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Making Connections

Building Classroom Community

Year-Long Curriculum for Grades 9-12


Irene Haji-Georgi

Making Connections
Building Classroom Community

Olivia Gude, Marcus Jefferson, and Jon Pounds with over 100 volunteers. Painted mural connecting two communities bridging the gap. Chicago on East 113 th St. and South Cottage Grove Ave.

Year-Long Art Curriculum for Grades 912


Irene Haji-Georgi

Table of Contents
Philosophy & Curriculum RationalePage 4 Art Program Goals..Page 5 Enduring Understandings & Essential Questions..Page 6 Curriculum WebPage 7 UNIT 1: Personal Connections.Page 8 Web....Page 9 [Stage 1] Desired Results..Pages 10-11 [Stage 2] Assessment Evidence...Page 12 *Stage 3+ Learning Plan.....Pages 13-15 Reflection Sheet & Assessment......Pages 16-18 UNIT 2: Cultural Exploration...Page 19 Web....Page 20 [Stage 1] Desired Results..Pages 21-22 [Stage 2] Assessment Evidence....Page 23 *Stage 3+ Learning Plan...Pages 24-29 Reflection Sheet & Assessment....Pages 25-27 UNIT 3: Community Involvement....Page 30 Web....Page 31 [Stage 1] Desired Results..Pages 32-33 [Stage 2] Assessment Evidence...Page 34 *Stage 3+ Learning Plan..Pages 35-40 Reflection Sheet & Assessment......Pages 37-39 Unit Resources.Page 41 Scope & Sequence Chart..Page 42 Curriculum Assessment Plan.Page 43 Appendix.Pages 44-54 Glossary....Pages 45-51 National Visual Arts Standards..Page 52 Massachusetts Visual Arts Frameworks..Page 53 General Resources....Page 54
Irene Haji-Georgi Art Education Curriculum Grades 9-12 3

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Humans have expressed themselves artistically for many purposes throughout history in diverse ways. Art has served as utilitarian object, record, mode of communication, visual aesthetic, and has increasingly moved toward social and political commentary in contemporary times. The visually stimulating world in which we live requires that we deconstruct what we see to make meaning and understand what is around us. Art prompts us to critically think and question everything we know, drawing on prior knowledge and experiences related to its context. Art education should, therefore, cultivate visual literacy to engage students in these topical discussions of historical and contemporary issues in their communities and the world. This empowers students artistically and intellectually and prepares them to engage as confident and informed citizens in their communities who are capable of making change through art or otherwise. Encouragement of collaboration is essential as students learn to work together, assume roles within the group, and employ their collective strengths to accomplish a goal. This positively translates in all areas of life; as students discover their roles in the smaller community of the classroom, they also discover their roles in the community at large. Of course, art educators must initially give students the technical skills so that they may gain material knowledge and visually communicate their messages to others. As students build their skills and their confidence in the safe space of the classroom, they should be allowed to focus on the comprehensive knowledge they are gaining rather than just creating a perfect piece of artwork. The process of learning and the progress a student makes is even more important for beginners; the foundation must be strong to build up to more visually and conceptually complex work.

Art curriculum should value student experiences and backgrounds as relevant sources of information in the classroom. It should embrace student narratives and use multicultural education as an authentic and omnipresent mentality with the demographic of students in mind. By utilizing a student-centered curriculum, an art educator guides students to reveal their interests and strengths and subsequently enrich the learning experience by teaching one another. When students make these connections and build upon prior knowledge, they are also sharing a wider scope of knowledge that lends itself to an interdisciplinary approach that extends meaning in a relevant way. Finally, it is imperative that art curriculum caters to all needs and learning styles that we encounter in the classroom in order to validate and extend student knowledge and critical consciousness.

Irene Haji-Georgi

Art Education Curriculum Grades 9-12

Art Program Goals

To cultivate visual literacy and critical consciousness in order to engage students in


topical discussions of historical and contemporary issues in their communities and the world, and to deconstruct what they see to make meaning and understand what is around us.

To empower students artistically and intellectually and prepare them to engage as


confident and informed citizens in their communities who are capable of making change through art or otherwise.

To encourage collaboration so that students learn to work together, assume roles


within the group, and employ their collective strengths to accomplish a goal.

To teach students technical skills so that they may gain material knowledge and
visually communicate their messages to others.

To embrace student narratives, experiences, and backgrounds as relevant sources


of information in the classroom.

To guide students in recognizing their interests and strengths.

To enrich the learning experience by making connections and building upon prior
knowledge to extend meaning.

To cultivate an inclusive classroom that caters to all needs and learning styles.

Irene Haji-Georgi

Art Education Curriculum Grades 9-12

Studio Art I
Enduring Understandings
Art encompasses all kinds of materials and objects that are both found and created. Artists often reflect on their cultural identities and personal histories when creating meaningful works of art. Artists use humor, irony, juxtaposition, metaphor, and symbolism create meaning in their works.

Joseph Cornell, Untitled (Soap Bubble Set), c. 1936. Assemblage.

Joseph Cornell, Untitled (The Hotel Eden), c. 1945. Assemblage.

Essential Questions
What is art made of? How do artists communicate messages about their identities through their artwork? How do artists use image and text to make a statement or inspire change?
Irene Haji-Georgi Art Education Curriculum Grades 9-12 6

Curriculum Web

LESSON 1

LESSON 1

Museum of Me
LESSON 2

Re-News

UNIT 1 Personal Connections

UNIT 3 Community Involvement

LESSON 2

Expressive Hands
LESSON 3

Sending Messages
LESSON 3

Portrait Remix

UNIT 2 Cultural Exploration


LESSON 1 LESSON 2 LESSON 3

Inspiring Change

Cultural Comics

Shifting Cultures

Collaborativ e Mural

Irene Haji-Georgi

Art Education Curriculum Grades 9-12

UNIT 1

Personal Connections

Louise Bourgeois, Untitled (No. 2), 1996, pink marble on steel base.

Lesson 1: Museum of Me Lesson 2: Expressive Hands Lesson 3: Portrait Remix

Irene Haji-Georgi

Art Education Curriculum Grades 9-12

UNIT 1

Personal Connections

Field Trip Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum Questionnaire: Investigate your classmate!

Assemblage: Historical Roots to Contemporary Practice

LESSON 1 Museum of Me

LESSON 3 Portrait Remix

Multimedia selfportrait and portrait of a classmate

Creation of assemblage including found objects.

LESSON 2 Expressive Hands

Unit Critique Getting to know how you see yourself and how others see you.

Exploration of artists who depict hands in their works.

Observational studies of students hands.

Employing line and movement in final drawing of hands.

Irene Haji-Georgi

Art Education Curriculum Grades 9-12

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UNIT RATIONALE

Personal Connections
STAGE I DESIRED RESULTS

This unit consists of three lessons and is geared toward personal expression. Students will begin with an introspective lesson and then move outward into learning about their classmates and working with partners in order to begin building classroom community. Students will also explore working with mixed media and practice their observational skills through investigative study. This unit will last for the first quarter of the year.

ENDURING UNDERSTANDINGS
Artists reflect on their identities and personal histories when creating meaningful works of art. Art encompasses all kinds of materials and objects that are both found and created. The contents of an artwork as well as its composition create a visual dialogue in the depicted space.

ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS
How do artists communicate messages about their identities through their artwork?
What is art made of? How does an abstract piece of art tell a story?

STANDARDS ADDRESSED*
1. Methods, Materials, and Techniques. 2. Elements and Principles of Design. 3. Observation, Abstraction, Invention, and Expression. 5. Critical Response. 9. Inventions, Technologies and the Arts. 10. Interdisciplinary Connections.
*For full Standard explanations, see page 53.
Student samples from Olivia Gudes Spiral Workshop, 1996, Mixed Media.

Irene Haji-Georgi

Art Education Curriculum Grades 9-12

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1
UNIT OBJECTIVES
Lesson 1

Personal Connections

Students will examine works by multiple artists and cultures that use the technique of assemblage to inform their own work. Students will incorporate their knowledge about Isabella Stewart Gardner and her style of curating her own museum as discussed after their field trip. Students will be able to reflect on and visually communicate personal dialogue and multiple aspects of about their identities, interests, backgrounds and culture through their assemblages. The students will be able to create a successful three-dimensional composition through the careful arrangement of their objects.

Lesson 2
Students will apply and extend their knowledge of line to create their expressive hands. Students will extend their observational drawing skills. Students will consider their knowledge of American Sign Language and culturally diverse hand gestures and signals (as discussed in class) while creating their drawings. Students will make connections with a classmate and have meaningful conversation.
Louise Bourgeois, The Welcoming Hands, 1996. Bronze.

Lesson 3
Students will apply and extend their knowledge of observational drawing. Students will make connections with a classmate and visually depict what they have learned about one another. Students will be able to use multiple techniques such as monoprinting, drawing, and collage to abstractly represent an idea.

Overarching Objectives
Students will know the importance of composition and context as it relates to 2-D and 3-D works.

Students will explore working in mixed media.


Students will be able to critically think about the personal connections they are making in the classroom. Students will be able to visually communicate aspects of their own (and another students ) identity.

Irene Haji-Georgi

Art Education Curriculum Grades 9-12

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EVIDENCE Lesson 1

Personal Connections

STAGE 2 ASSESSMENT EVIDENCE

The final product will be the students interpretation of his or her own gallery or museum, which informs the viewer about the artist who created it. A technically successful example will be a well-designed and stable structure which exhibits a collection through assemblage incorporating various media, including at least five found objects. The museum/gallery assemblage must be meaningful on the whole in that it reflects the students unique identity, interests, background, or culture through the display of the students collection.

Louise Nevelson, Black Box, 1959. Assemblage.

Lesson 2
The final product will be three observational sketches of a classmates hands in different positions. The gestures of the hands must express something about the classmate. Students will also speak about their classmates and the expressive nature of line as it relates to observational drawing. This lesson is a warm-up and building block for the next lesson.

Lesson 3
The final product will be a multimedia self-portrait of the student as well as a portrait of a classmate. The artwork will visually depict elements of the subjects identity, interests or background with both realistic and abstract elements. Students must include some monoprinting and at least one other technique besides drawing in their final pieces.

CONTINUUM OF ASSESSMENTS
Students will answer a reflection handout and complete a rubric for each lesson in the unit as a form of self-assessment. The teacher will grade, comment on, and return these handouts to the students. All students will participate in a critique at the end of a lesson to discuss what they have learned and to gain feedback from the teacher and their classmates. An example assessment handout has been included after Lesson 3: Portrait Remix.

STAGE 3 LEARNING PLAN


The following pages contain specifics about each individual lesson in this unit.

Irene Haji-Georgi

Art Education Curriculum Grades 9-12

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of Me

LESSON 1

Museum

Lesson Topic & Description


Inspired by their recent trip to the Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum, students will become the curators of their own museum. Students will create a space in the style of assemblage to display different aspects of themselves through the things they collect or would like to collect. While creating the assemblage, students will reflect on their identities, interests, backgrounds and culture to make a gallery or museum dedicated to who they are.
Sample museum through my own self-reflective assemblage. 2012.

Materials
Box or structure for alteration Found objects Assorted glues & adhesives Scissors Wire & wire cutters String Acrylic paint Paint brushes Water cups Watercolors Various types of paper Assorted fabrics Markers Cray-Pas

Differentiation
Students having physical difficulties will receive a pre-constructed structure to work with and will have additional supervision when working with adhesives.
Betye Saar, The Liberation of Aunt Jemima, 1972. Assemblage.

Resources can be found on page 41.


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Irene Haji-Georgi

Art Education Curriculum Grades 9-12

LESSON 2

Expressive Hands
Louise Bourgeois has said, I am not what I am. I am what I do with my hands. Students will pick a partner and study one anothers hands. They will then create an observational drawing of their partners hands that expresses his or her identity. This lesson will emphasize unique qualities students have learned about each other and place importance on the interpretation of hand gestures across a variety of cultures

Lesson Topic & Description

Materials
Drawing paper, Pencils, Erasers, Sharpeners

Louise Bourgeois, Ten AM Is When You Come To Me, 2006.

Differentiation
Students who have cognitive difficulty with spatial reasoning may begin the exercise by tracing their hand and adding elements to it/changing the lines as they see fit. Teacher will then guide these students in attempting to draw a hand from observation.

Resources can be found on page 41.

Louise Bourgeois, The Welcoming Hands, 1996. Bronze.

M.C. Escher, Drawing Hands, 1948, Lithograph.

Irene Haji-Georgi

Art Education Curriculum Grades 9-12

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Remix

LESSON 3

Portrait

Lesson Topic & Description


A twist on an observational self-portrait, students will create a portrait using a variety of media in order to convey personal, physical, or emotional aspects about themselves. Then students will once again work with a partner and do a portrait of him or her using different techniques and materials to describe that person.

Materials & Techniques


Drawing Paper Pencils, Sharpeners &Erasers Magazines & Various papers Glues & Adhesives Acrylic Paint (various colors) Brushes Palette Paper Plexiglass Water Cups Markers Colored Pencils Cray-pas Monoprinting Collage

Student samples from Olivia Gudes Spiral Workshop, 1996, Mixed Media.

Differentiation
Students who have cognitive disabilities involving spatial reasoning and proportion may use a photocopied picture of themselves and a classmate as a base to work from. The students may then trace physical features to get a more hands-on understanding of proportion and add on with the techniques and materials mentioned above.

Resources can be found on page 41.


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Portrait Remix Assessment

Irene Haji-Georgi

Art Education Curriculum Grades 9-12

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Portrait Remix Assessment

Irene Haji-Georgi

Art Education Curriculum Grades 9-12

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Portrait Remix Assessment

Irene Haji-Georgi

Art Education Curriculum Grades 9-12

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UNIT 2

Cultural Exploration

Marjane Satrapi, The Veil, page from Persepolis. Graphic Novel (2003). Iranian.

Lesson 1: Cultural Comics Lesson 2: Shifting Cultures Lesson 3: Collaborative Mural


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UNIT 2

Cultural Exploration

Field Trip Museum of Fine Arts, Boston

Exploring culture through patterns, symbols and designs

Exploring personal culture and history through imagery.

LESSON 1 Cultural Comics

LESSON 3 Collaborative Mural

Group collaboration, drafting, and planning.

Creating written narrative to go along with imagery.

LESSON 2 Shifting Cultures

Installation & Exhibition

Investigating Surrealism

Preliminary Brainstorming

Painting with Acrylics

Irene Haji-Georgi

Art Education Curriculum Grades 9-12

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UNIT RATIONALE

Cultural Exploration
STAGE I DESIRED RESULTS

This unit pertains to getting to know cultures outside of those that the students may be familiar with as well as exploring the cultures of their classmates. Students will once again begin by looking inwards and then move outward to their classmates and then their school community. This unit incorporates personal narrative, patterns and symbols, and collaborative artwork. This unit will begin at the start of second quarter and end upon completion of third quarter.

ENDURING UNDERSTANDINGS
Artists reflect on their cultural histories and identities when creating meaningful works of art. Art can often encompass different types of characters, themes, dialogues and stories in the form of imagery and/or text to create a larger narrative. Artists sometimes use both realistic and surreal elements in their work to create juxtaposition and make meaning.

ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS
How do artists communicate messages about their cultural backgrounds and identities through their artwork? How can narrative be created in a piece of art? How can artists use surreal elements in their work to create meaning?
Mosaic Pattern found in Mosque, Morocco.

STANDARDS ADDRESSED*
2. Elements and Principles of Design. 3. Observation, Abstraction, Invention, and Expression. 4. Drafting, Revising, and Exhibiting. 5. Critical Response. 7. Roles of Artists in Communities. 8. Concepts of Style, Stylistic Influence, and Stylistic Change.
*For full Standard explanations, see page 53.

Irene Haji-Georgi

Art Education Curriculum Grades 9-12

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2
UNIT OBJECTIVES
Lesson 1

Cultural Exploration

The students will examine and interpret works by artists of different cultural backgrounds that create comics. The students will incorporate their knowledge about narrative to visually display a coherent theme and structure to their stories. The students will experiment with and expand on their knowledge of drawing and illustration. The students will be able to create a successful composition through the careful arrangement of their illustrations and comic panels.

The students will visually communicate a meaningful personal dialogue related to their cultural identities using both images and text over the span of at least five comic pages.

Marjane Satrapi, The Veil, page from Persepolis. Graphic Novel (2003). Iranian.

Lesson 2
Students will interpret artist works and the stories that their classmates have shared. Students will apply their knowledge of Surrealism and its characteristics to their artworks.

Students will use their creativity to visually explore a cultural atmosphere (other than their own).

Lesson 3
Students will examine and adapt patterns and designs of different cultures to be incorporated into their murals. Students will explore their strengths in different roles of a team dynamic. Students will apply their knowledge of working in stages and work collaboratively to create large panels for a community mural.

Overarching Objectives
Students will know the importance of composition as it relates to narrative.
Students will explore working in stages (drafting, revising, installing and exhibiting). Students will be able to critically think about the cultural connections that exist in the classroom. Students will be able to visually communicate aspects of their own (and other students) cultures.

Irene Haji-Georgi

Art Education Curriculum Grades 9-12

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2
EVIDENCE Lesson 1

Cultural Exploration

STAGE 2 ASSESSMENT EVIDENCE

The final product will be the students interpretation of his or her own comic, which informs the viewer/reader about the artist who created it. A technically successful example will be a well-designed narrative through the use of visual and literary composition incorporating the use of panels, splash pages and word bubbles over the span of at least five comic pages. It will be created either in a book that the student has made, or in a magazine that he/she has altered. The comic must reflect the students unique identity, background or cultural history through the visual and literary narrative.

Lesson 2

The final product will be a Surrealism-inspired painting. Absolute True Diary of a Part-Time The students will create an alternate environment where Indian. Illustrated Novel (2000). they will interact with both new and familiar people, objects, food, etc. that they have studied and/or learned about through their classmates. The painting should be at least 12 x 18 and properly employ the Elements and Principles of Design.

Ellen Forney, White/Indian, from The

Lesson 3
The final product for each team of students will be a 4 x 5 painted panel incorporating silhouettes and adapted patterns and designs of different cultures. The students who created the panel should in some way be represented in their artwork. Students and teams will collaborate to draft, revise, install and exhibit their artworks together as a whole mural.

CONTINUUM OF ASSESSMENTS
Students will answer a reflection handout and complete a rubric for each lesson in the unit as a form of self-assessment. The teacher will grade, comment on, and return these handouts to the students. All students will participate in a critique at the end of a lesson to discuss what they have learned and to gain feedback from the teacher and their classmates. An example assessment handout has been included after Lesson 1: Cultural Comics.

STAGE 3 LEARNING PLAN


The following pages contain specifics about each individual lesson in this unit.

Irene Haji-Georgi

Art Education Curriculum Grades 9-12

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Comics

LESSON 1

Cultural

Lesson Topic & Description


Students will create a narrative in the form of illustrated comics. Students will explore different types of comics that reference cultural background or heritage to inform the cultural story they would like to relay. During their creative process, students will reflect on their own backgrounds and cultural experiences in order to convey an individually specific story through their comics.

Materials
Handmade books to work in or (provided) books & magazines for alteration. Assorted glues & adhesives Scissors Pencils Erasers Acrylic paint Paint brushes Water cups Watercolors Watercolor pencil Colored pencils Markers
Sample benchmark of my own culturally reflective comic, 2012.

Differentiation
Students who are English language learners may create their comic in their first language for a more authentic expression, as long as they provide a translation for their classmates and the teacher to read.
Keiji Nakazawa, Detail from pages from Barefoot Gen: A Cartoon Story of Hiroshima. Graphic Novel (2004). Japanese.

Resources can be found on page 41.


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Irene Haji-Georgi

Art Education Curriculum Grades 9-12

Cultural Comics Assessment

Irene Haji-Georgi

Art Education Curriculum Grades 9-12

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Cultural Comics Assessment

Irene Haji-Georgi

Art Education Curriculum Grades 9-12

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Cultural Comics Assessment

Irene Haji-Georgi

Art Education Curriculum Grades 9-12

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Cultures
Lesson Topic & Description
After learning about different cultures, students will respond artistically to any connections or disconnect they might feel with other cultures they have studied. The imagery will be inspired by surrealism. Students will create an alternate environment where they will interact with both new and familiar people, objects, food, etc. that they have studied.

LESSON 2

Shifting

Materials
Pencils, Sharpeners & Erasers Colored Pencils Newsprint Acrylic paint Paint brushes Water cups Palette Paper

Differentiation
This lesson lends itself to many abilities, but if a student has cognitive barriers in comprehending he/ she could start with a real place (photograph or photocopy) and paint on top to alter the scene.

Jose Luis Serzo, I Ming Caminando Sobre Las Aguas from the series, I Ming, El Pequeo Amarillo, 2006. Oil on Canvas.

Resources can be found on page 41.


Irene Haji-Georgi Art Education Curriculum Grades 9-12 28

Mural

LESSON 3
Lesson Topic & Description

Collaborative

After studying and learning about different cultures, students will collaboratively create a mural employing repetition of patterns, symbols and designs that they create based on those cultures studied, including their own cultures. They will also incorporate silhouettes of themselves in this multi-paneled mural. Each team of 4 students will be responsible for the planning, creation, installation and exhibition of one panel.

Materials
Stretched Canvas or Wooden Panels Projector Markers Newsprint Pencils Sharpeners Erasers Paint (Assorted colors) Brushes Water Cups Palette Paper

Olivia Gude, Marcus Jefferson, and Jon Pounds with over 100 volunteers. Painted mural connecting two communities bridging the gap. Chicago on East 113th St. and South Cottage Grove Ave.

Differentiation
Since this project involves collaborative effort, each member of the team will have a different strength to contribute. Therefore, students with additional needs can rely on other team members for help. Additionally, patterns and silhouettes may be marked out in masking tape or even traced with the help of teammates.

Resources can be found on page 41.


Irene Haji-Georgi Art Education Curriculum Grades 9-12 29

UNIT 3

Community Involvement

Olivia Gude and Marcus Akinlana, assistant Ivan Watkins and 11 local teenagers. Where There Is Discord, Harmony: The Power of Art, 1991. Chicago, One Artist Row on East 71st Street. Third in a series of murals created by the South Shore Arts Enterprise.

Lesson 1: Re-News Lesson 2: Sending Messages Lesson 3: Inspiring Change


Irene Haji-Georgi Art Education Curriculum Grades 9-12 30

UNIT 3

Community Involvement

Explore Front Pages by Nancy Chunn & video clip.

Brainstorm & Planning

Response to current events with image & text.

LESSON 1 Re-News

LESSON 3 Inspiring Change

Installation & Photography of Banners

Group Critique & Reflection

LESSON 2 Sending Messages


Field Trip The Postcard Age at the Museum of Fine Arts Group brainstorm about issues that are important to us. Linoleum block printing & sending our postcards into the community.

Group Reflection

Irene Haji-Georgi

Art Education Curriculum Grades 9-12

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3
UNIT RATIONALE

Community Involvement
STAGE I DESIRED RESULTS

This unit begins with recognition of what is important to the students and their community (whatever community they choose: school, town, state, global, cultural) and ends with inspiring change in the local community using image and text as installation work. This unit consists of three lessons and will be the last unit of the year during the fourth quarter.

ENDURING UNDERSTANDINGS
Artists make work in response to their own internal visions, interests, obsessions, desires and dreams; yet their work is situated in the time, the place, and the conditions in which they live and work. Contemporary art is shaped by social, political and economic factors. Artists use humor, irony, juxtaposition, metaphor, and symbolism to promote or create awareness for a cause.

ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS Where do artists get their inspiration?


In what ways do art reflect culture or shape it? How do artists use image and text to make a statement or inspire change?

STANDARDS ADDRESSED*
1. Methods, Materials, and Techniques 3. Observation, Abstraction, Invention, and Expression. 4. Drafting, Revising, and Exhibiting. 5. Critical Response. 6. Purposes of the Arts. 7. Roles of Artists in Communities. 9. Inventions, Technologies and the Arts.
*For full Standard explanations, see page 53.

Stefan Sagmeister, Trying to Look Good Limits My Life from Things I Have Learned in My Life So Far, 2008.

Irene Haji-Georgi

Art Education Curriculum Grades 9-12

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3
UNIT OBJECTIVES Lesson 1

Community Involvement

Students will investigate what causes and issues are important to them. Students will be informed about current events in their communities. Students will be able to use image and text created with a variety of media to respond to newspaper headlines and articles.

Lesson 2
Students will reflect on their trip to the Museum of Fine Arts and The Postcard Age exhibition. Students will explore what contemporary issues are important to them.

Students will be able to artistically convey a message pertaining to their chosen cause.
Students will apply their knowledge of printing to create multiple postcards from linoleum blocks. Students will be able to send their messages into the community.

Lesson 3
Students will be able to create an inspiring message (installation) to catalyst a positive response. Students will directly and indirectly interact with their communities through their banners.

Students will explore the many mediums in which art can existphysically and conceptually.

Overarching Objectives
Students will be able to engage in discussion about and artistically respond to contemporary issues. Students will recognize what causes and issues are important to them. Students will explore working in stages (drafting, revising, installing and exhibiting). Students will be able to make a composition including image and text to convey their message(s). Students will be able to critically think about the visual messages they are creating.

Nancy Chunn, Front Pages, 1996.

Irene Haji-Georgi

Art Education Curriculum Grades 9-12

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Community Involvement
STAGE 2 ASSESSMENT EVIDENCE

EVIDENCE
Lesson 1

Student examples from Sending Messages lesson, Grades 10-12, 2013.

The final product will be two newspaper pages with artistic responses to both the images and text found on those pages. Students will find content that is interesting to them and respond with multiple mediums on top of the newspaper. Additionally, students will write a paragraph about what they did and why.

Lesson 2
The final product will be at least three prints from a carved linoleum block the students created. The prints will highlight a cause or contemporary issue that is important to the students. These works should show strong composition and creatively utilize other techniques and mixed media materials and/or parts of other prints. Students will send two of their postcards out with a message into the community.

Lesson 3
The final product will be an inspirational sign or banner that can be hung or installed somewhere in the local community. Students will also submit photographs of their installations as well as people interacting with their signs. Students should use a multimedia approach and consider the context in which they install their works.

CONTINUUM OF ASSESSMENTS
Students will answer a reflection handout and complete a rubric for each lesson in the unit as a form of self-assessment. The teacher will grade, comment on, and return these handouts to the students. All students will participate in a critique at the end of a lesson to discuss what they have learned and to gain feedback from the teacher and their classmates. An example assessment handout has been included after Lesson 2: Sending Messages.

STAGE 3 LEARNING PLAN


The following pages contain specifics about each individual lesson in this unit.

Irene Haji-Georgi

Art Education Curriculum Grades 9-12

34

News

LESSON 1

Re-

Lesson Topic & Description


This lesson is inspired by Nancy Chunns work, Front Pages. During this lesson, students will start to recognize what contemporary issues are important to them as they respond to headlines and articles about their local communities and the world at large. Students will artistically respond to both the images and text of newspapers using multiple mediums.

Materials
Pastels Cray-Pas Stamps Ink Markers Colored Pencils Pens Newspapers

Differentiation
This lesson can be differentiated for students on the Autism spectrum who have trouble focusing on more than one thing at a time. In this class I helped refocus one girls energy by breaking down the assignment and guiding her to examine and respond to one image or article at a time.

Resources can be found on page 41.


Irene Haji-Georgi

Student examples, Grades 10-12, 2013.

Art Education Curriculum Grades 9-12

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LESSON 2
Lesson Topic & Description
During this lesson, students will reflect on their trip to the Museum of Fine Arts and The Postcard Age exhibition. Students will brainstorm what contemporary issues are important to them and will artistically respond with both image and text on a created postcard primarily using linoleum prints with additional materials and techniques. Students will be introduced to the idea of multiples and will send their postcards out with a message into the community.

Materials
Brayers Linoleum Blocks Carving Tools Ink (Assorted Colors) Wooden Spoons Popsicle Sticks Newsprint Paper (Assorted types & colors) Pencils Sharpeners & Erasers Markers Colored Pencils Paint Water Cups Palette Paper Plexiglass Tracing Paper

Student examples, Grades 10-12, 2013.

Differentiation
This lesson lends itself to all abilities. Students who have difficulty drawing from observation can apply their creativity and imagination during this project if they so choose. Easycut Linoleum is also provided for easier facility with the materials.

Resources can be found on page 41.


Irene Haji-Georgi Art Education Curriculum Grades 9-12 36

Irene Haji-Georgi

Art Education Curriculum Grades 9-12

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Sending Messages Assessment

Irene Haji-Georgi

Art Education Curriculum Grades 9-12

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Sending Messages Assessment

Irene Haji-Georgi

Art Education Curriculum Grades 9-12

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Change
Lesson Topic & Description
During this lesson, students will think of positive and encouraging affirmations that they can then transform into installation art. Students will create artistic banners for these affirmations that will then be hung and photographed in the school and local community.

LESSON 3

Inspiring

Materials
Paint Brushes Water Cups Palette Paper Paper (Assorted types and colors) Assorted Glues and Adhesives Camera Scissors String Markers Colored Pencils Pens

Differentiation
This lesson can suit a variety of needs. Students can choose to create a simple or complex design depending on their intended message and skill levels.

Miranda July & Harrell Fletcher, Learning to Love You More, 2002.

Resources can be found on page 41.


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Personal Connections Resources

Art 21 (2012). Materials for Teaching. Retrieved from: http://www.art21.org/teach/materials-for-teaching/ Doyle, P. (2012). The Look of History. Retrieved from: http://engl281.posterous.com/ Lockhart, A. (2010). Objects of Reflection: A Soulful Journey Through Assemblage. North Light Books. Maurer-Mathison, D. V. (2008). Collage, Assemblage, and Altered Art: Creating Unique Images and Objects. Potter Craft. SothebysTV. (2011, November 22). Hunters & Gatherers: The Art of Assemblage. Retrieved from: http:// www.youtube.com/ watchv=vGtWs3WU_ZU Vivaldi, A. HSAC: High School of Applied Communications. Retrieved from: www.andreyavivaldi.com/HSAC.html

Cultural Exploration Resources

Abel, J. (2006). La Perdida. New York: Pantheon Books. Alexie, S. (2007). The Absolute True Diary of a Part-Time Indian (Art by Ellen Forney). New York: Little, Brown and Company. Descharnes, R. & Nret, G. (2006). Dal. Los Angeles, CA: Taschen. Miranda, C. A. (2011). Comic Relief: The boundary between fine art and graphic novels has grown increasingly porous. ARTnews, 110 (9), 92-99. Nakazawa, K. (2004). Barefoot Gen: A Cartoon Story of Hiroshima (Volume 1). San Francisco, CA: Last Gasp of San Francisco. Satrapi, M. (2003). Persepolis: The Story of a Childhood. Paris, France: LAssociation. Satrapi, M. (2004). Persepolis 2: The Story of a Return. New York: Pantheon Books. Digication Inc. (2013). National Art Education Association. Retrieved from: http://www.muralart.org/gude.htm

Community Involvement Resources

Chunn, N. & Indiana, G. (1997). Front Pages: An exhibition catalogue. Rizzoli International Publications, Inc. July, M. & Fletcher, H. (2002). Learning to Love You More. Prestel. Klich, L. & Weiss, B. (2012). The Postcard Age: Selections from the Leonard A. Lauder Collection. Boston: MFA Publications. Phillips, T. (2000). The Postcard Century: 2000 Cards and their messages. New York: Thames & Hudson Inc. Rivers, C. (2007). Poster-art: Innovation in Poster Design. Switzerland: RotoVision. Sagmeister, S. (2008). Things I Have Learned in My Life So Far. H.N. Abrams. Siegel, D. & Morris, E. (2010). Green Patriot Posters: Images for a new activism. USA: Metropolis Books.

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Scope & Sequence


UNIT 1 Personal Connections UNIT 2 Cultural Exploration UNIT 3 Community Involvement

Lesson 3: Collaborative Mural

Lesson 2: Sending Messages

Lesson 2: Expressive Hands

Massachusetts Frameworks

1. Media, Materials, & Techniques 2. Elements & Principles of Design 3. Observation, Abstraction, Invention, & Expression 4. Drafting, Revising, & Exhibiting 5. Critical Response 6. Purpose of the Arts 7. Roles of Artists in Communities 8. Concepts of Style, Stylistic Influence, & Stylistic Change 9. Inventions, Technologies, & the Arts 10. Interdisciplinary Connections

Irene Haji-Georgi

Art Education Curriculum Grades 9-12

Lesson 3: Inspiring Change

Lesson 2: Shifting Cultures

Lesson 1: Cultural Comics

Lesson 1: Museum of Me

Lesson 3: Portrait Remix

Lesson 1: Re-News

42

Purposes of the Assessment


This assessment plan is in place to check students understanding of the materials and concepts related to the Studio Art I curriculum. It also serves to promote students critical thinking and visual literacy. On a more technical note, assessment allows for concrete documentation of student progress. Finally, evaluation and assessment inform continual improvement of teacher instruction.

Content & Skills to be Assessed


Quality of discussion Questions asked Participation/Cooperation Progress Mastery of materials/ techniques Products/ Portfolio

Assessment Tools & Strategies


Reflection sheets Handouts Check-ins Rubrics Self-Assessment Critique Products/ Portfolio

Grading

Juana Alicia, Susan Cervantes, Miranda Bergman, Edythe Boone, Meera Desai, Yvonne Littleton and Irene Perez, Maestra Peace Mural, Detail of Guatemalan Girl, 1994. Acrylic on Stucco.

Grades are derived from project rubrics and reflections, classwork, homework, and participation. This also takes into account the sudents process and progress throughout the term. The final grade is a cumulative average of students grades throughout the year after reviewing the portfolio of work at the end of the term.

Accommodations for Students on IEPs


Accommodations will be made on a case by case basis, but all lessons are able to suit a variety of needs. This Studio Art I curriculum has been adapted to allow students of different physical and developmental abilities, as well as English language learners, to have an equal opportunity to succeed.

Reporting Out
To keep track of student progress, interim reports with grades and teacher comments will electronically go out quarterly. The teacher will also have one mandatory conference with parents per year and additional parent/ teacher meetings will be possible upon request and on a case by case basis. The teacher is always available to students, administrators and parents via e-mail for both positive feedback and possible concerns or suggestions.

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APPENDIX
GlossaryPages 45-51 National Visual Arts Standards.Page 52 Massachusetts Visual Arts Frameworks.Page 53 General Resources....Page 54

Teaching during a field trip to the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston in front of a Kara Walker piece.

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GLOSSARY
abstraction In visual art, the use of color, shape, and line as elements in and of themselves. The term also refers to artwork that reduces natural appearances to simplified or nonrepresentational forms. Abstraction can also be conceptual, such as when a sentence or subject matter is cut up in order to make nonsensical or unreal meanings. A characteristic trait of twentieth-century and Modern art, abstraction is used by many artists working today; some combine representational and abstract elements while others make works without recognizable people, places, or things. aesthetic Used to describe something that is perceived as beautiful or pleasing in appearance. Aesthetics is the philosophy or academic study of beauty or taste in art. The term was first used by philosophers in the eighteenth century. allegory An image or story that refers to a related or overarching concept, such as good or evil, which typically reflects truths or generalizations about human experience. alter ego A fictional self, different from one's own, in an idealized or transformed version. ambiguity The capacity to be understood in more than one way. In art, a word, phrase, or image can be ambiguous if it contains multiple meanings to the artist and/or the viewer. For artists, ambiguity is often cited as an important characteristic that allows their work to be appreciated or interpreted from multiple perspectives. anthropomorphism The attribution of human form, characteristics, or behavior to nonhuman things. appropriation In art, the act of borrowing imagery or forms to create a new work of art. artistic license An intentional deviation from fact or convention, for artistic effect. Using artistic license, an artist may change the facts or details of source materials in obvious or subtle ways to serve his or her own artistic purposes. assemblage A multimedia sculptural composition which may include found objects that acquire new meaning in the piece. caricature A representation of a person or thing that exaggerates their most striking or characteristic features. Famous people and political figures are often drawn as caricatures by cartoonists for humor. Caricatures, when thought of as an accurate likeness, are transformed into stereotypes. collaboration A cooperative working arrangement between an artist and another person, group, or institution. Artists often work in collaboration with a variety of specialists, assistants, colleagues, and audiences. Some artists even form long-term working partnerships with other artiststhese are seen as distinct from collaborations, which are often temporary.

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GLOSSARY
collage The process or product of composing an artwork by affixing various materials or objects to a single or flat surface. comic book The term now describes any format that uses the combination of words and pictures to convey a story, and can be applied to both the medium itself and the periodical form. As a result, all graphic novels are comic books, but not all comic books are graphic novels. contemporary art Works of art made by living artists. Contemporary art can also refer to artworks that address ideas or concerns that are timely or characteristic of society after the 1950s. Unlike Modern art, contemporary art is usually not defined by a succession of periods, schools, or styles. content The subject matter, concepts, or ideas associated with a work of art. A work's content is shaped by the artist's intentions, the context of its presentation, and by the experiences, thoughts, and reactions of the viewer. concept / conceptual art A concept is a thought or idea; a frame of mind that can include imagination, opinion, and logic. Concept-based or conceptual art emphasizes that the idea is equal to, if not more important than, the finished product. Conceptual art can take many forms and often raises questions about what a work of art is or can be. context The location, information, or time frame that informs how a work of art is viewed and what it means. Artists often make works to respond to a particular space or cultural climate. If the context for a work of art is changed (or recontextualized), the way in which the work is understood may change as well.

critique An assessment of something, with commentary on its good and bad qualities. Criticism is the activity of judgment or informed interpretation. In art, critiques often take the form of a group discussion in which the merits of a particular work are debated. Critique remains an important element in many works of art that address social issues, ideas, and events. A work of art itself can criticize a specific idea or express a critical idea or opinion.
culture The system of beliefs, values, and practices that form one's life. A culture is often defined by national border, ethnicity, and/or religion, but some cultures cross borders, ethnicities, and organized faiths. A culture that involves a select portion of a population and is organized around a particular interest (such as cars, graffiti, or music) is known as a subculture. curator A person who is responsible for the collection, care, research, and exhibition of artworks or artifacts. design Creative work related to popular forms of artincluding architecture, books, the Internet, and furnitureoften with function as the goal. Today, things that are designed are often mechanically produced or made with the help of a computer.

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GLOSSARY
displacement The act or feeling of being removed or alienated from a place or people; the difference between the initial position of something and any later position. ephemeral Short-lived; lasting a very short time. Works of performance art or environmental art that exist outdoors are often created with the understanding that they will exist and be viewed for a finite amount of time. experimentation Working with new or unfamiliar materials, approaches, or ideas in order to re-conceive their form and/or function to create a work of art. fabrication The act of forming something into a whole by constructing, framing, or uniting its parts. The fabrication of a work of art often involves the collaboration of specialists, who provide skills and specialized machines or processes to realize the artwork. faade An artificial or deceptive appearance. Also: the front or public-facing side of a building. form The shape and structure of a work of art. Elements of form include color, shape, pattern, and duration. Many artists strive for a relationship between form and content, so that the way something is made fits with what the artist intends the work to be about or how it will be seen. gesture A movement of the body or limbs that conveys an idea or feeling; the visible result of such a movement. graphic A description applied to two-dimensional images without modulation of shadows and highlights to suggest threedimensional form. Characterized by contrast and shape; often pertains to media such as fonts, comic books, and cartoons. graphic novel Typically bound books with a longer narrative, may also be a collection of previously printed material. Basically, a larger and longer comic book with a nice cover! icon An image or symbol that has a particular meaning, either learned or universal, by virtue of resemblance or analogy to the object or idea it represents. identity How you view yourself, how others perceive you, and how a society as a whole defines groups of people. Influences of one's identity are: ethnicity, gender, age, sexual orientation, and class, as well as education, childhood, and life experience. Contemporary art often deals with artists' identitieswhat it means to be an artist in today's rapidly changing world.

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GLOSSARY
ideology An organized system of values and opinions that form the basis of a social, political, or economic agenda. Informed by a culture, ideologies often take the form of rules, codes, or guiding principles. illusion A visually misleading or perceptually altered or object or physical space. installation The term installation originally referred to the arrangement of works of art in a gallery. In contemporary art, an installation can also be an artwork that uses a range of materials to present a particular environment, or an artwork designed for a specific physical space. Installations often include multiple forms and materials and engage a variety of senses. Installations are generally temporary, but some installations travel and exist over longer periods of time. irony The incongruity between what is expected to happen and what actually happens, especially when the disparity seems absurd or laughable. In art and literature, irony is often used as a device for social critique and is based on making a statement that suggests its opposite is true. juxtaposition Placing seemingly unrelated objects or images close together or side-by-side, to encourage comparisons or contrasts. Visual artists often use juxtapositions to refer to existing images or ideas and suggest new meanings for them. kitsch A term adopted from the German kitsch, meaning "trash." Used to describe items that appeal to popular, undiscriminating, or lowbrow taste and often are of poor quality. Kitsch may also be used to describe something that is overly decorative or sentimental. What is kitsch in one cultural context may not be in another.

land art Also known as earth art or earthworks, land art uses the raw materials of the natural world to make large-scale, outdoor sculpture. Often taking many years to complete, some earthworks made in the 1970s exist to this day while others are still under construction.
media Materials that are used to create a work of art or are understood within a certain genre, like painting, sculpture, printmaking, photography, or film. The term can also refer to tools or methods to deliver information, like newspapers, television, film, publications, periodicals, the Internet, or social networking websites. metaphor From an ancient Greek word, meaning "to transfer." A figure of speech or art in which one word, idea, image, or object is used in place of another, to suggest a likeness or analogy between them. Artists use metaphor to bridge differences between seemingly dissimilar images and ideas. metaphysical Of or relating to a reality beyond what is perceptible to the senses, or something that is highly abstract.

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GLOSSARY
monoprint A printmaking technique that yields a singular image that cannot be exactly reproduced; essentially, a painted print. In the monoprinting process, ink or paint is applied directly to a plate, creating a unique image that cannot be produced as an edition or series. monument A public work of art, usually large in scale, which commemorates a group of people, historical event, or ideal. Monuments are most often made at the invitation of a civic group or government. Memorials are a type of monument and come in a variety of scales and materials, and are made for a range of audiences. Less a tribute than an invitation to remember, memorials can also be abstract in form, and subtle or inconclusive in message. motif A recurrent or dominant theme in a work of visual or literary art. narrative The representation in art of an event or story. Whether a literal story, event, or subjector a more abstract relationship between colors, forms, and materialsnarrative in visual art applies as much to the story conveyed by the artwork as it does to the viewer's perception and experience of the artwork. oral tradition The spoken relation and preservation, from one generation to the next, of a people's cultural history and ancestry, often by a storyteller and in narrative form. originality The quality of being unique; not derived from something else. panel A part of the comic book page that may be contained by something like a visual frame. Multiple panels put together and arranged in a sequential order tell a story. A panel in a comic is the equivalent of a scene in a movie. palette A particular range of colors, or a tray for mixing colors. parody A work in which the style of another work, its subject, or author is closely imitated for comic effect or ridicule. Parody is a frequent ingredient in satire and is often used in social or political commentary. pattern Consistent and recurring repetition of a design.

perspective A visual formula that creates the illusion of depth and volume on a two-dimensional surface. Perspective also implies a particular vantage point or view.
persona A personality that a person projects in public, often representing a character in a fictional context.

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GLOSSARY
popular culture The collected creative expressions of contemporary societysuch as literature, radio and TV broadcasting, music, dance, movies, and sportsdistinguished by their broad availability and appreciation across ethnic, social, and regional groups, and often disseminated through mass media. Products of popular culture have increasingly influenced visual artists, who often respond to or critique its influences on society. process An artist's investigation, or the steps the artist takes to make a work of art. Processes differ widely from artist to artist. For many artists, the process of making a work of art has become just as important, if not more important, than the final work of art itself. propaganda A systematically distributed message aimed at influencing the opinions or behavior of people. Often, publicity released by an organization or government to promote a specific policy, idea, doctrine, or cause. protagonist A leading or principal figure. public art Works of art that are designed specifically for, or placed in, outdoor spaces or areas physically accessible to the general public. realism In art and literature, the theory or practice of fidelity to nature or to real life and to accurate representation; the opposite of idealization. representational Depicting recognizable people, places, or things. Includes the figurative, landscape, and still life genres of traditional painting and sculpture. sampling The act of borrowing pieces or sections of cultural productsfrom visual, performance, or popular sources in order to create a new work. Can be used in homage or commentary. satire The use of sharp wit, irony, or sarcasm to expose, discredit, or ridicule human vice or folly. scale The comparative size of a thing in relation to another thing. Scale can refer to an entire work of art or to its elements.

silhouette An outline drawing of a shape, usually of a person's profile, and solidly colored in, or cut from dark material and mounted on a light ground.
site-specific Describes works of art that are designed for a particular place; may be permanent or impermanent. The experience of the artwork is often limited to photographic documentation and verbal explanation.

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GLOSSARY
social commentary The act of expressing an opinion about the nature of society, most often with the intention of promoting change by calling attention to a given problem. Artists engage in social commentary through their work as a means of raising public awareness and inspiring dialogue about pertinent issues. splash page A page in a comic where the scene fills the whole page, usually used to make a dramatic statement in the story and often at the climax. stereotype A generalized type or caricature of a person, place, or culture, often negative in tone. Visual as well as verbal, stereotypes tend to reduce or oversimplify the subject. Surrealism An artistic and literary movement characterized by a fascination with the bizarre, incongruous, and the irrational. Influenced by the work of Sigmund Freud, Surrealism was conceived as a revolutionary mode of thought and action, whose purpose was described as a way to resolve the conditions of dream and reality into a super-reality. Some Surrealist artists used dreamlike imagery and unexpected juxtapositions to explore the relationship between the unconscious and the rational mind; others used automatic drawing to encourage a direct link to the unconscious. symbolism The practice of representing something by an image, sign, symbol, convention, or association. taboo A strong social prohibition or ban against words, objects, actions, or behavior considered undesirable or offensive to a group, culture, society, or community.

vernacular Language specific to a social group or region; language spoken or written by everyday people as opposed to literary or cultured language. Vernacular images are those that commonly appear in daily life in a particular culture.
visual literacy The ability to effectively interpret images or create and use images as a form of communication. visual sign A visible, conventional figure or device that stands for a word, phrase, or operation. word balloon Also called a word bubble or speech bubble, it is a balloon-like object with the dialogue of the characters inside sometimes having a tail directed towards character who is speaking or thinking. xenophobia The often irrational fear and hatred of foreigners or other social groups, or of anything foreign or unfamiliar. A xenophobe is a person who is unduly fearful or contemptuous of anything foreign, especially of people of foreign origin. Subcategories of xenophobia include racism, sexism, homophobia, and religious intolerance.

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National Visual Arts Standards


The National Standards for Arts Education are written for all students. The Standards affirm that a future worth having depends on being able to construct a vital relationship with the arts, and that doing so, as with any subject, is a matter of discipline and study. The Standards spell out what every student should know and be able to do in the arts.

The Standards say the students: Should be able to communicate at a basic level in the four arts disciplines- dance, music, theater, and the visual arts. Should be able to communicate proficiently in at least one art form. Should be able to develop and present basic analysis of works of art. Should have an informed acquaintance with exemplary works of art from a variety of cultures and historical periods. Should be able to relate various types of arts knowledge and skills within and across the arts disciplines.

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Massachusetts Visual Arts Frameworks


The PreK-12 Learning Standards for the Visual Arts:
1. Methods, Materials, and Techniques. Students will demonstrate knowledge of the
methods, materials, and techniques unique to the visual arts. 2. Elements and Principles of Design. Students will demonstrate knowledge of the elements and principles of design. 3. Observation, Abstraction, Invention, and Expression. Students will demonstrate their powers of observation, abstraction, invention, and expression in a variety of media, materials, and techniques. 4. Drafting, Revising, and Exhibiting. Students will demonstrate knowledge of the processes of creating and exhibiting their own artwork: drafts, critique, self-assessment, refinement, and exhibit preparation. 5. Critical Response. Students will describe and analyze their own work and the work of others using appropriate visual arts vocabulary. When appropriate, students will connect their analysis to interpretation and evaluation.

The PreK-12 Connections Strands for the Visual Arts:


6. Purposes of the Arts. Students will describe the purposes for which works of dance, music,
theater, visual arts, and architecture were and are created, and, when appropriate, interpret their meanings. 7. Roles of Artists in Communities. Students will describe the roles of artists, patrons, cultural organizations, and arts institutions in societies of the past and present. 8. Concepts of Style, Stylistic Influence, and Stylistic Change. Students will demonstrate their understanding of styles, stylistic influence, and stylistic change by identifying when and where art works were created, and by analyzing characteristic features of art works from various historical periods, cultures, and genres. 9. Inventions, Technologies and the Arts. Students will describe and analyze how performing and visual artists use and have used materials, inventions, and technologies in their work. 10. Interdisciplinary Connections. Students will apply their knowledge of the arts to the study of English language arts, foreign languages, health, history and social sciences, mathematics and science and technology/engineering.

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General Resources
Dewhurst, M. (2010). An Inevitable Question: Exploring the Defining Features of Social Justice Art Education. Art Education. 63(5), 6-13.
Gude, O. (2004).Postmodern Principles: In Search of a 21st Century Art Education. Art Education. 57(1), 6-13. Gude, O. (2007). Principles of Possibility: Considerations for a 21st Century Art & Culture Curriculum. Art Education. 60(1), 6-15. Mayer, M. (2008). Considerations for A Contemporary Art Curriculum. Art Education. 61(2), 77-79. Sleeter, C. (2005). Un-Standardizing Curriculum: Multicultural Teaching in the Standards-based Classroom. NY: Teachers College Press. Stewart, M. & Walker, S. (2005). Rethinking Curriculum in Art. Worcester, MA: Davis Publications, Inc. Taylor, P., Carpenter, B., Ballengee-Morris, C., Sessions, B. (2006). What Are We Teaching and Why? Interdisciplinary Approaches to Teaching Art in High School.(pp.19-30). Reston, VA: NAEA. Wiggins, G. & McTighe, J. (2005). Understanding by Design, 2nd ed. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.

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