ALTERNATE PATH METHOD IN PROGRESSIVE COLLAPSE ANALYSIS

:
VARIATION OF DYNAMIC AND NON-LINEAR LOAD INCREASE FACTORS

APPROVED BY SUPERVISING COMMITTEE:
________________________________________
Manuel Diaz, Ph.D., P.E Chair
________________________________________
Jose Weissmann, Ph.D.
________________________________________
Mijia Yang, Ph.D.
Accepted: _________________________________________
Dean, Graduate School

DEDICATION
This Thesis is dedicated to God, without him in my life, nothing is possible. I also want to
dedicate this to my dear Mother and Father, who have given me more than I ever needed and
have always supported me in all my endeavors.

ALTERNATE PATH METHOD IN PROGRESSIVE COLLAPSE ANALYSIS:
VARIATION OF DYNAMIC AND NON-LINEAR LOAD INCREASE FACTORS

by
ALDO E. MCKAY, B.E.

THESIS
Presented to the Graduate Faculty of
The University of Texas at San Antonio
In partial Fulfillment
Of the Requirements
For the Degree of
MASTER OF SCIENCE IN CIVIL ENGINEERING

THE UNIVERSITY OF TEXAS AT SAN ANTONIO
College of Engineering
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering
August, 2008

1454510

2008

1454510

August. David Stevens and Mr. Kirk Marchand from Protection Engineering Consultants for their support and guidance during this research. I also would like to thank Dr. Eric Williamson and Daniel Williams (PhD candidate) at the University of Texas in Austin for their contributions to this effort. 2008 iii .ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would like to thank Dr. The input provided by them helped greatly in the completion of this study.

Murrah Federal Building was destroyed by progressive collapse and only 4% by the explosion or blast. The Department of Defense Unified Facilities Criteria 4-023-03 “Design of Buildings to Resist Progressive Collapse” (UFC 4-023-03). As a result of the increasing number of terrorist attacks registered against American facilities in the United States or abroad. McKay. United States government agencies continue to improve the design of their buildings to make them safer and less vulnerable to terrorist attacks. the main direct design procedure is the Alternate Path (AP) method. 2008 Supervising Professor: Manuel Diaz. The consequences of not having a building capable of reducing the potential for progressive collapse could be catastrophic. including Linear Static (LS). is their ability to prevent total collapse after the loss of load-carrying components (Progressive Collapse) resulting from a terrorist attack.ALTERNATE PATH METHOD IN PROGRESSIVE COLLAPSE ANALYSIS: VARIATION OF DYNAMIC AND NON-LINEAR LOAD INCREASE FACTORS Aldo E.” (GSA Guidelines) and 2. One of the factors typically considered in designing safer buildings and structures. “Progressive Collapse Analysis and Design Guidelines. Over the last 10 years. M. Nonlinear Static (NLS). two United States government agencies have developed guidelines for the design of their structures to resist progressive collapse: 1. The General Services Administration.S The University of Texas at San Antonio. Within both approaches. as it was the case of the Oklahoma City bombing in 1995 where 42% of the Alfred P. This attack claimed 168 lives and left over 800 injured. Ph.D. iv . and Nonlinear Dynamic (NLD). Different analytical procedures may be used. in which a structure is analyzed for collapse potential after the removal of a column or section of wall.

As part of an existing effort to update the existing guidelines. the load cases for the static procedures require the use of factors to account for inertial and nonlinear effects. similar to the approach used in ASCE Standard 41 “Seismic Rehabilitation of Existing Buildings” (ASCE 41).Typically. The study concluded that the factors in the existing guidelines tend to yield overly conservative results. v . but are more complicated and expensive. NLD procedures give better and more accurate results. A number of inconsistencies have been indentified in the way the existing guidelines applied dynamic and non-linear load factors to their static approaches. this study used SAP2000 to perform several AP analyses on a variety of Reinforced Concrete and Steel Moment Frame buildings to investigate the magnitude and variation of the dynamic and non-linear load increase factors. designers often choose static procedures. As progressive collapse is a dynamic and nonlinear event. This study indentified new load increase factors and proposes a new approach to utilize these factors when performing AP analyses for Progressive Collapse. requiring less labor. which often translate into expensive design and retrofits. which tend to be simpler. As a result.

..................... 11 CHAPTER 2: Progressive Collapse..................... 35 CHAPTER 6: Analysis Results and Data Analysis ............................................................. 20 CHAPTER 5: Variation of Load and Dynamic Increase Factors Research Procedure ..................................TABLE OF CONTENTS Acknowledgements.............S................................................................... 39 Analysis of Data from Nonlinear Static Analysis (DIF).................................................................... 15 Overview of GSA Guidelines .................. 18 CHAPTER 4: Inconsistencies of Existing Factors ............ 52 CHAPTER 8: Conclusions and Recommendations................. 46 CHAPTER 7: Proposed Procedures for Using LIFs and DIFs in Static AP Analyses ..................................................................... 14 Design Approaches to Resist Progressive Collapse.............................................................................................................................. 16 CHAPTER 3: Procedures for the Alternate Path Method ..................................................................................Dimensional Analytical Models ......... 25 3-Dimmensinal Building Designs.......................................................................................................................... 33 2-Dimmensional Models.............................................................. 50 Linear Static AP Procedure............. 55 vi .............................................................................................................. viii List of Figures ............................................................................................................................................................................................................ iii List of Tables ............................................................... 50 Non-Linear Static AP Procedure .......... 13 U............................ 38 Analysis of Data from Linear Static AP Analyses (LIF).................................................................................................................................................................... ix CHAPTER 1: Introduction .................................................................................................................................................. 23 3.... 15 Overview of DoD Guidelines UFC 4-023-03....................................................................................... Existing Guidelines for Design against Progressive Collapse..................................................

............................................................... 57 VITA vii ...................................BIBLIOGRAPHY................ 56 Appendix ..........................RESULT TABLES ...................................................................................

.................................... Interior Column Removal ...................................................... Study Matrix of AP Analyses Performed .......... 3-Story-25 ft..................... RC Double Span Beams...........................................................LIST OF TABLES Table 1................. Steel Building........... Reinforced Concrete Building.........25 ft Bay.............................. 39 Table 8 LIF Data for RC Sections ............ Complete Results............... 35 Table 4......................................... Steel Building 3-Dimmensional AP Analysis ............. Complete Results for RC 3-Dimmensional AP Analyses... 37 Table 6...... 34 Table 3.. 10-Story ........ Interior Column Removal ... 60 Table 11...................................... 35 Table 5..... 76 Table 12........ 78 viii ....... 2-Dimmensionals Analyses ................ Material Properties ................................................. 34 Table 2.............. Complete Results................ Design Loads ........ SDOF Analyses ....... 38 Table 7... Material Properties ....... Reinforced Concrete Buildings....... Steel Buildings............. 45 Table 10.................. 45 Table 9 LIF Data for Steel Sections......................................

. ................................... 24 Figure 3................... Stage Construction Setup... 27 Figure 5.......... Total Rotation for Steel Sections.. 46 Figure 19............................................................ 33 Figure 12................................................ LIF vs..... LIF for LS Analysis ............ 28 Figure 6................... Load Around Loss Location........................ 2-Dimmensional Models................................................. Normalized DIFs for RC Buildings .............................................. 41 Figure 15.................................................. NLS Analysis Stage 1..... ............................................................ Procedure to Determine Load Increase Factors.....LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1................................ 36 Figure 13.......................... LIF vs Plastic Rotation for RC sections........... NLS Stage 3............... NLS Stage 2........ 31 Figure 10............................ Ronan Point Collapse...... Nonlinear Analysis of Structure Response................................................................................................... .......................... 30 Figure 8.................. 40 Figure 14. 41 Figure 16................................................... Normalized DIFs for Steel Buildings ............... Normalized LIF for RC sections........ 43 Figure 18...................... DIFs for Steel Buildings ...................................................................................... Steel Frame Building Hinge Definition (ASCE 41)................................ 29 Figure 7.. RC Sections Strong Dependence on Stiffness .......................................... ...... 48 Figure 22............. 47 Figure 20 ............................................................................................ 42 Figure 17.................................................................................... Normalized LIF for Steel Sections .......................................................................... Results of NLD Procedure................ 30 Figure 9............. DIFs for RC Buildings ............ 31 Figure 11......................................... ....................... 14 Figure 2............ 48 Figure 21. Typical Floor Plan.................. Reinforced Concrete Hinge Definition...... NLD Analysis Procedure........... 26 Figure 4.................... 51 ix ....................................... ...............................................

.................... DIF for NLS Analysis......................... 53 x ..Figure 23........................................

As progressive collapse is a 11 . The consequences of not having a building capable of reducing the potential for progressive collapse could be catastrophic. Over the last 10 years. The General Services Administration. “Progressive Collapse Analysis and Design Guidelines. Nonlinear Static (NLS). NLD procedures give better and more accurate results. This attack claimed 168 lives and left over 800 injured. in which a structure is analyzed for collapse potential after the removal of a column or section of wall. designers often choose static procedures. Murrah Federal Building was destroyed by progressive collapse and only 4% by the explosion or blast.CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION As a result of the increasing number of terrorist attacks registered against American facilities in the United States or abroad.” (GSA Guidelines) and 2. United States government agencies continue to improve the design of their buildings to make them safer and less vulnerable to terrorist attacks. there are notable differences in the application of these procedures. is their ability to prevent total collapse after the loss of load-carrying components (Progressive Collapse) resulting from a terrorist attack. the main direct design procedure is the Alternate Path (AP) method. Although both documents incorporate some of the same approaches. but are more complicated and expensive. requiring less labor. One of the factors typically considered in designing safer buildings and structures. The Department of Defense Unified Facilities Criteria 4-023-03 “Design of Buildings to Resist Progressive Collapse” (UFC 4-023-03). as it was the case of the Oklahoma City bombing in 1995 where 42% of the Alfred P. two United States government agencies have developed guidelines for the design of their structures to resist progressive collapse: 1. and Nonlinear Dynamic (NLD). including Linear Static (LS). Within both approaches. As a result. Different analytical procedures may be used. Typically. which tend to be simpler.

dynamic and nonlinear event. It is important that design requirements for progressive collapse incorporate appropriate dynamic and nonlinear factors such that the linear static and nonlinear static designs are more representative of the actual nonlinear and dynamic response of the structure. the load cases for the static procedures require the use of factors to account for inertial and nonlinear effects. similar to the approach used in ASCE Standard 41 “Seismic Rehabilitation of Existing Buildings” (ASCE 41). 12 .

eventually resulting in the collapse of an entire structure or a disproportionately large part of it. England was the first nation to address progressive collapse explicitly in their building standards. 13 .” There have been a number of progressive collapse failures where the above definition can be clearly observed. After this event. Probably one of the most famous progressive collapse failures was the 1968 collapse of the Ronan Point apartment building.CHAPTER 2: PROGRESSIVE COLLAPSE Progressive collapse is defined in the commentary of the American Society of Civil Engineers Standard 7-05 Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures (ASCE 7- 05) as “the spread of an initial local failure from element to element. Another famous case of progressive collapse was the Oklahoma City bombing in 1995 of the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building mentioned previously. The building was a 22-story precast concrete bearing wall system. An explosion in a corner kitchen on the 18th floor blew out the exterior wall panel and failure of the corner bay propagated up and down to cover almost the complete height of the building. Figure 1 illustrates the final state of the collapse of the Ronan Point apartment building.

Carino. as stated in (Ellingwood. Smilowitz. Duthinh. Standards such as ASCE 7 and ACI-318 include references to improve structural integrity but do not provide quantifiable or enforceable requirements to resist progressive collapse. Existing Guidelines for Design against Progressive Collapse Existing U. Ronan Point Collapse It is important to point out that. Dusenberry. the design approaches against progressive collapse mentioned in this paper relate only to progressive collapse of finished buildings in service.Figure 1.S 14 . 2006) there have been numerous cases of progressive collapse of buildings during construction and data suggest that buildings under construction have a higher probability of sustaining collapse. However. U.S building codes do not address progressive collapse explicitly.S. Only two U.

only UFC 4-023-03 allows the use of indirect methods. One of the improvements in the new updated guidelines will be more realistic load factors for static analysis procedures based on the approach used in ASCE41. assist in the assessment of the potential for 15 . Currently.agencies have developed guidelines that provide quantifiable and prescriptive requirements to reduce the potential for progressive collapse. The direct method is divided into two approaches: Specific Load Resistance (SLR) and Alternate Path (AP). Currently. The indirect method consists of improving the structural integrity of the building by providing redundancy of load paths and ductile detailing. This research focuses primarily on the AP method for progressive collapse. The updated guidelines will incorporate a combination of indirect and direct methods with AP being the main direct design procedure. with the latter being the most widely used in the US. These guidelines are: The General Services Administration Progressive Collapse Analysis and Design Guidelines 2003 and The Unified Facilities Criteria Design of Buildings to Resist Progressive Collapse 2005 by the Department of Defense ( DoD). Design Approaches to Resist Progressive Collapse Prevention or mitigation of progressive collapse can be achieved using two different methods: indirect design and direct design. work is being done to update the Unified Facilities Criteria Design of Buildings to Resist Progressive Collapse. Overview of GSA Guidelines The purpose of the Guidelines is to: Assist in the reduction of the potential for progressive collapse in new Federal Office Buildings.

25L and a factor of 2 is applied for static cases to account for dynamic and inertial effects 2(D + 0. dynamic/static and 2-dimmensional/3-dimmensional procedures and models. The guidelines recommend that non-linear procedures should be use for buildings with more than 10 stories. Overview of DoD Guidelines UFC 4-023-03 The purpose of these guidelines is to “provide a design to reduce the potential of progressive collapse for new and existing DoD facilities. In the AP method. designers and analysts are allowed to choose between linear/non-linear. and for assessing the potential for progressive collapse in existing buildings (GSA. these Guidelines provide a threat independent methodology for minimizing the potential for progressive collapse in the design of new and upgraded buildings. To meet this purpose. vertical support removal locations are explicitly provided and each loss location must be considered as an independent analysis. For non-linear analyses the acceptance criteria is based upon ductility and rotation limits specified in tables for different component types.” (UFC. If the enhanced capacity is more than the demand or acting force in the component. The load combination used for dynamic analyses is D + 0. The DoD guidelines use 16 . 2005). DCR values range from 1 to 3 based on construction type and configurations.25L).progressive collapse in existing Federal Office Buildings. the member is said to be acceptable. The GSA guidelines only provide requirements for Reinforced Concrete and Steel structures. and assist in the development of potential upgrades to facilities if required. 2003). the capacity of the members is artificially enhanced using demand capacity ratios DCR (specified in the guidelines) to account for non-linearity effects not explicitly included in the model. The main design procedure is the AP method. Finally. For linear analyses.

However. if the vertical tie forces are insufficient. The load combination used for the AP analysis is 1. a combination of the Indirect and Direct method is used.a combination of direct and indirect approaches and must be applied to all DoD building with 3 or more stories. the designer must upgrade the vertical ties or perform an AP analysis to prove the structure is capable of bridging over the deficient vertical member. For Low LOP. Tie Forces and AP requirements are mandatory. the DoD guidelines allowed the use of three procedures: Linear Static. A more detail explanation of the use of these capacity increase factors is presented in Chapter 4.5L and as with the GSA guidelines a factor of 2 is applied for static procedures 2(1. the un-enhanced capacity of the members is compared to the demand or acting force on the component. the element must be re-designed or retrofitted. Non-linear Static and Non-linear Dynamic. 17 . In the AP method. If a structural element does not provide the required tie force.5L). In addition to RC and steel structures. The requirements can be applied to provide four different levels of protection (LOP). For static analyses. only indirect design is employed by specifying the required levels of Tie Forces. both. The design must incorporate both horizontal and vertical tie forces. which use DCR values ranging from 1 to 3. For Medium and High LOP.2D+0. the DoD guidelines include Masonry. This differs drastically with the GSA guidelines. Wood and Cold-formed structural components.2D + 0. Response criteria are given for non-linear analyses in terms of allowable levels of ductility and rotation presented in tables for each construction type. For Very Low LOP.

wall section or other vertical load-bearing member. the model is re-analyzed with a different Load Increase Factor that accounts for only the inertial effects and the calculated demand is directly compared to the un-modified member capacity. Linear Static (LS): In general. Nonlinear Dynamic. In the updated UFC 4-023-03. For 18 . Nonlinear Static. For deformation-controlled actions.and geometrically-nonlinear model is built. For the analysis of the deformation-controlled actions. the applied load is enhanced by a “Load Increase Factor” that approximately accounts for both dynamic and nonlinear effects. For forcecontrolled actions. an AP analysis may be performed using one of three procedures. similar to the “m-factor” in ASCE 41) that accounts for the expected ductility and the resulting values are compared to the deformation-controlled actions. The enhanced load is applied to the linear static model that has been modified by removal of a column. the expected member capacities are increased by a capacity increase factor (CIF. the designer must show that the building is capable of bridging over a removed structural element and that the resulting extent of damage does not exceed the damage limits. or Linear Static. The calculated internal member forces (actions) due to the enhanced loads are compared to the expected member capacities. Nonlinear Static (NLS): After the materially. the loads are magnified by a “Dynamic Increase Factor” that accounts only for inertia effects and the resulting load is applied to the model with the removed vertical load-bearing element. as described next. A linear static model of the structure is created and two load cases are considered: one is used to calculate the deformation-controlled (or ductile) actions (or internal forces and moments or demands) and the second load case is used to calculate the force-controlled (or brittle) actions.CHAPTER 3: PROCEDURES FOR THE ALTERNATE PATH METHOD In the AP method. this is the simplest of the three procedures to apply.

As with the NLS case. the structure is allowed to reach equilibrium under the applied load case. 19 . Nonlinear Dynamic (NLD): In this case. Dynamic nonlinear analysis explicitly includes nonlinearity and inertial effects and therefore no correction factors are needed.and geometrically-nonlinear model of the structure. the member strength is not modified and is compared to the maximum actions (internal member forces). In the second phase. the resulting member deformations are compared to the deformation limits based on the desired performance level. In the first phase of the dynamic analysis.deformation-controlled actions. the column or wall section is removed almost instantaneously and the software tool calculates the resulting motion of the structure. the resulting maximum member deformations are compared to the deformation limits and for force-controlled actions. for force-controlled actions. the un-modified load case is directly applied to a materially. the member strength is compared to the maximum internal member force.

To approximate the actual nonlinear and dynamic response of a damaged structure. The nonlinear static procedure requires a dynamic increase factor (DIF) to account for just the inertial effects. a factor of 2.0 would be appropriate. 1.CHAPTER 4: INCONSISTENCIES OF EXISTING FACTORS As mentioned earlier. As is well known from structural dynamics. The current UFC 4-023-03 and GSA Guidelines use the same increase factor of 2. The dynamic increase factor of 2. constant load in a linear analysis is twice the displacement achieved when the load is applied statically. which is applied directly to the progressive collapse load combination. in extreme loading events. If a structure is designed to remain elastic. the load on a LS model must be increased by a factor that accounts for both effects.0. the linear static procedure requires the use of a load increase factor (LIF) to account for both dynamic and non-linear effects. For a NLS model.0 is not appropriate for the majority NLS cases. the load must be increased by a factor that accounts only for the dynamic effects. Thus. the maximum dynamic displacement of an instantaneously applied. which is incorrect. the dynamic increase factor (DIF) that allows a Nonlinear Static solution to approximate a Nonlinear Dynamic solution. is typically less than 2. as the nonlinear behavior has already been addressed. Four major issues have been identified in the static procedures.0 for both types of analyses. The same load enhancement factor is used for Linear Static and Nonlinear Static analyses. However. the current UFC 4-023-03 and the GSA Guidelines use the same load multiplier of 2. 2. as will be shown later for the buildings that were analyzed. it is more economical and typical to design structures to respond in the nonlinear range. For linear and nonlinear static analysis methods. 20 .

0. Multiplier * (PC load) < (DCR) x (Capacity) DCR = 3: 2 x (PC load) = (3) x (Capacity) (2/3) x (PC load) = (Capacity) DCR = 1: 2 x (PC load) = (1) x (Capacity) (2) x (PC load) = (Capacity) In both cases. GSA uses CIFs (or DCRs) between 1. the load enhancement factors can be defined as functions of the desired building performance level and the building characteristics. Inconsistency of Capacity Increase Factors (CIF) in LS procedures. a structure is assigned a load enhancement factor of 2.0 is applied to the 21 . as described in ASCE 41) or very little damage (Immediate Occupancy in ASCE 41).0.0 regardless of whether the designer wants to allow significant structural damage (Collapse Prevention. Load enhancement factors do not vary with the performance level. As will be shown later. A CIF (m-factor) of 1. the design could be either overly conservative or un-conservative depending on the DCR value being used. For the first case. 4. The current guidelines apply the same multiplier to the loads independent of the performance level being used in the design. As shown by Ruth 2004. For example: GSA LS Acceptance Equation: Dyn.0 is applied to the progressive collapse load as required in the existing GSA guidelines.0.0 and 3. UFC 4-023-03 uses a CIF (m-factor) of 1. can produce overly-conservative designs as the resulting double-span condition after the removal of a vertical load bearing element is required to carry 2 times the progressive collapse load.0 combined with a dynamic multiplier of 2. a dynamic multiplier of 2. a DCR of 3. In other words.3.

0) and the DCR (3. which could be a beam in flexure. the combined factor (Dynamic Multiplier / DCR) would be 2. which is unconservative.capacity of the member. it can be seen that the member would be designed for 2/3 of the original progressive collapse load.0) are combined and applied to the progressive collapse load. Conversely. If the dynamic multiplier (2.0. 22 . In this case.0. if the structural member under consideration has a DCR of 1. which could be overly conservative. the member would be designed for a load of 2 times the progressive collapse load. which could correspond to a column in flexure.

a series of 3-dimensional reinforced concrete and moment-frame steel building and 2-dimensional double span beam models were developed. and the 2-dimensional double-span beam models were use to simulate column removals using a Single-Degree-ofFreedom (SODF) software. The analysis used the ASCE 7 extreme event load case without any enhancement. the values of plastic rotation and displacement at the column removal location were recorded.CHAPTER 5: VARIATION OF LOAD AND DYNAMIC INCREASE FACTORS RESEARCH PROCEDURE As a result of the inconsistencies presented in the previous chapter. To study the variation of load increase factors (LIFs for LS analyses) and dynamic increase factors (DIFs for NLS analyses). a NLD AP analysis was performed for a given column removal location (Corner. with a trial DIF applied to the ASCE extreme event load case. structural deformation is considered to be the best metric for approximating structural damage. As in ASCE 41. perimeter or interior). Starting with a baseline model of a building designed using conventional design loads. The basic procedure to determine the LIFs and DIFs consisted of 3 steps: 1. The variation of the enhanced load with respect to structure deformation was investigated. 2. The DIF was adjusted and the model was re-run until the maximum plastic rotation 23 . Using the exact same design and column removal location in the model from Step 1. The 3-dimensional models were used to perform AP analyses using SAP2000. a study was undertaken to investigate the factors needed to better match the LS and NLS static procedures to the NLD procedure in AP analysis for Progressive Collapse. a NLS analysis was performed.

This step yielded the DIF for the first design of the first building configuration. and Steps 1 through 3 were repeated. a new building (new building height and bay spacing) would be analyzed following the same steps described above. After all three column removal locations had been analyzed for a particular building configuration. This process is illustrated in Figure 2 .0) PC 3 (LS) 2 (NLS) ө ө (DIF) PC (LIF) PC ΔNLD ΔNLD Figure 2. This step yielded the LIF for the first design of the first building configuration. 24 . the procedure was repeated for a different column removal location using the same building configuration (same building height and bay spacing). Using the same design and column removal location in the model from Step 1. After a series of values of LIF and DIF were recorded for a given column removal location. After a value for the DIF and LIF had been determined for the initial design. Procedure to Determine Load Increase Factors. The LIF was adjusted and the model was re-run until the maximum displacement matched the displacement that corresponds to plastic rotation measured in Step 1. the beams and girders were re-designed to produce a new design using the same building configuration (building height and bay spacing). a LS analysis was performed. 3.matched the rotation measured in Step 1. 1 (NLD) (1. A trial LIF was applied to the ASCE extreme event load case.

The lateral resisting frames for both. the NLD procedure is the most comprehensive and realistic method of analysis for progressive collapse. For these analyses. In other words.5L. different factors were applied to the load to match a given deformation level. The ASCE 7 extreme event load case was used for all analyses. column removal time and plastic hinge definitions. time step. RC and steel buildings were modeled using “full moment connections. it was assumed that the reinforcing steel was continuous through the supports and that it was properly anchored at the ends to develop the full tension capacity of the bars. ignoring wind and snow loads. A more detail description of the set-up and properties for each type of analysis follows: Nonlinear Dynamic Analysis: As mentioned earlier. For RC buildings.2D + 0. Appropriate detailing practices are necessary to allow the structure to achieve large deformations typical of progressive collapse. these parameters were taken as follows: 25 .” The connections at the foundations were modeled as pinned connections and secondary members were not included. this load combination is 1. a well-know structural software commonly used in conventional design and other applications. the analyses were performed assuming appropriate detailing practices for progressive collapse. For each building type. where D is the dead load and L is the live load. All 3-dimensional structures were analyzed using SAP2000. Constant material over-strength factors were employed.Dimensional Analytical Models The study included reinforced concrete and steel moment frame buildings.3. The important modeling parameters included the damping ratio. different configurations of building height and bay spacing were analyzed to determine how the variation of these parameters affected the load and dynamic increase factors. For each model.

A graphical representation of this hinge definition is shown next in Figure 3. the hinge definition (Figure 4) was designed to allow strain hardening of 5% at the point expected to be the maximum allowed rotation (0. Figure 3. In other words. Non-linearity was included in the model by using “Plastic hinges” at both ends and midpoint of every beam element and at both ends of the column elements.025 radians used in ASCE 41. The dominating mode of vibration was selected visually based on the location of the column removal and the motion of the structure. This differs from the 10% hardening at 0. No hinge offsets were used. The hinge definition for the steel buildings was taken from the pre-set options available in SAP2000 corresponding to the hinge definition given in Chapter 5 (Steel Frame Structures) of ASCE 41. and selecting the Natural Period (T) of the dominating mode of vibration. The reason for this difference is the larger allowable rotations used in progressive collapse analyses. For reinforced concrete structures. 26 . Steel Frame Building Hinge Definition (ASCE 41).- Damping ratio = 1% - Column removal and time step = 1/20 of the structure’s natural period - Analysis Time Step = 1/200 of the structure’s natural period The natural period was determined by performing a Modal Analysis.07 radians).

yield rotation values were calculated using the formulas of ASCE 41 and included in the normalization of the data. In other words. during the data analysis stage of the study.0. However. Figure 4. although some modifications are anticipated. the yield rotation is often negligible when measuring total displacement particularly for RC beams which are very stiff. 27 . this would result in an increase in moment capacity of approximately 30% at the point of maximum allowed displacement (0.if the same slope used in the ASCE 41 hinge definition from points B to point C (Figure 4) was used in this analysis.07 radians) which is unrealistic. The expected value of maximum allowable rotation for reinforced concrete structures of 0. the hinges in SAP2000 by default use an initial stiffness of 1. As seen in Figures 3 and 4. SAP2000 does not allow the user to enter a rotation value for the yield point (See point B in Figures 3 and 4).5 applied to it. For this type of non-linear analysis were large deformations are expected.07 radians was taken from the acceptance criteria in ASCE 41 with a factor of 3. ASCE 41 will largely be the basis for the allowable performance levels in the new UFC 4-02303. Reinforced Concrete Hinge Definition.

2D +0. the Life Safety values in Table 6-7 were increased by a factor of 3.5. within the seismic community. However. the column was replaced with equivalent reactions obtained from a static analysis of the building using the progressive collapse load applied to the entire structure (1.The deformation limits for Life Safety for steel buildings were taken identical to those values in Table 5-6 of ASCE 41. in the blast-design community. the RC limits in FEMA are considered to be conservative [EERI/PEER 2006] and.2D +0.5L Equivalent loads 1 = 0 (1/20) T Equivalent loads Figure 5. To simulate the instantaneous removal a given column.5L). These loads were then removed over time to simulate the removal of the column. NLD Analysis Procedure. 28 Removal t . the allowable deformation criteria in ASCE 41 are much smaller than indicated by test data from blast. whereas only one-half cycle is applied in a progressive collapse event. In addition. 1.and impact-loaded RC structural members. the conservative ASCE 41 RC criteria are based on backbone curves derived from cyclic testing of members and joints. for reinforced concrete (RC) buildings. This is because. This process is shown in Figure 5.2D + 0.5L 1.

Results of NLD Procedure. The model was analyzed in three stages using 100 steps per stage.After the equivalent column loads were removed. non-linearity was modeled identically as with the NLD model discussed above (with plastic hinges). the building was allowed to deform until it settled and the maximum plastic rotation was recorded for all hinges formed during the analyses. to simulate the column removal. the “non-linear staged construction” feature in SAP2000 was used (Figure 7). However. 29 . (See Figure 6) Structure Settles Plastic Hinge Rotation Figure 6. Nonlinear Static Analysis: In the NLS analysis.

30 . In the second stage. see Figure 8. In the first stage. Stage Construction Setup. only the bays around the loss location were loaded with the progressive collapse load. Figure 8. as shown in Figure 9. the progressive collapse load case was applied to all elements. multiplied by the trial DIF. NLS Analysis Stage 1.Figure 7.

the DIF was adjusted and the analysis was repeated. the maximum plastic hinge rotations were recorded in a similar manner to the NLD case. see Figure 10. If the maximum plastic rotation was not equal to the plastic rotation from the NLD analysis. NLS Stage 3. In the final stage. until the plastic rotations from the NLD and NLS analyses matched within 2%. 31 . Non-linear Hinge Rotation Figure 10. Nonlinear Analysis of Structure Response. the column was removed and the analysis was run until the building settled. After the building had settled.Figure 9. NLS Stage 2. Load Around Loss Location.

and the other set of loads. the rigidity must be explicitly modified to account for the effects of cracking at large rotations. If the displacement did not match the displacement from the NLD procedure. The analysis was run using the linear elastic option in SAP2000 and the displacement was measured at the loss location. the trial LIF was adjusted and the analysis was run again.5 E I as indicated in Table 6. two sets of loads were applied to the building model. was applied only around the column removal locations as directed in UFC 4-023-03. The rigidity (EI) of the steel beams was modeled implicitly in SAP2000 by defining the size and Elastic Modulus (E) of the structural components. Therefore. from which a column has been removed: one set of loads was applied to the whole structure. For concrete however. etc.Linear Static Analysis: The linear static procedure is simpler in that it does not require the use of dynamic and non-linear parameters such as time step. plastic hinges. In these analyses.5 of ASCE 41. damping ratio. which tend to reduce the effective Moment of Inertia (I). the Rigidity of the RC linear models was taken as 0. 32 . which includes the trial LIF.

After the building designs were finalized. the AP analysis included corner exterior and interior column removals. Spandrel Spandrelgirder Girder 4 @ 25ft Interior Beam 5 @ 25ft Figure 11. The following table presents a summary of all the AP analyses included in this research. AP analyses were performed in all buildings. Using the floor plan illustrated above. For each building. Typical Floor Plan. a total of 408 AP analyses were performed in this research study.3-Dimmensinal Building Designs The baseline for all 3D models (reinforced concrete and steel moment frame) was taken from the examples in the current UFC 4-023-03. As seen in Table 1. different building configurations were obtained by varying the bay spacing and the number of stories. This floor plan is illustrated in next figure. the variation and magnitude of load and dynamic increase factors was investigated following the procedure explained above. 33 .

Study Matrix of AP Analyses Performed Alternate Path Analysis Performed for Steel Moment Frame Buildings Corner Column Building Configuration Perimeter Column Removal Removal 3-Story. 25 ft bay Spacing 12 12 9 Total AP Analyses for Steel Buildings Alternate Path Analysis Performed for Reinforced Concrete Buildings Corner Column Building Configuration Perimeter Column Removal Removal Interior Column Removal 24 30 99 Interior Column Removal 3-Story. ceiling weight and mechanical equipment CL 15 psf Cladding load.Table 1. Design Loads 49 psf (steel) DL Includes self weight of members not modeled 54 psf (RC) SDL 35 psf Includes partitions. 20 ft bay Spacing 15 30 15 10-Story. 25 ft bay Spacing 0 0 21 10-Story. 20 ft bay Spacing 15 30 18 * 10-Story. 30 ft bay Spacing 21 0 Total AP Analyses for RC Buildings 0 309 * Denotes removal of column at 6th floor level ** Denotes removal of column at 5th floor level *** Denotes removal of column at 8th floor level The loads and material properties used for the analyses are presented in the following tables. 20 ft bay Spacing 15 33 15 9 10-Story. 34 . Table 2. 25 ft bay Spacing 9 9 ** 10-Story. only in the perimeter LL 50 psf Live load The DL values in Table 2 are abased on lightweight RC floor systems as indicated in the examples of the current UFC 4-023-03. 25 ft bay Spacing 9 9 9 3-Story. 25 ft bay Spacing 9 9 9 *** 10-Story. 25 ft bay Spacing 12 10-Story.

05 for structural steel. Next.Table 3. Therefore. Δ is the w calculated displacement. and 1. the LIF corresponding to that design was calculated using the following equation: LIF = k *Δ .25 ksi Includes 1. 2-Dimmensional Models Additional data needed to be generated to develop a larger baseline for comparison of results. The models consisted of a fixed-fixed double span beam. Reinforced Concrete Buildings.25 over-strength factor In progressive collapse. Steel Buildings. the double span was loaded with a given design load. AP analysis using 3D models can be time consuming and expensive. These values are specified in the UFC 4-023-03 guidelines as 1. additional data was generated using simple 2-dimensional double-span models analyzed with a SDOF approach.000 ksi Modulus of elasticity Table 4.25 for concrete compressive strength and reinforcing steel.25 over-strength factor f’y 75 ksi Reinforcing steel w/ 1. The analysis procedure was similar to the procedure describe previously for 3D models. and the deflection of the beam was calculated performing a non-linear dynamic analysis using time integration techniques and SDOF approach. where k is the beam stiffness calculated per ASCE 41 procedures. and the rapid application of the load. However.5 ksi Includes 1.05 over-strength factor E 29. Material Properties f’y 52. Material Properties f’c 6. First. and w is the applied load. The DIF was calculated as follows: 35 . strength increase factors applied to material properties are used to account for the average ratio of the actual static strength of materials to the nominal specified value.

DIF = ( R−w ) + 1 . R can be expresses in units of psi. 2-Dimmensional Models Different beam configurations were obtained by changing the beam stiffness and ultimate resistance. Mp is the crossB * L2 sectional moment capacity and B is the tributary width. and the steel yield strength was 75 ksi. The concrete compressive strength used for the 2-dimensional analyses was 5000 psi. w Span. An illustration of the 2D models and their typical resistance function is presented next in schematic form. An example follows for a simply supported beam. The ultimate R resistance R is calculated using the equations for maximum moment of single span beams and solving for “w. where R is the ultimate flexural resistance of the beam. A total of 48 column removal simulations were 36 . L Beam Resistance R k Δ Deflection Figure 12.” When divided “w” by tributary area. R= 8 * Mp . where w is the beam loading in lb/ft. L Span. Load. and L is the beam span.

performed using 2D double-span beam models and SDOF approach. Table presented below presents a summary of all the simulations performed.13 0.76 8 20 12 30 1. R (psi) Number of Column Removals 20 24 20 1.98 1. Table 5.70 2.58 8 20 12 30 1.40 1.95 8 20 12 30 0. of runs 8 37 48 .05 0.58 8 20 24 20 1.98 0.45 1.98 Total No.22 0.29 0. 2-Dimmensionals Analyses Double-Span Beam Configuration Avg.70 1.30 2. Stiffness Steel Beam Width Depth k Area Span (ft) (in) (in) (psi/in) (in2) Ultimate Resistance.68 8 20 24 20 2.20 0.

984.80 0.5 105 61.0167 1. Beam Girder Int.44 0.84 16. the last three columns on the right hand side of the tables show the displacement and/or plastic rotation measured with the NLD analysis and the values of DIF and LIF obtained from the NLS and LS analysis of that particular “re-design. A complete set of results is provided in the Appendix.0532 1. The first column in each table indicates the “design” number.4 134 78.23 3.0103 1. lb 76 60 73 57 62 44 55 40 60 40 55 35 57 38 38 .84 4.82 1. 1350. w24x76 w18x60 w21x73 w16x57 w24x62 w21x44 w24x55 w18x40 w18x60 w16x40 w18x55 w18x35 w16x57 w14x38 in^3 200 123 172 105 153 95. The following columns provide the section properties and geometry of the structural elements framing into the loss location for that particular “re-design”.9 112 66.0021 1. Steel Building. and spandrel-girder cross-sections to acquire different displacements and plastic rotations. 1550.0080 1. Finally.80 4. 890.42 0. girder. Disp. 1600. Beam Girder Int. Beam Girder Int.49 Section Zx Ix Weight NLD.12 8. spandrel.” Table 6. As mentioned earlier.5 in^4 2100. 758. a baseline design model was developed using standard structural design software and then modified (Re-Design 1 through X) by changing the beam. 385. Interior Column Removal Run # Re-Design 6 Re-Design 5 Re-Design 4 Re-Design 3 Re-Design 2 Baseline Re-Design 1 Frame Section sap name Girder Int. 510. Beam NLS DIF LS LIF in 3.91 0.37 11. Beam Girder Int. 843. 758. Each table below lists the different structural designs that were evaluated for the particular building configuration and column removal location.44 2.29 2.68 1. Beam Girder Int. 612. Beam Girder Int. 518.38 2.90 6.76 0. Similar tables were generated for the 2-dimensional study. 984.25 ft Bay.CHAPTER 6: ANALYSIS RESULTS AND DATA ANALYSIS A sample of the result tables generated for the 3-dimensional building analyses is presented next.0260 1. 10-Story .99 0.77 NLD Plastic Rotation rad 0.60 1.4 123 72.0349 1.

Beam Girder Int.75 2. NLS DIF LS LIF 0.064 1. the LIFs results were found to be less dependent on the selected section. Analysis of Data from Linear Static AP Analyses (LIF) The results obtained in this study demonstrated that LIFs are a function of section properties and geometry. The plot in Figure 13 shows the LIF plotted versus plastic rotation for reinforced concrete for selected analysis cases.01 7.021 1.73 3. particularly for RC sections where stiffness can vary significantly based on rebar placement and section aspect ratio.65 2.40 7. Beam Girder Int.053 1.09 5. Steel sections are in general more ductile and exhibit more 39 .62 in^2 2.82 3.06 8 0.76 4.72 6.84 4.04 19 in --- The results obtained from the 3-dimensional and 2-dimensional models presented above were use to generate plots with proposed normalized factors for static procedures.94 3.77 6.24 3.5 0.48 4.81 3.05 13 0.65 6.66 increment ----75% 75% 67% 67% 60% 60% 57% 57% 55% 55% 52% 52% 51% 51% NLD.08 4.80 2.42 1. Beam Girder Int. Beam Girder Int.05 10 0.76 3.Plastic Rotation.097 1.76 3. Plastic rotation was use to plot the LIF values for concrete sections to be consistent with ASCE41 which treats reinforced concrete sections as having negligible elastic rotations. Beam Girder Int.04 2.14 4 0. For steel structures. Figure 15 shows the LIF plotted versus total rotation for steel sections.03 3.042 1. Beam in^2 4.87 2.68 3. Beam Girder Int.028 1. As Steel % sap name Girder Int.20 7. As Bot.84 7. Beam Girder Int. Reinforced Concrete Building.086 1.94 3.Table 7. Interior Column Removal Run # Baseline Re-Design 1 Re-Design 2 Re-Design 3 Re-Design 4 Re-Design 5 Re-Design 6 Re-Design 7 Frame Section Top.17 3. 3-Story-25 ft.48 2.68 2.04 17 0.

and the factor applied to the stiffness of the member to achieve the same deflection calculated with the non-linear analysis could differ significantly.080 0. L=240. Interior 1st 10-Story. 4x8 bay. 4x8 bays. 4x8 bays. Mid Side Short 1st 10-Story. 4x8 bays. L=240. rho=. L=300.0 40. Interior 5th 10-Story. Mid Side Long 8th 10-Story. Mid Side Short Edge 6th 10-Story. Interior Corner 6th 10-Story.04x8 bay. rho~. L=240.004) 100. L=240. Interior Corner 1st 10-Story. 1st 3-Story. L=300. L=240. Interior. L=300.100 Plastic Rotation (rad) Figure 13. Corner 1st 70. 10-Story.0 20.0 4x8 bays. rho~. two beams with the same moment capacity can have different stiffness values. Mid Side Long. Corner 5th 10-Story. L=300. 80. LIF vs Plastic Rotation for RC sections The dispersion of data points in Figure 13 represents the LIFs strong dependence on section properties for the concrete members mentioned earlier. the LIF values for steel sections are plotted against total rotation as in ASCE 41. L=240. 4x8 bays.0 10. L=300. 90. 4x8 bays. 1st 3-Story.considerable elastic rotations. the stiffness (not the capacity) becomes the controlling parameter.010 0. L=240. 1st 3-Story. hence. L=300.050 0.000 0. 4x8 bays. the maximum calculated deflection will be similar since. 4x8 bays. Mid Side Long 6th 10-Story. LIF 3-story interior column removal (20x22 girder. This is illustrated 40 . Therefore. L=240. 1st 3-Story.0 0. Corner 9th 10-Story. most of the response will be plastic as concrete members exhibit small elastic rotations. Mid Side Long 5th 10-Story.0 4x8 bays. In concrete members. L=300. 4x8 bays. L=240. L=240.0 30. Mid Side Long 1st 10-Story. 3-Story. Interior 6th 10-Story.060 0.090 0. L=240. 4x8 bays. L=240. L=240. 4x8 bays. L=300. 1st 10-Story. L=300.0037) 3-story interior column removal (20x22 girder. Corner 6th 10-Story. Corner 8th 60. Interior 1st 10-Story. rho~. Mid Side Short. 4x8 bays.030 0. Corner Optimized. 4x8 bay. L=240. L=240. 4x8 bay. Interior 8th 50.01) 3-story corner column removal (6x15 girder. 4x8 bays. Corner 1st 10-Story. 4x8 bay.0 4x8 bays. 4x8 bays. L=240. when analyzed as non-linear members. 4x8 bay.020 0. 4x8 bays. Corner. L=240. 1st 10-Story.0 0. L=240. Mid Side Long 1st 10-Story. L=300. Interior Corner.040 0. However. if the same two beams are analyzed as linear members. 4x8 bays. L=240. 4x8 bays.070 0.0 3-story interior column removal (30x20 girder. 4x8 bays. L=240.03) 3-Story.

RC Sections Strong Dependence on Stiffness 6. M K1. Total Rotation for Steel Sections 41 0.next. LIF vs. in the figure below.00 1. CIF.00 0. corresponds to the artificial increase factor applied to the stiffness of the element to allow it to achieve the same displacement as in the plastic response.100 0. rev hinge 2.060 0.00 0. M Elastic Response CIF 1 k R Plastic Response K1 CIF 2 K1 K2 K2 Δ Δ Figure 14.020 0. K2.000 0.040 0.00 3.120 Total Rotation (rad) Figure 15.00 LIF 4.00 3-story corner column removal 3-story interior column removal 3-story perimeter column removal 10-story interior column removal 3-story perimeter column.140 .00 5.080 0.

L=240. L=300. Interior Corner. Mid Side Long 6th 10-Story. Mid Side Long 1st 10-Story. 4x8 bays. Mid Side Long 8th 10-Story. 4x8 bay. L=240. L=300. which corresponds to the mfactors in ASCE 41.0 20. 4x8 bays.0 Norm Rotation (total rot/member yield) (m factor) Figure 16. L=240.0 4x8 bay. A more detail explanation about the use of m-factors if provided in Chapter 7.87 R2 = 0. 4x8 bays. 4x8 bay. L=300. 4x8 bays. 1st 3-Story.1259x + 0. 4x8 bays. Mid Side Long. L=240.987 10.03) 3-Story. L=240.0 0.0 0. Interior Corner 1st 10-Story. rho~. 4x8 bays. Corner.4) 3-story interior column removal (30x20 girder. 3-Story. Interior 8th LIF eqn ASCE41(Mod) Concrete Beams (Primary/NC shear steel) ASCE41Concrete Columns (P/Agf'c < 0.0 10.01) 3-story corner column removal (6x15 girder. The plots in Figure 16 and 17 show the same LIF data when normalized by yield rotation. Normalized LIF for RC sections 42 40. L=300.0 recommended eqn LIF = 1.0 10-Story. Corner Optimized. Corner 6th 10-Story. 4x8 bays. Mid Side Short. 4x8 bays. 4x8 bays.2m + 0. 4x8 bays.0 30. L=240. Corner 9th 10-Story. L=240. rho~. L=240.0 ASCE41(Mod) Concrete Beams (Primary) ASCE41(Mod) Concrete Beams (Secondary) ASCE41Concrete Columns (P/Agf'c > 0. L=240.0 . 4x8 bays. 4x8 bays. L=240. Interior 5th 10-Story. L=240. L=240.0 Linear fit to all data except 10-story L=240: y = 1. L=240. Interior 1st 10-Story. rho=. L=300. 4x8 bay. Interior 1st 80. 4x8 bays. 4x8 bays. Corner 1st 10-Story. 1st 90.0037) 3-story interior column removal (20x22 girder. Corner 5th 10-Story. L=240. L=240.Because the LIFs need to be applied consistently to different structural elements regardless of their stiffness or shape. L=240. the data above was normalized and plotted against the ratio of total rotation to the calculated yield rotation of the element.004) 3-Story. rho~. 4x8 bays. Interior Corner 6th 10-Story. 4x8 bays. L=300. Corner 8th Fit 60. L=300. 1st 3-Story. Mid Side Long 1st 10-Story. Corner 1st 70. 4x8 bays. 4x8 bays. Mid Side Short Edge 6th 10-Story.1) Linear (Fit) LIF 50. Mid Side Short 1st 10-Story. Mid Side Long 5th 10-Story. Interior 6th 10-Story.0 20. L=240. L=240. L=300. 1st 10-Story. L=300. L=300. 1st 3-Story. L=240. Interior. 4x8 bays. 4x8 bay. 3-story interior column removal (20x22 girder.0 10-Story.0 40. 4x8 bays. 4x8 bay.8 30. L=240. 1st 10-Story.

6674x + 0.95 respectively. rev hinge Fit LIF Fit ASCE41 "Compact" Beams and Columns (P/Pcl < 2.1 LIF 7.0 9.0 recommended eqn: LIF = 0. The upper bound fit provides a conservative factor on the effective multiplier of 1. which indicate a good fit.0 6.0 13.0 3.35 for steel sections.0 5.0 11. The linear fit for RC sections and steel sections had an R-square value of 0.0 11.0 4.0 8. However. A larger factor was required for steel sections to keep all effective multipliers greater than 1.0 0.9493 1.0 0. an “upper bound fit” (the line in red) which encloses the envelope of data is the final recommended equation. This is demonstrated in Tables 8 and 9.8027 2 R = 0.0 8. Also presented on the plots are “typical” acceptance 43 .0 1.0 6.0 Linear fit to data: y = 0. Therefore.0 Norm Rotation (total rotation/member yield)) (m factor) Figure 17.0 5.0.0 9.5) ASCE41 (Mod) WUF for W18 ASCE41 (Mod) RBS for W18 ASCE41 "Compact" Secondary Beams ASCE41 (Mod) Shear Tab for W14 Linear (Fit) 4.0 12. to provide conservatism and avoid effective multipliers (LIF/m) smaller than 1.9m + 1. The linear fit for each plot is shown in black.0 2. Normalized LIF for Steel Sections Using the normalized plots of Figure 16 and 17. the linear fits were shifted up and manually adjusted.0 10.0 14.05 for RC and 1.0 3.0 3-story corner column removal 3-story interior column removal 3-story perimeter column removal 10-story interior column removal 3-story perimeter column.0 7.0 2.0 10. a linear fit of the data was performed to support the development of equations for determination of the required LIF for LS procedures.0.99 and 0.0) ASCE41 "Non-Compact" Beams ASCE41 "Compact" Columns (P/Pcl = 0.12.

80 Steel Structures: LIF = 0. This is demonstrated next.. which will correspond to the existing values for acceptance criteria on ASCE 41.e.0.values for both concrete and steel components. the proposed m-factors will nominally range from 5 to 20 after adjustments are made to account for the conservatism in the existing concrete criteria of ASCE 41. The m-factor will be a direct multiplier on the expected component strengths given in the revised UFC 4-023-03. it should be noted that the “effective multiplier” on the static load case for LS analysis is the LIF divided by the m-factor (LIF/m). never below 1.5 to 7.1 m is the component m-factor. 1. 44 . final “effective load multipliers” for LS analysis will generally vary from 1. the range of m-factors will be a function of the component but will not be significantly different from the existing ASCE41 criteria.0.9 m + 1. For steel. The equations are: RC Structures: LIF = 1.2 m + 0. Although the LIF values from Figure 16 and 17 seem high. However. Hence. This illustrates the general range of applicability of the fits. General Equation: (LIF) x (PC load) < m x (Capacity) LS: (LIF/m) x (PC load) < (Capacity) The m-factors in ASCE41 need to be modified before being added to the revised UFC 4023-03. i. for reinforced concrete.0 to 2.

Table 8 LIF Data for RC Sections
Typical
m-factors

LIF
Upp.
Bound

LIF/m
Upp.
Bound

LIF
Linear
Fit

LIF/m
Linear Fit

Consv. Factor
(Up. Bound/ Lin.
fit)

5

6.80

1.36

6.52

1.30

1.04

6

8.00

1.33

7.65

1.28

1.05

7

9.20

1.31

8.78

1.25

1.05

8

10.40

1.30

9.91

1.24

1.05

9

11.60

1.29

11.04

1.23

1.05

10

12.80

1.28

12.17

1.22

1.05

11

14.00

1.27

13.30

1.21

1.05

12

15.20

1.27

14.43

1.20

1.05

13

16.40

1.26

15.56

1.20

1.05

14

17.60

1.26

16.69

1.19

1.05

15

18.80

1.25

17.82

1.19

1.05

16

20.00

1.25

18.95

1.18

1.06

17

21.20

1.25

20.08

1.18

1.06

18

22.40

1.24

21.21

1.18

1.06

19

23.60

1.24

22.34

1.18

1.06

20

24.80

1.24

23.47

1.17

1.06

Table 9 LIF Data for Steel Sections
Typical

LIF/m
Upp.
Bound

LIF

LIF/m

m-factors

LIF
Upp.
Bound

Linear Fit

Linear Fit

Consv. Factor
(Up. Bound/ Lin.
fit)

1

2.00

2.00

1.47

1.47

1.36

1.5

2.45

1.63

1.81

1.20

1.36

2

2.90

1.45

2.14

1.07

1.36

2.5

3.35

1.34

2.48

0.99

1.35

3

3.80

1.27

2.81

0.94

1.35

3.5

4.25

1.21

3.15

0.90

1.35

4

4.70

1.18

3.48

0.87

1.35

4.5

5.15

1.14

3.82

0.85

1.35

5

5.60

1.12

4.15

0.83

1.35

5.5

6.05

1.10

4.49

0.82

1.35

6

6.50

1.08

4.82

0.80

1.35

6.5

6.95

1.07

5.16

0.79

1.35

7

7.40

1.06

5.49

0.78

1.35

45

Analysis of Data from Nonlinear Static Analysis (DIF)

In NLS procedures, non-linearity is explicitly included in the model by use of plastic
hinges and the capacity of the members does not need to be adjusted using m-factors. Therefore,
the values of DIFs obtained in this study are a direct representation of the dynamic multiplier on
the load. The application of the DIFs is demonstrated below:

General Equation:

(DIF) x (PC load) < (Reaction)

NLS Deformation-Controlled:

(DIF) x (PC load) = өmeasured < өallowed

NLS Force-Controlled:

(DIF) x (PC load) < (Capacity)

The results showed a range of variation in DIFs with respect to plastic rotation from 1.00
to 1.40 for concrete buildings and 1.20 to 1.85 for steel buildings as illustrated in Figure 18 and
19, respectively.
3-Story, 4x8 bay, L=240, Mid Side Long, 1st
3-Story, 4x8 bay, L=240, Interior, 1st
3-Story, 4x8 bay, L=240, Interior Corner, 1st
10-Story, 4x8 bays, L=240, Corner 1st
10-Story, 4x8 bays, L=240, Mid Side Short 1st
10-Story, 4x8 bays, L=240, Mid Side Long 6th
10-Story, 4x8 bays, L=240, Interior 6th
10-Story, 4x8 bays, L=240, Interior Corner 6th
10-Story, 4x8 bays, L=300, Mid Side Long 1st
10-Story, 4x8 bays, L=300, Interior 1st
10-Story, 4x8 bays, L=300, Corner 5th
10-Story, 4x8 bays, L=300, Mid Side Long 8th
10-Story, 4x8 bays, L=300, Interior 8th
10-Story, 4x8 bays, L=360, Corner 1st Additional data)

1.5

1.4

1.3

3-Story, 4x8 bay, L=240, Corner, 1st
3-Story, 4x8 bay, L=240, Mid Side Short, 1st
10-Story, 4x8 bays, L=240, Mid Side Long 1st
10-Story, 4x8 bays, L=240, Interior 1st
10-Story, 4x8 bays, L=240, Interior Corner 1st
10-Story, 4x8 bays, L=240, Corner 6th
10-Story, 4x8 bays, L=240, Mid Side Short Edge 6th
10-Story, 4x8 bays, L=240, Corner 9th
10-Story, 4x8 bays, L=300, Corner 1st
10-Story, 4x8 bays, L=300, Mid Side Long 5th
10-Story, 4x8 bays, L=300, Interior 5th
10-Story, 4x8 bays, L=300, Corner 8th
10-Story, 4x8 bays, L=360, Corner 1st

DIF

1.2

1.1

1

0.9

0.8
0.000

0.010

0.020

0.030

0.040

0.050

0.060

0.070

Plastic Rotation

Figure 18. DIFs for RC Buildings

46

0.080

0.090

0.100

2

1.9

1.8

3-story corner column removal
3-story interior column removal

1.7

3-story perimeter column removal
10-story interior column removal

DIF

1.6

1.5

1.4

1.3

1.2

1.1

1
0.000

0.050

0.100

0.150

0.200

Plastic Rotation (rad)

Figure 19. DIFs for Steel Buildings

DIF’s needed to be expressed in terms of “allowable plastic rotation” since these are
values that an analyst is expected to look up in the tables provided in the revised progressive
collapse guidelines. Therefore, the DIF’s were plotted as a function of the ratio of allowable
plastic rotation to member yield rotation. Figure 20 and 21 show the DIFs values from Figure
and 19 normalized using the ratio of allowable plastic rotation over the calculated yield rotation
of the (typically) beam element.

47

3-Story, 4x8 bay, L=240, Mid Side Long, 1st
3-Story, 4x8 bay, L=240, Interior, 1st
3-Story, 4x8 bay, L=240, Interior Corner, 1st
10-Story, 4x8 bays, L=240, Corner 1st
10-Story, 4x8 bays, L=240, Mid Side Short 1st
10-Story, 4x8 bays, L=240, Mid Side Long 6th
10-Story, 4x8 bays, L=240, Interior 6th
10-Story, 4x8 bays, L=240, Interior Corner 6th
10-Story, 4x8 bays, L=300, Mid Side Long 1st
10-Story, 4x8 bays, L=300, Interior 1st
10-Story, 4x8 bays, L=300, Corner 5th
10-Story, 4x8 bays, L=300, Mid Side Long 8th
10-Story, 4x8 bays, L=300, Interior 8th
10-Story, 4x8 bays, L=360, Corner 1st Additional data)

2
1.9
1.8
1.7
1.6

3-Story, 4x8 bay, L=240, Corner, 1st
3-Story, 4x8 bay, L=240, Mid Side Short, 1st
10-Story, 4x8 bays, L=240, Mid Side Long 1st
10-Story, 4x8 bays, L=240, Interior 1st
10-Story, 4x8 bays, L=240, Interior Corner 1st
10-Story, 4x8 bays, L=240, Corner 6th
10-Story, 4x8 bays, L=240, Mid Side Short Edge 6th
10-Story, 4x8 bays, L=240, Corner 9th
10-Story, 4x8 bays, L=300, Corner 1st
10-Story, 4x8 bays, L=300, Mid Side Long 5th
10-Story, 4x8 bays, L=300, Interior 5th
10-Story, 4x8 bays, L=300, Corner 8th
10-Story, 4x8 bays, L=360, Corner 1st
Fit

1.4
1.3

recommended eqn:
DIF = 1.04+(0.45/((allow plastic rot/member yield)+0.48))

1.2

2

R = 0.80

1.1
1
0.9
0.8
0.0

5.0

10.0

15.0

20.0

25.0

30.0

35.0

40.0

Norm Rotation (allowable plastic rot/member yield)

Figure 20 . Normalized DIFs for RC Buildings
2
1.9

3-story corner column removal
3-story perimeter column removal

1.8

3-story interior column removal
10-story interior column removal

1.7

DIF Fit

1.6

DIF

DIF

1.5

1.5

recommended eqn:
DIF = 1.08+(0.76/((allow plastic rot/member yield)+0.83))

1.4
1.3

2

R = 0.83

1.2
1.1
1
0.0

2.0

4.0

6.0

8.0

Norm Rotation (allowable plastic rot/member yield)

Figure 21. Normalized DIFs for Steel Buildings

48

10.0

Because of this. the calculated Rsquare values are lower than typical acceptable values for R-square in the range of 0. 49 . The data from Figures 20 and 21 was used to adjust the equations until an acceptable fit was determined. θyield. The DIF fits determined in this study are purposely shifted towards the upper limit of the data to add a level of conservatism.08 + 0.0. The R-square values calculated for the RC sections and steel sections were 0.48 θyield Steel Structures: DIF = 1. For RC concrete structures. the allowable plastic rotations in ASCE 41 will be modified to account for the extra conservatism included due to the cyclic nature of seismic events.83 respectively.45 θall + 0.76 θall + 0. corresponds to the yield rotation of the member calculated per ASCE 41 procedures.04 + 0. a mathematical fit of the data in Figure 20 and 21 was performed to develop the equations that represent the required DIF for NLS procedures.Similar to the LIFs for LS procedures. which will be taken from ASCE41. These equations are presented next: RC Structures: DIF = 1.83 θyield In the equations above. the allowable plastic rotation (θall) is taken from the nonlinear acceptance criteria tables in the revised guidelines.9-1.80 and 0. The mathematical fit was performed manually using the general equation for a rectangular hyperbola.

The proposed procedure for using LIF values to perform these preliminary analyses is presented next: 1. procedures were developed for the application of these factors. Divide the LIF from step 3 by m-factor from step 2 to determine the “effective load multiplier.2D + 0. The proposed procedure presented above is inherently conservative as it uses the most restrictive component around the loss location to select the m-factor used to calculate the 50 .CHAPTER 7: PROPOSED PROCEDURES FOR USING LIFS AND DIFS IN STATIC AP ANALYSES After developing new equations for the application of LIFs and DIFs. Linear Static AP Procedure The LS approach will often be used in concept development of complex structural systems required to satisfy AP requirements. calculate the LIF to be used in the LS analysis. Select most restrictive structural component (smallest m-factor) from bays immediately around loss location at all floor levels. These procedures are described next. Separate analyses will be performed for horizontal flexural (beam element and connection) and vertical column components. and the LIF equations developed previously. Select the m-factor corresponding to the element found on step 1 from tables given in the revised UFC 4-023-03. 4.” 5. 3. Using the m-factor from step 2. 2.5L) and perform LS analysis. Apply “effective load multiplier” (LIF/m) to progressive collapse load (1.

0 = 1.043d = 3.04 General Equation: 1. Therefore.30) + 1.20) = 6.3 LIF/m (Effective Load Multiplier) = 8.30 LIF = 0.22 (PC load) < (Capacity) Figure 22.9(8) + 1.9(3.07 LIF/m (Effective Load Multiplier) = 4.9 – 0.1 = 6. the W14x38 beam and WUF connection should be 51 . W14x3 8 WUF Fully Restrained Connection W12x190 Columns W14x38 Typical Corner bay Loss Location W12x190 Corner Column W14x38 m-factor (CP value from Table 5-5 ASCE41) = 8. P/Pcl < 0.9(6) + 1. This is demonstrated next for a corner column removal on a typical steel moment frame structure. based on the corresponding m-factors and the equations developed for calculating LIFs.07 / 3.08 (PC load) < (Capacity) WUF Connection m-factor (CP value from Table 5-5 ASCE41) = 3.0 LIF = LIF = 0.34 = 1.04 (PC load) < (Capacity) W12x190 Column m-factor (LS value from Table 5-5 ASCE41.08 General Equation: 1.5 / 6.1 = 8.0 = 1.0 LIF = 0.22 (CONTROLS OVER BEAM) General Equation: 1. the majority of the structural components are designed or analyzed for a progressive collapse load larger than that required for that particular member based on the equations developed for LIF presented in this document.5 LIF/m (Effective Load Multiplier) = 6.effective load multiplier for the analysis. LIF for LS Analysis As seen in the example of Figure 22.1 = 4. The following example assumes that the structural elements in the corner bay are the same at all floor levels.3 / 8.

52 . sine there are no m-factors in the existing UFC criteria. The effective load multiplier calculated for the W12x190 column. the existing UFC criteria use an LIF of 2. the calculated value in Figure 22. This results in an effective multiplier per UFC 4-023-03 of 2.22. 108%. Therefore.designed for a load equal to 122% of the progressive collapse load. This value is overly conservative when compared to 1. Separate analyses will be performed for horizontal flexural (beam element and connection) and vertical column components. The proposed steps to select the DIF for NLS analysis are presented next: 1. if expressed in terms of this study.0. could be used if the designer chooses to perform a separate LS analysis to check columns.0 to be applied directly on the load without increasing the capacity of the members. The 122% for the WUF connection controls as it is larger than the 104% multiplier for the beam. Non-Linear Static AP Procedure In the new PC guidelines. the practitioner will select a value of DIF to be applied to the progressive collapse load combination in NLS procedures based on the ratio of allowable plastic rotation to yield rotation specified in the acceptance criteria. Comparison with existing UFC 4-023-03 The LS procedure for AP analysis of progressive collapse given in the existing UFC 4023-03 specifies a factor of 2.0. Select most restrictive structural component (smallest allowable plastic rotation) from bays immediately around loss location at all floor levels.0 and an “m-factor” of 1.

P / Ag f’c > 0.48)) = 1. As = 15.05 rad allowable plastic rotation (ASCE41.24 in2 b=18 in. table 6-11. As=4. Roof Typical Floors Girder Spandrel Spandrel Top.0625 rad Calculated yield rotation = 0.3 in2 b=15 in. As’ = 4.04+(0.0007)+0. calculate the DIF to be used in the NLS analysis.12 DIF = 1. Calculate the ratio of allowable plastic rotation to this yield rotation for the element found on step 1. Columns Roof Girder Bot.04+(0.0118 rad Calculated yield rotation = 0.04+(0.0625 rad allowable plastic rotation (ASCE41.0007 rad Calculated yield rotation = 0.45/((0.04+(0. table 6-11. An example of how to select the appropriate DIF for a NLS analysis of a RC structure is presented next. Columns: b=30 in.5 in2 b=10 in. As = 4. Columns Roof Spandrel Roof Spandrel Loss Location Loss Location Spandrels: Roof Spandrels: b=15 in. C) = 0.48)) = 1. table 6-11.3 in2.015/0. Calculate the yield rotation of the flexural element or column using procedures in ASCE 41.05 rad Calculated yield rotation = 0. table 6-11.04+(0.45/((0. As=2. d=24 in. allowable plastic rotation (ASCE41. d=24 in.05/0.0625/0. C) = 0. d=30 in.0019 DIF = 1.09 Bot. DIF for NLS Analysis 53 .0110)+0.07 DIF = 1. As’=4. Columns: Top.0118)+0.09 (CONTROLS) Figure 23. 3. As’=2.4.48)) = 1. As = 5.0110 rad DIF = 1.62 in2 allowable plastic rotation (ASCE41. NC) = 0.2.4.16 in2 allowable plastic rotation (ASCE41.17 in2.0625/0. and the DIF equations developed previously.45/((0. NC) = 0.05/0.48)) = 1.62 in2. As’ = 5.0096 rad Calculated yield rotation = 0.48)) = 1.0096)+0.48)) = 1. table 6-11.45/((0. P / Ag f’c > 0.45/((0.015 rad Calculated yield rotation = 0.0073 rad DIF = 1.0073)+0.015/0.0019)+0.04+(0. Apply DIF to the progressive collapse load and performed NLS analysis.17 in2 allowable plastic rotation (ASCE41. d=18 in. table 6-11. Using the ratio from step 2.015 rad C) = 0. C) = 0. d=24 in.45/((0. As=10. 4. d=24 in.5 in2.13 (CONTROLS) Girder: Girder: b=10 in.12 DIF = 1.

therefore. the NLS procedure for AP analysis of progressive collapse given in the existing UFC 4-023-03 specifies a factor of 2.13. 54 . Capacity increase factors are not necessary in NLS procedures.0 to be applied directly on the load.As seen in the example of Figure 23. 1. Comparison with existing UFC 4-023-03 Similarly to the LS procedure. based the equation developed for calculating DIFs.13. the roof spandrels should be designed or analyzed for a load of 113% of the progressive collapse load. Therefore. the 2.0 value per the UFC criteria is overly conservative when compared to 1. The DIF calculated for all the other components is less than 1. the calculated value in Figure 23.13 is the multiplier on the load used for the progressive collapse analysis or design of this building.

75.CHAPTER 8: CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS The dynamic multiplier on the load of 2.8. for the GSA criteria if a DCR value of 2. there is no direct comparison that can be made between the conservatism of the existing approach and the proposed use of the LIFs. For an LIF of 20 in the current research. and the effective multiplier is 1.2 to 1.0.0 and a capacity increase factor of 1. This reinforces that the current UFC 4-023-03 could be considered overly conservative.0. Likewise. 55 .0. the dynamic multiplier on the load (DIF) ranged from 1. The resulting effective multiplier would be 1. significantly smaller than the current criteria. particularly at normalized rotations greater than 1. the dynamic multiplier on the load (DIF) ranges from 1. As there are no LIFs in the current guidelines.0 is coupled with the specified load increase factor in the current criteria of 2.0. for steel buildings analyzed. while the LIFs proposed in this work are greater than 2. Similarly. the current DoD and GSA procedures use a load multiplier of 2. for example. and capacity increase factors (DCRs only in GSA) of between 1. However.0.05 to 1. relative conservatism must be evaluated based on the effective multiplier on the load. but are also strongly dependent on section properties. With a multiplier of 2. which is significantly less than 2. which could be under-conservative. the corresponding m-factor for a RC section would be 16. This is particularly true for cases where large deformations are allowed. Additionally. the results from the analyses of LS procedures demonstrated that LIFs depend on the total deformation as was expected. Therefore. is 2.0.0 currently used for AP analysis can produce overly conservative designs.0.0. Hence. the CIFs (m-factors) are much larger than the capacity increase factors used in the current criteria. the effective multiplier in the current UFC criteria. The results of this study showed that for RC buildings.5 and 2.25.

University of Texas at Austin. California. R. August 2006 Herrle. January... “Dynamic Considerations in Progressive Collapse Guidelines. January. G.. 2003. A Report prepared for UFC 4-023-03 Steering Group. 2006... 2007. 2004.. Reston. A. Ruth. A.BIBLIOGRAPHY ASCE/SEI 41-06 Prestandard and Commentary for the Seismic Rehabilitation of Buildings. John M. 56 ... Mckay. Ellingwood. VA.. Carino. N. B. 2004. 2006 Biggs.” MS Thesis.. Progressive Collapse Analysis and Design Guidelines for New Federal Office Buildings and Major Modernizations Projects. Stevens. Duthinh. Oakland. 2008 Powell. “Progressive Collapse: Case Studies Using Nonlinear Analysis”.S General Services Administration (GSA). K. P. Unified Facilities Criteria (UFC) 4-023-03. “Introduction to Structural Dynamics” A McGraw-Hill Publication: McGrawHill Inc. Marchand. U. “Dynamic Increase Factors (DIF) and Load Increase Factors (LIF) for Alternate Path Procedures”. K. Earthquake Engineering Research Institute. ASCE/SEI 7-05 Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures. Monterrey. Department of Civil Engineering. SEAOC Annual Convention. ARA Technology Review. Seminar Notes. Department of Defense (DoD). 2005. Smilowitz. Volume 2. New Information on the Seismic Performance of Existing Concrete Buildings... June 2006 Mckay. American Society of Civil Engineers. EERI/PEER. Number 2.. D.. American Society of Civil Engineers. D. 1964 Design of Buildings to Resist Progressive Collapse. “Best Practices for Reducing the Potential for Progressive Collapse”. Dusenberry. D. “Development and Application or Progressive Collapse Design Criteria for the Federal Government”.

5a).5EIg. Columns Description Column 1: Beams span (L).APPENDIX . center to center. Column 6: gross moment of inertia of section (Ig) = (1/12) b h3 Column 7: ASCE 41 beam stiffness (k) = (384 EI/ B L4) for a fixed-fixed beam.RESULT TABLES Table 10. EI = 0. and B is the tributary width Column 8: beam ultimate resistance (R) = (8*(2M)/B*L2) for a fixed-fixed beam Column 9: average moment (M) = Aavg fy * (d-0. Column 2: beam width (b) Column 3: beam depth (d) Column 4: average of top steel and bottom steel (Aavg) Column 5: distance from edge of beam to center of reinforcing bars. where a is depth of compression block Column 10: maximum displacement calculated at loss location with SAP2000 for NLD procedure Column 11: maximum calculated rotation = maximum displacement / L Column 12: plastic rotation = Maximum calculated rotation – yield rotation Column 13: yield rotation = ((R / k) / L) Column 14: normalized rotation = plastic rotation / yield rotation Column 15: LIF calculated with NLS procedure Column 16: DIF calculated with LS procedure 57 .

and B is the tributary width Column 7: beam ultimate resistance (R) = (8*(2M)/B*L2) for a fixed-fixed beam Column 8: moment capacity (M) = Z* fy Column 9: maximum displacement calculated at loss location with SAP2000 for NLD procedure Column 10: maximum calculated rotation = maximum displacement / L Column 11: plastic rotation = Maximum calculated rotation – yield rotation Column 12: LIF calculated with NLS procedure Column 13: yield rotation = ((R / k) / L) Column 14: normalized rotation = plastic rotation / yield rotation Column 15: DIF calculated with LS procedure 58 . Column 6: ASCE 41 beam stiffness (k) = (384 EI/ B L4) for a fixed-fixed beam. Column 2: beam Spacing (B) Column 3: steel section Column 4: Moment of Inertia (I) Column 5: plastic section modulus (Z). Columns Description Column 1: Beams span (L). EI = 0.Table 11. center to center.5EIg.

center to center. B is the tributary width Column 10: beam ultimate resistance (R) = (8*(2M)/B*L2) for a fixed-fixed beam Column 11: average moment (M) = Aavg fy * (d-0. Columns Description Column 1: Beams span (L).Table 12. where a is depth of compression block Column 12: applied load in psi Column 13: maximum displacement calculated at loss location with SDOF approach Column 14: maximum calculated rotation = maximum displacement / L Column 15: plastic rotation = Maximum calculated rotation – yield rotation Column 16: LIF calculated with NLS procedure Column 17: DIF calculated with LS procedure 59 . Column 6: gross moment of inertia of section (Ig) = (1/12) b h3 Column 7: cracked moment of inertia (Icr) Column 8: average moment of inertia (Iavg) Column 9: beam stiffness (k) = (384 EIavg/ B L4) for a fixed-fixed beam. Column 2: beam width (b) Column 3: beam depth (d) Column 4: average of top steel and bottom steel (Aavg) Column 5: distance from edge of beam to center of reinforcing bars.5a).

19 354.5 12.60 576.05 1.52 3.1 9.586 22.00 17.0077 0.50 5.021 0.0566 0.0071 (rad) 0.0357 0.038 1.66 1.79 244.21 1.46 (in) 2.68 1.0064 0.053 0. Complete Results for RC 3-Dimmensional AP Analyses Type 3-story.36 0.63 1.00 5.36 0.07 0.3 8.45 0.09 1.60 0.04 3.5 1688 0. interior beam span (in) 240 240 240 240 240 beam width beam depth (in) avg steel bar ctr calc beam area cover Ig ASCE 41 beam stiffness calc beam R calc beam M SAP calc disp calc rotation plastic rotation ASCE41 beam yield rotation norm rotation calc LIF calc DIF 20 (in) 22 (in^2) 2.0061 0.385 16.24 3.10 240 6 15 2.00 3-story (overreinforced).Table 10.21 347.90 (k-ft) 258.22 5.5 2.418 6.31 546.0128 0.0073 0.47 5. Beam Girder Int.5 1688 0.0056 1.4 (rad) 0.559 4.00 4.599 10.0518 0.292 2.00 8.0073 0.2 0.0168 3.0059 0.064 0.550 8.36 0.0200 0.053 0.5 17747 17747 17747 17747 1.78 559.50 8.36 1.0805 0.284 4.0381 0.00 13.0456 0.80 0.086 0.8 20.9 19.0147 0.70 1.0901 0.021 0.20 1.086 0.21 2.70 12.99 0.63 4.14 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 20000 16000 20000 16000 20000 16000 20000 16000 20000 16000 20000 16000 20000 16000 0.6 0.33 5.62 0.5 2.59 549.00 19.129 20 20 20 20 22 22 22 22 2.017 0. Beam Girder Int.0831 0.2 19.0028 0.0029 0.95 1. corner 240 6 15 2.21 3.13 2.0027 4.21 (in) 2.446 4.504 3.45 0.00 17.93 2.072 1.62 1.0918 0.09 1.47 136.043 8.042 0.64 5.066 0.04 1.36 0. 20 ft bay.46 132.99 1.5 15.27 226.54 343.772 14.097 0.04 .97 0.60 625.0788 0. Beam Girder Int.02 0.45 0.3 6.4 8.00 30.98 0. 20 ft bay.028 0.81 0.0142 0.11 0.533 2.16 5.14 3-Story.0056 0.42 3.0031 2.090 6.63 233.0075 0.21 6.01 0.21 1.35 3.071 5.028 0. Beam Girder Int.0629 0.21 (psi) 0.8 29.343 12.086 0.0057 0.36 0.00 10.45 0.00 19.0080 0.51 337.35 368.174 7.7 0.81 16.11 0.27 5.14 599.010 (rad) 0.5 (in^4) 17747 (psi/in) 1.042 0.45 0.06 1.039 1.837 13.70 39.0173 2.45 0.00 19.21 0.044 1.0339 0.203 10. Interior 60 Girder Int.36 0. Beam Girder Int.05 1.61 385.21 1.0583 0.16 335.0058 0.0473 0.0028 0. Beam Girder Int.04 566.9 15.76 3.61 0.4 12.0218 0.053 0.5 0.859 30.00 13.5 2.00 10.8 25.097 0.064 0. 25 ft bay.85 0.041 0.0075 0.2 29.57 229.0083 0.45 0.069 0.054 6.11 0.2 25.0357 0.8 15. Beam 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 30 24 30 24 30 24 30 24 30 24 30 24 30 24 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 6.

85 192.21 0.38 19.70 0.80 1.70 205.91 7.36 1.5 17747 17747 17747 17747 1. 20 ft bay interior 240 20 22 1.70 0.21 1. 4x8 bay.75 2.66 0.030 26.047 3-Story.0021 0.010 0.053 0.3 2.0505 0.041 31.64 0.75 2.6 19.65 0.5 5. Complete Results for RC 3-Dimmensional AP Analyses.1 8.0798 0.72 2.21 1.21 1.51 183.45 205.0076 0.71 177.010 0.21 178.0023 0.0025 37.85 181.77 1.022 0.024 0.044 17.646 9.75 2.0268 0.94 0.5 2.51 175.65 1.70 230.978 37.30 1.0021 0.606 13.0078 0.57 1.169 40.075 0.0024 0.030 0.65 1.21 1.0033 0.65 1.75 2.21 1.0314 0.2 7.51 200.671 3.0022 0.64 1.0799 0.74 2.75 2.38 186.358 23.0023 0.35 205.615 13.00 1.039 39.21 1.5 14.0197 0.3 7.75 2.57 1.21 1.042 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 1.801 8.50 1.21 0.21 1.022 0.71 0.5 2.62 0.75 2.75 17747 17747 17747 17747 17747 17747 17747 17747 17747 17747 1.075 0.66 0.64 0.53 1.61 0.21 0.082 0.5 2.0022 0.0578 0.45 271.0504 0.0021 3.4 5.80 1.0022 12.80 0.63 0.75 2.0080 0.0021 0.0730 0.75 2.67 0.21 1.21 1.0279 0.0799 0.75 2.70 192.010 0.0025 0.513 12.0278 0.053 26.00 1.245 30.0580 0.022 0.5 2.60 1.474 8.7 0.0025 0.91 175.80 1.042 40.0022 0.901 37.5 0.41 183.128 12.46 192.45 200.71 0.21 1.21 1.75 2.0073 0.0023 0.00 10. Continued 3-story.024 0.0023 0.57 2.99 1.7 19.399 33.53 1.21 1.0024 0.75 2.034 0.75 2.238 23.082 0.034 0.657 8.75 2.0197 0. 1st ext int ext int ext int ext int ext int 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 .0021 0.67 0.41 2.179 8.030 0.70 183.1 0.77 1.72 1.75 17747 17747 17747 17747 17747 17747 17747 17747 17747 17747 1. L=240.21 1.75 2.389 23.0732 0.085 2.053 0.21 1.67 191.75 1.348 5.476 14.64 0.225 3.5 18.5 17747 1.31 189.77 1.57 2.030 0.161 10.75 2. 1st ext int ext int ext int ext int ext int 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 61 3-Story.21 1.3 5.0023 0.2 12.75 2.21 1. 4x8 bay.6 5. Mid Side Long.0022 0.7 12.67 1.50 2.50 1.60 1.7 5.62 0.53 1.51 175.6 12.30 26.22 1.060 0.0197 0.060 0.71 0.1 14.901 5.50 1.0214 0.053 0.Table 10.010 0.21 1.21 1. Corner.068 14.21 1.51 205.010 0.00 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 1.0024 3.65 185.61 0.80 240 240 240 240 20 20 20 20 22 22 22 22 1.2 0.0505 0.0022 0.502 23.4 2.0025 0.0078 0. L=240.1 18.082 0.51 2.75 2.0213 0.21 0.61 202.80 5.21 1.74 1.273 8.67 0.0028 0.7 8.0313 0.

0025 0.62 2.75 2.686 34.21 1.70 1. Complete Results for RC 3-Dimmensional AP Analyses.0083 0.037 0.75 17747 17747 17747 17747 17747 17747 17747 17747 17747 1.30 1.04 3-Story.2 16.89 0.0076 0.0024 0.21 1.0831 0.77 1.0218 0.75 2.8 5.70 230.77 2.0630 0.70 2.0023 0.129 8.71 0.0253 0.066 0.00 1.355 2.75 2.21 1. Mid Side Short.75 2.010 0.71 0.0025 0.0 8.70 255.60 1.7 6.21 1.0763 0.250 33.0255 0.69 0.75 2.0027 0.0508 0.63 1.017 0.010 0.20 1.51 2.975 1.80 205.70 241.75 2.2 20.84 0.0025 0.0384 0.072 19.067 0. Interior.09 1.10 1.75 2.75 2.46 198.0025 0.71 0.00 1. 4x8 bay.70 231.65 1.328 5.0814 0.21 1.80 1.93 2.0077 0.066 0.010 0.037 0.0344 0.21 1.01 205.75 2.024 10.21 1.0023 0.21 1.017 0.0029 0.21 1.00 1.25 194.75 2.78 205.70 1.741 4.21 0.75 2.053 0.0147 0.931 12.044 5. 4x8 bay.271 26.079 16.051 30.0218 0.782 25.71 0.70 190.78 0.70 226.70 223.21 1.4 2.1 4.253 22.643 9.67 205.0023 0.71 0.011 0.21 1.21 1.71 0.8 6.023 1.71 0.75 2.01 205.079 0.70 223.0023 3.0024 0.79 0. Interior Corner.513 5.7 12.561 13.71 0.21 1.50 1.0 4.21 1.017 0.6 4.75 2.16 198.75 2. 1st ext int ext int ext int ext int ext 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 .8 15.77 1. L=240.00 1.0073 0.225 21.77 1.1 9.71 0.75 2.21 1. Continued 3-Story.70 1.181 33.77 2.0028 0.0027 0.0142 0.77 2.70 242.4 4.51 205.041 0.85 192.75 2.38 1.1 0.0077 0.47 1.46 205.75 2.22 205.0025 3.0031 0.041 36.71 205.0025 0.047 28.69 0.0381 0.165 11.0025 0.21 1.9 18.75 17747 17747 17747 17747 17747 17747 17747 17747 17747 17747 1.0031 0.21 0.75 2.024 0.75 2.21 0.028 0.94 1.0632 0.039 39.21 1.8 20.70 1. L=240.051 14.8 9.71 0.77 2.65 0.038 30.77 1.759 30.0142 0.010 0.84 0.0137 0.126 2.0025 0.71 0.0646 0.93 205.77 1.21 1.129 7.99 205.166 4.21 1. 1st 62 ext int ext int ext int ext int ext int 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 3-Story.017 0.7 12.99 1.67 1.77 2.75 1.75 2.66 0.0028 0.8 8.70 230.129 12.0028 0.0764 0.21 1.011 0.6 2.6 0.916 15.77 186.75 2.75 2.0341 0.0027 3.65 2.0025 0.21 1.75 17747 17747 17747 17747 17747 17747 17747 17747 17747 17747 1.21 1.70 255. 4x8 bay.7 18.086 0.89 0.079 0.75 2.0834 0. 1st ext int ext int ext int ext int ext int 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 1.9 0.041 0.084 0.0816 0.0071 0.593 23.95 1.75 2.80 0.084 0.80 0.16 192.21 1.68 0.75 2.75 2.053 0.942 4.053 33.21 1.99 1.67 0.0025 0.0029 0.80 0.8 15.70 1.165 9.024 0.21 1.0025 0.046 29.8 20.24 1.21 1.708 13.4 5.028 0.77 1.37 205.6 20.082 2.086 0.21 1.042 4. L=240.037 41.93 1.Table 10.0025 0.21 1.77 2.0507 0.4 2.0022 0.

1 4.02 1.7 16.075 0.0020 0.677 2.56 3.075 0. Continued 3-Story.0513 0.083 52.5 2.99 0.03 0.034 0.0 18.29 1.0016 0.366 9.03 1.02 167.21 2.61 1.56 3.0156 0.0558 0.007 0.61 0.75 2.62 1. Complete Results for RC 3-Dimmensional AP Analyses.034 54.017 0.20 170.44 269.11 0.46 0.8 1.75 2.5 2.167 69.75 0.0357 0.77 1.974 5.67 3.75 2.0 18.0011 0.56 1.20 215.631 9.1 8. Corner Optimized.70 1.Table 10.017 0.290 5.31 1.0735 0.5 2.069 0.677 14.5 0.1 4.0015 0.0553 0.631 29.56 1.70 132.0357 0.75 2.22 284.811 20.75 2.56 1.0735 0.08 170.8 4.13 2.10 172.0 0.21 2.75 2.94 0.310 1.0016 0.67 1.007 0.034 0.0173 2.75 2.0558 0.0062 0.07 1.017 0.071 3.56 3.01 172.152 12.56 1.33 1.366 14.0325 0.8 1.58 0.0011 0.11 0.0012 0.0518 0.038 10-Story.811 29.99 0.59 0. 1st ext int ext int 240 240 240 240 6 6 6 6 15 15 15 15 2.323 1.75 2.5 16.0740 0.0011 0.28 276.0320 0. L=240.75 54000 54000 23040 23040 54000 54000 23040 23040 54000 54000 23040 23040 54000 54000 23040 23040 54000 54000 23040 23040 3.47 136.0156 0.22 175.65 1.75 2.591 47.0011 0. 4x8 bay.0553 0.0053 0.0016 0.75 2.67 3.290 2.0325 0.032 26.67 3.057 0.057 0.20 269.7 18.0161 0.33 1.034 0.46 284.1 13.75 2.75 0.34 1.0 18.0740 0.7 13.0053 0.67 1. Mid Side Long 1st 63 floors 1-3 floors 4-6 floors 7-9 roof floors 1-3 floors 4-6 floors 7-9 roof floors 1-3 floors 4-6 floors 7-9 roof floors 1-3 floors 4-6 floors 7-9 roof floors 1-3 floors 4-6 floors 7-9 roof 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 24 24 20 20 24 24 20 20 24 24 20 20 24 24 20 20 24 24 20 20 30 30 24 24 30 30 24 24 30 30 24 24 30 30 24 24 30 30 24 24 .0173 0.94 0.01 276.77 1.60 0.1 8.67 1.96 0.7 13.35 1.069 0.0012 0.034 0.35 1.10 -- 6.56 1.167 35.051 18.053 0.0011 0.67 3.60 0.62 -- 1.057 0.47 0.56 1.007 0.75 2.56 3.1 4.75 2.0011 0.11 0.053 0.70 136.28 175.0016 0.67 1.0020 0.44 167.0161 0.70 1.61 1.0011 0.083 20. 4x8 bays.21 2.67 3.47 0.596 69.31 1.017 0.8 1.7 12.67 1.1 8.220 35.75 2.0168 0.75 2.65 1.11 0.0016 0.007 0.1 8.75 2.0062 0.596 47.0011 0.090 2. L=240.75 2.0016 0.70 12.7 13.071 2.96 0.75 2.81 136.58 295.5 1688 1688 1688 1688 0.0173 0.29 2.67 1.057 0.20 295.75 2.94 0.59 0.08 271.591 4.46 215.67 1.0015 5.075 0.075 0.0320 0.220 52.61 0.64 1.94 0.10 271.62 1.

58 0.230 22.0010 0.0163 0.56 3.0014 5.0010 0.017 0.67 3. L=240.081 0.527 8.03 0.0055 0.30 1.91 0.0344 0.56 1.91 0.93 0.008 0.3 2.75 2.0167 0.75 2.75 2.0017 6.56 1.0474 0.215 6.0799 0.779 14.67 3.0010 0.75 2.3 4.29 215.93 0.7 11.0344 0.049 0.29 1.041 8.10 172.0016 0.017 0.75 2.3 7.441 16.010 0.527 12.19 0.75 2.65 0.3 7.77 1.170 46.67 3.918 32.2 4.039 43.0011 0.83 211.5 8.7 11.0078 0.01 276.035 0.7 11.018 0.67 1.010 0.56 3.0158 0.066 18.58 1.33 1.035 0.46 276.83 337.57 1.00 2.675 77.94 2.67 1. L=240.56 3.25 211.67 1.75 2.035 0.20 215.75 2.21 10.83 1.3 2.00 1.75 2.0016 0.Table 10.2 4. Corner 1st 64 floors 1-3 floors 4-6 floors 7-9 roof floors 1-3 floors 4-6 floors 7-9 roof floors 1-3 floors 4-6 floors 7-9 roof floors 1-3 floors 4-6 floors 7-9 roof floors 1-3 floors 4-6 floors 7-9 roof 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 24 24 20 20 24 24 20 20 24 24 20 20 24 24 20 20 24 24 20 20 30 30 24 24 30 30 24 24 30 30 24 24 30 30 24 24 30 30 24 24 1.96 0.76 187.79 1.8 1.91 0.57 1.67 1.0020 0.20 2.17 0.0055 0.008 0.017 0.94 187.215 3.56 1.0011 0.75 1. 4x8 bays.3 2.081 0.0016 0.8 1.20 295.049 0.0013 0.96 0.37 1.5 19.56 1.75 0.75 2.430 77.34 1.01 172.049 0.018 16.3 7.029 10-Story.527 21.19 1.018 0.0014 0.2 8.45 1.010 0.0020 0.77 1.0799 0.06 2.75 54000 54000 23040 23040 54000 54000 23040 23040 54000 54000 23040 23040 54000 54000 23040 23040 54000 54000 23040 23040 3.20 156.0286 0.0064 0.60 1. Complete Results for RC 3-Dimmensional AP Analyses.0161 0.42 1.779 2.0163 0.5 8.035 0.0084 0.65 343.956 14.677 46.956 9.3 4.58 0.75 2.54 295.56 1.0013 0.65 1.10 267.56 1.75 2.0339 0.75 2.170 30.094 5.67 3.75 2.46 215.56 3.30 1.0084 0.67 2.018 0.75 2. 4x8 bays.465 2.75 2.314 55.54 0.047 4.0479 0.018 22.75 2.0013 0.56 1.441 3.3 7.67 3.93 262.905 3.0012 0.2 4.03 1.0474 0.5 11.73 0.20 1.40 1.0803 0.60 0.0290 0.7 19.57 1.0012 0.16 1.0020 0.79 168.0161 0.56 1.46 337.67 3.030 0.75 2.0015 0.65 1.56 1.0078 0.91 0.75 2.75 2.60 1.98 1.79 267.86 167.465 5.5 8.76 333.918 9.67 1.67 3.75 54000 54000 23040 23040 54000 54000 23040 23040 54000 54000 23040 23040 3.5 0.8 1.57 1.0803 0.0290 0.03 2.8 4.3 4.314 30 30 24 24 30 30 24 24 30 30 24 24 2.3 0.0014 0.20 1.67 1.0020 0.17 1.67 1.008 0.56 1.67 1.64 2.0286 0.0167 0.0017 0.86 262.0011 0.230 8.75 2.67 1.75 2.0479 0.02 167.017 0.06 1.46 215.75 2.905 12.75 2.03 1.16 0.081 0. Interior 1st floors 1-3 floors 4-6 floors 7-9 roof floors 1-3 floors 4-6 floors 7-9 roof floors 1-3 floors 4-6 floors 7-9 roof 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 24 24 20 20 24 24 20 20 24 24 20 20 .29 343.675 30.33 1.677 21.0339 0.45 2.0014 0.0010 0.59 0.030 0.67 3.049 0.430 55.081 0.0020 0.030 0.29 1.030 0.5 19.56 3.75 2.60 0.010 0. Continued 10-Story.018 0.75 2.86 156.527 32.75 0.02 262.008 0.0011 0.67 1.73 1.86 262.0015 0.56 3.67 1.0064 0.0013 0.75 2.0158 0.75 2.75 0.0016 0.5 19.75 2.3 4.75 2.25 333.93 168.59 0.0020 0.64 1.062 29.

949 7.75 1.67 1.752 2.8 1.033 87.94 0.015 0.2 8.098 0.339 87.61 1.057 0.61 0.01 276.091 0.034 0.65 1.015 0.67 3.14 1.2 21.56 1.034 10-Story.55 176.0015 0. Complete Results for RC 3-Dimmensional AP Analyses.03 0.057 0.2 14. Continued floors 1-3 floors 4-6 floors 7-9 roof floors 1-3 floors 4-6 floors 7-9 roof 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 24 24 20 20 24 24 20 20 30 30 24 24 30 30 24 24 1.0136 0.5 3.6 13.67 1.44 167.75 2.56 3.67 3.96 1.0016 0.02 1.6 13.20 295.02 167.02 13.339 37.0016 0.0015 0.75 2.0012 0.86 167.67 1.059 0.25 1.0131 0.67 1.14 1.44 269.997 30.2 14.057 0.29 2.113 58.2 8.0013 0.91 0.46 287.77 1.67 3.56 1.0333 0.0552 0.5 3.720 74.511 15.10 269.75 2.75 2.5 23.0010 0.0011 0.0011 0.0581 0.75 54000 54000 23040 23040 54000 54000 23040 23040 3.015 0.96 0.0015 0.00 1.58 0.059 0.72 1.0581 0.33 1.0020 0.96 1.5 3.0554 0.75 2.33 1.75 2.511 62.56 1.56 1.033 25.0968 0.01 172.091 0.58 0.034 0.75 2.538 30.75 2.67 1.9 0.46 215.8 1.098 0.0063 0.0063 0.152 9.0577 0.07 1.418 2.75 2.61 0.90 1.56 3.58 0.0328 0.0015 0.75 2.0328 0.015 0.67 3.56 3.9 21.059 0.24 167.75 2.059 0.10 172.0015 42.75 2.0016 0.29 1.67 3.02 262.0965 0.02 167.75 0.20 215.007 0.91 0.75 2.56 1.0011 0.0013 0.2 14.67 3.2 14.580 54.538 20.29 1.67 1.701 37.0015 0.67 1.75 2.75 2.091 0.00 0.5 0.034 0.14 0.56 1.60 0.033 58.580 20.025 53.86 262.0897 0.29 1.0013 0.0968 0.0020 0.0055 0.96 0.56 1.0897 0.031 48.113 4.974 74.29 1.75 2.098 0.997 7.007 0.0577 0.5 8.36 1.72 1.58 0.75 54000 54000 23040 23040 54000 54000 23040 23040 54000 54000 23040 23040 54000 54000 23040 23040 54000 54000 23040 23040 3.58 295.75 2. L=240.14 0.61 1.007 0.0011 0.77 1.0552 0.29 2. 4x8 bays.418 5.6 23.0903 0.0015 0.94 0.0016 0.29 1.926 42.098 0.75 2.9 21.96 1.0015 5.0333 0.9 21.24 327.55 276.752 11.67 3.57 1.75 2.75 2.60 0.5 23.8 3.0131 0.0011 0.02 327.56 1.720 35.56 3.974 62.0554 0.034 0.65 1.75 2.75 2.75 2.47 1.56 1.5 23.03 1.0010 0.58 0.29 1.24 327.58 327.007 0.926 35.50 176.0012 0.03 1.057 0.96 1.091 0.6 13.2 8.50 287.67 1.75 2.56 3.30 1.58 1.Table 10.02 167.949 11.8 1.75 2.75 2.02 167.0965 0.74 1.0903 0.0013 0.06 1. Mid Side Short 1st 65 floors 1-3 floors 4-6 floors 7-9 roof floors 1-3 floors 4-6 floors 7-9 roof floors 1-3 floors 4-6 floors 7-9 roof floors 1-3 floors 4-6 floors 7-9 roof floors 1-3 floors 4-6 floors 7-9 roof 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 24 24 20 20 24 24 20 20 24 24 20 20 24 24 20 20 24 24 20 20 30 30 24 24 30 30 24 24 30 30 24 24 30 30 24 24 30 30 24 24 .701 54.67 1.57 1.36 1.0136 0.061 18.0055 0.0011 0.24 167.

0841 0.75 2.08 295.03 1.74 1.493 20.2 5.07 1.03 0.01 276.96 0.75 54000 54000 23040 23040 54000 54000 23040 23040 54000 54000 23040 3.75 0.184 1.5 0.56 1.75 2.67 1.022 0.565 1.085 0.08 308.75 2.0386 0.75 2.6 2.019 0.6 4.0179 0.0046 0.0012 0.67 3.0 13.0833 0.205 9.01 197.75 0.982 1.75 1.53 2.0012 0.0052 0.77 1.006 0.205 29.67 3.5 20.01 0.6 13.77 1.65 2.019 0.0173 0.0012 0.205 4.876 14.0019 0.75 2.493 35.0554 0.85 1.67 1.011 0.20 215.75 2.6 2.041 19.08 203.79 203.038 0.0173 0.71 276.019 0.607 10.71 0.0013 0.Table 10.75 2.08 326.46 276.0018 8.75 2.0019 0.032 46.57 1.2 5.0049 0.035 19.56 1.5 0.585 27.13 1.75 2.040 0.67 3.71 1.85 1.13 9.6 1.0020 0.0096 0.0020 0.75 2.75 2.6 9.011 0.0357 0.78 290.75 2.57 1.67 3.65 1.0386 0.07 0.75 2.75 2.059 1.0012 0.0208 0.5 20.6 5.044 4.56 3.882 29.67 1.65 1.67 1.0015 0.75 2. L=240.56 1.67 1.0 9.0019 0.6 4.67 1.455 2.386 4.022 0.58 1.038 0.407 42.57 1.56 3.08 0.0011 0.0546 0.71 0.057 0.0379 0.455 13.0208 0.0011 0.67 1.57 1.51 310.56 1.03 0.040 0.75 2.75 0.56 1.350 42.56 3.08 203.46 290. Mid Side Long 6th floors 1-3 floors 4-6 floors 7-9 roof floors 1-3 floors 4-6 floors 7-9 roof floors 1-3 floors 4-6 floors 7-9 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 24 24 20 20 24 24 20 20 24 24 20 30 30 24 24 30 30 24 24 30 30 24 .6 4.0011 0.011 0.2 9.67 3.0019 0.78 212.006 0.74 1.65 1. Interior Corner 1st 66 floors 1-3 floors 4-6 floors 7-9 roof floors 1-3 floors 4-6 floors 7-9 roof floors 1-3 floors 4-6 floors 7-9 roof floors 1-3 floors 4-6 floors 7-9 roof floors 1-3 floors 4-6 floors 7-9 roof 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 24 24 20 20 24 24 20 20 24 24 20 20 24 24 20 20 24 24 20 20 30 30 24 24 30 30 24 24 30 30 24 24 30 30 24 24 30 30 24 24 2.03 1.67 3. L=240.006 0.052 18.607 35.67 3.57 1.01 203.035 47.71 0.0554 0.402 27.085 0.78 1.56 3.41 2.56 1.0841 0.75 2.0546 0.213 4.71 203.5 20.0012 0.20 215.0364 0.0 9.386 19.0019 0.75 2.03 32.79 308. 4x8 bays.038 0.46 215.0200 0.71 1.14 0.75 2.0012 0.0046 0.08 203.0179 0.05 327.770 3.56 1.027 10-Story.57 1.085 0.2 5.96 0.882 19.0019 0.040 0.71 1.0020 3.71 0.0833 0.75 2.057 0.0011 0.77 1.56 1.75 2.86 1.078 10.96 0.96 0.0011 0.56 3.42 203. 4x8 bays.0364 0.71 0.0357 0.46 215.0013 0. Complete Results for RC 3-Dimmensional AP Analyses.5 9.0087 0.078 19.022 0.75 2.77 1.67 3.58 1.75 2.74 0.01 1.022 0.20 295.585 47.6 4.213 8.75 2.36 1.65 1.24 203.006 0.65 1.67 1.56 1.0019 0.085 0.019 0.0020 0. Continued 10-Story.96 1.6 13.0012 0.945 1.56 3.0020 0.057 0.6 20.20 295.647 9.0087 0.75 2.025 2.0 9.75 2.011 0.05 1.96 1.48 1.74 391.0096 0.67 1.0200 0.5 9.6 1.67 1.402 73.75 2.0019 0.6 13.69 295.51 212.36 1.67 1.75 2.67 1.75 54000 54000 23040 23040 54000 54000 23040 23040 54000 54000 23040 23040 54000 54000 23040 23040 54000 54000 23040 23040 3.112 10.057 0.407 1.6 1.01 276.6 2.0011 0.038 0.75 2.350 73.51 1.0020 0.

75 2.188 10.96 0.26 276.50 1.56 0.41 182.4 2.56 1.75 2.86 262.65 0.4 2.65 1.883 53.705 23.50 1.91 0.4 24.96 0.0010 0.658 7.038 3.64 0.102 0.042 21.61 1.66 0.0703 0.0011 0.051 0.027 27.1006 0.12 1.0246 0.8 7.4 2.56 1.45 1.65 194.56 3.96 0.102 0.48 1.586 64.75 2.0011 0.51 1.67 1.75 2.0011 0.94 187.75 23040 54000 54000 23040 23040 54000 54000 23040 23040 54000 54000 23040 23040 1.033 0.75 2.56 3.65 1.86 185.47 187.37 1.0017 0.56 3.65 1.010 0.44 187.67 1.60 1.9 22.4 6.2 7.883 30 30 24 24 30 30 24 24 30 30 24 24 30 30 24 24 30 30 24 24 1.095 0.46 276.86 177.0246 0.75 2.93 0.0017 0.220 48.96 0.997 96.038 44.75 54000 54000 23040 23040 54000 54000 23040 23040 54000 54000 23040 23040 54000 54000 23040 23040 54000 54000 23040 23040 3.75 2.20 215.0494 0.26 276.43 1.9 22.56 3.91 0.75 0.57 1.91 0.64 0.0500 0.0696 0.0081 0.2 6.91 0.10 269.0010 0.57 1.0500 0.57 1.417 39.78 262. Corner 6th 67 floors 1-3 floors 4-6 floors 7-9 roof floors 1-3 floors 4-6 floors 7-9 roof floors 1-3 floors 4-6 floors 7-9 roof floors 1-3 floors 4-6 floors 7-9 roof floors 1-3 floors 4-6 floors 7-9 roof 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 24 24 20 20 24 24 20 20 24 24 20 20 24 24 20 20 24 24 20 20 .65 0.033 0.0089 0.75 0.0011 0.0011 0.026 0.0012 0.658 4.56 3.071 0.56 1.56 1.772 29.051 0.1 17.4 24.0018 0.0315 0.67 1.8 12.65 1.47 1.56 1.3 12.775 29.8 7.033 0.9 0.67 1.957 1.75 2.3 24.61 1.032 48.4 24.0011 0.051 0.725 53.0016 0.0017 0.0501 0.0308 0.0017 21.0703 0.56 3.051 0.1 22.3 12.095 0.2 6.102 0.45 1.3 12.0018 0.75 2.67 0.43 1.026 0.01 276.94 0.75 2.510 64.48 1.67 1.102 0.1000 0.095 0.75 2.0501 0.87 1.0020 0.027 46.Table 10.67 1.0943 0.417 88.3 12.579 22.94 9.586 39.778 17.0017 0.0018 0.0936 0.75 2.0936 0.75 2.79 187.67 0.071 0.0089 0.5 12.75 2.28 2.061 22.67 3.220 28.75 2.75 2.051 0.01 276.0379 0.1006 0.0081 0.0011 0.79 267.0018 0.0016 7.75 2.0017 0.62 0.67 3.75 2.778 29.75 2.0018 0.66 0.75 2.56 1.0011 0.88 262.1 17.01 276.0010 0.071 0.071 0.67 3.77 1.123 46.67 1.053 10-Story.60 1.0239 0.03 0.043 42.579 13.67 1.75 2.3 17.67 0.65 0.010 0.47 1.75 2.86 262.64 0.01 191. Continued roof floors 1-3 floors 4-6 floors 7-9 roof floors 1-3 floors 4-6 floors 7-9 roof floors 1-3 floors 4-6 floors 7-9 roof 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 20 24 24 20 20 24 24 20 20 24 24 20 20 24 30 30 24 24 30 30 24 24 30 30 24 24 1.1000 0.0696 0. 4x8 bays.67 3.41 1.051 0.67 3.185 96.56 1.775 18.03 1.0315 0.46 215.033 0.96 0.75 2.75 2.997 60.0011 0.94 0.75 2.579 13.051 0.67 3.01 194.81 175.0494 0.67 1.67 3.61 295.75 2.38 1.94 267.0018 0.0943 0.3 12.75 2.31 184.0494 0.75 2.510 27.051 0.0010 0.44 269.0012 0.2 6.65 1.66 0.9 22.32 1.10 1.75 2.50 1.75 2.56 1.65 1.010 0.4 0.0017 0.811 61.8 7.026 0.77 1.57 1.35 2.0308 0.061 4. Complete Results for RC 3-Dimmensional AP Analyses.56 1.010 0.1 17.93 0.061 13.0239 0.20 295.45 2.040 0.96 0.10 191.26 194.034 33.67 3.45 1.01 190.0493 0.56 3.0020 0.095 0.67 1. L=240.3 12.026 0.725 88.0011 0.75 2.

68 1.67 1.56 3.0012 0.4 6.01 1.75 2.29 343.67 3.5 6.56 3.60 250.06 2.67 3.0012 0.95 1.0014 0. L=240.67 3.0014 0.0358 0.67 3.733 49. Continued 10-Story.736 18.4 6.027 0.6 2.60 2.85 1.48 295.0023 0.6 2.75 2.914 17.67 1.20 295.0674 0.027 0.29 343.0200 0.081 0.700 20.29 223.19 1.19 0.0020 0.06 1.027 0.4 19.679 6.0014 0.20 295.75 0.0014 0.0083 0.0667 0.038 0.374 4.75 2. Complete Results for RC 3-Dimmensional AP Analyses.1 9.75 2.75 2.5 19.081 0.0089 0.03 28.011 0.038 0.75 2.700 31.5 16.75 2.0014 0.0247 0.027 0.0783 0.19 1.038 0.56 1.75 2.60 223.011 0.68 2.19 0.111 10.67 1.563 33.4 0.0089 0.0012 0.75 2.4 9.1 9.733 33.77 1.0098 0.038 0.02 1.56 1.95 2.78 1.0358 0.0020 0.77 1.03 0.75 2.069 0.0014 0.03 0.46 215.19 0.46 215.022 0.0207 0.432 4.010 0.19 1.48 2.87 0.0254 0.75 2.75 2.4 19.67 1.0021 0.0020 0.69 1.79 343.010 0.069 0.0247 0.46 295.34 343.67 2.20 198.6 5.011 0.105 10.29 217.038 0.0098 0.53 1.87 343.56 1.75 2.35 1.679 3.79 0.75 2.081 0.0793 0.56 1.06 1.010 0.928 26.06 1.1 9.73 1.79 1.78 0.081 0.038 15.0014 0.67 3.06 2.5 16.73 2.75 2.563 58.46 343.56 1.5 2.0020 0.480 17.0020 0.0012 0.938 3.75 2.0793 0. Interior 6th 68 floors 1-3 floors 4-6 floors 7-9 roof floors 1-3 floors 4-6 floors 7-9 roof floors 1-3 floors 4-6 floors 7-9 roof floors 1-3 floors 4-6 floors 7-9 roof floors 1-3 floors 4-6 floors 7-9 roof 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 24 24 20 20 24 24 20 20 24 24 20 20 24 24 20 20 24 24 20 20 30 30 24 24 30 30 24 24 30 30 24 24 30 30 24 24 30 30 24 24 2.19 1.06 2.67 3.53 1.75 2.67 1.038 0.56 1.67 3.75 2.69 0.5 16. 4x8 bays.06 2. Mid Side Short Edge 6th floors 1-3 floors 4-6 floors 7-9 roof floors 1-3 floors 4-6 floors 7-9 roof floors 1-3 floors 4-6 floors 7-9 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 24 24 20 20 24 24 20 20 24 24 20 30 30 24 24 30 30 24 24 30 30 24 1.904 31.812 17.75 0.56 3.2 5.0018 8.67 1.75 2.032 10-Story.489 33.038 0.037 4.56 3.79 227.0012 0.0021 0.75 1.4 6.904 10.75 0.03 1.480 4.0674 0.2 5.0200 0.0014 0.56 3.011 0.67 1.0369 0.0090 0.928 11.938 18.06 1.0021 0.0018 0.0014 0.17 2.0090 0.0083 0.022 0.06 2.29 250.56 1.77 1.1 9.56 1.75 2.75 2.29 227.0014 0.069 0.19 0.19 0.6 2.0363 0.77 1.736 11.75 2.06 1.Table 10.758 17. 4x8 bays.0023 6.75 1.48 198.75 2.03 1.75 1.40 1.0364 0.60 343.03 0.53 1.89 1.0020 0.77 1.0012 0.374 8.75 2.77 2.069 0.489 58.29 343.022 0.19 1.75 2.77 1.034 33.75 2.1 9.75 2.5 2.2 9. L=240.29 215.56 3.0207 0.20 215.022 0.914 26.75 2.75 .0018 0.34 217.56 1.813 54000 54000 23040 23040 54000 54000 23040 23040 54000 54000 23040 3.67 1.75 54000 54000 23040 23040 54000 54000 23040 23040 54000 54000 23040 23040 54000 54000 23040 23040 54000 54000 23040 23040 3.29 343.20 192.67 1.20 295.0369 0.0667 0.67 1.2 5.1 16.0021 0.67 295.03 1.29 343.0364 0.0783 0.5 2.0254 0.010 0.75 2.4 19.1 0.812 49.67 1.67 3.67 1.758 10.813 33.77 1.047 17.

56 3.17 295.054 0.14 1.050 0.9 4.79 2.050 0.81 1.012 0.2 13.77 1.90 1.0530 0.20 238. Complete Results for RC 3-Dimmensional AP Analyses.030 0.0363 0.019 0.86 9.9 11.0012 0.510 24.80 1.828 63.0776 0.77 1.01 192.0479 0. Corner 9th floors 1-3 240 24 .03 0.77 1.596 24.0776 0.9 11.75 2.03 0.85 1.75 2.77 1.0530 0.054 0.032 35.0 13.03 1.77 1.7 4.75 2.75 54000 54000 23040 23040 54000 54000 23040 23040 54000 54000 23040 23040 54000 54000 23040 23040 54000 54000 23040 23040 3.1 11.0485 0.03 1.0766 0.83 1.0183 0.388 30 1.92 231.679 15.56 1.80 256.75 2.0108 0.0172 0.56 1.012 0.030 0.38 295.079 0.030 0.0023 0.0277 0. L=240.0012 0.46 1.012 0.75 2.75 23040 54000 54000 23040 23040 54000 54000 23040 23040 1.75 2.596 7.9 18.77 2.0287 0.1 0.66 0. Interior Corner 6th 69 floors 1-3 floors 4-6 floors 7-9 roof floors 1-3 floors 4-6 floors 7-9 roof floors 1-3 floors 4-6 floors 7-9 roof floors 1-3 floors 4-6 floors 7-9 roof floors 1-3 floors 4-6 floors 7-9 roof 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 24 24 20 20 24 24 20 20 24 24 20 20 24 24 20 20 24 24 20 20 10-Story.1 18.019 0.77 1.0108 0.56 1.054 0.75 2.9 2.0096 0.81 0.0172 0.03 1.67 3. Continued roof floors 1-3 floors 4-6 floors 7-9 roof floors 1-3 floors 4-6 floors 7-9 roof 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 20 24 24 20 20 24 24 20 20 24 30 30 24 24 30 30 24 24 1.038 0.031 4.15 295.432 41.418 26.03 0.9 0.43 1.054 0.83 0.0022 0.0018 0.48 1.0024 0.56 1.67 3.20 227.079 0.0012 0.076 0.67 1.75 2.56 1.019 0.67 3.67 3.03 0.0021 0.79 0.48 1.0485 0.634 24.65 192.0012 0.619 66.67 1.030 0.03 1.9 18.20 189.0022 0.85 9.20 295.85 1.75 2.67 1.646 27.77 1.03 0.67 3.0277 0.20 295.210 23.75 2.92 295.90 1.0743 0.03 1.9 2.0017 20.0018 0.0520 0.75 2.20 256.0012 0.85 0.9 2.75 2.11 1.67 1.050 0.77 1.67 1.89 1.15 238.75 2.9 11.91 262.17 295.076 0.75 2.75 2.80 295.75 2.77 1.85 1.79 295.75 2.76 1.0 13. L=240.0012 0.20 185.0012 0.75 2.0183 0.75 2.20 244.079 0.038 4.7 4.076 0.75 2.75 2.75 2.036 14.557 12.634 12.67 3.00 2.257 9.77 2.56 1.0 13.050 0.646 41.20 295.033 21.029 31.75 2.0012 0.2 7.56 1.0024 0.20 295.0096 0.510 45.85 185.951 63.019 0.03 1.0479 0.0012 0.79 227.0010 35.0012 0.56 3.75 2.56 3.0012 0.0017 0.65 0.679 7.58 1.75 2.1 18.0017 0.2 7.77 1.9 18.0012 0. 4x8 bays.67 1.38 244.03 0.0023 0.20 295.1 18.079 0.20 295.67 1.0738 0.77 1.77 1.03 1.260 66.56 0.9 18.57 2.56 3.0012 0.75 2.0520 0.038 0.0 0.67 1.260 24.0021 9.257 4.619 36.0365 0.0738 0.20 231.0012 0.085 7.031 15.0021 0.43 2.80 1.0 18.0766 0.7 4.7 7.076 0.56 3.0287 0.89 0.828 42.0021 0.012 0.2 7.75 2.047 11.Table 10.00 1.75 54000 3.388 36.052 10-Story.57 1.77 1.89 1.934 42.934 30 30 24 24 30 30 24 24 30 30 24 24 30 30 24 24 30 30 24 24 1.03 0.56 1.557 45. 4x8 bays.67 0.67 1.0743 0.17 1.45 1.20 295.77 1.56 3.67 3.

39 203.61 3.0010 0.3 12.479 18.980 8.0495 0.26 0.38 0.241 2.38 0.75 17280 17280 17280 17280 17280 17280 17280 17280 11520 11520 11520 11520 0.0342 0.241 2.911 8.0501 0.2 25.010 30.19 484.0 25.10 1.75 2.61 3.0 25.2 14. Continued floors 4-6 floors 7-9 roof floors 1-3 floors 4-6 floors 7-9 roof 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 24 20 20 24 24 20 20 30 24 24 30 30 24 24 1.0152 0.62 2.75 2.0068 0.3 12.75 2.01 440.26 0.60 3.117 10.75 2.41 364.0068 0.083 0.0082 0.62 0.78 0.051 0.0075 0.037 5.0075 0.67 1.05 3.893 5.86 178.051 0.0357 0.45 9.0068 0.0 25.38 0.0019 0.2 14.010 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 4.38 0.0015 0.75 2.037 5.12 441.0068 0.6 12.357 20.0365 0.45 178.357 10.01 356.60 3.38 0.022 0.67 1.0082 0.19 484.67 3.0091 0.88 1.26 0.41 395.0068 0.3 12.60 3.022 0.0141 0.86 159.35 3.01 440.75 17280 17280 17280 17280 17280 17280 17280 17280 11520 11520 11520 11520 0.0750 0.0068 0.0091 0.86 262.65 484.57 1.51 1.893 1.78 0.0 9.00 3.75 2. Corner 1st floors 1-3 floors 4-6 floors 7-9 roof floors 1-3 floors 4-6 floors 7-9 roof floors 1-3 floors 4-6 floors 7-9 roof 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 10 10 10 10 .38 0.86 0.38 0.70 0.5 6.3 0.71 1.78 0.117 9.75 2.08 262.5 6.75 2.00 4.19 484.57 1.01 440.08 12.0075 0.38 0.0 25.62 2.56 0.3 12.0406 0.0342 0.63 0.045 4.75 2.60 356.124 8.0743 0.01 440. 4x8 bays.037 5.047 0.75 54000 23040 23040 54000 54000 23040 23040 3.0761 0.78 0.12 441.2 14.60 3.0152 0.893 1.022 0.0406 0.60 3.3 25.57 1.62 262.0 9.78 0.0752 0.38 0.75 2.038 0.038 0.05 2.75 2.60 2.0141 0.00 4.Table 10.38 0.3 12.0084 0.75 2.56 441.26 0.75 2.5 14.0068 0.0068 0.75 2.0501 0.57 1.05 1.86 0.1 13.00 4.91 0.0 0.78 0.12 441.0016 35.0068 0.0752 0.78 0.0010 0.61 3.75 2.68 317.65 0.0750 0.051 0.0361 0.78 0.124 8.0 0.0761 0.0141 0.210 24.041 0.0068 0.41 1.04 6. Mid Side Long 1st 70 floors 1-3 floors 4-6 floors 7-9 roof floors 1-3 floors 4-6 floors 7-9 roof floors 1-3 floors 4-6 floors 7-9 roof 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 10 10 10 10 10-Story.0406 0.38 0.047 0.340 48.23 1.75 2.18 10.083 0.6 6.083 0.38 0.6 6.022 0.5 6.60 317.38 2.61 3.241 5.75 2.997 48.75 2.051 0.893 1.19 440.91 0.022 0.241 2.38 0.0068 0.70 0.75 2.75 2.0084 1.0 12.71 0.56 1.78 0.0342 0.0 25.047 0.3 12.980 5.78 0.68 6.980 5.75 2.0016 0.86 0.75 2.0068 0.0874 10-Story.083 0.60 3.911 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 3.56 3.0141 0.12 440.26 0.083 0.022 0.038 0.0342 0.26 0.78 0.0743 0.35 3.083 0.75 2.75 2.041 0.01 395.56 0.38 0. L=300.0152 0.18 8.6 6.0010 0.50 1.0073 2.022 0.75 2. 4x8 bays.55 0.041 0.38 1.60 3.037 9.26 0.0495 0.0075 0.083 0.0874 5.022 0.0152 0.04 364.38 0.98 2.75 2.38 0.91 0.0406 0.980 5.01 440.75 2.78 0.75 2.01 440.041 0.86 0. Complete Results for RC 3-Dimmensional AP Analyses.047 0.26 0.98 2.56 1.0 25. L=300.63 0.0073 0.083 0.340 30.

3 26. Complete Results for RC 3-Dimmensional AP Analyses.00 0.0284 0.71 4.05 3.3 26.50 4.75 2.041 0.75 2.90 0.3 0.35 3.0786 0.00 1.42 3.26 0.0084 2.2 6.38 0.10 1.74 3.044 0.58 455.186 8.590 2.10 1.37 1.51 560.021 0.0068 0.78 0.38 0.75 2.70 0.354 5.0924 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 3. Corner 5th floors 1-3 floors 4-6 floors 7-9 roof floors 1-3 300 300 300 300 300 15 15 15 15 15 .60 3.023 0.081 0. Interior 1st floors 1-3 floors 4-6 floors 7-9 roof floors 1-3 floors 4-6 floors 7-9 roof floors 1-3 floors 4-6 floors 7-9 roof 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 10 10 10 10 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 5.602 9.81 0.38 0.75 2.430 9.38 0.69 419.0065 0.0070 0.159 1.023 0.0091 0.60 3.023 0.0168 0.041 0.081 0.74 3.430 5.088 0. Mid Side Long 5th 71 floors 1-3 floors 4-6 floors 7-9 roof floors 1-3 floors 4-6 floors 7-9 roof floors 1-3 floors 4-6 floors 7-9 roof 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 10 10 10 10 10-Story.38 0.3 0.85 0.75 0.75 2.26 1.75 2.0086 0.10 1.735 3.0168 0. 4x8 bays.0692 0.00 1.0068 0.602 8.0700 0.01 440.00 1.735 3.0118 0.0323 0.344 6.0 13.30 5. L=300.0060 2.38 0.38 0.74 3.6 26.0193 0.021 0.735 5.78 0.026 0.51 560.81 0.75 2.088 0.75 2.29 621.85 621.0794 0.081 0.10 1.60 3.0794 0.0084 0.26 0.75 2.088 0.105 9.29 560.021 0.38 0.0382 0.10 1.3 12.17 4.75 2.2 6. Continued 10-Story.3 24.023 0.035 0.756 4.11 477.75 2.035 0.026 0.38 0.75 2.42 3.0065 0.0284 0.0110 0.0070 0.0111 0.90 0.38 0.75 17280 17280 17280 17280 17280 17280 17280 17280 11520 11520 11520 11520 0.11 6.0323 0.0323 0.3 24.088 0.32 477.60 3.42 3.75 2.26 0.Table 10.38 0.186 4.41 395.51 560.186 4.0065 0.70 0.38 0.65 455.0118 0. L=300.71 4.75 17280 17280 17280 17280 17280 17280 17280 17280 11520 11520 11520 11520 0.0096 0.75 17280 17280 17280 17280 17280 0.75 0.035 0.3 12.01 440.0096 0.26 0.17 10.78 0.75 2.6 10.590 2.186 4.30 4.30 5.0896 24 24 24 24 24 3.0065 0.38 0.04 364.16 2.0096 0.42 3.0111 0.0091 0.74 3. 4x8 bays.021 0.0 7.2 6.78 0.75 2.0193 0.0193 0.0086 0.0323 0.26 0.041 0.32 508.75 0.38 0. 4x8 bays.14 1.10 1.65 0.590 2.3 0.159 1.01 395.30 5.75 2.6 10.344 3.75 2.035 0.75 2.756 2.75 0.041 0.00 1.58 455.75 2.0111 0.38 0.2 12.75 2.590 6.0070 0.11 11.75 2.75 2.0193 0.91 1.09 10-Story.81 0.0786 0.38 0.026 0.38 0.82 419.29 621.38 0.0 7.0070 0.40 1.893 6.75 2.17 2.9 7.38 0.9 7.6 10.081 0.0111 0.9 10.81 0.026 0.71 4.159 3.05 2.58 440.82 390.38 0.3 24.0086 0.51 508.893 5.0096 0.71 4.75 2.756 2.75 2.0700 0.58 455.3 24.01 440.14 6.82 419.26 0.0692 0.04 7.75 2.35 3.0168 0.3 12.0284 0.159 1.50 4.0086 0.0068 0.9 7.41 364.32 7.0068 0. L=300.735 3.756 2.0 7.26 0.0284 0.0110 1.38 0.0168 0.3 26.82 419.29 621.69 1.22 6.

0726 0.26 0.70 0.0589 0.283 11.38 0.98 2.75 2.26 1.75 2.0093 0.26 0. L=300.217 6.62 2.5 6.75 2.95 604.38 0.4 15.88 1.0071 0.38 0.75 2.0063 0. Mid Side Long 8th floors 1-3 floors 4-6 floors 7-9 roof floors 1-3 floors 4-6 floors 7-9 roof floors 1-3 floors 4-6 floors 7-9 roof 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 10 10 10 10 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 .0450 0.85 0.354 6.671 7.0 26.38 0.0738 0. Interior 5th 72 floors 1-3 floors 4-6 floors 7-9 roof floors 1-3 floors 4-6 floors 7-9 roof floors 1-3 floors 4-6 floors 7-9 roof 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 10 10 10 10 10-Story.0589 0. Complete Results for RC 3-Dimmensional AP Analyses.0119 0.0450 0.019 0. Continued floors 4-6 floors 7-9 roof floors 1-3 floors 4-6 floors 7-9 roof 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 15 15 15 10 10 10 10 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 3.64 1.264 7.73 0.0774 0.051 0.56 390.69 0.39 4.26 0.38 0.62 2.75 17280 17280 17280 17280 17280 17280 17280 17280 11520 11520 11520 11520 0.0071 0.14 5.2 24.0738 0.318 1.75 17280 17280 17280 17280 17280 17280 17280 17280 11520 11520 11520 11520 0.019 0.5 20.94 0.7 5.0071 0.0735 0.3 13.0118 0.0781 0.0071 0.0063 0.73 0.14 5.131 7.04 364.0082 0.32 463.38 0.081 0.689 6.95 526.0093 0.75 2.0091 0.32 477.051 0.14 4.75 2.0110 0.11 477.085 0.4 15.33 3.75 2.82 0.0081 0.08 1.689 3.41 395.044 0.7 5.671 1.2 10.11 6.32 508.05 2.067 0.087 0.36 526.0450 0.4 15.56 0.38 0.131 8.003 10.38 0.0726 0.36 508.283 9.Table 10.75 2.044 0.264 6.36 526.32 463.2 0.06 1.32 390.022 0.022 0.75 2.0730 0.264 7.051 0.82 0.0382 0.0060 0.0081 0.32 463.1 25.69 0.65 395.087 0.38 0.65 409.0081 0.0119 0.75 2.32 356.50 4.81 3.75 2.0060 0.14 5.019 0.38 0.00 1.26 0.0123 0.60 317.5 6.0896 3.85 604.65 409.65 463.318 7.90 0.7 5.32 390.087 0.43 1.4 25.75 2.0084 0.0123 0.39 4.68 317.4 26.671 1.04 5.65 409.0063 0.81 3.0118 0.081 0.0 26.35 3.0589 0.081 0.0081 0.318 1.318 1.354 6.75 2.467 9.0589 0.0382 0.17 2.0082 0.1 20.33 3.94 0.217 6.0119 0.26 0.60 356.0914 10-Story.75 2.3 24.16 3.75 2.81 3.75 2.0091 0.087 0.75 2.41 364.671 1.5 6.38 0.26 0.94 0.05 3.08 1.26 0.0382 0.38 0.75 2.38 0.68 13.0073 6.69 0.98 2.067 0.0063 0.0093 0.26 0.0084 1. 4x8 bays.82 0.16 3.081 0.36 526.4 25.2 10.0892 3.70 0.0450 0.022 0.354 8.08 1.7 15.0 26.95 604.75 2.067 0.73 0.0 0.1 20.33 3.0123 0.75 2.39 4.32 409.16 2.17 4.75 17280 17280 17280 11520 11520 11520 11520 0.75 2.23 1.75 2.63 0.35 3.4 25.38 0.75 2.085 0.0730 0.044 0.022 0.75 2.75 2.82 0.50 4.0073 0.38 0. L=300.085 0.2 24.051 0.0774 0.0119 0.08 9.65 0.2 24.94 0.0110 1.264 7.75 2.33 3.95 604.38 0.75 2.003 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 5.0093 0.90 0.067 0.467 8.802 8.38 0.0123 0.4 0.0781 0.63 0.1 20.019 0.0060 0.26 0.26 0.26 0.38 0.131 7.131 7.085 0. 4x8 bays.802 10.38 0.71 1.81 3.73 0.39 4.0735 0.3 13.08 11.75 2.08 0.

0091 0.00 5.0410 0.38 0.73 0.75 2.75 2.0730 0.0091 0.75 2.0057 0.53 526.75 17280 17280 17280 17280 17280 17280 17280 17280 11520 11520 11520 11520 0.00 2.38 0.0771 0.65 409.26 0.26 0.39 1.0364 0.26 0.63 0.46 1.38 0.85 0.366 1.6 24.62 2.60 317.62 2.75 2.088 0.38 0.38 0.4 26.0138 0.4 26.11 6.39 4.38 0.05 0.75 2.1 24.088 0.97 371.75 2.00 5.022 0.26 0.38 0.36 526.00 5.501 6.90 0.022 0.0091 0. Continued 10-Story.38 0.0110 1.39 4.179 2.56 409.73 0.0063 0.38 0.75 2.66 0.75 2.1 0.Table 10.0865 10-Story.350 6.0364 0.350 8.0 12.6 12.0057 0.36 526.049 0.0082 0.68 6.75 2.33 3.11 477.0410 0.991 4.12 1.053 5.0 6.00 3.33 3.36 508.0081 0.32 508.17 2.85 590.0081 0.5 14.0073 2.042 0.020 0.0138 0.38 0.36 1.94 0.049 0.0081 0.60 1.38 0.745 8.75 2.63 0.75 2.042 0.2 9.0410 0.53 590.38 0.65 409.66 0.939 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 5.0721 0.080 0.0110 0.00 4.38 0.09 11.350 6.0771 0.991 6.97 371.0721 0.66 0.049 0.68 317.98 2.38 0.75 2. Interior 8th 73 floors 1-3 floors 4-6 floors 7-9 roof floors 1-3 floors 4-6 floors 7-9 roof floors 1-3 floors 4-6 floors 7-9 roof 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 10 10 10 10 .0124 0.2 6.7 14.53 590.0063 0.32 477.05 1.90 0.98 2.0082 0.0764 0.36 526.0057 0.26 0.7 14.350 6.0118 0.0914 3.94 0.94 0.0073 0.75 2.75 2.7 26.26 0.366 1.6 12.50 4.53 590.0364 0.05 1.97 356.088 0.179 2.0730 0. Corner 8th floors 1-3 floors 4-6 floors 7-9 roof floors 1-3 floors 4-6 floors 7-9 roof floors 1-3 floors 4-6 floors 7-9 roof 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 10 10 10 10 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 3.501 6.0118 0.33 3.080 0.65 409.00 3.939 9.0124 0.042 0.75 2.0138 0.89 1.26 1.50 4.366 5.60 356.022 0.26 0.75 2.053 5.0124 0.75 17280 17280 17280 17280 17280 17280 17280 17280 11520 11520 11520 11520 0.4 0. L=300.5 6.049 0.39 4.97 371.080 0. L=300.0410 0.39 4.1 24.0124 0.56 0.75 2.0764 0.0081 0.042 0.4 26.0063 0.020 0.179 6.75 2.0138 0.00 3.65 371.085 9.1 24.38 0.05 1.5 6.053 5.088 0.73 0.745 9.366 1.94 0.020 0.75 2.5 6.0 6.66 0.0 6. Complete Results for RC 3-Dimmensional AP Analyses.75 2. 4x8 bays.022 0.053 6.6 12.75 2.73 0.0057 0.7 14.0091 0.38 0.080 0.179 2.0063 0.75 2.33 3.0364 0.17 4.020 0. 4x8 bays.

1 3.75 2.0405 0.5 0.00 1.65 785.0050 0. Complete Results for RC 3-Dimmensional AP Analyses.0119 0.051 0.75 2.70 1.5 5.95 5.0099 0.0160 0.21 0.21 0.544 1.0109 0.30 0.75 2.7 8.18 1.0094 0.51 690.4 6.497 0.62 0.022 0.5 5.75 2.7 7.018 0.0057 0.565 1.01 1651.046 0.97 925.5 5.1 3.65 6.242 1.75 5.5 5.00 0.71 1014.62 0.6 5.0091 0.75 2.21 0.015 0.08 1. Continued 10-Story.00 6.0168 0.75 2.60 5.5 18.05 7.88 0.012 0.10 1.95 5.77 722.95 5.75 2.0015 0.10 688.75 2.48 0.444 4.0086 0.556 -0.75 2.022 0.88 0.50 10.10 970.0074 0.015 0.30 5.012 0.6 5.376 1.0160 0.00 4.015 0.21 0.10 0.845 1.40 6.0099 0.75 2.0000 0.01 1151.75 2.80 5.02 603.48 0.75 2.0119 0.75 2.087 1.0191 0.74 690.5 18.95 4.21 0.0081 0.5 5.0129 0.0086 0.0372 0.0001 0.009 0.75 2.0060 0.81 0.018 0.30 0.0109 0.75 2.23 909.022 0. L=360.565 0.62 0.037 1.75 2.000 0.30 0.845 0.75 2.75 2.6 5.10 6.30 0.736 1.078 2.280 0.75 2.908 0.0054 0.4 6.10 0.116 .015 0.30 0. 4x8 bays.0166 0.1 4.11 785.75 2.0060 0.0096 0.74 0.13 1.48 0.48 0.0050 0.02 851.48 0.68 0.4 16.0130 0.75 2.0047 0.75 2.497 1.191 -0.012 0.5 4.444 5.046 0.046 0.10 5.0 8.75 2.015 0.75 2.10 0.046 4.65 2.012 0.05 6.48 0.0129 0.70 1.022 0.75 2.11 1102.48 0.75 2.0059 0.423 8.556 0.000 0.280 3.31 658.0065 0.62 0.0 8.022 0.7 7.74 909.037 3.65 6.80 0.75 2.022 0.0055 -0.0091 0.68 0.46 1.022 0.21 0.6 6.0372 0.71 0.07 688.10 0.0065 0.0440 0.0166 0.74 1.0191 0.00 10.0055 0.71 0.48 0.75 54000 54000 23040 23040 54000 54000 23040 23040 54000 54000 23040 23040 33750 33750 11520 11520 54000 54000 23040 23040 33750 33750 11520 11520 54000 54000 23040 23040 54000 54000 23040 23040 33750 33750 11520 0.75 2.009 0.0 16.0036 -0.4 18.3044 1.50 7.30 4.23 605.0094 0.0 8.30 0. Corner 1st 74 floors 1-3 floors 4-6 floors 7-9 roof floors 1-3 floors 4-6 floors 7-9 roof floors 1-3 floors 4-6 floors 7-9 roof floors 1-3 floors 4-6 floors 7-9 roof floors 1-3 floors 4-6 floors 7-9 roof floors 1-3 floors 4-6 floors 7-9 roof floors 1-3 floors 4-6 floors 7-9 roof floors 1-3 floors 4-6 floors 7-9 roof floors 1-3 floors 4-6 floors 7-9 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 24 24 20 20 24 24 20 20 24 24 20 20 15 15 10 10 24 24 20 20 15 15 10 10 24 24 20 20 24 24 20 20 15 15 10 30 30 24 24 30 30 24 24 30 30 24 24 30 30 24 24 30 30 24 24 30 30 24 24 30 30 24 24 30 30 24 24 30 30 24 11.04 0.015 0.078 0.018 0.7 7.81 1.5 4.65 6.51 970.75 2.0057 0.022 0.009 0.97 658.21 0.536 0.21 0.015 0.21 0.75 2.00 5.0168 0.0368 0.75 2.00 11.0074 0.40 6.13 0.03 778.94 0.77 1048.015 0.71 0.71 722.142 0.009 0.48 0.0086 0.0015 0.4 6.48 0.046 8.95 0.18 1.018 0.0081 0.0145 0.33 1151.046 0.0084 0.0055 0.0086 0.0047 0.71 1.21 0.08 0.65 1014.37 603.0440 0.142 1.75 2.0059 0.191 2.0100 0.48 0.0405 0.18 1.968 5.968 2.Table 10.75 2.94 0.0100 0.051 0.60 5.423 1.0130 0.54 1651.0000 0.051 0.07 1048.304 1.45 5.80 5.33 1102.00 7.18 3.40 925.536 0.009 0.4 7.95 0.5 4.75 2.4 16.00 7.48 0.03 522.21 0.0054 0.009 0.75 5.21 0.31 851.0055 0.80 0.00 6.908 0.1 3.0096 0.0084 0.4 16.37 778.0001 0.04 1.65 6.40 605.45 5.0036 0.

9 23.275 1.68 0.020 0.6 6.2 7.0144 0.21 0.018 0.75 2.21 1.48 0.00 0.0055 0.2 7.0057 0.10 5.51 970.018 0.0081 0.80 2.0127 0.0144 0.018 0.95 0.85 0.98 0.75 2.020 0.0120 0.60 0.80 4.0096 0.95 0.9 23.21 0.60 970.70 679.21 0.0094 0.0057 0. 4x8 bays.018 0.45 5.018 0.018 0.0089 0.00 6.21 0.6 7.4 6.15 5.849 2.0081 0.74 955.48 0.018 0.849 0.0615 0.0089 0.0583 0.0096 0.65 5.0615 0.0081 2.75 2.020 0. L=360.0049 0.15 4.75 5.10 6.00 5.242 2.543 7.0120 0.066 0.48 0.0057 0.97 658.084 2.0081 0.75 2.75 2.074 75 .066 0.6 6.242 0.48 0.0091 0.75 2.0108 0.97 925.75 2.65 5.2 7.628 1.97 679.0108 0.4 6.Table 10.45 5.6 6.75 2.68 0. Continued 10-Story.0583 0.066 0.0094 0.159 1.066 0.0057 0.70 955.80 5.75 2.70 0.75 2.307 1.48 0.70 0.68 6.48 0.2 23.159 7.628 2.020 0.68 586.71 0.74 690.9 0.177 1.51 690.48 0.4 6.321 1.98 0.48 0.9 23. Complete Results for RC 3-Dimmensional AP Analyses. Corner 1st Additional data) floors 1-3 floors 4-6 floors 7-9 roof floors 1-3 floors 4-6 floors 7-9 roof floors 1-3 floors 4-6 floors 7-9 roof floors 1-3 floors 4-6 floors 7-9 roof 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 24 24 20 20 24 24 20 20 24 24 20 20 24 24 20 20 30 30 24 24 30 30 24 24 30 30 24 24 30 30 24 24 6.4 6.944 2.0049 0.084 0.35 586.944 0.177 12.75 2.21 0.0091 0.35 828.75 2.75 2.85 0.71 0.0055 0.75 6.31 828.018 0.00 1.21 0.97 925.75 2.0127 0.21 0.31 658.75 2.543 12.80 5.75 54000 54000 23040 23040 54000 54000 23040 23040 54000 54000 23040 23040 54000 54000 23040 23040 0.

17 2.62 1.016 0.44 11.43 0.56 1.5 0.18 0.0071 0.44 16.37 2.60 0.0438 0.79 0.80 0.63 0.13 318.94 490.0081 0.90 1.12 2.8 6.06 9.5 0.24 1.38 669.39 0.42 8.0086 0.47 0.42 1.11 1.05 1.0114 0.99 11.84 3.50 13.50 459.12 0.24 0.0304 2.4 0.27 0.44 13.68 1.48 343.0061 0.84 2.19 0.038 0.46 0.45 1.96 1.54 304.25 0.018 0.0113 0.94 5.0172 0.36 300 300 W14x43 428 69.46 0.5 0.28 0.25 290.6 1.12 2.76 4.47 9.49 3.82 1.15 0.23 .016 0.50 2.67 1.11 0.93 5.Table 11.37 2.29 1.0013 0.85 1.38 1.78 0.35 2.018 0.18 0.8 4.28 0.016 0.0097 0.45 0.82 1.84 1.0301 2.0263 0.42 6.0058 0.42 300 300 300 300 W18x40 W14x38 612 385 78.0113 0.15 0.57 0.77 4.61 0.00 290.03 0.93 0. Complete Results.82 0.22 0.030 0.021 0.00 269.49 0.0113 0.0102 0.23 3.00 0.056 0.4 134 78.44 1.74 1.87 0.04 0.23 1.0124 0.52 481.99 8.013 0.94 459.44 0.34 0.96 0.4 61.90 2.80 1.71 2.031 0.016 0.045 0.0113 0.22 0.8 1.4 123 72.78 1.61 0.76 4.17 0.00 538.0101 0.0039 0.46 0.06 3.82 1.28 0.0199 0.031 0.10 1.0187 0.0118 0.0419 1.31 0.44 0.84 1.056 0.91 16.38 417.44 1.38 1.0052 0.56 0.6 0.35 2.030 0.74 581.0127 0.045 0.86 0.43 0.0080 1.96 538.62 300 300 300 300 W21x50 W18x35 984 510 110 66.0102 0.0267 0.74 300 300 300 300 W18x65 W21x44 1070 843 133 95.15 0.28 0.021 0.65 1.5 105 61.88 417.25 343.0125 0.29 1.0089 0.0090 0.0116 0.13 4.45 0.9 112 66.91 0.0145 1.48 875.80 1.0147 2.0118 0.0197 1.80 2.0116 0.38 4.36 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 w24x76 w18x60 w21x73 w16x57 w24x62 w21x44 w24x55 w18x40 w18x60 w16x40 w18x55 w18x35 w16x57 w14x38 2100 984 1600 758 1550 843 1350 612 984 518 890 510 758 385 200 123 172 105 153 95.6 1.13 752.77 3.0051 1.016 0.38 269.016 0.0125 0.0145 0.38 0.78 1.013 0.74 1.38 586.52 0.0098 0.68 1.038 0.9 1.00 538. Steel Building 3-Dimmensional AP Analysis beam span (in) Type bay spcg (in) steel section I (in^4) Z (in^3) calc K (psi/in) calc R (psi) calc M (k-ft) calc disp (in) calc rotation (rad) plastic rotation (rad) calc LIF yield rotation (rad) norm rot calc DIF 3-story corner column spandrel spandrelgirder spandrel spandrelgirder spandrel spandrelgirder spandrel spandrelgirder 3-story interior column 76 girder int beam girder int beam girder int beam girder int beam girder int beam girder int beam girder int beam 300 300 W18x60 984 123 0.0033 0.

056 0.03 5.45 11.0100 0.0118 0.019 0.038 0.88 5.0114 0.50 16.52 0.47 1.61 0.028 0. Steel Building 3-Dimmensional AP Analysis.95 0.79 1.6 5.52 0.00 240.00 441.056 0.06 8.57 1.0194 0.0070 0.0011 0.35 0.28 1.12 0.72 1.89 1.127 0. Continued 3-story perimeter column 10-story interior column spandrel spandrelgirder spandrel spandrelgirder spandrel spandrelgirder spandrel spandrelgirder 77 girder int beam girder int beam girder int beam girder int beam girder int beam girder int beam girder int beam girder int beam girder int beam 300 300 w21x50 984 110 0.0125 0.28 0.0168 1.06 427.13 446.00 1.0396 0.45 16.127 0.012 0.25 630.35 2.82 16.00 396.74 12.5 105 61.27 0.19 3.0112 0.7 1.0166 0.42 0.31 0.38 0.45 446.0031 0.65 0.0101 0.00 290.0097 0.00 0.86 481.87 0.18 0.09 0.18 .042 0.25 251.47 0.52 1.0097 0.73 8.11 0.7 3.34 0.0076 0.59 0.34 0.94 459.0164 2.35 0.5 1.0392 2.52 0.0183 0.017 0.82 0.029 0.0053 0.79 0.0117 0.056 0.52 16.0416 0.13 0.95 2.69 5.15 38.029 0.83 1.0273 0.34 0.85 1.8 0.47 2.0273 2.13 1.0040 0.34 0.0034 0.69 5.66 1.87 0.15 1.55 1.0045 0.48 0.017 0.1071 0.38 340.41 1.35 1.23 3.0118 0.0097 0.00 269.92 3.95 0.25 0.00 0. Complete Results.38 700.15 0.13 0.24 0.6 54.76 0.9 112 66.9 3.03 5.1078 0.0145 1.4 1.0200 0.0098 0.3 2.0145 0.042 0.75 1.038 0.43 966.014 0.9 0.88 634.0111 0.15 0.0177 0.85 1.73 300 300 300 300 w21x73 w18x35 1600 510 172 66.5 0.013 0.11 0.0100 0.75 423.38 0.5 0.74 0.94 4.0435 0.70 2.71 0.0093 0.31 0.86 0.0144 0.22 1.0036 1.25 4.34 1.81 1.07 1.52 752.20 0.0268 0.48 490.31 300 300 w12x65 533 96.7 3.0114 0.23 0.46 0.38 857.50 564.0027 0.5 97.83 0.41 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 w21x93 w18x71 w21x83 w21x57 w21x68 w18x50 w18x76 w14x61 w21x62 w18x46 w21x57 w12x53 w18x55 w18x35 w16x57 w14x38 w10x77 w10x45 2070 1170 1830 1170 1480 800 1330 640 1330 712 1170 425 890 510 758 385 455 248 221 145 196 129 160 101 163 102 144 90.38 269.81 564.25 0.13 8.019 0.012 0.56 12.7 129 77.82 38.92 5.0115 0.48 8.38 300 300 300 300 w18x55 w14x38 890 385 112 61.12 0.15 0.73 5.71 1.0264 0.013 0.55 5.81 490.22 0.36 1.71 0.89 2.0173 2.79 1.28 0.8 0.019 0.88 713.48 11.5 0.50 290.056 0.0098 0.0079 0.18 0.028 0.014 0.56 1.33 300 300 300 300 w14x61 w12x40 640 310 102 57.0114 0.0144 0.8 0.Table 11.39 1.019 0.

2 0.5 1.0097 0.56 423.3 0.35 0.2 0.32 0.50 1.077 0.013 7.51 2.46 0.75 481.9 0.87 0.52 0.9 1.79 0.2 0.108 240 24 20 1.2 240 24 20 1.0 0.041 0.0101 0.7 4 0. RC Double Span Beams.0 168.86 1.25 752.11 0.32 0.0297 0.041 21.041 0.32 0.019 0.45 1.6 1.58 3.5 16000 2659 9330 240 24 20 1. revised hinge Spandrel Girder Spandrel Girder Spandrel Girder Spandrel Girder 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 w21x50 w21x73 w18x35 w18x55 w14x38 w14x61 w12x40 w12x65 984 1600 510 890 385 640 310 533 110 172 66.83 5.2 0.43 17.0301 0.058 0.7 0.7 1.45 0.50 290.0 0.02 3.0601 0.058 0.3 240 24 20 1.15 0.45 1. Complete Results.44 12.18 0.68 1.003 0.58 168.008 0.5 16000 2659 9330 1.45 1.2 1.32 0.4 78 calc LIF double span SDOF double span SDOF double span SDOF double span SDOF double span SDOF double span SDOF double span SDOF double span SDOF .077 0.043 0.1 1.32 0.58 168.34 0.2 0.09 0.00 269.00 2.5 16000 2659 9330 1.58 240 24 20 1.5 16000 2659 9330 Calc DIF 0.5 112 61.54 3.28 0.001 2.0144 0.64 3.45 1.019 0.58 168.062 32.0 0.83 12.50 5.4 0.024 13.58 168.32 240 24 20 1.1 1.5 16000 2659 9330 1.43 23.32 0.7 1.58 168.006 4.03 3.079 40.38 1.2 1.0605 2.0145 0.0436 0.57 10.0 15.0114 0.45 1.5 0. Complete Results.0164 0.94 490.5 102 57.8 0.58 168.15 0.0093 0.9 0.58 240 24 20 1.5 16000 2659 9330 1.081 0.58 25.6 3. Steel Building 3-Dimmensional AP Analysis.2 0.0118 0.08 0.5 16000 2659 9330 1.32 0.026 0.06 446.3 0.5 96.34 Table 12.2 0.106 53.4 1.6 1. SDOF Analyses Type beam span beam width beam depth avg steel area bar ctr cover calc Ig calc Ic calc Ia calc K calc R calc M applied load calc disp calc rotation plastic rotation (in) (in) (in) (in^2) (in) (in^4) (in^4) (in^4) (psi/in) (psi) (k-ft) (psi) (in) (rad) (rad) 240 24 20 1.064 0.3 3.0437 0.92 1. Continued 3-story perimeter column.25 251.58 168.44 17.45 1.25 0.56 6.0097 0.45 1.0168 0.08 23.45 1.58 19.015 0.5 16000 2659 9330 1.42 1.48 0.Table 11.

7 1.080 0.0 240 24 20 2.7 1.5 0.050 0.29 0.1 240 24 20 2.7 1.29 0.0 240 24 20 2.062 0.93 14.0 240 24 20 1.2 240 24 20 2.060 27.013 5.22 0.0 1.048 0.7 1.22 0.0 240 24 20 1.5 16000 4331 10165 1.7 1.5 16000 4331 10165 1.5 16000 4331 10165 1.5 16000 3191 9596 1.9 0.65 6.2 0.7 1.6 0.5 0.5 16000 4331 10165 1.7 1.1 240 24 20 2.0 240 24 20 1.4 0.67 11.0 240 24 20 2.0 1.95 273.1 240 24 20 1.3 0.22 0.4 1.5 16000 3191 9596 1.95 273.5 0.92 11.68 196.6 1.7 1.5 16000 4331 10165 1.1 0.027 0.5 16000 3191 9596 1.5 0.68 196.4 240 24 20 2.4 0.7 1.003 0.0 240 24 20 1.9 1.5 16000 4331 10165 1.031 0.4 1.95 273.005 0.5 16000 4331 10165 1.8 0.94 22.95 273.29 0.056 19.29 0.2 240 24 20 1.9 0.001 2.68 196.1 0.072 0.60 1.9 0.5 16000 3191 9596 1.046 21.9 0.40 0.014 0.90 7.5 16000 3191 9596 1.75 2.55 1.5 0.29 0.7 1.68 26.68 196.093 0.6 1.111 0.0 0.Table 12.22 0.5 16000 4331 10165 1.5 16000 3191 9596 1.95 273. RC Double Span Beams.4 0.3 1.009 0.024 12.68 196.67 19.4 1.005 3.7 0.4 1.059 0.6 1.4 1.090 30.0 240 24 20 2.22 0.3 1.4 1.29 0.4 1.028 10.22 0.1 0.9 0.29 0.069 24.85 3.9 0.6 0.8 1.93 17.5 16000 3191 9596 1.68 196.22 0.62 3.95 273.4 1.047 16. Complete Results.68 196.5 0.5 16000 3191 9596 1.4 1.0 240 24 20 1.5 0.9 0.7 1.9 0.012 6.9 0.108 48.9 1.016 0.7 1.22 0. SDOF Analyses.4 .002 2.4 0.077 34.95 273.29 0.9 0. Continued double span SDOF double span SDOF double span SDOF double span SDOF double span SDOF double span SDOF double span SDOF double span SDOF 79 double span SDOF double span SDOF double span SDOF double span SDOF double span SDOF double span SDOF double span SDOF double span SDOF 240 24 20 1.006 3.95 273.67 15.5 0.0 1.007 0.68 196.

05 0.58 166.0 240 12 30 0.5 0.3 3 27000 5196 16098 2.001 2.98 3 27000 4370 15685 1.3 0.9 0.079 0.98 0.05 0.3 0.3 3 27000 5196 16098 2.046 0.047 0.3 0.062 0.9 0.0 1.9 0.55 3.98 0.062 42.1 240 12 30 0.4 .3 3 27000 5196 16098 2.5 1.1 0.2 1.05 0.76 218.0 240 12 30 1.3 0. SDOF Analyses double span SDOF double span SDOF double span SDOF double span SDOF double span SDOF double span SDOF double span SDOF double span SDOF 80 double span SDOF double span SDOF double span SDOF double span SDOF double span SDOF double span SDOF double span SDOF double span SDOF 240 12 30 0.093 0.045 38.3 3 27000 5196 16098 2.3 0.3 0.57 17.53 1.0 240 12 30 0.58 166.2 1.74 8.57 6.76 25.76 218. Complete Results.58 166.0 240 12 30 1.061 51.0 240 12 30 0.76 218.0 240 12 30 0.45 0.75 10.8 1.3 3 27000 5196 16098 2.76 218.98 3 27000 4370 15685 1.3 0.76 218.3 0.3 0.0 240 12 30 1.0 240 12 30 0.018 0.76 218.05 0.5 0.05 0.98 3 27000 4370 15685 1.58 166.98 0.05 0.5 1.5 1.007 7.98 3 27000 4370 15685 1.074 0.003 0.1 1.98 3 27000 4370 15685 1.3 0.9 0.Table 12.58 166.002 0.0 240 12 30 1.6 1.7 1.57 14.58 166.3 3 27000 5196 16098 2.1 240 12 30 1.0 240 12 30 1.044 30.2 240 12 30 1.105 69.05 0.014 0.0 1.073 61.5 0.3 3 27000 5196 16098 2.9 0.016 12.98 0. RC Double Span Beams.1 1.092 76.012 11.05 0.027 24.1 240 12 30 0.98 0.002 3.9 1.45 0.9 0.3 3 27000 5196 16098 2.6 1.8 0.8 1.029 0.98 3 27000 4370 15685 1.9 0.106 0.58 166.98 0.3 0.006 0.4 0.9 0.57 22.65 1.98 3 27000 4370 15685 1.0 240 12 30 1.98 0.064 0.76 218.008 0.9 0.034 0.2 0.76 218.9 0.005 4.58 166.9 0.0 1.57 11.75 19.98 3 27000 4370 15685 1.032 22.98 0.0 0.9 0.73 4.077 51.9 0.75 15.

7 0.0 360 30 30 3.7 3 27000 6495 16748 2.5 0.59 587.020 0.082 0.5 0.2 1.94 5.4 0.98 283.59 587.036 0.7 0.68 0.8 1.68 0.1 240 12 30 1.097 41.97 19.7 1.002 2.008 0.6 0.98 283.97 15.5 0.13 0.0 360 30 30 3.032 17.066 0.7 3 27000 6495 16748 2.68 0.4 0.98 283. Complete Results.13 0.8 1.13 0.3 1.5 0.098 0.4 3 67500 13581 40541 0.4 3 67500 13581 40541 0.7 3 27000 6495 16748 2.0 1.4 3 67500 13581 40541 0.98 23.021 12.4 3 67500 13581 40541 0.7 0.4 3 67500 13581 40541 0.59 587.59 587.001 2.002 2.0 240 12 30 1.4 3 67500 13581 40541 0.7 3 27000 6495 16748 2.099 0.044 19.13 0.35 1.65 0.9 1.40 1.023 0.0 240 12 30 1.064 34.98 283.7 1.096 51.57 16.1 360 30 30 3.96 8.7 3 27000 6495 16748 2.0 360 30 30 3.58 35.5 1.4 0.0 360 30 30 3.0 0.55 7.8 1.004 0.8 0.4 0.7 3 27000 6495 16748 2.014 0.7 3 27000 6495 16748 2.68 0.53 4.5 0.011 6. SDOF Analyses double span SDOF double span SDOF double span SDOF double span SDOF double span SDOF double span SDOF double span SDOF double span SDOF 81 double span SDOF double span SDOF double span SDOF double span SDOF double span SDOF double span SDOF double span SDOF double span SDOF 240 12 30 1.68 0.59 587.6 0.8 1.98 283.046 0.006 4.1 360 30 30 3.59 587.3 1.005 0.033 0.13 0.13 0.0 240 12 30 1.004 0.13 0.68 0.57 12.080 43.3 360 30 30 3.4 3 67500 13581 40541 0.9 0.3 0.85 1.5 0.98 283.4 .13 0.5 0.68 0.68 0.9 1.8 0.59 587.6 0.052 0.4 0.98 283.59 587.0 240 12 30 1.5 0.018 9.4 0.033 15.7 3 27000 6495 16748 2.98 283.97 12.3 0.Table 12.4 0.072 0.9 0.4 0.58 25.050 27.5 0.069 30.3 360 30 30 3.5 1.0 240 12 30 1. RC Double Span Beams.8 0.4 3 67500 13581 40541 0.3 1.0 240 12 30 1.4 1.9 0.

Mckay attended John Brown University in Siloam Springs. and has 6 years of experience in the field of security and protection engineering. AR where he obtained his Bachelor of Engineering degree with Electrical Concentration in 2002. testing of barriers and structural components. breach and flexural capacity of high-strength concrete panels and counter-mobility barriers. . In the future. Research and testing experience includes the investigation of load factors used in dynamic analysis of buildings for Progressive Collapse. and design and analysis of structures to mitigate the effects of blast loads and progressive collapse. McKay was born in Panama City. From 1998 until 2002. Mr. McKay’s experience includes research. Mckay hopes to continue his development in the area of Anti-Terrorism and Force Protection by developing new and innovative ways of protecting people and structures.VITA Mr. Mckay is a Project Engineer at Protection Engineering Consultants. Panama in 1978 where he completed his high school education in 1995. Mr. Mr. shear capacity of bridge piers subjected to blast loads. Mr. Currently.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful

Master Your Semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.

Master Your Semester with a Special Offer from Scribd & The New York Times

Cancel anytime.