Page 1 of 16

Scientific Article Notes, Question and answers, June 2013 Unit 5, by Stafford Valentine Redden (M.Sc.; M.Ed.; M.A.; Ph.D)
Scientific article for use with Question 7 Naked and ugly: The new face of lab rats 1. In a small room in the lab-animal wing of the University of Illinois at Chicago, biologist Thomas Park peers into a plastic box full of naked mole rats. “You guys are so cute,” he says softly, in a voice usually reserved for babies or puppies. 2. Park is mistaken. Naked mole rats are not cute. They are bald, wrinkled and purply pink, with tiny near-blind eyes and huge yellow teeth. Ranging from the size of a large mouse to that of a small rat, these odd rodents are among the strangest looking mammals on the planet. But don’t judge a naked mole rat by its unfortunate appearance. These bizarre creatures could help us tackle all sorts of human maladies, from cancer and stroke to pain relief and ageing. Paragraph 2 SAQ1. Explain the formation of tumors (cancers). Cancer is caused by gene mutations (in tumor suppressor genes or oncogenes: which are responsible for regulation of the cell cycle) which cause uncontrolled cell division. The rate of cell proliferation is greater than the rate of cell death. SAQ2. Explain how stroke may be caused. Atheroma formation and thrombosis in cerebral arteries (or other arteries in the brain) lead to ischaemia (lack of blood flow and oxygen supply) in the brain. This leads to necrosis (death) of neurons in the brain. This is the main cause of stroke. High blood pressure can also cause rupture of arteries in the brain, leading to necrosis of brain cells. SAQ3. State the risk factors for stroke. High blood pressure, high LDL levels, lack of exercise, ageing, gender, smoking, genetic factors and diet. SAQ4. Explain the causal link between ageing and stroke. Ageing makes the arteries less elastic. This increases blood pressure and causes endothelial damage. T cells and monocytes migrate into the smooth muscle layer of arteries and facilitate the deposition of Ca2+ ions, LDL cholesterol and cells debris to form atheroma or plaque. This narrows the lumen of arteries in the brain and increases the risk of stroke. SAQ5. Pain is caused when specific receptors called A δ (delta) receptors and C fiber receptors are stimulated. Using your knowledge about ion movement in a neurone, explain how an action potential will be initiated in these neurons. The stimulus will cause the Na+ ion channels to open. The influx of Na+ ions into the neuron will initiate the formation of an action potential. SAQ6. Suggest mechanisms by which the mole rat may provide relief from pain. They may produce some chemicals (analgesics) which may block pain receptors at the synapses and prevent post synaptic potentials from forming in the neurons that are responsible for the sensation of pain.

Comment [S1]: To look intently or searchingly

Comment [S2]: Mice measure between 3 and 14 inches in length and weigh up to 2 ounces. Rats may be as long as two feet and weigh more than mice. The snout of the rat is more pointed. Comment [S3]: mammals, characterised by a single pair of continuously growing incisors in each jaw which must be kept short by gnawing. Comment [S4]: Strikingly unconventional and far-fetched in style or appearance Comment [S5]: To make a determined effort to deal with a difficult problem or situation. Comment [S6]: Any undesirable or disordered condition Comment [S7]: Known medically as a malignant neoplasm, is a broad group of various diseases, all involving unregulated cell growth Comment [S8]: A stroke is the rapid loss of brain function due to disturbance in the blood supply Comment [S9]: the gradual biological impairment of normal function.

3. A dozen species of mole rat exist, all native to sub-Saharan Africa. Naked mole rats stand out, though, not least because they appear completely bald. They are also extremely social, living underground in elaborate networks of tunnels and chambers in groups of up to 300. Here in the lab, Park mimics their burrow system by connecting several dozen plastic boxes with long tubes. The animals spend their days pushing bedding around the tubes and nibbling on bits of sweet potato.

Comment [S10]: living naturally in a particular region Comment [S11]: to be prominent or special Comment [S12]: To copy or imitate closely Comment [S13]: Take small bites

Author of A Level biology text books and practical workbooks, global academic consultant and Head of Institution, Republic of Maldives.

Books available at Free consultancy at

rather than the epidermis.” Park tells me. Kings and Queen are anatomically and physiologically different. Paragraph 4 SAQ12. SAQ19. Explain how a dozen species may have arisen from a single species of mole rat. especially a search for food and supplies Comment [S24]: The form and structure of an organism or one of its parts Comment [S25]: having a body temperature that varies according to the temperature of the local atmosphere Comment [S26]: the thick sensitive layer of skin or connective tissue beneath the epidermis Comment [S27]: the thin outermost layer of the skin. SAQ10. while housekeepers forage for root vegetables and tidy up the tunnels. This gives rise to several species. All the organisms of a single species living in a particular habitat. How is genetic variation brought about? Mutations. “Their social structure is like that of insects. Apart from the inability to interbreed. SAQ16. The genes that are switched on produce specific mRNA. SAQ9. while other genes are switched off. Give an example of (a) a behavioural adaptation. Explain what is meant by differential gene expression. This could make the population less adaptable and vulnerable to environmental change. Anatomical Large (incisor) teeth for dealing with tough fibrous plant material and digging Lack of fur and reduced eyes Physiological eg. Populations of mole rats may have become isolated. as commonly occurs in homeotherms. that covers and protects the underlying dermis Comment [S28]: an organism whose stable body temperature is generally independent of the temperature of its surrounding environment Author of A Level biology text books and practical workbooks. SAQ18. Soldier. The gene pools will diverge from each other and may become so different that the populations lose their ability to interbreed and produce fertile offspring.” Akin to bees and ants. This is because all species of mole rats are found in sub-Saharan Africa alone. Many features of the skin of the naked mole-rat. This could decrease the biodiversity of the population. random assortment of chromosomes and random fusion of genetically variable gametes. global academic consultant and Head of Free consultancy at https://www. This isolation would prevent gene flow and different selection pressures on each population would cause genetic drift. Explain what is meant by a population. the way an organism utilizes the resources in an environment. state one other method that scientists could use to identify different species. and (c) an anatomical adaptation exhibited by these animals. These proteins determine the structure and function of cells and the organism. Potato contains a lot of starch. either by geographical barriers or differences in behavior. Starch can be digested by the mole rat to produce glucose. housekeepers. Naked mole rats show various adaptations to their particular environment. Comment [S14]: Of similar character Comment [S15]: living in a cooperative group in which usually one female and several males are reproductively active and the non-breeding individuals care for the young or protect and provide for the group Comment [S16]: the process of bearing offspring. Explain what is meant by the term Niche. The glucose is a good respiratory substrate. proteomics or DNA fingerprinting. and eats other animals in order to survive Comment [S21]: group that competes Comment [S22]: somebody who takes care of his or her own house and its residents Comment [S23]: the process of searching for something. Lack of fur is compensated by a thicker epidermal layer and a marked reduction in sweat glands. Suggest the importance of potato in the diet of mole rats. Books available at http://www. SAQ14. kills. The non-reproductive individuals in eusocial animals do not directly transfer their genes to offspring. 5. Suggest one disadvantage of a single female producing all the offspring in the . SAQ17. This increases chances (of the genes they share) being inherited. A predator is an organism that kills and feeds on the flesh of another organisms. crossing over. SAQ8. Explain why the mole rat populations may be termed as SAQ15. with help from between one and three kings. DNA hybridization. The mRNA produces specific polypeptides by translation. In spite of this there must still be a genetic advantage in being eusocial – suggest what this must be. This will help to reduce competition for resources and increase the chances of survival of organisms in the colony. This difference may be due to differential gene expression. (b) a physiological adaptation. “Naked mole rats are a really odd mammal species. A niche is the role played by an organism in its ecosystem. itself made up of several layers. Non-reproductive naked mole rats share alleles/genes with other members of the colony. reproduction Comment [S17]: breeding female Comment [S18]: to produce something in large quantities quickly Comment [S19]: males that mate with the queen Comment [S20]: a carnivorous animal that hunts. they live in a eusocial society in which a single breeding queen churns out all the offspring. such as the lack of an insulating layer and the loosely folded morphological arrangement contribute to poikilothermic responses to changing temperatures of this mammal. as there will be less heterozygosity or genetic diversity in the offspring. Republic of Maldives. Explain what is meant by a predator. By assisting other members of the colony Queen can produce more offspring. The rest of the animals work for a living: soldiers defend the colony against predators and rivals. ability of neurones to tolerate oxygen deprivation Behavioral – soldiers defending colony against predators and rivals (instead of running away and saving themselves) SAQ13. Further evidence for poikilothermy in the naked mole-rat is indicated by the presence of pigment containing cells in the dermis. Suggest the advantage of defending the colony from rivals. or. SAQ11.facebook. 4. Specific genes are switched on.Page 2 of 16 Paragraph 3 SAQ7.

most of the studies were on their behaviour. State two disorders that could lead to mental decline and state the main cause for each. Buffenstein. She began by investigating their response to oxidative stress. to top it off. The melanin is packed into melanosomes and transferred to other epidermal cells. one of the leading theories of how the ageing process works. experimental group (exposed to oxidative stress). Comment [S36]: stunning Comment [S37]: the length or duration of life Comment [S38]: Oxidative stress is caused by an imbalance between the production of reactive oxygen and a biological system's ability to readily detoxify the reactive intermediates or easily repair the resulting damage. caused due to lack of serotonin in the limbic system of the brain. though. lifespan tends to correlate with body size". High exposure to UV radiation stimulates the increased production of Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone (MSH) and MSH receptor on melanocytes. global academic consultant and Head of Institution. In time. SAQ23. scientists are eager to understand the secrets of this small. Poikilothermic animals will be less active if environmental temperature falls. Presence of atherosclerosis/atheroma (in wall of arteries) SAQ27. Creates insulating layer of trapped air. Another study concluded that a larger body size caused a longer lifespan. Author of A Level biology text books and practical workbooks. Paragraph 6 SAQ25. who has been studying naked mole rats for 30 years. Breeding females continue to produce pups right up to the end and. SAQ28. suitable duration. lifespan tends to correlate with body size. "In general. similar-sized naked mole rats live three decades. Disadvantage – metabolic activity will change with change in environmental temperature. Paragraph 7 SAQ26.g. Large sample size. live longer than small ones. 1. Explain why this may not be a valid conclusion. . Their bones remain strong. “For many years. Fur. while mice and rats are lucky to survive three years in captivity. Melanin is a pigment found in the skin and fur of mammals. 6. This triggers the increased production of melanin. researchers couldn’t help but notice another intriguing aspects of naked mole rat biology. Explain how the skin of humans acts as an insulating layer. Secretion of sweat onto skin removes heat by evaporation. scientists in the same field conduct the experiment to check its validity whether the results are similar) SAQ29. In general. SAQ21. naked mole rats don’t even get cancer. They also maintain excellent health well into their sunset years. What evidence would scientists look for when searching for evidence of heart disease in naked Mole Rats? Damage to coronary artery. Correlation does not necessarily mean causation. SAQ22. Give one advantage and one disadvantage in being poikilothermic in comparison to Advantage – reduced energy consumption. The keratinized closely packed epithelial cells in human skin acts as a physical barrier to pathogens. Books available at http://www. bald Methuselah. making them the longest-lived rodents on Earth. This protects the nuclei from UV damage and reduces mutations in DNA. Republic of Maldives. control group (not exposed to oxidative stress). Not enough data may have been collected to prove that the correlation is a causation. State the function of the skin in prevention of infection. Comment [S31]: fascinating Comment [S32]: Have a mutual relationship Comment [S33]: 30 years Comment [S34]: Old age Comment [S35]: Methuselah is purported to be the oldest person to ever live (969yrs). their bodies stay fit and they don’t show signs of heart disease or mental decline. That’s not all. Naturally. Explain the environmental influence on the phenotype with reference to melanin production. Any explanation for peer review (e. Parkinson’s disease caused due to lack of dopamine in the frontal cerebral cortex and Depression. Large animals. Free consultancy at https://www.Page 3 of 16 Paragraph 5 SAQ20. 1. Suggest the advantage of stating the credentials of a Rochelle Buffenstein ( physiologist at the University of Texas Health Science Center in San Antonio). Publish results in scientific journals 2. which reduces heat loss.” she says. a physiologist at the University of Texas Health Science Center in San Antonio.if size caused the lifespan to change. Paragraph 8 SAQ30. 2. It has adipose tissue. SAQ24. the biological study of the functions of living organisms and their parts. This unusual social arrangement is what first drew scientists to study the wrinkled rodents. is among those looking for molecular explanations for their astounding longevity. 7. 3. Comment [S29]: a line or crease between small folds of skin that forms on the face as a result of aging Comment [S30]: a biologist specializing in physiology. Present results at conferences 3. “They are incredibly long‑lived creatures. Sweat glands. State the main features for the study to investigate the effect of oxidative stress on ageing. Give two examples of features that help thermoregulation in most mammals that are reduced or absent in Naked Mole rats and explain how each operates to help achieve thermoregulation. This is to acknowledge the source of information and allows readers to assess the credibility of the source. Peer review 4.” says Rochelle Buffenstein.facebook. difference in results compared. then the statement would always be true. Suggest how the conclusions of the investigations conducted could be accepted by the scientific community. on average. In general .

Tertiary structure shape is changed. which are anti-parallel to each other. The specific three dimensional shape [secondary. They are stronger than H bonds. global academic consultant and Head of Institution. tertiary. as it is known. According to this theory. Books available at http://www. SAQ33.Page 4 of 16 9. Author of A Level biology text books and practical workbooks. The chains are held to each other by Hydrogen bond between nitrogenous base pairs. ionic. Describe the structure of DNA. Paragraph 9 SAQ31. (extra molecules) affect bonding that maintains the tertiary structure. she predicted.  Hydrophillic and hydrophobic interactions of the Residual groups also influence the tertiary structure. disulphide bridges [covalent bonds] and ionic bonds between the Residual groups of amino oxygen-containing free radicals damage the molecules of the body. Ref to named bond eg disulphide. Although these bonds are weak. This oxidative damage. naked mole rats should have lower rates of oxidative damage than more short-lived species. but can be broken by changes in pH and high temperature  Disulphide bonds: Some amino acids. The tertiary structure is maintained by Hydrogen bonds. quaternary structure] of a protein is maintained by three types of chemical bonds between the Residual groups of amino acids  Hydrogen bonds: form between some Hydrogen atoms [which bear a slight positive charge] and oxygen and nitrogen atoms [which bear a slight negative charge]. They are also useful in linking the two polypeptide chains of insulin together. The two chains are then coiled into a double helix. causing them to deteriorate over time until they stop functioning altogether. Bonds between R groups are changed/broken. The tertiary structure of a protein is the complex three . Buffenstein says. like cysteine and methionine contain sulphur atoms in the Residual groups. the large number of bonds provide a considerable force to maintain the three dimensional . Describe the tertiary structure of proteins. Republic of Maldives. is apparent as extra molecules that attach to DNA and proteins “like chewing gum stuck to the bottom of a shoe”. If oxidative stress is truly an important mechanism of Free consultancy at https://www. DNA is made up of two polynucleotide chains.  Ionic bonds: form between carboxyl [COOH] groups and amino [NH2] groups found in the Residual chains. Hydrophobic interactions also help to maintain the shape of globular proteins. Suggest how extra molecules attaching to proteins might affect their structure and function. Comment [S39]: a highly reactive atom or group of atoms with an unpaired electron Comment [S40]: become worse SAQ32.dimensional globular shape the polypeptide chain takes when the polypeptide chain twists and folds around itself. These bonds are strong and contribute to the strength of structural proteins like collagen. like enzymes and trans-membrane proteins. Disulphide bonds can form between sulphur atoms of amino acids that are close together. hydrogen.facebook.

state three other factors which can influence protein structure.facebook. vol 106. 15. . description of technique of identifying modified cells (eg antibiotic resistance). The induced fit hypothesis of enzyme action and carrier proteins changing shape to transmit substances across the membrane. Keeping in shape 11. Allosterism is a process whereby a protein changes its shape when it binds to another molecule. Differential gene expression. suggest why some proteins may be more prone to oxidative damage than others. Any named part of the immune system e. They then inserted the altered cells into immune-compromised mice. But naked mole rat proteins can withstand significantly more damage before they lose their shape (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. the deviant cells are essentially locked away. 12. Name the process by which cells replicate (p14) and describe the events that take place in the main events of this process. Why is this? To find out. soundness Comment [S43]: an abnormal new mass of tissue that serves no purpose Comment [S44]: A region in an organ or tissue that has suffered damage Comment [S45]: Cancer of the lymph nodes Comment [S46]: Co-worker Comment [S47]: a state in which the immune system's ability to fight infectious disease is compromised or entirely absent Comment [S48]: progressive spread of disease from one organ in the body to another Comment [S49]: passed Comment [SVR50]: close watch kept over someone or something Comment [SVR51]: Out of the normal or correct position Comment [SVR52]: Cells which have come to differ from normal cells Books available at http://www. The immune system of the mice will recognise these cells as nonself and trigger an immune response to destroy these cells. To her surprise.” Buffenstein says. “We think [protein stability] is a very important component of their extraordinary longevity. Remarkably. SAQ39. the damage had no obvious impact on their well-being. Mitosis SAQ42. Suggest what processes would be altered by the cancer causing genes. This can cause denaturation of proteins by disrupting Hydrogen and ionic bonds and hydrophobic and hydrophilic interaction. The glycoprotein and protein molecules (antigens) on human and rat cells will differ from the molecules on the mice cells. named vector (eg virus/liposome). Republic of Maldives. Buffenstein and her colleague Peter Hornsby introduced cancer-causing genes into cells from rats. Consequence given eg. vol 9. temperature and inhibitors. The genes for cell division in these cells are permanently switched off. Buffenstein found the opposite: more telltale oxidative damage in 6-month-olds than in mice of the same age. Another possible mechanism being investigated centres on how cells multiply. Another factor that helps naked mole rats reach an advanced age is their remarkable ability to avoid cancer. Buffenstein took a closer look at the 3D structure of proteins. “Every time one of our animals die. To understand why. Paragraph 14 SAQ41. SAQ40. if they have the mechanisms to protect themselves. we haven’t seen lesions. the mice injected with modified cells from rats. “We think mole rats have better surveillance mechanisms to assess what’s going on in their DNA. we haven’t seen signs of lymphoma. p 626). Using your knowledge of tertiary structure of proteins. Apart from oxidative stress.Page 5 of 16 10. 14. unable to replicate and cause tumours (Aging Cell. How might the immune system of immune compromised mice differ from normal mice. Since oxidative damage is caused by free radicals. Suggest why the mice that received the genetically modified cells had to be Free consultancy at https://www.” she says. Suggest the process by which deviant cells may be locked away or prevented from replication. the free radicals result in damage to polypeptides by neutralizing charged Residual groups. Describe what is meant by allosterism and state one process where allosterism plays a role. p 3059). When cultured in a Petri dish. Comment [S41]: traditional Japanese art of paper folding Comment [S42]: The state of being unimpaired. Rate of mitosis. Use of vector. “In the case of naked mole rats. fewer plasma cells. Nearly all mice have cancerous cells lurking in their bodies by the time they die but cancer has never been seen in a naked mole rat. Paragraph 13 SAQ38. “If your proteins maintain their integrity. The abnormal cells were still alive but had stopped replicating. mice and humans developed highly invasive tumours.” Buffenstein says. Proteins which have more covalent bonds will be more stable than proteins with more ionic or hydrogen bonds. SAQ35. we try to figure out what they die of. humans and naked mole rats. We know they don’t get age-related cancer. which is critical to their functioning. cells Author of A Level biology text books and practical workbooks. are examples of allosterism. This is probably just one of several tricks that allow these animals to avoid cancer. six months lapsed and there were still no tumours. In two to four weeks. it doesn’t matter what stress comes along. fewer T helper cells mean less activation of B cells and less antibody production. Describe the techniques that would be used to insert the cancer causing genes into the cells of rats. Mouse proteins begin misfolding very quickly after suffering oxidative damage – a kind of anti-origami that causes them to stop working properly. pH.” she says. however. When things go awry. global academic consultant and Head of Institution. Apoptosis /programmed cell death 13. “We haven’t seen a tumour.g fewer T helper” Paragraph 12 SAQ37. mice.” Paragraph 11 SAQ34.

research professor of biology at the University of Rochester. Such cells have lost the control of the cell cycle. SAQ45. preventing the cell from copying its DNA.Page 6 of 16 from both mice and humans multiply until they form a single dense layer. temperature and inhibitors. “We think we’ve found the reason these mole rats don’t get cancer. In cancerous tissues. Cancers is the result of an interaction between genotype and the environment. M) is controlled by:  Oncogenes code for the proteins that stimulate the transition from one stage in the cell cycle to the next. pH. Naked mole rats can live up to 30 years. Comment [SVR56]: existing Comment [SVR57]: accumulated knowledge Comment [SVR58]: limit the effect Comment [SVR53]: acquired Comment [SVR54]: the quality of being strange. Adding to their mystery is the fact that mole rats appear to age very little until the very end of their lives. Chemicals called radicals are produced by the cell metabolism and can damage DNA. Telomerase helps cells reproduce. In cancer cells a lack of p53 means the cell cannot stop entry into the S phase. A mouse’s life expectancy is shortened by other factors in nature. Republic of Maldives. Mutations in these genes can lead to the cell cycle being continually active. and cancer is essentially runaway cellular reproduction. which is exceptionally long for a small rodent. and it’s a bit of a surprise. Paragraph 20 SAQ48. Loss of tumour suppressor proteins has been linked to skin. Describe the events in the eukaryotic mitotic cell cycle. The stages of the cell cycle are described below. halted by a process called contact inhibition. or puzzling Comment [SVR55]: a search for something. Oxygen so it was thought the mouse could afford the slim cancer risk to benefit from telomerase’s ability to speed healing. Gorbunova and Andrei Seluanov. Justify this statement.” says Vera Gorbunova. All enzymes are globular soluble proteins with a tertiary structure. Until Gorbunova and Seluanov’s research. Paragraph 19 SAQ46. especially a long or difficult one Author of A Level biology text books and practical workbooks. SAQ49. Cancer occurs when the rate of cell multiplication is faster than the rate of cell death. says Gorbunova. global academic consultant and Head of Institution. This is called metastasis. One example of a tumour suppressor protein is p53. but not in large ones. 19. there has never been a single recorded case of a mole rat contracting cancer. associate professor of biology at the University of Rochester and lead investigator on the discovery. says Gorbunova. Gorbunova discovered that telomerase – an enzyme that can lengthen the lives of cells. Cancer is caused by environmental damage to DNA from  physical factors such as UV light and asbestos  chemical carcinogens such as those in the tar in cigarette smoke  viruses may trigger cancer by altering the DNA (They transfer oncogenes from one individual to another). bladder and breast cancers. substrate concentration. The cause may also be genetic. colon. they stop dividing. Mutations inactivating these genes mean there is no brake on the cell cycle and control is lost. S. At that point. Describe the structure of an enzyme. Books available at http://www. cancer cells can spread to other parts of the body through the blood and lymphatic systems. 18. The progression through the cell cycle (G1.facebook. This causes the growth of a tumour. This may cause excessive cell division. 16. Explain why it is necessary to maintain aseptic conditions in cell cultures. Over the last three .  Tumour suppressor genes produce suppressor proteins that stop the cycle. the prevailing wisdom had assumed that an animal that lived as long as we humans do needed to suppress telomerase activity to guard against cancer. resulting in a tumour. The cell cycle refers to the changes in the cell structure and function during its life span. have worked an unusual angle on the quest to understand cancer: Investigating rodents from across the globe to get an idea of the similarities and differences of how varied but closely related species deal with cancer. Paragraph 15 SAQ43. pH. the abnormal cells continue to multiply. State three physical conditions that must be controlled while culturing cells in a Petri dish to ensure rapid growth. however. Fresh fruit and vegetables contain antioxidants to destroy radicals. secret. such as predation. 20. SAQ47. Explain what is meant by a species. Despite large numbers of naked mole-rats under observation. but can also increase the rate of cancer – is highly active in small rodents. State three factors which can influence the rate of enzyme activity. A species is a group of organisms which can interbreed to produce fertile offspring. piling up and growing out of control. 17. Nutrients. G2. To prevent bacteria from destroying the cells and to reduce competition for nutrients between the cells and the Free consultancy at https://www. so an animal living for 70 years has a lot of chances for its cells to mutate into cancer. Temperature. This protein stops the cell cycle by inhibiting the enzymes at the G1/S transition. In 2006. Enzyme concentration. If tumours are not removed. About 5% of cancers are due to an inherited gene.

Describe the relationship between body size and heat loss. 21. Larger organisms lose heat slowly. Predation is a biotic factor. directly from the cell surface membrane. SAQ54. The single celled organisms exchange food. SAQ51.facebook. Suggest one benefit and one risk of high telomerase activity. Books available at http://www. Now. Comment [SVR59]: happening in an unrestrained manner Author of A Level biology text books and practical workbooks. But this mechanism appears to exist only in small. Fig. 3. Mitochondria and chloroplasts divide.prophase. Gorbunova sought to answer that question. c).com/groups/biologywithstafford/ . So. global academic consultant and Head of Institution. 23. M (Mitosis) phase: Nuclear division division (cytokinesis) occurs in four stages . The quantity of DNA doubles in the SAQ50. C (Cytokinesis) phase: Equal distribution of DNA. High telomerase activity is beneficial in wound healing. Animal testing. Synthesis (S) phase: DNA replication occurs. metaphase. The cell now has two copies of the genome. G2 (Second Gap) phase: During this phase the cell will continue to grow and produce new proteins. independent review. Nucleus usually gets larger during this stage. Explain what is meant by a mutation. why isn’t cancer rampant in these creatures? 22. Diffusion from the body surface would be too slow to supply or remove materials from the cells at a suitable rate to sustain metabolism in these cells.” Paragraph 23 SAQ53. extremely high telomerase activity can lead to uncontrolled cell division and lead to cancer. However. Gorbunova believes she has found the primary reason these small animals are staying cancer free. However.Page 7 of 16 a). Explain how transcription factors bring about expression of a gene (p24) Attach to promoter region next to gene. saying: “We haven’t come across this anticancer mechanism before because it doesn’t exist in the two species most often used for cancer research: mice and humans. anaphase and telophase. Mice are short-lived and humans are large bodied. Explain why large bodied animals need a well developed circulatory system. they revealed another question: What about small animals like the common grey squirrel that live for 24 years or more? With telomerase fully active over such a long period. Competition and parasitism are two other biotic factors. e). 3 stage clinical trials. long-lived animals. Telomerase speeds up cell division. Allow attachment of RNA polymerase.1 – The cell cycle showing the relative durations of the stages in chromosome duplication and separation (Mitosis) and cell d). multicellular organisms need a circulatory system to supply or remove materials from the cells at a rapid rate. The cell has only one copy of the genome. A biotic factor is a factor involving living organisms. G1 (First Gap phase): During this stage there is rapid synthesis of RNA and proteins and rapid cell growth occurs during this phase. organelles and cytoplasm into daughter cells. What is meant by a biotic factor? Name two other biotic factors. SAQ56. b). respiratory gases and excretory products from the environment. or it can be neutral or harmful in effect. Energy stores increase in preparation for mitosis. 24. Paragraph 24 Free consultancy at https://www. While the findings were a surprise. and it appears to be a kind of overcrowding early-warning gene that the naked mole rat expresses in its cells. Smaller organisms lose heat more rapidly. Republic of Maldives. A random change in a gene or chromosome resulting in a new trait or characteristic that can be inherited. SAQ52. and in 2008 confirmed that small-bodied rodents with long lifespans had evolved a previously unknown anti-cancer mechanism that appears to be different from any anticancer mechanisms employed by humans or other large mammals. animals are multicellular and have a very low surface area to volume ratio and high diffusion distance from the surface to the body core. Describe the procedures a potential new anti-cancer therapy would have to go through before it could be licenced as a drug. At the time she was not able to identify just what the mechanism might be. Telomerase could beneficial as well as harmful. correct description of double blind/placebo/randomisation. Mutation can be a source of beneficial genetic variation.

most of the factors are thought to first assemble with the polymerase. Like many animals. Transcription of a gene is initiated by RNA polymerase and transcription factors binding to a promoter region (section of DNA upstream to a gene). SAQ59. 30. In . Conservation involves maintenance of high genetic diversity in populations.” she says. State what is meant by a gene locus. then we could actually apply it to people as an injection or a drug. Many species. Name and Explain a mechanism by which this gene could be delivered into cancerous cells? (Gene therapy) 28.Page 8 of 16 25. are present. However. such as human cells. Comment [SVR60]: uncontrolled Comment [SVR61]: to give something such as an honour to someone Comment [SVR62]: layered Comment [SVR63]: Research or make painstaking inquiries into something Comment [SVR64]: treatment of physical. It also helps to save species from extinction. Paragraph 29 SAQ61. which is later activated by signal proteins or regulator proteins. Cancer cells tend to find ways around p27. Gorbunova and Seluanov are now planning to delve deeper into the mole rat’s genetics to see if their cancer resistance might be applicable to humans.facebook. may have genes that could help cure human ailments or be beneficial to humans for production of economically useful products by genetic engineering. “We believe the additional layer of protection conferred by this two-tiered contact inhibition contributes to the remarkable tumor resistance of the naked mole rat. pluripotent stem cells can differentiate into most cell the mole rats have a gene called p27 that prevents cellular overcrowding. Paragraph 30 SAQ62. The number of transcription factors found within an organism increases with the size of the genome. A gene locus refers to the location of a gene on a chromosome. The cells simply refused to replicate once a certain number of them occupied a space. promoter may not be accessible to the transcription factors or RNA polymerase. 29. “Since cancer is basically runaway cell replication. and prevent tumours from forming. RNA Polymerase + Transcription factors = Transcription Initiation Complex Some transcription factors are always present in all cells (example the transcription factors needed to switch on the genes for respiration or protein synthesis). we realized that whatever was doing this was probably the same thing that prevented cancer from ever getting started in the mole rats. 26. State what is meant by totipotent and pluripotent stem cells. including humans. with this whole assembled complex then binding to the DNA in a single step. but not extra-embryonic cell types. When Gorbunova and her team began specifically investigating mole rat cells. protein repressor molecules can attach to the transcription factors preventing them forming the transcription initiation complex. use the information in line paragraph 29 to suggest another advantage of saving species from extinction. Naked mole rats have a gene (P16) which halt cell replication at an earlier stage than in humans. There are thought to be approximately 2600 proteins in humans that can bind to DNA.” says Gorbunova in the PNAS paper. The exact order in which these factors bind is not known with certainty. In other cases. Apart from the ethical obligation we have to save species from extinction. they were surprised at how difficult it was to grow the cells in the lab for study. including extra-embryonic cell types. but the mole rats use Free consultancy at https://www. often in an inactive form. signal proteins (Hormones) acting as transcription factors may not be present. in their active form. Signal proteins may act directly by entering the cell (like steroid hormones) or indirectly through a second messenger (cAMP). This finding could be an important step towards new cancer therapies. Other cells. Totipotent stem cells can differentiate into all cell types. Genes are commonly referred to by their loci.” says Gorbunova. Mutations) SAQ60. “If this is some kind of extracellular molecule. mental. This Author of A Level biology text books and practical workbooks. How can one gene give rise to more than one protein? (Post-transcriptional modification. Paragraph 25 SAQ57. 27. Every transcription initiation complex has a range of different factors with some acting as activators and others repressing expression. such a signal might be co-opted to stimulate the process in human cells. also cease replication when their populations become too dense. Gorbunova and her colleagues are now trying to decipher the extracellular signals that prompt early contact inhibition. earlier defense in gene p16. however insignificant they may appear. The gene is ‘switched on’ when all the transcription factors. especially in a professional or skilled job Comment [SVR66]: decode Books available at http://www. Explain how ‘extracellular signals that prompt early contact inhibition’ operate. hence blocking the attachment sites for transcription factors. Every gene occupies a specific locus. ‘Switching off a gene’ – deactivation Genes are switched off (not able to be transcribed) by the cell protein repressor molecules may attach to the promoter region. global academic consultant and Head of Institution. Other transcription factors are only synthesised in certain cells at a particular stage of development. In some experiments the transcription factors seem to bind in a specific order. If most of these function as transcription factors then about 10% of our genes must code for transcription factors. but the mole rat cells were reaching their limit much earlier than other animals’ cells. Stem cells can be cultured in a Petri dish. Paragraph 27 SAQ58. but mole rats have a double barrier that a cell must overcome before it can grow uncontrollably. Republic of Maldives. or behavioral problems that is meant to cure or rehabilitate somebody Comment [SVR65]: a person somebody works with.

... as action potential/ wave of depolarisation/. Mammalian hormones are chemical messengers carried by the blood from endocrine glands to all parts of the body.. global academic consultant and Head of Institution. but they are impervious to chemical pain (PLoS Biology... 3. called target cells. beneath the skin of a mouse’s paw... Sensory neurone to relay neurone to motor neurone.. Free consultancy at https://www.... Comment [SVR67]: unusual.. Fig...... so cannot enter the cell).. The mode of action for peptide hormones and steroid hormones is entirely different.. strange.. “If you do that with naked mole rats... to result in withdrawing a hand from a hot stove...Oestrogen / Testosterone (Steroids are lipid soluble and can enter the cell). Republic of Maldives... Transcription of the gene begins and mRNA is formed............... 5.... cancer and ageing are only the tip of the iceberg as far as the naked mole rat’s peculiar biology is concerned... Adenyl cyclase converts ATP into cyclic AMP (Second messenger) 4........ like testosterone or oestrogen. vol 6.. The general transcription factors have been highly conserved in evolution.. or unconventional Comment [SVR68]: to find or come across something by chance Author of A Level biology text books and practical workbooks... .. they don’t do anything.. Books available at http://www...Insulin / Glucagon (Lipid insoluble. he stumbled across something surprising: they lack a receptor that transmits messages about chemical pain....... The steroid hormone will bind to a transcription factor in the cytoplasm. They affect specific cells......... Explain how impulses would be transmitted from the pain receptors of a rodent to its central nervous system... 7.... 4..... he says... capsaicin.. ref to salutatory conduction.... ref to influx of sodium ions into neurone... This activates RNA polymerase to become active and begin the process of transcription of the gene. p e13)...... The gene is now ‘SWITCHED ON’...... 2.... The formation of the Transcription Initiation Complex ensures that the gene is ‘SWITCHED ON’... Chemically hormones are of three types: Amines: . Hormone binds to specific receptor on the cell membrane. Through sensory neurone. in this case) and completes the Transcription Initiation Complex. 3..... Setting out to better understand their sense of touch.. 7... “They couldn’t care less.. 31. 2. 5. so cannot enter the cell).facebook. Inject lemon juice or the essence of chilli pepper. Steroids: .... The rodent’s neurobiology is also of interest........ The activated transcription factor (TF7) now binds to the existing Transcription factors (TF1 to TF6.... Paragraph 31 SAQ63.. Many hormones activate transcription factors in the target cells.” Park says.. Exciting as that research may be. The second messenger initiates a series of reactions in the cell and activates Transcription Factor . What is the sequence of neurones impulses would pass through. Steroid hormone binds to specific receptor on target cell and enters the cytoplasm..2 – A steroid hormone 1..Adrenaline / Thyroxine (Lipid this case... ref to local currents allowing propagation.. an d it will shake and lick it like crazy... in this case) and complete the formation of the Transcription Initiation Complex.....1 – A peptide hormone 1. SAQ64.. as Park is discovering....” Naked mole rats do feel acute pain such as cuts and burns. with the same factors occurring in different organisms from humans to simple single-cell organisms........ The transcription factor and the hormone bind to other transcription factors (TF1 to as the membrane is permeable to steroid hormones. Adenyl cyclase enzyme is released from the receptor and diffuses into the cytoplasm..Page 9 of 16 makes transcription factors the largest group of human proteins..... Peptides/Proteins: .

Overstretching must be avoided to prevent damage to the tendon. or to stop exercising because your knee is in trouble. Tendons are less elastic than ligaments.2 Comment [SVR69]: Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a real illness. State two knee ailments that could result from over-exercise. or joint pain after a knee injury. A small camera and small instruments on the end of long narrow tubes. rape. a hurricane. small punctures are made into the knee joint. This is done with a motorized device which is called a shaver. Fig. Comment [SVR70]: used to indicate that something is stated exactly Comment [SVR71]: basic preparatory tasks that form a foundation for something else The patient is given anaesthesia. Ice. This slice of tendon is called the graft. In most cases. especially if you play sports. So physiotherapy will be needed to gently stretch the tendons and regain full movement. 9. Remove all of the existing damaged Free consultancy at https://www.facebook. 1. physical abuse or a bad accident. 9. Fig. This finding is particularly significant because the nerve fibres associated with chemical pain are also involved in post-traumatic pain in people – precisely the type of discomfort researchers would like to eliminate. Compression. be sure to apply the Rest. “But post-surgical pain. such as war. The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). The tissue is taken from around the knee joint. global academic consultant and Head of Institution.” Paragraph 32 SAQ65. Keyhole surgery for treatment of cruciate ligament damage Cruciate Ligament Damage ACL injuries are common. The advantage of using the person’s own tissue is that there will be no tissue rejection. A slice of the tendon is harvested with a bone block at each end of the tendon. Otherwise known as the RICE technique. is the most often injured ligament of the 4 ligaments in your knee. Over-training and sports injuries can result in greater wear and tear which may damage the cartilage in the knee joints and lead to osteoarthritis. causing a twist in your knee  A rapid stop with a change in direction  Slowing down while running  Landing from a jump  Contact or collision causing extreme knee hyperextension When the ACL becomes injured you may hear and feel a "pop" in your knee. 9. introduced into the knee through small incisions (keyholes). through the knee joint. The naked mole rats are laying the groundwork for potentially finding new ways to treat the kinds of pain we don’t Fig. Fig. 9. It is very painful and can be injured by hyper-extending the knee or twisting your knee inward. and into the femoral drill hole. so that the procedure can be completed with a single surgery. If this does happen. The bone plugs of the graft will fit into these tunnels. This can be caused by:  Sudden change of direction. The graft is then placed through the tibia.” says Park. The biological screws will dissolve in about two years. Osteoarthritis – due to wearing-away of cartilage.3 Skin incisions (cuts) are made and the patellar tendon is identified. Screws. this is the ligament tearing. those types of pain we could do without. Republic of Maldives. You can get PTSD after living through or seeing a traumatic event. staples or sutures are used to fix the bone plugs. Fig.6 Author of A Level biology text books and practical workbooks. Describe the possible treatment that may be available for such ailments. 9.5 2. “It’s OK to have pain sensation to tell you to get your hand off the .Page 10 of 16 32.4 Tunnels are drilled into the femur and tibia. Books available at http://www. and elevation.

” he says. however. Sudden twisting and excessive force can cause injury to the cartilage. then the neurons may never Author of A Level biology text books and practical workbooks. The rodents. Final acceptor of hydrogen at end of electron transfer chain. “It turns out that high levels of CO2 affect the types of nerves that the naked mole rats have disconnected. A brain deprived of oxygen will lead to a brain deprived of ATP/energy. While normal air is about 0. 9. the surface layer of cartilage breaks down and wears away. or this can take place over time with repeated use. (by removing H) allows proton gradient/chemiosmosis to continue. Osteoarthritis is common in knee joints because they are the body’s primary weight-bearing joints.10 Fig. with low oxygen levels and extremely high levels of carbon dioxide. 9. Bits of bone or cartilage can break off and float inside the joint space. the most successful treatment for severe arthritis of the knee has been total knee replacement. are unaffected. Once the cartilage is damaged. or to make a part of the body work better.7 Fig.” Paragraph 33 SAQ66. he suspected. As cartilage is not supplied with blood. Though the applications are intriguing. more impulses sent from ventilation centre. “I think that’s the evolutionary driving force to disconnect these pain nerves. stemmed from their unusual habitat. Over time. Although many animals live underground. Prosthesis A prosthesis is a device designed to replace a missing part of the body.” Park says.9 33. few live in such close quarters and in such large numbers as naked mole rats.facebook. bone spurs – small growths called osteophytes – may grow on the edges of the joint. Repetitive load-bearing can cause damage to the cartilage lining the joint. to diaphragm /intercostal muscles. without oxygen Kreb’s cycle and electron transport would cease. Development of neurons in the visual cortex of the brain is dependent on stimuli from the environment. Fig. the protection it gives the joint . This means removing all the surfaces of both compartments and replacing them with a metal implant on the lower end of the femur and a plastic surface on the tibia. Also. Republic of Maldives. 9.03 per cent causing pain. Rise in CO2/fall in pH detected by receptor. resulting in osteoarthritis. Park’s own interests are more basic: why would naked mole rats lack this type of pain? The answer. levels in naked mole rat burrows can easily reach 5 per cent or more – an intensity that would sting our eyes and noses and leave us gasping for air. but they’re perfectly happy to wallow around in 5 per cent. Healthy cartilage covering the ends of the bones allows bones to glide over one another. global academic consultant and Head of Institution. SAQ67. SAQ68. Fig. it is very slow to repair itself when damaged. If a child has his or her eyes covered from birth. In osteoarthritis. For many years. the joint may lose its normal shape. Ventilation rate would increase. and explain how these responses are brought about. This causes more pain and damage.8 Keyhole surgery can be used to remove pieces of bone (bone debris) from the joint. The air in their burrows is rank. With reference to the human brain. Comment [SVR72]: Arouse the curiosity or interest of Comment [SVR73]: Came from Comment [SVR74]: to lie down and roll around in something Comment [SVR75]: Selection pressure Books available at http://www. Describe the role of oxygen in the production of ATP. 9. This allows bones under the cartilage to rub together. This can lead to more rapid degeneration. and it absorbs energy from the shock of physical movement. explain how the environment may play a role in brain development with regard to critical window Free consultancy at https://www. Describe the responses that humans would show if they were breathing air with 5% Carbon dioxide.Page 11 of 16 Osteoarthritis is a joint disease that affects the cartilage. swelling and loss of motion of the joint. receptor identified as aortic/carotid body/medulla. “They will stay away from 10 per cent CO2.

as well as neuron adaptations that allow brain cells to function at oxygen and carbon dioxide levels that other mammals cannot tolerate. Describe how fMRI can be used to study brain function and compare this with early techniques that were used to investigate brain function. global academic consultant and Head of Institution. The pathway for anaerobic respiration is very short (Glycolysis only) and generates ATP rapidly. vol 20. and are probably much lower in the wild. which release plenty of Ca2+ ions for frequent muscle contraction.Page 12 of 16 develop to be functional and the child will be permanently blind. It carries oxygen from intermediate compounds in the respiratory pathway to the Electron Transport Chain in the inner mitochondrial membrane. or oxygen deprivation. Without NAD glycolysis and Krebs cycle cannot function and respiration stops. This was also well demonstrated by using kittens and monkeys as models to demonstrate the critical window period in the development of vision. Books available at http://www. But naked mole rats studied were found to show systemic hypoxia adaptations. 37. Use of modern scanning techniques has transformed our understanding of the localisation of function in the brain. in the liver. and Thomas Free consultancy at https://www. 36. Oxygen is used as the final electron carrier and keeps the electron transport chain operating. the electron transport chain will stop functioning and NAD cannot be regenerated. SAQ70. Name one type of muscle cell that is specially adapted for anaerobic conditions. and subsequent transfer to the muscles would be too slow to meet the rapid demand for glucose during anaerobic respiration. They tire or cramp up easily due to lactic acid formation. mole rats that can withstand low oxygen more likely to survive and reproduce (accept converse).facebook. The findings may yield clues for better treatment of brain injuries associated with heart . SAQ72. It has very little myoglobin and is adapted for anaerobic respiration. Republic of Maldives. Have few mitochondria as muscles undergo anaerobic respiration. which is a much shorter pathway and can supply ATP rapidly. Paragraph 36 SAQ71. Identification of selection pressure is living in a low oxygen environment. Have Lots of glycogen. p 1634). Paragraph 34 SAQ69. On the other hand. Comment [SVR76]: reduction of oxygen supply to a tissue below physiological levels despite adequate perfusion of the tissue by blood Author of A Level biology text books and practical workbooks. If myoglobin was present in abundance. with the limited air supply low in oxygen. Fast twitch fibres are referred to as white muscle and is light pink in colour. Have a high concentration of creatine phosphate which reacts with ADP in a single step to form ATP rapidly for muscle contraction. Using your knowledge of the respiratory pathways. Park has found that naked mole rat brains are incredibly resistant to oxygen deprivation. Low resistance to fatigue. alleles for withstanding hypoxia increase in the population. anaerobic respiration produces ATP during glycolysis only. Have few capillaries. associate professor of physiology in psychiatry. The low oxygen levels are just as important. Have lots of sarcoplasmic reticulum. The aerobic pathway is too long and involves too many reactions to produce ATP. with their brain tissue able to bounce back after 30 minutes without the gas (NeuroReport. stroke and accidents where the brain is starved of vital which occurs in the cytoplasm. Explain how populations of Naked Mole rats have evolved to be resistant to hypoxia. State features of these cells that enable them to be tolerant to anaerobic conditions. explain why ATP production decreases when oxygen is low in the tissues. due to mutation. This enables ATP to be produced very rapidly for muscle contraction. The lactic acid reduces the pH within the muscle cells and inhibits respiratory enzymes. professor of biological sciences. whereas levels in the burrows can be as low as 12 per cent in captive colonies. Fast twitch fibres need a rapid supply of ATP. such as in the lungs and blood. Note: Conversion of glycogen to glucose. then the muscle will continue aerobic respiration and the rate of ATP production would be too slow to support rapid contraction. brain activity results in increased demand for oxygen so increase in oxyhaemoglobin. Two University of Illinois at Chicago researchers report that adult naked mole rat brain tissue can withstand extreme hypoxia. Genetic variability in ability to withstand low oxygen exists in mole rats. This isn’t the only effect the naked mole rat’s burrows have on their physiology. Fresh air contains about 21 per cent oxygen. Without oxygen. 34. early techniques – study of the effect of injury/ animal experiments eg insertion of electrodes/ study of the effect of drugs. Note: the anaerobic respiration pathway is very short when compared to the aerobic pathway. allows researchers to identify regions of the brain involved in particular tasks. NADH2 is a hydrogen carrier. The living is tight and the breathing even worse. This results in complete lack of ATP leading to muscle cramps. which result in reduced oxygen supply and anaerobic respiration. studied African naked mole rats – small rodents that live about six feet underground in big colonies of up to 300 members. fMRI follows uptake of oxygen in active brain areas. for periods exceeding a half-hour – much longer than brain tissue from other mammals. 38. 35. John Larson. which is converted into glucose and used instantly for respiration.

vol 518. And.” SAQ73. Larson said study of the naked mole rat’s brain may yield clues for learning the mechanisms that allow longer neuronal survival after such accidents or medical emergencies. so we can use this information to help people who experience temporary loss of oxygen to the brain in situations like heart attacks. Studies of their sleep patterns could feasibly help treat disordered sleep in humans.” says Faulkes. “We also find it very intriguing that naked mole rat neurons exhibit some electrophysiological properties that suggest that neurons in these animals retain immature characteristics. Only cells with oxytocin receptors can bind to oxytocin. All mammal fetuses live in a low-oxygen environment in the womb. Hormone therapy (as it's now called) was also thought to have the longterm benefits of preventing heart disease and possibly dementia. Mature neurons are myelinated and more branched. There are clear patterns of brain wave activity. Books available at http://www. there needs to be a Author of A Level biology text books and practical workbooks. including plants. in part. 44. They were looking for receptors that bind to the “cuddle chemical” oxytocin. SAQ74. 47. State two differences is structure of immature and mature neurons. and assume this is under genetic control (Journal of Comparative Neurology. To avoid infection. however. although they can be modulated by external cues such as sunlight and temperature. which may suggest ways to avoid permanent human brain damage. “It’s a good example of a change in a gene giving a change in complex Free consultancy at https://www. when compared to immature neurons. and human infants continue to show brain resistance to oxygen deprivation for a brief time into early childhood. Comment [SVR77]: continuing a long time Comment [SVR78]: Monogamy is a form of marriage in which an individual has only one spouse during their lifetime or at any one time Comment [SVR79]: Motherly care for the young Comment [SVR80]: Autism is a disorder of neural development characterized by impaired social interaction and communication.facebook. This is how hormone can affect specific target cells. 46. . The receptors have a specific shape and will bind to a specific hormone only.Page 13 of 16 ATPase activity is fast. “We believe that the extreme resistance to oxygen deprivation is a result of evolutionary adaptations for surviving in a chronically low-oxygen environment. Sociable by nature 45. global academic consultant and Head of Institution. and by restricted and repetitive behavior Comment [SVR81]: Hormone replacement therapy — medications containing female hormones to replace the ones the body no longer makes after menopause — used to be a standard treatment for women with hot flashes and other menopause symptoms. Helps myosin to re-cock rapidly and bring about another round of contraction rapidly. so perhaps they could help researchers develop osteoporosis treatments without the side effects of hormone replacement therapy. animals. 42. unlike other mammals. “The trick now will be to learn how naked mole rats have been able to retain infant-like brain protection from low oxygen. naked mole rat neurons maintain function more than six times longer than mouse neurons after the onset of oxygen deprivation. as by surgery. Medical benefits may even arise from continuing research into naked mole rat behaviour. SAQ75. Instead of staying put in their mouths. including human beings. Circadian rhythms are important in determining the sleeping and feeding patterns of all animals. The diagram shows a cell membrane with oxytocin receptors. 43. The possibilities don’t end there. Traditional prosthetics put pressure on delicate soft tissue causing sores and cell death. 41. by genetic differences that influence the patterns of certain hormone receptors in the brain. retain this ability into adulthood. Using your knowledge of differential gene expression. stroke or drowning. Previous studies in voles and other mammals have shown that behaviours such as monogamy and maternal performance can be explained. hormone production. so the finding could have direct implications for humans. University of London and colleagues compared their brains with those of the solitary cape mole rat. To find out whether naked mole rats’ sociability has a genetic factor. Suggest why oxytocin can only bind to specific cell in the brain. But naked mole rats. circadian rhythms are endogenously generated. they grow right through the skin of the something of great interest to prosthetics designers. so a team led by Gordon Blunn and Catherine Pendegrass at University College London are testing new prosthetics that are attached directly to the bone of an amputated limb. The team found that the naked mole rat has far more of these receptors in several brain regions including the nucleus accumbens. Comment [SVR82]: A circadian rhythm is a roughly 24 hour cycle in the physiological processes of living beings. Naked mole rats do not experience menopause or osteoporosis.” said Larson. Chris Faulkes at Queen Mary. Republic of Maldives. naked mole rats don’t follow normal circadian rhythms. he adds. p 1792). Comment [SVR83]: capable of being done Comment [SVR84]: The branch of medicine or surgery that deals with the production and application of artificial body parts Comment [SVR85]: to cut off (all or part of a limb or digit of the body). In a strict sense. fungi and cyanobacteria. suggest how human infants change their oxygen tolerance as they grow. Genes used for tolerance to low oxygen environment in the womb get switched off and genes needed for living in an oxygen abundant environment get switched on. “In the most extreme cases. Even their incisors are fascinating.” he said. Changes in the oxytocin receptor in humans are associated with certain kinds of autism. an area known as the brain’s pleasure centre.” said Park. 39. cell regeneration and other biological activities linked to this daily cycle. as they spend 24 hours a day in the dark.

48. Not only does the queen suppress reproductive function in the non-breeders. while in non-breeding males testosterone concentrations and sperm numbers are lower. which in turn suppresses the release of gonadotrophins from the anterior pituitary. Non‑breeding males and females will rapidly become reproductively active if they are removed from the suppressing influences of their colony and housed singly or in male-female pairs. Republic of composed of compacted dead dry cells filled with indigestible keratin protein (which also forms nails and hair). There are 2 layers in the epidermis. Understanding the interface between their teeth and skin may help in the development of new coatings or structures that can be applied to the prosthetics. This makes the skin acidic. This is a clear example of how the phenotype can be influence by the interaction between the environment and the genotype. SAQ78.6. Describe the role of the skin as a barrier to infection. which is an oily secretion with a pH between 3 to 5. the block to reproduction is reversible. This is where naked mole rats come in. and why is there a problem that must be overcome with these prosthetics. inhibiting bacterial growth. such that concentrations of testosterone in the latter are suppressed except around the time of ovulation in the queen.  Sebaceous glands also secrete the enzyme lysozyme. Books available at http://www.  Sebaceous glands secrete sebum. This results in a suppression of ovulation in non-breeding females. (new prosthetics) are bonded to bone. Sweat is also acidic.16 – Structure of sperm Author of A Level biology text books and practical workbooks. State the features of sperms that enable them to carry out their function efficiently. and in most males sperm are Free consultancy at https://www. Lysozyme destroys bacterial cell walls. Comment [SVR86]: a proposed explanation for a phenomenon Comment [SVR87]: not capable of movement Fig. The skin also has chemical defence mechanisms. If the environment changes and the queen dies or the non-breeders are isolated in male and female pairs then the phenotype changes to fertile individuals. there is a risk of infection entering body between prosthetic and skin. global academic consultant and Head of Institution. SAQ77. The compact closely packed cells prevent entry of pathogens. Interaction between the queen and the non-breeders (environmental) produces a cascade of hormonal action (genetic) which suppresses ovulation and sperm production (phenotype).com/groups/biologywithstafford/ . or if the queen in a colony dies. but she also apparently exerts some control over the breeding male(s). Despite these endocrine deficiencies in non-breeders that may persist for many years. which is a natural antibiotic.4. A . SAQ79. Our current hypothesis is that behavioural interactions between the queen and non-breeders are translated into a suppression of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone in the hypothalamus.Inner Malpighian layer or basal layer. B . The ineraction between the genes and the environment can influence the phenotype of the organism. not pressing on soft tissues. Why are the new prosthetics being developed at UCL less likely to damage tissues. as shown in fig 11.Page 14 of 16 permanent seal where the skin meets the metal implant.facebook.Outer cornified layer. site of rapid mitosis and keratinisation. Discuss the contribution of nature and nurture in the expression of reproductive behavior in the naked mole rat. Paragraph 47 SAQ76. The skin is made from 2 layers  Outer epidermis layer  Inner dermis layer The epidermis provides a physical barrier to invading pathogens.

response is lowered testosterone/ few and non-motile sperm.99. so there is a very high range of genetic variation. use of electrophoresis. or intrinsically Comment [SVR101]: completely separate and unconnected Comment [SVR102]: to allow or entitle somebody not to do something that others are obliged to do Author of A Level biology text books and practical workbooks.93 to 0. Increases genetic variation. Although rare. Very little cytoplasm. ref to use of probe. Contains lots of mitochondria. These findings suggest that. Prolonged inbreeding is usually associated with lowered fitness. Individuals within colonies were genetically almost monomorphic. despite an evolutionary history of close inbreeding. Suggest the possible consequences of having coefficients of band sharing estimates from DNA fingerprints ranging from 0. These dispersers are morphologically. which can increase the chances of offspring being affected by recessive or deleterious traits. effector is testis. a dispersive morph exists within naked mole-rat colonies that may occasionally promote outbreeding. earnest or respectful request. Cytoplasm SAQ80. have a strong urge to disperse. which means cells are small and therefore can be released in large numbers. Discrimination by females appears to be dependent on their reproductive status.99. No two sperms are the same. which use ATP to propel the sperm forwards A specially modified lysosome in the sperm’s head. exhibit elevated levels of luteinizing hormone. Comment [SVR93]: any of the different forms of individual found in a polymorphic species Comment [SVR94]: move away from the colony and thereby promotes outbreeding Comment [SVR95]: to seek for (something) by Free consultancy at https://www. Comment [SVR90]: Inbreeding is reproduction from the mating of parents who are closely related genetically. and it has been shown that most highly inbred small mammals have inbreeding-avoidance mechanisms that promote some degree of outbreeding. controls long term changes such as growth. Isolation of gene with restriction enzymes. Inbreeding results in increased homozygosity. at least some mole rats will have allele combinations that allow survival in changing environment. Selection for the fittest sperm occurs. 51. not detection of genetic similarity per se. Kin recognition and female mate choice using a series of choice tests in which the odour. This will decrease the chances of survival of the species in a changing environment reduce the ability of the organisms to adapt to various environments. Also if sperm numbers are high then many sperms will release enzymes into the zona pellucida and increase the chance of penetration. response can be widespread. SAQ81. Comment [SVR91]: An individual who results from inbreeding is referred to as inbred. Thus. Books available at http://www. amplification of microsatellite with PCR. global academic consultant and Head of Institution. Suggest why out-breeding is likely to increase the long term survival of Naked Mole Rat populations. Hormonal (accept converse for neural if clearly identified) – slower acting. hormone reaches all cells in body but only affects those with receptors. often producing a hybrid of superior quality. naked mole-rats may not be exempt from the effects of inbreeding depression and will attempt to outbreed should the opportunity arise. social and mate preferences of females were determined. because some sperms may be defective and will not be able to reach or penetrate the ovum. 49. having coefficients of band sharing estimated from DNA fingerprints ranging from 0. Comment [SVR92]: the interbreeding of individuals or stocks that are relatively unrelated. Republic of Maldives. SAQ84. is low. It also assists motility (movement) of sperms. The acrosome swells and bursts when the sperm comes in contact with the follicle cells and zona pellucida. Females do not discriminate between kin and non-kin suggesting that the criterion for recognition is familiarity. DNA extracted from cells. Part of Sperm Adapted for… Nucleus Head Midpiece (neck) Tail (Flagellum) Acrosome Contains only one copy of each chromosome (haploid) Contains the nucleus and lysosome (acrosome). ref to southern blotting. which make ATP for the sperms to swim. whereas reproductively inactive females do not SAQ83. In the suppression of breeding by the queen identify (a) the stimulus (b) the effector and (c) the response for the non-breeding males. 52.Page 15 of 16 Sperms are produced in large numbers. 2. prevention of inbreeding depression. Stimulus is behavioural interaction with queen. physiologically and behaviourally distinct from other colony members. This indicates that genetic diversity is very low. In the wild. The enzymes in the acrosome digest the follicle cells and the zona pellucida to allow the cell membranes of the sperm and ovum to fuse.facebook. SAQ82. This generally leads to a decreased fitness of a population. longer duration. Describe the techniques and procedures that would be used to produce a DNA fingerprint from a Naked Mole Rat. Patterns of genetic structure in naked mole-rat populations were quantified within and among geographically distant populations using DNA fingerprinting. 3. The chances of survival of the species in a changing environment. naked mole-rats occupy discrete burrow systems and dispersal and mixing with nonkin is thought to be comparatively rare. by itself. form. or structure through a series of developmental changes. Made from motor proteins and microtubules. . Reproductively active females prefer to associate with unfamiliar males. Compare and contrast the ways in which this kind of communication differs from nervous communication. or genetic fingerprinting) is a technique employed by forensic scientists to assist in the identification of individuals by their respective DNA profiles. The queen prevents non-breeders becoming reproductive by altering the hormonal balance in the non-breeders. and only solicit matings with non-colony members. ref to technique of visualising DNA. which is called inbreeding depression. The advantage of this is: 1. formal application Comment [SVR96]: group of persons descended from a common ancestor Comment [SVR97]: somebody related by blood Comment [SVR98]: Unrelated Comment [SVR99]: closeness and friendliness in a personal relationship Comment [SVR100]: in itself. Many sperms do not reach egg – large numbers will increase chances of reaching the egg. DNA typing. Comment [SVR89]: Having one or the same genotype. They are laden with fat. Comment [SVR88]: DNA profiling (also called DNA testing. A preference by reproductively active females for unfamiliar males is interpreted as inbreeding avoidance.93 to 0. detail of electrophoresis – agarose gel/electric field/ ref to small fragments moving faster/. recognition by familiarity may function as a highly efficient kin recognition mechanism in the naked mole-rat.

ncbi. SAQ87. It is expensive and time-consuming to sequence the genome of the mole-rat. New Scientist Magazine. Acknowledgements Adapted text taken from: ‘Naked and ugly: The new face of lab rats’. global academic consultant and Head of 4. we have to start from scratch with many things. from http://www. Inbreeding is reproduction from the mating of parents who are closely related . so can be studied in the long-term too.” Paragraph 53 SAQ86. Nature 380.1999. but I think it’s definitely worth it. Faulkes. 23 October 2010. Abbott. JUM and Faulkes. The behaviour of mole-rats may differ ex-situ (e. and therefore impact the rate of helping other humans. Unlike mice. Jarvis. Republic of Maldives. which is called inbreeding depression.” Gorbunova says.htm Adapted text taken from: ‘Micro.and macrogeographical genetic structure of colonies of naked mole‑rats Heterocephalus glaber’. retrieved 11 November 2011.htm Adapted text taken from: ‘A dispersive morph in the naked mole-rat’.1098/rspb. Explain what is meant by inbreeding depression. “It’s not very Free consultancy at https://www.0877 Adapted text taken from: Skin morphology and its role in thermoregulation in mole-rats. (1997). 619–621 (18 April 1996).qmul. Mol Ecol vol. Issue 2783 © Copyright Reed Business Information Ltd Adapted text taken from: University of Rochester (October 26 2009).htm Adapted text taken from: ‘A Reproductive Dictatorship: The Life and Times of the African Naked Mole‑Rat’.nlm.facebook. This generally leads to a decreased fitness of a population.1038/380619a0. CG. 5. HP et al. “With naked mole‑rats. 6. retrieved 11 November 2011. so may be more unethical to test with (as with mice).19340495. Clarke. theories etc. from http://www. which can increase the chances of offspring being affected by recessive or deleterious traits. Heterocephalus glaber and Cryptomys hottentotus. from http://www. FM and Faulkes. CG (1999). Scientists Discover Gene That ‘Cancer-proofs’ Naked Mole Rat’s Cells.g. 10. CG. Kirsten Author of A Level biology text books and practical workbooks. retrieved 11 November 2011 from PMCID: PMC1467874 Copyright © 1998 Comment [SVR103]: the set of chromosomes and the genes they carry https://www. Inbreeding results in increased homozygosity.qmul. O’Brien. mole rats have reduced sensitivity to chemical pain therefore have less capacity to suffer. From one ethical viewpoint discuss whether some of the experiments carried out on Naked Mole Rats can be justified. Proc Biol Sci vol. (1432) 1995–2002. we have to start from scratch with many things".amazon. Mole-rats live for a relatively long time. research on mole rats has very large potential benefits to human health. Daly TJ and Buffenstein R (1998) J Adapted text taken from: ‘Kin discrimination and female mate choice in the naked mole-rat Heterocephalus glaber’. MJ. the living conditions cannot be recreated. it is no surprise that naked mole rats are becoming more common in labs. 3.1469-7580. doi: 10. O’Riain.sciencedaily. The mole-rats may be more useful in terms of physiology and behaviour than mice. With so much to offer science. 6. the Queen not being present can change behaviour). retrieved 11 November 2011 from: http://webspace. suffering is restricted to few individuals. 193(Pt 4): 495– releases/2009/10/091026152812.nih. 266. Mole-rats are animals with a nervous system. http://webspace. the naked mole rat hasn’t yet had its genome sequenced yet. "With naked mole-rats. What are the advantages and disadvantages of using mole-rats (use your own 53. 2.sciencedaily.Page 16 of 16 SAQ85.html Adapted text taken from: University of Illinois at Chicago (November 30 2009). Books available at http://www. doi: 10.1046/j. It can impact the development of new treatments. DH. ‘Naked mole rats may hold clues to surviving stroke’. ScienceDaily. the article and the sentence above)? 1.1998. Utilitarianism. (7) 615–628. retrieved 11 November 2011.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful

Master Your Semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.

Master Your Semester with a Special Offer from Scribd & The New York Times

Cancel anytime.