system") What Does It Do? This function provides information about the operating environment of the computer.01 Automatic 14.

such as C7 : C7 The sum of the range C5:C7 on South is : #REF! =SUM(INDIRECT(G44&"!"&G45&":"&G46)) The =INDIRECT() created a reference to =SUM(SOUTH!C5:C7) .2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I J INDIRECT Page 141 of 223 K L 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 North South East West Jan 10 40 70 100 Feb 20 50 80 110 Mar 30 60 90 120 G6 80 =INDIRECT(H9) Type address of any of the cells in the above table. The data on these three sheets is laid out in the same cells on each sheet. Type the name of the sheet. such as South : South Type the start cell of the range. Example 1 This example shows how data can be picked form other worksheets by using the worksheet name and a cell address. such as C8 : The contents of the cell C8 on North is : The =INDIRECT() created a reference to =NORTH!C8 North C8 #REF! =INDIRECT(G33&"!"&G34) Example 2 This example uses the same data as above. When a reference to a sheet is made the exclamation symbol ! needs to be placed between the sheet name and cell address acting as punctuation. but this time the =SUM() function is used to calculate a total from a range of cells.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . SOUTH and EAST. such as North : Type the cell to pick data from. Syntax =INDIRECT(Text) Formatting No special formatting is needed. The address can be either on the same worksheet or on a different worksheet. such as C5 : C5 Type the end cell of the range. The example uses three other worksheets named NORTH. Type the name of the sheet. such as G6 : The value in the cell you typed is : What Does It Do ? This function converts a plain piece of text which looks like a cell address into a usable cell reference.

Colours Red Green Blue Type either 1.G11.2.H36) Syntax 2 =INDEX(RangeToLookIn.2 or 3 for statistics : . It can be used with a single block of data.RowCoordinate.ColumnColumnCordinate) This syntax is used when the range is made up of rows and columns. The Co-ordinate indicates how far down or across to look when picking the data from the range.3 or 4 for the country : Type 1. but the Co-ordinate refers to a row when the range is vertical and a column when the range is horizontal.G12) How many weeks required : How many people in the party : Cost per person is : What Does It Do ? This function picks a value from a range of data by looking down a specified number of rows and then across a specified number of columns. Syntax There are various forms of syntax for this function. 2 or 3 : 2 The colour is : Green =INDEX(D32:D34. Syntax 1 =INDEX(RangeToLookIn.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I INDEX Page 142 of 223 J 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 Holiday booking price list.D36) Size Large Medium Small Type either 1. Both of the examples below use the same syntax. or non-continuos blocks.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . People Weeks 1 2 3 1 £500 £600 £700 2 £300 £400 £500 3 £250 £300 £350 4 £200 £250 £300 2 4 250 =INDEX(D7:G9.Coordinate) This is used when the RangeToLookIn is either a single column or row. Country England France Germany Spain Currency Population Capitol Sterling 50 M London Franc 40 M Paris DM 60 M Bonn Peseta 30 M Barcelona 2 3 Type 1. 2 or 3 : 2 The size is : Medium =INDEX(G34:I34.

500 Qtr2 £2.2))) .F77.0).500 £7.500 £5.500 £5.000 Qtr3 £3.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .500 £8.500 £11.000 £12.000 £10. 2.000 £8.500 Type 1.F51) I INDEX Page 143 of 223 J Syntax 3 =INDEX(NamedRangeToLookIn.500 £6. 2 or 3 for the product : Type 1.000 Qtr4 £4.500 wood qtr2 west 6500 Qtr4 £4.000 £7.500 £10.500 Type 1.500 1 3 2 3500 =INDEX(NorthAndSouth.500 £7.500 Qtr2 £2. The =MATCH() function is used to find the row and column positions of the names entered.000 £7.500 £12. 3 or 4 for the Qtr : Type 1 for North or 2 for South : The result is : Example This is an extended version of the previous example. 3 or 4 for the Qtr : Type 1 for North or 2 for South : The result is : =INDEX(EastAndWest.000 Qtr2 £2.000 £5.000 £11.000 Qtr2 £2.000 £8.C91:C93.000 £6.IF(F102=C90. 2.500 Qtr3 £3.500 £12. The easiest way to refer to these areas is to select them and give them a single name.1.RowCoordinate.MATCH(F101. These positions are then used by the =INDEX() function to look for the data.000 £6.000 £10.500 £10.500 £8.AreaToPickFrom) Using this syntax the range to look in can be made up of multiple areas.500 Qtr3 £3.500 £9.F76. The AreaToPickFrom indicates which of the multiple areas should be used.0).000 Qtr4 £4. 2 or 3 for the product : Type 1.2000 Peter Noneley A 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 B C D E The result is : F Paris G H =INDEX(D45:F48.F78) Qtr4 £4.D90:G90. EAST Bricks Wood Glass WEST Bricks Wood Glass Qtr1 £1.000 Qtr3 £3.000 £11.000 £9. In the following example the figures for North and South have been named as one range called NorthAndSouth.IF(F102=C95.000 £9. NORTH Bricks Wood Glass SOUTH Bricks Wood Glass Qtr1 £1.500 £11. It allows the names of products and the quarters to be entered.000 Qtr1 £1.000 £5.000 £12.MATCH(F100.500 £9.000 Qtr1 £1.500 £6.F50.ColumnColumnCordinate.

Depending upon the result."Not Achieved") Not Achieved =IF(C33>=D33. Example 1 The following table shows the Sales figures and Targets for sales reps. Name Alan Bob Carol Sales 1000 6000 2000 Target 5000 5000 4000 Result Not Achieved =IF(C31>=D31. Each has their own target which they must reach."Not Achieved") Example 2 The following table is similar to that in Example 1."Achieved". If the condition is met it is considered to be TRUE. This time the Commission to be paid to the sales rep is calculated. If the Sales are greater than or equal to the Target the result of Achieved is shown.C43*10%."Achieved".C45*5%) Example 3 This example uses the =AND() within the =IF() function. such as A1=A2. If the Sales are greater than or equal to the Target."Achieved". A builders merchant gives 10% discount on certain product lines. Name Alan Bob Carol Sales 1000 6000 2000 Target 5000 5000 4000 Commission 50 =IF(C43>=D43. the Commission is only 5% of Sales. . The =IF() function is used to compare the Sales with the Target. If the condition is not met it is considered as FALSE. Syntax =IF(Condition."Achieved".C44*10%.ActionIfFalse) The Condition is usually a test of two cells."Not Achieved") What Does It Do? This function tests a condition. The ActionIfTrue and ActionIfFalse can be numbers.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I IF Page 144 of 223 J 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 Name Alan Bob Carol Sales 1000 6000 2000 Target 5000 5000 4000 Result Not Achieved =IF(C4>=D4."Not Achieved") Not Achieved =IF(C6>=D6."Not Achieved") Achieved =IF(C32>=D32. Note that the text used in the =IF() function needs to be placed in double quotes "Achieved".C44*5%) 100 =IF(C45>=D45. If the Sales do not reach the target the result of Not Achieved is shown.ActionIfTrue.C43*5%) 600 =IF(C44>=D44."Achieved". text or calculations. If the Sales do not reach Target."Not Achieved") Achieved =IF(C5>=D5. one of two actions will be carried out.C45*10%.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 ."Achieved". the Commission is 10% of Sales. Formatting No special formatting is required.

The =AND() function is used with the =IF() to check that the product is on offer and that the value of the order is above £1000.000 £ 2.700 =IF(AND(C61="Yes".000 I IF Page 145 of 223 J Product Wood Glass Cement Turf Discount Total £ 200 £ 1.2000 Peter Noneley A 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 B C D E F G H The discount is only given on products which are on Special Offer.000 £ £ 500 £ 300 £ 2. when the Order Value is £1000 or above.D61*10%.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .800 £ £ 2.0) . Special Offer Yes No Yes Yes Order Value £ 2.000 £ 500 £ 3.D61>=1000).

25 Hour 21 6 =HOUR(C4) =HOUR(C5) What Does It Do? The function will show the hour of the day based upon a time or a number. .2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I HOUR Page 146 of 223 J 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Number 21:15 0.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Syntax =HOUR(Number) Formatting The result will be shown as a normal number between 0 and 23.

The RowToPickFrom is how far down the column the function should look to pick from. It then calculates the position of the name in the list. Type a month to look for : Which row needs to be picked out : The result is : =HLOOKUP(F10.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I J HLOOKUP Page 147 of 223 K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 Jan 10 20 30 40 50 Feb 80 90 100 110 120 Mar 97 69 45 51 77 Feb 4 100 row 1 row 2 row 3 row 4 row 5 row 6 The row numbers are not needed.Feb. Syntax =HLOOKUP(ItemToFind.F11. The =HLOOKUP() uses FALSE at the end of the function to indicate to Excel that the column headings are not sorted.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . If they were sorted alphabetically they would have read as Feb.Mar is correct. because the list of names is not as deep as the lookup range.D3:F10. Jan 10 20 30 40 50 Feb 80 90 100 110 120 Mar 97 69 45 51 77 Bob Eric Alan Carol David . When the item is found. The Sorted/Unsorted is whether the column headings are sorted.SortedOrUnsorted) The ItemToFind is a single item specified by the user. TRUE for yes. Formatting No special formatting is needed. Example 1 This table is used to find a value based on a specified month and name. FALSE for no. The RangeToLookIn is the range of data with the column headings at the top.RangeToLookIn.Mar. To solve the problem the =MATCH() function is used. The =MATCH() looks through the list of names to find the name we require. The =HLOOKUP() is used to scan across to find the month. they are part of the illustration.Jan. it then scans down the column to pick a cell entry. even though to us the order of Jan. The problem arises when we need to scan down to find the row adjacent to the name. the =MATCH() number is 1 less than we require. so and extra 1 is added to compensate.FALSE) What Does It Do ? This function scans across the column headings at the top of a table to find a specified item. Unfortunately. The =HLOOKUP() now uses this =MATCH() number to look down the month column and picks out the correct cell entry.RowToPickFrom.

F73:F77.0)+1.G72:I77. The name of the Item is typed in column C.200 Engine 1000 1200 800 £275 Steering 250 350 275 £70 Ignition 50 70 45 £290 CYHead 300 290 310 £500 £1. the next lowest value is used. The Discount Table holds the various discounts for different quantities of each product.FALSE) Example 3 In the following example a builders merchant is offering discount on large orders. The Orders Table is used to enter the orders and calculate the Total. Using TRUE will allow the function to make an approximate match. Wood and Glass. and the discount from . If the Quantity Ordered does not match a value at the top of the Discount Table. The =HLOOKUP() scans the column headings for the make of car specified in column B. Maker Vauxhall VW Ford VW Ford Ford Vauxhall Ford Spare Ignition GearBox Engine Steering Ignition CYHead GearBox Engine Cost £50 Vauxhall Ford VW £600 GearBox 500 450 600 £1. The Unit Cost of the item is then looked up in the Unit Cost Table. The TRUE option has been used at the end of the function to indicate that the values across the top of the Discount Table are sorted. This ensures that when the formula is copied to more cells.FALSE) The discount is then looked up in the Discount Table If the Quantity Ordered matches a value at the top of the Discount Table the =HLOOKUP will look down the column to find the correct discount. The FALSE option has been used at the end of the function to indicate that the product names across the top of the Unit Cost Table are not sorted.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . If a match is not found. Trying to match an order of 125 will drop down to 100.D47:F54.2.0)+1. =HLOOKUP(C127. the =HLOOKUP() then looks down the column to the row specified by the =MATCH() function.MATCH(F55. The function uses the absolute ranges indicated by the dollar symbol $.FALSE) Example 2 This example shows how the =HLOOKUP() is used to pick the cost of a spare part for different makes of cars. the ranges for =HLOOKUP() and =MATCH() do not change. Using the FALSE option forces the function to search for an exact match. the function will produce an error.2000 Peter Noneley A 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 B C D E F feb alan G H I J HLOOKUP Page 148 of 223 K Type a month to look for : Type a name to look for : The result is : 100 =HLOOKUP(F54.C48:C52. The Unit Cost Table holds the cost of 1 unit of Brick. which scans the list of spares for the item specified in column C. When the make is found.E111:G112.MATCH(C79.200 =HLOOKUP(B79. All the calculations take place in the Orders Table.

D116:D118.TRUE) .0)+1.2000 Peter Noneley A 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 B C D E F G H the 100 column is used.E115:G118.TRUE) Unit Cost Table Wood Glass £1 £3 I J HLOOKUP Page 149 of 223 K Brick £2 Brick Wood Glass Discount Table 1 100 0% 6% 0% 3% 0% 12% Orders Table Unit Cost Discount £2 6% £1 3% £3 12% £2 6% £1 0% £3 15% 300 8% 5% 15% Item Brick Wood Glass Brick Wood Glass Unit Cost Discount Units 100 200 150 225 50 500 Total £188 £194 £396 £423 £50 £1.MATCH(C127.E115:G118.0)+1.E111:G112.2.275 =HLOOKUP(C127.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .MATCH(C127. =HLOOKUP(D127.FALSE) =HLOOKUP(D127.D116:D118.

Hexadecimal F 1A 29 Value 1 Value 2 Result =DEC2HEX(HEX2DEC(C29)+HEX2DEC(C30)) .887 -549. Syntax =HEX2DEC(HexaDecimalNumber) Formatting No special formatting is needed.755.888 -1 -2 -3 =HEX2DEC(C4) =HEX2DEC(C5) =HEX2DEC(C6) =HEX2DEC(C7) =HEX2DEC(C8) =HEX2DEC(C9) =HEX2DEC(C10) =HEX2DEC(C11) =HEX2DEC(C12) =HEX2DEC(C13) =HEX2DEC(C14) What Does It Do ? This function converts a hexadecimal number to its decimal equivalent.755.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .813.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G HEX2DEC Page 150 of 223 H 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 Hexadecimal 0 1 2 3 1A 1B 7FFFFFFFFF 8000000000 FFFFFFFFFF FFFFFFFFFE FFFFFFFFFD Decimal Number 0 1 2 3 26 27 549.813. Example The following table was used to add two hexadecimal values together.

D9) 2 0 =GESTEP(C10.D10) What Does It Do ? This function test a number to see if it is greater than or equal to another number.E30) =GESTEP(D31.D7) 101 100 1 =GESTEP(C8.NumberToTestAgainst) Formatting No special formatting is needed.000 £5.000 £2. Example The following table was used to calculate how many sales staff achieved their targets.D5) 99 100 0 =GESTEP(C6. Syntax =GESTEP(NumberToTest.000 £8.000 Target £4.000 £2. and the results are totalled.E27) =GESTEP(D28.000 £2.D4) 50 20 1 =GESTEP(C5.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I J GESTEP Page 151 of 223 K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 Number1 Number2 GESTEP 10 20 0 =GESTEP(C4.000 GESTEP 0 1 0 1 1 3 =GESTEP(D27.000 £4.D8) 2 1 =GESTEP(C9. the result of 1 will be shown.D6) 100 100 1 =GESTEP(C7.000 £1.E29) =GESTEP(D30. otherwise 0 is shown.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .E31) =SUM(F27:F31) Targets Achieved .000 £7.E28) =GESTEP(D29. The =GESTEP() function compares the Sales with Target. If the number is greater than or equal. Name Alan Bob Carol David Eric Sales £3.

5 Numbers 72 500 4 96 200 6 =GCD(C9.D9.E10) =GCD(C11. Syntax =GCD(Number1. ..D10.E9) =GCD(C10. through to Number29) Formatting No special formatting is needed. Where there is no common divisor the value of 1 is used. Decimal fractions are ignored.D4) =GCD(C5.D11.D5) =GCD(C6.E11) What Does It Do ? This function calculates the largest number which can be used to divided all the values specified.Number2.D6) Greatest Divisor 6 100 2 18 300 2..2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I J GCD Page 152 of 223 K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 Numbers 6 15 28 49 5 99 Greatest Divisor 3 7 1 =GCD(C4. The result is always a whole number.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .Number3.

83 15. Unfortunately.000 £6. Example 1 The following tables were used to record the weight of a group of children.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .000 £4.C41:C43)} {=FREQUENCY(C30:C38.80 8.000 £10. The manager now wants to calculate how many responses fell into each category.000 Sales above £6.000 and below. V.ListOfIntervals) Formatting No special formatting is needed.000 £5. so how can the frequency of text be calculated? . E.000 Mar £4.47 22.E9:E11)} Sales £4.000 up to £6.500 £12.000 £6.999 What Does It Do ? This function compares a range of data against a list of intervals. P or D.36 16.66 17.E9:E11)} {=FREQUENCY(D4:F7.67 18. Weight Kg 20. the =FREQUENCY() function ignores text entries. A restaurant has asked 40 customers for their rating of the food in the restaurant.01 Number Of Children: Between 0 . £4. The result shows how many items in the range of data fall between the intervals.C41:C43)} Child 1 Child 2 Child 3 Child 4 Child 5 Child 6 Child 7 Child 8 Child 9 Kg Weight Intervals 15 20 100 Example 2 This example uses characters instead of values.000 £7.800 £3.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I FREQUENCY Page 153 of 223 J 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 North South East West Jan £5.000 Sales above £4.000 Feb £6.000 4 5 3 {=FREQUENCY(D4:F7. Syntax =FREQUENCY(RangeOfData.C41:C43)} {=FREQUENCY(C30:C38.28 20.000 £2. The ratings were entered into a table as a single letter.E9:E11)} {=FREQUENCY(D4:F7.500 £3.15 Kg 2 Above 15 but less than or equal to 20 Kg 4 Above 20 Kg 3 {=FREQUENCY(C30:C38.000 £999. The =FREQUENCY() function was then used to calculate the number of children whose weights fell between specified intervals. A. that is why it is enclosed in { } braces. The function is entered in the cells as an array.74 10.

CODE(UPPER(C60:C64)))} Customer Ratings V V A A V D P V E e V a E d P A D P V P p A p D A A P E P V D V D a E D d A E D .CODE(UPPER(C60:C64)))} {=FREQUENCY(CODE(UPPER(B67:I71)).2000 Peter Noneley A 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 B C D E F G H I FREQUENCY Page 154 of 223 J The answer is to use the =CODE() and =UPPER() functions.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .CODE(UPPER(C60:C64)))} {=FREQUENCY(CODE(UPPER(B67:I71)). The =UPPER() forces all the text entries to be considered as capital letters.CODE(UPPER(C60:C64)))} {=FREQUENCY(CODE(UPPER(B67:I71)). the =FREQUENCY() function can then be used! Rating E V A P D Frequency 6 8 9 8 9 Excellent Very Good Average Poor Disgusting {=FREQUENCY(CODE(UPPER(B67:I71)).CODE(UPPER(C60:C64)))} {=FREQUENCY(CODE(UPPER(B67:I71)). The =CODE() function calculates the unique ANSI code for each character. As this code is a numeric value.

667 =FORECAST(E43. The =FORECAST() function is used to calculate the predicted performance for the new sales team based upon a linear trend.E4:E9) What Does It Do ? This function uses two sets of values to predict a single value.500 £3. The way in which the prediction is calculated is based upon the assumption of a Linear Trend. for which you need the forecast.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I FORECAST Page 155 of 223 J 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 Month 1 2 3 4 5 6 Type the month number to predict : The Forecast sales figure is : 12 £7. such as Sales figures. (or past). you can use the function to predict what the sales figure will be in any other month. such as Month number.D39:D41) Size Of The New Sales Team : Estimated Forecast Of Performance : .000 =FORECAST(E11. Example The following table was used by a company considering expansion of their sales team.000 20 £8.800 £4. RangeX is the intervals used when recording the historical data.RangeX) ItemToForecast is the point in the future.000 £2.500 40 £10. The predicted value is based on the relationship between the two original sets of values. 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 Year 1996 1997 1998 Size Of Known Sales Team Performance 10 £5. Syntax =FORECAST(ItemToForeCast. The size of the New Sales team is entered.F4:F9. RangeY is the list of values which contain the historical data to be used as the basis of the forecast.000 30 £8. Formatting No special formatting is needed. The Size and Performance of the previous teams over a period of three years were entered.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . (Jan to Jun).997 Sales £1.000 £2.E39:E41.500 £3. If the values are sales figures for months 1 to 6.RangeY.

SignificantValue) Formatting No special formatting is needed. Name Alan Bob Carol Actual Sales £23. The =FLOOR() function has been used to round down the Actual Sales to the nearest 1000.50) =FLOOR(C8.1) =FLOOR(C5. Syntax =FLOOR(NumberToRound.1000) . Commission is only paid for every £1000 of sales. Example The following table was used to calculate commission for members of a sales team.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .890 £18.1) =FLOOR(C7.500 £56.1) =FLOOR(C6.000 £180 =FLOOR(D29.5 2.125 Relevant Sales Commission £23.50) =FLOOR(C9.50) What Does It Do ? This function rounds a value down to the nearest multiple specified by the user.9 123 145 175 Rounded Down 1 2 2 100 100 150 =FLOOR(C4.3 2.000 £230 £56. which is then used as the basis for Commission.000 £560 £18.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H FLOOR Page 156 of 223 I 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 Number 1.

0) 10. During the conversion the value can be rounded to a specific number of decimal places.0.1) 10.25 10.00 =FIXED(C7. .25 10.25 =FIXED(C11.0) 1000.1) 10 10.2) 10.25 10 =FIXED(C9. Formatting No special formatting is needed. The Commas option can be TRUE for commas or FALSE for no commas. If the Commas is not specified the function will assume TRUE.DecimalPlaces.000's.000 =FIXED(C13. Syntax =FIXED(NumberToConvert.25 =FIXED(C8) 10. Cells.25 10.00 =FIXED(C4) 10 10 =FIXED(C5. Number command will not have any effect.0) 10 10.0 =FIXED(C6.000.3 =FIXED(C10.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I J FIXED Page 157 of 223 K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 Original Converted Number To Text 10 10. and commas can be inserted at the 1. Note that any further formatting with the Format.Commas) If DecimalPlaces places is not specified the function will assume 2.TRUE) What Does It Do ? This function converts a numeric value to text.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .2) 1000 1.00 =FIXED(C12) 1000.23 1000 =FIXED(C14.23 1.

thus enabling the search to find duplicate occurrences of the letter. When the letter is found the position is shown as a number.StartPosition) LetterToLookFor : This needs to be a single character.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G FIND Page 158 of 223 H I 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 Text Hello Hello Hello Alan Williams Alan Williams Alan Williams Letter To Find e H o a a T Position Of Letter 2 1 5 3 11 #VALUE! =FIND(D4. An additional option can be used to start the search at a specific point in the text. If the letter is not found in the text. TextToLookInside : This is the piece of text to be searched through.C7) =FIND(D8. the result #VALUE is shown.TextToLookInside.C9) What Does It Do? This function looks for a specified letter inside another piece of text.C5) =FIND(D6. the result will be shown as a number. it specifies at which point in the text the search should begin.C6) =FIND(D7.C8.6) =FIND(D9.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . StartPosition : This is optional. Formatting No special formatting is needed. . If the text contains more than one reference to the letter. the first occurrence is used.C4) =FIND(D5. Syntax =FIND(LetterToLookFor.

800 2. which results in 120.5 5 10 20 Factorial 6 6 120 3.432..000 =FACT(C4) =FACT(C5) =FACT(C6) =FACT(C7) =FACT(C8) What Does It Do ? This function calculates the factorial of a number. No special formatting is needed.176. The factorial is calculated as 1*2*3*4.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G FACT Page 159 of 223 H I 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Number 3 3. Decimal fractions of the number are ignored. Syntax =FACT(Number) Formatting.640. The factorial of 5 is calculated as 1*2*3*4*5.etc.008.628.902. .Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .

D5) =EXACT(C6. The case of the characters is taken into account. only words which are spelt the same and which have upper and lower case characters in the same position will be considered as equal. Example Here is a simple password checking formula.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . either red blue or green. which use the ANSI number of the characters rather than the character itself!) Its still very easy though. The case of the password is important. You need to guess the correct password. Guess the password : Is it correct : red No (To stop you from cheating. The =EXACT() function is used to check your guess.Text2) Only two items of text can be compared. The password is the name of a colour. Formatting If the two items of text are exactly the same the result of TRUE will be shown. Syntax =EXACT(Text1. the correct password has been entered as a series of =CHAR() functions.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I J K EXACT Page 160 of 223 L 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 Text1 Hello Hello Hello Text2 Hello hello Goodbye Result TRUE FALSE FALSE =EXACT(C4. If there is any difference in the two items of text the result of FALSE will be shown.D6) What Does It Do? This function compares two items of text and determine whether they are exactly the same. .D4) =EXACT(C5.

Table 1 was used to enter the number of wipers required for each type of car and then show how many pairs need to be ordered.2 2.3 25 Evenly Rounded 2 2 4 26 =EVEN(C4) =EVEN(C5) =EVEN(C6) =EVEN(C7) What Does It Do ? This function round a number up the nearest even whole number. The garage is repairing a fleet of cars from three manufactures.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G EVEN Page 161 of 223 H I 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 Original Value 1 1.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Table 1 Car Vauxhall Ford Peugeot Wipers To Order 5 9 7 Pairs to Order 3 =EVEN(D28)/2 5 =EVEN(D29)/2 4 =EVEN(D30)/2 . Each manufacturer uses a different type of windscreen wiper which are only supplied in pairs. Example The following table is used by a garage which repairs cars. Syntax =EVEN(Number) Formatting No special formatting is needed.

Formatting The result will be formatted as a normal number.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .TYPE(E7) What Does It Do? This function will show a number which corresponds to an error produced by a formula. Example See Example 4 in the =DGET() function.TYPE(Error) Error is the cell reference where the error occurred.TYPE(E6) =ERROR. Syntax =ERROR.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G ERROR.TYPE(E4) =ERROR. .TYPE Page 162 of 223 H 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 Data 10 10 10 10:00 0 3 3 13:00 The Error #DIV/0! #NAME? #REF! ################ Error Type 2 5 4 #N/A =ERROR.TYPE(E5) =ERROR.

Cells. .Date command. Syntax =EOMONTH(StartDate.Number.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . this can be formatted to represent a date by using the Format.Months) Formatting The result will normally be expressed as a number.D4) =EOMONTH(C5.D6) What Does It Do? This function will show the last day of the month which is a specified number of months before or after a given date.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G EOMONTH Page 163 of 223 H 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 StartDate 5-Jan-98 5-Jan-98 5-Jan-98 Plus Months 2 2 -2 End Of Month 35885 31-Mar-98 30-Nov-97 =EOMONTH(C4.D5) =EOMONTH(C6.

0) .Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . then 5 is subtracted from the =EDATE() to ensure the end of contract falls on a Friday.WEEKDAY(EDATE(C48. The =WEEKDAY() function has been used to identify the actaul weekday number of the end date. The Start date is entered.D27) =EDATE(C28. Start Tue 06-Jan-98 Mon 12-Jan-98 Fri 09-Jan-98 Fri 09-Jan-98 Mon 19-Jan-98 Mon 26-Jan-98 Mon 12-Jan-98 Duration 3 3 4 3 3 3 3 End Mon 06-Apr-98 Sun 12-Apr-98 Sat 09-May-98 Thu 09-Apr-98 Sun 19-Apr-98 Sun 26-Apr-98 Sun 12-Apr-98 =EDATE(C27.Months) Formatting The result will normally be expressed as a number.D33) The company decide not to end contracts on Saturday or Sunday.D6) What Does It Do? This function is used to calculate a date which is a specific number of months in the past or in the future. (Sat or Sun).Date command. this can be formatted to represent a date by using the Format.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G EDATE Page 164 of 223 H 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 Start Date 1-Jan-98 2-Jan-98 2-Jan-98 Plus Months 3 3 -3 End Date 1-Apr-98 2-Apr-98 2-Oct-97 =EDATE(C4.D48)-IF(WEEKDAY(EDATE(C48.D30) =EDATE(C31.2)>5.Number.D48). Example This example was used by a company hiring contract staff. Syntax =EDATE(StartDate.D4) =EDATE(C5. Start Tue 06-Jan-98 Mon 12-Jan-98 Fri 09-Jan-98 Fri 09-Jan-98 Mon 19-Jan-98 Mon 26-Jan-98 Mon 12-Jan-98 Duration 3 3 4 3 3 3 3 End Mon 06-Apr-98 Fri 10-Apr-98 Fri 08-May-98 Thu 09-Apr-98 Fri 17-Apr-98 Fri 24-Apr-98 Fri 10-Apr-98 =EDATE(C48.D32) =EDATE(C33.D5) =EDATE(C6. The =EDATE() function has been used to calculate the end of the contract.Cells.D28) =EDATE(C29.D31) =EDATE(C32.2)-5. If the week day number is 6 or 7.D48).D29) =EDATE(C30. The company needed to know the end date of the employment. The contract Duration is entered as months.

which are to be selected.00 £0.20 30 2 £12.10 20 5 £10. or records. such as "Value Of Stock" or I3.00 £0.00 £2.20 25 2 £10.00 £0.I3.15 25 0 £0.50 4 3 £54.00 £0. of the Fields(s) to be used as the basis for selecting the records.00 £1.80 10 5 £40.00 £1.00 £5.E23:E24) Type the brand name : The stock value of Horizon is : What Does It Do ? This function examines a list of information and produces the total.00 =DSUM(B3:I19. Formatting No special formatting is needed. Horizon £248. or names.00 3 2 £30. Box Boxes In Value Of Unit Cost Quantity Stock Stock £4.50 10 3 £15. such as Horizon as a brand name.00 £0. The CriteriaRange is made up of two types of information.25 10 4 £50.CriteriaRange) The DatabaseRange is the entire list of information you need to examine.80 25 6 £120. Product Brand . of the values to be totalled.00 £0. The FieldName is the name. Brand These two cells are the Criteria range. Syntax =DSUM(DatabaseRange.80 20 5 £180. The first set of information is the name.50 15 0 £0. such as the category Brand or Wattage.00 To calculate the total Value Of Stock of a particular Brand of bulb. Examples The total Value Of Stock of a particular Product of a particular Brand.00 £0.20 40 3 £24.FieldName. The second set of information is the actual record. or cell.00 £2.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I J DSUM Page 165 of 223 K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 Product Bulb Neon Spot Other Bulb Spot Spot Other Bulb Neon Bulb Bulb Bulb Bulb Bulb Bulb Wattage 200 100 60 10 80 100 200 25 200 100 100 10 60 80 100 40 Life Hours 3000 2000 8000 1000 unknown 3000 unknown 3000 2000 unknown 800 1000 1000 2000 1000 Brand Horizon Horizon Sunbeam Horizon Horizon Horizon Sunbeam Sunbeam Sunbeam Sunbeam Horizon Sunbeam Sunbeam Horizon Horizon This is the Database range.00 15 2 £60.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .25 10 5 £12.00 £0. or 100 as the wattage.50 £0.00 £0. including the field names at the top of the columns.

50 F sunbeam G H I J DSUM Page 166 of 223 K Total stock value is : =DSUM(B3:I19."Value Of Stock".50 =DSUM(B3:I19.E67:F68) ."Value Of Stock".00 Wattage <100 =DSUM(B3:I19.E60:F61) The total Value Of Stock of a Bulb less than a particular Wattage.E49:F50) This is the same calculation but using the name "Value Of Stock" instead of the cell address.2000 Peter Noneley A 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 B C D E Bulb £54.50 Wattage 100 =DSUM(B3:I19.E49:F50) The total Value Of Stock of a Bulb equal to a particular Wattage.I3. £54."Value Of Stock".Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Product Bulb Total Value Of Stock is : £56. Product Bulb Total Value Of Stock is : £52.

3 $10.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .25 $10 $10. Syntax =DOLLAR(Number. Formatting No special formatting is needed.2) What Does It Do? This function converts a number into a piece of text formatted as currency. .0) =DOLLAR(C10.00 $10 $10.25 10.25 =DOLLAR(C4) =DOLLAR(C5.0) =DOLLAR(C6.1) =DOLLAR(C11. The result will be shown as a text entry.DecimalPlaces) Number : This is the number which needs to be converted.1) =DOLLAR(C7.25 10.25 Converted To Text $10.2) =DOLLAR(C8) =DOLLAR(C9.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I DOLLAR Page 167 of 223 J 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 Original Number 10 10 10 10 10.0 $10.25 10. DecimalPlaces : This is the amount of decimal places needed in the converted number.00 $10.

15 25 1 £3. such as Horizon as a brand name. or records.50 £0. which are to be selected. Box Boxes In Value Of Unit Cost Quantity Stock Stock £4. Formatting No special formatting is needed. The second set of information is the actual record.00 £0.50 £0.00 =DMIN(B3:I19.00 To calculate lowest Value Of Stock of a particular Brand of bulb.80 10 5 £40. The first set of information is the name.FieldName.20 40 3 £24.50 15 1 £37.20 25 2 £10.E23:E24) Type the brand name : The MIN value of Horizon is : What Does It Do ? This function examines a list of information and produces smallest value from a specified column.00 15 2 £60.00 3 2 £30.00 £0.00 £0. or cell.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I J DMIN Page 168 of 223 K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 Product Bulb Neon Spot Other Bulb Spot Spot Other Bulb Neon Bulb Bulb Bulb Bulb Bulb Bulb Wattage 200 100 60 10 80 100 200 25 200 100 100 10 60 80 100 40 Life Hours 3000 2000 8000 1000 unknown 3000 unknown 3000 2000 unknown 800 1000 1000 2000 1000 Brand Horizon Horizon Sunbeam Horizon Horizon Horizon Sunbeam Sunbeam Sunbeam Sunbeam Horizon Sunbeam Sunbeam Horizon Horizon This is the Database range.50 10 3 £15.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .80 25 6 £120. such as the category Brand or Wattage. of the values to pick the Min from.20 30 2 £12.I3. of the Fields(s) to be used as the basis for selecting the records. Examples The lowest Value Of Stock of a particular Product of a particular Brand.25 10 5 £12.00 £0. including the field names at the top of the columns.CriteriaRange) The DatabaseRange is the entire list of information you need to examine.00 £1.00 £1. or 100 as the wattage.00 £0.80 20 5 £180. Horizon £10.75 £0. Brand These two cells are the Criteria range.00 £2.00 £5. such as "Value Of Stock" or I3. or names.00 £0. Product Brand . The CriteriaRange is made up of two types of information.00 £2.10 20 5 £10.00 £0.25 10 4 £50. Syntax =DMIN(DatabaseRange.50 4 3 £54. The FieldName is the name.

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 ."Value Of Stock". Product Bulb The lowest Value Of Stock is : £12.I3. £3.2000 Peter Noneley A 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 B C D E Bulb £3."Value Of Stock".E49:F50) The lowest Value Of Stock of a Bulb equal to a particular Wattage.50 Wattage 100 =DMIN(B3:I19."Value Of Stock".E60:F61) The lowest Value Of Stock of a Bulb between two Wattage values.75 =DMIN(B3:I19. Product Bulb The lowest Value Of Stock is : £12.75 F sunbeam G H I J DMIN Page 169 of 223 K The lowest value is : =DMIN(B3:I19.E67:G68) .00 Wattage >=80 Wattage <=100 =DMIN(B3:I19.E49:F50) This is the same calculation but using the name "Value Of Stock" instead of the cell address.

such as the category Brand or Wattage.80 10 5 £40.00 £0. Horizon £60. such as Horizon as a brand name. or names. of the values to pick the Max from.00 £2. which are to be selected.00 3 2 £30.00 £1.20 40 3 £24.20 30 2 £12.00 £0.00 Brand sunbeam =DMAX(B3:I19.10 20 5 £10.50 £0.I3. . Product Bulb The largest value is : £30. Formatting No special formatting is needed.00 15 2 £60.25 10 4 £50.00 £0.00 £2.E23:E24) Type the brand name : The MAX value of Horizon is : What Does It Do ? This function examines a list of information and produces the largest value from a specified column.25 10 5 £12.00 £0.80 25 6 £120.00 £1. Syntax =DMAX(DatabaseRange.00 To calculate largest Value Of Stock of a particular Brand of bulb. such as "Value Of Stock" or I3. Brand These two cells are the Criteria range. Examples The largest Value Of Stock of a particular Product of a particular Brand.I3.00 £5.15 25 0 £0.E49:F50) This is the same calculation but using the name "Value Of Stock" instead of the cell address. The second set of information is the actual record. or 100 as the wattage.00 =DMAX(B3:I19.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I J K DMAX Page 170 of 223 L 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 Product Bulb Neon Spot Other Bulb Spot Spot Other Bulb Neon Bulb Bulb Bulb Bulb Bulb Bulb Wattage 200 100 60 10 80 100 200 25 200 100 100 10 60 80 100 40 Life Hours 3000 2000 8000 1000 unknown 3000 unknown 3000 2000 unknown 800 1000 1000 2000 1000 Brand Horizon Horizon Sunbeam Horizon Horizon Horizon Sunbeam Sunbeam Sunbeam Sunbeam Horizon Sunbeam Sunbeam Horizon Horizon This is the Database range.50 10 3 £15. or records.00 £0. The first set of information is the name.00 £0.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . The FieldName is the name or cell.FieldName.00 £0. including the field names at the top of the columns. of the Fields(s) to be used as the basis for selecting the records.50 15 0 £0.00 £0.50 4 3 £54.CriteriaRange) The DatabaseRange is the entire list of information you need to examine. Box Boxes In Value Of Unit Cost Quantity Stock Stock £4.00 £0.20 25 2 £10. The CriteriaRange is made up of two types of information.80 20 5 £180.

"Value Of Stock".00 Wattage <100 =DMAX(B3:I19.E49:F50) The largest Value Of Stock of a Bulb equal to a particular Wattage.00 F G H I J K DMAX Page 171 of 223 L =DMAX(B3:I19.E67:F68) ."Value Of Stock".2000 Peter Noneley A 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 B C D E £30.E60:F61) The largest Value Of Stock of a Bulb less than a particular Wattage."Value Of Stock". Product Bulb The largest Value Of Stock is : £40. Product Bulb The largest Value Of Stock is : £24.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .00 Wattage 100 =DMAX(B3:I19.

00 £2.CriteriaRange) The DatabaseRange is the entire list of information you need to examine.00 £0. The second set of information is the actual record which needs to be selected.00 How many boxes of a particular item do we have in stock? Life Hours Product Bulb Wattage 100 Brand Horizon 5 =DGET(B3:I19.00 £5.15 25 1 £3.20 25 2 £10.C23:F24) The number in stock is : What Does It Do ? This function examines a list of information and produces one result. The FieldName is the name.80 10 5 £40. such as "Value Of Stock" or I3. Example 1 This example extracts information from just one record.20 40 3 £24.00 £2. or names.00 £0.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I J DGET Page 172 of 223 K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 Product Bulb Neon Spot Other Bulb Spot Spot Other Bulb Neon Bulb Bulb Bulb Bulb Bulb Bulb Wattage 200 100 60 10 80 100 200 25 200 100 100 10 60 80 100 40 Life Hours 3000 2000 8000 1000 unknown 3000 unknown 3000 2000 unknown 800 1000 1000 2000 1000 Brand Horizon Horizon Sunbeam Horizon Horizon Horizon Sunbeam Sunbeam Sunbeam Sunbeam Horizon Sunbeam Sunbeam Horizon Horizon This is the Database range.25 10 5 £12.50 £0.00 £0. such as Horizon as a brand name.25 10 4 £50. The first set of information is the name.00 £0. If more than one record matches the criteria the error #NUM is shown. of the Fields(s) to be used as the basis for selecting the records. or cell.80 20 5 £180. Box Boxes In Value Of Unit Cost Quantity Stock Stock £4.00 £1.00 £0.20 30 2 £12.50 15 1 £37.00 £1. Syntax =DGET(DatabaseRange. or 100 as the wattage. such as the category Brand or Wattage. including the field names at the top of the columns.00 15 2 £60.50 10 3 £15.00 £0.50 4 3 £54. . The CriteriaRange is made up of two types of information.00 3 2 £30.00 £0.10 20 5 £10.FieldName.75 £0.50 £0. If no records match the criteria the error #VALUE is shown. of the values to Get. Formatting No special formatting is needed.H3.80 25 6 £120.

H3.H3.H3. How many boxes of a particular item do we have in stock? Life Hours Product Bulb Wattage 9999 Brand The number in stock is : #VALUE! =DGET(B3:I19."One product found. How many boxes of a particular item do we have in stock? Life Hours Product Bulb Wattage 100 Brand The number in stock is : #NUM! =DGET(B3:I19.C51:F52) The number in stock is : Example 2 This example extracts information from multiple records and therefore shows the #NUM error."). =IF(ISERR(F88).CHOOSE(ERROR.") . How many boxes of a particular item do we have in stock? Life Hours Product Bulb Wattage 9999 Brand The number in stock is : #VALUE! =DGET(B3:I19.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .2000 Peter Noneley A 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 B C D E F G H I J DGET Page 173 of 223 K How many boxes of a particular item do we have in stock? Life Hours Product Bulb Wattage 100 Brand Horizon 5 =DGET(B3:I19.C64:F65) Example 4 This example uses the =IF() function to display a message when an error occurs.TYPE(F88)/3.C85:F86) No such product."Duplicates products found."."No such product.H3.C63:F64) Example 3 This example extracts information from no records and therefore shows the #VALUE error.

D10) What Does It Do ? This function compares two values and tests whether they are exactly the same.50% Hello Number2 20 50 17.D9) =DELTA(C10. text values produce a result of #VALUE.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .D5) =DELTA(C6. The =DELTA() function tests each pair and then the =SUM() function totals them. Example The following table is used to determine how may pairs of similar numbers are in a list.5 18 0. Syntax =DELTA(FirstNumber. otherwise the result is 0.D32) =DELTA(C33.D36) =SUM(E30:E36) .5 17. Number1 10 50 30 17.5 17.SecondNumber) Formatting No special formatting is needed.D33) =DELTA(C34.175 Hello Delta 0 1 1 1 1 #VALUE! 1 =DELTA(C4. If the numbers are the same the result will be 1.D30) =DELTA(C31.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I J K DELTA Page 174 of 223 L 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 Number1 10 50 17.D34) =DELTA(C35.D7) =DELTA(C8. The formatting of the number is not significant.D6) =DELTA(C7. so numbers which appear rounded due to the removal of decimal places will still match correctly with non rounded values.D8) =DELTA(C9.5 12 100 150 Number2 20 50 30 18 8 100 125 Total Pairs Delta 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 4 =DELTA(C30.D35) =DELTA(C36.D31) =DELTA(C32. It only works with numbers.D4) =DELTA(C5.

The result can be padded with leading 0 zeros.D25) =DEC2HEX(C26.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I DEC2HEX Page 175 of 223 J 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 Decimal Number 0 1 2 3 25 26 27 28 -1 -2 -3 -2 -1 549.813.755.755.888 -549.887.PlacesToPad) The PlacesToPad is optional.888 549.889 Decimal Number 1 1 26 26 -26 Hexadecimal 0 1 2 3 19 1A 1B 1C FFFFFFFFFF FFFFFFFFFE FFFFFFFFFD FFFFFFFFFE FFFFFFFFFF 7FFFFFFFFF 8000000000 #NUM! #NUM! Places To Pad 1 2 3 9 1 =DEC2HEX(C4) =DEC2HEX(C5) =DEC2HEX(C6) =DEC2HEX(C7) =DEC2HEX(C8) =DEC2HEX(C9) =DEC2HEX(C10) =DEC2HEX(C11) =DEC2HEX(C12) =DEC2HEX(C13) =DEC2HEX(C14) =DEC2HEX(C15) =DEC2HEX(C16) =DEC2HEX(C17) =DEC2HEX(C18) =DEC2HEX(C19) =DEC2HEX(C20) Hexadecimal 1 01 01A 00000001A FFFFFFFFE6 =DEC2HEX(C23.755. .Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .813. It can only cope with decimals ranging from -549. Syntax =DEC2HEX(DecimalNumber.887 -549. Formatting No special formatting is needed.813.813.D27) What Does It Do ? This function converts a decimal number to its hexadecimal equivalent. although this is ignored for negatives.D23) =DEC2HEX(C24.813.755.755.888 to 549.D26) =DEC2HEX(C27.D24) =DEC2HEX(C25.755.813.

2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H DEC2BIN Page 176 of 223 I 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 Decimal Number Binary Equivalent 0 0 =DEC2BIN(C4) 1 1 =DEC2BIN(C5) 2 10 =DEC2BIN(C6) 3 11 =DEC2BIN(C7) 511 111111111 =DEC2BIN(C8) 512 #NUM! =DEC2BIN(C9) -1 1111111111 =DEC2BIN(C10) -2 1111111110 =DEC2BIN(C11) -3 1111111101 =DEC2BIN(C12) -511 1000000001 =DEC2BIN(C13) -512 1000000000 =DEC2BIN(C14) Decimal Number 1 1 1 1 -1 Places To Pad 1 2 3 9 1 Binary Equivalent 1 01 001 000000001 1111111111 =DEC2BIN(C17.D19) =DEC2BIN(C20.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .D21) What Does It Do ? This function converts a decimal number to its binary equivalent.D20) =DEC2BIN(C21.D18) =DEC2BIN(C19.PlacesToPad) The PlacesToPad is optional.D17) =DEC2BIN(C18. Formatting No special formatting is needed. It can only cope with decimals ranging from -512 to 511. although this is ignored for negatives. Syntax =DEC2BIN(DecimalNumber. . The result can be padded with leading 0 zeros.

such as "Value Of Stock" or I3.00 £0.00 £0. Examples The count of a product with an unknown Life Hours value.00 Count the number of products of a particular Brand.00 £1. including the field names at the top of the columns. It counts values and text items. or records.FieldName. such as the category Brand or Wattage.15 25 1 £3.CriteriaRange) The DatabaseRange is the entire list of information you need to examine.20 30 2 £12.10 20 5 £10. or names. The second set of information is the actual record.E23:E24) Type the brand name : The COUNT value of Horizon is : What Does It Do ? This function examines a list of information and counts the non blank cells in a specified column.00 £0. or 100 as the wattage.00 £2.50 10 3 £15. of the Fields(s) to be used as the basis for selecting the records. The FieldName is the name. .80 25 6 £120. but blank cells are ignored.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . which are to be selected. The first set of information is the name.80 20 5 £180.75 £0. such as Horizon as a brand name.50 £0.50 4 3 £54.00 £0.80 10 5 £40.00 £0. Formatting No special formatting is needed. The CriteriaRange is made up of two types of information.00 £2.00 £5.00 15 2 £60.50 £0. Horizon 8 =DCOUNTA(B3:I19.00 £1. or cell.00 3 2 £30.20 40 3 £24.00 £0. Brand These two cells are the Criteria range.00 £0. Box Boxes In Value Of Unit Cost Quantity Stock Stock £4.E3.25 10 5 £12.50 15 1 £37. of the values to Count. Syntax =DCOUNTA(DatabaseRange.25 10 4 £50.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I J DCOUNTA Page 177 of 223 K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 Product Bulb Neon Spot Other Bulb Spot Spot Other Bulb Neon Bulb Bulb Bulb Bulb Bulb Bulb Wattage 200 100 60 10 80 100 200 25 200 100 100 10 60 80 100 40 Life Hours 3000 2000 8000 1000 unknown 3000 unknown 3000 2000 unknown 800 1000 1000 2000 1000 Brand Horizon Horizon Sunbeam Horizon Horizon Horizon Sunbeam Sunbeam Sunbeam Sunbeam Horizon Sunbeam Sunbeam Horizon Horizon This is the Database range.20 25 2 £10.

Product Spot Neon The count is : 3 Brand Horizon Sunbeam =DCOUNTA(B3:I19.D3. Product Bulb The count is : 5 Brand Horizon =DCOUNTA(B3:I19.E61:F62) The count of particular products from specific brands.E68:F70) ."Product".2000 Peter Noneley A 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 B C D E Product Bulb The number of products is : 1 F Life Hours unknown =DCOUNTA(B3:I19. 1 =DCOUNTA(B3:I19.E50:F51) G H I J DCOUNTA Page 178 of 223 K This is the same calculation but using the name "Life Hours" instead of the cell address."Life Hours".Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .E50:F51) The count of the number of particular product of a specific brand."Product".

00 £1.FieldName.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . It can only count values.25 10 5 £12. Examples The count of a particular product.00 £0.00 £2.50 £0.00 £0. Brand These two cells are the Criteria range.D3.20 25 2 £10.15 25 1 £3.00 15 2 £60. The second set of information is the actual record.20 30 2 £12.20 40 3 £24.00 £0. of the values to Count. such as Horizon as a brand name. including the field names at the top of the columns. of the Fields(s) to be used as the basis for selecting the records. Horizon 7 =DCOUNT(B3:I19.50 10 3 £15.50 4 3 £54. . or records. or names.80 10 5 £40.CriteriaRange) The DatabaseRange is the entire list of information you need to examine.E23:E24) Type the brand name : The COUNT value of Horizon is : What Does It Do ? This function examines a list of information and counts the values in a specified column. or cell. such as "Value Of Stock" or I3. The FieldName is the name. such as the category Brand or Wattage.80 20 5 £180. The CriteriaRange is made up of two types of information.00 £1. which are to be selected. with a specific number of boxes in stock.00 £0.50 15 1 £37. Formatting No special formatting is needed.00 £5. Syntax =DCOUNT(DatabaseRange.00 3 2 £30.75 £0.10 20 5 £10. or 100 as the wattage.50 £0.25 10 4 £50. The first set of information is the name.00 £0.00 £0.80 25 6 £120.00 £2. the text items and blank cells are ignored.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I J DCOUNT Page 179 of 223 K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 Product Bulb Neon Spot Other Bulb Spot Spot Other Bulb Neon Bulb Bulb Bulb Bulb Bulb Bulb Wattage 200 100 60 10 80 100 200 25 200 100 100 10 60 80 100 40 Life Hours 3000 2000 8000 1000 unknown 3000 unknown 3000 2000 unknown 800 1000 1000 2000 1000 Brand Horizon Horizon Sunbeam Horizon Horizon Horizon Sunbeam Sunbeam Sunbeam Sunbeam Horizon Sunbeam Sunbeam Horizon Horizon This is the Database range.00 £0.00 Count the number of products of a particular Brand which have a Life Hours rating. Box Boxes In Value Of Unit Cost Quantity Stock Stock £4.

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 - 2000 Peter Noneley A 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 B C D E Product Bulb The number of products is : 3 F Boxes In Stock 5 G H I J

DCOUNT Page 180 of 223 K

=DCOUNT(B3:I19,H3,E50:F51)

This is the same calculation but using the name "Boxes In Stock" instead of the cell address. 3 =DCOUNT(B3:I19,"Boxes In Stock",E50:F51)

The count of the number of Bulb products equal to a particular Wattage. Product Bulb The count is : 2 Wattage 100 =DCOUNT(B3:I19,"Boxes In Stock",E61:F62)

The count of Bulb products between two Wattage values. Product Bulb The count is : 4 Wattage >=80 Wattage <=100

=DCOUNT(B3:I19,"Boxes In Stock",E68:G69)

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 - 2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G

DB Page 181 of 223 H I

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48

Purchase Price : Life in Years : Salvage value : Year 1 2 3 4 5 Total Depreciation :

£5,000 5 £200 Deprecation £2,375.00 £1,246.88 £654.61 £343.67 £180.43

=DB(E3,E5,E4,D8) =DB(E3,E5,E4,D9) =DB(E3,E5,E4,D10) =DB(E3,E5,E4,D11) =DB(E3,E5,E4,D12)

£4,800.58 * See example 4 below.

What Does It Do ? This function calculates deprecation based upon a fixed percentage. The first year is depreciated by the fixed percentage. The second year uses the same percentage, but uses the original value of the item less the first years depreciation. Any subsequent years use the same percentage, using the original value of the item less the depreciation of the previous years. The percentage used in the depreciation is not set by the user, the function calculates the necessary percentage, which will be vary based upon the values inputted by the user. An additional feature of this function is the ability to take into account when the item was originally purchased. If the item was purchased part way through the financial year, the first years depreciation will be based on the remaining part of the year. Syntax =DB(PurchasePrice,SalvageValue,Life,PeriodToCalculate,FirstYearMonth) The FirstYearMonth is the month in which the item was purchased during the first financial year. This is an optional value, if it not used the function will assume 12 as the value. Formatting No special formatting is needed. Example 1 This example shows the percentage used in the depreciation. Year 1 depreciation is based upon the original Purchase Price alone. Year 2 depreciation is based upon the original Purchase Price minus Year 1 deprecation. Year 3 deprecation is based upon original Purchase Price minus Year 1 + Year 2 deprecation. The % Deprc has been calculated purely to demonstrate what % is being used. Purchase Price : Salvage value : £5,000 £1,000

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 - 2000 Peter Noneley A 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 B C D Life in Years : Year 1 2 3 4 5 E 5 Deprecation £1,375.00 £996.88 £722.73 £523.98 £379.89 =DB(E47,E48,E49,D56) £3,998.48 % Deprc 27.50% 27.50% 27.50% 27.50% 27.50% F G

DB Page 182 of 223 H I

Total Depreciation :

Example 2 This example is similar to the previous, with the exception of the deprecation being calculated on a monthly basis. This has been done by multiplying the years by 12. Purchase Price : Life in Years : Salvage value : Month 56 57 58 59 60 £5,000 £5 100 Deprecation £8.79 £8.24 £7.72 £7.23 £6.78 =DB(E66,E68,E67*12,D75)

Example 3 This example shows how the length of the first years ownership has been taken into account. Purchase Price : Life in Years : Salvage value : First Year Ownership In Months : Year 1 2 3 4 5 £5,000 5 £1,000 6 Deprecation £687.50 £1,185.94 £859.80 £623.36 £451.93 =DB(E74,E76,E75,D84,E77) £3,808.54 % Deprc 13.75% 27.50% 27.50% 27.50% 27.50%

Total Depreciation :

Why Is The Answer Wrong ? In all of the examples above the total depreceation may not be exactly the expected value.

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 - 2000 Peter Noneley A 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129

DB Page 183 of 223 I

B C D E F G H This is due to the way in which the percentage value for the depreceation has been calculated by the =DB() fumction. The percentage rate is calculated by Execl using the formula = 1 - ((salvage / cost) ^ (1 / life)). The result of this calculation is then rounded to three decimal places. Although this rounding may only make a minor change to the percentage rate, when applied to large values, the differnce is compounded resulting in what could be considered as approximate values for the the depreceation. Example 4 This example has been created with both the Excel calculated percentage and the 'real' percentage calculated manually. The Excel Deprecation uses the =DB() function. The Real Deprecation uses a manual calculation. This is the 'real' deprecation percentage, calculated manually : 27.522034% =1-((E117/E116)^(1/E118)) Purchase Price : £5,000 = 1 - ((salvage / cost) ^ (1 / life)). Salvage value : £1,000 Life in Years : 5 Excel Deprecation £1,375.0000 £996.8750 £722.7344 £523.9824 £379.8873 £3,998.48 Real Depreciation £1,376.1017 £997.3705 £722.8739 £523.9243 £379.7297 £4,000.00 £1.52 Excel % Deprc 27.500% 27.500% 27.500% 27.500% 27.500%

Year 1 2 3 4 5 Total Depreciation :

Error difference :

FALSE : Use this for USA accounting systems. The result of using 1-Jan-98 and 5-Jan-98 will give a result of 4. Note The calculation does not include the last day. =DAYS360(Start.TRUE)+1 . To correct this add 1 to the result.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F DAYS360 Page 184 of 223 G 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 StartDate 1-Jan-98 1-Jan-98 1-Jan-98 1-Jan-98 EndDate 5-Jan-98 1-Feb-98 31-Mar-98 31-Dec-98 Days Between 4 30 89 359 * See the Note below. =DAYS360(C4. Formatting The result will be shown as a number.TRUE of FALSE) TRUE : Use this for European accounting systems.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .D5.TRUE) What Does It Do? Shows the number of days between two dates based on a 360-day year (twelve 30-day months).TRUE) =DAYS360(C7.TRUE) =DAYS360(C6. Syntax =DAYS360(StartDate.D4.D7.End.EndDate.D6. Use this function if your accounting system is based on twelve 30-day months.TRUE) =DAYS360(C5.

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G DAY Page 185 of 223 H 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 Full Date 25-Dec-98 16-Jun-13 16-Jun-13 The Day 25 Mon 16 16 =DAY(C4) =DAY(C5) =DAY(C6) What Does It Do? This function extracts the day of the month from a complete date.Number. Example The =DAY function has been used to calculate the name of the day for your birthday.Custom and using the code ddd or dddd. Syntax =DAY(value) Formatting Normally the result will be a number.Cells. but this can be formatted to show the actual day of the week by using Format. Please enter your date of birth in the format dd/mm/yy : You were born on : 3/25/1962 Wednesday 25 =DAY(F21) .

such as "Unit Cost" or F3. The second set of information is the actual record.00 £0.00 £1.50 10 3 £15.80 25 6 £120.25 10 4 £50.00 £0.25 10 5 £12. of the Fields(s) to be used as the basis for selecting the records.00 £5.10 20 5 £10.00 £0.15 25 0 £0.F3. The CriteriaRange is made up of two types of information.00 £0.00 £0. or 100 as the wattage.50 4 3 £54.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I J DAVERAGE Page 186 of 223 K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 Product Bulb Neon Spot Other Bulb Spot Spot Other Bulb Neon Bulb Bulb Bulb Bulb Bulb Bulb Wattage 200 100 60 10 80 100 200 25 200 100 100 10 60 80 100 40 Life Hours 3000 2000 8000 1000 unknown 3000 unknown 3000 2000 unknown 800 1000 1000 2000 1000 Brand Horizon Horizon Sunbeam Horizon Horizon Horizon Sunbeam Sunbeam Sunbeam Sunbeam Horizon Sunbeam Sunbeam Horizon Horizon This is the Database range. The first set of information is the name. Formatting No special formatting is needed.00 £2. Brand These two cells are the Criteria range.24 =DAVERAGE(B3:I19.50 15 0 £0. Product Brand . The FieldName is the name.80 20 5 £180.00 £0.80 10 5 £40.00 3 2 £30.00 £2.CriteriaRange) The DatabaseRange is the entire list of information you need to examine.20 40 3 £24.00 £1. such as the category Brand or Wattage. or records. such as Horizon as a brand name.50 £0. or names. or cell.00 To calculate the Average cost of a particular Brand of bulb. Examples The average Unit Cost of a particular Product of a particular Brand.00 £0.00 £0. which are to be selected.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .00 £0. including the field names at the top of the columns.20 25 2 £10.E23:E24) What Does It Do ? This function examines a list of information and produces and average. Box Boxes In Value Of Unit Cost Quantity Stock Stock £4.20 30 2 £12.FieldName.00 15 2 £60. of the values to be averaged. Syntax =DAVERAGE(DatabaseRange. Type the brand name : sunbeam The Average cost of sunbeam is : £1.

"Unit Cost".E49:F50) This is the same calculation but using the actual name "Unit Cost" instead of the cell address."Unit Cost". Product Bulb Average of Bulb 100 is : £0.16 =DAVERAGE(B3:I19.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 ."Unit Cost".17 Wattage <100 =DAVERAGE(B3:I19. Product Bulb Average of Bulb <100 is : £0.53 Wattage 100 =DAVERAGE(B3:I19.2000 Peter Noneley A 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 B C D E Bulb £1.E67:F68) . £1.F3.16 F Horizon G H I J DAVERAGE Page 187 of 223 K The average of Horizon Bulb is : =DAVERAGE(B3:I19.E60:F61) The average Unit Cost of a Bulb less then a particular Wattage.E49:F50) The average Unit Cost of a Bulb equal to a particular Wattage.

such as exports from mainframe computers. Example The example uses the =DATEVALUE and the =TODAY functions to calculate the number of days remaining on a property lease. BC100 FG700 TD200 HJ900 . Syntax =DATEVALUE(text) Formatting The result will normally be shown as a number which represents the date. Days Until Expiry Date Expiry 25-dec-99 -4922 10-july/99 -5090 13-sep-98 -5390 30/5/2000 #VALUE! =DATEVALUE(E32)-TODAY() Property Ref. Dates expressed as text are often created when data is imported from other programs. probably after being imported from an external program.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F DATEVALUE Page 188 of 223 G H 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 Date 25-dec-99 25/12/99 25-dec-99 25/12/99 Date Value 36519 #VALUE! 36519 #VALUE! =DATEVALUE(C4) =DATEVALUE(C5) =DATEVALUE(C6) =DATEVALUE(C7) What Does It Do? The function is used to convert a piece of text into a date which can be used in calculations. The =DATEVALUE function was used because the date has been entered in the cell as a piece of text.Cells.Date. This number can be formatted to any of the normal date formats by using Format.Number.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .

D7. which creates a text version.TODAY()."m") =DATEDIF(C6."y") =DATEDIF(C7. "ym" Months between the dates.D9. as if the dates were in the same year.D6.TODAY(). "yd" Days between the dates.TODAY().SecondDate. "Interval" : This indicates what you want to calculate. "&DATEDIF(C8.D8."y")&" Years. "md" Days between the two dates. months or years. Formatting No special formatting is needed. It can show the result in weeks."yd") =DATEDIF(C8.TODAY()."md") You can put this all together in one calculation. "m" Months between the two dates. "d" Days between the two dates. Birth date : Years lived : and the months : and the days : 1-Jan-60 53 =DATEDIF(C8.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 ."ym")&" Months and "&DATEDIF(C8. SecondDate : This is the most recent of the two dates.D4.TODAY(). "y" Years between the two dates.TODAY()."ym") 15 =DATEDIF(C8. Syntax =DATEDIF(FirstDate."d") =DATEDIF(C5.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H DATEDIF Page 189 of 223 I 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 FirstDate 1-Jan-60 1-Jan-60 1-Jan-60 1-Jan-60 1-Jan-60 1-Jan-60 SecondDate 10-May-70 10-May-70 10-May-70 10-May-70 10-May-70 10-May-70 Interval days months years yeardays yearmonths monthdays Difference 3782 124 10 130 4 9 =DATEDIF(C4."md") What Does It Do? This function calculates the difference between two dates."y") 5 =DATEDIF(C8.D5."Interval") FirstDate : This is the earliest of the two dates."ym") =DATEDIF(C9. 5 Months and 15 Days ="Age is "&DATEDIF(C8. Age is 53 Years. These are the available intervals. as if the dates were in the same month and year. as if the dates were in the same year."md")&" Days" .

C4) 25-Dec-99 =DATE(E5.day) Formatting The result will normally be displayed in the dd/mm/yy format.C5) January 2.month.D4.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I J DATE Page 190 of 223 K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Day Month 25 12 25 12 33 12 Year 99 99 99 Date 12/25/99 =DATE(E4.D6. Syntax =DATE(year.C6) What Does It Do? This function creates a real date by using three normal numbers typed into separate cells.Number. 2000 =DATE(E6.Cells.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . By using the Format. .Date command the format can be changed.D5.

service What Does It Do ? This function counts the number of items which match criteria set by the user. "Hello") To match using operators surround the expression with quotes. How many items cost £100 or above. Type the name of the item to count. .CriteriaToBeMatched) The criteria can be typed in any of the following ways. How many Tyres have been bought.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G COUNTIF Page 191 of 223 H 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 Item Brakes Tyres Brakes Service Service Window Tyres Tyres Clutch Date 1-Jan-98 10-May-98 1-Feb-98 1-Mar-98 5-Jan-98 1-Jun-98 1-Apr-98 1-Mar-98 1-May-98 Cost 80 25 80 150 300 50 200 100 250 2 3 5 2 =COUNTIF(C4:C12. To match a specific number type the number. ">100") Formatting No special formatting is needed.">=100") =COUNTIF(C4:C12. such as =COUNTIF(A1:A5. such as =COUNTIF(A1:A5. Syntax =COUNTIF(RangeOfThingsToBeCounted."Tyres") =COUNTIF(E4:E12. such as =COUNTIF(A1:A5. 100) To match a piece of text type the text in quotes."Brakes") =COUNTIF(C4:C12.E18) How many Brake Shoes Have been bought.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .

The response to the question could be Y or N. Admin Y Accounts N Y Production Y N Y Y Y Y Y Personnel N N N Y Y 16 14 10 =COUNTBLANK(C32:F41) =COUNTIF(C32:F41.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Example The following table was used by a company which was balloting its workers on whether the company should have a no smoking policy. Each of the departments in the various factories were questioned. As the results of the vote were collated they were entered in to the table. The =COUNTBLANK() function has been used to calculate the number of departments which have no yet registered a vote."Y") =COUNTIF(C32:F41.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I COUNTBLANK Page 192 of 223 J 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 Range To Test 1 Hello 3 0 1-Jan-98 5 Blanks 2 =COUNTBLANK(C4:C11) What Does It Do ? This function counts the number of blank cells in a range. Syntax =COUNTBLANK(RangeToTest) Formatting No special formatting is needed."N") Factory 1 Factory 2 Factory 3 Factory 4 Factory 5 Factory 6 Factory 7 Factory 8 Factory 9 Factory 10 N Y Y N Y Y N N N Votes not vet registered : Votes for Yes : Votes for No : .

Maths Alan Bob Carol David Elaine Fail 2 Fail 1 English 1 1 3 Art 1 3 1 Fail 2 History Exams Taken By Each Pupil 2 3 3 2 4 =COUNTA(D39:G39) 1 Fail How many pupils sat each Exam.Range3.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . The school also needed to know how many exams were taken by each pupil. The =COUNTA() function has been used because of its ability to count text and numeric entries. 2 or 3..2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I J COUNTA Page 193 of 223 K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 Entries To Be Counted 10 20 30 10 0 30 10 -20 30 10 1-Jan-88 30 10 21:30 30 10 0. Each exam passed was graded as 1.Range2.958959 30 10 30 10 Hello 30 10 #DIV/0! 30 Count 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 3 3 =COUNTA(C4:E4) =COUNTA(C5:E5) =COUNTA(C6:E6) =COUNTA(C7:E7) =COUNTA(C8:E8) =COUNTA(C9:E9) =COUNTA(C10:E10) =COUNTA(C11:E11) =COUNTA(C12:E12) What Does It Do ? This function counts the number of numeric or text entries in a list. It will ignore blanks. Maths English Art History 4 3 5 2 =COUNTA(D35:D39) . Example The following table was used by a school to keep track of the examinations taken by each pupil.. The school needed to known how many pupils sat each exam. Syntax =COUNTA(Range1. through to Range30) Formatting No special formatting is needed. A failure was entered as Fail.

Syntax =COUNT(Range1.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I J COUNT Page 194 of 223 K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 Entries To Be Counted 10 20 30 10 0 30 10 -20 30 10 1-Jan-88 30 10 21:30 30 10 0.000 £1..Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . It will ignore blanks. text and errors.000 Count 3 2 =COUNT(D29:D32) Mar 0 .22846 30 10 30 10 Hello 30 10 #DIV/0! 30 Count 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 =COUNT(C4:E4) =COUNT(C5:E5) =COUNT(C6:E6) =COUNT(C7:E7) =COUNT(C8:E8) =COUNT(C9:E9) =COUNT(C10:E10) =COUNT(C11:E11) =COUNT(C12:E12) What Does It Do ? This function counts the number of numeric entries in a list.Range2.000 Glass £2.000 Metal £1. through to Range30) Formatting No special formatting is needed.Range3.000 Wood £5.. Item Jan Feb Bricks £1. Example The following table was used by a builders merchant to calculate the number of sales for various products in each month.

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 - 2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I J

CORREL Page 195 of 223 K

1 2 3

Table 1 Air Cond Sales 100 200 300 200 400 400

Table 2 Advertising Costs £2,000 £1,000 £5,000 £1,000 £8,000 £1,000

4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun

Avg Temp 20 30 30 40 50 50

Sales £20,000 £30,000 £20,000 £40,000 £40,000 £20,000

Correlation 0.864 =CORREL(D5:D10,E5:E10)

Correlation 28% =CORREL(G5:G10,H5:H10)

What Does It Do ? This function examines two sets of data to determine the degree of relationship between the two sets. The result will be a decimal between 0 and 1. The larger the result, the greater the correlation. In Table 1 the Monthly temperature is compared against the Sales of air conditioning units. The correlation shows that there is an 0.864 realtionship between the data. In Table 2 the Cost of advertising has been compared to Sales. It can be formatted as percentage % to show a more meaning full result. The correlation shows that there is an 28% realtionship between the data. Syntax =CORREL(Range1,Range2) Formatting The result will normally be shown in decimal format.

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 - 2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H

CONVERT Page 196 of 223 I

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 Amount Converting To Convert From 1 in 1 ft 1 yd 1 1 1.5 0.5 yr day hr mn Converting To cm m m day hr mn sec Converted Amount 2.54 =CONVERT(C4,D4,E4) 0.3048 =CONVERT(C5,D5,E5) 0.9144 =CONVERT(C6,D6,E6) 365.25 24 90 30 =CONVERT(C8,D8,E8) =CONVERT(C9,D9,E9) =CONVERT(C10,D10,E10) =CONVERT(C11,D11,E11)

What Does It Do ? This function converts a value measure in one type of unit, to the same value expressed in a different type of unit, such as Inches to Centimetres. Syntax =CONVERT(AmountToConvert,UnitToConvertFrom,UnitToConvertTo) Formatting No special formatting is needed. Example The following table was used by an Import / Exporting company to convert the weight and size of packages from old style UK measuring system to European system. Pounds Ounces Kilograms 5 3 2.35301 =CONVERT(D28,"lbm","kg")+CONVERT(E28,"ozm","kg") Feet 12 8 5 Inches Metres 6 3.81 3 2.5146 2 1.5748 =CONVERT(D34,"ft","m")+CONVERT(E34,"in","m")

Weight

Height Length Width

Abbreviations This is a list of all the possible abbreviations which can be used to denote measuring systems. Weight & Mass Gram Kilogram Slug Pound mass U (atomic mass) Ounce mass Time Year Day Hour Distance Meter Statute mile Nautical mile Inch Foot Yard Angstrom Pica (1/72 in.) Pressure Pascal

g kg sg lbm u ozm

m mi Nmi in ft yd ang Pica

yr day hr

Pa

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 - 2000 Peter Noneley A 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 Minute Second Temperature Degree Celsius Degree Fahrenheit Degree Kelvin Force Newton Dyne Pound force Energy Joule Erg Thermodynamic calorie IT calorie Electron volt Horsepower-hour Watt-hour Foot-pound BTU B C mn sec D E Atmosphere mm of Mercury Liquid Teaspoon Tablespoon Fluid ounce Cup Pint Quart Gallon Liter Power Horsepower Watt F atm mmHg G H

CONVERT Page 197 of 223 I

C F K

N dyn lbf

tsp tbs oz cup pt qt gal l

J e c cal eV HPh Wh flb BTU

HP W

Magnetism Tesla Gauss

T ga

These characters can be used as a prefix to access further units of measure. Using "c" as a prefix to meters "m" will allow centimetres "cm" to be calculated. Prefix exa peta tera giga mega kilo hecto dekao Multiplier Abbreviation 1.00E+18 E 1.00E+15 P 1.00E+12 T 1.00E+09 G 1.00E+06 M 1.00E+03 k 1.00E+02 h 1.00E+01 e Prefix deci centi milli micro nano pico femto atto Multiplier 1.00E-01 1.00E-02 1.00E-03 1.00E-06 1.00E-09 1.00E-12 1.00E-15 1.00E-18 Abbreviation d c m u n p f a

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 - 2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H

CONCATENATE Page 198 of 223 I

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30

Name 1 Alan Bob Carol Alan Bob Carol

Name 2 Concatenated Text Jones AlanJones =CONCATENATE(C4,D4) Williams BobWilliams =CONCATENATE(C5,D5) Davies CarolDavies =CONCATENATE(C6,D6) Jones Alan Jones =CONCATENATE(C7," ",D7) Williams Williams, Bob =CONCATENATE(D8,", ",C8) Davies Davies, Carol =CONCATENATE(D9,", ",C9)

What Does It Do? This function joins separate pieces of text into one item. Syntax =CONCATENATE(Text1,Text2,Text3...Text30) Up to thirty pieces of text can be joined. Formatting No special formatting is needed, the result will be shown as normal text. Note You can achieve the same result by using the & operator. Name 1 Alan Bob Carol Alan Bob Carol Name 2 Concatenated Text Jones AlanJones =C25&D25 Williams BobWilliams =C26&D26 Davies CarolDavies =C27&D27 Jones Alan Jones =C28&" "&D28 Williams Williams, Bob =D29&", "&C29 Davies Davies, Carol =D30&", "&C30

2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F COMBIN Page 199 of 223 G 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 Pool Of Items 4 4 26 Items In A Group 2 3 2 Possible Groups 6 4 325 =COMBIN(C4.GroupSize) Formatting No special formatting is required. Example 1 This example calculates the possible number of pairs of letters available from the four characters ABCD. How many colours schemes can be created ? Available Colours Colours Per Scheme Totals Schemes 5 3 10 =COMBIN(C41. but can only use three in any scheme.D25) Example 2 A decorator is asked to design a colour scheme for a new office.D5) =COMBIN(C6.D6) What Does It Do ? This function calculates the highest number of combinations available based upon a fixed number of items. The internal order of the combination does not matter. The decorator is given five colours to work with.D4) =COMBIN(C5. Syntax =COMBIN(HowManyItems. so AB is the same as BA. Total Characters 4 The proof ! Group Size 2 The four letters : Pair 1 Pair 2 Pair 3 Pair 4 Pair 5 Pair 6 Combinations 6 ABCD AB AC AD BC BD CD =COMBIN(C25.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .D41) The colours Red Green Blue Yellow Black .

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .2000 Peter Noneley A 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 B C Scheme 1 Red Green Blue Scheme 6 Green Blue Yellow D Scheme 2 Red Green Yellow Scheme 7 Green Blue Black E Scheme 3 Red Green Black Scheme 8 Green Yellow Black F Scheme 4 Red Blue Yellow Scheme 9 Blue Yellow Black COMBIN Page 200 of 223 G Scheme 5 Red Blue Black Scheme 10 ?????? .

2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I J CODE Page 201 of 224 K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 Letter A B C a b c Alan Bob Carol ANSI Code 65 66 67 97 98 99 65 66 67 =CODE(C4) =CODE(C5) =CODE(C6) =CODE(C7) =CODE(C8) =CODE(C9) =CODE(C10) =CODE(C11) =CODE(C12) What Does It Do? This function shows the ANSI value of a single character. There are 255 characters in the ANSI set. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 ! 58 " 59 # 60 $ 61 % 62 & 63 ' 64 ( 65 ) 66 * 67 + 68 . < = > ? @ A B C D E F G H I J K 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z [ \ ] ^ _ ` a b c d 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z { | } 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 ~ • € • ‚ ƒ „ … † ‡ ˆ ‰ Š ‹ Œ • Ţ • • Ř ř Ŗ ŗ • Ŕ 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 ŕ ˜ ™ š › œ • ţ Ÿ ¡ ¢ £ ¤ ¥ ¦ § ¨ © ª « ¬ ® ¯ 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 ° ± ² ³ ´ µ ¶ · ¸ ¹ º » ¼ ½ ¾ ¿ À Á Â Ã Ä Å Æ Ç È 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211 212 213 214 215 216 217 218 219 220 221 222 223 224 225 É Ê Ë Ì Í Î Ï Ð Ñ Ò Ó Ô Õ Ö × Ø Ù Ú Û Ü Ý Þ ß à á 226 227 228 229 230 231 232 233 234 235 236 237 238 239 240 241 242 243 244 245 246 247 248 249 250 â ã ä å æ ç è é ê ë ì í î ï ð ñ ò ó ô õ ö ÷ ø ù ú 251 252 253 254 255 û ü ý þ ÿ . Example See the example for FREQUENCY. 69 . or the first character in a piece of text. Syntax =CODE(Text) Formatting No special formatting is needed. 71 / 72 0 73 1 74 2 75 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 : .Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . the result will be shown as a number between 1 and 255.70 . The ANSI character set is used by Windows to identify each keyboard character by using a unique number.

18 43 + 68 D 19 44 .2000 23 Peter 48Noneley 0 73 I 24 49 1 74 J A 25 B 50 2 C75 K 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 D 100 ] ^ _ ` a b c d 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 v w x y z { | }E 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 • • Ř ř Ŗ ŗ • Ŕ 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 F 175 ¨ © ª « ¬ ® ¯ 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 G 200 Á Â Ã Ä Å Æ Ç È 218 219 220 221 222 223 224 225 Ú Û Ü Ý Þ ß à H á 243 244 245 246 247 248 249 250 ó ô õ ö ÷ ø ù ú I CODE Page 202 of 224 J K 55 . 71 G Excel Function 22 Dictionary 47 / 72 H © 1998 .70 F 21 46 . 69 E 20 45 .

The result will show as normal text. .Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . These nonprinting characters are often found in data which has been imported from other systems such as database imports from mainframes.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I CLEAN Page 203 of 223 J 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 Dirty Text Hello He llo Hello Clean Text Hello =CLEAN(C4) Hello =CLEAN(C5) Hello =CLEAN(C6) What Does It Do? This function removes any nonprintable characters from text. Syntax =CLEAN(TextToBeCleaned) Formatting No special formatting is needed.

10%."Gold".10%. Name Alan Bob Carol David Eric Time 1:30 1:15 2:45 1:05 1:20 Position Medal 2 Silver =IF(D30<=3."Bob".CHOOSE(D32. Item2."Silver".CHOOSE(D33.18%) =CHOOSE(C8."Carol") =CHOOSE(C7."unplaced") 3 Bronze =IF(D34<=3.15%.10%. The =IF() has been used to filter out any positions above 3.C30:C34) ."Gold"."Silver"."Bob"."Alan"."unplaced") 5 unplaced =IF(D33<=3. due to the fact the =CHOOSE() has only three items in it."Alan"."Silver"."Bob"."Gold"."Gold"."Bronze")."Bronze").CHOOSE(D30."Bronze"). The =RANK() function calculates the finishing position of each athlete."Bronze").Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I CHOOSE Page 204 of 223 J K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 Index Value 1 3 2 3 1 2 Result Alan Carol Bob 18% 10% 15% =CHOOSE(C4."unplaced") 1 Gold =IF(D32<=3. The =CHOOSE() then allocates the correct medal.CHOOSE(D31. The Time for each athlete is entered."unplaced") 4 unplaced =IF(D31<=3.15%."Gold". Item3 through to Item29) Formatting No special formatting is required."Carol") =CHOOSE(C6. Syntax =CHOOSE(UserValue."Silver". Example The following table was used to calculate the medals for athletes taking part in a race. as this would cause the error of #VALUE to appear.18%) =CHOOSE(C9.15%."Carol") =CHOOSE(C5."Silver"."Bronze"). Item1.CHOOSE(D34."Alan"."unplaced") =RANK(C34.18%) What Does It Do? This function picks from a list of options based upon an Index value given to by the user.

Example The following is a list of all 255 numbers and the characters they represent.70 .Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 ! 58 " 59 # 60 $ 61 % 62 & 63 ' 64 ( 65 ) 66 * 67 + 68 .2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U CHAR Page 205 of 224 V W X 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 ANSI Number Character 65 A 66 B 169 © =CHAR(G4) =CHAR(G5) =CHAR(G6) What Does It Do? This function converts a normal number to the character it represent in the ANSI character set used by Windows. Formatting The result will be a character with no special formatting. Note that most Windows based program may not display some of the special characters. Syntax =CHAR(Number) The Number must be between 1 and 255. < = > ? @ A B C D E F G H I J K 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z [ \ ] ^ _ ` a b c d 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z { | } 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 ~ • € 151 152 153 154 ‚ 155 ƒ 156 „ 157 … 158 † 159 ‡ 160 ˆ 161 ‰ 162 Š 163 ‹ 164 Œ 165 166 Ţ 167 168 169 Ř 170 ř 171 Ŗ 172 ŗ 173 • 174 Ŕ 175 ŕ ˜ ™ š › œ ţ Ÿ ¡ ¢ £ ¤ ¥ ¦ § ¨ © ª « ¬ ® ¯ 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 ° ± ² ³ ´ µ ¶ · ¸ ¹ º » ¼ ½ ¾ ¿ À Á Â Ã Ä Å Æ Ç È 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211 212 213 214 215 216 217 218 219 220 221 222 223 224 225 É Ê Ë Ì Í Î Ï Ð Ñ Ò Ó Ô Õ Ö × Ø Ù Ú Û Ü Ý Þ ß à á 226 227 228 229 230 231 232 233 234 235 236 237 238 239 240 241 242 243 244 245 246 247 248 249 250 â ã ä å æ ç è é ê ë ì í î ï ð ñ ò ó ô õ ö ÷ ø ù ú 251 252 253 254 255 û ü ý þ ÿ . 71 / 72 0 73 1 74 2 75 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 : . 69 . these will be displayed as a small box.

Q R S T U CHAR Page 206 of 224 V W X .2000 Peter Noneley A 50 51 B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Note Number 32 does not show as it is the SPACEBAR character.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .

##0.00 $#.This is the cell and contents to test.##0_). " for right. The type of entry in the cell. 0 =CELL("parentheses".D3) =CELL("contents".D3) 12 P2 =CELL("width". 0 =CELL("color".##0. Nothing is shown for numeric entries.00% 0.($#. v for value.D3) =CELL("prefix".[Red]($#. The row number. 1 =CELL("protect". (See the table shown below) 17.00_).D3) 1 for yes. 0 for no.ms_office.CellToTest) The TypeOfInfoRequired is a text entry which must be surrounded with quotes " ".($#. The actual contents of the cell. Codes used to show the formatting of the cell.[Red]($#. ^ for centre.00) 0% 0. The type of cell protection. The column number. Shown as b for blank.2 C0 C0C2 C2P0 P2 S2 G D4 D1 D2 D3 D5 D7 D6 D9 D8 . The cell address.##0_). Shown as ' for left.D3) =CELL("format".##0.50% $D$3 4 3 0.D3) Formatted for braces ( ) on positive values. Syntax =CELL("TypeOfInfoRequired".xls]CELL =CELL("filename". Numeric Format General 0 #.D3) 1 for yes.D3) =CELL("col". 0 for no. Formatted for coloured negatives.00E+00 # ?/? or # ??/?? m/d/yy or m/d/yy h:mm or mm/dd/yy. position and formatting. Formatting No special formatting is needed.D3) What Does It Do ? This function examines a cell and displays information about the contents.D3) =CELL("row".##0) $#.00_).00) $#. d-mmm-yy or dd-mmm-yy d-mmm or dd-mmm mmm-yy mm/dd h:mm AM/PM h:mm:ss AM/PM h:mm h:mm:ss Code G F0 .##0. l for text.##0) $#. The alignment of the cell. 0 for unlocked.00 #.D3) =CELL("type".175 v =CELL("address". The filename containing the cell. The number format fo the cell. The width of the cell.##0 0. \\vboxsrv\conversion_tmp\scratch_4\[152175318.D3) 1 for a locked.0 F2 .##0.xls.

FIND("[".xls =MID(CELL("filename").CELL("filename"))-FIND("[".xls. The name of the current file is : 152175318.ms_office.FIND("]".CELL("filename"))+1.CELL("filename"))-1) .Example The following example uses the =CELL() function as part of a formula which extracts the filename.

ms_office.xls]CELL .8.xls.

30) What Does It Do ? This function rounds a number up to the nearest multiple specified by the user.1) =CEILING(C6.Number 2. The properties being rented are only available on a weekly basis. Syntax =CEILING(ValueToRound.71 =D45/E45 =D46/E46 =D47/E47 Table 2 shows how the =CEILING() function has been used to round up the result of the division to a whole number. The merchant needs to hire trucks to move each product. Days To Be Billed 7 7 14 Days Required Customer 1 3 Customer 2 4 Customer 3 10 =CEILING(D28.7) =CEILING(D30. Example 1 The following table was used by a estate agent renting holiday apartments.1) =CEILING(D56/E56. This results of the division are not whole numbers.MultipleToRoundUpTo) The ValueToRound can be a cell address or a calculation. and thus given the exact amount of trucks needed. Table 2 Item Bricks Wood Cement Units To Be Moved 1000 5000 2000 Truck Capacity 300 600 350 Trucks Needed 4 9 6 =CEILING(D54/E54.30) =CEILING(C8.1) .5 1. Table 1 Item Bricks Wood Cement Units To Be Moved 1000 5000 2000 Truck Capacity 300 600 350 Trucks Needed 3. Each product needs a particular type of truck of a fixed capacity. and the builder cannot hire just part of a truck.1) =CEILING(D55/E55.9 20 25 40 Raised Up 3 2 2 30 30 60 =CEILING(C4.1) =CEILING(C7.1) =CEILING(C5.30) =CEILING(C9. Table 1 calculates the number of trucks required by dividing the Units To Be Moved by the Capacity of the truck. When the customer supplies the number of days required in the property the =CEILING() function rounds it up by a multiple of 7 to calculate the number of full weeks to be billed.7) Example 2 The following table was used by a builders merchant delivering products to a construction site.33 8.7) =CEILING(D29.33 5. Formatting No special formatting is needed.1 1.

Calculates the decimal part of the price.25 £28.62000 1. The shopkeeper always wants the price to end in 99 pence.60714 5.99 =INT(E83)+CEILING(MOD(E83.25 £28. The cost of the item is calculated by dividing the Box Cost by the Box Quantity.10 £28 Cost Per Item 1.99 2. Table 1 shows how just a normal division results in varying Item Costs.Example 3 The following tables were used by a shopkeeper to calculate the selling price of an item.81818 1.75000 1.1) =CEILING(MOD(E83). Raises the decimal to 0. The shopkeeper buys products by the box.99) Calculates the integer part of the price.81818 2.75000 =D69/C69 =D70/C70 =D71/C71 =D72/C72 Table 2 shows how the =CEILING() function has been used to raise the Item Cost to always end in 99 pence.60714 2.99 1.99 5. Table 2 Item Plugs Sockets Junctions Adapters In Box 11 7 5 16 Box Cost £20 £18.62000 5. Table 1 Item Plugs Sockets Junctions Adapters Box Qnty 11 7 5 16 Box Cost £20 £18.99) Explanation =INT(E83) =MOD(E83.1).0.99 .10 £28 Cost Per Item Raised Cost 1.0.

.Binary Number Decimal Equivalent 0 #REF! 1 1 10 2 11 3 111111111 511 1111111111 -1 1111111110 -2 1111111101 -3 1000000000 -512 11111111111 #NUM! =BIN2DEC(C4) =BIN2DEC(C5) =BIN2DEC(C6) =BIN2DEC(C7) =BIN2DEC(C8) =BIN2DEC(C9) =BIN2DEC(C10) =BIN2DEC(C11) =BIN2DEC(C12) =BIN2DEC(C13) What Does It Do ? This function converts a binary number to decimal. Negative numbers are represented using two's-complement notation. Syntax =BIN2DEC(BinaryNumber) The binary number has a limit of ten characters. Formatting No special formatting is needed.

through to Range30) Formatting No special formatting is needed. the cell will not be used in the average calculation. If the cell is blank or contains text. Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun Average 30 No 32 29 26 28 27 24.667 =AVERAGE(D8:J8) 0 4 6 3 1 2.3333 =SUM(D36:J36)/COUNTA(D36:J36) Temp Rain Temp Rain Further Usage .3333 =AVERAGE(D9:J9) Temp Rain Temp Rain Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun Average 30 No 32 29 26 28 27 28..Temp Rain Mon 30 0 Mon 30 0 Tue 31 0 Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun Average 32 29 26 28 27 29 =AVERAGE(D4:J4) 0 4 6 3 1 2 =AVERAGE(D5:J5) Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun Average 32 29 26 28 27 28.571 =SUM(D31:J31)/COUNTA(D31:J31) 0 Reading 0 4 6 3 1 2 =SUM(D32:J32)/COUNTA(D32:J32) Mon 30 0 Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun Average 32 29 26 28 27 28.Range2. Note To calculate the average of cells which contain text or blanks use =SUM() to get the total and then divide by the count of the entries using =COUNTA(). If the cell contains zero 0.667 =AVERAGE(D12:J12) 0 Reading 0 4 6 3 1 2.Range3.. the cell will be included in the average calculation. Syntax =AVERAGE(Range1.667 =SUM(D35:J35)/COUNTA(D35:J35) 0 4 6 3 1 2.3333 =AVERAGE(D13:J13) What Does It Do ? This function calculates the average from a list of numbers.

then the Ctrl key was held down before selecting the green range. The function is designed to be used in macros. . Note To name multiple ranges the CTRL key must be used. If it is a multiple block the result will be the number of ranges selected.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . In the above example the pink range was selected as normal.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H AREAS Page 214 of 223 I 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 Pink Name Alan Bob Carol Name David Eric Fred Age 18 17 20 Age 20 16 19 2 =AREAS(PeopleLists) Green What Does It Do? This function tests a range to determine whether it is a single block of data. The =AREAS(PeopleLists) gives a result of 2 indicating that there are two separate selections which form the PeopleLists range. Syntax =AREAS(RangeToTest) Formatting The result will be shown as a number. Example The example at the top of this page shows two ranges coloured pink and green. These ranges have been given the name PeopleLists. If it is a single block the result will be 1. or whether it is a multiple selection. When a Range Name is created it will consider both Pink and Green as being one range.

E38>=AVERAGE($E$29:$E$38)) Averages 47 54 60 .D5>=100) =AND(C6>=100.Test2) Note that there can be up to 30 possible tests. It can be used to test that a series of numbers meet certain conditions.D38>=AVERAGE($D$29:$D$38). The =AND() function has been used to test that each score is above the average. The result of TRUE is shown for pupils who have scored above average in all three exams. The teacher wants to find the pupils who scored above average in all three exams. Formatting When used by itself it will show TRUE or FALSE. Example 1 The following example shows a list of examination results.D6>=100) =AND(D7>=1.Items To Test 500 800 500 25 25 500 12 Result TRUE FALSE FALSE TRUE =AND(C4>=100.D4>=100) =AND(C5>=100. Normally the AND() function would be used in conjunction with a function such as =IF(). Name Alan Bob Carol David Eric Fred Gail Harry Ian Janice Maths 80 50 60 90 20 40 10 80 30 10 English 75 30 70 85 30 60 90 70 10 20 Physics 85 40 50 95 Absent 80 80 60 20 30 Passed TRUE FALSE FALSE TRUE FALSE FALSE FALSE TRUE FALSE FALSE =AND(C38>=AVERAGE($C$29:$C$38).D7<=52) What Does It Do? This function tests two or more conditions to see if they are all true. Syntax =AND(Test1. It can be used to test that a number or a date falls between an upper and lower limit.

TRUE. When 2 the reference will be in the form A$1.F3.4.3.F5) =ADDRESS(F4.F3. Syntax =ADDRESS(RowNumber. only the column absolute. column and row absolute.F5) =ADDRESS(F4.3 or 4.Absolute. When 4 the reference will be in the form A1.TRUE) =ADDRESS(F4.F5) What Does It Do ? This function creates a cell reference as a piece of text.SheetName) The RowNumber is the normal row number from 1 to 16384. neither col or row absolute. based on a row and column numbers given by the user.1. the normal style for cell addresses. .F3. When 3 the reference will be in the form $A1.FALSE) =ADDRESS(F4. The A1orR1C1 is either TRUE of FALSE.F3.1.3.F3.TRUE. When TRUE the reference will be in the form A1.F5) =ADDRESS(F4.2.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H I ADDRESS Page 216 of 223 J 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 Type a column number : Type a row number : Type a sheet name : $B$3 B$3 $B3 B3 R3C2 R3C[2] R[3]C2 R[3]C[2] Hello!$B$3 Hello!B$3 Hello!$B3 Hello!B3 2 3 Hello =ADDRESS(F4.2. This type of function is used in macros rather than on the actual worksheet.A1orR1C1. The Absolute can be 1. When FALSE the reference will be in the form R1C1.ColNumber.4.TRUE. The SheetName is a piece of text to be used as the worksheet name in the reference.TRUE) =ADDRESS(F4. the alternative style of cell address.F3.TRUE. cols A to IV.F3. When 1 the reference will be in the form $A$1.F3.F3.2.F3.FALSE) =ADDRESS(F4.FALSE) =ADDRESS(F4.3.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . The ColNumber is from 1 to 256. only the row absolute.2.FALSE) =ADDRESS(F4.F3.F3.4.TRUE) =ADDRESS(F4. The SheetName does not actually have to exist.1.TRUE) =ADDRESS(F4.

The machine needs to cut timber to an exact length. irrespective of whether it is positive or negative. Table 1 Test Cut Test 1 Test 2 Test 3 Required Length 120 120 120 Actual Length 120 90 150 Difference 0 30 -30 =D36-E36 Error Percentage 0% 25% -25% Table 2 shows the same data but using the =ABS() function to correct the calculations. no special formatting is needed.25 Absolute Value 10 10 1. Three pieces of timber were cut and then measured. Whether the wood was too long or short. Table 2 Test Cut Test 1 Test 2 Test 3 Required Length 120 120 120 Actual Length 120 90 150 Error Percentage 0 0% 30 25% 30 25% =ABS(D45-E45) Difference . Example The following table was used by a company testing a machine which cuts timber.25 =ABS(C4) =ABS(C5) =ABS(C6) =ABS(C7) What Does it Do ? This function calculates the value of a number. Syntax =ABS(CellAddress or Number) Formatting The result will be shown as a number. Table 1 shows the original calculations. the measurement needs to be expressed as an absolute value.25 -1. the percentage should still be expressed as an absolute value. The Difference for Test 3 is shown as negative. In calculating the difference between the Required Length and the Actual Length it does not matter if the wood was cut too long or short. which has a knock on effect when the Error Percentage is calculated.Number 10 -10 1.25 1.

Jan 10 20 30 40 100 Feb 50 60 70 80 260 Mar 90 100 200 300 690 Total 150 180 330 420 1050 North South East West Total . Try it here : Move to a blank cell in the Total row or column. you can press Alt and = to achieve the same result. then press Alt and =.Instead of using the AutoSum button from the toolbar. column or all cells and then press Alt and =. or Select a row.

You can calculate a persons age based on their birthday and todays date."y") =DATEDIF(C8. the . but it is in 2000.46 =(TODAY()-C23)/365. 1 Months and 18 Days ="Age is "&DATEDIF(C8.TODAY().5 represents 6 months.25 ."md")&" Days" Another way to calculate age This method gives you an age which may potentially have decimal places representing the months.TODAY().TODAY(). If the age is 20. (Makes you wonder what else Microsoft forgot to tell us!) Birth date : Years lived : and the months : and the days : 29-Apr-73 40 1 18 =DATEDIF(C8. The DATEDIF() is not documented in Excel 5. 7 or 97.TODAY().TODAY(). The calculation uses the DATEDIF() function.TODAY()."ym")&" Months and "&DATEDIF(C8."y")&" Years.5. which creates a text version."md") You can put this all together in one calculation. Birth date : Age is : 1-Jan-60 53. "&DATEDIF(C8. Age is 40 Years."ym") =DATEDIF(C8.

in formula.Sometimes you will need to use brackets. Example 1 : The wrong answer ! 10 20 2 50 =C12+C13*C14 You may expect that 10 + 20 would equal 30 And then 30 * 2 would equal 60 But because the * is calculated first Excel sees the calculation as 20 * 2 resulting in 40 And then 10 + 40 resulting in 50 Example 2 : The correct answer. This is to ensure that the calculations are performed in the order that you need. (also known as 'braces'). The * and / operations will be calculated before + and . The need for brackets occurs when you mix plus or minus with divide or multiply. resulting in 30 Then the 30 is multipled by 2 resulting in 60 . Mathematically speaking the * and / are more important than + and .. 10 20 2 60 =(C27+C28)*C29 By placing brackets around (10+20) Excel performs this part of the calulation first..

2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G Filename formula Page 221 of 223 H I 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 There may be times when you need to insert the name of the current workbook or worksheet in to a cell.xls. \\vboxsrv\conversion_tmp\scratch_4\ =MID(CELL("filename").CELL("filename"))+1. To pick the Path.CELL("filename"))+1.FIND("]". \\vboxsrv\conversion_tmp\scratch_4\[152175318.FIND("]". Home1 =MID(CELL("filename").CELL("filename"))-FIND("[". shown below.ms_office.CELL("filename"))-1) To pick the Workbook name. 152175318.1.CELL("filename"))-1) To pick the Worksheet name.xls =MID(CELL("filename").Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .255) .xls. This can be done by using the CELL() function.ms_office.FIND("[". To just pick out the workbook or worksheet name you need to use text functions.FIND("[".xls]Home1 =CELL("filename") The problem with this is that it gives the complete path including drive letter and folders.

.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G H Instant Charts Page 222 of 223 I 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 You can create a chart quickly without having to use the chart button on the toolbar by pressing the function key F11 whilst inside a range of data. Then press F11. Jan 45 30 35 20 Feb 50 25 10 50 Mar 50 35 50 5 North South East West Click anywhere inside the table above.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .

2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G SUM_using_names Page 223 of 223 H I 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 You can use the names typed at the top of columns or side of rows in calculations simply by typing the name into the formula. Try this example: Go to cell C16 and then enter the formula =SUM(jan) The result will show. and the names change to Feb and Mar. Accept Labels in Formula. Jan 45 30 35 20 Feb 50 25 10 50 Mar 50 35 50 5 North South East West Total If it does not work ! The feature may have been switched off on your computer.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Options. . Calculation. This formula can be copied to D16 and E16. You can switch it on by using Tools.

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