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0 Contents: a) PURPOSE b) CLASSIFICATIONS c) VOLTAGE CLASS & RATINGS d) Bus switching schemes e) SLD & Lay outs f) SUBSTATION EQUIPMENTS. g) GIS 2.0 Purpose: 1.1 The substations are very much essential to a) Evacuate power from generating stations. b) Transmit to the load centers. c) Distribute to the utilities & ultimate consumers. 1.2. The Electrical power generation from Hydel, Thermal, Nuclear and other generating stations has to be evacuated to load centers. The generation voltage is limited to 15/18 KV due to the limitation of the rotating machinery. This bulk power has to be stepped up to higher voltages depending on quantum of power generated and distance to the load centers. Again the power has to be stepped down to different lower voltages for transmission and distribution. 1.3 In between the power houses and ultimate consumers a number of Transformation and switching stations have to be created. These are generally known as sub-stations
CLASSIFICATIONS 3.1. Accordingly the substations are classified as a) Generating substations called as step up substations b) Grid substations
c) Switching stations d) Secondary substations 3.1. The generating substations are step up stations as the generation voltage needs to be stepped up to the primary transmission voltage so that huge blocks of power can be transmitted over long distances to load centers. 3.2 The grid substations are created at suitable load centers along the primary transmission lines. 3.3 Switching stations are provided in between lengthy primary transmission lines: a) To avoid switching surges. b) For easy segregation of faulty zones. c) For providing effective protection to the system in the A.C. network. d) The switching stations also required wherever the EHT line are to be tapped and line to be extended to different load centers without any step down facility at the switching stations. e) The number of outgoing lines will be more than the incoming lines, depending on the load points. 3.4. Secondary substations are located at actual load points along the secondary transmission lines where the voltage is further stepped down to: a) Sub transmission voltages b) Primary distribution voltage. c) Distribution substations are created where the sub-transmission voltage and primary distribution voltage are stepped down to supply voltage and feed the actual consumers through a network of distribution and service line 4.0. VOLTAGE CLASS AND RATINGS Generally the following voltage class substations prevailing in India a) 6.6 KV, 11 KV, 22KV. ---------Primary distribution Voltage High voltage Extra high Voltage
b) 33 kV, 66KV, 110/132KV, --------
c) 220/230KV , 400 KV, 765 kV ---------5.0 PLANNING OF SUBSTATION INSTALLATION
5.1 The process of planning sub-station installations consists in
The Sub Station Engineering comprises.0. 5.1 The types of Sub Stations depends upon: a) The availability of the land in the required place. Sub-Station Engineering. a) Local climatic factors b) Influence of environment c) The overall power system voltage level d) Short circuit rating e) Arrangement of neutral point f) The frequency of operation g) The required availability or reliability h) Safety requirements i) Specific operating conditions 6.1.2 The boundary conditions are governed by following environmental circumstances & availability of the land in the required place. Type. 7. b) Environmental conditions. type. a) Sub-station site selection b) Bus Switching schemes.Conventional Air insulated substations (AIS) b) c) d) In door substations Compressed Air insulated Gas insulated substations (GIS ) 6. & Planning principles. 7. Size d) Safety clearances.0.a) Establishing the boundary conditions. . ii. Types of substations: a) Out door. c) Bus-Bar: i. b) Defining the plant concept.
Lightning cum Lighting masts. ix. Insulators. Cable ducts Foundations of all equipments & Mounting structures Yard leveling Approach Roads & Roads inside the substation Security fencing & boundary wall. v.i. vi. Third level ---. g) Bus levels. iv. Phase to ground clearances. viii. k) Lightning protection. First level ---. ii.Bus levels. Beams. Bus bar formation. Second level ---. iii. ii.Cross Bus / Jack Bus level. ii. etc . m) Civil Engineering works: i. Single line diagram & Layout. i. iii. Water supply & drainage Colony Anti weed treatment Spreading of Jelly ( broken stones) in the substation yard n) Electrical Installation works: i. Equipment mounting structures.G & Fire fighting room.Equipment interconnection level. h) Bay widths i) j) Yard levels. l) Earth mat. x. vii. Control Room D. e) Sectional clearance. corona rings & rubber mats. f) Ground clearance. Station structures: Tower. xi. Phase to phase clearances. clamps & connectors.
vii.Battery & Battery chargers D. Power Transformers ( ICTs). v.2. xiii.1 The selection of switching scheme depend upon: a) Reliability factor b) Availability of the space c) Economics (project cost) d) There can be several combinations in which the equipments. iv. xi.C. A. P. x.C & D. ix. xii. ii. Reactive compensation.C.C Equipments Control & Power cables.0. can be arranged to achieve a particular switching scheme. iii. vi. Switching schemes 8. iii.C panels / switch Boards 8. Supply.C Supply: D.G Sets A. Circuit breakers. bus-bars. viii.The various types of switching schemes along with its advantages and disadvantages: a) Single Bus arrangement: .L. Substation Automation Fire Fighting equipments p) Auxiliary supplies: i. Shunt & Bus Reactors.o) Main electrical equipments: i. structures etc. 8. ii. iv. Instrument Transformers Isolators Lightning / Surge Arrestors Control panels Protection & Relay panels.
2. b) Single Bus with bus sectionaliser: Main Bus is divided into two sections with a Circuit Breaker and isolators in between the adjoining sections. One complete section can be taken out for Maintenance without disturbing the continuity of other section. In case of maintenance of transformer circuit breaker the associated transformer has also to be shut-down. Less Expenditure DISADVANTAGES 1. Even if a fault occurs on one section of the Bus. In case of bus fault or bus bar isolator fault or maintenance Total Substation is out of service. Simple in Design 2. Similarly for Line also. that faulty section alone will be isolated while the .ADVANTAGES 1.
ii. can be transferred on to the Transfer Bus. . For Maintenance or on fault occurrence. • • d) DOUBLE BUSBAR: There are six types of Bus switching schemes double bus bars i. With this arrangement. If at any time. DOUBLE BUSBAR SYSTEM. ii.other section continues to be in service. iii. total Bus becomes dead. a Line Circuit Breaker/ Transformer circuit breaker Maintenance is required or break down of Circuit breaker or CTs. DOUBLE BUS WITH SECTIONALISER SYSTEM. all the feeders are normally on the Main Bus Bar. DOUBLE BUS & TRANSFER BUS SYSTEM. that particular feeder/ transformer . The feeder protection thus gets transferred to trip Transfer Bus Coupler Breaker. C.Ts and C&R panel c) SINGLE BUS & TRANSFER BUS SYSTEM: •T/ F-1 •T/ F-2 •TRANSFER BUS •BUS-1 •BAY1 •BAY2 •BAY3 • L P O C U B E F S N A R T •BAY4 •BAY5 •BAY6 •BAY7 •FEEDER1 •FEEDER2 •FEEDER3 •FEEDER4 i. On fault occurrence or maintenance. entire bus becomes deenergized. Salient features: Only one Circuit at a time can be transferred on the Transfer Bus. It will be a little more costly with the addition of one isolator and some cases with Circuit breaker.
an additional bypass isolator is provided as indicated in figure above Double main bus with Transfer bus: .For Maintenance or on fault occurrence on one Bus. that particular Circuit has to be taken out of service.iv. To overcome this. v. For Maintenance of a Circuit Breaker. ONE & HALF BREAKER SYSTEM ONE & HALF BREAKER WITH SECTIONALISER SYSTEM d-i) Double main Bus system ( Bus -1 & Bus-2) & Double main Bus with transfer Bus scheme Lines Lines Lines Lines Main Bus1 Main Bus Transfer Bus Main Bus2 Transformer Transformer Transformer Transformer • Main Bus with Transfer Bus •Double Main Bus 19 Double main bus: This system has got flexibility of transferring any Circuit to any of the Bus. while the other Bus remains in service. DOUBLE BUS & TRANSFER BUS WITH SECTIONALISER SYSTEM. vi. then only that Bus becomes dead.
and transferring its Protection to Transfer Bus Coupler Circuit Breaker .This system is a combination of Main and Transfer Bus and Double Bus Arrangement.Any Circuit Breaker can be taken out for Maintenance by transferring that circuit to Transfer Bus. e) One & half breaker system: .For Maintenance or any fault occurrence on a Bus. while the other Bus continues to be in service. Particular Bus only becomes dead.This has got flexibility of transferring any Circuit to any of the Main Buses.
(I-CONFIGUARATION) •FEEDER1 •FEEDER3 •FEEDER5 •FEEDER7 •FEEDER9 •FEEDER11 •BUS-1•DI A1 •DI A2 •DI A3 •DI A4 •DI A5 •DIA6 • 4 Y A B • 1 Y A B • 7 Y A B • 0 1 Y A B • 3 1 Y A B • 2 Y A B • 5 Y A B • 8 Y A B • 1 Y A B • 4 1 Y A B • A B 3 Y • A B 6 Y • A B 9 Y • A B 2 1 Y •BUS-2 •FEEDER2 •FEEDER4 •FEEDER6 •FEEDER8 •FEEDER10 • A B 5 1 Y •FEEDER12 This system has 3 Circuit Breakers for Two Circuits. all the interconnections will be on healthy bus and no disturbance to the Circuits. Even if both Buses become dead. Circuits can still be • A B 8 1 Y • 7 1 Y A B • 6 1 Y A B . the load gets transferred Automatically to the other bus. For Circuit Breaker Maintenance of any Line. For Maintenance or an occurrence of a Bus fault.( One is Line another is Transformer or Bus Reactor or both are Lines) No changeover of Line from one Bus to the other is required.
This has got many such advantages to maintain the system stability. f) Double Bus & Double breaker system FEEDER1 FEEDER3 FEEDER1 FEEDER3 BUS-1 2 Y A B 1 Y A B 1 Y A B 3 Y A B 5 Y A B 7 Y A B BUS-1 BUS-2 4 Y A B 6 Y A B 2 Y A B 8 Y A B 4 Y A B 5 Y A B 3 Y A B BUS-2 FEEDER2 FEEDER4 FEEDER2 7 Y A B FEEDER4 FOR ECONOMICAL& RELIABULITY PURPOSE THIS SYSTEM ADOPTED IN 800KV SYSTEM DOUBLE BUS & DOUBLE BREAKER SYSTEM FEEDER1 FEEDER3 FEEDER1 FEEDER3 BUS-1 2 Y A B 1 Y A B 1 Y A B 3 Y A B 5 Y A B 7 Y A B BUS-1 BUS-2 4 Y A B 6 Y A B 2 Y A B 8 Y A B 4 Y A B 5 Y A B 3 Y A B BUS-2 FEEDER2 FEEDER4 FEEDER2 7 Y A B FEEDER4 FOR ECONOMICAL& RELIABULITY PURPOSE THIS SYSTEM ADOPTED IN 800KV SYSTEM 8 Y A B 6 Y A B 8 Y A B 6 Y A B .in service through the Tie Circuit Breaker.
Each breaker can be serviced without completely disconnecting the branch. CT Isolators etc for each circuit .Greatest operational flexibility . 9. Greatest operational flexibility . g) Ring Bus in a substation: Flexibility for breaker maintenance. High Reliability. All change-over switching done with circuit-breakers & hence flexible. iii. Connection possible to either bus bar. iv.0. All Aluminum conductor (AAC) All Aluminum alloy conductor (AAAC) Aluminum conductor with aluminum alloy reinforced (ACAR) Aluminum conductor with steel reinforced (ACSR) c) Rigid tubular conductors are also used in substations. ii. Each breaker removable without disconnecting load. Each branch connected to network by two breakers. which are more advantageous than the flexible conductors d) Sizes of Bus Bar . Most expensive as it involves additional breaker. Only one breaker needed per branch. Bus bar: a) Type of Bus bars – Strung Bus/Flexible Bus and Rigid Tubular Bus b) Strung Bus: The various Types of conductors used for Strung Bus are i.
v. . ii. Basic Switching Impulse level (BSL). i. Normal current carrying capability Short circuit heating with stand capability Surface gradient Corona free performance 10. iii. ii. v. i. i. Phase-to-earth clearance. IE Rules. Sectional clearance.0 Electrical safety clearances: a)The various clearances which need to be defined. iv. iii. iv. iii. Allowances in tolerance in dimensions of structural work. Ground clearance. iv. Safety margins for unforeseen errors c) The standard clearances for various voltage classes. Equipment to equipment spacing b) The electrical and safety clearances to be adopted in substation are governed by following parameters. Basic Impulse Insulation levels (BIL). ii. Phase-to-phase clearance.The important factors for selection of the conductor sizes in a sub-station are.
65 3. Sectional clearance in Mtrs 765 kV 45 12 10.Standard Clearances & Bay widths 220 kV Sl No 1 2 3 4 Particulars Bay width in Mtrs Phase to phase clearance in Mtrs Phase to earth clearance in Mtrs. vi.35 5. position of the substation in the system.0 Single Line Diagrams: a) This diagram indicates the proposed bus bar arrangement and relative positions of various equipments. flexibility. c) The following technical consideration must be borne in mind while deciding upon any one arrangement. There are numerous variations of bus bar arrangement. Ground clearance in Mtrs. b) The choice of a particular arrangement depends on various factors viz. v. iv.3 11. expected reliability of power supply and cost. ii.5 4. System voltage.5 5 10 6. i. iii.5 8 Rigid bus 14 3.5 12 400 kV 27 7 6.5 Strung bus 17 5 3. to meet the future load growth The installation should be as economical as possible keeping in view of the requirements and continuity of supply d) SLD for 220 kV substation with single bus both on 220 kV & 66 kV side: . Simplicity is the key note of a dependable system Maintenance should be easy with minimum interruption of supply Safety to the operating personnel Alternative arrangement should be available in the event of an outage on any of the equipments or sections of sub station The layout should not hinder for expansion and/or augmentation at a later date.
e) SLD for 220 kV substation with Double Bus bar system on 220 kV & 110 kV side: .
68 f) SLD for 400 kV substation with One & half breaker system on 400 kV and Double Bus & Transfer bus system on 220 kV side .
0. is to be translated the selected scheme into a layout so as to physically achieve the feeder switching required for ease in erection and maintenance: .12. bus switching scheme. section & ground clearances. Substation lay out: The single line diagram. bay widths.
81 13.5 KV 123 KV Nominal lightning impulse Peak value 170 KVP 325 KVP 550 KVP Nominal power frequency withstand voltage RMS value 90 KV 140 KV 230 KV 245 KV 1050 KVP 460 KV 420 KV 1425 KVP 1050 KVP* * Nominal Switching impulse with stand voltage . The nominal lightning impulse withstand voltage and power frequency withstand voltage for various voltage classes are as follows: Maximum voltage of equipments 36 KV 72.0 INSULATION – CO-ORDINATION : a) Insulation coordination is the total of all measures taken to restrict flash over or break down of the insulation caused by over voltages at places with in an installation at which the resulting damage is as slight as possible. This is achieved by using lightning arresters to limit over voltages. b) The equipments are also to be designed to withstand lightning and switching surges.
as peaks for shield wire are not required It removes the possibility of any back flashover with the near by equipments/structure. iv. area of the substation is small.& EHV substations. i. where number of bays are less. It reduces the height of main structures.c) LIGHTNING PROTECTION: In H. extra high voltage sub stations where number of bays are more. i. ii.0 Earth mat requirement: a) The main objective of earthing system in the substation is. 14. iii. that it causes short circuit in the substation or may even damage the costly equipments in case of its failure (snapping ). & height of the main structures are of normal height. The major disadvantage of shield wire type lightning protection is. d) Lightning masts (LM) This type of protection will be generally used in large. . the protection from the lightning is done either by shield wire or lightning mast (high lattice structure with a spike on top) and sometimes combinations of both depending upon type of layout of substation. v.during discharge of lightning strokes Provides facility for holding the lightning fixtures in the substation for illumination purposes.V. Aesthetic look. It has the following advantages. Shield wire Shield wire lightning protection system will be generally used in smaller sub stations of Lower voltage class. etc.
The earth rods shall be capable of with standing short circuit current for specified period. iii. For I KA SC current for 1 second the minimum cross sectional area of M.S.0 .5 ohms for 400kV and above voltage class. ii. Touch Potential – The potential difference between two points. INSULATORS: . b) The main earth mat shall be laid horizontally at a regular spacing in both X & Y direction based upon soil resistivity value and short circuit value at substation.16 sq mm with welded joints. ii. Maximum ground mat resistance shall be less than 1. iii.i. The main earth mat shall be designed to limit the following. All equipments/structures which are not meant to carry the currents for normal operating system are connected with main earth mat The earthing system in a substation serves the following Protects the life and property from over-voltage To limit step & touch potential to the working staff in substation Provides low impedance path to fault currents to ensure prompt and consistent operation of protective device Stabilizes the circuit potentials with respect to ground and limit the overall potential rise Keeps the maximum voltage gradients within safe limit during ground fault condition inside and around substation iv. 15. one on the ground where a man may stand and any other point which can be simultaneously touched by either hand. Rod / Flat shall be 12. and shall be 0. v. iv. i.0 ohm for substations of 220kV class and below. Step Potential – The potential difference between any two points on ground surface which can be simultaneously touched by feet. To ensure that a person in the vicinity of substation is not exposed to danger of electrical shock To provide easy path for fault currents into earth under fault condition without affecting the continuity of service Hence intentional earthing system is created by laying earthing rod of mild steel in the soil of substation area.
5 1 1815 4.a) Types of insulators : Disc type & Post type : i. -.T.on s tring 23 14 8 66 90 : Pedestal 5 post or stacking 5 ii. mainly cantilever strength • Minimum creepage dimensions System voltage in Height of stack KV (mm) 400 220 110 66 33 3650 2300 1220 770 380 Minimum Nol of units per Cantilever creepage stack KN dimension in mm strength at 25 mm/KV 3 10500 8 2 6125 6 1 3075 4. CableGallery Minimum lux levels to be provided 350 150 150 16.. 5 6 7 8 9 10 Entrance Lobby Corridor Landing Conference Room Rest Room Out Door Switch Yard Street / Road 150 150 Room & Display 300 250 Main Equipment -.5 1 900 4 Sl No 1 2 3 Area in sub station Control Room L.Room. Post type type and Solid core type 33 70 2 2 The design considerations are.30 30 .50 Balance area. The 100 4 Battery Room minimum lux levels to be maintained in the different areas are follows.0 Illumination: The indoor & out door areas of sub station are to be properly illuminated.e. Disc type Sys tem voltage in KV 400 400 220 220 110 Tens ion s trength in KN 160 120 120 90 90 No. • The phase to earth clearance which determines the height • Insulation level • Power frequency withstand level • Mechanical strength i. of units per s tring Tens ion 25 s tring 16 8 Sus pens i .
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